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Sample records for n159 region 12co

  1. Warm and Dense Molecular Gas in the N 159 Region: 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 Observations with NANTEN2 and ASTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Yoji; Kawamura, Akiko; Onishi, Toshikazu; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Muller, Erik; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Takahiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Stutzki, Jürgen; Pineda, Jorge L.; Klein, Uli; Bertoldi, Frank; Koo, Bon-Chul; Rubio, Monica; Burton, Michael; Benz, Arnold; Ezawa, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Ikeda, Masafumi; Ott, Jürgen; Wong, Tony; Hughes, Annie; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Gordon, Karl D.; Whitney, Barbara; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Fukui, Yasuo

    2010-02-01

    New 12CO J = 4-3 and 13CO J = 3-2 observations of the N 159 region, an active site of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, have been made with the NANTEN2 and ASTE submillimeter telescopes, respectively. The 12CO J = 4-3 distribution is separated into three clumps, each associated with N 159 W, N 159 E, and N 159 S. These new measurements toward the three clumps are used in coupled calculations of molecular rotational excitation and line radiation transfer, along with other transitions of the 12CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 7-6 as well as the isotope transitions of 13CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, J = 3-2, and J = 4-3. The 13CO J = 3-2 data were newly taken for the present work. The temperatures and densities were found to be ˜70-80 K and ˜3 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 W and N 159 E, and ˜30 K and ˜1.6 × 10³ cm-3 in N 159 S. These results were compared with the star-formation activity based on data of young stellar clusters and HII regions as well as midinfrared emission obtained with the Spitzer MIPS. The N 159 E clump is associated with cluster(s) embedded, as observed at 24μm by the Spitzer MIPS, and the derived high temperature, 80 K, is interpreted as being heated by these sources. The N 159 E clump is likely to be responsible for a dark lane in a large HII region by dust extinction. On the other hand, the N 159 W clump is associated with clusters embedded mainly toward the eastern edge of the clump only. These clusters show offsets of 20''-40'' from the 12CO J = 4-3 peak, and are probably responsible for heating indicated by the derived high temperature, 70 K. The N 159 W clump exhibits no sign of star formation toward the 12CO J = 4-3 peak position and its western region that shows enhanced R4-3/1-0 and R3-2/1-0 ratios. We therefore suggest that the N 159 W peak represents a pre-star-cluster core of ˜105Modot which deserves further detailed studies. The N 159 S clump shows little sign of star formation, as is consistent with the lower

  2. Velocity resolved [C ii], [C i], and CO observations of the N159 star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud: a complex velocity structure and variation of the column densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yoko; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Güsten, Rolf; Stutzki, Jürgen; Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Pütz, Patrick; Ricken, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Context. The [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line is one of the dominant cooling lines in star-forming active regions. Together with models of photon-dominated regions, the data is used to constrain the physical properties of the emitting regions, such as the density and the radiation field strength. According to the modeling, the [C ii] 158 μm line integrated intensity compared to the CO emission is expected to be stronger in lower metallicity environments owing to lower dust shielding of the UV radiation, a trend that is also shown by spectral-unresolved observations. In the commonly assumed clumpy UV-penetrated cloud scenario, the models predict a [C ii] line profile similar to that of CO. However, recent spectral-resolved observations by Herschel/HIFI and SOFIA/GREAT (as well as the observations presented here) show that the velocity resolved line profile of the [C ii] emission is often very different from that of CO lines, indicating a more complex origin of the line emission including the dynamics of the source region. Aims: The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provides an excellent opportunity to study in great detail the physics of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a low-metallicity environment by spatially resolving individual star-forming regions. The aim of our study is to investigate the physical properties of the star-forming ISM in the LMC by separating the origin of the emission lines spatially and spectrally. In this paper, we focus on the spectral characteristics and the origin of the emission lines, and the phases of carbon-bearing species in the N159 star-forming region in the LMC. Methods: We mapped a 4' × (3'-4') region in N159 in [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm with the GREAT instrument on board SOFIA. We also observed CO(3-2), (4-3), (6-5), 13CO(3-2), and [C i] 3P1-3P0 and 3P2-3P1 with APEX. All spectra are velocity resolved. Results: The emission of all transitions observed shows a large variation in the line profiles across the map and in

  3. The JCMT 12CO(3-2) survey of the Cygnus X region. I. A pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, M.; Kothes, R.; Matthews, H. E.; Landecker, T. L.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2012-05-01

    Context. Cygnus X is one of the most complex areas in the sky, rich in massive stars; Cyg OB2 (2600 stars, 120 O stars) and other OB associations lie within its boundaries. This complicates interpretation, but also creates the opportunity to investigate accretion into molecular clouds and many subsequent stages of star formation, all within one small field of view. Understanding large complexes like Cygnus X is the key to understanding the dominant role that massive star complexes play in galaxies across the Universe. Aims: The main goal of this study is to establish feasibility of a high-resolution CO survey of the entire Cygnus X region by observing part of it as a pathfinder, and to evaluate the survey as a tool for investigating the star-formation process. We can investigate the mass accretion history of outflows, study interaction between star-forming regions and their cold environment, and examine triggered star formation around massive stars. Methods: A 2° × 4° area of the Cygnus X region has been mapped in the 12CO(3-2) line at an angular resolution of 15'' and a velocity resolution of ~0.4 km s-1 using HARP-B and ACSIS on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The star formation process is heavily connected to the life-cycle of the molecular material in the interstellar medium. The high critical density of the 12CO(3-2) transition reveals clouds in key stages of molecule formation, and shows processes that turn a molecular cloud into a star. Results: We observed ~15% of Cygnus X, and demonstrated that a full survey would be feasible and rewarding. We detected three distinct layers of 12CO(3-2) emission, related to the Cygnus Rift (500-800 pc), to W75N (1-1.8 kpc), and to DR 21 (1.5-2.5 kpc). Within the Cygnus Rift, H i self-absorption features are tightly correlated with faint diffuse CO emission, while HISA features in the DR 21 layer are mostly unrelated to any CO emission. 47 molecular outflows were detected in the pathfinder, 27 of them previously

  4. Star formation and feedback in LMC Massive Clusters: ALMA and HST analysis of 30 Doradus and N159

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy

    2015-08-01

    The Magellanic Clouds offer the opportunity to study star formation at reduced metallicity with no distance ambiguity and minimal line-of-sight confusion. They are arguably unique in that it is observationally tractable to analyze entire galaxies (e.g. our surveys with Spitzer and Herschel) simultaneously with critical subparsec physics, especially using ALMA and HST (1"~0.25pc). I will discuss the effects of the massive cluster R136 on star formation within 100pc in 30 Doradus, and on the formation of new star clusters in N159, a separate region 600pc to the south. These represent two different evolutionary states: 30 Doradus a more evolved cluster in which current star formation has potentially been significantly affected by the previous generations, and N159 a significantly younger region in which massive clusters may still form in the future. Cluster-forming clumps near R136 analyzed with ALMA contain both massive YSOs and low-mass pre-main-sequence stars revealed by HST. Although diffuse molecular gas is photodissociated, the cluster-forming clumps do not have dramatically different properties from parsec-sized clumps in less active Milky Way regions. Cluster-forming clumps and filaments in N159 also contain a rich pre-main-sequence population which we can now relate to the clump-scale dense gas distribution.

  5. Star formation and feedback in the LMC: ALMA and HST analysis of 30 Doradus and N159

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indebetouw, Remy

    2015-08-01

    The Magellanic Clouds offer the opportunity to study star formation at reduced metallicity with no distance ambiguity and minimal line-of-sight confusion. They are arguably unique in that it is observationally tractable to analyze entire galaxies (e.g. our surveys with Spitzer and Herschel) simultaneously with critical subparsec physics, especially using ALMA and HST (1"~0.25pc). I will discuss the effects of the massive cluster R136 on star formation within 100pc in 30 Doradus, and on the formation of new star clusters in N159, a separate region 600pc to the south. These represent two different evolutionary states: 30 Doradus a more evolved cluster in which current star formation has potentially been significantly affected by the previous generations, and N159 a significantly younger region in which massive clusters may still form in the future. Cluster-forming clumps near R136 analyzed with ALMA contain both massive YSOs and low-mass pre-main-sequence stars revealed by HST. Although diffuse molecular gas is photodissociated, the cluster-forming clumps do not have dramatically different properties from parsec-sized clumps in less active Milky Way regions. Cluster-forming clumps and filaments in N159 also contain a rich pre-main-sequence population which we can now relate to the clump-scale dense gas distribution.

  6. Hepatitis C virus/human T lymphotropic virus 1/2 co-infection: Regional burden and virological outcomes in people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Erika; Roger, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This review analyses current data concerning co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1/2 in people who inject drugs (PWID), with a particular focus on disease burden and global implications for virological outcome. In addition, the available treatment options for HTLV-1/2 are summarized and the ongoing and likely future research challenges are discussed. The data in this review was obtained from 34 articles on HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in PWID retrieved from the PubMed literature database and published between 1997 and 2015. Despite unavailable estimates of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection in general, the epidemiologic constellation of HTLV-1/2 shows high incidence in PWID with history of migration, incarceration, and other blood-borne infectious diseases such as HCV or human immunodeficiency virus. The most recent research data strongly suggest that HTLV-1 co-infection can influence HCV viral load, HCV sustained virological response to α-interferon treatment, and HCV-related liver disease progression. In short, outcome of HCV infection is worse in the context of HTLV-1 co-infection, yet more studies are needed to gain accurate estimations of the burden of HCV/HTLV-1/2 co-infections. Moreover, in the current era of new direct-acting antiviral treatments for HCV and proven HTLV-1/2 treatment options, prospective clinical and treatment studies should be carried out, with particular focus on the PWID patient population, with the aim of improving virological outcomes. PMID:27175351

  7. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  8. Corrosion behavior of rare earth modified WC-12Co coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hui; Ceng, Shengbo; Gou, Guoqing; Tu, Mingjing

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth has been widely used in materials manufacturing to improve hardness and toughness. In this paper, conventional, nano-modified and CeO2 modified WC-12Co coatings are produced by using high speed oxygen flaming (HVOF) spraying technology. Long-term immersion and electrochemical tests of these coatings in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution are conducted. The surface morphologies were observed to investigate the corrosion mechanisms. The results show CeO2 modified WC-12Co coatings to possess the best corrosion resistance but the nano-modified WC-12Co coating has the worst performance. Results suggest that the improvement of corrosion resistance for CeO2 modified WC-12Co coating can be attributed to the enhancement of interfacial strength between Co binder phase and WC particles.

  9. Exploring morphological correlations among H2CO, 12CO, MSX and continuum mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan Peng; Esimbek, Jarken; Zhou, Jian Jun; Wu, Gang; Du, Zhi Mao

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few H2CO mappings of large-area giant molecular cloud (GMCs). H2CO absorption lines are good tracers for low-temperature molecular clouds towards star formation regions. Thus, the aim of the study was to identify H2CO distributions in ambient molecular clouds. We investigated morphologic relations among 6-cm continuum brightness temperature (CBT) data and H2CO (111-110; Nanshan 25-m radio telescope), 12CO (1-0; 1.2-m CfA telescope) and midcourse space experiment (MSX) data, and considered the impact of background components on foreground clouds. We report simultaneous 6-cm H2CO absorption lines and H110 α radio recombination line observations and give several large-area mappings at 4.8 GHz toward W49 (50'×50'), W3 (70'×90'), DR21/W75 (60'×90') and NGC2024/NGC2023 (50'×100') GMCs. By superimposing H2CO and 12CO contours onto the MSX color map, we can compare correlations. The resolution for H2CO, 12CO and MSX data was ˜10', ˜8' and ˜18.3″, respectively. Comparison of H2CO and 12CO contours, 8.28-μm MSX colorscale and CBT data revealed great morphological correlation in the large area, although there are some discrepancies between 12CO and H2CO peaks in small areas. The NGC2024/NGC2023 GMC is a large area of HII regions with a high CBT, but a H2CO cloud to the north is possible against the cosmic microwave background. A statistical diagram shows that 85.21% of H2CO absorption lines are distributed in the intensity range from -1.0 to 0 Jy and the Δ V range from 1.206 to 5 km s-1.

  10. Development and characterisations of WC–12Co microwave clad

    SciTech Connect

    Zafar, Sunny Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2014-10-15

    In the present work, WC–12Co based cermet clad was developed on AISI 304 stainless steel using microwave hybrid heating technique. The experimental trials were carried out in a 1.4 kW industrial multimode microwave applicator. The paper explains the major events occurring during microwave irradiation and formation of clad. The developed clads were subsequently characterised through field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, assessment of porosity and microhardness. The WC–12Co clads developed with an approximate thickness of 1 mm, illustrated excellent metallurgical bonding with substrate. The microstructure of the WC–12Co clad mainly consists of skeleton structured carbides embedded in tough metallic phase. The phase analysis of the developed clads indicate the presence of various stable and complex carbides like Co{sub 6}W{sub 6}C, Co{sub 3}W{sub 3}C and Fe{sub 6}W{sub 6}C. The uniform distribution of such carbides with skeleton-like morphology in the microstructure is indicative of high hardness of the clad. The developed clads were free from visible interfacial cracking and the clad porosity was found in the order of approximately 0.98%. The average microhardness of the WC–12Co microwave clads was observed to be 1135 ± 88 HV. - Highlights: • Microwave cladding of WC–12Co on AISI 304 stainless steel is carried out. • Skeleton-like structures of W–Co based carbides are embedded in metallic matrix. • Clad–substrate interface is free from un-melted and un-dissolved carbide particles. • Hardness of clad (1135 ± 88 HV) is 3.5 times that of the substrate (325 ± 49 HV)

  11. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. IV. 12CO J = 6-5 Observations of VV 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Krips, Melanie; Petitpas, Glen R.; Iono, Daisuke; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison; Yun, Min

    2013-11-01

    We present high-resolution (~2.''5) observations of 12CO J = 6-5 toward the luminous infrared galaxy VV 114 using the Submillimeter Array. We detect 12CO J = 6-5 emission from the eastern nucleus of VV 114 but do not detect the western nucleus or the central region. We combine the new 12CO J = 6-5 observations with previously published or archival low-J CO observations, which include 13CO J = 1-0 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array cycle 0 observations, to analyze the beam-averaged physical conditions of the molecular gas in the eastern nucleus. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX and a Bayesian likelihood code to constrain the temperature (T kin), density (n_{H_{2}}), and column density (N_{^{12CO}}) of the molecular gas. We find that the most probable scenario for the eastern nucleus is a cold (T kin = 38 K), moderately dense (n_{H_{2}} = 102.89 cm-3) molecular gas component. We find that the most probable 12CO to 13CO abundance ratio ([12CO]/[13CO]) is 229, which is roughly three times higher than the Milky Way value. This high abundance ratio may explain the observed high 12CO/ 13CO line ratio (>25). The unusual 13CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 line ratio of 0.6 is produced by a combination of moderate 13CO optical depths (τ = 0.4-1.1) and extremely subthermal excitation temperatures. We measure the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, αCO, to be 0.5^{+0.6}_{-0.3} M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, which agrees with the widely used factor for ultra luminous infrared galaxies of Downes & Solomon (αCO = 0.8 M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1).

  12. Gd12Co5.3Bi and Gd12Co5Bi, Crystalline Doppelgänger with Low Thermal Conductivities.

    PubMed

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Sparks, Taylor D; Gaultois, Michael W; Ghadbeigi, Leila; Mar, Arthur

    2016-07-01

    Attempts to prepare Gd12Co5Bi, a member of the rare-earth (RE) intermetallics RE12Co5Bi, which were identified by a machine-learning recommendation engine as potential candidates for thermoelectric materials, led instead to formation of the new compound Gd12Co5.3Bi with a very similar composition. Phase equilibria near the Gd-rich corner of the Gd-Co-Bi phase diagram were elucidated by both lab-based and variable-temperature synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, suggesting that Gd12Co5.3Bi and Gd12Co5Bi are distinct phases. The higher symmetry structure of Gd12Co5.3Bi (cubic, space group Im3̅, Z = 2, a = 9.713(6) Å), as determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is closely related to that of Gd12Co5Bi (tetragonal, space group Immm). Single Co atoms and Co-Co dumbbells are disordered with occupancies of 0.78(2) and 0.22(2), respectively, in Gd12Co5.3Bi, but they are ordered in Gd12Co5Bi. Consistent with this disorder, the electrical resistivity shows less dependence on temperature for Gd12Co5.3Bi than for Gd12Co5Bi. The thermal conductivity is low and reaches 2.8 W m(-1) K(-1) at 600 °C for both compounds; however, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity differs, decreasing for Gd12Co5.3Bi and increasing for Gd12Co5Bi as the temperature increases. The unusual trends in thermal properties persist in the heat capacity, which decreases below 2R, and in the thermal diffusivity, which increases at higher temperatures. PMID:27299657

  13. SMA Observations of the Extended 12CO(J = 6–5) Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krips, M.; Martín, S.; Peck, A. B.; Sakamoto, K.; Neri, R.; Gurwell, M.; Petitpas, G.; Zhao, Jun-Hui

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of the 12CO(J = 6–5) line and 686 GHz continuum emission in NGC 253 with the Submillimeter Array at an angular resolution of ∼4″. The 12CO(J = 6–5) emission is clearly detected along the disk and follows the distribution of the lower 12CO line transitions with little variation of the line ratios. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests a two-temperature model of the molecular gas in the disk, likely dominated by a combination of low-velocity shocks and the disk-wide photodissociation regions. Only marginal 12CO(J = 6–5) emission is detected in the vicinity of the expanding shells at the eastern and western edges of the disk. While the eastern shell contains gas even warmer (Tkin > 300 K) than the hot gas component (Tkin = 300 K) of the disk, the western shell is surrounded by gas much cooler (Tkin = 60 K) than the eastern shell but somewhat hotter than the cold gas component of the disk (for similar H2 and CO column densities), indicative of different (or differently efficient) heating mechansisms. The continuum emission at 686 GHz in the disk agrees well in shape and size with that at lower (sub)millimeter frequencies, exhibiting a spectral index consistent with thermal dust emission. We find dust temperatures of ∼10–30 K and largely optically thin emission. However, our fits suggest a second (more optically thick) dust component at higher temperatures ({T}{{d}}\\gt 60 K), similar to the molecular gas. We estimate a global dust mass of ∼106 {M}ȯ for the disk, translating into a gas-to-dust mass ratio of a few hundred, consistent with other nearby active galaxies.

  14. SMA Observations of the Extended 12CO(J = 6-5) Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krips, M.; Martín, S.; Peck, A. B.; Sakamoto, K.; Neri, R.; Gurwell, M.; Petitpas, G.; Zhao, Jun-Hui

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of the 12CO(J = 6-5) line and 686 GHz continuum emission in NGC 253 with the Submillimeter Array at an angular resolution of ˜4″. The 12CO(J = 6-5) emission is clearly detected along the disk and follows the distribution of the lower 12CO line transitions with little variation of the line ratios. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests a two-temperature model of the molecular gas in the disk, likely dominated by a combination of low-velocity shocks and the disk-wide photodissociation regions. Only marginal 12CO(J = 6-5) emission is detected in the vicinity of the expanding shells at the eastern and western edges of the disk. While the eastern shell contains gas even warmer (Tkin > 300 K) than the hot gas component (Tkin = 300 K) of the disk, the western shell is surrounded by gas much cooler (Tkin = 60 K) than the eastern shell but somewhat hotter than the cold gas component of the disk (for similar H2 and CO column densities), indicative of different (or differently efficient) heating mechansisms. The continuum emission at 686 GHz in the disk agrees well in shape and size with that at lower (sub)millimeter frequencies, exhibiting a spectral index consistent with thermal dust emission. We find dust temperatures of ˜10-30 K and largely optically thin emission. However, our fits suggest a second (more optically thick) dust component at higher temperatures ({T}{{d}}\\gt 60 K), similar to the molecular gas. We estimate a global dust mass of ˜106 {M}⊙ for the disk, translating into a gas-to-dust mass ratio of a few hundred, consistent with other nearby active galaxies.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co High Stiffness Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Norwich, Dennis W.; Ehrlinspiel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of high stiffness nominal Ti-55Ni-1.2Co (wt.%) shape memory alloys (SMAs) was systematically investigated in the present study including straight wires, wire-formed stents, and laser-cut stents. It was found that the corrosion behavior of Ti-55Ni-1.2Co alloys is comparable with those of binary NiTiNol counterparts, which is attributed to the small alloying amount of cobalt. Additionally, the corrosion resistance of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co SMAs is independent of the stent-forming method. To explore the galvanic corrosion susceptibility between Ti-55Ni-1.2Co and binary NiTiNol alloys, a NiTiNol sleeve was laser welded to the Ti-55Ni-1.2Co stent. Interestingly, there is no galvanic corrosion observed in this NiTiCo-NiTiNol component, even after immersion of the component in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 37 °C for three months. This study will shed some light on the industrial applications of high stiffness Ti-55Ni-1.2Co shape memory alloys.

  16. Evidence of boosted 13CO/12CO ratio in early-type galaxies in dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Crocker, Alison F.; Aalto, Susanne; Davis, Timothy A.; Nyland, Kristina; Bureau, Martin; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-07-01

    We present observations of 13CO(1-0) in 17 Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy ATLAS3D early-type galaxies (ETGs), obtained simultaneously with 12CO(1-0) observations. The 13CO in six ETGs is sufficiently bright to create images. In these six sources, we do not detect any significant radial gradient in the 13CO/12CO ratio between the nucleus and the outlying molecular gas. Using the 12CO channel maps as 3D masks to stack the 13CO emission, we are able to detect 15/17 galaxies to >3σ (and 12/17 to at least 5σ) significance in a spatially integrated manner. Overall, ETGs show a wide distribution of 13CO/12CO ratios, but Virgo cluster and group galaxies preferentially show a 13CO/12CO ratio about two times larger than field galaxies, although this could also be due to a mass dependence, or the CO spatial extent (RCO/Re). ETGs whose gas has a morphologically settled appearance also show boosted 13CO/12CO ratios. We hypothesize that this variation could be caused by (i) the extra enrichment of gas from molecular reprocessing occurring in low-mass stars (boosting the abundance of 13C to 12C in the absence of external gas accretion), (ii) much higher pressure being exerted on the mid-plane gas (by the intracluster medium) in the cluster environment than in isolated galaxies, or (iii) all but the densest molecular gas clumps being stripped as the galaxies fall into the cluster. Further observations of 13CO in dense environments, particularly of spirals, as well as studies of other isotopologues, should be able to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1870-12 - CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1870-12 CO2 credits for... performance. Full size pickup trucks that achieve carbon-related exhaust emission values below the applicable... of this paragraph (b), carbon-related exhaust emission values may include any applicable...

  18. 12CO(3-2) Emission in Spiral Galaxies: Warm Molecular Gas in Action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaz, Gaspar; Cortés, Paulo; Bronfman, Leonardo; Rubio, Monica

    2008-04-01

    Using the APEX submillimeter telescope we have investigated the 12CO(3-2) emission in five face-on nearby barred spiral galaxies, where three of them are high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs) lying at the Freeman limit, and two are low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs). We have positive detections for two of three HSB spirals and nondetections for the LSBs. For the galaxies with positive detection (NGC 0521 and PGC 070519), the emission is confined to their bulges, with velocity dispersions of ~90 and ~73 km s-1 and integrated intensities of 1.20 and 0.76 K km s-1, respectively. For the nondetections, the estimated upper limit for the integrated intensity is ~0.54 K km s-1. With these figures we estimate the H2 masses as well as the atomic-to-molecular mass ratios. Although all the galaxies are barred, we observe 12CO(3-2) emission only for galaxies with prominent bars. We speculate that bars could dynamically favor the 12CO(3-2) emission, as a second parameter after surface brightness. Therefore, secular evolution could play a major role in boosting collisional transitions of molecular gas, such as 12CO(3-2), especially in LSBs.

  19. An Extragalactic 12CO J = 3-2 Survey with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Rui-Qing; Schulz, Andreas; Henkel, Christian; Mauersberger, Rainer; Muders, Dirk; Dinh-V-Trung

    2010-12-01

    We present results of a 12CO J = 3-2 survey of 125 nearby galaxies obtained with the 10 m Heinrich Hertz Telescope, with the aim to characterize the properties of warm and dense molecular gas in a large variety of environments. With an angular resolution of 22'', 12CO 3-2 emission was detected in 114 targets. Based on 61 galaxies observed with equal beam sizes the 12CO 3-2/1-0 integrated line intensity ratio R 31 is found to vary from 0.2 to 1.9, with an average value of 0.81. No correlations are found for R 31 to Hubble-type and far-infrared luminosity. Possible indications for a correlation with inclination angle and the 60 μm/100 μm color temperature of the dust are not significant. Higher R 31 ratios than in "normal" galaxies, hinting at enhanced molecular excitation, may be found in galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei. Even higher average values are determined for galaxies with bars or starbursts, the latter being identified by the ratio of infrared luminosity versus isophotal area, log [(L FIR/L sun)/(D 2 25/kpc2)] > 7.25. (U)LIRGs are found to have the highest averaged R 31 value. This may be a consequence of particularly vigorous star formation activity, triggered by galaxy interaction and merger events. The nuclear CO luminosities are slightly sublinearly correlated with the global FIR luminosity in both the 12CO J = 3-2 and the 1-0 lines. The slope of the log-log plots rises with compactness of the respective galaxy sub-sample, indicating a higher average density and a larger fraction of thermalized gas in distant luminous galaxies. While linear or sublinear correlations for the 12CO J = 3-2 line can be explained, if the bulk of the observed J = 3-2 emission originates from the molecular gas with densities below the critical one, the case of the 12CO J = 1-0 line with its small critical density remains a puzzle.

  20. AN EXTRAGALACTIC {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 SURVEY WITH THE HEINRICH HERTZ TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Ruiqing; Schulz, Andreas; Henkel, Christian; Muders, Dirk; Mauersberger, Rainer; Dinh-V-Trung

    2010-12-01

    We present results of a {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 survey of 125 nearby galaxies obtained with the 10 m Heinrich Hertz Telescope, with the aim to characterize the properties of warm and dense molecular gas in a large variety of environments. With an angular resolution of 22'', {sup 12}CO 3-2 emission was detected in 114 targets. Based on 61 galaxies observed with equal beam sizes the {sup 12}CO 3-2/1-0 integrated line intensity ratio R{sub 31} is found to vary from 0.2 to 1.9, with an average value of 0.81. No correlations are found for R{sub 31} to Hubble-type and far-infrared luminosity. Possible indications for a correlation with inclination angle and the 60 {mu}m/100 {mu}m color temperature of the dust are not significant. Higher R{sub 31} ratios than in 'normal' galaxies, hinting at enhanced molecular excitation, may be found in galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei. Even higher average values are determined for galaxies with bars or starbursts, the latter being identified by the ratio of infrared luminosity versus isophotal area, log [(L{sub FIR}/L{sub sun})/(D {sup 2}{sub 25}/kpc{sup 2})] > 7.25. (U)LIRGs are found to have the highest averaged R{sub 31} value. This may be a consequence of particularly vigorous star formation activity, triggered by galaxy interaction and merger events. The nuclear CO luminosities are slightly sublinearly correlated with the global FIR luminosity in both the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 and the 1-0 lines. The slope of the log-log plots rises with compactness of the respective galaxy sub-sample, indicating a higher average density and a larger fraction of thermalized gas in distant luminous galaxies. While linear or sublinear correlations for the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 line can be explained, if the bulk of the observed J = 3-2 emission originates from the molecular gas with densities below the critical one, the case of the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 line with its small critical density remains a puzzle.

