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Sample records for n3 fatty acids

  1. Innovative dietary sources of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jay; Rust, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    It is now established that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are involved in health promotion and disease prevention, particularly those traditionally derived from marine sources (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). A number of organizations have made specific recommendations for the general population to increase their intakes of these nutrients. In response to and along with these recommendations, n-3 PUFAs are being incorporated into nontraditional food sources because of advances in the technology to safely enrich/fortify our food supply. Fatty acid compositions of traditional oils (e.g., canola and soybean) are being genetically modified to deliver more highly concentrated sources of n-3 PUFA. The advent of algal sources of docosahexaenoic acid provides one of the few terrestrial sources of this fatty acid in a concentrated form. All of this is possible because of newer technologies (microencapsulation) and improved processing techniques that ensure stability and preserve the integrity of these unstable fatty acids.

  2. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    2000-07-01

    The diet of our ancestors was less dense in calories, being higher in fiber, rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, and fish. As a result, the diet was lower in total fat and saturated fat, but contained equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid (LA) is the major n-6 fatty acid, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the major n-3 fatty acid. In the body, LA is metabolized to arachidonic acid (AA), and ALA is metabolized to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ratio of n-6 to n-3 essential fatty acids was 1 to 2:1 with higher levels of the longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as EPA, DHA, and AA, than today's diet. Today this ratio is about 10 to 1:20 to 25 to 1, indicating that Western diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. The n-3 and n-6 EPA are not interconvertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. The N-6 and n-3 fatty acids influence eicosanoid metabolism, gene expression, and intercellular cell-to-cell communication. The PUFA composition of cell membranes is, to a great extent, dependent on dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations. These two classes of PUFA should be distinguished because they are metabolically and functionally distinct and have opposing physiological functions; their balance is important for homeostasis and normal development. Studies with nonhuman primates and human newborns indicate that DHA is essential for the normal functional development of the retina and brain, particularly in premature infants. A balanced n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet is essential for normal growth and development and should lead to decreases in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases and improve mental health. Although a recommended dietary allowance for essential

  3. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out. PMID:23746276

  4. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to have potential beneficial effects for chronic diseases including cancer, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular have been studied extensively, whereas substantive evidence for a biological role for the precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), is lacking. It is not enough to assume that ALA exerts effects through conversion to EPA and DHA, as the process is highly inefficient in humans. Thus, clarification of ALA's involvement in health and disease is essential, as it is the principle n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumed in the North American diet and intakes of EPA and DHA are typically very low. There is evidence suggesting that ALA, EPA and DHA have specific and potentially independent effects on chronic disease. Therefore, this review will assess our current understanding of the differential effects of ALA, EPA and DHA on cancer, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. Potential mechanisms of action will also be reviewed. Overall, a better understanding of the individual role for ALA, EPA and DHA is needed in order to make appropriate dietary recommendations regarding n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption. PMID:19664246

  5. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autoimmune-Mediated Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil suppresses inflammatory processes making these fatty acids attractive candidates for both the prevention and amelioration of several organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to determine whether fish oils containing the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can be used in the prevention and treatment of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and lupus nephritis. In a toxin-induced mouse model that mimics the early stages of IgAN, n-3 PUFA consumption suppresses aberrant interleukin (IL)-6-driven IgA production and mesangial IgA immune complex deposition by impairing phosphorylation of upstream kinases and activation of transcription factors essential for IL-6 gene transcription. n-3 PUFAs can also suppress production of anti-double-stranded DNA IgG antibodies and the resultant development of lupus nephritis in the NZBW F1 mouse and related models. These effects have been linked in part to impaired expression of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules as well as increases in antioxidant enzymes in kidney and immune organs. Several recent clinical trials have provided compelling evidence that n-3 PUFA supplementation could be useful in treatment of human IgAN and lupus nephritis, although some other studies suggest such supplementation might be without benefit. Future investigations employing genomics/proteomics and novel genetically altered mice should provide further insight into how n-3 PUFAs modulate these diseases as well help to identify clinically relevant biomarkers. The latter could be employed in future well-designed, long-term clinical studies that will resolve current controversies on n-3 PUFA efficacy in autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis. PMID:20189790

  6. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians’ Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at ...

  7. The high-level accumulation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic pigs harboring the n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanrong; Lin, Yanli; Wu, Xiaojie; Feng, Chong; Long, Chuan; Xiong, Fuyin; Wang, Ning; Pan, Dengke; Chen, Hongxing

    2014-02-01

    Livestock meat is generally low in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are beneficial to human health. An alternative approach to increasing the levels of n-3 PUFAs in meat is to generate transgenic livestock animals. In this study, we describe the generation of cloned pigs that express the cbr-fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis briggsae, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Analysis of fatty acids demonstrated that the cbr-fat-1 transgenic pigs produced high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs; consequently, a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids was observed. We demonstrated that the n-3 desaturase gene from C. briggsae was functionally expressed, and had a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the transgenic pigs, which may allow the production of pork enriched in n-3 PUFAs.

  8. Adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cespedes, Elizabeth; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the relationship of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome components (MetS) is inconsistent. Objective To examine associations of adipose tissue n-3 FA with MetS. Design We studied 1611 participants without prior history of diabetes or heart disease who were participants in a population-based case-control study of diet and heart disease (The Costa Rica Heart Study). We calculated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for MetS by quartile of n-3 FA in adipose tissue derived mainly from plants [α-Linolenic acid (ALA)], fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], or metabolism [docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), as well as the EPA:ALA ratio, a surrogate marker of delta-6 desaturase activity]. Results N-3 FA levels in adipose tissue were associated with MetS prevalence in opposite directions. The PR (95% CI) for the highest compared to the lowest quartile adjusted for age, sex, BMI, residence, lifestyle, diet and other fatty acids were 0.60 (0.44, 0.81) for ALA, 1.43 (1.12, 1.82) for EPA, 1.63 (1.22, 2.18) for DPA, and 1.47 (1.14, 1.88) for EPA:ALA, all p for trend <0.05. Although these associations were no longer significant (except DPA) after adjustment for BMI, ALA and DPA were associated with lower glucose and higher triglyceride levels, p<0.05 (respectively). Conclusions These results suggest that ALA could exert a modest protective benefit, while EPA and DHA are not implicated in MetS. The positive associations for DPA and MetS could reflect higher delta-6 desaturase activity caused by increased adiposity. PMID:25097001

  9. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Orr, Sarah K; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Bazinet, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is present in the majority of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Excess or prolonged inflammation in the brain is thought to exacerbate neuronal damage and loss. Identifying modulators of neuroinflammation is an active area of study since it may lead to novel therapies. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are anti-inflammatory in many non-neural tissues; their role in neuroinflammation is less studied. This review summarizes the relationship between n-3 PUFA and brain inflammation in animal models of brain injury and aging. Evidence by and large shows protective effects of n-3 PUFA in models of sickness behavior, stroke, aging, depression, Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and cytokine- and irradiation-induced cognitive impairments. However, rigorous studies that test the direct effects of n-3 PUFA in neuroinflammation in vivo are lacking. Future research in this area is necessary to determine if, and if so which, n-3 PUFA directly target brain inflammatory pathways. n-3 PUFA bioactive metabolites may provide novel therapeutic targets for neurological disorders with a neuroinflammatory component.

  10. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  11. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  12. Evaluation of long-chain n3 fatty acid content in diploid and triploid rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake of long chain n3 fatty acids (LCn3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n3), is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease. There is growing interest in farmed fish like rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, as sources of LCn3. The trout industry raises...

  13. The Association between Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Survival after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Trond; Hartmann, Anders; Diep, Lien M.; Dahle, Dag O.; Reisæter, Anna V.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Christensen, Jeppe H.; Schmidt, Erik B.; Svensson, My

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Several studies have reported beneficial cardiovascular effects of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. To date, no large studies have investigated the potential benefits of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in recipients of renal transplants. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this observational cohort study of 1990 Norwegian recipients of renal transplants transplanted between 1999 and 2011, associations between marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and mortality were investigated by stratified analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis adjusting for traditional and transplant-specific mortality risk factors. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids were measured by gas chromatography in a stable phase 10 weeks after transplantation. Results There were 406 deaths (20.4%) during a median follow-up period of 6.8 years. Mortality rates were lower in patients with high marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels (≥7.95 weight percentage) compared with low levels (<7.95 weight percentage) for all age categories (pooled mortality rate ratio estimate, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.85). When divided into quartiles according to marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels, patients in the upper quartile compared with the lower quartile had a 56% lower risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.75) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. There was a lower hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular disease with high levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and a lower hazard ratio for death from infectious disease with high levels of the marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid, whereas there was no association between total or individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and cancer mortality. Conclusions Higher plasma phospholipid marine n-3

  14. The role of n-3 fatty acids in gestation and parturition.

    PubMed

    Allen, K G; Harris, M A

    2001-06-01

    Preterm birth is the most common cause of low infant birth weight and infant morbidity and mortality. Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that essential fatty acids of both the n-3 and n-6 series, and their eicosanoid metabolites, play important and modifiable roles in gestational duration and parturition, and n-3 fatty acid intake during pregnancy may be inadequate. Prostaglandins (PG) of the 2-series are involved in parturition and connective tissue remodeling associated with cervical maturation and rupture of membranes. In the absence of infections, preterm birth is characterized by lower reproductive tissue PG production and decreased inducible cyclooxygenase expression. Women who deliver prematurely have increased pools of n-6 fatty acid and decreased n-3 fatty acids, despite the lower PG production. Several human pregnancy supplementation trials with n-3 fatty acids have shown a significant reduction in the incidence of premature deliver and increased birth weight associated with increased gestational duration. Supplementation with long chain n-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid may be useful in prolonging the duration of gestation in some high-risk pregnancies. Evidence presented in this review is discussed in terms of the roles of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in gestation and parturition, mechanisms by which they may influence gestational duration and the human trials suggesting that increased dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids decrease the incidence of premature delivery.

  15. Inflammation in response to n3 fatty acids in a porcine obesity model.

    PubMed

    Faris, Richard J; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Li, Jenny; Jones, Douglas E; Spurlock, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acids have distinct cellular effects related to inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Dietary saturated fat activates toll-like receptor 4, which in turn can lead to chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. Conversely, n3 fatty acids are generally antiinflammatory and promote insulin sensitivity, in part via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Ossabaw swine are a useful biomedical model of obesity. We fed Ossabaw pigs either a low-fat control diet or a diet containing high-fat palm oil with or without additional n3 fatty acids for 30 wk to investigate the effect of saturated fats and n3 fatty acids on obesity-linked inflammatory markers. The diet did not influence the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, TNFα, IL6, or IL12. In addition, n3 fatty acids attenuated the increase in inflammatory adipose tissue CD16(-)CD14(+) macrophages induced by high palm oil. High-fat diets with and without n3 fatty acids both induced hyperglycemia without hyperinsulinemia. The high-fat only group but not the high-fat group with n3 fatty acids showed reduced insulin sensitivity in response to insulin challenge. This effect was not mediated by decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B. Therefore, in obese Ossabaw swine, n3 fatty acids partially attenuate insulin resistance but only marginally change inflammatory status and macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue.

  16. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  17. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  18. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  19. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  20. Modulation of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes by n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Delton-Vandenbroucke, I; Sarda, N; Molière, P; Lagarde, M; Gharib, A

    1996-10-01

    This work showed that docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acid supplementation for 48 h have opposite effects on the norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in rat pinealocytes. We found that 22:6n-3 supplementation of pineal cells, done by increasing specifically 22:6n-3 in phospholipid and triacylglycerol pools, led to inhibition of norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP production whereas 20:5n-3 supplementation, by increasing 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the same pools, stimulated it. In contrast, direct treatment of pinealocytes with each fatty acid (50 microM) did not affect cyclic AMP production in the presence of (0.1-10 microM) norepinephrine. The results indicate that, using pharmacological agents such as forskolin or prazosin: (a) neither basal nor forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels were modified in fatty acid-supplemented cells compared to control cells; (b) in the presence of 1 microM prazosin, the activation by 20:5n-3 was still effective whereas no additional inhibition of norepinephrine stimulation was observed in 22:6n-3-supplemented cells. Taken together our results suggest that 22:6n-3 or 20:5n-3 supplementation modulates specifically the alpha 1- or beta-adrenoceptors in the rat pineal gland.

  1. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation. PMID:10419184

  2. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.

  3. UVB radiation variably affects n-3 fatty acids but elevated temperature reduces n-3 fatty acids in juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Arts, Michael T; Palmer, Michelle E; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Jokinen, Ilmari E; Browman, Howard I

    2012-12-01

    Temperature and ultraviolet B radiation (UVB 290-320 nm) are inextricably linked to global climate change. These two variables may act separately, additively, or synergistically on specific aspects of fish biochemistry. We raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) parr for 54 days in outdoor tanks held at 12 and 19 °C and, at each temperature, we exposed them to three spectral treatments differing in UV radiation intensity. We quantified individual fatty acid (FA) mass fractions in four tissues (dorsal muscle, dorsal and ventral skin, and ocular tissue) at each temperature × UV combination. FA composition of dorsal muscle and dorsal and ventral skin was not affected by UV exposure. Mass fractions of 16:0, 18:0, and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were greater in dorsal muscle of warm-reared fish whereas 18:3n-3, 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and total FA were significantly higher in cold-reared fish. Mass fractions of most of the FA were greater in the dorsal and ventral skin of warm-reared fish. Cold-reared salmon exposed to enhanced UVB had higher ocular tissue mass fractions of 20:2, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, n-3, n-6, and PUFA compared to fish in which UV had been removed. These observations forecast a host of ensuing physiological and ecological responses of juvenile Atlantic Salmon to increasing temperatures and UVB levels in native streams and rivers where they mature before smolting and returning to the sea.

  4. Wheat aleurone fractions and plasma n-3 fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p < 0.05). While other constituents of whole wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

  5. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function.

  6. Achieving optimal n-3 fatty acid status: the vegetarian's challenge... or not.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S

    2014-07-01

    The long chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), although originally synthesized by microorganisms in the oceans, are primarily obtained from the consumption of fish. Vegetarians, by definition, do not eat fish and thus consume virtually no EPA and DHA. Because conversion of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is very low, n-3 tissue concentrations in vegetarians are lower than in omnivores. This review asks 2 questions: what is the evidence that increased n-3 concentrations reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in vegetarians, and, if it does, how can vegetarians increase their blood and tissue concentrations of these animal-derived fatty acids? At present, both cardiovascular risk markers and cardiovascular events appear to be significantly reduced in vegetarians compared with those in omnivores. If so, and in the absence of data to show that risk in vegetarians could be even lower with higher n-3 concentrations, then the second question becomes moot. However, the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence; therefore, at our present state of knowledge, increasing n-3 concentrations is not an unreasonable goal for vegetarians. This can be accomplished by a variety of approaches, including increased intakes of ALA, consumption of stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil (if and when it comes to the market), and the use of supplements containing EPA, DHA, or both derived from nonanimal sources (microalgae, biotech yeast, and, in the future, biotech plant oils).

  7. Requirement of hybrid striped bass for dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Nematipour, G R; Gatlin, D M

    1993-04-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to quantify the requirement of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female x M. saxatilis male) for dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), specifically eicosapentaenoic [20:5(n-3)] and docosahexaenoic [22:6(n-3)] acids. Graded levels of (n-3) HUFA as ethyl esters were substituted for part or all of the 5 g olive oil/100 g diet in the semipurified basal diet. Total amount of 20:5(n-3) plus 22:6(n-3) in the experimental diets was 0.5, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0 or 3.2 g/100 g dry wt. Control fish received a diet containing menhaden fish oil at 5 g/100 g. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of hybrids (with an initial average weight of 13.0 g/fish) in aquaria for 10 wk. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher relative weight gain as well as more efficient food and protein utilization were observed for fish fed the diets with 0.5, 1.1, 1.5 or 2.0% (n-3) HUFA or 5% menhaden fish oil as compared with those fed the basal diet. These responses generally reached a plateau between 1.1 and 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, but the lowest values were observed for fish fed the diet with 3.2% (n-3) HUFA. Fatty acid composition of body lipids (total lipid of intraperitoneal fat and polar lipids of muscle and liver) was affected by diet and indicated some elongation and desaturation of octadecatetraenoic acid [18:4(n-3)] and 20:5 (n-3) to 22:6(n-3). These data indicated that 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) are essential for hybrid striped bass, and the minimum requirement is approximately 1% of diet or 20% of dietary lipid.

  8. A systemic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Natalie D; Othman, Rgia A; Suh, Miyoung; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2009-04-01

    Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain fatty acids in human health and disease has been continuously increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown positive roles for n-3 fatty acids in infant development; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; and more recently, in various mental illnesses, including depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dementia. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, including effects against inflammation, platelet aggregation, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. These beneficial effects may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended increases in intakes of n-3 fatty acids by the general population. To comply with this recommendation a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk, and spreads have been enriched with these fatty acids. Ongoing research will further determine the tissue distribution, biological effects, cost-effectiveness, and consumer acceptability of such enriched products. Furthermore, additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid or the plant-derived counterpart (alpha-linolenic acid) results in better quality of life.

  9. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular system. Should their use be recommended?].

    PubMed

    Lahoz, C; Mata, P

    1993-10-01

    The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PFA) intake on lipoprotein metabolism, eicosanoid metabolism, coagulation and the fibrinolytic system, mediators of inflammation, and blood pressure are discussed. The possible role such effects may have on the process of atherogenesis is examined. Laboratory animal studies with n-3 PFA supplements are reviewed. Finally, a review of clinical and epidemiological studies in human subjects is made in order to evaluate whether the experimental findings have clinical relevance. The conclusion is that, at the present time, there is insufficient support for the use of n-3 PFA supplements either in prophylaxis or in treating ischemic cardiopathy.

  10. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  11. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajie; Ma, David W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. PMID:25412153

  12. Membrane lipid raft organization is uniquely modified by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Harmony F.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has been shown to play a role in prevention of colon cancer. The effects of n-3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted, resulting in an incomplete understanding of their molecular mechanisms of action. Here, we focus on a highly conserved mechanism of n-3 PUFA, which is the alteration of the organization of the plasma membrane. We highlight recent work demonstrating that enrichment of n-3 PUFA in the plasma membrane alters the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts). This mechanism is central for n-3 PUFA regulation of downstream signaling, T-cell activation, transcriptional activation, and cytokine secretion. We conclude that these studies provide strong evidence for a predominant mechanism by which n-3 PUFA function in colon cancer prevention. PMID:22515942

  13. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  14. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  15. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P < 0.001). DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P < 0.01). Flax treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle ALA concentration, while DHA treatment increased (P < 0.001) muscle DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P < 0.05). The FlaxDHA diet had additive effects, including higher FADS1 and ACOX1 mRNA than for the Flax or DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently. PMID:26395388

  16. A new piece in the puzzling effect of n-3 fatty acids on atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) FA are reported to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), notably through their beneficial action on atherosclerosis development. In this context dietary intake of long-chain marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended and randomised trials largely support that EPA and DHA intake is associated with a reduction of CVD. However, mechanisms governing the atheroprotective action of n-3 FA are still unclear and numerous studies using mouse models conducted so far do not allow to reach a precise view of the cellular and molecular effects of n-3 FA on atherosclerosis. In the current issue of Atherosclerosis, Chang et al. provide important new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 FA by analysing the incremental replacement of saturated FA by pure fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.

  17. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA. PMID:22253971

  18. Dietary (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa; Ibrahim, Ahamed; Rajkumar, Laxmi; Acharya, Vani

    2005-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of substituting (n-3) long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) for linoleic acid and hence decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) fatty acid ratio on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in rats. Weanling male Wistar rats were fed casein-based diets containing 100 g/kg fat for 12 wk. Insulin resistance was induced by replacing starch (ST) with sucrose (SU). The dietary fats were formulated with groundnut oil, palmolein, and fish oil to provide the following ratios of (n-6):(n-3) fatty acids: 210 (ST-210, SU-210), 50 (SU-50), 10 (SU-10), and 5 (SU-5). Compared with starch (ST-210), sucrose feeding (SU-210) significantly increased the plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations and the plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC) in response to an oral glucose load. Adipocytes isolated from rats fed SU-210 had greater lipolytic rate, lower insulin stimulated glucose transport, and lower insulin-mediated antilipolysis than those from rats fed ST-210. Decreasing the dietary (n-6):(n-3) ratio in sucrose-fed rats (SU-10 and SU-5) normalized the plasma insulin concentration and the AUC of insulin after a glucose load. The sucrose-induced increase in plasma triglyceride concentration was normalized in rats fed SU-50, SU-10 and SU-5. Further, sucrose-induced alterations in adipocyte lipolysis and antilipolysis were partially reversed and glucose transport improved in rats fed diets SU-5 and SU-10. In diaphragm phospholipids, decreasing the (n-6):(n-3) ratio in the diet increased the concentration of (n-3) LCPUFAs with concomitant decreases in the concentration of (n-6) LCPUFAs. These results suggest that (n-3) LCPUFAs at a level of 2.6 g/kg diet [0.56% energy (n-3) LCPUFAs, (n-6):(n-3) ratio = 10] may prevent sucrose-induced insulin resistance by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  19. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    PubMed

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:16713391

  20. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoko; Kushiro, Masayo; Tachibana, Masayoshi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi

    2004-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids exert a potent serum lipid-lowering effect in rodents mainly by affecting hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. However, it has been observed that fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester do not lower serum lipid levels in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout (Apoetm1Unc) mice generated by gene targeting. To test the hypothesis that apoE expression is required for n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism, we examined the effect of fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters on the activity and gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis using an alternative apoE-deficient mouse model with the BALB/c genetic background (BALB/c.KOR-Apoeshl). ApoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing 9.4% palm oil, fish oil, or 5.4% palm oil and 1% EPA plus 3% DHA ethyl esters for 15 days. In contrast to the reported data on apoE-knockout mice, fish oil and n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters greatly decreased serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels in the Apoeshl mice. The decreases were greater with fish oil than with ethyl esters. The alterations by dietary n-3 fatty acids of serum lipid levels were accompanied by parallel changes in the activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis. The reason for the discrepancy between the results of the current study and previous studies is unknown. However, our study at least indicates that a lack of apoE expression does not necessarily accompany deficits in the n-3 fatty acid-dependent regulation of serum lipid levels and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

  1. Mechanisms increasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the heart.

    PubMed

    Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p < 0.001). Intrapericardial EPA (20:5n-3) application lead to an increase of the succeeding tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy. PMID:26780261

  2. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  3. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  4. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention. PMID:27812288

  5. Effect of dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of human milk in North America.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R G; Lammi-Keefe, C J; Henderson, R A; Bush, V J; Ferris, A M

    1992-04-01

    To determine the effect of maternal dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the amounts of these fatty acids in human milk, two criteria must be met. These are assessment of the maternal diet and accurate analysis of the milk fatty acids. This type of analysis requires gas-liquid chromatography with capillary columns to resolve important n-6 and n-3 C20 and C22 fatty acid. This type of analytic equipment has only recently become available; thus the amount of complete data on human milk fatty acids is limited. To assess actual fatty acid intakes by the infant, the fat content and volume of milk received by the infant must be known. Alterations in maternal dietary intake of PUFA cause similar changes in milk PUFA. Several investigators have shown that maternal supplementation with fish oils increases the amounts of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in milk and maternal and infant erythrocyte lipids. A new mathematic index for assessment of essential fatty acid status, the mean melting point of plasma phospholipid fatty acids, has been proposed. We found in some mother-infant pairs that maternal supplementation with fish oil lowered the mean melting points of erythrocyte lipids to levels seen in nonpregnant women.

  6. Searching for health beneficial n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Degen, Christian; Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2012-02-01

    Various plant seeds have received little attention in fatty acid research. Seeds from 30 species mainly of Boraginaceae and Primulaceae were analysed in order to identify potential new sources of the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) and of the n-6 PUFA γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The fatty acid distribution differed enormously between genera of the same family. Echium species (Boraginaceae) contained the highest amount of total n-3 PUFA (47.1%), predominantly ALA (36.6%) and SDA (10.5%) combined with high GLA (10.2%). Further species of Boraginaceae rich in both SDA and GLA were Omphalodes linifolia (8.4, 17.2%, resp.), Cerinthe minor (7.5, 9.9%, resp.) and Buglossoides purpureocaerulea (6.1, 16.6%, resp.). Alkanna species belonging to Boraginaceae had comparable amounts of ALA (37.3%) and GLA (11.4%) like Echium but lower SDA contents (3.7%). Different genera of Primulaceae (Dodecatheon and Primula) had varying ALA (14.8, 28.8%, resp.) and GLA portions (4.1, 1.5%, resp.), but similar amounts of SDA (4.9, 4.5%, resp.). Cannabis sativa cultivars (Cannabaceae) were rich in linoleic acid (57.1%), but poor in SDA and GLA (0.8, 2.7%, resp.). In conclusion, several of the presented plant seeds contain considerable amounts of n-3 PUFA and GLA, which could be relevant for nutritional purposes due to their biological function as precursors for eicosanoid synthesis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: N-3 PUFA are important for human health and nutrition. Unfortunately, due to the increasing world population, overfishing of the seas and generally low amounts of n-3 PUFA in major oil crops, there is a demand for new sources of n-3 PUFA. One approach involves searching for potential vegetable sources of n-3 PUFA; especially those rich in ALA and SDA. The conversion of ALA to SDA in humans is dependent on the rate-limiting Δ6-desaturation. Plant-derived SDA is therefore a promising precursor regarding the endogenous synthesis of n-3 long-chain PUFA in humans. The

  7. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  8. Gender differences in the n-3 fatty acid content of tissues.

    PubMed

    Childs, Caroline E; Romeu-Nadal, Meritxell; Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2008-02-01

    Dietary n-3 PUFA have many beneficial effects on cell and tissue function and on human health. In mammals the n-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALNA) can be converted into longer-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA via a series of desaturase and elongase enzymes that are mainly active in the liver. Human studies have identified that males and females appear to differ in their ability to synthesise EPA and DHA from ALNA, with associated differences in circulating concentrations. Based on studies of women using the contraceptive pill or hormone-replacement therapy and of trans-sexual subjects it is suggested that sex hormones play a role in these differences. The rat has been used to investigate gender differences in n-3 PUFA status since this model allows greater dietary control than is possible in human subjects. Like human subjects, female rats have higher plasma DHA concentrations than males. Rats also respond to increased dietary ALNA in a way that is comparable with available human data. The concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA in rat plasma and tissues are positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone and negatively associated with circulating concentrations of testosterone. These findings suggest that sex hormones act to modify plasma and tissue n-3 PUFA content, possibly by altering the expression of desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver, which is currently under investigation. PMID:18234128

  9. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  10. Dietary flavonoids increase plasma very long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Tonelli, Chiara; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids probably contribute to the health benefits associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the mechanisms by which they exert their effects are not fully elucidated. PUFA of the (n-3) series also have health benefits. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that wine flavonoids may interact with the metabolism of (n-3) PUFA and increase their blood and cell levels. The present studies in rats were designed to assess whether flavonoids actually increase plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main very long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Rats were fed a corn-derived anthocyanin (ACN)-rich (ACN-rich) or ACN-free diet with constant intakes of plant and marine (n-3) PUFA for 8 wk (Expt. 1). Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC. The ACN-rich diet contained ~0.24 ± 0.01 mg of ACN/g pellets. There were no significant differences between groups in the main saturated, monounsaturated, and (n-6) fatty acids. In contrast, plasma EPA and DHA were greater in the ACN-rich diet group than in the ACN-free diet group (P < 0.05). We obtained similar results in 2 subsequent experiments in which rats were administered palm oil (80 μL/d) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 2) or were supplemented with fish oil (60 mg/d, providing 35 mg DHA and 12 mg EPA) and consumed the ACN-rich or ACN-free diet (Expt. 3). In both experiments, plasma EPA and DHA were significantly greater in the ACN-rich diet group. These studies demonstrate that the consumption of flavonoids increases plasma very long-chain (n-3) PUFA levels. These data confirm previous clinical and epidemiological studies and provide new insights into the health benefits of flavonoids.

  11. Twice-weekly consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon increases plasma content of phospholipid n-3 fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated intake of the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is related to risk reduction of cardiovascular and other diseases. Increased consumption of seafood such as farmed Atlantic salmon is an effective way to consume n-3 but there is a paucity of data as ...

  12. Medium-chain triglyceride and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing emulsions in intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chan, S; McCowen, K C; Bistrian, B

    1998-03-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions as a physical mixture have attracted increasing interest for use in parenteral nutrition and may play an important role in the development of structured triglycerides in a future generation of new lipids. Over the past two decades, the clinical use of intravenous emulsion for the nutritional support of hospitalized patients has relied exclusively on long-chain triglycerides providing both a safe, calorically dense alternative to dextrose and a source of essential fatty acids needed for biological membranes and maintenance of the immune function. During the past decade, the development of new triglycerides (medium- and long-chain triglyceride emulsions and structured triglyceride emulsions) for parenteral use have provided useful advances and opportunities to enhance nutritional and metabolic support. Medium-chain triglycerides and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid emulsions possess unique physical, chemical, and metabolic properties that make them theoretically advantageous over the conventional long-chain triglycerides. The physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides have been used clinically in patients with critical illness, liver disease, immunosuppression, pulmonary disease, and in premature infants, with good tolerance and the avoidance of some of the problems encountered with long-chain triglycerides alone. PMID:10565343

  13. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modify fatty acid composition in hepatic and abdominal adipose tissue of sucrose-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander-Aguilera, Alfonso; Berruezo, Silvia; Hernández-Diaz, Guillermo; Angulo, Ofelia; Oliart-Ros, Rosamaria

    2011-12-01

    The fatty acid profile of hepatocytes and adipocytes is determined by the composition of the dietary lipids. It remains unclear which fatty acid components contribute to the development or reduction of insulin resistance. The present work examined the fatty acid composition of both tissues in sucrose-induced obese rats receiving fish oil to determine whether the effect of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the reversion of metabolic syndrome in these rats is associated to changes in the fatty acid composition of hepatocyte and adipocyte membrane lipids. Animals with metabolic syndrome were divided into a corn-canola oil diet group and a fish oil diet group, and tissues fatty acids composition were analyzed after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. Fatty acid profiles of the total membrane lipids were modified by the fatty acid composition of the diets fed to rats. N-3 PUFAs levels in animals receiving the fish oil diet plus sucrose in drinking water were significantly higher than in animals under corn-canola oil diets. It is concluded that in sucrose-induced obese rats, consumption of dietary fish oil had beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and that such effects would be conditioned by the changes in the n-3 PUFAs composition in hepatic and adipose tissues because they alter membrane properties and modify the type of substrates available for the production of active lipid metabolites acting on insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:21695545

  14. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids exert immunomodulatory effects on lymphocytes by targeting plasma membrane molecular organization

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Jolly, Christopher A.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil, enriched in bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has therapeutic value for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders. The effects of n-3 PUFAs are pleiotropic and complex; hence, an understanding of their cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Here we focus on recent data indicating n-3 PUFAs exert immunosuppressive effects on the function of effector and regulatory CD4+ T cells. In addition, we also present emerging evidence that n-3 PUFAs have immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We then focus on one multifaceted mechanism of n-3 PUFAs, which is the alteration of the biophysical and biochemical organization of the plasma membrane. This mechanism is central for downstream signaling, eicosanoid production, transcriptional regulation and cytokine secretion. We highlight recent work demonstrating n-3 PUFA acyl chains in the plasma membrane target the lateral organization of membrane signaling assemblies (i.e. lipid rafts or signaling networks) and de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. We conclude by proposing new functional and mechanistic questions in this area of research that will aid in the development of fish oil as adjuvant therapy for treating unresolved chronic inflammation. PMID:22020145

  15. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  16. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  17. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease. PMID:23889472

  18. Synovial fluid and plasma n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Moghaddami, Mahin; James, Michael; Proudman, Susanna; Cleland, Leslie G

    2015-06-01

    Relationships between n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) were examined in 36 patients with knee effusion within the context of a variety of rheumatic diagnoses and various stated fish oil (FO) intakes (from 0 to 30mL of standard FO daily) of variable duration. In a sub-group of patients, correlations between PUFA in SF mononuclear cells (MNC) and cell-free supernatants of SF and between SF MNC and peripheral blood (PB) MNC were examined. Correlations were also sought between clinical data (stated FO intake, pain score) and n-3 LC-PUFA. Correlations between plasma n-3 LC-PUFA and SF n-3 LC-PUFA were very strong (r(2)>0.9, p<0.001). The LC-PUFA profiles of SF supernatants differed from those of MNC. PUFA profiles in PB MNC and SF MNC were similar, except for a higher proportion of DHA in the latter. Positive correlations were observed between stated intakes of FO and EPA in plasma and SF (for both r=0.37, p=0.02) and DHA in plasma (r=0.37, p=0.02) and SF (r=0.36, p=0.03). n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF correlated inversely with pain score (plasma r(2)=0.16, p<0.02; SF r(2) 0.32, p=0.001). In conclusion, plasma n-3 LC-PUFA is a strong indicator of SF n-3 LC-PUFA status across a broad range of rheumatic diagnoses and FO intakes. Higher n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma and SF were associated with lesser pain experience. PMID:25817850

  19. Association of plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with synovitis in the knee: the MOST study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In osteoarthritis (OA) the synovium is often inflamed and inflammatory cytokines contribute to cartilage damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory effects whereas omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs) have, on balance, proinflammatory effects. The goal ...