  1. Structure-property correlations in nanostructured WC-12Co microwave clad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Sunny; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured materials are known for enhanced properties as compared to their conventional counterparts. In the present work, microwave cladding technique was explored for depositing nanostructured WC-12Co clads on stainless steel substrates. Phase analysis of the WC-12Co microwave clads revealed the presence of Co6W6C, Co7W6, Co3W9C4, W2C and WC phases. The microstructure of the WC-12Co clads confirmed uniform distribution of nano-carbides in the form of clusters enclosed in the carbide network. Mechanical characterisation of the nanostructured clads was carried in terms of microhardness assessment and flexural strength measurement. The microwave induced clads exhibited excellent metallurgical bonding with the substrate and were free from interfacial cracks. The average microhardness of the developed clads was found in the order of 1760 ± 128HV. The flexural strength of the developed clads was observed to be 671 ± 28 MPa. The nanostructured clads exhibited good adhesion with the substrate without getting peeled-off under a load of 3.75 kN and a displacement of 3.72 mm.

  2. IRAM 30 m large scale survey of {sup 12}CO(2-1) and {sup 13}CO(2-1) emission in the Orion molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Marcelino, N.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ∼11'' and spectral resolution of ∼0.4 km s{sup –1}. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M {sub ☉} (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions A{sub V} below ∼10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/∼oberne/Olivier{sub B}erne/Data).

  3. REVEALING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR GAS IN ORION WITH A LARGE-SCALE SURVEY IN J = 2-1 LINES OF {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, AND C{sup 18}O

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Atsushi; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Mizuno, Akira; Fukui, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We present fully sampled ∼3' resolution images of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and C{sup 18}O(J = 2-1) emission taken with the newly developed 1.85 m millimeter-submillimeter telescope over the entire area of the Orion A and B giant molecular clouds. The data were compared with J = 1-0 of the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O data taken with the Nagoya 4 m telescope and the NANTEN telescope at the same angular resolution to derive the spatial distributions of the physical properties of the molecular gas. We explore the large velocity gradient formalism to determine the gas density and temperature using line combinations of {sup 12}CO(J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO(J = 2-1), and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) assuming a uniform velocity gradient and abundance ratio of CO. The derived gas density is in the range of 500 to 5000 cm{sup –3}, and the derived gas temperature is mostly in the range of 20 to 50 K along the cloud ridge with a temperature gradient depending on the distance from the star forming region. We found that the high-temperature region at the cloud edge faces the H II region, indicating that the molecular gas is interacting with the stellar wind and radiation from the massive stars. In addition, we compared the derived gas properties with the young stellar objects distribution obtained with the Spitzer telescope to investigate the relationship between the gas properties and the star formation activity therein. We found that the gas density and star formation efficiency are positively well correlated, indicating that stars form effectively in the dense gas region.

  4. [C II] and {sup 12}CO(1-0) emission maps in HLSJ091828.6+514223: A strongly lensed interacting system at z = 5.24

    SciTech Connect

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Clement, B.; Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M.; Fazio, G. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Boone, F.; Combes, F.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Edge, A. C.; Richard, J.; Blain, A. W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Jones, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; and others

    2014-03-01

    We present Submillimeter Array [C II] 158 μm and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission maps for the bright, lensed, submillimeter source at z = 5.2430 behind A 773: HLSJ091828.6+514223 (HLS0918). We combine these measurements with previously reported line profiles, including multiple {sup 12}CO rotational transitions, [C I], water, and [N II], providing some of the best constraints on the properties of the interstellar medium in a galaxy at z > 5. HLS0918 has a total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L {sub FIR(8–1000} {sub μm)} = (1.6 ± 0.1) × 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉} μ{sup –1}, where the total magnification μ{sub total} = 8.9 ± 1.9, via a new lens model from the [C II] and continuum maps. Despite a HyLIRG luminosity, the FIR continuum shape resembles that of a local LIRG. We simultaneously fit all of the observed spectral line profiles, finding four components that correspond cleanly to discrete spatial structures identified in the maps. The two most redshifted spectral components occupy the nucleus of a massive galaxy, with a source-plane separation <1 kpc. The reddest dominates the continuum map (demagnified L {sub FIR,} {sub component} = (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) and excites strong water emission in both nuclear components via a powerful FIR radiation field from the intense star formation. A third star-forming component is most likely a region of a merging companion (ΔV ∼ 500 km s{sup –1}) exhibiting generally similar gas properties. The bluest component originates from a spatially distinct region and photodissociation region analysis suggests that it is lower density, cooler, and forming stars less vigorously than the other components. Strikingly, it has very strong [N II] emission, which may suggest an ionized, molecular outflow. This comprehensive view of gas properties and morphology in HLS0918 previews the science possible for a large sample of high-redshift galaxies once ALMA attains full sensitivity.

  5. Measuring stellar kinematics in galaxies with the near-infrared (2-0) (12) CO absorption bandhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, Niall I.; Lester, Dan F.; Doppmann, Gregg

    1995-01-01

    The shape and strength of the near-infrared (2-0) (12)CO absorption bandhead provide astronomers with a unique tool for measuring stellar kinematics in galaxies with strong dust obscuration. However, the asymmetric shape of the bandhead introduces complexities when extracting the kinematics from an observed spectrum. This paper discusses the benefits, drawbacks, and observational constraints associated with using this bandhead to measure kinematics in galaxies, focusing on applications in high spectral-resolution data. Additionally, we discuss techniques found useful for extracting the kinematics from the absorption feature, and outline our success with two different methods.

  6. Molecular tendrils feeding star formation in the Eye of the Medusa. The Medusa merger in high resolution 12CO 2-1 maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, S.; Aalto, S.; Lindroos, L.; Muller, S.; Gallagher, J. S.; Beswick, R. J.; Petitpas, G.; Jütte, E.

    2014-09-01

    Studying molecular gas properties in merging galaxies gives us important clues to the onset and evolution of interaction-triggered starbursts. NGC 4194 (the Medusa merger) is particularly interesting to study, since its FIR-to-CO luminosity ratio rivals that of ultraluminous galaxies (ULIRGs), despite its lower luminosity compared to ULIRGs, which indicates a high star formation efficiency (SFE) that is relative to even most spirals and ULIRGs. We study the molecular medium at an angular resolution of 0.65'' × 0.52'' (~120 × 98 pc) through our observations of 12CO 2-1 emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We compare our 12CO 2-1 maps with the optical Hubble Space Telescope and high angular resolution radio continuum images to study the relationship between molecular gas and the other components of the starburst region. The molecular gas is tracing the complicated dust lane structure of NGC 4194 with the brightest emission being located in an off-nuclear ring-like structure with ~320 pc radius, the Eye of the Medusa. The bulk CO emission of the ring is found south of the kinematical center of NGC 4194. The northern tip of the ring is associated with the galaxy nucleus, where the radio continuum has its peak. Large velocity widths associated with the radio nucleus support the notion of NGC 4194 hosting an active galactic nucleus. A prominent, secondary emission maximum in the radio continuum is located inside the molecular ring. This suggests that the morphology of the ring is partially influenced by massive supernova explosions. From the combined evidence, we propose that the Eye of the Medusa contains a shell of swept up material where we identify a number of giant molecular associations. We propose that the Eye may be the site of an efficient starburst of 5-7 M⊙ yr-1, but it would still constitute only a fraction of the 30-50 M⊙ yr-1 star formation rate of the Medusa. Furthermore, we find that ~50% of the molecular mass of NGC 4194 is found in

  7. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%).

  8. The Anatomy of the Perseus Spiral Arm: 12 CO and IRAS Imaging Observations of the W3-W4-W5 Cloud Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Terebey, S.

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic images of 12CO J = 1-0 and thermal dust emissions from the W3-W4-W5 region of the outer Galaxy are presented. These data and recently published H I 21 cm line emission images provide an approximate 1' resolution perspective to the dynamics and thermal energy content of the interstellar gas and dust components contained within a 9 deg. arc of the Perseus spiral arm. We tabulate the molecular properties of 1560 clouds identified as closed surfaces within the l-b-v CO data cube at a threshold of 0.9 K T* (sub R). Relative surface densities of the molecular (28:1) and atomic (2.5:1) gas components determined within the arm and interarm velocity intervals demonstrate that the gas component that enters the spiral arm is predominantly atomic. Molecular clouds must necessarily condense from the compressed atomic material that enters the spiral arm and are likely short lived within the interarm regions. From the distribution of centroid velocities of clouds, we determine a random cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of 4 km s (exp. -1) over the width of the spiral arm but find no clear evidence within the molecular gas for streaming motions induced by the spiral potential. The far-infrared images are analyzed with the CO J = 1-0 and H I 21 cm line emission. The enhanced UV (Ultraviolet) radiation field from members of the Cas OB6 association and embedded newborn stars provide a significant source of heating to the extended dust component within the Perseus arm relative to the quiescent cirrus regions. Much of the measured far-infrared flux (69% at 60 micrometers and 47% at 100 micrometers) originates from regions associated with star formation rather than the extended, infrared cirrus component.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Exchanges in Leaves. I. Discrimination Between 14CO2 and 12CO2 in Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Yemm, E. W.; Bidwell, R. G. S.

    1969-01-01

    In order to measure CO2 exchange reactions by leaves using isotopes of CO2, it is necessary to know precisely the discrimination against 14CO2 by leaves. Earlier determinations of discrimination are at variance, and may be inaccurate because of assumptions made about the rate of photorespiration. Maize leaves evolve little or no CO2 in light, and so provide suitable material for this measurement. Discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis by maize leaves is almost precisely the same as in CO2 absorption by NaOH solution, amounting to 2.1 and 2.0% respectively. The agreement between these values and their close approximation to the relative rates of diffusion of 12CO2 and 14CO2, calculated from Graham's law, shows that diffusion into the leaf is primarily responsible for discrimination against 14CO2 in photosynthesis. PMID:16657206

  10. Crystalline structure and magnetic behavior of the Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy demonstrating giant magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiligama, A. S. B.; Ari-Gur, P.; Shavrov, V. G.; Koledov, V. V.; Calder, S.; Mashirov, A. V.; Kamantsev, A. P.; Dilmieva, E. T.; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L.; Grande, B. H.; Vega, V. V.; Kayani, A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic cooling is a green cooling technology, which is more energy efficient than existing fluid-compression cooling machines. Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy, which demonstrates promising magnetocaloric performances, was investigated using neutron diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements. The austenite structure is cubic L21 (Fm\\bar{3}m), while that of the martensite is a mix of 8 and 6 M modulated monoclinic structures (P\\quad 1\\quad 2/m\\quad 1). The austenitic site occupancy refinements reveal that all substituting Co atoms occupy Ni-sites. Most Mn atoms (65%) are in the Mn-sites and the rest go to In-sites (about 35%) and Ni-sites (less than 5%). This disorder of the magnetic atoms (Mn, Ni and Co) in the austenitic phase remains unchanged during the martensitic transition. The distortions of the interatomic distances due to the modulation of the martensitic structures further enhance the disorder in the magnetic interactions. Thermomagnetic measurements indicate that the austenitic phase is ferromagnetic. Cooling to below 250 K, where the alloy loses its ferromagnetic nature, and down to 50 K, the lack of any antiferromagnetic Bragg peaks suggests no antiferromagnetic ordering in the martensitic phase. At very low temperatures in the martensitic phase, spin glass magnetic nature is identified by magnetic measurements, and the spin-glass transition temperature is ∼19 K.

  11. The Galactic Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars. III. 12CO Maps and Physical Properties of Dense Clump Envelopes and Their Embedding GMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Hernandez, Audra K.; O’Dougherty, Stefan N.; Schap, William J., III; Muller, Erik

    2016-11-01

    We report the second complete molecular line data release from the Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP), a large-scale, unbiased, uniform mapping survey at sub-parsec resolution, of millimeter-wave line emission from 303 massive, dense molecular clumps in the Milky Way. This release is for all 12CO J = 1 \\to 0 emission associated with the dense gas, the first from Phase II of the survey, which includes 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. The observed clump emission traced by both 12CO and HCO+ (from Phase I) shows very similar morphology, indicating that, for dense molecular clouds and complexes of all sizes, parsec-scale clumps contain Ξ ∼ 75% of the mass, while only 25% of the mass lies in extended (≳10 pc) or “low density” components in these same areas. The mass fraction of all gas above a density of 109 m‑3 is {ξ }9 ≳ 50%. This suggests that parsec-scale clumps may be the basic building blocks of the molecular interstellar medium, rather than the standard GMC concept. Using 12CO emission, we derive physical properties of these clumps in their entirety, and compare them to properties from HCO+, tracing their denser interiors. We compare the standard X-factor converting {I}{12{CO}} to {N}{{{H}}2} with alternative conversions, and show that only the latter give whole-clump properties that are physically consistent with those of their interiors. We infer that the clump population is systematically closer to virial equilibrium than when considering only their interiors, with perhaps half being long-lived (10s of Myr), pressure-confined entities that only terminally engage in vigorous massive star formation, supporting other evidence along these lines that was previously published.

  12. Probability Distribution Functions of 12CO(J = 1 → 0) Brightness and Integrated Intensity in M51: The PAWS View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Annie; Meidt, Sharon E.; Schinnerer, Eva; Colombo, Dario; Pety, Jerôme; Leroy, Adam K.; Dobbs, Clare L.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Thompson, Todd A.; Dumas, Gaëlle; Schuster, Karl F.; Kramer, Carsten

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the distribution of CO brightness temperature and integrated intensity in M51 at ~40 pc resolution using new 12CO(J = 1 → 0) data from the Plateau de Bure Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS). We present probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the CO emission within the PAWS field of view, which covers the inner ~11 × 7 kpc of M51. We find clear variations in the shape of CO PDFs both within different M51 environments, defined according to dynamical criteria, and among M51 and two nearby low-mass galaxies, M33 and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Globally, the PDFs for the inner disk of M51 can be represented by narrow lognormal functions that cover ~1-2 orders of magnitude in CO brightness and integrated intensity. The PDFs for M33 and the LMC are narrower and peak at lower CO intensities, consistent with their lower gas surface densities. However, the CO PDFs for different dynamical environments within the PAWS field depart significantly from the shape of the global distribution. The PDFs for the interarm region are approximately lognormal, but in the spiral arms and central region of M51, they exhibit diverse shapes with a significant excess of bright CO emission. The observed environmental dependence on the shape of the CO PDFs is qualitatively consistent with changes that would be expected if molecular gas in the spiral arms is characterized by a larger range of average densities, gas temperatures, and velocity fluctuations, although further work is required to disentangle the relative importance of large-scale dynamical effects versus star formation feedback in regulating these properties. We show that the shape of the CO PDFs for different M51 environments is only weakly related to global properties of the CO emission, e.g., the total CO luminosity, but is strongly correlated with properties of the local giant molecular cloud (GMC) and young stellar cluster populations, including the shape of their mass distributions. For galaxies with

  13. A (12)CO J = 2-1 map of the disk of Centaurus A: Evidence for large scale heating in the dust lane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, W.; Cameron, M.; Eckart, A.; Genzel, R.; Rothermel, H.; Rydbeck, G.; Wiklind, T.

    1993-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a nearby (3 Mpc) elliptical galaxy with a prominent dust lane, extensive radio lobes, and a compact radio continuum source, suggestive of nuclear activity. As a consequence of its peculiar morphology, this merger candidate has been the subject of much attention, particularly at optical wavelengths. Unfortunately the high and patchy extinction in the disk, aggravated by the warped structure of the dust lane, has severely hindered investigations into the properties of the interstellar medium, particularly with regard to the extent of star formation. Here we present a map of the (12)CO J = 2-1 line throughout the dust lane which, when combined with a previously measured (12)CO J = 1-0 map and data on molecular absorption lines observed against the compact non-thermal continuum source, offers insight into the excitation conditions of the molecular gas.

  14. Excellent Glass Forming Ability and Refrigeration Capacity of a Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ding; Wang, Peng; Guan, Quan; Tang, Mei-Bo; Xia, Lei

    2013-09-01

    We investigate an excellent refrigeration capacity Rc of Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 bulk metallic glass (BMG). The Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 glassy rod is subjected to Cu mold suction-casting to prepare bulky metallic glasses, with a diameter of 3mm. The glass forming ability as well as the magnetic properties of the BMG is investigated. The BMG exhibits a rather high glass formation ability with critical diameter of about 5.6mm. The peak value of magnetic entropy change of about 8 J·kg-1 K-1 is obtained in this alloy. This BMG alloy also exhibits excellent magnetic refrigerant capacity of about 880 J·kg-1 under the field of 5T and 35% larger than that of other alloys reported previously, supposed to be closely related to the high effective moment (~7.3μB) of the Gd55Al20Ni12Co10Mn3 BMG.

  15. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  16. The effect of spraying parameters on micro-structural properties of WC-12%Co coating deposited on copper substrate by HVOF process

    SciTech Connect

    Sathwara, Nishit; Jariwala, C. Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M.; Basa, D. K.

    2015-08-28

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatingmade from Tungsten Carbide (WC) isconsidered as one of the most durable materials as wear resistance for industrial applications at room temperature. WC coating offers high wear resistance due to its high hardness and tough matrix imparts. The coating properties strongly depend on thermal spray processing parameters, surface preparation and surface finish. In this investigation, the effect of variousHVOF process parameters was studied on WC coating properties. The WC-12%Co coating was produced on Copper substrate. Prior to coating, theCopper substrate surface was prepared by grit blasting. WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on Coppersubstrates with varying process parameters such as Oxygen gas pressure, Air pressure, and spraying distance. Microstructure of coating was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and characterization of phasespresentin the coating was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness of all coatingswas measured by VickerMicrohardness tester. At low Oxygen Pressure(10.00 bar), high Air pressure (7bar) and short nozzle to substrate distance of 170mm, best coating adhesion and porosity less structure isachieved on Coppersubstrate.

  17. HETEROGENEITY IN {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO ABUNDANCE RATIOS TOWARD SOLAR-TYPE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rachel L.; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Young, Edward D.; Morris, Mark R. E-mail: smithrl2@appstate.edu

    2015-11-10

    This study reports an unusual heterogeneity in [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] abundance ratios of carbon monoxide observed in the gas phase toward seven ∼solar-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) and three dense foreground clouds in the nearby star-forming regions, Ophiuchus, Corona Australis, Orion, and Vela, and an isolated core, L43. Robust isotope ratios were derived using infrared absorption spectroscopy of the 4.7 μm fundamental and 2.3 μm overtone rovibrational bands of CO at very high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ≈ 95,000), observed with the Cryogenic Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) on the Very Large Telescope. We find [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] values ranging from ∼85 to 165, significantly higher than those of the local interstellar medium (ISM) (∼65–69). These observations are evidence for isotopic heterogeneity in carbon reservoirs in solar-type YSO environments, and encourage the need for refined galactic chemical evolution models to explain the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C discrepancy between the solar system and local ISM. The oxygen isotope ratios are consistent with isotopologue-specific photodissociation by CO self-shielding toward the disks, VV CrA N and HL Tau, further substantiating models predicting CO self-shielding on disk surfaces. However, we find that CO self-shielding is an unlikely general explanation for the high [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] ratios observed in this study. Comparison of the solid CO against gas-phase [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] suggests that interactions between CO ice and gas reservoirs need to be further investigated as at least a partial explanation for the unusually high [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] observed.

  18. Molecular cloud/HII region interfaces in the star forming region NGC 6357.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massi, F.; Brand, J.; Felli, M.

    1997-04-01

    We have performed ^12^CO(1-0), ^12^CO(2-1), ^13^CO(1-0), ^13^CO(2-1), C^18^O(1-0), C^18^O(2-1), HCO^+^(1-0) and H^13^CO^+^(1-0) observations towards two selected areas in the star forming complex NGC 6357 with angular resolutions from 21" to 55". In particular, we have mapped the molecular gas around the two HII regions G353.1+0.6 and G353.2+0.9 in the ^12^CO(1-0) and ^13^CO(1-0) transitions with a resolution of ~43". This improves on the coarser ^12^CO(1-0) observations previously carried out by others. We have also studied the physical properties of gas along strips through the molecular cloud/HII region interfaces. For G353.1+0.6, the observations confirm that an ionization front is eroding a warm, dense molecular cloud located to the north of the optical nebula. The molecular gas appears fragmented on a scale size >0.5pc and not all the components are related to the HII region. There is evidence of a density increase near the front and indications of temperature gradients toward the exciting stars. This is further suggested by the presence of ^12^CO(1-0) self-absorption produced by a cooler external layer. The isotopic ratio X(^13^CO)/X(C^18^O) decreases from the inner part of the clouds towards the front, contrary to what is theoretically predicted and observed in many other regions. This may be due to excitation or optical depths effects. An evolutionary scenario is proposed where the exciting stars form at the edge of a molecular cloud. The morphology of G353.2+0.9 is rather different from what previously believed. Only a weak "bar" of molecular material was found to the south of the sharp ionization front observed optically and in the radio-continuum, and most of the molecular emission arises from regions behind or to the north of the HII region. This indicates that we are viewing a late stage "blister" configuration face-on. This region is fragmented on a scale size >0.5pc, and a warm, dense and compact molecular fragment coincides with the elephant trunk

  19. 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio analysis in human breath using a 2 μm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingguo; Cao, Zhensong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong; Yinbo, Huang; Ruizhong, Rao

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium H. pylori is believed to cause peptic ulcer. H. pylori infection in the human stomach can be diagnosed through a CO2 isotope ratio measure in exhaled breath. A laser spectrometer based on a distributed-feedback semiconductor diode laser at 2 μm is developed to measure the changes of 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio in exhaled breath sample with the CO2 concentration of ~4%. It is characterized by a simplified optical layout, in which a single detector and associated electronics are used to probe CO2 spectrum. A new type multi-passes cell with 12 cm long base length , 29 m optical path length in total and 280 cm3 volume is used in this work. The temperature and pressure are well controlled at 301.15 K and 6.66 kPa with fluctuation amplitude of 25 mK and 6.7 Pa, respectively. The best 13δ precision of 0.06o was achieved by using wavelet denoising and Kalman filter. The application of denoising and Kalman filter not only improved the signal to noise ratio, but also shorten the system response time.

  20. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in lead-free Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films derived from chemistry solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhehong; Chen, Jieyu; Bai, Yulong; Zhao, Shifeng

    2016-08-01

    Lead-free magnetoelectric composite films combining Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 were synthesized by chemical solution deposition on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. Morphological and electrical domain structure, ferroelectric, leakage, dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties were investigated for Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films. Well-defined interfaces between Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 film layers and electrical domain structure were observed. The composite films show the coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders at room temperature. Larger piezoelectric coefficient and magnetization are obtained for the composite films, which is contributed to the magnetoelectric effect since it originates from the interface coupling through mechanical strain transfer. This work presents a feasible way to modulate the magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric composite films for developing lead-free micro-electro-mechanical system and information storage devices.

  1. Mapping the 12CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 emission in AGB and early post-AGB circumstellar envelopes. I. The COSAS program, first sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Carrizo, A.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Neri, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Schöier, F. L.; Winters, J. M.; Olofsson, H.; Lindqvist, M.; Alcolea, J.; Lucas, R.; Grewing, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present COSAS (CO Survey of late AGB Stars), a project to map and analyze the 12CO J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 line emission in a representative sample of circumstellar envelopes around AGB and post-AGB stars. The survey was undertaken with the aim of investigating small- and large-scale morphological and kinematical properties of the molecular environment surrounding stars in the late AGB and early post-AGB phases. For this, COSAS combines the high sensitivity and spatial resolving power of the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer with the better capability of the IRAM 30 m telescope to map extended emission. The global sample encompasses 45 stars selected to span a range in chemical type, variability type, evolutionary state, and initial mass. COSAS provides means to quantify variations in the mass-loss rates, assess morphological and kinematical features, and to investigate the appearance of fast aspherical winds in the early post-AGB phase. This paper, which is the first of a series of COSAS papers, presents the results from the analyses of a first sample of 16 selected sources. The envelopes around late AGB stars are found to be mostly spherical, often mingled with features such as concentric arcs (R Cas and TX Cam), a broken spiral density pattern (TX Cam), molecular patches testifying to aspherical mass-loss (WX Psc, IK Tau, V Cyg, and S Cep), and also with well-defined axisymmetric morphologies and kinematical patterns (X Her and RX Boo). The sources span a wide range of angular sizes, from relatively compact (CRL 2362, OH 104.9+2.4 and CRL 2477) to very large (χ Cyg and TX Cam) envelopes, sometimes partially obscured by self-absorption features, which particularly for IK Tau and χ Cyg testifies to the emergence of aspherical winds in the innermost circumstellar regions. Strong axial structures with more or less complex morphologies are detected in four early post-AGB stars (IRAS 20028+3910, IRAS 23321+6545, IRAS 19475+3119 and IRAS 21282+5050) of the sub

  2. The Star-Formation Region SNO 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2014-06-01

    The star-formation region SNO 87 is associated with the dark cloud LDN 212. 12CO(1-0) observations of a part of the molecular cloud associated with SNO 87 show that it lies somewhat to the north of the densest part of the molecular cloud. There is a bipolar molecular outflow from SNO 87, both branches of which are blue, i.e., the velocity is directed toward us with a velocity of ~3.5 km/s relative to the cloud. 12CO(1-0) observations of a part of the cloud lying to the E of SNO 87 show that this part of the cloud rotates with an angular velocity Ω = 2.44·10-14 s-1. SNO 87 contains several stars that are coupled with nebular filaments, bursts, and Herbig-Haro objects. It is also associated with the point source IRAS 18064-2413.