  20. Physiological management of dietary deficiency in n-3 fatty acids by spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joshua T; Green, Christopher C

    2015-08-01

    Lipid dynamics of spawning fish are critical to the production of viable embryos and larvae. The present study utilized manipulation of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles to examine the ability of spawning Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to mobilize critical lipid components from somatic reserves or synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) de novo from shorter-chain C18 precursors. An egg and multi-tissue evaluation of changes in FA concentrations across time after fish were switched from LC-PUFA-rich to LC-PUFA-deficient experimental diets was employed. The two experimental diets contained lipid sources which differed drastically in n-3 C18 FA content but had similar levels of n-6 C18 FAs. Discrete effects of dietary n-3 FAs can be analyzed because n-3 and n-6 represent distinct metabolic families which cannot be exchanged in vivo. Results indicate that a combination of mobilization and de novo synthesis is likely utilized to maintain physiologically required FA levels in critical tissues and embryos. Mobilization was supported by decreases in LC-PUFAs in somatic tissues and decreases in intraperitoneal fat content and liver mass. Evidence for biosynthesis was provided by a higher level of n-3 LC-PUFAs in the liver and ova of fish fed diets containing n-3 C18 precursors versus those fed diets with low levels of precursor FAs. The characteristic physiological plasticity of Gulf killifish is exemplified in the nutritional domain by its management of dietary FA deficiency. PMID:25939715

  1. DNA methylation patterns are associated with n-3 fatty acid intake in Yup'ik people.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Wiener, Howard W; Havel, Peter J; Stanhope, Kimber L; O'Brien, Diane M; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Absher, Devin M; Tiwari, Hemant K; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-04-01

    A large body of evidence links a high dietary intake of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with improved cardiometabolic outcomes. Recent studies suggested that the biologic processes underlying the observed associations may involve epigenetic changes, specifically DNA methylation. To evaluate changes in methylation associated with n-3 PUFA intake, we conducted an epigenome-wide methylation association study of long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and tested associations between the diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related traits. We assessed DNA methylation at ∼470,000 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in a cross-sectional study of 185 Yup'ik Alaska Native individuals representing the top and bottom deciles of PUFA intake. Linear regression models were used to test for the associations of interest, adjusting for age, sex, and community group. We identified 27 differentially methylated CpG sites at biologically relevant regions that reached epigenome-wide significance (P < 1 × 10⁻⁷). Specifically, regions on chromosomes 3 (helicase-like transcription factor), 10 (actin α 2 smooth muscle/Fas cell surface death receptor), and 16 (protease serine 36/C16 open reading frame 67) each harbored 2 significant correlates of n-3 PUFA intake. In conclusion, we present promising evidence of association between several biologically relevant epigenetic markers and long-term intake of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs. PMID:24477300

  2. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation in Obesity: Local Effect and Systemic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Huang, Feiruo

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming consensus emerges among countless evidences that obesity is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue (AT), which subsequently develops into a systemic inflammatory state contributing to obesity-associated diseases. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), known as important modulators participating in inflammatory process, turn out to be an effective mitigating strategy dealing with local and systemic inflammation observed in obesity. Some of the effects of n-3 PUFA are brought about by regulation of gene expression through interacting with nuclear receptors and transcription factors; other effects are elicited by modulation of the amount and type of mediator derived from PUFAs. The metabolic effects of n-3 PUFA mainly result from their interactions with several organ systems, not limited to AT. Notably, the attenuation of inflammation in hard-hit AT, in turn, contributes to reducing circulating concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and detrimental metabolic derivatives, which is beneficial for the function of other involved organs. The present review highlights a bridging mechanism between n-3 PUFA-mediated inflammation relief in AT and systemic benefits. PMID:26339623

  3. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui Gyu; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a Δ4-desaturated C22 fatty acid and the limiting highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in neural tissue. The biosynthesis of Δ4-desaturated docosanoid fatty acids 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 are believed to proceed via a circuitous biochemical pathway requiring repeated use of a fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) protein to perform Δ6 desaturation on C24 fatty acids in the endoplasmic reticulum followed by 1 round of β-oxidation in the peroxisomes. We demonstrate here that the FADS2 gene product can directly Δ4-desaturate 22:5n-3→22:6n-3 (DHA) and 22:4n-6→22:5n-6. Human MCF-7 cells lacking functional FADS2-mediated Δ6-desaturase were stably transformed with FADS2, FADS1, or empty vector. When incubated with 22:5n-3 or 22:4n-6, FADS2 stable cells produce 22:6n-3 or 22:5n-6, respectively. Similarly, FADS2 stable cells when incubated with d5-18:3n-3 show synthesis of d5-22:6n-3 with no labeling of 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 at 24 h. Further, both C24 fatty acids are shown to be products of the respective C22 fatty acids via elongation. Our results demonstrate that the FADS2 classical transcript mediates direct Δ4 desaturation to yield 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 in human cells, as has been widely shown previously for desaturation by fish and many other organisms.—Park, H. G., Park, W. J., Kothapalli, K. S. D., Brenna, J. T. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells. PMID:26065859

  4. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Goupille, Caroline; Vildé, Anne; Arbion, Flavie; Body, Gilles; Chevalier, Stephan; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality. Methods Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality. Results We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality. Discussion These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality. PMID:26812254

  5. Artificial rearing of infant mice leads to n-3 fatty acid deficiency in cardiac, neural and peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nahed; Fedorova, Irina; Moriguchi, Toru; Hamazaki, Kei; Kim, Hee-Yong; Hoshiba, Junji; Salem, Norman

    2009-08-01

    The ability to control the fatty acid content of the diet during early development is a crucial requirement for a one-generation model of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) deficiency. A hand feeding method using artificial rearing (AR) together with sterile, artificial milk was employed for feeding mice from postnatal day 2-15. The pups were fed an n-3 fatty acid adequate (3% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n3) + 1% 22:6n3) or a deficient diet (0.06% 18:3n3) with linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) as the only dietary source of essential fatty acids by AR along with a dam-reared control group (3.1% 18:3n3). The results indicate that restriction of n-3 fatty acid intake during postnatal development leads to markedly lower levels of brain, retinal, liver, plasma and heart 22:6n3 at 20 weeks of age with replacement by docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn6; 22:5n6), arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) and docosatetraenoic acid (DTA; 22:4n6). A detailed analysis of phospholipid classes of heart tissue indicated that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin were the major repositories of 22:6n3, reaching 40, 29 and 15%, respectively. A novel heart cardiolipin species containing four 22:6n3 moieties is described. This is the first report of the application of artificially rearing to mouse pup nutrition; this technique will facilitate dietary studies of knockout animals as well as the study of essential fatty acid (EFA) functions in the cardiovascular, neural and other organ systems.

  6. A review of nutritional effects on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Maryline; Mourot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is the reflect of both the tissue fatty acid biosynthesis and the fatty acid composition of ingested lipids. This relationship is stronger in monogastrics (pigs, poultry and rabbits) than in ruminants, where dietary fatty acids are hydrogenated in the rumen. There is an increasing recognition of the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), because these fatty acids are essential for humans. In addition, the ratio n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the human diet is important. This ratio by far exceeds the recommended value of 5. Therefore, inclusion of fish meals, or n-3 PUFA rich oils, or linseed in animal diets is a valid means of meeting consumer demand for animal products that are nutritionally beneficial. The studies that are undertaken on animals mainly use diets supplemented with linseed, as a source of n-3 fatty acids. The use of linseed diets generally leads to an increased n-3 fatty acid content in animal products (egg, meat, milk) in ruminants and monogastrics. Recent studies have also demonstrated that neither the processing nor the cooking affects the PUFA content of pork meat or meat products. The ability of unsaturated fatty acids, especially those with more than two double bonds, to rapidly oxidise, is important in regulating the shelf life of animal products (rancidity and colour deterioration); however, a good way to avoid such problems is to use antioxidant products (such as vitamin E) in the diet. Some studies also show that it is not necessary to feed animals with linseed-supplemented diets for a long time to have the highest increase in PUFA content of the products. So, short-term diet manipulation can be a practical reality for industry. As the market for n-3 PUFA enriched products is today limited in most countries, other studies must be undertaken to develop this kind of production. PMID:20188790

  7. Interaction of exercise training and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on postprandial lipemia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tom R; Liu, Ying; Linden, Melissa A; Rector, R Scott

    2007-06-01

    The effect of combining omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation and exercise training treatment on postprandial lipemia (PPL) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of n-3 FA and exercise training in attenuating PPL after a high-fat meal. Previously sedentary, overweight, subjects (n=22; 12 women, 10 men, BMI 26.6+/-0.7 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: n-3 FA supplementation alone (FO, n=10) or n-3 FA supplementation plus exercise training (FO+ExTr, n=12). Both groups consumed 4 g/d n-3 FA, and one group also exercise trained for 45 min/d, 5d/week of brisk walking and (or) jogging at 60% VO2 max. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, subjects performed a baseline PPL and a PPL following a single session of exercise (ExPPL). PPL was assessed by triglyceride (TG) area under the curve (AUC) and peak TG response (TGpeak). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures was used to compare results from treatments for baseline and exercise trials. FO alone reduced PPL and Ex PPL, and FO+ExTr attenuated the ExPPL response measured as total AUC and TGpeak. There was no significant main effect for group or group by time interaction for baseline PPL or ExPPL. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C (i.e., subfraction 2) concentrations were significantly increased in the FO+ExTr group after the treatments. These results suggest that n-3 FA supplementation reduced PPL in sedentary subjects. Exercise training has no interference or additive effects with n-3 FA supplementation in attenuating PPL, but combined treatments may be additive in raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:17510682

  8. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (P<0.05). For fresh pork sausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P<0.05); there were no significant changes in TBARS or lipid hydroperoxides for treatments containing the antioxidant combination (P<0.05). The actual level of n-3 PUFA incorporation in both meat products was greater than 87%; n-3 PUFA concentrations did not change within any treatment during storage (P>0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  9. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the development of renovascular hypertension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, D.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Raederstorff, D.; Moreau, D.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The consequences of a dietary n-3 PUFA supply was investigated on the blood pressure (BP) increase elicited by left renal artery stenosis in rats distributed in 3 groups (n = 8) fed for 8 weeks a semi-purified diet either as control diet or enriched diets (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The PUFA intake induced large alterations in heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid profile, but did not influence body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, renal left atrophy and right hypertrophy. Within 4 weeks, BP raised from 120-180 +/- 2 mm Hg in the control group, but only to 165 +/- 3 mm Hg in the n-3 PUFA groups. After stabilization of BP in the 3 groups, the rats received a short administration of increasing dose of perindopril. The lower dose (0.5 mg/kg) moderately decreased BP only in the control group. With higher doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) BP was normalized in the 3 groups, with a higher amplitude of the BP lowering effect in the control group. A moderate n-3 PUFA intake can contribute to prevent the development of peripheral hypertension in rats by a mechanism that may involve angiotensin converting enzyme.

  10. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Todorčević, Marijana; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity. PMID:26729182

  11. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    PubMed

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  12. Upstream Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Myth or Reality?

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesco; Fabbri, Gianna; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults and is associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal events. Antiarrhythmic drugs provide limited protection against AF recurrence and have a poor safety profile. Several mechanisms have been proven to be involved in AF, e.g. inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and ischaemia. Prevention of AF with interventions that target these mechanisms has emerged as a result of experimental studies suggesting the use of upstream therapies. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have multiple effects on cardiac electrophysiology, and epidemiological studies on fish oil suggest a possible use of n-3 PUFA in AF prevention. Several randomised clinical trials have been designed to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA in preventing AF. In this review, we report the conflicting results of these trials in two different clinical settings: recurrence in patients with history of AF and development of post-operative AF in patient undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:26835119

  13. Vulnerability to dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency after exposure to early stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Krolow, Rachel; Arcego, Danusa Mar; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; de Aguiar, Bianca Wollenhaupt; Senter, Gabrielle; Kapczinski, Flávio Pereira; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The exposure to adverse events early in life may affect brain development. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) deficiency has been linked to the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between variations in the early environment (handling or maternal separation) and the chronic exposure to a nutritional n-3 PUFA deficiency on locomotor activity, sucrose preference, forced swimming test and on serum and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Rats were randomized into Non-handled (NH), Neonatal Handled (H) and Maternal Separated (MS) groups. Pups were removed from their dams (incubator at 32°C on postnatal days (PND) 1-10) during 10 min/day (H) or 3h/day (MS). On PND 35, males were subdivided into diets adequate or deficient in n-3 PUFA for 15 weeks. H and MS gained weight differently, and animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet gained less weight. MS displayed a higher food consumption and higher consumption of sucrose solution during the second hour of exposure to the sucrose preference test. No differences were observed in the swimming test. H group had increased locomotion and showed a higher response to amfepramone. No significant effect was observed on serum BDNF levels. BDNF protein levels were decreased in animals receiving the n-3 PUFA deficient diet. We observed that early life environment and a mild n-3 PUFA deficiency are able to affect several behavioral aspects (food and sucrose consumption and locomotor response), and lead to a differential hippocampal BDNF metabolism in adult life.

  14. N-3 fatty acids modulate Th1 and Th2 dichotomy in diabetic pregnancy and macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naim Akhtar; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Kim, Minji; Hichami, Aziz

    2006-06-01

    We assessed the implication of Th (helper)-cells and the modulation of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in type I diabetic pregnancy (DP) and macrosomia. Female gestant rats fed a standard diet or n-3 PUFA regimen were rendered diabetic by administration of five low doses of streptozotocin. The macrosomic (MAC) offspring were sacrificed at the age of 90 days. The mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) were downregulated in the pancreas and spleen of diabetic pregnant rats. The levels of IL-10 mRNA, another Th2 cytokine, were unchanged in the spleen or upregulated in the pancreas of these animals. Feeding an n-3 PUFA diet to rats with DP upregulated IL-10 mRNA in the pancreas and IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA in the spleen. In MAC offspring, high expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA, but not of Th2 cytokines, was observed. The n-3 PUFA diet diminished Th1 mRNA quantities and increased the levels of IL-4, but not of IL-10, mRNA in MAC offspring. Our study shows that DP is associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype and IL-4 mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen, and an n-3 PUFA diet upregulates Th2 profile. In MAC offspring, the Th1 phenotype is upregulated and an n-3 PUFA diet downregulates this phenomenon.

  15. The influence of n-3 fatty acids on maternal behavior and brain monoamines in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Harauma, Akiko; Sagisaka, Takayuki; Horii, Taku; Watanabe, Yoshitake; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use n-3 fatty acid-deficient pregnant mice to assess maternal behavior in the perinatal period. Female mice were fed either an n-3 fatty acid-deficient (n-3 Def) or -adequate (n-3 Adq) diet for two generations. The nest score and volume of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the observation of the post-delivery conditions, 40% of the n-3 Def dams attacked their newborns or did not nurse them. The brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels of the n-3 Def dams were lower than those of the n-3 Adq dams. In the hippocampus, moreover, positive correlations were observed between the DHA and the 5-HT or 5-HIAA, and a negative correlation was observed between the DHA and the DA. These results suggest that dietary n-3 fatty acids may normalize the development of maternal behavior and prevent postpartum depression. PMID:27033419

  16. Effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, breed and dietary vitamin E on the fatty acids of lamb muscle, liver and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Demirel, G; Wachira, A M; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Wood, J D; Enser, M

    2004-04-01

    The effect of feeding n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of muscle, adipose tissue and liver of lambs was investigated. Groups of eight ram lambs per breed, SuffolkxLleyn (24 kg live weight) and Scottish Blackface (18 kg live weight), were each fed one of six diets containing one of three fat sources (50 g fatty acids/kg DM; Megalac((R)) (calcium soap of palm fatty acid distillate; Volac Ltd, Royston, Herts., UK) and formaldehyde-treated whole linseed (Trouw Nutrition UK, Northwich, Ches., UK) either alone or with fish oil (1:1, w/w) and either 100 or 500 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM. Feed was offered ad libitum until slaughter at approximately half breed mature live weight. The type of dietary fat had no effect on intake, growth rate or feed conversion ratio. The 3.0-fold higher concentration of 18 : 3n-3 in the linseed compared with the Megalac((R)) diet approximately doubled (P<0.001) the concentration in the neutral and polar lipid fractions of musculus semimembranosus and liver, and in adipose tissue it increased 2.5-fold. Feeding protected linseed also increased (P<0.001) concentrations of 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 5n-3 in muscle polar lipids and both lipid fractions of liver. The linseed-fish oil raised the 20 : 5n-3 concentrations above those for the linseed diet and also increased 22 : 6n-3. Scottish Blackface lambs had lower concentrations of 18 : 3n-3 in all lipids compared with Suffolk x Lleyn lambs, but more 20 : 5n-3 in the polar lipids of muscle and liver. High levels of dietary vitamin E were associated with small decreases in the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids and increases in PUFA. Linseed raised the PUFA : saturated fatty acid ratios in liver and adipose tissue but not in muscle, and improved the n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio, as did the linseed-fish oil. Different combinations of dietary fatty acids and better protection against rumen biohydrogenation are required to improve muscle PUFA : saturated fatty acids ratios.

  17. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  18. Adiponectin and marine n-3 fatty acids in patients referred for coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Schmidt, Erik Berg

    2009-06-26

    Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and have anti-inflammatory effects. We examined whether levels of serum adiponectin were related to the occurrence and extent of CHD, and whether intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated to high levels of adiponectin. Serum adiponectin and the content of n-3 PUFAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue, platelets and granulocytes were measured in 291 patients referred to elective coronary angiography. Significantly lower levels of serum adiponectin were observed in patients with coronary stenoses compared to patients without stenoses (7336+/-3598 ng/ml vs 10,203+/-8396 ng/ml; p=0.003), but no significant correlation was seen between serum adiponectin and the extent of CHD. In men, serum adiponectin correlated to levels of the content of EPA in platelets (r=0.26; p<0.01) and in granulocytes (r=0.23; p<0.01) and to the content of DHA in subcutaneous adipose tissue (r=0.15; p<0.05) and granulocytes (r=0.17; p<0.05). After regression analysis EPA in platelets (p=0.017) and granulocytes (p=0.030) remained an independent correlate of adiponectin levels, while DHA was no longer an independent correlate. In conclusion, serum levels of adiponectin were lower in patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Also, intake of EPA may increase serum adiponectin and through this exert a protective effect on CHD.

  19. Paradoxical effect of n-3-containing vegetable oils on long-chain n-3 fatty acids in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Leslie G; Gibson, Robert A; Pedler, Janet; James, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Flaxseed, echium, and canola oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) in a range of concentrations. To examine their effect on elevating cardiac levels of long-chain n-3 FA, diets based on these n-3-containing vegetable oils were fed to rats for 4 wk. Sunflower oil, which contains little ALA, was a comparator. Despite canola oil having the lowest ALA content of the three n-3-containing vegetable oils, it was the most potent for elevating DHA (22:6n-3) levels in rat hearts and plasma. However, the relative potencies of the dietary oils for elevation of EPA (20:5n-3) in heart and plasma followed the same rank order as their ALA content, i.e., flaxseed > echium > canola > sunflower oil. This paradox may be explained by lower ALA intake leading to decreased competition for Delta6 desaturase activity between ALA and the 24:5n-3 FA precursor to DHA formation.

  20. Effect of feeding system and breed on n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lamb muscles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin (KK, n=6), Katahdin x Suffolk (KS, n=6), Suffolk x Katahdin (SK, n=6) and Suffolk (SS, n=6) wethers were used to evaluate omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and the ratio of n-6 to n-3 in muscles of these lambs, raised on concentrate or forage diets. Lambs ...

  1. Rationale and use of n-3 fatty acids in artificial nutrition.

    PubMed

    Calder, Philip C

    2010-11-01

    Lipids traditionally used in artificial nutrition are based on n-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils like soyabean oil. This may not be optimal because it may present an excessive supply of linoleic acid. One alternative to the use of soyabean oil is its partial replacement by fish oil, which contains n-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids influence inflammatory and immune responses and so may be useful in particular situations where those responses are not optimal. Fish oil-containing lipid emulsions have been used in parenteral nutrition in adult patients post-surgery (mainly gastrointestinal). This has been associated with alterations in patterns of inflammatory mediators and in immune function and, in some studies, a reduction in length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. Perioperative administration of fish oil may be superior to post-operative. Parenteral fish oil has been used in critically ill adults. Here the influence on inflammatory processes, immune function and clinical endpoints is not clear, since there are too few studies and those that are available report contradictory findings. Fish oil is included in combination with other nutrients in various enteral formulas. In post-surgical patients and in those with mild sepsis or trauma, there is clinical benefit from a formula including fish oil and arginine. A formula including fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants has demonstrated marked benefits on gas exchange, ventilation requirement, new organ failures, ICU stay and mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury or severe sepsis. PMID:20441676

  2. Development of an n-3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol enriched dry fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Hoz, L; D'Arrigo, M; Cambero, I; Ordóñez, J A

    2004-07-01

    Five batches of "salchichon", which is a dry fermented Spanish sausage, were manufactured using backfat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol. Raw materials were obtained from animals fed on diets of the same ingredients with the exception of the oil source [sunflower oil (batch control, C), linseed oil (L and LE), 1/1 (w/w) linseed and olive oil (LO and LOE)] and α-tocopherol quantity [20 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (C, L and LO) or 200 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (LOE and LE)]. A final product with a healthier polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n-3 ratio (< 4) was obtained from all linseed oil-enriched batches as compared with the control (12). The batches of sausages manufactured with backfat and meat from animals fed on diets enriched in α-tocopherol and linseed, or linseed and olive oil with or without α-tocopherol supplementation show a higher lipid oxidative stability than those of diets enriched in linseed oil without α-tocopherol supplementation. Sausages of dietary treatment C, LE, LO and LOE did not show differences in water, protein, fat and ash contents, a(w), pH, texture profile analysis and sensory features (odour, colour, texture, juiciness and taste quality). Sausages manufactured with material from animals fed on linseed oil-enriched diets and no added α-tocopherol (L) showed an unfavourable rancidity degree detected by both 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) index and sensory panel.

  3. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  4. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  5. n-3 fatty acids increase postischemic blood flow but do not reduce myocardial necrosis.

    PubMed

    Force, T; Malis, C D; Guerrero, J L; Varadarajan, G S; Bonventre, J V; Weber, P C; Leaf, A

    1989-10-01

    The effects of a fish oil-supplemented diet on infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow were examined in a rat model of acute ischemia followed by reperfusion. Thirty-five rats were fed a diet containing 20% by weight: fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; corn oil (CO), with predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; or beef tallow (BT), containing large amounts of saturated fatty acids. After 6-12 wk on the diet, animals underwent 40 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Regional transmural myocardial blood flow was determined with radioactive microspheres at 30 min of occlusion and again 30 min after reperfusion. Infarct size was determined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Blood flow was virtually undetectable within the ischemic zone in all groups during occlusion. With reperfusion, however, ischemic zone absolute blood flow and relative flow (normalized to nonischemic zone flow) were significantly greater in the fish oil group [2.4 +/- 0.25 ml.min-1.g-1, 44 +/- 4% vs. 1.7 +/- 0.3, 29 +/- 5% for CO (P less than 0.05 vs. FO), and 1.4 +/- 0.3, 29 +/- 5% for BT (P less than 0.05 vs. FO)]. Despite differences in reperfusion blood flow, average percent transmural extent of infarction was nearly identical (68 +/- 4, 68 +/- 5, and 64 +/- 3%) and overall infarct size was similar (38 +/- 3, 36 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 3%) for FO, CO, and BT groups, respectively. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with fish oils increases postischemic blood flow but has no effect on extent of myocardial infarction in this ischemia-reperfusion model in rats.

  6. Basic mechanisms behind the effects of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiological association between high intakes of n-3 fatty acids (FA) and decreased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be explained by two main basic mechanisms: (a) an effect on atherothrombosis, and (b) an effect on cardiac arrhythmias. These mechanisms probably reflect different beneficial influences of n-3 FA on cardiovascular biology. Effects on atherothrombosis include the modulation of the expression of pro-atherogenic genes (e.g., endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) and the hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and are slow in onset, requiring incorporation into cell membrane phospholipids, and usually doses in humans in the order of 3g/day or higher. Effects on cardiac arrhythmias include complex interactions with ion channels (sodium, potassium and calcium channels), typically requiring the presence of free FA in extracellular fluids and usually occurring with lower doses (around 1g/day) of nutritional or pharmacological intake. We have focused most of our research effort in unraveling the pathophysiological background of protection by n-3 FA from atherothrombosis. As the result of incorporation of n-3 FA in the sn-2 position predominantly of the phosphatidyl ethanolamine pool in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, n-3 FA appear on the one hand to increase the production of bioactive lipid mediators (protectins and resolvins) affecting cytokine-induced signal transduction; and on the other hand to directly interfere with the generation of reactive oxygen species (mostly hydrogen peroxide), directly responsible for the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, which controls the expression of a variety of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic genes, including those encoding for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and COX-2. The

  7. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients. PMID:26283657

  8. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients.

  9. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  10. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  11. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have important nutrition and disease management properties. Presently fish oil (FO) supplementation relies on capsular triglyceride. Flavored emulsified lipid preparations may provide an improved approach to FO del...

  12. Circulating n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids, PLA2G2A gene variation and sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Bartz, Traci M; King, Irena B; Brody, Jennifer A; McKnight, Barbara; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D; Johnson, Catherine O; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Hesselson, Stephanie; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Siscovick, David S

    2016-01-01

    Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene-fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP-fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele. PMID:27313848

  13. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  14. A case-control pilot study on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Oda, Eiji; Hatada, Katsuharu; Katoh, Kiminori; Kodama, Makoto; Nakamura, Yuichi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2005-07-01

    The relation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and nonfatal myocardial infarction is still controversial. A multicenter case-control pilot study on n-3 PUFA as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction was performed in Niigata prefecture. Seventy-three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and age and gender matched controls (n = 84) were recruited. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI than the controls (8.1 +/- 6.7 ng/mL versus 5.8 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (46 +/- 10.5 mg/dL versus 60 +/- 15 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Statistically significant differences were preserved in leptin and HDLc when the data were analyzed separately by gender. Serum levels (%weight) of linolenic acid (C18:3:n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5:n3), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5:n3), and total n-3 PUFA were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the control group (P < 0.000001, < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.05, respectively). The serum n-3 PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SF) ratio and n-3 PUFA/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). When the subjects were separated into two categories according to an n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio below 0.3 or above 0.3, patients with AMI were more frequently in the former while the controls were more frequently in the latter (P < 0.05). N-3 PUFA may be a negative risk factor for AMI. The results suggest leptin is a risk factor for AMI irrespective of ethnicity and gender. PMID:16157949

  15. Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Plasma Phospholipids Fatty Acid Composition in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice- a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Tamara; Ranic, Marija; Bulajic, Predrag; Milicevic, Miroslav; Arsic, Aleksandra; Vucic, Vesna; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and immunological status of patients with obstructive jaundice is usually severely altered, with high mortality rates. The n-3 polyunsaturate fatty acids (PUFA), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3), posess potent immunomodulatory activities. Thus, our aim was to compare the plasma phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of these patients with healthy subjects, as well as before and after 7 days preoperative supplementation with high doses of EPA (0.9 g per day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3, 0.6 g per day). We found impaired FA status in obstructive jaundice patients, especially EPA, DHA and PUFA, but significantly increased content of total n-3 FA, 22:5 n-3 FA and particularly EPA, which increased more than 3 fold, after 7 days supplementation. In addition, the n6/n3 ratio significantly decreased from 14.24 to 10.24, demonstrating severely improved plasma phospholipid profile in these patients after the intervention. PMID:19902030

  16. Enhanced level of n-3 fatty acid in membrane phospholipids induces lipid peroxidation in rats fed dietary docosahexaenoic acid oil.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Miyazawa, T

    2001-03-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) oil with different lipid types on lipid peroxidation was studied in rats. Each group of male Sprague-Dawley rats was pair fed 15% (w/w) of either DHA-triglycerides (DHA-TG), DHA-ethyl esters (DHA-EE) or DHA-phospholipids (DHA-PL) for up to 3 weeks. The palm oil (supplemented with 20% soybean oil) diet without DHA was fed as the control. Dietary DHA oils lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations in rats fed DHA-TG (by 30%), DHA-EE (by 45%) and DHA-PL (by 27%), compared to control. The incorporation of dietary DHA into plasma and liver phospholipids was more pronounced in the DHA-TG and DHA-EE group than in the DHA-PL group. However, DHA oil intake negatively influenced lipid peroxidation in both plasma and liver. Phospholipid peroxidation in plasma and liver was significantly higher than control in rats fed DHA-TG or DHA-EE, but not DHA-PL. These results are consistent with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decreased alpha-tocopherol levels in plasma and liver. In addition, liver microsomes from rats of each group were exposed to a mixture of chelated iron (Fe(3+)/ADP) and NADPH to determine the rate of peroxidative damage. During NADPH-dependent peroxidation of microsomes, the accumulation of phospholipid hydroperoxides, as well as TBARS, were elevated and alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly exhausted in DHA-TG and DHA-EE groups. During microsomal lipid peroxidation, there was a greater loss of n-3 fatty acids (mainly DHA) than of n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). These results indicate that polyunsaturation of n-3 fatty acids is the most important target for lipid peroxidation. This suggests that the ingestion of large amounts of DHA oil enhances lipid peroxidation in the target membranes where greater amounts of n-3 fatty acids are incorporated, thereby increasing the peroxidizability and possibly accelerating the atherosclerotic process.

  17. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone.

  18. Positional specificity of gastric hydrolysis of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of seal milk triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Iverson, S J; Sampugna, J; Oftedal, O T

    1992-11-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) of marine oils are important dietary components for both infants and adults, and are incorporated into milks following maternal dietary intake. However, little is known about the hydrolysis of these PUFA from milk triglycerides (TG) by lipases in suckling young. Seals, like humans, possess gastric lipase; however, the milk lipids of seals and sea lions are almost devoid of the readily hydrolyzable medium-chain fatty acids, and are characterized by a large percentage (10-30%) of n-3 PUFA. Gastric hydrolysis of milk lipids was studied in vivo in suckling pups of three species (the California sea lion, the harp seal and the hooded seal) in order to elucidate the actions and specificity of gastric lipases on milk TG in relation to fatty acid composition and TG structure. Regardless of milk fat content (31-61% fat) or extent of gastric hydrolysis (10-56%), the same fatty acids were preferentially released in all three species, as determined by their relative enrichment in the free fatty acid (FFA) fraction. In addition to 16:1 and 18:0, these were the PUFA of 18 carbons and longer, except for 22:6n-3. Levels of 20:5n-3 were most notably enriched in FFA, at up to five times that found in the TG. Although 22:6n-3 was apparently also released from the TG (reduced in the diglyceride), it was also notably reduced in FFA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Influence of n-6 versus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diets low in saturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and hemostatic factors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Oakley, F R; Miller, G J; Mitropoulos, K A; Crook, D; Oliver, M F

    1997-12-01

    Modification of dietary fat composition may influence hemostatic variables, which are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). To address this question, we performed a controlled feeding study on 26 healthy male nonsmoking subjects with diets of differing fat composition. For the first 3 weeks, the subjects were given a diet calculated to supply 30% energy as total fat: 8% as monounsaturated, 4% as polyunsaturated, and 16% energy as saturated fatty acids, respectively (saturated diet). This was followed immediately by two diets taken in random order, each of 3-week duration and separated by an 8-week washout period on the subject's usual diet. Both diets were calculated to supply 30% of energy as fat: 14% monounsaturated, 6% as polyunsaturated, and 8% energy as saturated fatty acids. They both provided 5 g (approximately 1.7% energy) more of polyunsaturated fatty acids than the saturated fat diet; in one diet as long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 diet) and in the other as linoleic acid (n-6 diet). Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors were measured on the final 3 days of each dietary period. In a subset of 9 subjects the postprandial responses to a test meal were studied on the penultimate day of each period, each meal having the fat composition of its parent diet. On the n-3 diet compared with the n-6 diet, plasma triglyceride, HDL3 cholesterol, apoprotein AII, and fibrinogen concentrations were lower and HDL2 cholesterol concentration was higher (P = .0001, P = .003, P = .0001, P = .004, and P = .001, respectively). On both the n-3 and n-6 diets compared with the saturated diet, fasting plasma total and LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B, beta-thromboglobulin concentrations, and platelet counts were lower (P < .0001, P < .0001, P < .001, P < .01, and P < .05 respectively) and plasma Lp(a) and von Willebrand factor concentrations were higher (P = .02 and P < .01, respectively). Fasting factor VII coagulant activity (VIIc) was

  20. Influence of a dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency on the cerebral catecholamine contents, EEG and learning ability in rat.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takashi; Fukumoto, Yutaka; Harada, Etsumori

    2002-04-01

    Female rats were fed on a diet deficient in (n-3) fatty acid or enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet from mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups fed on the same diet as their dams were used for experiments. The effects of dietary (n-3) fatty acid deficiency on cerebral catecholamine contents and electroencephalogram (EEG) in rat pups during the postnatal development were investigated. The (n-3) deficient rat pups showed significantly lower levels of noradrenaline (NA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum, compared with those in the DHA adequate rats. Dopamine (DA) contents were significantly lower in the (n-3) deficient rats until the 7th day of age. These results were consistent with observations in the EEG analysis, relative powers of fast activities in the EEG recorded from the (n-3) deficient rats were significantly lower than those in the DHA adequate rats. The effect of supplementation with DHA in (n-3) deficient rats on learning ability was also studied in a model of learning, active avoidance test and three-panel run way test, after weaning. Although the percentages of avoidance in the (n-3) deficient rats (saline group) were constantly 20% or less until the 3rd session, the percentage of avoidance in the DHA supplemented rats rapidly increased to 53% following the first administration. While in the three-panel runway test, there were no significant differences between two groups. These results suggest that chronic consumption of a (n-3) fatty acid deficient diet could modify the biosynthesis of catecholamine in the brain, and might induce the behavioral disturbances. Furthermore, the decreased learning ability induced by (n-3) deficiency in the active avoidance test is a reversible following a supplementing DHA after the weaning.

  1. Atlantic salmon require long-chain n-3 fatty acids for optimal growth throughout the seawater period.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Grethe; Torstensen, Bente E; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Usman, Nafiha; Sissener, Nini H

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional requirement for n-3 long-chain PUFA in fast-growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during grow out in the sea is not well documented. Diets were formulated with levels of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) ranging from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (4-24 g/kg feed). Two long-term trials were conducted through the seawater phase, the first at 6 and 12°C, and the second at 12°C. In the first trial, growth at both temperatures was significantly lower in fish fed 1·4 % EPA+DHA of total fatty acids compared with the 5·2 % EPA+DHA group. In the second trial, growth was significantly lower in fish fed 1·3 and 2·7 % compared with 4·4 and 7·4 % EPA + DHA. Fatty acid composition in the fish reflected diet composition, but only after a 7-fold increase in body weight did the fatty acid profile of the fish stabilise according to dietary fatty acids (shown for EPA and DHA). The retention efficiency of DHA increased with decreasing dietary levels, and was 120-190 and 120-200 % in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The retention efficiency of EPA was lower (60-200 %), and values >100 % were only achieved at the lowest dietary levels in both trials. Temperature did not affect fatty acid retention efficiency. These results suggest that Atlantic salmon have a specific requirement for EPA + DHA >2·7 % of fatty acids for optimal long-term growth in seawater, and that short-term growth trials with less weight increase would not show these effects. PMID:27293556

  2. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  3. n-3 Fatty Acids Induce Neurogenesis of Predominantly POMC-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Lucas F R; Souza, Gabriela F P; Morari, Joseane; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Solon, Carina; Moura, Rodrigo F; Victório, Sheila C; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Razolli, Daniela S; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Velloso, Lício A

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons is believed to play an important role in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Similar to the hippocampus, the hypothalamus presents constitutive and stimulated neurogenesis, suggesting that obesity-associated hypothalamic dysfunction can be repaired. Here, we explored the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce hypothalamic neurogenesis. Both in the diet and injected directly into the hypothalamus, PUFAs were capable of increasing hypothalamic neurogenesis to levels similar or superior to the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Most of the neurogenic activity induced by PUFAs resulted in increased numbers of proopiomelanocortin but not NPY neurons and was accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40). The inhibition of GPR40 was capable of reducing the neurogenic effect of a PUFA, while the inhibition of BDNF resulted in the reduction of global hypothalamic cell. Thus, PUFAs emerge as a potential dietary approach to correct obesity-associated hypothalamic neuronal loss.

  4. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans☆

    PubMed Central

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M.A.; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J.; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status. PMID:25573539

  5. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M A; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status.

  6. Enriched endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate cognitive and behavioral deficits in a mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kefeng; Gao, Xiang; Shi, Baoyan; Chen, Shiyu; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhidong; Gan, Yuhong; Cui, Liao; Kang, Jing Xuan; Li, Wende; Huang, Ren

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that accompanied by memory deficits and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have seemly therapeutic potential in AD, but the benefit of n-3 PUFAs is still in debates. Here, we employed a transgenic mice carry fat-1 gene to encode n-3 desaturase from Caenorhabditis elegans, which increase endogenous n-3 PUFAs by converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs crossed with amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg mice to evaluate the protective effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on cognitive and behavioral deficits of APP Tg mice. We fed APP, APP/fat-1 and fat-1 mice with n-6 PUFAs rich diet. Brain tissues were collected at 3, 9 and 12 months for fatty acid and gene expression analysis, histology and protein assays. Morris Water Maze Test, open field test and elevated plus maze test were performed to measure the behavior capability. From the results, the expression of fat-1 transgene increased cortical n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and n-3 PUFAs concentrations, and sensorimotor dysfunction and cognitive deficits in AD were significantly less severe in APP/fat-1 mice with endogenous n-3 PUFAs than in APP mice controls. The protection against disturbance of spontaneous motor activity and cognitive deficits in AD was strongly correlated with increased n-3: n-6 PUFAs ratio and endogenous n-3 PUFAs, reduced APP generation, inhibited amyloid β peptide aggregation, suppressed nuclear factor-kappa B and astroglia activation, and reduced death of neurons in the cortex of APP/fat-1 mice compared with APP mice controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that an available medication with the maintenance of enriched n-3 PUFAs in the brain could slow down cognitive decline and prevent neuropsychological disorder in AD. PMID:27474225

  7. [Lipidic pattern of 25 Mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Ojeda, Anayté; Silencio, José Luis; Cassis, Lorena; Ledesma, Hector; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

  8. How do n-3 fatty acid (short-time restricted vs unrestricted) and n-6 fatty acid enriched diets affect the fatty acid profile in different tissues of German Simmental bulls?