  3. The Anatomy of the Perseus Spiral ARM: (sup 12)CO and IRAS Imaging Observations of the W3-W4-W5 Cloud Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyer, Mark H.; Terebey, S.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic images of (sup l2)CO J = 1-0 and thermal dust emissions from the W3-W4-W5 region of the outer Galaxy are presented. These data and recently published H (sub I) 21 cm line emission images provide an approx. 1 min resolution perspective to the dynamics and thermal energy content of the interstellar gas and dust components contained within a 9 deg arc of the Perseus spiral arm. We tabulate the molecular properties of 1560 clouds identified as closed surfaces within the l-b-v CO data cube at a threshold of 0.9 K T(sup *)(sub R). Relative surface densities of the molecular (28:1) and atomic (2.5: 1) gas components determined within the arm and interarm velocity intervals demonstrate that the gas component that enters the spiral arm is predominantly atomic. Molecular clouds must necessarily condense from the compressed atomic material that enters the spiral arm and are likely short lived within the interarm regions. From the distribution of centroid velocities of clouds, we determine a random cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of 4 km/s over the width of the spiral arm but find no clear evidence within the molecular gas for streaming motions induced by the spiral potential. The far-infrared images are analyzed with the CO J = 1-0 and H (sub I) 21 cm line emission. The enhanced UV radiation field from members of the Cas OB6 association and embedded newborn stars provide a significant source of heating to the extended dust component within the Perseus arm relative to the quiescent cirrus regions. Much of the measured far-infrared flux (69% at 60 microns and 47% at 100 microns) originates from regions associated with star formation rather than the extended, infrared cirrus component.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of cathode material Li1.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54O2 from spent lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Taolin; Lu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-03-01

    Li-rich layered oxide Li1.2Co0.13Ni0.13Mn0.54O2 has been successfully re-synthesized using the ascorbic acid leaching solution of spent lithium-ion batteries as the raw materials. A combination of oxalic acid co-precipitation, hydrothermal and calcination processes was applied to synthesize this material. For comparison, a fresh sample with the same composition has been also synthesized from the commercial raw materials using the same method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements are carried out to characterize these samples. XRD results indicate that both samples have the layered α-NaFeO2 structures with a space group of R 3 bar m. No other crystalline phase was detected by XRD. The electrochemical results show that the re-synthesized and fresh-synthesized sample can deliver discharge capacities as high as 258.8 and 264.2 mAh g-1 at the first cycle, respectively. After 50 cycles, discharge capacities of 225.1 and 228 mAh g-1 can be obtained with capacity retention of 87.0 and 86.3%, respectively. This study suggests that the leaching solution from spent lithium ion batteries can be recycled to synthesize Li-rich cathode materials with good electrochemical performance.

  5. A 1.85-m mm-submm Telescope for Large-Scale Molecular Gas Surveys in 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (J = 2-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ota, Yuya; Hashizume, Akio; Kojima, Yoshiharu; Minami, Akihito; Tokuda, Kazuki; Touga, Shiori; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kaiden, Masahiro; Kimura, Kimihiro; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Hideo; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Asayama, Shin'ichiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Taku; Noguchi, Takashi; Kuno, Nario

    2013-08-01

    We have developed a new mm-submm telescope with a diameter of 1.85-m installed at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The scientific goal is to precisely reveal the physical properties of molecular clouds in the Milky Way Galaxy by obtaining a large-scale distribution of molecular gas, which can also be compared with large-scale observations at various wavelengths. The target frequency is ˜ 230 GHz; simultaneous observations at the molecular rotational lines of J = 2-1 of three carbon monoxide isotopes (12CO, 13CO, C18 O) are achieved with a beam size (HPBW) of 2.7'. In order to accomplish the simultaneous observations, we have developed waveguide-type sideband-separating SIS mixers to obtain spectra separately in the upper and lower side bands. A Fourier digital spectrometer with a 1 GHz bandwidth having 16384 channels is installed, and the bandwidth of the spectrometer is divided into three parts, corresponding to each of the three spectra; the IF system has been designed so as to inject these three lines into the spectrometer. A flexible observation system was created mainly in Python on Linux PCs, enabling effective OTF (On-The-Fly) scans for large-area mapping. The telescope is enclosed in a radome with a membrane covered to prevent any harmful effects of sunlight, strong wind, and precipitation in order to minimize errors in the telescope pointing, and to stabilize the receiver and the IF devices. From 2011 November, we started science operation, resulting in a large-scale survey of the Orion A/B clouds, Cygnus OB7, Galactic Plane, Taurus, and so on. We also updated the receiver system for dual-polarization observations.

  6. The Object CLN 138 - a Double Star-Formation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    A double star formation region associated with the biconical cometary nebula CLN 138 is studied. 12CO(1-0) observations of a molecular cloud associated with this object reveal the existence of several molecular clouds in this region, as well as the existence of red and blue molecular outflows. Several new Herbig-Haro objects are found, two of which have undergone a luminosity increase of at least 8m. The first star formation region is basically embedded in the molecular cloud; most of the stars in it are infrared stars and many have dust envelopes. The second star formation region has already left the molecular cloud; it has no IR stars and few of its stars have dust clouds.

  7. New Molecular Views of Southern Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Y.

    1999-10-01

    I will present new molecular views of southern sky based on the CO survey for star forming regions conducted by Nagoya University with the NANTEN 4-m millimeter wave telescope. The NANTEN telescope is installed at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile under a mutual agreement between Nagoya University and the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Through the survey, molecular gas distribution and the physical properties of cluster forming regions in the Magellanic Clouds, Galactic star forming GMCs, dark clouds, high latitude clouds, and interacting clouds with HII regions and/or SNRs are studied at a beam size of 2.'7 in the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (J=1-0) molecular emission. I will review the expected contribution of the southern CO survey to the ALMA project, and discuss the scientific targets related with star formation at the time the ALMA becomes available.

  8. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  9. Molecular Gas and Star-formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of 13CO (1-0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival 12CO (1-0), 12CO(2-1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to 12CO (1-0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  10. From gas to stars in energetic environments: dense gas clumps in the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Crystal N.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Hughes, Annie; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie; Henkel, Christian; Chen, Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Muller, Erik; Pineda, Jorge L.; Seale, Jonathan

    2014-09-20

    We present parsec-scale interferometric maps of HCN(1-0) and HCO{sup +}(1-0) emission from dense gas in the star-forming region 30 Doradus, obtained using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This extreme star-forming region, located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), is characterized by a very intense ultraviolet ionizing radiation field and sub-solar metallicity, both of which are expected to impact molecular cloud structure. We detect 13 bright, dense clumps within the 30 Doradus-10 giant molecular cloud. Some of the clumps are aligned along a filamentary structure with a characteristic spacing that is consistent with formation via varicose fluid instability. Our analysis shows that the filament is gravitationally unstable and collapsing to form stars. There is a good correlation between HCO{sup +} emission in the filament and signatures of recent star formation activity including H{sub 2}O masers and young stellar objects (YSOs). YSOs seem to continue along the same direction of the filament toward the massive compact star cluster R136 in the southwest. We present detailed comparisons of clump properties (masses, linewidths, and sizes) in 30Dor-10 to those in other star forming regions of the LMC (N159, N113, N105, and N44). Our analysis shows that the 30Dor-10 clumps have similar masses but wider linewidths and similar HCN/HCO{sup +} (1-0) line ratios as clumps detected in other LMC star-forming regions. Our results suggest that the dense molecular gas clumps in the interior of 30Dor-10 are well shielded against the intense ionizing field that is present in the 30 Doradus region.

  11. Dense gas tracing the collisional past of Andromeda. An atypical inner region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, Anne-Laure; Combes, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    The central kiloparsec region of the Andromeda galaxy is relatively gas poor, while the interstellar medium appears to be concentrated in a ring-like structure at about 10 kpc radius. The central gas depletion has been attributed to a possible head-on collision 200 Myr ago, supported by the existence of an offset inner ring of warm dust. We present new IRAM 30 m radio telescope observations of the molecular gas in the central region, and the detection of CO and its isotopes 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1), together with the dense gas tracers, HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0). A systematic study of the observed peak temperatures with non-local thermal equilibrium simulations shows that the detected lines trace dense regions with nH2 in the range 2.5 × 104-5.6 × 105 cm-3, while the gas is very clumpy with a beam filling factor of 0.5-2 × 10-2. This is compatible with the dust mass derived from the far-infrared emission, assuming a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01 with a typical clump size of 2 pc. We also show that the gas is optically thin in all lines except for 12CO(1-0) and 12CO(2-1), CO lines are close to their thermal equilibrium condition at 17-20 K, the molecular hydrogen density is larger than critical, and HCN and HCO+ lines have a subthermal excitation temperature of 9 K with a density smaller than critical. The average 12CO/13CO line ratio is high (~21), and close to the 12CO/C18O ratio (~30) that was measured in the north-western region and estimated in the south-east stacking. The fact that the optically thin 13CO and C18O lines have comparable intensities means that the secondary element 13C is depleted with respect to the primary 12C, as is expected just after a recent star formation. This suggests that there has been a recent starburst in the central region, supporting the head-on collision scenario. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  12. Carbon Release from Melting Arctic Permafrost on the North Slope, AK: 12CO2 and 13CO2 Concentrations and Fluxes, and Their Relationship to Methane and Methane Isotope Concentrations Measured in August 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munster, J. B.; Sayres, D. S.; Healy, C. E.; Dumas, E. J.; Dobosy, R.; Kochendorfer, J.; Heuer, M.; Meyers, T. P.; Baker, B.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most important uncertainties in climate change is the positive feedback mechanism associated with the melting Arctic. As the Arctic permafrost destabilizes, labile carbon stored in the permafrost is subject to respiration and methanogenesis, producing greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Understanding the timing and rate of this release is paramount to our long-term understanding of the global climate structure, yet the remote location of the North Slope logistically precludes widespread tower measurements, necessitating airborne measurements. Presented are 12C and 13C CO2 concentration flux measurements taken via an aircraft at a height of 10-30m during mid to late August 2013 from the north slope of Alaska. The data show different regimes for CO2 vs δ-13C over regions within a roughly 100km box, indicating heterogenous landscape with differing dominant biological processes. The data are compared to CH4 measurements that were taken simultaneously, showing highly varying concentrations of CH4 with several different archetypical relationships to the total CO2 regimes. The relationship between CO2, δ-13C CO2, and CH4 concentrations provide further insight into the biological processes occurring in the melting Arctic permafrost. The data show that the dominant uptake and emission processes change by time of day and location. While the CO2 and isotopologue data alone indicates whether a region is dominant in respiration or photosynthesis, combining the data with CH4 measurements provides insight into the provenance of the CH4 as well as methanogenic biological pathways active on the North Slope, while mass balance between CH4, CO2 or δ-13C CO2 determines whether the methane signature is from methanogenesis, natural hydrocarbon seeps, or methane flaring. The data show few if any cases for which increases in methane concentrations are accompanied by a deviation in CO2 or δ-13C CO2 that would indicate incomplete methane flaring or natural seeps.

  13. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  14. STUDIES OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS ASSOCIATED WITH H II REGIONS: S175

    SciTech Connect

    Azimlu, Mohaddesseh; Fich, Michel; McCoey, Carolyn

    2009-06-15

    We are studying the impact of H II regions on star formation in their associated molecular clouds. In this paper, we present James Clerk Maxwell Telescope R x A molecular line observations of S175 and environs. This is the first within a sample of 10 H II regions and their surrounding molecular clouds selected for our study. We first make 7' x 7' maps in {sup 12}CO(2-1), which are used to investigate the structure of the cloud and to identify individual clumps. Single point observations were made in {sup 13}CO(2-1) and CS(5-4) at the peak of the {sup 12}CO(2-1) emission within each clump in order to measure the physical properties of the gas. Densities, temperatures, clump masses, peak velocities, and line widths were measured and calculated using these observations. We have identified two condensations (S175A and S175B) in the molecular cloud associated with this H II region. S175A is adjacent to the ionization front and is expected to be affected by the H II region, while S175B is too distant to be disturbed. We compare the structure and gas properties of these two regions to investigate how the molecular gas has been affected by the H II region. S175A has been heated by the H II region and partially compressed by the ionized gas front, but contrary to our expectation it is a quiescent region while S175B is very turbulent and dynamically active. Our investigation for the source of turbulence in S175B resulted in the detection of an outflow within this region.

  15. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION AROUND MID-INFRARED BUBBLES IN THE G8.14+0.23 H II REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chakraborti, S.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2012-09-10

    Mid-infrared shells or bubbles around expanding H II regions have received much attention due to their ability to initiate a new generation of star formation. We present multi-wavelength observations around two bubbles associated with a southern massive star-forming region G8.14+0.23, to investigate the triggered star formation signature on the edges of the bubbles by the expansion of the H II region. We have found observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material along the bubbles and the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) velocity map reveals that the molecular gas in the bubbles is physically associated around the G8.14+0.23 region. We have detected 244 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region and about 37% of these YSOs occur in clusters. Interestingly, these YSO clusters are associated with the collected material on the edges of the bubbles. We have found good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the kinematical timescale of bubbles (from the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) line data) with the fragmentation time of the accumulated molecular materials to explain possible 'collect and collapse' process around the G8.14+0.23 region. However, one cannot entirely rule out the possibility of triggered star formation by compression of the pre-existing dense clumps by the shock wave. We have also found two massive embedded YSOs (about 10 and 22 M{sub Sun }) which are associated with the dense fragmented clump at the interface of the bubbles. We conclude that the expansion of the H II region is also leading to the formation of these two young massive embedded YSOs in the G8.14+0.23 region.

  16. MOLECULAR CLUMPS AND INFRARED CLUSTERS IN THE S247, S252, AND BFS52 REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito; Saito, Hiro; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Atsushi; Kimura, Kimihiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Hideo

    2013-05-01

    We present results of the observations carried out toward the S247, S252, and BFS52 H II regions with various molecular lines using the 1.85 m radio telescope and the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. There are at least 11 young infrared clusters (IR clusters) within the observed region. We found that there are two velocity components in {sup 12}CO (J = 2-1), and also that their spatial distributions show an anti-correlation. The IR clusters are located at their interfaces, suggesting that two distinct clouds with different velocities are colliding with each other, which may have induced the cluster formation. Based on {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0) and C{sup 18}O (J = 1-0) observations, we identified 16 clumps in and around the three H II regions. Eleven of the clumps are associated with the IR clusters and the other five clumps are not associated with any known young stellar objects. We investigated variations in the velocity dispersions of the 16 clumps as a function of the distance from the center of the clusters or the clumps. Clumps with clusters tend to have velocity dispersions that increase with distance from the cluster center, while clumps without clusters show a flat velocity dispersion over the clump extents. A {sup 12}CO outflow has been found in some of the clumps with IR clusters but not in the other clumps, supporting a strong relation of these clumps to the broader velocity dispersion region. We also estimated a mean star formation efficiency of {approx}30% for the clumps with IR clusters in the three H II regions.

  17. Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Observations of the OMC-2/3 Region. II. Observational Evidence for Outflow-triggered Star Formation in the OMC-2 FIR 3/4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimajiri, Yoshito; Takahashi, Satoko; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Saito, Masao; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2008-08-01

    We have observed the Orion Molecular Cloud-2 FIR 3/4 region in the H13CO+ (J = 1-0),12CO (J = 1-0), SiO (v = 0, J = 2-1), and CS (J = 2-1) lines and the 3.3 mm continuum emission with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array (NMA) and in the CO (J = 3-2) and CH3OH (JK = 7K-6K) lines with Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Our NMA observations in the H13CO+ emission have revealed 0.07 pc scale dense gas associated with FIR 4 (FIR 4 clump). The 12CO (J = 3-2,1-0) emission shows high-velocity blue- and redshifted components to both the northeast and southwest of FIR 3, suggesting an outflow from FIR 3 along the plane of the sky. The SiO and CH3OH emission, known as shock tracers, are detected around the interface between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Furthermore, the 12CO (J = 1-0) emission shows an L-shaped structure in the PV diagram. These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the outflow and FIR 4 clump. Moreover, our interferometric 3.3 mm continuum observations have first found that FIR 4 consists of 11 dusty cores at a scale of ~2000 AU. The separation among these cores (~5 × 103 AU) is on the same order of the Jeans length (~13 × 103 AU), and the estimated time scale of the fragmentation (~3.8 × 104 yr) is similar to the time scale of the outflow interaction (~1.4 × 104 yr). We suggest that the interaction triggered the fragmentation into these dusty cores, and hence the next generation of the cluster formation in FIR 4.

  18. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  19. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  20. The environs of the H II region Gum 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Niemela, V. S.; Amorín, R.; Vasquez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We analyze the distribution of the interstellar matter in the environs of the H ii region Gum 31, excited by the open cluster NGC 3324, located in the complex Carina region, with the aim of investigating the action of the massive stars on the surrounding neutral material. Methods: We use neutral hydrogen 21-cm line data, radio continuum images at 0.843, 2.4 and 4.9 GHz, 12CO(1-0) observations, and IRAS and MSX infrared data. Results: Adopting a distance of 3 kpc for the H ii region and the ionizing cluster, we derived an electron density of 33±3 cm-3 and an ionized mass of (3.3±1.1)×103 M⊙ based on the radio continuum data at 4.9 GHz. The H i 21-cm line images revealed an H i shell surrounding the H ii region. The H i structure is 10.0 ± 1.7 pc in radius, has a neutral mass of 1500 ± 500 M⊙, and is expanding at 11 km s-1. The associated molecular gas amounts to (1.1 ± 0.5)×105 M⊙, being its volume density of about 350 cm-3. This molecular shell could represent the remains of the cloud where the young open cluster NGC 3324 was born or could have originated by the shock front associated with the H ii region. The difference between the ambient density and the electron density of the H ii region suggests that the H ii region is expanding. The distributions of the ionized and molecular material, along with that of the emission in the MSX band A, suggest that a photodissociation region has developed at the interface between the ionized and molecular gas. The copious UV photon flux from the early type stars in NGC 3324 keeps the H ii region ionized. The characteristics of a relatively large number of the IRAS, MSX, and 2MASS point sources projected onto the molecular envelope are compatible with protostellar candidates, showing the presence of active star forming regions. Very probably, the expansion of the H ii region has triggered stellar formation in the molecular shell.

  1. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  2. The High-velocity Molecular Outflows in Massive Cluster-forming Region G10.6-0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2010-12-01

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the 12CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity 12CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH3OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, ~105 years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 1047 erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Observations of Two Young Protostars in the R Corona Australis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher E.; Hunter, Todd R.; Blundell, Raymond; Sandell, Göran

    2007-11-01

    We present multiwavelength, high spatial resolution imaging of the IRS 7 region in the R Corona Australis molecular cloud. Our observations include 1.1 mm continuum and HCO+ J=3-->2 images from the Submillimeter Array (SMA), 12CO J=3-->2 outflow maps from the DesertStar heterodyne array receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT), 450 and 850 μm continuum images from SCUBA, and archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm images. The accurate astrometry of the IRAC images allow us to identify IRS 7 with the centimeter source VLA 10W (IRS 7A) and the X-ray source XW. The SMA 1.1 mm image reveals two compact continuum sources that are also distinguishable at 450 μm. SMA 1 coincides with X-ray source CXOU J190156.4-365728 and VLA centimeter source 10E (IRS 7B) and is seen in the IRAC and MIPS images. SMA 2 has no infrared counterpart but coincides with centimeter source VLA 9. Spectral energy distributions constructed from SMA, SCUBA, and Spitzer data yield bolometric temperatures of 83 K for SMA 1 and <=70 K for SMA 2. These temperatures along with the submillimeter to total luminosity ratios indicate that SMA 2 is a Class 0 protostar, while SMA 1 is a Class 0/Class I transitional object (L=17+/-6 Lsolar). The 12CO J=3-->2 outflow map shows one major and possibly several smaller outflows centered on the IRS 7 region, with masses and energetics consistent with previous work. We identify the Class 0 source SMA 2/VLA 9 as the main driver of this outflow. The complex and clumpy spatial and velocity distribution of the HCO+ J=3-->2 emission is not consistent with either bulk rotation, or any known molecular outflow activity.

  4. Molecular Lines of 13 Galactic Infrared Bubble Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qing-zeng; Xu, Ye; Zhang, Bo; Lu, Deng-rong; Chen, Xi; Tang, Zheng-hong

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the physical properties of molecular clouds and star formation (SF) processes around infrared bubbles, which are essentially expanding H ii regions. We performed observations of 13 galactic infrared bubble fields containing 18 bubbles. We observed five molecular lines—12CO (J=1\\to 0), 13CO (J=1\\to 0), C18O (J=1\\to 0), HCN (J=1\\to 0), and HCO+ (J=1\\to 0)—and several publicly available surveys were used for comparison: Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer Galactic Plane Survey, APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, Very Large Array (VLA) Galactic Plane Survey, Multi-Array Galactic Plane Imaging Survey, and NRAO VLA Sky Survey. We find that these bubbles are generally connected with molecular clouds, most of which are giant. Several bubble regions display velocity gradients and broad-shifted profiles, which could be due to the expansion of bubbles. The masses of molecular clouds within bubbles range from 100 to 19,000 M ⊙, and their dynamic ages are about 0.3–3.7 Myr, which takes into account the internal turbulence pressure of surrounding molecular clouds. Clumps are found in the vicinity of all 18 bubbles, and molecular clouds near four of these bubbles with larger angular sizes show shell-like morphologies, indicating that either collect-and-collapse or radiation-driven implosion processes may have occurred. Due to the contamination of adjacent molecular clouds, only six bubble regions are appropriate to search for outflows, and we find that four have outflow activities. Three bubbles display ultra-compact H ii regions at their borders, and one is probably responsible for its outflow. In total, only six bubbles show SF activities in the vicinity, and we suggest that SF processes might have been triggered.

  5. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  6. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  7. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  8. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  9. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  10. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  11. Sh2-205: Three independent HII regions or only one?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, G. A.; Cappa, C. E.

    Resumen: We present a study of the HII region Sh2-205 and its environs, based on data obtained from the CGPS, 12CO observations and MSX. We find that Sh2-205 can be separated in three independent optical structures: SH149.25-0.0, SH148.83-0.67, and LBN148.11-0.45. The derived spectral indices show the thermal nature of SH148.83-0.67 and LBN148.11-0.45. The morphology of SH148.83-0.67, both in optical and in radio, along with the energetic requirements indicate that this feature is an interstellar bubble powered by the UV photons of HD24431 (O9 III). LBN148.11-0.45 has the morphology of a classical HII region and their ionizing sources remain uncertain. Dust and molecular gas are found related to LBN148.11-0.45. Particularly, a photodissociation region is detected surrounding the central part of this HII region at infrared wavelengths.

  12. Star-forming region BBW 36 in puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudahgian, A. L.; May, J.

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies of the star formation region BBW 36 and associated molecular clouds are presented. The 12CO (1-0) observations, carried out with the 15-m SEST (Swedish-ESO) telescope (Cerro La Silla, Chile), revealed the existence of cloud a, connected with BBW 36 and of cloud b, having elongation in SE-NW direction. A red-shifted molecular outflow with velocity ˜+5 km/s (with respect to cloud a), having a direction parallel to the line of sight, was also observed. VLA observations showed the presence of a source VLA 2 at 3.6 cm with an elongation in the N-S direction. It is suggested that the VLA 2 source coincides with a dust disc (surrounding the object BBW 36). The star 3, which is one of the YSOs in the star-forming region BBW 36 and is connected with a bright comma-like nebula, can be the source of the molecular outflow. The star 3 has very high IR colors and is associated with an IRAS point source IRAS 07280-1829, which has IR colors, typical for an IRAS point source, connected with a water maser. On the 2MASS K image of BBW 36 we can see the existence of a bright nebula; a group of stars is embedded in that nebula, and among these stars there are stars with dust discs (or envelopes). On the 2MASS K image several spiral jets are also present, some of them with a condensation at the end.

  13. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  14. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  15. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  16. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  17. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  18. The crisis of regionalization.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2015-11-01

    Currently in Canada, there is no consensus concerning the efficacy of regionalization, a reversal of the strong commitment in favour only a decade earlier. Instead, provincial governments are either dismantling regional health authorities in favour of highly centralized structures under the control of ministries of health or actively considering more centralized approaches. There is a general feeling among political leaders that regionalization has failed to achieve its original objectives. However, by not including physicians and primary care within regionalized governance, provincial governments have never given regionalization a real chance. Moreover, given the fact that the status quo prior to regionalization was far from an ideal state and would be almost impossible to return to in any event, some provincial governments should consider implementing a more full-blooded version of regionalization before abandoning the approach.

  19. Wide Field CO Mapping in the Region of IRAS 19312+1950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Ladeyschikov, Dmitry A.; Sobolev, Andrej M.; Zhang, Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Yung, Bosco H. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of wide field CO mapping in the region of IRAS 19312+1950. This Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) object exhibits SiO/H2O/OH maser emission, and is embedded in a chemically rich molecular component, the origin of which is still unknown. In order to reveal the entire structure and gas mass of the surrounding molecular component for the first time, we have mapped a wide region around IRAS 19312+1950 in the 12CO J = 1-0, 13CO J = 1-0 and C18O J = 1-0 lines using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In conjunction with archival CO maps, we investigated a region up to 20‧ × 20‧ in size around this IRAS object. We calculated the CO gas mass assuming local thermal equilibrium, the stellar velocity through the interstellar medium assuming an analytic model of bow shock, and the absolute luminosity, using the latest archival data and trigonometric parallax distance. The derived gas mass (225 M ⊙-478 M ⊙) of the molecular component and the relatively large luminosity (2.63 × 104 L ⊙) suggest that the central SiO/H2O/OH maser source is a red supergiant rather than an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star or post-AGB star.

  20. Molecular gas in the star-forming region IRAS 08589-4714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, Hugo P.; Vásquez, J.; Cappa, C. E.; Gómez, M.; Duronea, N.; Rubio, M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present an analysis of the region IRAS 08589-4714 with the aim of characterizing the molecular environment. Methods: We observed the 12CO(3 -2), 13CO(3 -2), C18O(3 -2), HCO+(3 -2), and HCN(3 -2) molecular lines in a region of 150''× 150'', centered on the IRAS source, to analyze the distribution and characteristics of the molecular gas linked to the IRAS source. Results: The molecular gas distribution reveals a molecular clump that is coincident with IRAS 08589-4714 and with a dust clump detected at 1.2 mm. The molecular clump is 0.45 pc in radius and its mass and H2 volume density are 310 M⊙ and 1.2 × 104 cm-3, respectively. Two overdensities were identified within the clump in HCN(3-2) and HCO+(3-2) lines. A comparison of the LTE and virial masses suggests that the clump is collapsing in regions that harbor young stellar objects. An analysis of the molecular lines suggests that they are driving molecular outflows. Final reduced APEX data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A115

  1. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  2. New Lessons in Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Neal R.