    PubMed

    Herdmann, A; Martin, J; Nuernberg, G; Wegner, J; Dannenberger, D; Nuernberg, K

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of n-6 (control group) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supply (treatment group unrestricted) and a short-time feed restriction for n-3 PUFA supply (treatment group restricted) on intramuscular fat content and the total fatty acid composition in different tissues (muscle, subcutaneous fat, liver, serum and erythrocytes) and lipid classes of intramuscular fat of German Simmental bulls (n=25). Exogenous n-3 PUFA caused a higher concentration of the sum of all single n-3 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in all analysed tissues. Feed restriction compared to control feeding induced a significant decrease of C18:1cis-9 in the phospholipid fraction of longissimus muscle and in subcutaneous fat. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in liver of treatment groups was between 34 and 44% higher compared to control. PUFA in serum and the sum of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes were significantly higher in both treatment groups compared to control. The synthesis and deposition of n-3 LC PUFA seems to be tissue dependent according to different relative amounts.

  9. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Wolters, William W.; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, hsCRP, and IL-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized 3-period cross-over designed trial (4 wk treatment, 4-8 wk washout) to compare the effects of twice/wk consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women with a mean age of aged 40-65 years and a BMI between 25-34.9 kg/m2. All study visits were conducted at the USDA, ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. EPA and total n-3 were increased (p<0.05) by all treatments in a dose response manner, with total n-3 of 8.03 ± 0.26 and 9.21 ± 0.26 % for 180 and 270 g doses, respectively. Linoleic acid did not change in response to treatment while arachidonic acid (P<0.05) and total omega-6 fatty acids (n-6) decreased dose dependently (<0.0001). The addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice/wk for 4 wk at portions of 180g and 270g modifies PLFA proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD. PMID:23351633

  10. Hepatic n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Depletion Promotes Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Mice: Genomic Analysis of Cellular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Pachikian, Barbara D.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Catry, Emilie; De Backer, Fabienne C.; Dejeans, Nicolas; Dewulf, Evelyne M.; Sohet, Florence M.; Portois, Laurence; Deldicque, Louise; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Leclercq, Isabelle A.; Francaux, Marc; Carpentier, Yvon A.; Foufelle, Fabienne; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Cani, Patrice D.; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are characterised by a decreased n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in hepatic phospholipids. The metabolic consequences of n-3 PUFA depletion in the liver are poorly understood. We have reproduced a drastic drop in n-3 PUFA among hepatic phospholipids by feeding C57Bl/6J mice for 3 months with an n-3 PUFA depleted diet (DEF) versus a control diet (CT), which only differed in the PUFA content. DEF mice exhibited hepatic insulin resistance (assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and steatosis that was associated with a decrease in fatty acid oxidation and occurred despite a higher capacity for triglyceride secretion. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the liver tissue revealed higher expression of all the enzymes involved in lipogenesis in DEF mice compared to CT mice, as well as increased expression and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Our data suggest that the activation of the liver X receptor pathway is involved in the overexpression of SREBP-1c, and this phenomenon cannot be attributed to insulin or to endoplasmic reticulum stress responses. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA depletion in liver phospholipids leads to activation of SREBP-1c and lipogenesis, which contributes to hepatic steatosis. PMID:21853118

  11. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intakes Modify the Effect of Genetic Variation in Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 on Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaofei; Ma, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested that dietary fatty acids could affect blood lipids by interacting with genetic variations in fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1). However, little is known about their direct effects on coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) -eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could modulate the effect of FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism on CAD. Methods FADS1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs174547 genotypes were measured in 440 CAD patients and 838 healthy controls. Dietary EPA and DHA intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative frequency food questionnaire. The association between FADS1 rs174547 and CAD was estimated using logistic regression under both dominant and additive genetic models. The interactions between rs174547 polymorphism and LCPUFAs were analyzed by using multiple logistic regression and the “genotype × n-3 LCPUFAs” interaction term was included into the model. Results We found that the minor T allele of FADS1 rs174547 increased CAD risk (OR = 1.36, 95%CIs 1.03-1.80), and observed significant interaction between rs174547 and dietary EPA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.028). The T-allele was only associated with higher CAD risk among individuals with lower dietary EPA intakes, but not in those with higher EPA intakes. Similarly, significant interaction was also observed between rs174547 and dietary DHA intakes on CAD (P-interaction = 0.020). Conclusions Dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could modulate the association between FADS1 rs174547 polymorphism and CAD. High dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes could negate the unfavorable effect of genetic variation in FADS1 on CAD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. PMID:25849351

  12. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flachs, P; Rossmeisl, M; Kopecky, J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent major complications of obesity and associated metabolic disorders (metabolic syndrome). This review focuses on the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) on insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, which are improved by omega-3 in many animal models of metabolic syndrome, but remain frequently unaffected in humans. Here we focus on: (i) mechanistic aspects of omega-3 action, reflecting also our experiments in dietary obese mice; and (ii) recent studies analysing omega-3's effects in various categories of human subjects. Most animal experiments document beneficial effects of omega-3 on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism even under conditions of established obesity and insulin resistance. Besides positive results obtained in both cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies on healthy human populations, also some intervention studies in prediabetic subjects document amelioration of impaired glucose homeostasis by omega-3. However, the use of omega-3 to reduce a risk of new-onset diabetes in prediabetic subjects still remains to be further characterized. The results of a majority of clinical trials performed in T2D patients suggest that omega-3 have none or marginal effects on metabolic control, while effectively reducing hypertriglyceridemia in these patients. Despite most of the recent randomized clinical trials do not support the role of omega-3 in secondary prevention of CVD, this issue remains still controversial. Combined interventions using omega-3 and antidiabetic or hypolipidemic drugs should be further explored and considered for treatment of patients with T2D and other diseases. PMID:24564669

  13. Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in tilapia and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Young, Kaolin

    2009-01-01

    A recent publication questions the nutritional value of tilapia in the human diet following the movement to eat fish for their omega fatty acid (FA) content. It suggests that tilapia have an elevated amount of omega-6 FAs (n-6) and a deficient amount of omega-3 FAs (n-3), a possibly unhealthy proportion for humans. A high n-6:n-3 ratio is problematic because too much arachidonic acid, an n-6 FA, promotes inflammation, which aggravates heart disease and other illnesses. This paper analyzes the numbers from different tilapia composition studies in an effort to understand the range of n-6 and n-3 totals and ratios present in both farmed and wild tilapia. Generally, wild tilapia have more n-3 FAs than farmed tilapia, but diet adjustments can alter the body composition of the domesticated variety. Consumers should consider fish as part of a balanced diet and evaluate their FA needs on an individual basis.

  14. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Sunderland, Elsie M; Chan, Hing Man; Choi, Anna L; Grandjean, Philippe; Mariën, Koenraad; Oken, Emily; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Schoeny, Rita; Weihe, Pál; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. PMID:21884130

  15. Enrichment of eggs in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by feeding hens with different amount of linseed oil in diet.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Gačić, Milica; Karačić, Veseljko; Gottstein, Zeljko; Mazija, Hrvoje; Medić, Helga

    2012-12-01

    The production of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched eggs by addition of linseed oil to the laying hens' diet has been evaluated in terms of production parameters and n-6/n-3 ratio. A total of 150 18weeks old Lohmann Brown laying hens were housed in cages and fed with basal diet and four experimental diets containing 1%, 2%, 3% or 4% of linseed oil added to the basal diet. The effect of the altered level of linseed oil on hens laying performance, fatty acid content and composition and cholesterol content in egg yolk has been evaluated during 13weeks of experiment. Egg weight, yolk fat content, yolk weight, yolk percentage and shape index were not influenced by dietary treatment. The ratio between n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs decreased in first 5weeks and then remained stable until the end of the experiment for all experimental groups. Different contents of linseed oil in feed highly influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio (P<0.0001). Addition of linseed oil did not influence the cholesterol content in yolks (P=0.5200) while the only factor affecting the cholesterol content was the hens age (P<0.0001). PMID:22953894

  16. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  17. Fatty acid binding protein 7 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid supply in early rat brain development.

    PubMed

    Maximin, Elise; Langelier, Bénédicte; Aïoun, Josiane; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Bordat, Christian; Lavialle, Monique; Heberden, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), abundant in the embryonic brain, binds with the highest affinity to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and is expressed in the early stages of embryogenesis. Here, we have examined the consequences of the exposure to different DHA levels and of the in utero depletion of FABP7 on early rat brain development. Neurodevelopment was evaluated through the contents of two proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), both involved in neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The dams were fed with diets presenting different DHA contents, from deficiency to supplementation. DHA brain embryos contents already differed at embryonic day 11.5 and the differences kept increasing with time. Cx43 and CDK5 contents were positively associated with the brain DHA levels. When FABP7 was depleted in vivo by injections of siRNA in the telencephalon, the enhancement of the contents of both proteins was lost in supplemented animals, but FABP7 depletion did not modify phospholipid compositions regardless of the diets. Thus, FABP7 is a necessary mediator of the effect of DHA on these proteins synthesis, but its role in DHA uptake is not critical, although FABP7 is localized in phospholipid-rich areas. Our study shows that high contents of DHA associated with FABP7 are necessary to promote early brain development, which prompted us to recommend DHA supplementation early in pregnancy.

  18. Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Macintosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Ringel, Amit; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Feldstein, Ariel E; Mori, Trevor A; Barden, Anne; Lynch, Chanee; Coble, Rebecca; Mas, Emilie; Palsson, Olafur; Barrow, David A; Mann, J Douglas

    2013-11-01

    Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with antinociceptive and pronociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week preintervention phase, ambulatory patients with chronic daily headache undergoing usual care were randomized to 1 of 2 intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month, and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of 67 patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs -2.1; P<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs -4.0; P=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs -1.2; P=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs -4.0%; P<0.001), and greater increases in antinociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs +61.1%; P<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs +27.2; P<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered antinociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population. PMID:23886520

  19. Test meals rich in marine long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase postprandial chylomicron response.

    PubMed

    Griffo, E; Di Marino, L; Patti, L; Bozzetto, L; Annuzzi, G; Cipriano, P; Mangione, A; Della Pepa, G; Cocozza, S; Riccardi, G; Rivellese, A A

    2014-08-01

    Postprandial lipid abnormalities are considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Hence, it is important to find nutritional strategies that are able to positively influence these abnormalities. Since the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenols on postprandial lipids in humans is still under debate, we evaluated the acute response of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to test meals that are naturally rich in polyphenols and/or marine long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs. We hypothesized that LC n-3 PUFA would have a different effect on chylomicron and very low density lipoproteins when compared with polyphenols or their combination. We randomly assigned 78 individuals who were at high cardiometabolic risk to 4 isoenergetic diets. These diets only differed in amount of LC n-3 PUFA and/or polyphenols. Prior to starting the intervention, each subject underwent a test meal similar to the type of diet assigned: low in LC n-3 PUFA and polyphenols (control), rich in LC n-3 PUFA and low in polyphenols, rich in polyphenols and low in LC n-3 PUFA, or rich in both. Blood samples were taken before and up to 6 hours after the test meal in order to evaluate cholesterol and triglycerides (plasma and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein), apolipoprotein B-48 (large very low density lipoprotein), glucagon-like peptide-1, and free fatty acid plasma levels. The levels of chylomicron cholesterol and triglyceride in response to the test meal rich in LC n-3 PUFA were significantly higher than after the control meal (P = .037 and P = .018); there was no difference in the other variables. In conclusion, this study indicates that acute administration of marine LC n-3 PUFA increases postprandial chylomicron response in contrast with their lowering chronic effects. These differences underline the importance of understanding the acute and chronic effects of nutritional, as well as of other types of, interventions. PMID:25193793

  20. Serum levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Icelanders, Japanese, Koreans, and Americans - A descriptive epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Shin, Chol; Curb, J. David; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Kadota, Aya; Choo, Jina; Masaki, Kamal; Thorsson, Bolli; Launer, Lenore J.; Garcia, Melisa E.; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Willcox, Bradley J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Harris, Tamara B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the 1990’s Iceland and Japan were known as countries with high fish consumption whereas coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Iceland was high and that in Japan was low among developed countries. We described recent data fish consumption and CHD mortality from publicly available data. We also measured CHD risk factors and serum levels of marine-derived n-3 and other fatty acids from population-based samples of 1,324 men in Iceland, Japan, South Korea, and the US. CHD mortality in men in Iceland was almost 3 times as high as that in Japan and South Korea. Generally a profile of CHD risk factors in Icelanders compared to Japanese was more favorable. Serum marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Iceland were significantly lower than in Japan and South Korea but significantly higher than in the US. PMID:22658580

  1. Influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipemic effect of vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bergami, R; Maranesi, M; Marchetti, M; Sangiorgi, Z; Tolomelli, B

    1999-09-01

    Since many connections exist between vitamin B6 and lipid metabolism, we aim to investigate the lipemic effect of different dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rats fed a vitamin B6 deficient diet. Diets were either vitamin B6 deficient (-B6) or vitamin B6 sufficient, pair-fed to the deficient group (PF) and ad libitum (N). The diets were combined with normal lipid (LC: soya bean-coconut-palm oils) and fish oil (FO: soya bean-fish oil). The fish oil diet with sufficient vitamin B6 content caused an increase in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in arachidonic acid. In the -B6 group fed a normal lipid diet, the arachidonic acid percentage decreased and the linoleic acid percentage increased; in the -B6 group fed fish oil these changes in fatty acid composition, already consequent upon dietary intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not show further variations. In the dietary condition of vitamin B6 deficiency, plasma cholesterol content increased in rats fed a lipid control diet, whereas no hypocholesterolemic effect was observed in those fed a fish oil diet. Plasma triglyceride contents were not influenced by dietary lipid quality because, in all conditions, the lower food intake of the PF groups caused a decrease and vitamin B6 deficiency caused an elevation in triglyceride contents which reached those of the ad libitum groups. The study highlights the interaction between vitamin B6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids and the opportunity of dietary intake of fish oil to counterbalance some effects of vitamin B6 deficiency.

  2. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future.

  3. Direct diet quantification indicates low intakes of (n-3) fatty acids in children 4 to 8 years old.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sarah M M; Garrioch, Colin F; Holub, Bruce J

    2009-03-01

    Estimates of essential fatty acid intakes, including (n-3) PUFA, are available in pediatric populations based on limited indirect approaches. Furthermore, recommended intakes for short- and long-chain (LC) (n-3) PUFA have emerged for this population. This study provides direct quantification of fatty acid intakes in children aged 4-8 y. Identical portions of all food and natural health products consumed over 3 d were collected. Duplicate samples were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, and fatty acids, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by high performance capillary GLC. The results for 41 children [25 females, 16 males; 5.8 +/- 0.2 y (mean age +/- SEM)] showed daily energy intakes of 5879 +/- 211 kJ (mean +/- SEM) and (n-3) PUFA intakes in mg/d as follows: ALA, 1161 +/- 108; EPA, 38.4 +/- 9.3; DPA, 26.3 +/- 3.9; and DHA, 54.1 +/- 11.4. Based on the Dietary Reference Intakes from the Institute of Medicine, 61% of the children met the adequate intake for ALA and 22% met the suggested adequate intake for DHA+EPA (10% of the adequate intake for ALA). These intakes were also compared with the recent Australia/New Zealand recommendations for children, where only 51% met the recommended intake for EPA+DPA+DHA. These results demonstrate a moderate shortfall in ALA intake in Canadian children and a nutrient gap for the LC (n-3) PUFA, including DHA, when comparing intakes for this population to suggested and recommended intakes.

  4. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Malet, Florence; Féart, Catherine; Le Goff, Mélanie; Peuchant, Evelyne; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Colin, Joseph; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    High dietary intakes of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We assessed the associations of late AMD with plasma n3 PUFA, a nutritional biomarker of n3 PUFA status. The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y. Participants had a first eye examination in 2006-2008 and were followed for 31 mo on average. Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC from fasting blood samples collected in 1999-2001. AMD was graded from non-mydriatic color retinal photographs at all examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01]. This study gives further support to the potential role of n3 PUFAs in the prevention of late AMD and highlights the necessity of randomized clinical trials to determine more accurately the value of n3 PUFAs as a means of reducing AMD incidence. PMID:23406618

  5. Hydroxy-alkenals from the peroxidation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Guichardant, M; Bacot, S; Molière, P; Lagarde, M

    2006-09-01

    4-Hydroxy-2E-hexenal (4-HHE) and 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (4-HNE) have been characterized as prominent by-products of n-3 and n-6 hydroperoxy derivatives of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, respectively. We also have characterized the homolog 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE) as a specific by-product of the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoate (12-HpETE). The three hydroxy-alkenals have been found in human plasma with 4-HHE being the most prominent followed by 4-HNE. They were found increased in tissues submitted to oxidative stress, according to the fatty acid characteristic of those tissues, e.g., 4-HNE and 4-HDDE in blood platelets and 4-HHE in the retina. We have shown they covalently bind to the primary amine moiety of ethanolamine phospholipids (PE), especially the plasmalogen subclass, with the highest hydrophobic alkenal (4-HDDE) being the most reactive. Their carboxylic acid metabolites, 4-hydroxy-2E-hexenoic acid (4-HHA), 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenoic acid (4-HNA) and 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienoic acid (4-HDDA), respectively, were found in human urine and measured in higher amounts in situations in which oxidative stress has been reported such as aging and diabetes. As reported above with their hydroxy-alkenals precursors, 4-HHA proved to be the most prominent followed by 4-HNA. Altogether, the three hydroxy-alkenals, either in their free form or bound to membrane PE, may be considered as specific markers of lipid peroxidation able to discriminate between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. This is corroborated by the measurement of their urinary carboxylic acid metabolites.