    1998-01-01

    From the hierarchical, governmental, industrial, military model of the 20th century, society is moving rapidly toward a globalized, interactive market. This new order is tailor-made for regional development but also challenges regions to think and act strategically in a world of weakened central governments and growing international currency…

  3. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  4. Regional anesthesia for laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Vaghadia, H

    2001-03-01

    A variety of laparoscopic procedures can be performed on patients under regional anesthesia. Diagnostic laparoscopy in elective and emergency patients, pain mapping, laparoscopy for infertility, and tubal sterilization are some examples. The key benefits of regional anesthesia include less emesis, less postoperative pain, shorter postoperative stay, improved patient satisfaction, and overall safety. Regional techniques, such as rectus sheath blocks, inguinal blocks, and caudal blocks, are useful adjuncts to general anesthesia and facilitate postoperative analgesia. Other techniques, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, and combination of the two, are suitable as a sole anesthetic technique for laparoscopy. The physiologic changes during laparoscopy in the awake patient appear to be tolerated well under regional anesthesia. It is reasonable to assume that with advances in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the role of laparoscopy will increase in the future. The benefits conferred by regional anesthesia make it an attractive option to general anesthesia for many patients and procedures. Successful implementation of regional anesthesia is an important determinant of how anesthesiologists, surgeons, and surgical facilities cope with new challenges. In the future, it could be possible to provide "walk-in/walk-out" regional anesthesia with a real possibility of fast tracking patients through the recovery process after ambulatory surgery. For maximal patient safety, however, facilities offering regional anesthesia must have appropriately trained anesthesia personnel and the equipment necessary for monitoring and providing full resuscitation in the event of complications or a need to convert to general anesthesia. PMID:11244919

  5. South Persian Gulf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This oblique view of the south Persian Gulf region (26.0N, 54.0E) was taken over Iran looking west across the south Persian Gulf into the Trucial Coast of the United Arab Emirates and the prominent Qatar peninsula. Rich in petroleum resources, this region supplies much of the world's oil needs from its many ports and off shore loading facilities.

  6. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION AND PARSEC-SCALE STELLAR FEEDBACK WITHIN THE L1641-N REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Fumitaka; Miura, Tomoya; Nishi, Ryoichi; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Akashi, Toshiya; Ikeda, Norio; Shimajiri, Yoshito; Kawabe, Ryohei; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake; Li Zhiyun

    2012-02-10

    We present high spatial resolution {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) images taken by the Nobeyama 45 m telescope toward a 48' Multiplication-Sign 48' area, including the L1641-N cluster. The effective spatial resolution of the maps is 21'', corresponding to 0.04 pc at a distance of 400 pc. A recent 1.1 mm dust continuum map reveals that the dense gas is concentrated in several thin filaments. We find that a few dust filaments are located at the parts where {sup 12}CO (J = 1-0) emission drops sharply. Furthermore, the filaments have two components with different velocities. The velocity difference between the two components is about 3 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to a Mach number of 10, significantly larger than the local turbulent velocity in the cloud. These facts imply that the collision of the two components (hereafter, the cloud-cloud collision) possibly contributed to the formation of these filaments. Since the two components appear to overlap toward the filaments on the plane of the sky, the collision may have occurred almost along the line of sight. Star formation in the L1641-N cluster was probably triggered by such a collision. We also find several parsec-scale CO shells whose centers are close to either the L1641-N cluster or the V 380 Ori cluster. We propose that these shells were created by multiple winds and/or outflows from cluster young stellar objects, i.e., 'protocluster winds'. One exceptional dust filament located at the western cloud edge lies along a shell; it is presumably part of the expanding shell. Both the cloud-cloud collision and protocluster winds are likely to influence the cloud structure and kinematics in this region.

  8. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of transition-region models is reviewed in this report. To understand modeling problems, various flow features that influence the transition process are discussed first. Then an overview of the different approaches to transition-region modeling is given. This is followed by a detailed discussion of turbulence models and the specific modifications that are needed to predict flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition. Methods for determining the usefulness of the models are presented, and an outlook for the future of transition-region modeling is suggested.

  9. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  10. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  11. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  12. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  13. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  14. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  15. LAMPF transition region

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.

    1982-06-01

    After describing the transition region between the LAMPF drift-tube linac and side-coupled linac, we discuss the function of the region, its present shortcomings, and the need for a redesign. Then we present the new design, its advantages, and its expected performance. Included are detailed results of beam-dynamics studies giving the ranges of input- and output-beam shapes that can be successfully matched in the new transition region. To improve the present operation of the two linacs, we suggest small changes that will allow us to easily match the beam between the two linacs. Finally we describe the methods used in our beam-dynamic studies so that effects of future improvements to the new design can be examined.

  16. Turbulence in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'dell, C. R.

    1986-10-01

    It has been known for many decades that the Reynolds number in HII regions must be very high and that the corresponding fine scale flow must be turbulent. Even though the theoretical relation between turbulent element separation and random velocity was derived by Kolmogoroff over forty years ago, there have been only a few attempts to test this theory and its corresponding assumptions. An attempt by Munch for M42 with marginal velocity resolution lead to ambiguous results, although more recent studies by Jean Rene Roy and his colleagues have been more credible. The internal velocities of a number of HII regions were systematically studied and the theory was tested with considerable certainty. The results should be important for the determination of the energy balance of HII regions and the relation of small scale motion to the process of star formation.

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  18. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  19. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  1. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  2. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  3. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  4. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR SAMUM data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  5. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR VBBE data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  6. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  7. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  8. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  9. Probing the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with CO Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Schindhelm, Eric; Brown, Joanna M.; Brown, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most commonly used tracer of molecular gas in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. CO can be used to constrain the excitation and structure of the circumstellar environment. Absorption line spectroscopy provides an accurate assessment of a single line of sight through the protoplanetary disk system, giving more straightforward estimates of column densities and temperatures than CO and molecular hydrogen (H2) emission line studies. We analyze new observations of ultraviolet CO absorption from the Hubble Space Telescope along the sightlines to six classical T Tauri stars. Gas velocities consistent with the stellar velocities, combined with the moderate-to-high disk inclinations, argue against the absorbing CO gas originating in a fast-moving disk wind. We conclude that the far-ultraviolet observations provide a direct measure of the disk atmosphere or possibly a slow disk wind. The CO absorption lines are reproduced by model spectra with column densities in the range N(12CO) ~ 1016-1018 cm-2 and N(13CO) ~ 1015-1017 cm-2, rotational temperatures T rot(CO) ~ 300-700 K, and Doppler b-values, b ~ 0.5-1.5 km s-1. We use these results to constrain the line-of-sight density of the warm molecular gas (n CO ~ 70-4000 cm-3) and put these observations in context with protoplanetary disk models.

  10. Excitation of the molecular gas in the nuclear region of M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loenen, A. F.; van der Werf, P. P.; Güsten, R.; Meijerink, R.; Israel, F. P.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; García-Burillo, S.; Harris, A. I.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Röllig, M.; Stutzki, J.; Szczerba, R.; Weiß, A.; Philipp-May, S.; Yorke, H.; Caux, E.; Delforge, B.; Helmich, F.; Lorenzani, A.; Morris, P.; Philips, T. G.; Risacher, C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2010-10-01

    We present high-resolution HIFI spectroscopy of the nucleus of the archetypical starburst galaxy M 82. Six 12CO lines, 2 13CO lines and 4 fine-structure lines have been detected. Besides showing the effects of the overall velocity structure of the nuclear region, the line profiles also indicate the presence of multiple components with different optical depths, temperatures, and densities in the observing beam. The data have been interpreted using a grid of PDR models. It is found that the majority of the molecular gas is in low density (n = 103.5 cm-3) clouds, with column densities of NH = 1021.5 cm-2 and a relatively low UV radiation field (G0 = 102). The remaining gas is predominantly found in clouds with higher densities (n = 105 cm-3) and radiation fields (G0 = 102.75), but somewhat lower column densities (NH = 1021.2 cm-2). The highest J CO lines are dominated by a small (1% relative surface filling) component, with an even higher density (n = 106 cm-3) and UV field (G0 = 103.25). These results show the strength of multi-component modelling for interpretating the integrated properties of galaxies.

  11. Statistical region merging.

    PubMed

    Nock, Richard; Nielsen, Frank

    2004-11-01

    This paper explores a statistical basis for a process often described in computer vision: image segmentation by region merging following a particular order in the choice of regions. We exhibit a particular blend of algorithmics and statistics whose segmentation error is, as we show, limited from both the qualitative and quantitative standpoints. This approach can be efficiently approximated in linear time/space, leading to a fast segmentation algorithm tailored to processing images described using most common numerical pixel attribute spaces. The conceptual simplicity of the approach makes it simple to modify and cope with hard noise corruption, handle occlusion, authorize the control of the segmentation scale, and process unconventional data such as spherical images. Experiments on gray-level and color images, obtained with a short readily available C-code, display the quality of the segmentations obtained.

  12. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  13. Arctic region mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    An interactive online mapping tool is now available to assist with scientific, environmental, and emergency response needs in the Arctic region, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 31 July. The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) already has been used in other regions, including in the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The tool—which is a product of the combined work of NOAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the University of New Hampshire, and others—offers near-real time oceanographic observations, weather data, environmental and commercial information, and other data.

  14. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  15. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  16. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-07-29

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life.

  17. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  18. The Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Tagica, K

    1993-03-01

    Population education in the Pacific region is summarized in terms of awareness and commitment, curriculum and instructional materials development, integration into the school curricula, training programs, and evaluation research. Several population education issues of current concern relate to the increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are associated with life styles and diet, and the rising incidence of AIDS and teenage pregnancy. In the Pacific region, many countries have advanced population programs and policies, while some still do not even have a population policy. The issue of balancing population and resources is a topic that has not been sufficiently addressed in resource-poor countries. There is wide variance in awareness and commitment to population education in the Pacific region. Commitment and continuous support are crucial to population education projects. Lack of support is sometimes due to changing government personnel and lack of awareness of policy makers. Population education is not the same as family planning or sex education, and traditionally is spread through seminars and workshops by part time project personnel unconnected to the entire educational apparatus. Presently, only 8 population projects are functioning in the region, with 2-3 in the planning stages. Materials development in the Pacific region has been devoted to the secondary school level, yet awareness is increasing that sexuality, family health, and the environment should be introduced at the primary level. A popular strategy is to integrate population issues into the existing curriculum, such as in Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and Kiribati, which also have teacher training curriculum. In most countries sex education is still a controversial topic, and materials are developed by teacher committees working after school rather in a curriculum development unit. AIDS has pushed this topic into the public sector. A chart is provided for each country and

  19. Venus - Eistla Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is of an area located in the Eistla Region of Venus in the southern hemisphere and is centered at 5.5 degrees east longitude, 18 degrees south latitude. It is 122 kilometers (76 miles) across east to west and 107 kilometers (66 miles) north to south. North is at the top of the image. Shown is an unusual volcanic edifice unlike all others previously observed. It is approximately 66 kilometers (41 miles) across at the base and has a relatively flat, slightly concave summit 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. The sides of the edifice are characterized by radiating ridges and valleys that impart a fluted appearance. To the west, the rim of the structure appears to have been breached by dark lava flows that emanated from a shallow summit pit approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) in diameter and traveled west along a channel approximately 5 kilometers wide and 27 kilometers (17 miles) long. A series of coalescing, collapsed pits 2 to 10 kilometers (1.2 to 6.2 miles) in diameter are located 10 kilometers (6 miles) west of the summit. The edifice and western pits are circumscribed by faint, concentric lineaments up to 70 kilometers (43 miles) in diameter. A series of north northwest trending graben are deflected eastward around the edifice; the interplay of these graben and the fluted rim of the edifice produce a distinctive scalloped pattern in the image. Several north northwest trending lineaments cut directly across the summit region. This peculiar volcanic construct is located 25 to 30 kilometers (15 to 19 miles) north of Alpha Regio, a highly deformed region of tessera terrain. A collection of at least six similar volcanoes has been observed near Thetis Regio, a region of tessera within Aphrodite Terra. Thus, these unusual constructs tentatively appear to be spatially associated with regions of tessera. A tessera is a complex, deformed terrain on Venus consisting of at least two sets of intersecting ridges and troughs. The implications of this

  20. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  1. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  2. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  3. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  5. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime; Dawson, Joanne; Tosaki, Tomoka; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  6. Dense Molecular Clumps Associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud Supergiant Shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Dawson, Joanne; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Miura, Rie E.; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ezawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. 12CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H2)) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (103-105 cm-3) and their kinetic temperatures (T kin) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H2) and T kin, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome.

  8. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  9. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  10. The Eutherian Pseudoautosomal Region.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2015-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a unique segment of sequence homology between differentiated sex chromosomes where recombination occurs during meiosis. Molecular and functional properties of the PAR are distinctive from the autosomes and the remaining regions of the sex chromosomes. These include a higher rate of recombination than genome average, bias towards GC-substitutions and increased interindividual nucleotide divergence and mutations. As yet, the PAR has been physically demarcated in only 28 eutherian species representing 6 mammalian orders. Murid rodents have the smallest, gene-poorest and most diverged PARs. Other eutherian PARs are largely homologous but differ in size and gene content, being the smallest in equids and human/simian primates and much larger in other eutherians. Because pseudoautosomal genes escape X inactivation, their dosage changes with sex chromosome aneuploidies, whereas phenotypic effects of the latter depend on the size and gene content of the PAR. Thus, X monosomy is more viable in mice, humans and horses than in species with larger PARs. Presently, little is known about the functions of PAR genes in individual species, though human studies suggest their involvement in early embryonic development. The PAR is, thus, of evolutionary, genetic and biomedical significance and a 'research hotspot' in eutherian genomes. PMID:26730606

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26648626

  12. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  13. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e., evaporator is... vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode until the...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... source of air supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e....e., next vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 fleet average credit programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... supplied to the air conditioning system shall change from outside air to recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning system (i.e., evaporator is... vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching to recirculation mode until the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... refrigerant with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate... (or 4.1 grams/year for systems using only electric compressors). GWPREF means the global warming... with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1867-12 - CO2 credits for reducing leakage of air conditioning refrigerant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate determined according....1 grams/year for systems using only electric compressors). GWPREF means the global warming potential... with a lower global warming potential. LeakScore means the annual refrigerant leakage rate...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1870-12 - CO2 credits for qualifying full-size pickup trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... mild hybrid electric vehicles and that are produced in the 2017 through 2021 model years are...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light....” means the states and territories of the United States, in the 2012 through 2025 model years may use a... vehicles produced for U.S. sale, where “U.S.” means the states and territories of the United States, in...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty... “U.S.” means the states and territories of the United States, in the 2012 through 2025 model years... fuel cell vehicles produced for U.S. sale, where “U.S.” means the states and territories of the...

  1. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  2. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological disorder producing peripheral neurogenic inflammatory process in hands and feet distal to injury, which may lead to severe disability. Symptoms are often out of proportion to the initiating event and not limited to a single peripheral nerve. There is no gold standard in diagnosis of this entity, and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for proper diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most useful diagnostic modalities in early stages of CRPS (when clinical diagnosis is most difficult), the most desirable time to diagnose this disorder to expedite treatment and improve function. This article discusses MRI findings of CRPS, particularly in the early phase, and differential considerations. PMID:27518298

  4. Venus - Lakshmi Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 348.5 degrees longitude, in the eastern Lakshmi region of Venus. This image, which is of an area 300 kilometers (180 miles) in width and 230 kilometers (138 miles) in length, is a mosaic of orbits 458 through 484. The image shows a relatively flat plains region composed of many lava flows. The dark flows mostly likely represent smooth lava flows similar to 'pahoehoe' flows on Earth while the brighter lava flows are rougher flows similar to 'aa' flows on Earth. (The terms 'pahoehoe' and 'aa' refer to textures of lava with pahoehoe a smooth or ropey surface, and aa a rough, clinkery texture). The rougher flows are brighter because the rough surface returns more energy to the radar than the smooth flows. Situated on top of the lava flows are three dark splotches. Because of the thick Venusian atmosphere, the small impactors break up before they reached the surface. Only the fragments from the broken up impactor are deposited on the surface and these fragments produce the dark splotches in this image. The splotch at the far right (east) has a crater centered in it, indicating that the impactor was not completely destroyed during its journey through the atmosphere. The dark splotches in the center and to the far left in this image each represent an impactor that was broken up into small fragments that did not penetrate the surface to produce a crater. The dark splotch at the left has been modified by the wind. A southwest northeast wind flow has moved some of the debris making up the splotch to the northeast where it has piled up against some small ridges.

  5. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    PubMed

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues.

  6. SIMBA explores the southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, L.-Å.; Lerner, M.; Nielbock, M.; Anciaux, M.; Brooks, K.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, R.; Kreysa, E.; Zylka, R.; Johansson, L. E. B.; Bronfman, L.; Kontinen, S.; Linz, H.; Stecklum, B.

    2001-12-01

    Contents: 1. SIMBA. 2. The Orion region. 3. η Carinae and the Keyhole Nebula. 4. Massive star formation in the Norma spiral arm. 5. Infrared dark clouds. 6. The R CrA star forming region. 7. The dark globule B68. 8. 30 Dor and N159 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  7. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  8. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  9. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  10. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  11. Regional Kendall test for trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Frans, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred. Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables.

  12. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  13. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  14. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  15. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  16. Callisto's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic covers part of the equatorial region of Jupiter's moon, Callisto. The mosaic combines six separate image frames obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its ninth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture. The mosaic shows several new features and characteristics of the surface revealed by Galileo. These include deposits that may represent landslides in the southern and southwestern floors of many craters. Two such deposits are seen in a 12 kilometer (7.3 mile) crater in the west-central part of the image, and in a 23 kilometer (14 mile) crater just north of the center of the image. Also notable are several sinuous valleys emanating from the southern rims of 10 to 15 kilometer (6.2 to 9.3 mile) irregular craters in the west-central part of the image. The pervasive local smoothing of Callisto's surface is well represented in the plains between the craters in the southeastern part of the image. Possible oblique impacts are suggested by the elongated craters in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the image.

    The mosaic, centered at 7.4 degrees south latitude and 6.6 degrees west longitude, covers an area of approximately 315 by 215 kilometers (192 by 131 miles). The sun illuminates the scene from the west (left). The smallest features that can be seen are about 300 meters (993 feet) across. The images were obtained on June 25, 1997, when the spacecraft was at a range of 15,200 kilometers (8,207 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  18. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  19. 17 CFR 140.2 - Regional office-regional coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... direction of a Regional Coordinator who, as a collateral duty, oversees the administration of the office and... parties. Each regional office has delegated authority for the enforcement of the Act and administration of... administration of programs of the Commission in the States of Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida,...

  20. Investigating Molecular Inheritance of Carbon in Star-forming Regions along a Galactic Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rachel L.; Blake, Geoffrey; Boogert, Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus Martin; Lockwood, Alexandra C.

    2015-08-01

    Observations of CO isotopologues taken at high spectral resolution toward young stellar objects (YSOs) are valuable tools for investigating protoplanetary chemical reservoirs, and enable robust comparisons between YSOs and solar system material (meteorites and the Sun). Investigating a range of YSO environments also helps parameterize variations in the distribution and evolution of carbon-based molecules, furthering an understanding of prebiotic chemistry. We have begun a wide survey of massive YSOs using Keck-NIRSPEC at high spectral resolution (R=25,000). Fundamental and first-overtone near-IR CO rovibrational absorption spectra have thus far been obtained toward 14 massive, luminous YSOs at Galactocentric radii (RGC) ranging from ~4.5 to 9.7 kpc. From these data we can obtain precise [12CO]/[13CO] gas-phase abundance ratios along a Galactic gradient, and [12CO]/[13CO]Gas can be further evaluated against published [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice and [12CO]/[13CO]Ice because all observations are in absorption, a robust study of molecular inheritance is possible by virtue of comparing 12C/13C along the same lines-of-sight. Initial results for cold CO gas at RGC ~ 6.1 kpc and 9.4 kpc reveal [12C16O]/[13C16O] of 59+/-8 and 74+/-3, respectively, roughly following an expected 12C/13C Galactic gradient. Thus far, we find [12CO]/[13CO] in the cold CO gas to be lower than [12CO2]/[13CO2]Ice, suggesting that CO2 may not originate from CO reservoirs as often assumed. While very high-resolution observations of CO gas toward low-mass YSOs observed with VLT-CRIRES show significant heterogeneity in [12CO]/[13CO] at RGC ~ 8 kpc, this dispersion is not found for the massive YSOs. Both the low-mass and massive YSOs have higher [12CO]/[13CO] in warm vs. cold gas, and both show signatures suggesting possible interplay between CO ice and gas reservoirs. Overall, our results indicate that carbon isotopic evolution in massive YSO environments may follow different paths compared to low-mass YSOs

  1. KINEMATICS OF THE CO GAS IN THE INNER REGIONS OF THE TW Hya DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Lin Shinyi; Hughes, A. M.; D'Alessio, Paola; Ho, P. T. P.

    2012-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spatially and spectrally resolved {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 emission lines from the TW Hya circumstellar disk, based on science verification data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). These lines exhibit substantial emission in their high-velocity wings (with projected velocities out to 2.1 km s{sup -1}, corresponding to intrinsic orbital velocities >20 km s{sup -1}) that trace molecular gas as close as 2 AU from the central star. However, we are not able to reproduce the intensity of these wings and the general spatio-kinematic pattern of the lines with simple models for the disk structure and kinematics. Using three-dimensional non-local thermodynamic equilibrium molecular excitation and radiative transfer calculations, we construct some alternative models that successfully account for these features by modifying either (1) the temperature structure of the inner disk (inside the dust-depleted disk cavity; r < 4 AU), (2) the intrinsic (Keplerian) disk velocity field, or (3) the distribution of disk inclination angles (a warp). The latter approach is particularly compelling because a representative warped disk model qualitatively reproduces the observed azimuthal modulation of optical light scattered off the disk surface. In any model scenario, the ALMA data clearly require a substantial molecular gas reservoir located inside the region where dust optical depths are known to be substantially diminished in the TW Hya disk, in agreement with previous studies based on infrared spectroscopy. The results from these updated model prescriptions are discussed in terms of their potential physical origins, which might include dynamical perturbations from a low-mass companion with an orbital separation of a few AU.

  2. Perceived Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Elementary, Middle, and High School String Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joshua A.; Benedetto, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the body regions where young string players report experiencing musculoskeletal discomfort and explore factors that may impact their perceived discomfort. A purposive yet nonprobability sample of elementary (n = 101), middle school (n = 97), and high school (n = 159) students participated in the study by…

  3. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  4. Training Teachers for Regional Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hla Myint; And Others

    This report presents alternative plans for training teachers for the newly-established Regional Colleges in Burma. The Regional Colleges are three-year postsecondary institutions designed to train middle level technicians to help increase the production of goods and services needed in the Burmese economy. Concentrating on the Hawaii Community…

  5. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  6. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  7. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  8. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  9. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... Regional products are derived from averaging select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time periods. ...

  10. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  11. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  12. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal--as opposed to loop--regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  13. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage. PMID:16334585

  14. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  15. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  16. Future of multistate regional commissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.

    1980-04-01

    Multistate regional commissions in the United States have been used since 1965. The largest program has been that of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Institutional and financial barriers have been the most difficult problems encountered by the ARC and other programs (such as Title V commissions). Despite the imperfect performance of the existing regional commissions, they offer a demonstration that some improvement in governmental performance can be achieved. There is virtual unanimity among the nation's governors that this is the route for Federal state relations to follow. Also, the commission route is viewed privately as the most socially acceptable means to have a beneficial impact on government performance. (SAC)

  17. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  18. MISR Regional UAE2 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-29

    ... those familiar with the MISR Level 1 and 2 products, this maps directly to those products; each Regional product summarizes selected ... Theoretical Basis Documents . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  19. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  20. Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin-Acevedo, Madeleine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "From School to Jobs: Africa's Dilemma" (Moulin-Acevedo); "Helping Change in Eastern Europe"; "Recognizing the Dignity of Indigenous Peoples"; "An Employment Plan for Pakistan"; and "Around the Continents." (JOW)

  1. The segregation of starless and protostellar clumps in the Hi-GAL ℓ = 224° region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, L.; Cunningham, M.; Elia, D.; Jones, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Stars form in dense, dusty structures, which are embedded in larger clumps of molecular clouds often showing a clear filamentary structure on large scales (≳1 pc). The origin (e.g., turbulence or gravitational instabilities) and evolution of these filaments, as well as their relation to clump and core formation, are not yet fully understood. A large sample of both starless and protostellar clumps can now be found in the Herschel Infrared GALactic Plane Survey (Hi-GAL) key project, which also provides striking images of the filamentary structure of the parent molecular clouds. Recent results indicate that populations of clumps on and off filaments may differ. Aims: One of the best-studied regions in the Hi-GAL survey can be observed toward the ℓ = 224° field. Here, a filamentary region has been studied and it has been found that protostellar clumps are mostly located along the main filament, whereas starless clumps are detected off this filament and are instead found on secondary, less prominent filaments. We want to investigate this segregation effect and how it may affect the clumps properties. Methods: We mapped the 12CO (1-0) line and its main three isotopologues toward the two most prominent filaments observed toward the ℓ = 224° field using the Mopra radio telescope, in order to set observational constraints on the dynamics of these structures and the associated starless and protostellar clumps. Results: Compared to the starless clumps, the protostellar clumps are more luminous, more turbulent and lie in regions where the filamentary ambient gas shows larger linewidths. We see evidence of gas flowing along the main filament, but we do not find any signs of accretion flow from the filament onto the Hi-GAL clumps. We analyze the radial column density profile of the filaments and their gravitational stability. Conclusions: The more massive and highly fragmented main filament appears to be thermally supercritical and gravitationally bound

  2. Slot Region Radiation Environment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Ingmar; Daglis, Ioannis; Heynderickx, Daniel; Evans, Hugh; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-04-01

    Herein we present the main characteristics and first results of the Slot Region Radiation Environment Models (SRREMs) project. The statistical models developed in SRREMs aim to address the variability of trapped electron and proton fluxes in the region between the inner and the outer electron radiation belt. The energetic charged particle fluxes in the slot region are highly dynamic and are known to vary by several orders of magnitude on both short and long timescales. During quiet times, the particle fluxes are much lower than those found at the peak of the inner and outer belts and the region is considered benign. During geospace magnetic storms, though, this region can fill with energetic particles as the peak of the outer belt is pushed Earthwards and the fluxes can increase drastically. There has been a renewed interest in the potential operation of commercial satellites in orbits that are at least partially contained within the Slot Region. Hence, there is a need to improve the current radiation belt models, most of which do not model the extreme variability of the slot region and instead provide long-term averages between the better-known low and medium Earth orbits (LEO and MEO). The statistical models developed in the SRREMs project are based on the analysis of a large volume of available data and on the construction of a virtual database of slot region particle fluxes. The analysis that we have followed retains the long-term temporal, spatial and spectral variations in electron and proton fluxes as well as the short-term enhancement events at altitudes and inclinations relevant for satellites in the slot region. A large number of datasets have been used for the construction, evaluation and inter-calibration of the SRREMs virtual dataset. Special emphasis has been given on the use and analysis of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) data from the units on-board PROBA-1, INTEGRAL, and GIOVE-B due to the sufficient spatial and long temporal

  3. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  4. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  5. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  6. L1599B: Cloud Envelope and C+ Emission in a Region of Moderately Enhanced Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Langer, William D.; Liu, Tie; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Ricken, Oliver; Riquelme, Denise

    2016-06-01

    We study the effects of an asymmetric radiation field on the properties of a molecular cloud envelope. We employ observations of carbon monoxide (12CO and 13CO), atomic carbon, ionized carbon, and atomic hydrogen to analyze the chemical and physical properties of the core and envelope of L1599B, a molecular cloud forming a portion of the ring at ≃27 pc from the star Λ Ori. The O8 star provides an asymmetric radiation field that produces a moderate enhancement of the external radiation field. Observations of the [C ii] fine structure line with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA indicate a significant enhanced emission on the side of the cloud facing the star, while the [C i], 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 and 2-1, and 12CO J = 3-2 data from the Purple Mountain Observatory and APEX telescopes suggest a relatively typical cloud interior. The atomic, ionic, and molecular line centroid velocities track each other very closely, and indicate that the cloud may be undergoing differential radial motion. The H i data from the Arecibo GALFA survey and the SOFIA/GREAT [C ii] data do not suggest any systematic motion of the halo gas, relative to the dense central portion of the cloud traced by 12CO and 13CO.

  7. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  8. Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M

    2015-12-01

    This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia.

  9. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  10. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  11. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  12. Desmoid Fibromatosis of Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohana; Parthiban, Nirmalatiban; O’Dwyer, Tadgh

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis is a benign yet locally aggressive tumor with a tendency to recur. It causes considerable morbidity particularly when it arises in a small area in the head and neck region. This tumor is extremely rare in the submandibular region. We report a case of desmoid tumor in the submandibular region in a 32-year-old male who presented with right submandibular swelling postextraction of right lower wisdom tooth. Excision biopsy was carried out initially following inconclusive fine needle aspiration and discussion at multidisciplinary meeting. The tumor recurred 4 months following initial excisional biopsy necessitating a more radical secondary approach involving segmental mandibulectomy. Intraoperatively we also noted that the tumor was originating from the site of previous wisdom tooth extraction, raising the question of surgical trauma as precursor of desmoid tumor. We achieved a negative resection margin and a complete remission for 24 months. PMID:25013548

  13. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990).

  14. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  15. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  16. Soviet attitudes toward regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

  17. Regional nonpoint source program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.; Partee, G.; Fleming, F.

    1992-11-01

    The Regional Nonpoint Source Program Summary outlines the major components of the strategies for controlling nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in EPA Region 10. The document was developed from the Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Assessments, NPS Management Programs and related documents for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and for the Colville Confederated Tribes. The water resources and associated land uses vary widely both within and between the four states in EPA Region 10. The primary purpose of the NPS Assessments and Management Programs is to provide the states and tribes with a new blueprint for implementing integrated programs to address priority NPS water quality problems. The focus is needed in order to identify innovative funding opportunities and to effectively direct limited resources toward the highest priority issues and waterbodies. A secondary purpose of the Assessments and Management Programs involves the fulfillment of Clean Water Act requirements in order for states and tribes to compete for Section 319 grants for implementing NPS controls. The Regional NPS Program Summary provides a synthesis of these documents in order to improve understanding of the programs and to assist in their implementation.

  18. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  19. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  20. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed color table. This allows images from different days to be directly compared. ... outside of the geographic range, and doesn't select the color table to best display the dynamic range of a particular day. The images ...

  1. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  2. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  3. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  4. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  5. Computed tomography of the rectosigmoid region.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    1996-05-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and embryology of the rectosigmoid region is useful for the correct interpretation of computed tomography in this region. The appearances and differential diagnoses of some of the common conditions affecting this region are presented and discussed.

  6. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  7. Venus - Lavinia Region Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three large meteorite impact craters, with diameters that range from 37 to 50 kilometers (23 to 31 miles), are seen in this image of the Lavinia region of Venus. The image is centered at 27 degrees south latitude and 339 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east), and covers an area 550 kilometers (342 miles) wide by about 500 kilometers (311 miles) long. Situated in a region of fractured plains, the craters show many features typical of meteorite impact craters, including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls and central peaks. Numerous domes, probably caused by volcanic activity, are seen in the southeastern corner of the mosaic. The domes range in diameter from 1 to 12 kilometers (0.6 to 7 miles). Some of the domes have central pits that are typical of some types of volcanoes. North is at the top of the image.

  8. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Yenigun, Alper; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  9. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  10. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  11. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Field installations include ecological services stations, endangered species stations, fishery...), Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. (c) Midwest Regional Office (Region 3—comprising the States of...

  12. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  13. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  14. [Population and environment: regional perspective].

    PubMed

    Gonzales Reategui, J T

    1995-06-01

    The ultimate objective of Peru's national environmental policy is to guarantee an adequate quality of life for Peruvians. Giving priority to preservation of resources without utilizing them is unjust; the capacity to protect natural resources requires a parallel social and economic development. The government's environmental policy must be in harmony with development policy at all levels. The concept of sustainable development, or conservation of natural resources with economic growth and equity, must be incorporated into policy. The regional governments must harmonize their development plans with the guidelines set down by the National Council on the Environment (CONAM). A meeting of regional officials and CONAM personnel is planned to ensure participation and coordination. Past styles of development in the department of Loreto have led to a vicious circle of poverty and environmental deterioration. The disappearance of the tropical forest, loss of habitat and biodiversity, poor water quality, and deficit of sanitary infrastructure, in the context of rapid population growth, have led to declines in living standards. The Amazon is the object of worldwide attention because of the possible consequences of deforestation. The riches of the forest should be used rationally and left for future generations. It is expected that decentralized environmental offices will be opened to coordinate multisectorial actions at the regional level.

  15. Region processing algorithm for HSTAMIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2006-05-01

    The AN/PSS-14 (a.k.a. HSTAMIDS) has been tested for its performance in South East Asia, Thailand), South Africa (Namibia) and in November of 2005 in South West Asia (Afghanistan). The system has been proven effective in manual demining particularly in discriminating indigenous, metallic artifacts in the minefields. The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program has sought to further improve the system to address specific needs in several areas. One particular area of these improvement efforts is the development of a mine detection/discrimination improvement software algorithm called Region Processing (RP). RP is an innovative technique in processing and is designed to work on a set of data acquired in a unique sweep pattern over a region-of-interest (ROI). The RP team is a joint effort consisting of three universities (University of Florida, University of Missouri, and Duke University), but is currently being led by the University of Florida. This paper describes the state-of-the-art Region Processing algorithm, its implementation into the current HSTAMIDS system, and its most recent test results.

  16. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  17. Ab Initio Active Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-01-01

    The tachocline is not necessary to produce active regions with their global properties. Dynamo action within the convection zone can produce large scale reversing polarity magnetic fields as shown by ASH code and Charboneau et al simulations. Magneto-convection acting on this large scale field produces Omega-loops which emerge through the surface to produce active regions. The field first emerges as small bipoles with horizontal field over granules anchored in vertical fields in the intergranular lanes. The fields are quickly swept into the intergranular lanes and produce a mixed polarity "pepper and salt" pattern. The opposite polarities then migrate toward separate unipolar regions due to the underlying large scale loop structure. When sufficient flux concentrates, pores and sunspots form. We will show movies of magneto-convection simulations of the emerging flux, its migration, and concentration to form pores and spots, as well as the underlying magnetic field evolution. In addition, the same atmospheric data has been used as input to the LILIA Stokes Inversion code to calculate Stokes spectra for the Fe I 630 nm lines and then invert them to determine the magnetic field. Comparisons of the inverted field with the simulation field shows that small-scale, weak fields, less than 100 G, can not be accurately determined because of vertical gradients that are difficult to match in fitting the line profiles. Horizontal smoothing by telescope diffraction further degrades the inversion accuracy.

  18. Quiet-Region Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We report characteristics of quiescent filament eruptions that did not produce coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is known that there is a dichotomy of quiescent filament eruptions: those that produce CMEs and those that do not. We examined the quiescent filament eruptions, each of which was located far from disk center (greater than or equal to 0.7 R(sub Sun)) in diffuse remnant magnetic fields of decayed active regions, was well observed in Ha observations and Fe XII, and had good coronagraph coverage. We present the similarity and differences of two classes of filament eruptions. From their lack of CME production and the appearance of their eruptive motion in Fe XII movies, we conclude that the non-CME-producing filament eruptions are confined eruptions like the confined filament eruptions in active regions. We take the similarity of the confined and eruptive quiescent filament eruptions with their active-region counterparts to favor runaway tether-cutting connection for unleashing the magnetic explosion in all these eruptions.

  19. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  20. Physical structure of the photodissociation regions in NGC 7023. Observations of gas and dust emission with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Habart, E.; Arab, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Ayasso, H.; Abergel, A.; Zavagno, A.; Polehampton, E.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Dassas, K.; Joblin, C.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecular gas of the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. We study how young stars affect the gas and dust in their environment. Aims: Several Herschel Space Telescope programs provide a wealth of spatial and spectral information of dust and gas in the heart of PDRs. We focus our study on Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) fully sampled maps that allow us for the first time to study the bulk of cool/warm dust and warm molecular gas (CO) together. In particular, we investigate if these populations spatially coincide, if and how the medium is structured, and if strong density and temperature gradients occur, within the limits of the spatial resolution obtained with Herschel. Methods: The SPIRE FTS fully sampled maps at different wavelengths are analysed towards the northwest (NW) and the east (E) PDRs in NGC 7023. We study the spatial and spectral energy distribution of a wealth of intermediate rotational 12CO 4 ≤ Ju ≤ 13 and 13CO 5 ≤ Ju ≤ 10 lines. A radiative transfer code is used to assess the gas kinetic temperature, density, and column density at different positions in the cloud. The dust continuum emission including Spitzer, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and SPIRE photometric and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) telescope data is also analysed. Using a single modified black body and a radiative transfer model, we derive the dust temperature, density, and column density. Results: The cloud is highly inhomogeneous, containing several irradiated dense structures. Excited 12CO and 13CO lines and warm dust grains

  1. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  2. Abundant molecular gas and inefficient star formation in intracluster regions: ram pressure stripped tail of the Norma galaxy ESO137-001

    SciTech Connect

    Jáchym, Pavel; Combes, Françoise; Cortese, Luca; Sun, Ming; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, we reveal large amounts of cold molecular gas in a ram-pressure-stripped tail, out to a large 'intracluster' distance from the galaxy. With the Actama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, we have detected {sup 12}CO(2-1) emission corresponding to more than 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} in three Hα bright regions along the tail of the Norma cluster galaxy ESO 137-001, out to a projected distance of 40 kpc from the disk. ESO 137-001 has an 80 kpc long and bright X-ray tail associated with a shorter (40 kpc) and broader tail of numerous star forming H II regions. The amount of ∼1.5 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} of H{sub 2} found in the most distant region is similar to molecular masses of tidal dwarf galaxies, though the standard Galactic CO-to-H{sub 2} factor could overestimate the H{sub 2} content. Along the tail, we find the amount of molecular gas to drop, while masses of the X-ray-emitting and diffuse ionized components stay roughly constant. Moreover, the amounts of hot and cold gas are large and similar, and together nearly account for the missing gas from the disk. We find a very low SFE (τ{sub dep} > 10{sup 10} yr) in the stripped gas in ESO 137-001 and suggest that this is due to a low average gas density in the tail, or turbulent heating of the interstellar medium that is induced by a ram pressure shock. The unprecedented bulk of observed H{sub 2} in the ESO 137-001 tail suggests that some stripped gas may survive ram pressure stripping in the molecular phase.

  3. Active region evolution in the chromosphere and transtition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Images in the C IV 1548 A and the Si II 1526 S lines taken with the ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were combined into movies showing the evolution of active regions and the neighboring supergranulation over several days. The data sets generally consist of 240 by 240 arc second rasters with 3 arc second pixels taken one per orbit (about every 90 minutes). The images are projected on a latitude/longitude grid to remove the forshortening as the region rotates across the solar disk and further processed to remove jitter and gain variations. Movies were made with and without differential rotation. Although there are occasional missing orbits, these series do not suffer from the long nighttime gaps that occur in observations taken at a single groundbased observatory and are excellent for studying changes on time scales of several hours. The longest sequence processed to date runs from 20 Oct. 1980 to 25 Oct. 1980. This was taken during an SMM flare buildup study on AR 2744. Several shorter sequences taken in 1980 and 1984 will also be shown. The results will be presented on a video disk which can be interactively controlled to view the movies.

  4. Assessment of homogeneity of regions for regional flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of rainfall on hydrological similarity, which is an important step for regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). For the RFFA, storage function method (SFM) using spatial extension technique was applied for the 22 sub-catchments that are partitioned from Chungju dam watershed in Republic of Korea. We used the SFM to generate the annual maximum floods for 22 sub-catchments using annual maximum storm events (1986~2010) as input data. Then the quantiles of rainfall and flood were estimated using the annual maximum series for the 22 sub-catchments. Finally, spatial variations in terms of two quantiles were analyzed. As a result, there were significant correlation between spatial variations of the two quantiles. This result demonstrates that spatial variation of rainfall is an important factor to explain the homogeneity of regions when applying RFFA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  5. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  6. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  7. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  8. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  9. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  10. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  11. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  12. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  13. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  14. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  15. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  16. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  17. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  18. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  19. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  20. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  1. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  2. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  3. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  4. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  5. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  6. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  7. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  8. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  9. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  10. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  11. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  12. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  13. The effects of HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work on the effects of HII regions on giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their embedded clusters is discussed. Although the dispersive effects of ionising radiation on clouds, particularly massive ones with high escape velocities, is rather modest, it is argued that it is still a vitally important process in the evolution of GMCs and clusters. It is able to drive turbulence on GMC scales, to set the optical emergence timescales of at last ˜ 103 M⊙ clusters, and has a strong influence on the large-scale energy and momentum input of supernovae by determining their detonation environments.

  14. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  15. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  16. Magnetospheric plasma regions and boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The boundaries of the various regions of the magnetospheric plasma are considered, taking into account the bow shock, the magnetopause, the outer boundary of the plasma sheet, the inner boundary of the plasma sheet, and the trapping boundary for energetic particles. Attention is given to the steady state, or quasi-steady state, to substorm effects in which temporal changes are important, and to primary auroral processes. A description is presented of the high latitude lobes of the magnetotail. The characteristics of magnetic field topology associated with interconnected interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines are illustrated with the aid of a graph.

  17. [Pseudotumor in the parotid region].

    PubMed

    Olin, H B; Pedersen, K; Hansen, H; Poulsen, F W

    2000-06-19

    Tophaceous pseudogout is a rare form of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. Half of the 31 reported cases of tophaceous pseudogout are in the head and neck region. This patient presented with a parotid tumour, that was initially suspected to be malignant based on radiology and cytology. Operation disclosed a tumour progressing to the base of the skull, histological examination showed inflammatory cells, macrophages, metaplastic chondroid cells and giant cells of foreign-body-type. X-ray diffraction revealed two crystal forms of CPPD.

  18. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  19. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  20. Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Ware, R J

    1975-11-01

    Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine (Marcain) was employed as the anaesthetic technique in a series of 50 cases undergoing a variety of surgical procedures on the upper limb. A short pilot study was undertaken to determine the optimal dosage and concentration of bupivacaine. This was found to be 1-5 mg/kg in 0-2% concentration and proved suitable for all patients regardless of age or physical condition. The use of bupivacaine produced highly successful results in 98% of cases. Onset of analgesia was very rapid (3-5 minutes) and profound muscular relaxation occurred in approximately half of the cases. The degree of muscle relaxation was, however, always adequate for the successful reduction of fractures. Only one patient exhibited an adverse reaction to the dose of bupivacaine used and this was limited to a brief period of slight drowsiness. The results of this series suggest that bupivacaine may provide advantages over previously used local analgesic agents for intravenous regional analgesia and that it may be the agent of choice for this useful technique.

  1. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  2. INTERACTION REGION MAGNETS FOR VLHC.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.

    2001-09-24

    The interaction region (IR) magnets for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC) require high gradient quadrupoles and high field dipoles for high luminosity performance. Moreover, the IR magnets for high energy colliders and storage rings must operate in an environment where the amount of energy deposited on superconducting coils is rather large. In the case of doublet IR optics with flat beams, the design of the first 2-in-1 quadrupole defines the geometry and pole tip field in this and other IR magnets. This paper will present a novel design of this magnet that allows a very small separation between the two apertures. A brief discussion of the conceptual magnetic design of this and other magnets for interaction regions is given. The influence of critical current density in superconductor (a higher value of which is most beneficial to high performance IR magnet design) is also discussed. Since High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) retain most of their critical current density at high fields and at elevated temperatures, they offer an attractive possibility for the IR magnet designs of future colliders or upgrades of present colliders.

  3. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  4. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  5. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  6. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  7. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  8. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  9. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  10. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  11. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  12. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  13. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  14. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  15. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  16. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  17. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  18. Phytophotodermatitis in Rijeka region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lenković, Maja; Cabrijan, Leo; Gruber, Franjo; Saftić, Marina; Stanić Zgombić, Zrinka; Stasić, Adalbert; Peharda, Vesna

    2008-10-01

    Contact with plants can cause phototoxic or rarely photoallergic reactions. Phototoxic dermatitis (photophytodermatitis) occurs after contact or ingestion of plants containing furocumarins i.e. psoralens and followed by sun exposure. Skin lesions develop usually after 24-48 hours with erythema, bulla formation, itch or pain, followed by a long lasting hyperpigmentation. Furocumarins can be linear i.e. psoralens (5-MOP, 8-MOP), or angular like angelicin and pimpinellin. Their binding to DNA causes cellular damage. This can happen in florists, gardeners, farmers, horticulturists, food handlers, and botanists. The plants causing phototoxic reaction can vary with the local flora but are commonly a member of the family apiaceae (formerly umbelliferae), family rutaceae, leguminosae and moraceae. The authors give special consideration to the phytophotodermatitis that appeared in their region in spring and summer during a three year period.

  19. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  20. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  1. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  2. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  3. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. DECONVOLUTION OF IMAGES FROM BLAST 2005: INSIGHT INTO THE K3-50 AND IC 5146 STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Arabindo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew G.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; France, Kevin; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Olmi, Luca

    2011-04-01

    We present an implementation of the iterative flux-conserving Lucy-Richardson (L-R) deconvolution method of image restoration for maps produced by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Compared to the direct Fourier transform method of deconvolution, the L-R operation restores images with better-controlled background noise and increases source detectability. Intermediate iterated images are useful for studying extended diffuse structures, while the later iterations truly enhance point sources to near the designed diffraction limit of the telescope. The L-R method of deconvolution is efficient in resolving compact sources in crowded regions while simultaneously conserving their respective flux densities. We have analyzed its performance and convergence extensively through simulations and cross-correlations of the deconvolved images with available high-resolution maps. We present new science results from two BLAST surveys, in the Galactic regions K3-50 and IC 5146, further demonstrating the benefits of performing this deconvolution. We have resolved three clumps within a radius of 4.'5 inside the star-forming molecular cloud containing K3-50. Combining the well-resolved dust emission map with available multi-wavelength data, we have constrained the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of five clumps to obtain masses (M), bolometric luminosities (L), and dust temperatures (T). The L-M diagram has been used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the evolutionary stages of the clumps. There are close relationships between dust continuum emission and both 21 cm radio continuum and {sup 12}CO molecular line emission. The restored extended large-scale structures in the Northern Streamer of IC 5146 have a strong spatial correlation with both SCUBA and high-resolution extinction images. A dust temperature of 12 K has been obtained for the central filament. We report physical properties of ten compact sources, including six associated protostars, by

  5. H ii REGION G46.5-0.2: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN IONIZING RADIATION, MOLECULAR GAS, AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju; Wu, Yuefang

    2015-06-15

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey ({sup 13}CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive ({sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O J = 3–2, HCO{sup +}, and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10′ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  6. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Li, Jin Zeng; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10‧ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  7. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1868-12 - CO2 credits for improving the efficiency of air conditioning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., interior volume, climate control system type and characteristics, refrigerant used, compressor type, and... recirculated air when the operator or the automatic climate control system has engaged the air conditioning... subsequent vehicle operations (i.e., next vehicle start). The climate control system may delay switching...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1868-12 - CO2 credits for improving the efficiency of air conditioning systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... years. (1) The manufacturer shall perform the AC17 test specified in 40 CFR 1066.845 on each unique air... calculations required in 40 CFR 1066.845 must also be reported. In each subsequent model year additional air... may be carried over to subsequent model years until there is a significant change in the...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1869-12 - CO2 credits for off-cycle CO2-reducing technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hybrid electric vehicle, a fuel cell vehicle, or a hybrid electric vehicle, such that the solar energy is... reflects at least 65 percent of the impinging infrared solar energy, as determined using ASTM standards... signal, rear 0.06 Side marker, rear 0.06 License plate 0.08 (iii) Solar panels. (A) Credits for...

  11. Disproportionation, Metal-Insulator Transition, and Critical Interaction Strength in Na1/2CoO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Jan

    2006-03-01

    Spontaneous breaking of symmetry is one of the key concepts of solid state physics related to phase transitions. Charge/spin density wave, or charge/spin ordering if the propagation vector is commensurate, are notorious examples of broken symmetry. The charge disproportionation in Na0.5CoO2 is the main theme of the present work. The results of LDA+U calculations will be presented, exhibiting a charge disproportionation transition at U 3eV. NaxCoO2 attracted considerable attention mainly due to superconductivity of its hydrated form Na0.3CoO2.1.3H2O [1]. Besides the superconductivity NaxCoO2 exhibits several intriguing properties throughout its phase diagram, such crossover from Pauli-like to Curie-Weiss susceptibility at x=0.5, spin-density wave around x=0.7 or several phase transitions for x=0.5 including metal-insulator transition, charge ordering and magnetic ordering [2]. The NaxCoO2 lattice consists of triangular CoO2 layers separated by Na layer. The mobility of Na ions and fractional occupation of Na sublattice provides an additional complication. Using LDA+U functional within FPLO [3] bandstructure method we have performed series of supercell calculations allowing for breaking of the symmetry between different Co sites. We have found that for large enough, but physically realistic, values of the on-site Coulomb interaction U the Co sublattice disproportionates into sites with formal valencies Co^4+ and Co^3+. We have found that at the same time a gap opens in the excitation spectrum. Details of the bandstructure across the transition as well as the driving forces of the transition in the LDA+U mean field picture will be discussed. [1] K. Takada et al., Nature (London) 422, 53 (2003).[2] M. L. Foo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 247001 (2004).[3] K. Koepernik and H. Eschrig, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1743 (1999).

  12. 40 CFR 86.1869-12 - CO2 credits for off-cycle CO2-reducing technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... methodology, the manufacturer shall determine the off-cycle city/highway combined carbon-related exhaust emissions benefit by using the EPA 5-cycle methodology described in 40 CFR Part 600. This method may not be... city/highway value is the baseline 5-cycle carbon-related exhaust emission value for the vehicle....

  13. Intercomparison of two cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzers for atmospheric 13CO2 / 12CO2 measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jiaping; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin; Huang, Kuan

    2016-08-01

    Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) permits continuous in situ measurement of CO2 isotopic composition under ambient conditions. Previous studies have mainly focused on single IRIS instrument performance; few studies have considered the comparability among different IRIS instruments. In this study, we carried out laboratory and ambient measurements using two Picarro CO2δ13C analyzers (G1101-i and G2201-i (newer version)) and evaluated their performance and comparability. The best precision was 0.08-0.15 ‰ for G1101-i and 0.01-0.04 ‰ for G2201-i. The dependence of δ13C on CO2 concentration was 0.46 ‰ per 100 ppm and 0.09 ‰ per 100 ppm, the instrument drift ranged from 0.92-1.09 ‰ and 0.19-0.37 ‰, and the sensitivity of δ13C to the water vapor mixing ratio was 1.01 ‰ / % H2O and 0.09 ‰ / % H2O for G1101-i and G2201-i, respectively. The accuracy after correction by the two-point mixing ratio gain and offset calibration method ranged from -0.04-0.09 ‰ for G1101-i and -0.13-0.03 ‰ for G2201-i. The sensitivity of δ13C to the water vapor mixing ratio improved from 1.01 ‰ / % H2O before the upgrade of G1101-i (G1101-i-original) to 0.15 ‰ / % H2O after the upgrade of G1101-i (G1101-i-upgraded). Atmospheric δ13C measured by G1101-i and G2201-i captured the rapid changes in atmospheric δ13C signals on hourly to diurnal cycle scales, with a difference of 0.07 ± 0.24 ‰ between G1101-i-original and G2201-i and 0.05 ± 0.30 ‰ between G1101-i-upgraded and G2201-i. A significant linear correlation was observed between the δ13C difference of G1101-i-original and G2201-i and the water vapor concentration, but there was no significant correlation between the δ13C difference of G1101-i-upgraded and G2201-i and the water vapor concentration. The difference in the Keeling intercept values decreased from 1.24 ‰ between G1101-i-original and G2201-i to 0.36 ‰ between G1101-i-upgraded and G2201-i, which indicates the importance of consistency among different IRIS instruments.

  14. Regional Heterogenity In Ceres' Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Marchi, Simone; Bland, Michael T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.; Hughson, Kynan G.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 to find a body different than expected. Dawn found that Ceres was slightly smaller (avg radius of 470 versus 476.2 km), flatter and denser than the previous estimates, raising the question of how completely Ceres had differentiated. Dawn's gravity measurements indicate that Ceres is close to hydrostatic equilibrium and there is some degree of central condensation, suggesting a gradient in the content of volatiles within the interior. The surface is heavily cratered indicating that the outer shell is not dominated by ice, as would be expected for a differentiated body. Crater preservation at all scales, absent those larger than ~300 km, and complex morphology of the surface indicate a strong outer shell comprising no more than 40% ice by volume. The global, near-hydrostatic shape is consistent with a warmer, weaker interior beneath the strong outer shell. While the lack of evidence for an ice-dominated layer near the surface could indicate that it never formed, and thus Ceres only partially differentiated, an alternate explanation is that the volatile-rich outermost shell was lost as a result of im-pacts and to mixing of the ice with the silicate-rich briny layer that formed at the base of the former frozen ocean. Understanding the composition and rheology of the outer shell is a key part of solving the interior evolution puzzle. Thus far, we see evidence in the crater record for a viscosity several orders of magnitude higher than pure water ice; however, the crater preservation state varies considerably over the surface. There is no striking latitude dependence to the variation in crater preservation state, rather there are regional and local variations that juxtapose smooth, ap-parently relaxed or resurfaced areas next to areas of well-defined impacts and tectonic features. The largest craters Kerwan and Yalode are associated with surronding smoother, more sparsely cratered terrains, and show smooth inte-riors with

  15. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  16. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator, within the boundaries of their Regions, for the execution of the Regional Programs of the Agency... approval authority for proposed State standards and implementation plans; and (g) Providing for overall...

  17. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  18. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  19. Regional Interagency Disaster Response Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Sullivan, D.; Butow, S.; Beilin, P.