  6. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and vitamin E on semen quality, fatty acid composition and antioxidant status in boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Zhou, Y F; Duan, R J; Wei, H K; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio and vitamin E on the semen quality, FA composition and antioxidant status of boars. Forty-eight Landrace boars were randomly distributed in a 3×2 factorial design with three n-6:n-3 FA ratios (14.4, 6.6 and 2.2) by the inclusion of three oil sources (soybean, fish/soybean, fish) and two vitamin E levels (200 and 400mg/kg). During the 8 weeks of treatment, semen parameters were evaluated. Serum, sperm and seminal plasma samples were taken at 0 and 8 weeks to monitor the FA composition and antioxidant status. Results showed that the 6.6 and 2.2 dietary ratios very effectively increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and decreased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and n-6:n-3 ratio in spermatozoa. The 6.6 dietary ratio contributed to a greater progressive sperm motility (P<0.05) than the 14.4 and 2.2 dietary ratio, and this ratio also enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (P<0.05) in seminal plasma more significantly than the other two ratios at week 8. Compared with 200mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E, 400mg/kg supplementation of vitamin E increased the progressive sperm motility, SOD of sperm, TAC and SOD of seminal plasma and serum, and decreased sperm malondialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the 6.6 dietary ratio and 400mg/kg vitamin E supplementation improve progressive sperm motility by modifying the sperm FA composition and antioxidant status.

  7. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

    PubMed

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  8. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  9. The importance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio in the major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Husted, Kristian Søborg; Bouzinova, Elena V

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the relation between the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids and the development of depression. It is explained how these fatty acids are involved in the production of eicosanoids and how these fatty acids can affect the membrane fluidity, by their incorporation into membrane phospholipids. In addition, it is described how omega-3 derivatives are shown to regulate gene transcription. In view of the pathophysiology of depression, the mechanisms of how an altered ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 could be involved in depression are discussed. Possible mechanisms could include an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can activate the HPA axis and a changed membrane fluidity, which potentially affects membrane bound enzymes, ion channels, receptor activity and neurotransmitter binding. In view of clinical trials, it is also discussed whether omega-3 supplementation could have a beneficial effect in the treatment of depressive patient. There are strong indications that an increased ratio of membrane omega-6 to omega-3 is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and so far, omega-3 supplementation has shown positive effects in clinical trials. PMID:27496183

  10. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  11. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk.

  12. Identification and quantification of triacylglycerols containing n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Moate, Peter; Ezerniks, Vilnis; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2015-12-01

    The n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are low-abundance components in milk fat, but have great potential in promoting human health. A comprehensive survey on triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species in milk that contain at least one type of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, was conducted in this work using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap and HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry techniques. A total of 51 TAG species that contain n-3 LC-PUFA have been identified in bovine milk and their structures assigned. The TAG species containing docosahexaenoic acid were found in much smaller number and at much lower abundance compared with the other 2 types of TAG. An HPLC-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry-based method was developed, which provides relative quantification of all these TAG species in a run of 36 min. Application of this method to the quantification of n-3 LC-PUFA-incorporated TAG in 32 individual animal milk samples allowed us to determine variation between animals, identify strong metabolic relationships between TAG species, and reveal negative effect of a grape marc supplement on the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in milk. PMID:26476942

  13. Effects of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Eschen, O; Christensen, J H; LA Rovere, M T; Romano, P; Sala, P; Schmidt, E B

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory markers as circulating soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAMs) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and may constitute an increased risk of adverse outcome. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ( n-3 PUFA) may have anti-inflammatory effect and reduce levels of sCAMs (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), P-selectin) and hsCRP. In a randomized, controlled trial, 138 patients with NYHA class II-III CHF were allocated to receive a daily supplement of 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA or olive oil for 24 weeks. After supplementation, no significant changes occurred in sCAMs or hsCRP after adjusting for possible confounders. However, a significant reduction was observed in sP-selectin in patients receiving n-3 PUFA, but this result was only of borderline significance in a between-group analysis. In conclusion, a daily supplement with 0.9 g of n-3 PUFA does not significantly affect plasma levels of sCAMs or hs-CRP in patients with CHF. n-3 PUFA may reduce sP-selectin, indicating a possible effect on platelet (and endothelial) activation. The results also indicate that the low dose of n-3 PUFA used in many intervention trials does not have deleterious effects on sCAMs or hsCRP.

  14. Marine n-3 and saturated fatty acids in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in Singapore Chinese: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lesley M.; Wang, Renwei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Stern, Mariana C.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental data support multiple roles for fatty acids in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined dietary fatty acids and incidence of colorectal cancer, and evaluated effect modification by sex and stage of disease among a population-based cohort of 61,321 Singapore Chinese that was established between 1993 and 1998. As of December 31, 2005, 961 incident colorectal cancers were diagnosed. Presented hazard ratios (HRs) are for highest versus lowest quartiles with adjustment for potential confounders. Among women, we observed a dose-dependent, positive association between saturated fat and localized colorectal cancer (Dukes A or B) [(HR = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–2.63, p for trend = 0.01)]. No such associations were noted in men (p for interaction by sex = 0.04). Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was positively associated with advanced disease (Dukes C or D) (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05–1.70, p for trend = 0.01), regardless of sex. The association with marine n-3 PUFAs was strongest among those with the shortest (≤5 years) duration of follow-up (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.00–2.21, p for trend = 0.04). In contrast, we observed a small, albeit imprecise, inverse association with marine n-3 PUFAs for localized colorectal cancer among those with the longest duration of follow-up (>10 years) (HR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.29–1.34, p for trend = 0.55). Our findings suggest that subtypes of fatty acids may differentially influence risk of colorectal cancer of a specified stage. PMID:18973226

  15. Effects of extruded linseed supplementation on n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk and cheese from ewes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Bach, A; Luna, P; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on animal performance and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk for the production of n-3 FA- and conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses. A Manchega ewe flock (300 animals) receiving a 60:40 forage:concentrate diet was divided into 3 groups supplemented with 0, 6, and 12 g of extruded linseed/100 g of dry matter for the control, low, and high extruded linseed diets, respectively. Bulk and individual milk samples from 5 dairy ewes per group were monitored at 7, 14, 28, 45, and 60 d following supplementation. Manchego cheeses were made with bulk milk from the 3 treatment groups. Milk yield increased in dairy ewes receiving extruded linseed. Milk protein, fat, and total solids contents were not affected by linseed supplementation. Milk contents of alpha-linolenic acid increased from 0.36 with the control diet to 1.91% total FA with the high extruded linseed diet. Similarly, cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 rose from 0.73 to 2.33% and its precursor in the mammary gland, trans-11 C18:1, increased from 1.55 to 5.76% of total FA. This pattern occurred with no significant modification of the levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 FA. Furthermore, the high extruded linseed diet reduced C12:0 (-30%), C14:0 (-15%) and C16:0 (-28%), thus significantly diminishing the atherogenicity index of milk. The response to linseed supplementation was persistently maintained during the entire study. Acceptability attributes of n-3-enriched versus control cheeses ripened for 3 mo were not affected. Therefore, extruded linseed supplementation seems a plausible strategy to improve animal performance and nutritional quality of dairy lipids in milk and cheese from ewes. PMID:19700673

  16. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat.

    PubMed

    Leskanich, C O; Matthews, K R; Warkup, C C; Noble, R C; Hazzledine, M

    1997-03-01

    An investigation was made to alter the fatty acid composition of pork and a pork product in line with human dietary advice while not adversely affecting factors controlling consumer acceptability. Pigs (n = 150) were assigned to three dietary treatments with 25 intact male-female pairs per treatment. Diet A (control) contained 3% of a 4:1 (wt/ wt) tallow-soybean oil mixture. Diets B and C contained 2% rapeseed oil plus 1% fish oil. Diets A, B, and C were supplemented with 100, 100, and 250 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, respectively. Pigs were given ad libitum access to feed from 52 kg live weight until 95 kg (slaughter). Sausages were prepared from the resulting cuts. Tissues of pigs were evaluated in terms of fat firmness, color, fatty acid composition, and contents of alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Organoleptic characteristics of chops and sausages were evaluated by a trained taste panel. Pigs fed Diets B and C had improved feed conversion ratios (P < .05) and ADG compared with control pigs. The levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturates were significantly increased in the tissues and sausage from pigs fed Diets B and C with associated alterations in n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios that accorded with contemporary human dietary recommendations. Levels of alpha-tocopherol and TBARS were significantly altered in the tissues. There were no appreciable differences between treatments in carcass characteristics, including color. The overall organoleptic acceptability of chops and sausages was not different between the treatments.

  17. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  18. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. PMID:26468264

  19. Chemopreventive n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reprogram Genetic Signatures during Colon Cancer Initiation and Progression in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Laurie A.; Nguyen, Danh V.; Hokanson, Regina M.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Isett, Robert B.; Turner, Nancy D.; Dougherty, Edward R.; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease colon tumor formation have not been fully elucidated. Examination of genes up- or down-regulated at various stages of tumor development via the monitoring of gene expression relationships will help to determine the biological processes ultimately responsible for the protective effects of n-3 PUFA. Therefore, using a 3 × × × 2 factorial design, we used Codelink DNA microarrays containing ∼9000 genes to help decipher the global changes in colonocyte gene expression profiles in carcinogen-injected Sprague Dawley rats. Animals were assigned to three dietary treatments differing only in the type of fat (corn oil/n-6 PUFA, fish oil/n-3 PUFA, or olive oil/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid), two treatments (injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane or with saline), and two time points (12 hours and 10 weeks after first injection). Only the consumption of n-3 PUFA exerted a protective effect at the initiation (DNA adduct formation) and promotional (aberrant crypt foci) stages. Importantly, microarray analysis of colonocyte gene expression profiles discerned fundamental differences among animals treated with n-3 PUFA at both the 12 hours and 10-week time points. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that dietary fat composition alters the molecular portrait of gene expression profiles in the colonic epithelium at both the initiation and promotional stages of tumor development, these findings indicate that the chemopreventive effect of fish oil is due to the direct action of n-3 PUFA and not to a reduction in the content of n-6 PUFA. PMID:15374999

  20. In male rats with concurrent iron and (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, provision of either iron or (n-3) fatty acids alone alters monoamine metabolism and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Concurrent deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids [(n-3)FAD)] in rats can alter brain monoamine pathways and impair learning and memory. We examined whether repletion with Fe and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, corrects the deficits in brain monoamine activity (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory [by Morris water maze (MWM) testing] associated with deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and (n-3)FAD [ID+(n-3)FAD] were fed an Fe+DHA/EPA, Fe+(n-3)FAD, ID+DHA/EPA, or ID+(n-3)FAD diet for 5 wk [postnatal d 56-91]. Biochemical measures and MWM performance after repletion were compared to age-matched control rats. The provision of Fe in combination with DHA/EPA synergistically increased Fe concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) (Fe x DHA/EPA interaction). Similarly, provision of DHA/EPA in combination with Fe resulted in higher brain DHA concentrations than provision of DHA alone in the frontal cortex (FC) and OB (P < 0.05). Dopamine (DA) receptor D1 was upregulated in the hippocampus of Fe+DHA/EPA rats (fold-change = 1.25; P < 0.05) and there were significant Fe x DHA/EPA interactions on serotonin (5-HT) in the OB and on the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the FC and striatum. Working memory performance was impaired in ID+DHA/EPA rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). In the reference memory task, Fe+DHA/EPA improved learning behavior, but Fe or DHA/EPA alone did not. These findings suggest that feeding either Fe or DHA/EPA alone to adult rats with both ID and (n-3)FAD affects the DA and 5-HT pathways differently than combined repletion and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.

  1. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  2. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  3. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  4. Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis endangers the health of domestic animals and humans, and may cause problems concerning food safety. It is documented that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play significant roles in attenuating saturated fatty acids (SFA)-induced inflammation. This study was therefore conducted to determine whether mammary inflammation could be affected by consumption of diets rich in n-3 PUFA. Methods Forty-eight rats after mating began to receive diets supplemented with 5% fish oil (FO) or 7% soybean oil (SO). Blood and mammary tissue samples (n = 6) at day 0 and 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum were collected 9 hours after intramammary infusion of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and FA composition in plasma and inflammation mediators in mammary tissues. Results At day 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum, the FO-fed rats had lower plasma concentrations of C18:2n6, C20:4n6, total n-6 PUFA and SFA, and higher plasma concentrations of C20:5n3 and total n-3 PUFA than the SO-fed rats. Plasma C22:6n3 concentration was also higher in the FO-fed than in the SO-fed rats at day 3 postpartum. Compared with the SO-fed rats, the FO-fed rats had lower mammary mRNA abundance of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and protein level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but had higher mammary mRNA abundances of interleukin (IL)-10 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ at day 14 of gestation. Following LPS infusion at day 3 postpartum, the SO-fed rats had increased plasma concentrations of FFA, C18:1n9, C18:3n3, C18:2n6 and total n-6 PUFA, higher mammary mRNA abundances of IL-1β, TNF-α and XOR but lower mammary mRNA abundance of IL-10 than the FO-fed rats. Conclusions Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of a diet rich in n-3 PUFA, which was associated with up-regulated expression of IL-10 and PPAR-γ. PMID:24378112

  5. Modulation of phorbol ester-elicited events in mouse epidermis by dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Belury, M A; Leyton, J; Patrick, K E; Cumberland, A G; Locniskar, M; Fischer, S M

    1991-09-01

    Because arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids are potent modulators of hyperproliferation and inflammation during skin tumor promotion with the phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (17, 18), it was hypothesized that dietary modification of epidermal fatty acids might modulate TPA-induced biochemical events in mouse skin. Semipurified diets containing 10% total fat composed of corn oil (CO) or a combination of CO and menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CT) were fed to SENCAR mice for 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of epidermal phospholipids generally reflected fatty acid composition of dietary oils fed to the mice. Since fatty acid-derived eicosanoids are thought to be essential in tumorigenesis, we compared the effects of dietary fats on prostaglandin E (PGE) production in epidermis treated with a single dose of TPA. TPA-induced PGE production in mouse epidermis from mice fed the MO diet was significantly reduced compared to PGE production in epidermal homogenates from mice fed the CO or CT diets. Type of dietary fats did not appear to modulate TPA-induced vascular permeability, however hyperplasia was slightly elevated in skins of mice fed MO. The subcellular distribution of protein kinase C, the plasma membrane receptor for TPA predominantly located in the cytosol (80%), was altered in epidermis from mice fed the MO diet compared to preparations from mice fed CO or CT diets which exhibited normal protein kinase C distribution. Our results suggest that n-3 rich dietary lipids modulate TPA-elicited events in mouse skin to a greater extent than diets containing higher proportions of saturated or n-6 fatty acids.

  6. Gestational exposure to methylmercury and n-3 fatty acids: effects on high- and low-rate operant behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Paletz, Elliott M; Craig-Schmidt, Margaret C; Newland, M Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Fish in the diet is the major source of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, but eating fish also provides important nutrients. Many fish species contain essential long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (or n-3) fatty acid, that is important for neural development and function. To examine interactions between MeHg and n-3 fatty acids, female Long-Evans rats were exposed, in utero, to 0, 0.5, or 5 ppm MeHg via drinking water, approximating exposures of 0, 40, and 400 mug/kg/day. They also received pre- and postnatal exposure to a diet containing either fish oil or coconut oil, creating a 2 (Diet)x3 (MeHg) full factorial design, with 6-8 rats per cell. The diets were high or marginal, respectively, in n-3 fatty acids but approximately equal in n-6 fatty acids. No exposure-related effects on developmental milestones or growth were noted. Behavior was evaluated using a series of rapidly increasing fixed ratio (FR) schedules of sucrose reinforcement; 1, 5, 25 and 75 lever presses were required for sucrose delivery, with three sessions provided at each requirement. This phase was followed by four sessions of a differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-behavior (DRL) schedule, in which presses preceded by 10 s (or more) without a press were reinforced. Subsequently, several progressive ratio (PR) schedules that increased response requirements throughout a single session by a rate of 5%, 10%, or 20% were imposed. Rats exposed during gestation to MeHg had significantly higher response rates than controls under the large FR schedules, during the first session of DRL, and the PR 5% schedule, but neither fish oil nor coconut oil modified MeHg's effects. This finding is consistent with hypotheses that developmental MeHg exposure produced perseverative responding or altered the sensitivity of behavior to its reinforcing consequences and that certain reinforcement contingencies can unmask MeHg's effects.

  7. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles. PMID:27596418

  8. Inhibition of the HER2 pathway by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevents breast cancer in fat-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zuquan; Bellenger, Sandrine; Massey, Karen A.; Nicolaou, Anna; Geissler, Audrey; Bidu, Célia; Bonnotte, Bernard; Pierre, Anne-Sophie; Minville-Walz, Mélaine; Rialland, Michaël; Seubert, John; Kang, Jing X.; Lagrost, Laurent; Narce, Michel; Bellenger, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, ErbB2/HER2/Neu, occurs in 25–30% of invasive breast cancer (BC) with poor patient prognosis. Due to confounding factors, inconsistencies still remain regarding the protective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on BC. We therefore evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, endogenously synthesizing n-3 PUFAs from n-6 PUFAs, were protected against BC development, and we then aimed to study in vivo a mechanism potentially involved in such protection. E0771 BC cells were implanted into fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice. After tumorigenesis examination, we analyzed the expression of proteins involved in the HER2 signaling pathway and lipidomic analyses were performed in tumor tissues and plasma. Our results showed that tumors totally disappeared by day 15 in fat-1 mice but continued to grow in WT mice. This prevention can be related in part to significant repression of the HER2/β-catenin signaling pathway and formation of significant levels of n-3 PUFA-derived bioactive mediators (particularly 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, and prostaglandin E3) in the tumors of fat-1 mice compared with WT mice. All together these data demonstrate an anti-BC effect of n-3 PUFAs through, at least in part, HER2 signaling pathway downregulation, and highlight the importance of gene-diet interactions in BC. PMID:24052576

  9. Influence of manufacturing procedure on the compositional and sensory properties of n-3 fatty acid-enriched pecorino cheese.