    2008-12-01

    In affiliation with the "Great Worden Quake II" (GWQII) disaster preparedness exercise, the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field California, the Air Force National Guard (ANG) 129th Rescue Wing, Moffett Field, California, and the Bay Area Automated Mapping Association,led by the IT group for the City of Walnut Creek, California, will engage in a technology transfer demonstration utilizing the collaborative environment developed for NASA's very successful wildfire mapping campaigns during the years 2006-2008. The aircraft platform will be the ANG C-130, a viable candidate to substitute for the Ikana UAV, which cannot fly from Ames because of FAA restrictions on UAV flights over populated areas. In this technology transfer demonstration, we will: (1) Prove, document and train Regional Fire departments how to link and use NASA real-time data with existing software (ESRI, IRRIS, etc). (2) Demonstrate how to access and use this data as a bridge between the real-time (3) Refine the questions and capabilities that would be involved and developed with this type of real-time data available This paper describes this exercise.

  20. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. PMID:26563805

  1. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  2. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  3. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  4. Appalachian Regional Commission. Annual Report 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    After 4 years of operation, the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) presents this 1969 annual report and evaluation of its activities as required by the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965. A brief overview is given of the history of the program, the Federal-state relationship, and strategies for regional development. Appalachia is then…

  5. Regional Organizations Increase Opportunities for Member Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The five American Vocational Association (AVA) Regions, organized only 18 months ago (1975), are now finding their place in the AVA structure. Their activities and accomplishments to date were reported to the membership at Regional meetings in Houston. It became clear that the regions are creating new opportunities for individual members and the…

  6. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of...

  7. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  8. MHD simulations: Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kühl, P.; Heber, B.; Kissmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) form in the solar wind when parcels of fast-speed wind interact with slow-speed wind due to the rotation of the Sun. The resulting buildup of pressure generates disturbances that, with increasing time (or distance from the Sun), may develop into a so-called forward-reverse shock-pair. During solar-quiet times CIRs can be the dominant force shaping large-scale structures in the heliosphere. Studying CIRs is therefore important because the associated shocks are capable of e.g. accelerating energetic particles or deflecting cosmic rays. The global structure of CIRs can be modeled with an MHD approach that gives the plasma quantities needed to model the transport of particles in the heliosphere (with e.g. stochastic differential equations (SDEs)). Our MHD code CRONOS employs a semi-discrete finite volume scheme with adaptive time-stepping Runge-Kutta integration. The solenoidality of the magnetic field is ensured via constrained transport and the code supports Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates (including coordinate singularities) with the option for non-equidistant grids. The code runs in parallel (MPI) and supports the HDF5 output data format. Here, we show results from 3D-MHD simulations with our code CRONOS for a) analytic boundary conditions where results can be compared to those obtained with a different code and b) boundary conditions derived with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model from observational data (WSO), which are compared to spacecraft observations. Comparison with Pizzo (1982) for analytic boundary conditions Comparison with STEREO A for Carrington Rotation 2060

  9. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOEpatents

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  10. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  11. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  12. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  13. Regional adaptations in three rat tendons.

    PubMed

    Covizi, D Z; Felisbino, S L; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R; Carvalho, H F

    2001-10-01

    Although detailed histological and immunocytochemical studies have been published for the rat calcanear tendon (CT), little is known of the structure, composition and biomechanics of the deep (DFT) and superficial (SFT) flexor tendons. In this study, we examined the structural specialization of these three tendons in 90-day-old rats by applying histochemical and biochemical assays to different tendon regions (proximal, intermediate and distal regions of the DFT and SFT, and proximal and distal regions of the CT). There were regional differences in tissue structure, glycosaminoglycan type and content, swelling properties and in the amount and distribution of elastic fibers. Dermatan sulfate occurred in all regions, but chondroitin sulfate predominated in the intermediate region of the DFT and in the distal region of the CT. These two chondroitin sulfate-bearing regions showed swelling in water, while all other regions lost fluid in water. Fibrocartilaginous sites were observed on the CT, one at the insertion to the bone and another distally at the innermost area of the tendon. The intermediate region of the DFT showed round cells disposed in lacunae, while the proximal and distal regions were typically fibrous. The intermediate region of the SFT showed a wavy array of collagen bundles but neither toluidine blue staining in the matrix nor round cells. Elastic fibers were present in each region of the three tendons, but were more prominent in the intermediate zone of the SFT. These results demonstrate regional variation in the three tendons. Tendon differentiation may occur by an increase in the number of elastic fibers and by variations in the arrangement of collagen fibers, without fibrocartilage formation.

  14. CME Productivity of Active Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Shen, C.; Ye, P.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two kinds of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although they are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process, the productivity of them could be quiet different for various ARs. Why is an AR productive? And why is a flare-rich AR CME-poor? To answer these questions, we compared the recent super flare-rich but CME-poor AR 12192, with other four ARs; two were productive in both flares and CMEs and the other two were inert to produce any M-class or intenser flares or CMEs. By investigating the photospheric parameters based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram, we find the three productive ARs have larger magnetic flux, current and free magnetic energy than the inert ARs. Furthermore, the two ARs productive in both flares and CMEs contain higher current helicity, concentrating along both sides of the flaring neutral lines, indicating the presence of a seed magnetic structure( that is highly sheared or twisted) of a CME; they also have higher decay index in the low corona, showing weak constraint. The results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have strong current system and sufficient free energy to power flares, and more importantly whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) if there is significant sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME and (2) if the constraint of the overlying arcades is weak enough. Moreover, some productive ARs may frequently produce more than one CME. How does this happen? We do a statistical investigation of waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs ( CME ssuccessive originating from the same ARs within short intervals) from super ARs in solar cycle 23 to answer this question. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours, the first component peaks at 7 hours. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times

  15. Word processing in the parafoveal region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Kyungill

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the role of words viewed in the parafoveal region during reading. In contrast to previous work, the present experiments used a reading-aloud paradigm that was postulated to encourage letter-to-sound processing, as is typical for beginning readers and for skilled readers who are reading difficult material. The three experiments in this study examined the role of orthographic and semantic information in the parafoveal region on the processing of a word in the foveal region. For this, two words, one in the foveal region and the other in the parafoveal region, were presented side by side to resemble normal reading. Participants were instructed to read aloud the word on the left side, ignoring the word on the right side. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the presence of a word in the parafoveal region slowed naming of target words, and that this delay was attributable to linguistic interference. This pattern indicates that the information in the parafoveal region affect the processing of the target. Experiment 3 showed an effect of parafoveal semantic information on processing of the target word. In sum the results of the current study suggest that information in the parafoveal region appears to be linguistically processed but to a weaker degree than the focused word. In sum, the results of the experiments in the current study indicate that the influence of parafoveal information is quite lexical and semantic information in the parafoveal region affects processing of the target in the foveal region.

  16. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  17. Spatial region filtering in IRAF/PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Roll, John; Schmidt, Dennis; Vanhilst, Mike; Burg, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In order to analyze x ray data, it is nearly always necessary to extract source and background events from a data set. Typically, this is done by defining geometric spatial regions of the data set to describe the source and background. For example, one might wish to extract source events from a circular or elliptical region centered at a particular pixel, and background events from a circular or elliptical annulus whose inner radius matches the source region. At the same time, it might be necessary to exclude one or more nearby sources from the source or background region in question. Thus, it might be necessary to define a pie-shaped region or even an entirely irregularly-shaped region to exclude. A spatial filtering scheme called REGIONS was implemented in IRAF/PROS to support these and other types of spatial region extraction. It allows users to create a spatial mask by specifying one or more ASCII geometric shape descriptors (box, circle, ellipse, pie, point, annulus, and polygon) as regions to be included or excluded in the mask. In addition, two or more shapes can be combined using Boolean algebra to create an infinite variety of sophisticated regions. Each geometric shape has a specific set of parameters that describe that shape. For example, a circle is described by a center and a radius, while a box is described by a center, length, width, and rotation angle. These quantities can be specified in units of pixels or, in cases where the target image contains world coordinate system information, they can be described in units such as RA and Dec. Users can create region mask files by feeding an ASCII region descriptor to the IRAF/PROS plcreate task. Temporary masks can also be created from ASCII region descriptors by individual applications that call the routines in the region creation library. This library implements a yacc-based region parser that compiles the ASCII descriptors into 'software CPU' instructions which are then executed to create the mask. The

  18. Localization of facial region in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

  19. [Risks and dangers in pediatric regional anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Hillmann, R; Kretz, F-J

    2008-02-01

    In recent years peripheral and central regional anesthesia have become increasingly more important in pediatric anesthesia. Unlike adult patients, children typically receive regional anesthesia while under general anesthesia, an approach generally accepted among pediatric anesthesiologists. A well-founded knowledge of the specific anatomical, physiological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of pediatric patients is indispensable for safely practicing pediatric regional anesthesia. If attention is paid to these characteristics, complications are rare. The use of ultrasound when administering regional anesthesia can help reduce the risk of complications even further. Peripheral and central regional anesthesia are safe procedures which pediatric patients should not be deprived of. The present article discusses frequent as well as rare complications of pediatric regional anesthesia.

  20. Malformations of the zygomatic and maxillary regions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yusheng; Liang, Yun

    2013-07-01

    The maxillofacial region develops during 3 to 8 weeks in an embryo. The process involves neural crest cell migration and proliferation as well as facial protrusion jointing and fusion. The maxillofacial region is one of the predilection sites of congenital malformations. We treated a 5-year-old Chinese boy with abnormal development of the left maxillofacial region. We describe in detail the patient's characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment processes and try to explain the possible causes of the disease. PMID:23851833

  1. A regional cooperative acquisition program for monographs.

    PubMed

    Kronick, D A

    1979-07-01

    A cooperative acquisition program for monographs for the twelve resource libraries in Region IX of the Regional Medical Library Network is described. Each of the participating libraries has agreed to purchase all books of an assigned publisher which fall within a prescribed subject-format profile. It is hoped that this will help to reduce unnecessary duplication and contribute toward the development of resources in the region. PMID:476317

  2. Mechanical heating in the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is focused on the energy balance in the transition region and the role that mechanical heating plays in determining the temperature density structure of this region in a stellar atmosphere. Because of its role as the interface layer through which mass and energy flow between the chromospheres and corona, direct deposition of mechanical energy is a relatively unimportant factor in the overall energy balance in the transition region, except in the uppermost layers where the temperature approaches coronal values.

  3. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  4. Star Formation Regions in LDN 1667

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2015-09-01

    A group of three star formation regions in the dark cloud LDN 1667 is examined. All three of these regions contain Trapezium type systems. 12C(1-0) observations are made of the part of the molecular cloud LDN 1667 associated with one of the star formation regions. Three molecular clouds were detected, one of which (the main cloud) has a red and a blue outflow. Three stars from the star formation regions are found to have annular nebulae and one star has a conical nebula. The dark cloud LDN 1667 is associated with a radial system of dark globules which is formed by the star HD 57061.

  5. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... implementation, consistency, and accountability; (3) Region-wide strategic planning, performance measurement, and operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  6. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... implementation, consistency, and accountability; (3) Region-wide strategic planning, performance measurement, and operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  7. Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M; Creason, J P; Garry, V F

    1999-01-01

    Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. Images Figure 1 PMID:10064550

  8. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  9. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  10. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-08-05

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution.

  11. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  12. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  13. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  14. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  15. Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect biodiversity in the Palearctic Region is described. Palearctic occupies cold, temperate, and subtropical regions of Eurasia and Africa north of the Sahara Desert together with islands of the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Based on currently available data, there are about 200,000 speci...

  16. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  17. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  18. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional offices. 600.3 Section 600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2)...

  19. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional offices. 600.3 Section 600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2)...

  20. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  1. 48 CFR 970.2673 - Regional partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional partnerships. 970.2673 Section 970.2673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2673 Regional partnerships....

  2. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  3. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  4. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  5. Regional myocardial contractile function: multiparametric strain mapping.

    PubMed

    Cupps, Brian P; Taggar, Ajay K; Reynolds, Lina M; Lawton, Jennifer S; Pasque, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tissue tagging enables the quantification of multiple strain indices that can be combined through normalization into a single multiparametric index of regional myocardial contractile function. The aim of this study was to test the ability of multiparametric strain analysis to quantify regional differences in contractile function in an ovine model of myocardial injury. Regional variance in myocardial contractile function was induced in eight sheep by the ligation of the blood supply to the anterior and apical left ventricular (LV) myocardial walls. LV systolic strain was obtained from tissue tagged MRI images. A normal strain database (n=50) defines all parameters of systolic strain and allows normalization of regional function at 15,300 LV points by calculation of a z-score. Multiparametric systolic strain z-scores were therefore determined for 15,300 points in each injured sheep left ventricle. Multiparametric z-scores were found to vary significantly by region (P<0.001). z-Scores in regions remote to the infarct were found to be significantly smaller than those in the regions most likely to include infarcted myocardium. In this pre-clinical evaluation of MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis, it accurately quantified and visually defined regional differences in myocardial contractile function.

  6. Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2002-01-01

    Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

  7. EPA Regional Science Workshop on Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop is being held at Region 2. It will provide a great opportunity for collaboration with Regions 1 and 3 as well as ORD. Topics to be discussed include: National Research Council's report, the new Administration's serious interest in stormwater management, issueanc...

  8. ATE Regional Centers: CCRC Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Monica; Jacobs, Jim; Ivanier, Analia; Morest, Vanessa Smith

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the role of regional centers in the Advanced Technical Education (ATE) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Conducted by the Community College Research Center (CCRC), the researchers began by asking whether the concept of a regional center was unique and useful to NSF's goals of…

  9. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  10. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

  11. Regional Coordination: A Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    To more adequately provide for newly perceived user needs, New York State libraries have adopted the philosophy of regionalism through which public, academic, and special libraries can cooperate and share resources. The state's 22 public library systems and 9 3R regions (Reference and Research Library Resources Councils) are organized…

  12. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  13. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  14. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  15. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  16. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  17. A game plan for regional marketing.

    PubMed

    Linneman, R E; Stanton, J L

    1992-01-01

    Should your company consider taking a niche-marketing approach to fragmented national markets? Regional marketing is not for every firm or for every product or service. Here are the pluses to consider, as well as the pitfalls that must be overcome, before wading into regional waters.

  18. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.

  19. Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Carl L.; Jenkins, Billy

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a Complex Burn Region Module (CBRM) update for the Solid Rocket Internal Ballistics Module (SRIBM) Program for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design/performance assessments. The goal was to develop an improved version of the solid rocket internal ballistics module program that contains a diversified complex region model for motor grain design, performance prediction, and evaluation.

  20. Higher Education in the Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The present issue of the Bulletin comprises articles that review broadly the development of higher education in 10 countries of the Asian region. Though not all countries are covered in the articles, those that are represent developments that have parallels in many other countries of the region. The countries covered by the articles are…

  1. MISR Regional UAE2 Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... Regional products are derived from averaging select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time periods. ...

  2. MISR Regional GoMACCS Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... Regional products are derived from averaging select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time periods. ...

  3. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional...

  4. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional...

  5. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional...

  6. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional...

  7. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional...

  8. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  9. Does a Regional Accent Perturb Speech Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Goslin, Jeremy; Girard, Frederique; Konopczynski, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    The processing costs involved in regional accent normalization were evaluated by measuring differences in lexical decision latencies for targets placed at the end of sentences with different French regional accents. Over a series of 6 experiments, the authors examined the time course of comprehension disruption by manipulating the duration and…

  10. Vision impairment in the Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J E; Konyama, K; Taylor, H R

    2002-01-01

    The Western Pacific region is one of great diversity, containing the most populous country, China, and many small Pacific island countries. This review describes the prevalence of blindness and vision loss, illustrates the changing trends in the important causes of vision loss and blindness, and the stages of development of the delivery of eye care services across this region. PMID:12034678

  11. A Case of Filament - Active Region Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, C.; Dumitru, L.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze a huge filament observed between 5 and 19 September 2001. In its evolution it is linked to the active region 9612, observed between 7 and 16 September 2001. The filament has a strange morphology and dynamics: starting as two parallel components (A and B), it becomes a double sigmoid filament when a third component (C ) appears linking the other two. An unusual magnetic topology characterizes this evolution: the active region is located between the parallel components. When the third component becomes observable, it links these ones first below the active region. After a spectacular plasma movement registered in filament (A), this one becomes linked to (B) above the active region. In spite of these dramatically changes of the magnetic topology and filament -- active region switch, no CME is observed. Only a few flares occurring in AR9612 are registered and these ones can be seen in the dynamics of the filament as an expression of large scale magnetic reconnections.

  12. Cosmic ray modulation and merged interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Beyond several AU, interactions among shocks and streams give rise to merged interaction regions in which the magnetic field is turbulent. The integral intensity of . 75 MeV/Nuc cosmic rays at Voyager is generally observed to decrease when a merged interaction region moves past the spacecraft and to increase during the passage of a rarefaction region. When the separation between interaction regions is relatively large, the cosmic ray intensity tends to increase on a scale of a few months. This was the case at Voyager 1 from July 1, 1983 to May 1, 1984, when the spacecraft moved from 16.7 to 19.6 AU. Changes in cosmic ray intensity were related to the magnetic field strength in a simple way. It is estimated that the diffusion coefficient in merged interaction regions at this distance is similar to 0.6 x 10 to the 22nd power sq cm/s.

  13. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Lakshman; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin J

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  14. Regional interdependence and migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kim, W B

    1995-01-01

    "The 1980s witnessed increasing regional interdependence in Asia through trade and investment. Increasing flows of labor within the region, however, raise questions about three important issues: (1) the assumption that trade, investment and aid will eventually mitigate migration pressure in source countries and the effectiveness of migration policies based on that assumption; (2) whether increasing regional interdependence stimulates or deters migration; [and] (3) the effect of rising interdependence on the political and international relations aspects of migration. As a partial attempt to address these questions, this article examines the regional pattern of economic interdependence by utilizing information concerning trade, investment and migration flows. The concept of interdependence/dependence is discussed within a political context, focusing on migration and policy responses to it. Observations are made on the implications for regional stability and development."

  15. Theoretical approach to regional environmental conflicts

    SciTech Connect

    Klopatek, J.M.; Krummel, J.R.; Mankin, J.B.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    A regional analysis framework was developed to address regional environmental problems. This interdisciplinary framework is based on the utilization of four principal variables: environmental pattern, assets, and human culture as influenced by the externalities. The framework was applied to three heuristic examples: urban energy supplies in the north-eastern United States; resource extraction in the Rocky Mountain region of the US; and cattle herding in East Africa. The illustrated analyses and their results verify the broad utility of the theory underlying this framework. Although more in-depth analyses would be required to solve the real-world problems, our preliminary analyses indicate that the theoretical framework presented here can indeed be useful in approaching the regional environmental problem, analyzing the significant interactions in the system, and describing the regional dynamics among these variables and components. 34 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  16. Towards predictive understanding of regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Deser, Clara; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Collins, Matthew; Delworth, Thomas L.; Hall, Alex; Hawkins, Ed; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Cassou, Christophe; Giannini, Alessandra; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Regional information on climate change is urgently needed but often deemed unreliable. To achieve credible regional climate projections, it is essential to understand underlying physical processes, reduce model biases and evaluate their impact on projections, and adequately account for internal variability. In the tropics, where atmospheric internal variability is small compared with the forced change, advancing our understanding of the coupling between long-term changes in upper-ocean temperature and the atmospheric circulation will help most to narrow the uncertainty. In the extratropics, relatively large internal variability introduces substantial uncertainty, while exacerbating risks associated with extreme events. Large ensemble simulations are essential to estimate the probabilistic distribution of climate change on regional scales. Regional models inherit atmospheric circulation uncertainty from global models and do not automatically solve the problem of regional climate change. We conclude that the current priority is to understand and reduce uncertainties on scales greater than 100 km to aid assessments at finer scales.

  17. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  18. [Mercosur's regional health agenda: architecture and themes].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luisa Guimaraes; Giovanella, Ligia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the shaping of institutional health spaces in the Mercosur, with analysis of themes and results and considerations on the construction of the regional agenda and on the effects of regional economic integration processes on health policies and systems. We discuss the organization, operation, focus topics, and results achieved in specific health forums (Meeting of Ministers of Health and Sub-Working Group 11), seeking to analyze the architecture and issues addressed by the regional agenda and drawing parallels with the European experience. The aim of this reflection is to identify how the work done by Mercosur structures contributes to building a regional agenda, with the expectation that the integration can contribute to reducing inequalities in access to health care in the region.

  19. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  20. EPA'S REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: TOOLS TO FACILITATE REGIONAL TO LOCAL DECISION-MAKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program is developing and testing approaches to conducting comparative environmental risk assessments at the regional scale, considering impacts to ecological human, and fiscal health endpoints. It seeks an objective and quantifiable...

  1. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  2. Segmentation of liver region with tumorous tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Lee, Gobert; Tajima, Tetsuji; Kitagawa, Teruhiko; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Zhou, Xiangrong; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kondo, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Nawano, Shigeru; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Segmentation of an abnormal liver region based on CT or MR images is a crucial step in surgical planning. However, precisely carrying out this step remains a challenge due to either connectivities of the liver to other organs or the shape, internal texture, and homogeneity of liver that maybe extensively affected in case of liver diseases. Here, we propose a non-density based method for extracting the liver region containing tumor tissues by edge detection processing. False extracted regions are eliminated by a shape analysis method and thresholding processing. If the multi-phased images are available then the overall outcome of segmentation can be improved by subtracting two phase images, and the connectivities can be further eliminated by referring to the intensity on another phase image. Within an edge liver map, tumor candidates are identified by their different gray values relative to the liver. After elimination of the small and nonspherical over-extracted regions, the final liver region integrates the tumor region with the liver tissue. In our experiment, 40 cases of MDCT images were used and the result showed that our fully automatic method for the segmentation of liver region is effective and robust despite the presence of hepatic tumors within the liver.

  3. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  4. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in

  5. Comparison of DMSP and SECS region-1 and region-2 ionospheric current boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Wing, S.

    2016-06-01

    The region-1 and region-2 boundary has traditionally been identified using data from a single spacecraft crossing the auroral region and measuring the large scale changes in the cross track magnetic field. With data from the AUTUMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, DTU MGS, MACCS, McMAC, STEP, THEMIS, and USGS ground magnetometer arrays we applied a state-of-art technique based on spherical elementary current system (SECS) method developed by Amm and Viljanen (1999) in order to calculate maps of region-1 and region-2 current system over the North American and Greenland auroral region. Spherical elementary current (SEC) amplitude (proxy for vertical currents) maps can be inferred at 10 s temporal resolution, ~1.5° geographic latitude (Glat), and 3.5° geographic longitude (Glon) spatial resolution. We compare the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary obtained by the DMSP spacecraft with the region-1 and region-2 boundary observed in the SEC current amplitudes. We find that the boundaries typically agree within 0.2°±1.3°. These results indicate that the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary can reasonably be determined from ground magnetometer data. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the magnetometer database and can be used for contextual interpretation in conjunction with other missions as well as help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using the ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data.

  6. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  7. Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks. Volume II: National and Regional Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This second volume of the "Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks" focuses on national and regional cases of national qualifications frameworks for eighty- six countries from Afghanistan to Uzbekistan and seven regional qualifications frameworks. Each country profile provides a thorough review of the main…

  8. Selection of the Australian indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Each Australian state was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data, area, yield, and production characteristics, statistics, crop calendars, and other ancillary data. Agrophysical conditions that could influence labeling and classification accuracies were identified in connection with the highest producing states as determined from available Australian crop statistics. Based primarily on these production statistics, Western Australia and New South Wales were selected as the wheat indicator region for Australia. The general characteristics of wheat in the indicator region, with potential problems anticipated for proportion estimation are considered. The varieties of wheat, the diseases and pests common to New South Wales, and the wheat growing regions of both states are examined.

  9. Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).

  10. Regional program for acquisition of medical experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannordstrand, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    A U.S. company was contracted to cover different regions of the country. A moderately detailed description of the highlights of the company activities along with some conclusions and recommendations are reported. In summary, the regional program effectively: (1) informed segments of the medical community of research opportunities; (2) validated formats for regional workshops; (3) assisted potential investigators with follow-up consultations and proposal preparations; and (4) identified a latent intersect requiring continual dialog at the scientist/engineer interface for successful cultivation and integration.

  11. Segmentation of elastic organs using region growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widita, R.; Kurniadi, R.; Darma, Y.; Perkasa, Y. S.; Trianti, N.

    2012-06-01

    We have been successfully developed a new software for image segmentation This software is addressed to do segmentation of elastic organs. The segmentation components used in this software is region growing algorithms which have proven to be an effective approach for image segmentation. The implementations of region growing developed here are connected threshold and neighborhood connected. The results show that the neighborhood algorithm affects the smoothness of the segmented object borders, the size of the segmented region, and reduces computing time. Our method is designed to perform with clinically acceptable speed, using accelerated techniques.

  12. Spatially integrated spectroscopy of Galactic HII regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robledo-Rella, V.

    2000-11-01

    We present optical-NIR spatially integrated spectroscopy of 7 Galactic HII regions: Carina, M8, M20, RCW6, RCW60, RCW107 and RCW110/111. The effect of the embedded ionizing stars' spectra on the nebular spectra is studied. The distribution of Balmer Equivalent Widths in the combined spectra (nebular plus stellar) is slightly stepper than in the pure nebular spectra. The comparison of this distribution in Extragalactic HII regions and HII/Starbust galaxies may yield a more accurate determination of the underlaying stellar absorption (or emission!) affecting the observed Balmer lines used to derive extinction and other physical parameters of the emitting regions and associated stellar clusters.

  13. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  14. Suppression of Active-Region CME Production by the Presence of Other Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Khazanov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    From the SOHO mission s data base of MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning solar cycle 23, we have obtained a set of 40,000 magnetograms of 1,300 active regions, tracking each active region across the 30 degree central solar disk. Each active region magnetogram is cropped from the full-disk magnetogram by an automated code. The cadence is 96 minutes. From each active-region magnetogram, we have measured two whole-active-region magnetic quantities: (1) the magnetic size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux), and (2) a gauge of the active region s free magnetic energy (part of the free energy is released in the production of a flare and/or CME eruption). From NOAA Flare/CME catalogs, we have obtained the event (Flare/CME/SEP event) production history of each active region. Using all these data, we find that for each type of eruptive event, an active region s expected rate of event production increases as a power law of our gauge of active-region free magnetic energy. We have also found that, among active regions having nearly the same free energy, the rate of the CME production is less when there are many other active regions on the disk than when there are few or none, but there is no significant discernible suppression of the rate of flare production. This indicates that the presence of other active regions somehow tends to inhibit an active region s flare-producing magnetic explosions from becoming CMEs, contrary to the expectation from the breakout model for the production of CMEs.

  15. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  16. Turbulence in HII regions: New results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joncas, Gilles

    HII regions were the first interstellar objects where scale dependant brightness and velocity fluctuations were indentified (von Hoerner 1951, Courtes 1955, Munch 1958). The study of turbulent motions in HII regions was then forgotten for many years until the work of Joncas and O'Dell which started in 1985. I will present my deductions stemming from the analysis of the velocity fields of 6 HII regions (Sh 142, M17, Sh 158, Sh 170 and Sh 212). New data from the radial velocity AND density fields of the HII region Sh 269 will also be shown. The analysis was done using the well known two-point correlation functions. However I innovated by using the higher order structure functions. PDF calculations were also done hinting at the presence of intermittency in Sh 269.