    PubMed

    Branciari, Raffaella; Mughetti, Laura; Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Valiani, Andrea; Acuti, Gabriele; Selvaggini, Roberto; Trabalza-Marinucci, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Pecorino cheeses were produced using two different manufacturing procedures (either from raw milk or from milk previously subject to a thermisation at 65 °C for 10 s with the addition of starter culture) using the milk obtained from three groups of ewes fed three different concentrates: (1) control, (2) control enriched with 100 g/kg of extruded linseed, and (3) control enriched with 200 g/kg of extruded linseed. All concentrates were administered with alfalfa hay ad libitum. The extruded linseed-enriched diets increased the concentration of n-3 fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids in raw milk and thermised milk cheese and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids. Changes in the manufacturing procedure did not influence the fatty acid composition of the cheeses but markedly influenced their sensory properties. In particular, heat-treating the milk and adding a starter reduced the differences in cheese odour, flavour and toughness induced by the diet when raw milk was used. Cheeses made with thermised milk and the addition of starter culture were more uniform and obtained a higher score in the preference test compared with the corresponding raw milk cheeses. An appropriate manufacturing process, therefore, can be a possible strategy to obtain cheeses with improved health-promoting properties and an unaltered acceptance level by consumers.

  10. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Ke, Tingjing; Burger, Ayala; Chang, Xuling; Low, Hui Qi; Guan, Weihua; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; Tai, E Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; van Dam, Rob M; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a major impact on human health. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci that are associated with plasma levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in primarily subjects of European ancestry. However, the relevance of these findings has not been evaluated extensively in other ethnic groups. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate for genetic loci associated with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and to validate the role of recently identified index loci using data from a Singaporean Chinese population. Using a GWAS approach, we evaluated associations with plasma concentrations of three n-3 PUFAs [alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid], four n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), gammalinolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid], and estimates of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase activities among the participants (N = 1361) of the Singaporean Chinese Health Study. Our results reveal robust genome-wide associations (p value <5 × 10(-8)) with ALA, all four n-6 PUFAs, and delta-6 desaturase activity at the FADS1/FADS2 locus. We further replicated the associations between common index variants at the NTAN1/PDXDC1 locus and n-6 PUFAs LA and DGLA, and between the JMJD1C locus and n-6 PUFA LA (p value between 0.0490 and 9.88 × 10(-4)). These associations were independent of dietary intake of PUFAs. In aggregate, we show that genetic loci that influence plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are shared across different ethnic groups. PMID:26584805

  11. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration.

  12. Fish oil and mental health: the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cognitive development and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Assisi, Alessandro; Banzi, Rita; Buonocore, Carmela; Capasso, Filippo; Di Muzio, Valeria; Michelacci, Francesca; Renzo, Danila; Tafuri, Giovanni; Trotta, Francesco; Vitocolonna, Maria; Garattini, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that consumption of more n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the risk for a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders, diabetes and cancer. This article focuses on the role of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain functions, including the development of the central nervous system and neurological disorders. An overview of the major animal studies and clinical trials is provided here, focusing on fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and infancy, and prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Although an optimal balance in n-3/n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio is important for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive functions, results from randomized controlled trials are controversial and do not confirm any useful effect of supplementation on development of preterm and term infants. The relationship between fatty acid status and mental disorders is confirmed by reduced levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of patients with central nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, there are very little data supporting the use of fish oil in those patients. The only way to verify whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a potential therapeutic option in the management and prevention of mental disorders is to conduct a large definitive randomized controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment.

  13. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  14. Endogenously elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alleviate acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xiangyong; Kang, Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Effective means for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver disease, a global health problem, have yet to be developed. We evaluated whether the high endogenous levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA) in fat-1 transgenic mice could protect them against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis. We induced alcoholic liver steatosis in 9-week-old male heterozygous fat-1 mice and their wild-type (WT) male littermates through three oral gavages of 60% ethanol at 4.7 g/kg body weight. Hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly increased in both alcohol treatment groups, but by much less in the fat-1 group compared with the WT group. Fat-1 mice exhibited significantly lower levels of total hepatic/plasma TG and plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Accordingly, hepatic expression of lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, FAS, and SCD-1) and plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) were reduced in the fat-1 mice. Furthermore, decreased hepatic expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and increased hepatic levels of PPAR-α and HO-1 were observed in the fat-1 mice, compared to the WT mice. These findings show that elevated tissue n-3 PUFA protect against acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in fat-1 mice, possibly through the down-regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress.

  15. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil.

  16. Effect of supplementation with calcium salts of fish oil on n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Gutiérrez, E; de Veth, M J; Lock, A L; Dwyer, D A; Murphy, K D; Bauman, D E

    2007-09-01

    Enrichment of milk fat with n-3 fatty acids, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be advantageous because of their beneficial effects on human health. In addition, these fatty acids play an important role in reproductive processes in dairy cows. Our objective was to evaluate the protection of EPA and DHA against rumen biohydrogenation provided by Ca salts of fish oil. Four Holstein cows were assigned in a Latin square design to the following treatments: 1) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate low dose (CaFO-1), 2) ruminal infusion of Ca salts of fish oil and palm fatty acid distillate high dose (CaFO-2), 3) ruminal infusion of fish oil high dose (RFO), and 4) abomasal infusion of fish oil high dose (AFO). The high dose of fish oil provided approximately 16 and approximately 21 g/d of EPA and DHA, respectively, whereas the low dose (CaFO-1) provided 50% of these amounts. A 10-d pretreatment period was used as a baseline, followed by 9-d treatment periods with interceding intervals of 10 d. Supplements were infused every 6 h, milk samples were taken the last 3 d, and plasma samples were collected the last day of baseline and treatment periods. Milk fat content of EPA and DHA were 5 to 6 times greater with AFO, but did not differ among other treatments. Milk and milk protein yield were unaffected by treatment, but milk fat yield and DM intake were reduced by 20 and 15%, respectively, by RFO. Overall, results indicate rumen biohydrogenation of long chain n-3 fatty acids was extensive, averaging >85% for EPA and >75% for DHA for the Ca salts and unprotected fish oil supplements. Thus, Ca salts of fish oil offered no protection against the biohydrogenation of EPA and DHA beyond that observed with unprotected fish oil; however, the Ca salts did provide rumen inertness by preventing the negative effects on DM intake and milk fat yield observed with unprotected fish oil. PMID:17699033

  17. A high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet causes different responses in rats and hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the response to a high-cholesterol, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA diet in rats and hamsters. Animals were fed n-3 or n-6 PUFA with a cholesterol-free diet, or with a diet enriched with cholesterol (0.5%, w/w) for 2 weeks. In rats and hamsters fed a cholesterol-free diet, plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride levels in n-3 PUFA group were significantly lower than those in n-6 PUFA group. In contrast, when diets were supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol, the plasma cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering effect of dietary n-3 PUFA disappeared. In hamsters fed with the atherogenic diet (0.5% dietary cholesterol) for 2 weeks, n-3 PUFA induced hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA, the increase being in the VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions. Our data thus indicate that elevation of VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol in hamsters by n-3 PUFA, compared with n-6 PUFA, is dependent on 0.5% dietary cholesterol supplementation. In rats, on the other hand, dietary n-3 PUFA did not induce hypercholesterolemia more than n-6 PUFA when 0.5% cholesterol was supplemented. Although the effects of n-3 PUFA on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-triglycerides were similar in hamsters and rats, the interactive effects of n-3 PUFA and cholesterol on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol levels differed in the two species. It was also found that plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hamsters are higher than in rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. In addition, cholesterol feeding induces hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia only in hamsters. Moreover, liver triglyceride concentrations increased in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet and hepatic triglyceride levels of the n-3 PUFA-fed rats were significantly lower than those in the n-6 PUFA-fed rats in the presence and absence of dietary cholesterol. However

  18. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  19. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  20. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Background n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively. Results The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients. Conclusion Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients. PMID:26466314

  1. Associations of the Ratios of n-3 to n-6 Dietary Fatty Acids With Longitudinal Changes in Depressive Symptoms Among US Women.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie T; Beydoun, Hind A; Rostant, Ola S; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined longitudinal changes in self-reported depressive symptoms (and related domains) in relation to baseline intakes of n-3 fatty acids (absolute and relative to n-6 fatty acids). Sex-specific associations were evaluated in a prospective cohort of adults (n = 2,053) from Baltimore, Maryland, who were 30-64 years of age at baseline and were followed for a mean of 4.65 (standard deviation, 0.93) years (2004-2013). Using mean intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids reported on two 24-hour dietary recalls, we estimated the ratios of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids for both highly unsaturated fatty acids (≥20 carbon atoms) (HUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (≥18 carbon atoms) (PUFAs). Outcomes included total and domain-specific scores on the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Based on mixed-effects regression models, among women, both higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were associated with a slower rate of increase in total Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores over time. Higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 HUFA ratios were associated with slower increases in somatic complaints in men, whereas among women, higher n-3 HUFA:n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA:n-6 PUFA ratios were both linked to putative longitudinal improvement in positive affect over time. Among US adults, n-3:n-6 dietary fatty acid ratio was associated with longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms, with a higher ratio linked to a slower increase in depressive symptoms over time, particularly among women.

  2. Iodine plus n-3 fatty acid supplementation augments rescue of postnatal neuronal abnormalities in iodine-deficient rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Mohan, Vishwa; Modi, Dinesh R; Sinha, Rohit A; Rastogi, Leena; Kumar, Praveen; Godbole, Madan M

    2013-08-01

    High prevalence of hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient (ID) mothers has serious implications for mental health of the progeny. Independent supplementation of iodine and n-3 fatty acids (FA) markedly improves growth and cognitive performance of school children. Discerning effects of n-3 FA and iodine on the developing cerebellum have not been ascertained. The present study investigates effects of these two micronutrients separately as well as together in an ID rat model. We studied the effects of these micronutrients on progeny of ID dams by instituting the following supplementation diets: (1) low-iodine diet (LID), (2) LID+potassium iodide (KI), (3) LID+n-3 FA and (4) LID+KI+n-3 FA. Pups were investigated for morphological and biochemical parameters at the peak of cerebellar histogenesis on postnatal day (P) 16 and for neurobehavioural as well as motor coordination parameters at P40. Results indicate that n-3 FA alone, without improvement in circulating thyroid hormone (TH), significantly improves functional, morphological and biochemical indices of the developing cerebellum. Further, results show that co-supplementation with iodine and n-3 FA rescues not only the loss of neurotrophic support, but also salvages motor coordination, memory and learning. This additive effect results in significantly improving neurotrophic support and seems to be mediated by parallel significant increase in TH receptor (TR)α and normalisation of TRβ, retinoic orphan receptor α and p75 neurotrophin receptor, as well as noteworthy prevention of apoptotic cell death and strengthening of anti-oxidative defence. The overall results indicate important mitigating role that n-3 FA may play in enhancing TH nuclear receptor-mediated signalling in the developing cerebellum. PMID:23312094

  3. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. Methods For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. Results The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites–including enterolactone–compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA–in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids–in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (p<0.05). Finally, acetate was lower (p<0.001) in the cecum of WR rats while butyrate was lower (p<0.05) in the feces of WR rats. Interpretation This study shows for the first time that WR consumption results in major biological modifications–increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity–known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the

  4. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  5. (n-6) and (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and the aging brain: food for thought.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jay

    2008-12-01

    Over the last decade, the role of dietary PUFA in growth, development, and cognitive function in the infant has been a topic at numerous national and international meetings. Only recently has the role of PUFA been more seriously examined as they relate to the aging brain. In fact, a search of the literature reveals very few randomized control trials exploring this research area. However, the literature reveals growing mechanistic evidence that cognitive function of the aging brain can be preserved, or loss of function can be diminished with docosahexaenoic acid, a long-chain (n-3) PUFA. Furthermore, no symposia have taken a serious look at the impact of (n-6) PUFA on the brain, in particular arachidonic acid (AA), the most highly concentrated (n-6) PUFA in the brain. This symposium explores the role of AA metabolism in the brain as it relates to neurological mood disorders. To that end, this symposium was designed to highlight the potential effects of dietary PUFA on the adult brain, an important issue given the growing elderly population in this country and the growing problems with neurological disorders (dementia, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, bipolar disorders, etc.).

  6. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on circulating adiponectin and leptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Stirban, A; Nandrean, S; Götting, C; Stratmann, B; Tschoepe, D

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [n-3 PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], improve insulin sensitivity in humans. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, we investigated the effects of EPA/DHA on paraoxonase-1 activity as well as fasting and postprandial levels of circulating adiponectin and leptin in 34 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received daily for 6 weeks either 2 g purified EPA/DHA or olive oil (placebo), separated by a 6 weeks washout. At the end of each treatment, measurements were performed in fasting state and 2, 4, and 6 h following a standardized high-fat meal (600 kcal). No significant differences in fasting and postprandial circulating adiponectin, leptin, and paraoxonase-1 activity were seen between n-3 PUFAs and placebo. Our data do not support an insulin sensitizing effect of n-3 PUFAs by means of influencing circulating adipocytokines in this population. Clinical Trial Register Number: NCT00328536.

  7. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  8. Diets containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect behaviour differently during development than ageing in mice.

    PubMed

    Carrié, I; Guesnet, P; Bourre, J M; Francès, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of a standard diet providing essential fatty acids enriched in fish oil or palm oil was studied in young, mature and old mice. Two groups of pregnant and lactating OF1 mice were fed on diets with or without high levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Offspring were maintained on these diets after weaning. The litter size did not differ. The weight increased more quickly in fish-oil-fed mice than palm-oil-fed mice. The fish-oil diet induced a significant increase in exploratory activity in young mice which was not found in mature and old mice. The level of locomotor activity was significantly higher in young, no different in mature, and lower in old fish-oil-fed mice than in controls. Habituation, the simpler form of learning, occurred to the same extent in the two diet groups. For the place learning protocol of the Morris water maze there was no difference between the two diet groups; however, in the probe trial, the mature fish-oil-fed mice remembered the situation well compared with the control mice. In the active avoidance test, on the first day of acquisition the young fish-oil-fed mice made more avoidances than control mice, whereas in contrast, mature and old-fish-fed mice made less avoidances than control mice. These results suggest a positive effect on arousal and learning ability of a diet enriched in long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in young mice and a detrimental effect in old mice.

  9. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    PubMed

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p < 0.001) and egg mass (p = 0.003) were significantly lower and feed conversion (p = 0.008) significantly higher for the n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  10. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the expression of genes involved in prostaglandin biosynthesis in the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Coyne, G S; Kenny, D A; Childs, S; Sreenan, J M; Waters, S M

    2008-09-15

    Nutrition plays a critical role in the regulation of cow fertility. There is emerging evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may act as specific regulators of some reproductive processes. In vitro studies suggest that the n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may play pivotal roles by suppressing the synthesis of uterine prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) which is centrally involved in the control of the bovine oestrous cycle and in early embryo survival. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of n-3 PUFA on uterine endometrial mRNA expression of key genes regulating PGF(2alpha) biosynthesis. Beef heifers were fed either a low (CON; n=10) or high (HIGH PUFA; n=10) n-3 PUFA diet for 45 days and endometrial tissues were harvested following slaughter. Following analysis, tissues within each dietary group were ranked on the basis of their PUFA concentrations and the highest (n=7) and lowest (n=7) within each of HIGH PUFA and CON, respectively, were used in gene expression studies. Endometrial n-3 PUFA concentrations were more than two-fold higher (P<0.05) and EPA concentrations alone more than seven-fold higher (P<0.01) in the HIGH PUFA than the CON group. Endometrial concentrations of arachidonic acid, were lower (P<0.001) in the tissues from HIGH PUFA than those from the CON group. Total RNA was isolated from all endometrial tissues and real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR conducted to compare the relative expression of 11 genes with known involvement in uterine biosynthesis of 2-series prostaglandins. Expression of mRNA for prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPAR alpha and delta was increased (P<0.05) while mRNA expression of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was decreased (P=0.06) in the HIGH PUFA endometrial tissues. Expression of genes coding for the oxytocin receptor (OTR), phospholipase C (PLC

  11. Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

    2010-07-01

    The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism.

  12. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores.

  13. Impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes including its enrichment with n-3 and CLA fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasmina; Kallas, Zein; Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, José María; Realini, Carolina E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of hedonic evaluation on consumers' preferences for beef attributes was evaluated (origin, animal diet, fat content, color, price) including its enrichment with omega-3 (n-3) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fatty acids. One group of consumers (n=325) received information about n-3 and CLA, while the other group (n=322) received no information. Consumers conducted a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE), using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit model; followed by a blind hedonic evaluation of beef samples, which were identified after tasting, and finally repeated the DCE. Results showed that hedonic evaluation had a significant impact on consumers' preferences, which were similar after tasting for all consumers, with less emphasis on the fat content, color, and origin attributes and greater emphasis on animal diet. Preference for n-3 enriched beef increased, while preference for CLA enriched beef was still not significant after tasting. The information provided had a significant effect on consumers' beef preferences, but no significant impact on beef liking scores. PMID:26331961

  14. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.

  15. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:26094211

  16. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) was 71.7%. Serum 25(OH)D negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.294; P < .0001) and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.323; P < .0001). N-3 PUFA intake negatively correlated with body mass index (r = -0.286; P = .017), total cholesterol (r = -0.292; P = .015), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.333; P = .005) and positively correlated with the intake of fat meats and eggs (r = 0.391; P = .006), vegetable proteins (r = 0.297; P = .048), fats/oils (r = 0.574; P < .001), and refined cereals (r = 0.351; P = .006). Vitamin D status and n-3 PUFA intake were related with better nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood.