  17. Geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.N.; Meyers, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This grant supports research on the origins and geochemical aspects of regional dolomites. Eight graduate students are involved in research on dolomite allowing a diverse range of studies. This report outlines their work in the field. (JL)

  18. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond; Pinkel, Daniel; Gray, Joe W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  19. Detection Of Amplified Or Deleted Chromosomal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, Trond , Pinkel, Daniel , Gray, Joe W.

    1997-05-27

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  20. The polar regions and the USGCRP

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M. C.,

    1997-06-01

    The US Global Change Research Program provides interagency coordination for the ten federal agencies supporting research on global environmental change. Program activities are described annually in Our Changing Planet, which is a report submitted to Congress each year in support of the President`s budget request. The USGCRP also periodically prepares a multiyear research overview (referred to officially as a multiyear research plan even though it is more of a strategy) to provide a framework for organizing research over the next ten years. Consideration of the polar regions is of particular interest in pursuit of the goals of the USGCRP in each of the major environmental issue areas. Especially with the increased emphasis of the USGCRP on the regional aspects of global environmental change and the regional differentiation of consequences for the environment, the polar regions will be receiving intense attention in future research activities.

  1. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Grobov, A. V. Rubin, S. G.

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  2. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolock, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including principal components and cluster analyses. The GIS and statistical analyses were applied to land-surface form, geologic texture (permeability of the soil and bedrock), and climate variables that describe the physical and climatic setting of 43,931 small (roughly 200 square kilometers) watersheds in the United States. The analyses then grouped the watersheds into 20 noncontiguous regions (the HLRs) on the basis of similarities in land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics. This hydrologic landscape regions dataset contains for each of the 49,931 watersheds the (1) watershed identification number, (2) land-surface form, geologic texture, and climate characteristics for each watershed, and (3) hydrologic landscape region number for each watershed.

  3. MISR Regional GoMACCS Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... MISR GoMACCS data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  4. Regional Instrumentation Facilities Established by NSF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the six regional instrumentation facilities established by the National Science Foundation. These centers make available to scientists state-of-the-art instrumentation such as: gas chromatographs; lasers; NMR spectrometers; X-rays; and others. (CS)

  5. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  6. 2011 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presents the 2011 reports from the Annual Meetings of the Regional Psychological Associations. The following Associations are featured: The Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern…

  7. 2007 Reports of the Regional Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Provides the 2007 reports of APA's Regional Associations. Included are the annual meeting reports from the Eastern Psychological Association, Midwestern Psychological Association, New England Psychological Association, Rocky Mountain Psychological Association, Southeastern Psychological Association, Southwestern Psychological Association, and…

  8. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  9. Confidence regions of planar cardiac vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, S.; Herr, A.; Hunt, P.

    1980-01-01

    A method for plotting the confidence regions of vectorial data obtained in electrocardiology is presented. The 90%, 95% and 99% confidence regions of cardiac vectors represented in a plane are obtained in the form of an ellipse centered at coordinates corresponding to the means of a sample selected at random from a bivariate normal distribution. An example of such a plot for the frontal plane QRS mean electrical axis for 80 horses is also presented.

  10. Climate change signal over Northern Adriatic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampieri, M.; Lionello, P.; Nikulin, G.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we collect the results of several regional climate models from various projects (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES, and others). Temperature, precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, 500hPa geopotential height and wind speed are analyzed for Venetia and the Northern Adriatic region. The agreement among models is analyzed for the control runs and for the scenario simulations, and the dispersion among models is evaluated. The importance of resolutions is addressed as well as the changes of climate extremes in future scenarios.

  11. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  12. Anisotropy of wood in the microwave region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Čepič, Mojca

    2010-05-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of wood), which is evident from the observable anisotropic structure of wood, they may serve as a demonstration for explaining the anisotropic properties in crystals in the optical region.

  13. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  14. PRINCIPLE OF INTERACTION REGION LOCAL CORRECTION

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.

    1999-09-07

    For hadron storage rings like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the machine performance at collision is usually limited by the field quality of the interaction region (IR) magnets. A robust local correction for the IR region is valuable in improving the dynamic aperture with practically achievable magnet field quality. The authors present in this paper the action-angle kick minimization principle on which the local IR correction for both RHIC and the LHC are based.

  15. Solitary lipoma in the retromandibular region

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Nandesh; Shabari, U B; Jaydeep, N A; Patnaik, Pritish

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common subcutaneous soft-tissue tumors. These are benign tumors originating from the adipocytes. They may be located in any part of the body and can be confused clinically with other soft tissue masses. They infrequently occur in the head and neck region. We present a case of solitary lipoma arising in the neck region that was reported to our division of oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25767361

  16. Contemporary Changes in Vegetation of Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olech, Maria; Węgrzyn, Michał; Lisowska, Maja; Słaby, Agnieszka; Angiel, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Rapid climate changes which have been observed over the recent years in both polar regions of the Earth, directly or indirectly affect vegetation dynamics. This article presents the main directions of the changes taking place in the recent years in tundra communities of both polar regions, based on original research carried out in the Arctic in Spitsbergen and in the maritime Antarctic on King George Island.

  17. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds. PMID:25957192

  18. Mature brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Binod Bade; Ghimire, Pradeep; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Jwarchan, Bishnu; Lalchan, Subita; Karmacharya, Mikesh

    2016-01-01

    Complete mature brain tissue in sacrococcygeal region is a rare congenital anomaly in a newborn, which usually is misdiagnosed for sacrococcygeal teratoma. Glial tumor-like ependymoma is also common in sacrococcygeal area but mostly appears later in life. We present a case of complete heterotopic brain tissue in the sacrococcygeal region. The patient underwent total excision of mass with coccygectomy. To our knowledge it is the second case being reported. PMID:27194682

  19. Integrated regional assessment: qualitative and quantitative issues

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-19

    Qualitative and quantitative issues are particularly significant in integrated regional assessment. This chapter examines the terms “qualitative” and “quantitative” separately and in relation to one another, along with a discussion of the degree of interdependence or overlap between the two. Strategies for integrating the two general approaches often produce uneasy compromises. However, integrated regional assessment provides opportunities for strong collaborations in addressing specific problems in specific places.

  20. Regional interpretation of Kansas aeromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Yarger, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The aeromagnetic mapping techniques used in a regional aeromagnetic survey of the state are documented and a qualitative regional interpretation of the magnetic basement is presented. Geothermal gradients measured and data from oil well records indicate that geothermal resources in Kansas are of a low-grade nature. However, considerable variation in the gradient is noted statewide within the upper 500 meters of the sedimentary section; this suggests the feasibility of using groundwater for space heating by means of heat pumps.

  1. Hazardous waste in the Asian Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rajendra; Khwaja, Mahmood A

    2011-01-01

    The production and disposal of hazardous waste remains a substantial problem in the Asian Pacific region. Remediation of waste disposal sites, including landfill sites, is attracting considerable research attention within the region. A recognition of the need for community engagement in this process is also growing. This article reviews the work presented in the Hazardous Waste sessions at the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health held in November 2009 in Perth. PMID:21714379

  2. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    PubMed

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions.

  3. Health region development from the perspective of system theory - an empirical cross-regional case study.

    PubMed

    Volgger, Michael; Mainil, Tomas; Pechlaner, Harald; Mitas, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Governments are increasingly establishing health regions to deal with current challenges of public health service. These regions are seen as instruments to balance public and private stakeholders, and offer health care to regional citizens as well as to medical/health tourists. However, it is still unclear how the development of such health regions as well as their governance may be conceptualized. We apply Luhmann's system theory approach in the context of a cross-regional case study that compares health region developments in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) with particular regard to the Eastern Dolomites and in the province of Zeeland (the Netherlands). We suggest that Luhmann's system theory provides a useful set of criteria to evaluate and judge health region development. Fully developed health regions can be understood as auto-poietic systems. By emphasizing programs, personnel, and communication channels, these case studies illustrate the suitability of the system theory toolset to analyze the governance and spatial embeddedness of health regions. Additionally, the study contributes to literature by indicating that health regions are closely related to identity issues and to decision making in regions. PMID:24923839

  4. [CII] dynamics in the S140 region

    SciTech Connect

    Dedes, C.; Röllig, M.; Okada, Y.; Ossenkopf, V.; Mookerjea, B.; Collaboration: WADI Team

    2015-01-22

    We report the observation of [C II] emission in a cut through the S140 region together with single pointing observations of several molecular tracers, including hydrides, in key regions of the photon-dominated region (PDR) and molecular cloud [1]. At a distance of 910 pc, a BOV star ionizes the edge of the molecular cloud L1204, creating S140. In addition, the dense molecular cloud hosts a cluster of embedded massive young stellar objects only 75' from the H II region [e.g. 2, 3]. We used HIFI on Herschel to observe [CII] in a strip following the direction of the impinging radiation across the ionisation front and through the cluster of embedded YSOs. With [C II], we can trace the ionising radiation and, together with the molecular tracers such as CO isotopologues and HCO{sup +}, study the dynamical processes in the region. Combining HIFIs high spectral resolution data with ground based molecular data allows us to study the dynamics and excitation conditions both in the ionization front and the dense molecular star forming region and model their physical conditions [4].

  5. The integrated Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraucunas, I.; Clarke, L.; Dirks, J.; Hejazi, M. I.; Hibbard, K. A.; Huang, M.; Janetos, A. C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.; Kleese van Dam, K.; Leung, L.; Moss, R. H.; Rice, J.; Scott, M. J.; Thomson, A. M.; West, T. O.; Whitney, P.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) is a unique modeling framework being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate the interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. The framework unites high-resolution models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible software architecture. The framework is portable and can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, including (but not limited to) planning, implementation, and evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. iRESM also incorporates extensive stakeholder interactions and analysis to inform model development, coupling strategies, and characterization of uncertainties. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales, with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus and the penetration of renewable energy technologies in the upper U.S. Midwest. The iRESM framework also is being extended and applied to the U.S. Gulf Coast, with a particular emphasis on how changes in extreme events will affect both coastal in inland energy infrastructure in the region. This talk will focus on iRESM's development and capabilities, initial results from numerical experiments, and the challenges and opportunities associated with integrated regional modeling.

  6. Characterisation of the Angelman syndrome critical region

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.L.; Buxton, J.; Chan, C.T.J.

    1994-09-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are distinct neurogenetic disorders associated with a deletion of 15q11-13, a region subject to genomic imprinting. The chromosomal deletions are either maternal (AS) or paternal (PWS) in origin. The AS critical region was previously defined by an inherited deletion of approximately 1.5 Mb, encompassing TD3-21, LS6-1 and GABRB3. An individual with classical AS has been identified whose deletion includes LS6-1 but not TD3-21 or GABRB3. Both maternal and paternal methylation patterns at ZNF127, PW71B and SNRPN are present, suggesting that the AS gene itself is a disrupted, rather than imprinting sequences, as proposed recently for some familial cases. Initially, the deletion was detected by (CA)n repeat analysis. Cosmids derived from a 260 kb LS6-1 YAC were then used to confirm the deletion by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Neither end cosmid from the YAC is deleted, suggesting that the AS critical region is less than 200 kb. Fragments isolated from the cosmids which span the deletion were used to further delineate the AS critical region by Southern blot analysis. Single copy genomic fragments within this region were then used to search for differential parental methylation patterns and potential coding sequences. We have used cosmids from the region in exon-trapping experiments. Using this combination of approaches, we aim to identify candidate genes for AS.

  7. SEARCHING FOR NEW HYPERCOMPACT H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Pandian, Jagadheep D.; Kurtz, Stan

    2011-09-20

    Hypercompact (HC) H II regions are, by nature, very young H II regions, associated with the earliest stages of massive star formation. They may represent the transition phase as an early B-type star grows into an O-type star. Unfortunately, so few HC H II regions are presently known that their general attributes and defining characteristics are based on small number statistics. A larger sample is needed for detailed studies and good statistics. Class II methanol masers are one of the best indicators of the early stages of massive star formation. Using the Arecibo Methanol Maser Galactic Plane Survey-the most sensitive blind survey for 6.7 GHz methanol masers to date-we selected 24 HC H II region candidates. We made Expanded Very Large Array continuum observations at 3.6 and 1.3 cm to search for HC H II regions associated with these masers. We identified six potential HC H II regions in our sample based on the presence of optically thick free-free emission. Overall, we find that 30% of the methanol masers have an associated centimeter radio continuum source (separation less than 0.1 pc), which is in general agreement with previous studies.

  8. The Regional Structure of Technical Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neale, Dion

    2014-03-01

    There is strong evidence that the productivity per capita of cities and regions increases with population. One likely explanation for this phenomenon is that densely populated regions bring together otherwise unlikely combinations of individuals and organisations with diverse, specialised capabilities, leading to increased innovation and productivity. We have used the REGPAT patent database to construct a bipartite network of geographic regions and the patent classes for which those regions display a revealed comparative advantage. By analysing this network, we can infer relationships between different types of patent classes - and hence the structure of (patentable) technology. The network also provides a novel perspective for studying the combinations of technical capabilities in different geographic regions. We investigate measures such as the diversity and ubiquity of innovations within regions and find that diversity (resp. ubiquity) is positively (resp. negatively) correlated with population. We also find evidence of a nested structure for technical innovation. That is, specialised innovations tend to occur only when other more general innovations are already present.

  9. New GMP Models for Caucasus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, N.; Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of numerous natural hazards and ensuing disasters. Analysis of the losses due to past disasters indicates those most catastrophic in the region have historically been due to strong earthquakes. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Thus, many peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed by different authors. However, a few attenuation relations were developed for Caucasus region: Ambraseys et al. (1996,2005) which were based on entire European region and they were not focused locally on Caucasus Region, Smit et.al.(2000) that was based on a small amount of acceleration data that really is not enough. Since 2003 construction of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started with the help of number of International organizations, Projects and Private companies. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. Also site ground conditions are considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Thus, this parameter is emphasized in the present study. Here it must be mentioned that in previous model which only one was done for Caucasus Region (Smit et. al., 2000) local conditions were not considered. Thus, it is an advantage of models from this study.

  10. 50 CFR 100.22 - Subsistence resource regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence resource regions. 100.22... Determinations § 100.22 Subsistence resource regions. (a) The Board hereby designates the following areas as subsistence resource regions: (1) Southeast Region; (2) Southcentral Region; (3) Kodiak/Aleutians Region;...

  11. 50 CFR 100.22 - Subsistence resource regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence resource regions. 100.22... Determinations § 100.22 Subsistence resource regions. (a) The Board hereby designates the following areas as subsistence resource regions: (1) Southeast Region; (2) Southcentral Region; (3) Kodiak/Aleutians Region;...

  12. 50 CFR 100.22 - Subsistence resource regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence resource regions. 100.22... Determinations § 100.22 Subsistence resource regions. (a) The Board hereby designates the following areas as subsistence resource regions: (1) Southeast Region; (2) Southcentral Region; (3) Kodiak/Aleutians Region;...

  13. Regional Body-Wave Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Rodgers, A; Mayeda, K; Taylor, S

    2000-07-28

    Monitoring the world for potential nuclear explosions requires identifying them by their expected seismic signatures and discriminating them from earthquakes and other sources of seismic waves. Large events (approximately m{sub b} > 4.0) can often be successfully identified by the M{sub s}:m{sub b} discriminant. In order to monitor small events (approximately m{sub b}, < 4.0) short-period regional waveform data recorded within 2000 km will be needed because of poor signal-to-noise at large distances and/or long-periods. Many studies have shown that short-period (0.5-10 Hz) regional body wave phases (e.g. Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg and coda) have excellent discrimination power down to very small magnitudes when used at various nuclear tests sites. In order to broaden the application of these regional body wave techniques, we are developing size-, distance- and location-based corrections to apply to the regional data to allow wider data comparison and better discrimination performance. Building on prior work (e.g. Taylor et al. 1999, Rodgers and Walter, 2000), we are developing a revised Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) procedure. The procedure makes use of the very stable moment magnitude determinations from regional coda envelopes (see Mayeda et al, this Symposium) to provide an independent size estimate. Using a Brune (1970) style omega-squared source spectral model, we parameterize the source in terms of apparent stress and its scaling with moment. For the distance corrections we parameterize in terms of geometrical spreading, and frequency-dependent attenuation. In addition there are constants associated with velocities, densities and a phase- and frequency-dependent site effect. Using this relatively simple model we can remove much of the magnitude and distance trends from the regional data. We use a grid-search technique to explore the model space with more emphasis on removing the magnitude and distance trends than in fitting the observable spectra

  14. Agriculture Impacts of Regional Nuclear Conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lili; Robock, Alan; Mills, Michael; Toon, Owen Brian

    2013-04-01

    One of the major consequences of nuclear war would be climate change due to massive smoke injection into the atmosphere. Smoke from burning cities can be lofted into the stratosphere where it will have an e-folding lifetime more than 5 years. The climate changes include significant cooling, reduction of solar radiation, and reduction of precipitation. Each of these changes can affect agricultural productivity. To investigate the response from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, we used the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer agricultural simulation model. We first evaluated the model by forcing it with daily weather data and management practices in China and the USA for rice, maize, wheat, and soybeans. Then we perturbed observed weather data using monthly climate anomalies for a 10-year period due to a simulated 5 Tg soot injection that could result from a regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan, using a total of 100 15 kt atomic bombs, much less than 1% of the current global nuclear arsenal. We computed anomalies using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE and NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We perturbed each year of the observations with anomalies from each year of the 10-year nuclear war simulations. We found that different regions respond differently to a regional nuclear war; southern regions show slight increases of crop yields while in northern regions crop yields drop significantly. Sensitivity tests show that temperature changes due to nuclear war are more important than precipitation and solar radiation changes in affecting crop yields in the regions we studied. In total, crop production in China and the USA would decrease 15-50% averaged over the 10 years using both models' output. Simulations forced by ModelE output show smaller impacts than simulations forced by WACCM output at the end of the 10 year period because of the different temperature responses in the two models.

  15. Volumes of cochlear nucleus regions in rodents.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Donald A; Lee, Augustine C; Hamilton, Walter D; Benjamin, Louis C; Vishwanath, Shilpa; Simo, Hermann; Godfrey, Lynn M; Mustapha, Abdurrahman I A A; Heffner, Rickye S

    2016-09-01

    The cochlear nucleus receives all the coded information about sound from the cochlea and is the source of auditory information for the rest of the central auditory system. As such, it is a critical auditory nucleus. The sizes of the cochlear nucleus as a whole and its three major subdivisions - anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), posteroventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN), and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) - have been measured in a large number of mammals, but measurements of its subregions at a more detailed level for a variety of species have not previously been made. Size measurements are reported here for the summed granular regions, DCN layers, AVCN, PVCN, and interstitial nucleus in 15 different rodent species, as well as a lagomorph, carnivore, and small primate. This further refinement of measurements is important because the granular regions and superficial layers of the DCN appear to have some different functions than the other cochlear nucleus regions. Except for DCN layers in the mountain beaver, all regions were clearly identifiable in all the animals studied. Relative regional size differences among most of the rodents, and even the 3 non-rodents, were not large and did not show a consistent relation to their wide range of lifestyles and hearing parameters. However, the mountain beaver, and to a lesser extent the pocket gopher, two rodents that live in tunnel systems, had relative sizes of summed granular regions and DCN molecular layer distinctly larger than those of the other mammals. Among all the mammals studied, there was a high correlation between the size per body weight of summed granular regions and that of the DCN molecular layer, consistent with other evidence for a close relationship between granule cells and superficial DCN neurons. PMID:27435005

  16. Predicting human age using regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun-Heng; Li, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study is predicting human age using neuro-metrics derived from structural MRI, as well as investigating the relationships between age and predictive neuro-metrics. To this end, a cohort of healthy subjects were recruited from 1000 Functional Connectomes Project. The ages of the participations were ranging from 7 to 83 (36.17+/-20.46). The structural MRI for each subject was preprocessed using FreeSurfer, resulting in regional cortical thickness, mean curvature, regional volume and regional surface area for 148 anatomical parcellations. The individual age was predicted from the combination of regional and inter-regional neuro-metrics. The prediction accuracy is r = 0.835, p < 0.00001, evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient between predicted ages and actual ages. Moreover, the LASSO linear regression also found certain predictive features, most of which were inter-regional features. The turning-point of the developmental trajectories in human brain was around 40 years old based on regional cortical thickness. In conclusion, structural MRI could be potential biomarkers for the aging in human brain. The human age could be successfully predicted from the combination of regional morphometry and inter-regional morphological similarity. The inter-regional measures could be beneficial to investigating human brain connectome.

  17. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  18. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  19. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  20. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    PubMed

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  1. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  2. A Hierarchical Evaluation of Regional Climate Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Ringler, Todd; Collins, William D.; Taylor, Mark; Ashfaq, Moetasim

    2013-08-20

    Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tools for predicting the evolution of the climate system. Through decades of development, GCMs have demonstrated useful skill in simulating climate at continental to global scales. However, large uncertainties remain in projecting climate change at regional scales, which limit our ability to inform decisions on climate change adaptation and mitigation. To bridge this gap, different modeling approaches including nested regional climate models (RCMs), global stretch-grid models, and global high-resolution atmospheric models have been used to provide regional climate simulations (Leung et al. 2003). In previous efforts to evaluate these approaches, isolating their relative merits was not possible because factors such as dynamical frameworks, physics parameterizations, and model resolutions were not systematically constrained. With advances in high performance computing, it is now feasible to run coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs at horizontal resolution comparable to what RCMs use today. Global models with local refinement using unstructured grids have become available for modeling regional climate (e.g., Rauscher et al. 2012; Ringler et al. 2013). While they offer opportunities to improve climate simulations, significant efforts are needed to test their veracity for regional-scale climate simulations.

  3. IS ACTIVE REGION CORE VARIABILITY AGE DEPENDENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.

    2012-12-10

    The presence of both steady and transient loops in active region cores has been reported from soft X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet observations of the solar corona. The relationship between the different loop populations, however, remains an open question. We present an investigation of the short-term variability of loops in the core of two active regions in the context of their long-term evolution. We take advantage of the nearly full Sun observations of STEREO and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft to track these active regions as they rotate around the Sun multiple times. We then diagnose the variability of the active region cores at several instances of their lifetime using EIS/Hinode spectral capabilities. We inspect a broad range of temperatures, including for the first time spatially and temporally resolved images of Ca XIV and Ca XV lines. We find that the active region cores become fainter and steadier with time. The significant emission measure at high temperatures that is not correlated with a comparable increase at low temperatures suggests that high-frequency heating is viable. The presence, however, during the early stages, of an enhanced emission measure in the ''hot'' (3.0-4.5 MK) and ''cool'' (0.6-0.9 MK) components suggests that low-frequency heating also plays a significant role. Our results explain why there have been recent studies supporting both heating scenarios.

  4. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology. PMID:21132951

  5. Reddening and extinction towards H II regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, James; Deharveng, Lise

    1989-01-01

    The light emitted by the gas in H II regions is attenuated by dust. This extinction can be measured by comparing H alpha, H beta, and radio continuum fluxes, since the intrinsic ratios of the Balmer line and thermal radio continuum emissivities are nearly constant for reasonable conditions in H II regions. In the case of giant extragalactic H II regions, the extinction was found to be considerably greater than expected. The dust between the Earth and the emitting gas may have an optical thickness which varies. The dust may be close enough to the source that scattered light contributes to the flux, or the dust may be actually mixed with the emitting gas. It is difficult to decide which configuration is correct. A rediscussion of this question in light of recent observations, with the Fabry-Perot spectrophotometers, of the large Galactic H II region is presented. The color excesses are compared for stars embedded in these H II regions with those derived (assuming the standard law) from the nebular extinction and reddening.

  6. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities. PMID:11929136

  7. Solar Eruptions Initiated in Sigmoidal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    active regions that have been shown to possess high probability for eruption. They present a direct evidence of the existence of flux ropes in the corona prior to the impulsive phase of eruptions. In order to gain insight into their eruptive behavior and how they get destabilized we need to know their 3D magnetic field structure. First, we review some recent observations and modeling of sigmoidal active regions as the primary hosts of solar eruptions, which can also be used as useful laboratories for studying these phenomena. Then, we concentrate on the analysis of observations and highly data-constrained non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models over the lifetime of several sigmoidal active regions, where we have captured their magnetic field structure around the times of major flares. We present the topology analysis of a couple of sigmoidal regions pointing us to the probable sites of reconnection. A scenario for eruption is put forward by this analysis. We demonstrate the use of this topology analysis to reconcile the observed eruption features with the standard flare model. Finally, we show a glimpse of how such a NLFFF model of an erupting region can be used to initiate a CME in a global MHD code in an unprecedented realistic manner. Such simulations can show the effects of solar transients on the near-Earth environment and solar system space weather.

  8. Multiline Study of Galactic Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, B.; Kramer, C.; Jakob, H.; Stutzki, J.

    We present first results of observations with SMART at KOSMA of selected Galactic star forming regions in mid-J (4-3) and (7-6) rotational transitions of CO and the two fine structure transitions of C I at 492 and 810 GHz. The aim of this study is to understand the interplay of the physical and chemical structure of the interstellar matter and the UV radiation field from the stars within the molecular clouds by observing the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). During this ongoing observational programme, regions around Orion BN/KL, W3, S106, S140 have been observed. Here we present the first results of observations of the W3 region (Jakob et al. 2002). These observations will be combined with existing observations of the emission due to low-J transitions of CO and other tracers of PDRs. The database of intensities of different lines from each of these regions will be used to derive a self-consistent interpretation using the PDR model developed by Störzer, Stutzki, & Sternberg (1996).

  9. Intrinsic dynamics of the regional community.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-06-01

    Patterns of diversity within large regional biotas express the outcomes of processes, operating on both regional and local scales, that influence evolutionary diversification as well as the distribution and abundance of species. Regional analyses of species distributions suggest that neither ecological sorting of species based on their adaptations to the physical environment, nor interactions between competing species, adequately explain patterns of species richness. Potentially competing species appear to utilise broadly overlapping resources with similar proficiency. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses reveal that species abundances and distributions within regions vary independently of evolutionary relationship. This implies the existence of dynamic, species-specific controls on population growth, as could be applied by specialised pathogens or other antagonists. Here, I argue that the changing balance of coevolved interactions between hosts and their antagonists shapes the distribution and abundance of individual host populations as well as patterns of local species richness. Geographical expansion creates allopatric populations and thereby could promote diversification; contraction ultimately leads to extinction. This taxon-cycle dynamic links regional diversity and distribution to intrinsic biological interactions independently of extrinsic ecological conditions. These hypotheses emphasise the central importance of investigating the impacts of pathogens on species abundance and distribution, and the potential consequences of coevolutionary changes in pathogen-host relationships for species formation and extinction.

  10. H II Regions in Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Keel, W. C.; Laurikainen, E.

    1993-12-01

    We present a census of H II regions in 50 pairs of interacting galaxies, carried out on CCD and ISIT narrow-band images from Kitt Peak, Lowell, and La Palma. Objects were identified objectively using peak finding at multiple Gaussian smoothing levels to allow for the fact that the larger H II regions are marginally resolved, and measured using aperture photometry. We consider statistics of the space distribution, radial distribution, and luminosity functions. Preliminary analysis shows that the enhancement in star formation is strongest not only in the nuclear regions, but in preferred annuli as well. Interactions can produce significant asymmetries in the star-formation distribution. Some interacting galaxies show flatter luminosity functions for H II regions than seen in normal galaxies, either through an excess of very luminous star-forming complexes or a change in their clumping properties. We compare the statistics of both the location and luminosity of H II regions in interacting systems to results on isolated spirals. This work was supported by the NSF through REU grant AST-9300413 and EPSCoR grant EHR-9108761.

  11. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  12. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  13. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  14. Regional analyses of highway energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, G.; Greene, D.L.; Walton, G.H.; Collins, M.J.; Shonka, D.B.; Blue, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    Regional variation among selected factors affecting energy use in highway transportation is described and analyzed. Highway vehicle use accounts for about 95% of all motor gasoline used and a substantial portion of the diesel fuel consumed in the US. For the purposes of analysis, highway energy use can be divided into three sectoral users: household, commercial, and government. Chapter 1, Nonhighway Use of Gasoline, covers agriculture, marine, aviation, industrial and commercial, construction, snowmobiles, and motorcycles. Chapter 2, Topics in Commercial Highway Energy Use, includes the following: Commercial Use of Gasoline in Highway Transportation, Automotive Fleets and Electric Vehicle Applicability; Local and Short-Haul Commercial Trucking; Intercity Trucking; and Intracity Bus Service. Chapter 3, Selected Characteristics of Highway Energy Use by the Household Sector, includes sections entitled: Regional Gasoline Use; Ownership of New and Used Vehicles; Fuel Efficiencies and Market Shares of New Vehicle Registrations; Regional Trends in Import Passenger Car Sales and in Light Truck and Van Sales; Regional Variations in Recreational Vehicle Shipments and in Gasoline Consumption, 1977; Regional Patterns of Motorcycle and Moped Use; and An Analysis of the Differences in Carpooling Across Metropolitan Areas.

  15. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  16. Private health insurance and regional Australia.

    PubMed

    Lokuge, Buddhima; Denniss, Richard; Faunce, Thomas A

    2005-03-21

    Since 1996, an increasing proportion of federal government expenditure has been directed into Australia's healthcare system via private health insurance (PHI) subsidies, in preference to Medicare and the direct funding of public health services. A central rationale for this policy shift is to increase the use of private hospital services and thereby reduce pressure on public inpatient facilities. However, the impact of this reform process on regional Australia has not been addressed. An analysis of previously unpublished Australian Bureau of Statistics data shows that regional Australians have substantially lower levels of private health fund membership. As a result, regional areas appear to be receiving substantially less federal government health funding, compared with cities, than if these funds were allocated on a per-capita basis. We postulate that the lower level of membership in regional areas is mainly due to the limited availability of private inpatient facilities, making PHI less attractive to rural Australians. We conclude that PHI as a vehicle for mainstream federal health financing has potential structural failures that disadvantage regional Australians.

  17. Specialisation changes in European regions: the role played by externalities across regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Toni; Moreno, Rosina

    2010-09-01

    This paper seeks to determine the factors underpinning changes in regional specialisation patterns in the European Union between 1991 and 2002. First, we consider a set of determinants previously identified in the regional literature, including agglomeration effects and other specific regional factors (business cycle, amount of investment, etc.). However, we then also take into account the fact that the evolution in a region’s specialisation pattern may be affected by the specialisation behaviour of other regions. Thus, not only do we consider the pattern of evolution in a region’s most proximate neighbours but we also examine that of their regional peers, i.e., regions with a similar specialisation pattern independent of their location. Notwithstanding, our empirical evidence indicates that physical distance still plays a very significant, and even more influential, role than similarity in specialisation.

  18. F region electron density irregularity spectra near auroral acceleration and shear regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Mackenzie, E.; Coley, W. R.; Hanson, W. B.; Lin, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Two orbits of the Atmosphere Explorer D yielded data on F region electron irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. Data were taken with a retarding potential analyzer, an ion drift meter, a low energy electron experiment and a photoelectron spectrometer. Auroral forms were simultaneously visually sighted by DMSP spacecraft. The irregularities were associated with auroral excitation and large structured flow regions. Steep spectra with one-dimensional spectral index values for wavelengths over 1 km were observed in the acceleration region. Large amplitude irregularities appeared in large structured flow regions and displayed shallow spectra, indicating the presence of large power spectral densities at scale lengths of about 100 m. It is suspected that large velocities or shears in the velocities in adjacent precipitation regions cause the F region density perturbations.

  19. CT-measured regional specific volume change reflects regional ventilation in supine sheep.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Matthew K; Easley, R Blaine; Saba, Osama I; Chon, Deokiee; Reinhardt, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric A; Simon, Brett A

    2008-04-01

    Computer tomography (CT) imaging techniques permit the noninvasive measurement of regional lung function. Regional specific volume change (sVol), determined from the change in lung density over a tidal breath, should correlate with regional ventilation and regional lung expansion measured with other techniques. sVol was validated against xenon (Xe)-CT-specific ventilation (sV) in four anesthetized, intubated, mechanically ventilated sheep. Xe-CT used expiratory gated axial scanning during the washin and washout of 55% Xe. sVol was measured from the tidal changes in tissue density (H, houndsfield units) of lung regions using the relationship sVol = [1,000(Hi - He)]/[He(1,000 + Hi)], where He and Hi are expiratory and inspiratory regional density. Distinct anatomical markings were used to define corresponding lung regions of interest between inspiratory, expiratory, and Xe-CT images, with an average region of interest size of 1.6 +/- 0.7 ml. In addition, sVol was compared with regional volume changes measured directly from the positions of implanted metal markers in an additional animal. A linear relationship between sVol and sV was demonstrated over a wide range of regional sV found in the normal supine lung, with an overall correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.66. There was a tight correlation (R(2) = 0.97) between marker-measured volume changes and sVol. Regional sVol, which involves significantly reduced exposure to radiation and Xe gas compared with the Xe-CT method, represents a safe and efficient surrogate for measuring regional ventilation in experimental studies and patients.

  20. Organized Subsurface Flows near Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, D. A.; Hindman, B. W.; Toomre, J.; Thompson, M. J.

    2004-04-01

    Local helioseismic techniques, such as ring analysis and time-distance helioseismology, have already shown that large-scale flows near the surface converge towards major active regions. Ring analysis has further demonstrated that at greater depths some active regions exhibit strong outflows. A critique leveled at the ring-analysis results is that the Regularized Least Squares (RLS) inversion kernels on which they are based have negative sidelobes near the surface. Such sidelobes could result in a surface inflow being misidentified as a diverging outflow at depth. In this paper we show that the Optimally Located Averages (OLA) inversion technique, which produces kernels without significant sidelobes, generates flows markedly similar to the RLS results. Active regions are universally zones of convergence near the surface, while large complexes evince strong outflows deeper down.

  1. Biourbanism: Solar based urban and regional design

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.

    1999-07-01

    New neighborhoods for an additional one billion people will need to be constructed on the planet within the next 10 years. If the historic patterns of growth continue--the sprawl, the congestion, the draining of swamps, the loss of agricultural land--the requirement for all basic resources will outstrip the availability. While this is of great concern, it is the destruction of an acceptable quality of life--the sense of place--that will be the most difficult and expensive to change. An essential step to reverse the direction of this undesirable future is changing the design and planning of these communities to work with resident solar energies, regional biology, local renewable resources, and sustainable urban planning and design principles. Design can make a difference. This paper develops the view that the solar approach must include urban and regional design and presents solar-based renewable resources example of the design of regions.

  2. Report to the Congress: Regional petroleum reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-12-01

    Actions taken to determine the benefits and costs of establishing in-region Regional Petroleum Reserves (RPR's) and the extent to which existing analyses reflect DOE's current assessments of US and world supply/demand conditions are discussed. A discussion of sites considered, cost comparisons of RPR and Gulf Coast storage, an SPR distribution capabilities and is continuing system enhancements is given. The SPR Plan of 1977, in its thorough analysis of SPR options, developed a basic program oach which continues to be valid in today's petroleum market. Current assessments indicate that SPR system enhancements, current market strategies, and the removal of prior regulatory barriers will significantly increase the flexibility of the SPR system in providing protection to all regions and noncontiguous areas. The SPR, located in the Gulf Coast salt domes as crude oil, continues to represent the most practical, efficient, and effective means of providing flexibility, security, and low cost energy storage.

  3. Simulation in teaching regional anesthesia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Ankeet D; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Mariano, Edward R

    2015-01-01

    The emerging subspecialty of regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine represents an opportunity to evaluate critically the current methods of teaching regional anesthesia techniques and the practice of acute pain medicine. To date, there have been a wide variety of simulation applications in this field, and efficacy has largely been assumed. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals that effective teaching strategies, including simulation, in regional anesthesiology and acute pain medicine are not established completely yet. Future research should be directed toward comparative-effectiveness of simulation versus other accepted teaching methods, exploring the combination of procedural training with realistic clinical scenarios, and the application of simulation-based teaching curricula to a wider range of learner, from the student to the practicing physician. PMID:26316812

  4. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  5. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  6. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  7. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  8. [Regional migrating osteoporosis - a case report].

    PubMed

    Zofková, I; Hrbáč, J; Dostál, J; Sprindrich, J

    2013-09-01

    Regional migrating osteoporosis (RMO) was observed in young man with episodes of bone pain in bearing joints, which migrated from hip to leg and subsequently to knee on the unilateral side. Dynamic scintigraphy (SPECT) carried out during relapse of pain demonstrated increased accumulation of radioizotope in Lisfrank joint, distal epiphysis of femur and proximal epiphysis of tibia on the unilateral side due to hyperperfusion and high metabolic turnover in these regions of the skeleton. Dia-gnosis of RMO was confirmed by magnetic resonance (MRI), which showed bone marrow edema of corresponding regions. Although RMO is relatively benign disease with spontaneous remissions, infection etiology or the more serious avascular necrosis should be taken into account. PMID:24073956

  9. Regional Deformation Studies with GRACE and GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. L.; Elosequi, P.; Tamisiea, M.; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2005-01-01

    GRACE data indicate large seasonal variations in gravity that have been shown to be to be related to climate-driven fluxes of surface water. Seasonal redistribution of surface mass deforms the Earth, and our previous study using GRACE data demonstrate that annual radial deformations of +/-13 mm in the region of Amazon River Basin were observed by both GRACE and ten GPS sites in the region. For the GRACE determinations, we estimate in a least-squares solution for each Stokes coefficient parameters that represent the amplitudes of the annual variation. We then filter these parameters based on a statistical test that uses the scatter of the postfit residuals. We demonstrate by comparison to the GPS amplitudes that this method is more accurate, for this region, than Gaussian smoothing. Our model for the temporal behavior of the gravity coefficients includes a rate term, and although the time series are noisy, the glacial isostatic adjustment signal over Hudson s Bay can be observed. .

  10. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed. PMID:23776226

  11. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  12. [Water problems in the Eastern Mediterranean Region].

    PubMed

    Zeribl, T

    2005-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization is confronted with formidable water problems due to: increased water demand both for consumption and for irrigation in agriculture that is becoming more productive and more polluting; scarce water resources; drought, erosion and pollution; inappropriate management; inadequate policies; and institutional and legal considerations. Added to these problems are the risks of regional conflicts because of the lack of "shared" management of cross-border waters which are an object of contention between neighbouring countries. This report analyses the issues relating to water availability, health and development on the basis of the distribution of water resources, and their use by industry and the huge proportion for agricultural use. It raises the question whether countries in the Region are ready to review their strategies on water priorities, particularly in the areas of health, agriculture and food self-sufficiency. PMID:16532689

  13. A regional approach to water shortage problems in the Sahel region of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Isiorho, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Sahel region of Africa has repeatedly experienced drought periods, such as those highlighted during the early to mid-eighties. Water, an essential of life, is a scarce commodity in the region. Lake Chad is the major source of water for approximately ten million people across four nations. For proper management of water resources in this persistently drought prone region, the regional hydrology must be understood. Remote sensing, geophysical, and geochemical techniques are currently being used in an attempt to understand the hydrology of the region. Preliminary results indicate that lineament trace analysis from remote sensing can be correlated with faults/fractures of the region, with important implications for its hydrology. Field data indicate groundwater recharge from the lake to the southwest of the Chad Basin. Because of the low annual rainfall (less than 30 cm), a high rate of evaporation (230 cm/yr) and clay-rich surface materials (topsoil) of the region, Lake Chad appears to be its main source of water, either as surface or groundwater, as indicated by preliminary isotopic data. Understanding the hydrology of the region is imperative for the proper management of water resources in this drought-prone part of Africa. The governments of the Sahel need to approach the water shortage problem from a regional point of view.

  14. Brainstem Encoding of Aided Speech in Hearing Aid Users with Cochlear Dead Region(s)

    PubMed Central

    Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan; Ibraheem, Ola Abdallah; Galhom, Dalia Helal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Neural encoding of speech begins with the analysis of the signal as a whole broken down into its sinusoidal components in the cochlea, which has to be conserved up to the higher auditory centers. Some of these components target the dead regions of the cochlea causing little or no excitation. Measuring aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response elicited by speech stimuli with different spectral maxima can give insight into the brainstem encoding of aided speech with spectral maxima at these dead regions. Objective  This research aims to study the impact of dead regions of the cochlea on speech processing at the brainstem level after a long period of hearing aid use. Methods  This study comprised 30 ears without dead regions and 46 ears with dead regions at low, mid, or high frequencies. For all ears, we measured the aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response using speech stimuli of low, mid, and high spectral maxima. Results  Aided speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was producible in all subjects. Responses evoked by stimuli with spectral maxima at dead regions had longer latencies and smaller amplitudes when compared with the control group or the responses of other stimuli. Conclusion  The presence of cochlear dead regions affects brainstem encoding of speech with spectral maxima perpendicular to these regions. Brainstem neuroplasticity and the extrinsic redundancy of speech can minimize the impact of dead regions in chronic hearing aid users. PMID:27413404

  15. Oxic and Anoxic Regions of Subseafloor Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S.; Pockalny, R. A.; Spivack, A. J.; Inagaki, F.; Murray, R. W.; Adhikari, R. R.; Gribsholt, B.; Kallmeyer, J.; McKinley, C. C.; Morono, Y.; Røy, H.; Sauvage, J.; Ziebis, W.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen content defines two broad categories of subseafloor sediment. In areas with high rates of microbial respiration, most of the sediment column is anoxic and active anaerobic microbial communities are present for hundreds of meters or more below the seafloor. In these regions, O2 and aerobic communities penetrate only millimeters to centimeters into the sediment from the sediment-water interface. In some areas of active fluid flow through the underlying basalt, O2 may also penetrate meters upward into the sediment from the basalt. In areas with low sedimentary respiration, O2 and aerobic communities penetrate tens of meters downward from the seafloor and may persist throughout the entire sediment column. IODP Expedition 329 showed that microbial cells and aerobic respiration persist through the entire sediment sequence (to depths of at least 75 meters below seafloor) in the South Pacific Gyre. Extrapolating from these results and a global relationship of O2 penetration depth to sedimentation rate and sediment thickness, we suggest that oxygen and aerobic communities occur throughout the entire sediment sequence in 15-44% of the Pacific and 9-37% of the global seafloor. Subduction of sediment from largely anoxic regions and subduction of sediment and basalt from fully oxic regions are respectively sources of reduced and oxidized material to the mantle. The balance between oxic and anoxic regions has presumably changed considerably throughout Earth history. Regions with largely anoxic sediment and regions with fully oxic sediment present fundamentally different opportunities for understanding of (i) paleoceanographic history and (ii) the nature of microbial life under extreme energy limitations.

  16. Seismic Waveform Tomography of the Iranian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Jackson, J.

    2001-05-01

    Surprisingly little is known about the detailed velocity structure of Iran, despite the region's importance in the tectonics of the Middle East. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on fundamental mode surface wave dispersion measurements along isolated paths (e.g.~Asudeh, 1982; Cong & Mitchell, 1998; Ritzwoller et.~al, 1998), and the propagation characteristics of crust and upper mantle body waves (e.g. Hearn & Ni 1994; Rodgers et.~al 1997). We use the partitioned waveform inversion method of Nolet (1990) on several hundred regional waveforms crossing the Iranian region to produce a 3-D seismic velocity map for the crust and upper mantle of the area. The method consists of using long period seismograms from earthquakes with well determined focal mechanisms and depths to constrain 1-D path-averaged shear wave models along regional paths. The constraints imposed on the 1-D models by the seismograms are then combined with independent constraints from other methods (e.g.~Moho depths from reciever function analysis etc.), to solve for the 3-D seismic velocity structure of the region. A dense coverage of fundamental mode rayleigh waves at a period of 100~s ensures good resolution of lithospheric scale structure. We also use 20~s period fundamental mode rayleigh waves and some Pnl wavetrains to make estimates of crustal thickness variations and average crustal velocities. A few deeper events give us some coverage of higher mode rayleigh waves and mantle S waves, which sample to the base of the upper mantle. Our crustal thickness estimates range from 45~km in the southern Zagros mountains, to 40~km in central Iran and 35~km towards the north of the region. We also find inconsistencies between the 1-D models required to fit the vertical and the tranverse seismograms, indicating the presence of anisotropy.

  17. FY08 LDRD Final Report Regional Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D C; Chin, H; Caldwell, P M

    2009-05-19

    An integrated, multi-model capability for regional climate change simulation is needed to perform original analyses to understand and prepare for the impacts of climate change on the time and space scales that are critical to California's future environmental quality and economic prosperity. Our intent was to develop a very high resolution regional simulation capability to address consequences of climate change in California to complement the global modeling capability that is supported by DOE at LLNL and other institutions to inform national and international energy policies. The California state government, through the California Energy Commission (CEC), institutionalized the State's climate change assessment process through its biennial climate change reports. The bases for these reports, however, are global climate change simulations for future scenarios designed to inform international policy negotiations, and are primarily focused on the global to continental scale impacts of increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. These simulations do not meet the needs of California public and private officials who will make major decisions in the next decade that require an understanding of climate change in California for the next thirty to fifty years and its effects on energy use, water utilization, air quality, agriculture and natural ecosystems. With the additional development of regional dynamical climate modeling capability, LLNL will be able to design and execute global simulations specifically for scenarios important to the state, then use those results to drive regional simulations of the impacts of the simulated climate change for regions as small as individual cities or watersheds. Through this project, we systematically studied the strengths and weaknesses of downscaling global model results with a regional mesoscale model to guide others, particularly university researchers, who are using the technique based on models with less complete parameterizations or

  18. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  19. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach. PMID:26742135

  20. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  1. 2010 FIRST Robotics Bayou Regional Tournament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the robotics team from St. Patrick Catholic High School in Biloxi, Miss., focus on guiding their robot on the 2010 Bayou Regional playing field during the annual FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics competition March 5-6. The event attracted 36 teams from eight states, including 25 teams from Louisiana and Mississippi high schools. The tournament was one of dozens of FIRST tournaments scheduled around the country in advance of the national robotics championship in Atlanta in April. The Bayou Regional competition was held at the Alario Center in Westwego, La.

  2. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  3. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  4. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  5. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  6. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K.; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated

  7. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests. PMID:25309619

  8. D region predictions. [effects on radio propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.; Chakrabarty, D. K.; Deshpande, S. D.; Doherty, R. H.; Gregory, J. B.; Hargreaves, J. K.; Lastovicka, J.; Morris, P.; Piggott, W. R.; Reagan, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Present knowledge of D region phenomena is briefly reviewed and the status of current methods of predicting their effects on radio propagation considered. The ELF, VLF and LF navigational and timing systems depend on the stability of the lower part of the D layer where these waves are reflected, whereas MF and HF waves are absorbed as they penetrate the region, in most cases mainly in the upper part of the layer. Possible methods of improving predictions, warnings, and real time operations are considered with particular stress on those which can be implemented in the near future.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, R.J.; Duncan, G.C.; Weinman, M.L.; Barr, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured via xenon133 inhalation technique in 23 patients with schizophrenia and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. The mean blood flow to both hemispheres was found to be lower for the patients. The patients and their controls did not differ on interhemispheric differences in blood flow. There were no differences in rCBF between medicated and unmedicated, subchronic and chronic, and paranoid and nonparanoid patients. Hallucinations were associated with reduced blood flow to several postcentral regions.

  10. Bioenergy Sustainability at the Regional-Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Mulholland, Patrick J; Lowrance, Richard; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of bioenergy crops will affect ecological processes and their interactions and thus have an influence on ecosystem services provided by the lands on which these crops are grown. The regional-scale effects of bioenergy choices on ecosystem services need special attention because they often have been neglected yet can affect the ecological, social and economic aspects of sustainability. A regional-scale perspective provides the opportunity to make more informed choices about crop selection and management, particularly with regard to water quality and quantity issues, and also about other aspects of ecological, social, and economic sustainability. We give special attention to cellulosic feedstocks because of the opportunities they provide.

  11. ON THE FORMATION OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: aake@nbi.dk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding 'piggy-back' in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  12. Parallelized seeded region growing using CUDA.

    PubMed

    Park, Seongjin; Lee, Jeongjin; Lee, Hyunna; Shin, Juneseuk; Seo, Jinwook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG) algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  13. Regional production and renewable resource exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problem of regional pollution impact. A model of a two-sector regional economy is developed and optimized using optimal control theory. Pollution externalities are intuitively incorporated into the model in order to investigate how abatement activities affect the optimal process. The sector of the economy dependent on natural resources is then examined exclusively. A simulation methodology is developed whereby profit losses in this sector may be ascertained. This methodology is used to measure the impact of pollution in Chesapeake Bay on the Striped Bass fishery. It is shown that this fishery stands to lose $412,604,000 if current pollution trends persist.

  14. Kinetic Structure of the Reconnection Diffusion Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotyaintsev, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    We present high-resolution multi-spacecraft observations of electromagnetic fields and particle distributions by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission throughout a reconnection layer at the sub-solar magnetopause. We study which terms in the generalized Ohm's law balance the observed electric field throughout the region. We also study waves and particle distribution functions in order to identify kinetic boundaries created due to acceleration and trapping of electrons and ions as well as mixing of electron populations from different sides of the reconnecting layer. We discuss the interplay between particles, waves, and DC electric and magnetic fields, which clearly demonstrates kinetic and multi-scale nature of the reconnection diffusion region.

  15. Congenital skin fossae in the zygomatic region.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, Y; Iwahira, Y; Maruyama, Y

    1993-01-01

    A unique case of a congenital skin fossa in the zygomatic region in a 3-year-old girl is reported. Little has been written about congenital fossae, or dimples. They are thought to develop in the wound resulting from the fetal tissue being compressed between a sharp bony point and the uterine wall. The skin and subcutaneous tissue become compressed and adherent, and when the pressure is released, surrounding parts can stand up, while the attached part remains tied down, forming small dimples or fossae, what have been called "pressure dimples." This is the first report of a skin fossa located in the zygomatic region, as far as we know. PMID:8416522

  16. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  17. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  18. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental breakup

    SciTech Connect

    von Frese, R.R.B.; Hinze, W.J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Continental lithosphere magnetic anomalies mapped by the Magsat satellite are related to tectonic features associated with regional compositional variations of the crust and upper mantle and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. These continental-scale anomaly patterns when corrected for varying observation elevation and the global change in the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field show remarkable correlation of regional lithospheric magnetic sources across rifted continental margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans.

  19. Transition region of the earth's upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Bass, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The chemistry of the earth's mantle is discussed using data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, petrology, seismology, and mineral physics. The chondritic earth, the upper mantle and the 400-km discontinuity, the transition region, lower mantle mineralogy, and surface wave tomography are examined. Three main issues are addressed: (1) whether the mantle is homogeneous in composition or chemically stratified, (2) whether the major element chemistry of the mantle is more similar to upper mantle peridotites or to chondrites, and (3) the nature of the composition of the source region of basalts erupted at midocean ridges.

  20. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Title, A. M.; Lemen, J. R.; Kushner, G. D.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B.; Berger, T.; Boerner, P.; Cheung, M.; Chou, C.; Drake, J. F.; Duncan, D. W.; Freeland, S.; Heyman, G. F.; Hoffman, C.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Lindgren, R. W.; Mathur, D.; Rehse, R.; Sabolish, D.; Seguin, R.; Schrijver, C. J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wülser, J.-P.; Wolfson, C. J.; Yanari, C.; Mudge, J.; Nguyen-Phuc, N.; Timmons, R.; van Bezooijen, R.; Weingrod, I.; Brookner, R.; Butcher, G.; Dougherty, B.; Eder, J.; Knagenhjelm, V.; Larsen, S.; Mansir, D.; Phan, L.; Boyle, P.; Cheimets, P. N.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Gates, R.; Hertz, E.; McKillop, S.; Park, S.; Perry, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Reeves, K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H.; Weber, M.; Dunn, C.; Eccles, S.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Mashburn, K.; Pust, N.; Springer, L.; Carvalho, R.; Kleint, L.; Marmie, J.; Mazmanian, E.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Sawyer, S.; Strong, J.; Worden, S. P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.; Wiesmann, M.; Aloise, J.; Chu, K.-C.; Bush, R. I.; Scherrer, P. H.; Brekke, P.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Lites, B. W.; McIntosh, S. W.; Uitenbroek, H.; Okamoto, T. J.; Gummin, M. A.; Auker, G.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Waltham, N.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33 - 0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, two-second temporal resolution, and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec × 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332 - 1358 Å, 1389 - 1407 Å, and 2783 - 2834 Å, including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg ii h 2803 Å and Mg ii k 2796 Å) and transition region (C ii 1334/1335 Å and Si iv 1394/1403 Å). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C ii 1330, Si iv 1400, Mg ii k 2796, and Mg ii wing 2830 Å) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec × 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial samplings (from 0.33 arcsec and up). IRIS is sensitive to emission from plasma at temperatures between 5000 K and 10 MK and will advance our understanding of the flow of mass and energy through an interface region, formed by the chromosphere and transition region, between the photosphere and corona. This highly structured and dynamic region not only acts as the conduit of all mass and energy feeding into the corona and solar wind, it also requires an order of magnitude more energy to heat than the corona and solar wind combined. The IRIS investigation includes a strong numerical modeling component based on advanced radiative-MHD codes to facilitate interpretation of observations of this complex region. Approximately eight Gbytes of data (after compression) are acquired by IRIS each day and made available for unrestricted use within a few days of the observation.