  17. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample B2 (8.7%) and lowest (P < 0.05) lipid content in sample D0 (3.5%). Lipid content of samples B0, B1, D2, and D4 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  18. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  19. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  20. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in

  1. n-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators in the brain: new weapons against oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, A A

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotectins, resolvins, and maresins are subfamilies of endogenous oxygenated metabolites derived from n-3 or ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids). These metabolites are associated with signal transduction processes involved in downregulation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived E-series resolvins (RvE₁ and RvE₂) and docosahexaenoic acid-derived D-series resolvins (RvD₁ and RvD₂) and neuroprotectins have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolution, and antioxidant properties. They not only retard excessive inflammatory process, but also promote resolution by enhancing clearance of apoptotic cells and debris from inflamed brain tissue and vasculature leading to tissue homeostasis. These actions may underlie the beneficial effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in normal human health, neurotraumatic and neurodegenerative diseases. Aspirin initiates resolution not only by exerting antithrombotic actions, but also triggering biosynthesis of specific and stereoselective epimers of resolvins, protectins, and maresins. In addition during the onset of resolution, these lipid mediators also display potent protective roles in neural systems, liver, lungs, and eyes. Potent anti-inflammatory actions of resolvins, and protectins in models of chronic human diseases indicate that down-regulation in resolution pathways may contribute to the decrease in the intensity of many chronic neurodegenerative and visceral diseases. PMID:22204329

  2. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 PUFA modifies fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids and eicosanoid levels in the fat-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelton, D; Lysecki, C; Aukema, H; Anderson, B; Kang, J X; Ma, D W L

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fat-1 mouse is comparable to fish oil feeding with respect to kidney n-3 PUFA composition and eicosanoid levels. Wild-type and heterozygous fat-1 mice, capable of synthesizing n-3 PUFA endogenously, were given diets enriched in either n-3 or n-6 PUFA in a 2×2 factorial design and terminated after 12 weeks. Kidney phospholipid fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Kidney eicosanoids were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to control mice fed n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA fed and fat-1 mice had higher levels of kidney phospholipid n-3 PUFA, and lower levels of n-6 PUFA and eicosanoids. However, mice fed n-3 PUFA mice had higher levels of n-3 PUFA and lower levels of eicosanoids as compared to fat-1 mice. In conclusion, diet feeding had a greater impact on kidney fatty acid composition and eicosanoid levels than the genetic effect of the fat-1 gene. However, the fat-1 mouse remains a close approximation that can be used as a complementary model to study the role of n-3 PUFA in the kidney. PMID:23994161

  3. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Carola I F; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P C; de Jong, Bas S W; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A J; Jouni, Zeina E; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R; Berg, Brian M; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development.

  4. n-3 Fatty acids uniquely affect anti-microbial resistance and immune cell plasma membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, David N.; Bonilla, Diana L.; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    It is now well established that dietary lipids are incorporated into macrophage and T-cell membrane microdomains, altering their structure and function. Within cell membranes, there are specific detergent-resistant domains in which key signal transduction proteins are localized. These regions are classified as “lipid rafts”. Rafts are composed mostly of cholesterol and sphingolipids and therefore do not integrate well into the fluid phospholipid bilayers causing them to form microdomains. Upon cell activation, rafts compartmentalize signal-transducing molecules, thus providing an environment conducive to signal transduction. In this review, we discuss recent novel data describing the effects of n-3 PUFA on alterations in the activation and functions of macrophages and T-cells. We believe that the modifications in these two disparate immune cell types are linked by fundamentally similar changes in membrane lipid composition and transmembrane signaling functions. We conclude that the outcomes of n-3 PUFA-mediated immune cell alterations may be beneficial (e.g., anti-inflammatory) or detrimental (e.g., loss of microbial immunity) depending upon the cell type interrogated. PMID:21798252

  5. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Regression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin Treated Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jinhee; Park, Seo Kwang; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Jin Hee; Yun, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang-Pil; Lee, Hye Won; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Lee, Sang Yeoup

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Statins remain the mainstay of secondary coronary artery disease (CAD) prevention, but n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) display biological effects that may also reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and CAD. However, data on the possible antiatherosclerotic benefits of adding ω-3 PUFA to statin therapy are limited. This study aimed to investigate the potential additive effects of ω-3 PUFA on regression of atherosclerosis in CAD patients receiving statin therapy and stent implantation. Subjects and Methods Seventy-four CAD patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation were enrolled, prescribed statins, and randomly assigned to two groups: n-3 group (ω-3 PUFA 3 g/day, n=38) or placebo group (placebo, n=36). All patients completed the study follow-up consisting of an intravascular ultrasound at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was no difference in the baseline characteristics and distribution of other medications. No significant differences were observed in primary endpoints, including changes in atheroma volume index (−12.65% vs. −8.51%, p=0.768) and percent atheroma volume (−4.36% vs. −9.98%, p=0.526), and in secondary endpoints including a change in neointimal volume index (7.84 vs. 4.94 mm3/mm, p=0.087). Conclusion ω-3 PUFA had no definite additional effect on the regression of coronary atherosclerosis when added to statin in CAD patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27482256

  6. The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Almukadi, Haifa; Wu, Hui; Böhlke, Mark; Kelley, Charles J; Maher, Timothy J; Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    The Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have also demonstrated the activity of the pentane extract and its macamides, the most representative lipophilic constituents of Maca, in the endocannabinoid system as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. One of the most active macamides, N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide, was studied to determine its mechanism of interaction with FAAH and whether it has inhibitory activity on mono-acyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), the second enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. Macamide concentrations from 1 to 100 μM were tested using FAAH and MAGL inhibitor assay methods and showed no effect on MAGL. Tests with other conditions were performed in order to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of FAAH inhibition. N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide displayed significant time-dependent and dose-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity. The mechanism of inhibition was most likely irreversible or slowly reversible. These results suggest the potential application of macamides isolated from Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters. PMID:23853040

  7. Bioconversion of α-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18∶3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20∶5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22∶5n-3 (DPA) and 22∶6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (Vmax = 3654 µmol.g−1 of cell protein.hour−1) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20∶5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro

  8. Enhanced incorporation of n-3 fatty acids from fish compared with fish oils.

    PubMed

    Elvevoll, Edel O; Barstad, Harald; Breimo, Einar S; Brox, Jan; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Lund, Trine; Olsen, Jan Ole; Osterud, Bjarne

    2006-12-01

    This work was undertaken to study the impact of the source of n-3 FA on their incorporation in serum, on blood lipid composition, and on cellular activation. A clinical trial comprising 71 volunteers, divided into five groups, was performed. Three groups were given 400 g smoked salmon (n = 14), cooked salmon (n = 15), or cooked cod (n = 13) per week for 8 wk. A fourth group was given 15 mL/d of cod liver oil (CLO) (n = 15), and a fifth group served as control (n = 14) without supplementation. The serum content of EPA and DHA before and after intervention revealed a higher rise in EPA and DHA in the cooked salmon group (129% rise in EPA and 45% rise in DHA) as compared with CLO (106 and 25%, respectively) despite an intake of EPA and DHA in the CLO group of 3.0 g/d compared with 1.2 g/d in the cooked salmon group. No significant changes were observed in blood lipids, fibrinogen, fibrinolysis, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in whole blood. EPA and DHA were negatively correlated with LPS-induced TNFalpha, IL-8, LTB4, TxB2, and TF in whole blood. In conclusion, fish consumption is more effective in increasing serum EPA and DHA than supplementing the diet with fish oil. Since the n-3 FA are predominantly in TAG in fish as well as CLO, it is suggested that the larger uptake from fish than CLO is due to differences in physiochemical structure of the lipids. PMID:17269556

  9. Supplementation with fish oil as a source of n-3 fatty acids does not downregulate mammary lipogenesis in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Harvatine, Kevin J; Boisclair, Yves R; Bauman, Dale E

    2013-12-01

    The very long chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCn3PUFAs) are potent regulators of hepatic lipid synthesis, but their effect on lipid synthesis in the lactating mammary gland is less well investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on mammary lipogenesis and the expression of lipogenic genes in mammary and hepatic tissues of lactating mice. Beginning on day 6 of lactation and continuing for 7 d, female C57BL/6J mice (n = 8/diet) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: a 5%-fat diet containing mainly saturated fatty acids (FAs) (low-fat control) or 2 10%-fat diets, 1 enriched with FO as a source of VLCn3PUFAs and the other enriched with a safflower/palm oil mixture (high-fat control) as a source of oleic acid. Mammary lipogenic capacity, measured by (14)C-glucose incorporation into FAs by mammary explants, was similar among treatments, and there were no treatment effects on the proportion of de novo synthesized FAs in milk fat or on litter weight gain, a proxy for milk energy secretion. Also, there were no treatment effects on mammary mRNA abundance for key lipogenic enzymes and proteins involved in the regulation of milk lipid synthesis. In contrast, there was a treatment effect on hepatic lipogenesis, with FO resulting in a decrease of ~50% in hepatic lipid content and a similar downregulation of lipogenic gene expression compared with the 2 control diets. Overall, there were tissue-specific differences in dietary VLCn3PUFA effects on lipid synthesis with no observed effects for mammary lipogenic variables but marked reductions occurring in hepatic lipogenesis.

  10. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status.

  11. Effects of diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism in older rats chronically fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Ohhashi, T; Ohno, S; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Shimada, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-03-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effects in older animals after long-term feeding are unknown. Therefore, aged rats (24 wk of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% perilla oil [PEO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 0.3; polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P/S), 9.6], borage oil [oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 15.1; P/S, 5.3], evening primrose oil (EPO; linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid; P/S, 10.5), mixed oil (MIO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 1.7; P/S, 6.7), or palm oil (PLO; palmitic acid + oleic acid + linoleic acid; n-6/n-3, 25.3; P/S, 0.2) with 0.5% cholesterol for 15 wk in this experiment. There were no significant differences in the food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The liver weight in the PEO (n-6/n-3, 0.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups in aged rats. The serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations of the PLO (25.3) group were consistently higher than those in the other groups. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of the PEO (0.3) and EPO groups were significantly lower than in the other groups at the end of the 15-wk feeding period. The liver cholesterol concentration of the PLO (25.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups. There were no significant differences in the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level among the groups. Hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA levels were not affected by the experimental conditions. The fecal neutral steroid excretion of the PLO (25.3) group tended to be low compared to the other groups. The results of this study demonstrate that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid inhibit the increase of serum total cholesterol and VLDL + IDL

  12. Effects of diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acids on cholesterol metabolism in older rats chronically fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Ohhashi, T; Ohno, S; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Shimada, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-03-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effects in older animals after long-term feeding are unknown. Therefore, aged rats (24 wk of age) fed a conventional diet were shifted to diets containing 10% perilla oil [PEO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 0.3; polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (P/S), 9.6], borage oil [oleic acid + linoleic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 15.1; P/S, 5.3], evening primrose oil (EPO; linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid; P/S, 10.5), mixed oil (MIO; oleic acid + linoleic acid + gamma-linolenic acid + alpha-linolenic acid; n-6/n-3, 1.7; P/S, 6.7), or palm oil (PLO; palmitic acid + oleic acid + linoleic acid; n-6/n-3, 25.3; P/S, 0.2) with 0.5% cholesterol for 15 wk in this experiment. There were no significant differences in the food intake and body weight gain among the groups. The liver weight in the PEO (n-6/n-3, 0.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups in aged rats. The serum total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations of the PLO (25.3) group were consistently higher than those in the other groups. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of the PEO (0.3) and EPO groups were significantly lower than in the other groups at the end of the 15-wk feeding period. The liver cholesterol concentration of the PLO (25.3) group was significantly higher than those of other groups. There were no significant differences in the hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level among the groups. Hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA levels were not affected by the experimental conditions. The fecal neutral steroid excretion of the PLO (25.3) group tended to be low compared to the other groups. The results of this study demonstrate that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid inhibit the increase of serum total cholesterol and VLDL + IDL

  13. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989

  14. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    PubMed

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  15. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    PubMed

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989

  16. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  17. Hematological and lipid changes in newborn piglets fed milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils with different levels of n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Sauer, F D; Farnworth, E R; Wolynetz, M S; Jones, G; Rock, G A

    1994-12-01

    To test if linolenic acid (18:3n-3) from vegetable oils would affect bleeding times and platelet counts in newborns, piglets were used as a model fed milk replacer diets containing 25% (by wt) vegetable oils or oil mixtures for 28 d and compared to sow-reared piglets. The oils tested included soybean, canola, olive, high oleic sunflower (HOAS), a canola/coconut mixture and a mixture of oils mimicking canola in fatty acid composition. All piglets fed the milk replacer diets showed normal growth. Bleeding times increased after birth from 4-6 min to 7-10 min by week 4 (P < 0.001), and were higher in pigs fed diets containing 18:3n-3, as well as in sow-reared piglets receiving n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the milk, as compared to diets low in 18:3n-3. Platelet numbers increased within the first week in newborn piglets from 300 to 550 x 10(9)/L, and remained high thereafter. Milk replacer diets, containing vegetable oils, generally showed a transient delay in the rise of platelet numbers, which was partially associated with an increased platelet volume. The oils showed differences in the length of delay, but by the third week of age, all platelet counts were > 500 x 10(9)/L. The delay in rise in platelet counts appeared to be related to the fatty acid composition of the oil, as the effect was reproduced by a mixture of oils with a certain fatty acid profile, and disappeared upon the addition of saturated fatty acids to the vegetable oil. There were no alterations in the coagulation factors due to the dietary oils. Blood plasma, platelets and red blood cell membranes showed increased levels of 18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 PUFA in response to dietary 18:3n-3. The level of saturated fatty acids in blood lipids was generally lower in canola and HOAS oil-fed piglets as compared to piglets fed soybean oil or reared with the sow. The results suggest that consumption of milk replacer diets containing vegetable oils rich in 18:3n-3 does not represent a bleeding risk

  18. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. PMID:25445491

  19. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid at the sn-2 position of structured triacylglycerols improved n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid assimilation in tissues of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bandarra, Narcisa M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Ferreira, Júlia; Alfaia, Cristina M; Rolo, Eva A; Correia, Jorge J; Pinto, Rui M A; Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Batista, Irineu; Prates, José A M; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position, which enhances efficacy and health benefits of dietary DHA n-3 supplementation. Ten-week-old Golden Syrian male hamsters were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups with 10 animals in each: linseed oil (LSO; control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE), and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL). After 12 weeks, there were no variations in the hamsters' body composition parameters across dietary groups. The DHA-SL diet had the lowest values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipids, and aspartate aminotransferase activity, whereas the inverse was observed for the FO diet. Glucose was increased in the LSO diet without affecting insulin and insulin resistance markers. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was increased in the brain of hamsters fed the DHA-SL diet, higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid were observed in the liver and erythrocytes of the LSO. The highest omega-3 index was obtained with the DHA-SL diet. The principal component analyses discriminated DHA from other metabolites and set apart 4 clusters matching the 4 diets. Similarly, liver, erythrocytes, and brain were separated from each other, pointing toward an individual signature on fatty acid deposition. The structured sn-2 position DHA-containing TAG ameliorated blood lipids and fatty acid incorporation, in particular eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA in liver, erythrocytes, and brain, relative to commercially FOs, thus improving the health benefits of DHA due to its higher bioavailability. PMID:27101763

  1. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids) or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%). At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA) profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P < 0.0001) and brain glial cell PE (+18%, P = 0.0001) and PS (+15%, P = 0.0009) were significantly increased compared to the ALA group. The filtered correlation analysis (P < 0.05) underlined that levels of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), DHA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were negatively correlated with arachidonic acid (ARA) and n-6 DPA in PE of brain glial cells. No significant correlation between n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA were found in the PS dataset. DMA level in PE was negatively correlated with n-6 DPA. DMA were found to occur in brain glial cell PS fraction; in this class DMA level was correlated negatively with DHA and positively with ARA. Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue

  2. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Modulation of macrophage secretory activities.

    PubMed

    Renier, G; Skamene, E; DeSanctis, J; Radzioch, D

    1993-10-01

    We examined the effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids on the development of the atherogenic process in mice and on the macrophage ability to secrete several effector molecules that may be involved in the atherogenic process. The secretion of inflammatory proteins such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and the production of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), nitrogen oxide (NO2), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated in peritoneal macrophages isolated from atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6J mice. The mice were assigned at random to three experimental groups: the first group was fed a semi-defined control diet (control diet); the second group was maintained on the control diet supplemented with 10% menhaden oil (menhaden diet); and the third group received the control diet supplemented with 10% palm oil plus 2% cholesterol (saturated fat diet). Macrophages derived from mice fed the menhaden diet showed a suppression of their basal TNF-alpha mRNA expression and production. They also presented a dramatically decreased ability to express TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta mRNAs in response to exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with the macrophages from the control group. LPL mRNA and protein expression were downregulated after 6 and 15 weeks of menhaden-diet feeding. Significantly higher NO2 production in response to interferon gamma was found, both after 6 and 15 weeks of diet feeding, in the menhaden group compared with the control group. In addition, prostaglandin production and macrophage tumoricidal activity in response to LPS were decreased in this group compared with the control group. Macrophages derived from the saturated fat group did not show any significant alterations in TNF-alpha, LPL, NO2, or PGE2 secretion compared with controls. Interestingly, we observed a progressive increase of the LPS-induced IL-1 beta gene expression and secretion among macrophages harvested from mice receiving

  3. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying ...

  4. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Jennifer M.; Turk, Harmony F.; Liddle, Danyelle M.; De Boer, Anna A.; Power, Krista A.; Ma, David W.L.; Robinson, Lindsay E.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer. PMID:25360510

  5. Comparison of simple, double and gelled double emulsions as hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acid delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Flaiz, Linda; Freire, María; Cofrades, Susana; Mateos, Raquel; Weiss, Jochen; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Bou, Ricard

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare three different emulsion-based systems, namely simple emulsion, double emulsion and gelled double emulsion, for delivery of n-3 fatty acids (perilla oil at 300g/kg) and hydroxytyrosol (300mg/kg). Considering that their structural differences may affect their physical and oxidative stability, this was studied by storing them at 4°C for 22days in the dark. The results showed that the oxidative status was maintained in all systems by the addition of hydroxytyrosol. However, there was some loss of hydroxytyrosol, mainly during sample storage and during preparation of the gelled double emulsion. Moreover, the antioxidant loss was more pronounced in more compartmentalized systems, which was attributed to their increased surface area. However, the double emulsion was found to be less stable than the gelled emulsion. Overall, the encapsulation of labile compounds in more complex systems needs to be carefully studied and adapted to specific technological and/or nutritional requirements. PMID:27451154

  6. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different heat treatments (pan-frying, oven-baking, and grilling) on the contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish tissue. Four fish species were examined: pike, carp, cod, and herring. High performance liquid chromatography, coupled with electrospray ionization and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC/ESI/MS), was employed for determination of intact lipid molecules containing n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. Although mostly non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols, TGs) were present in the fish tissue, the PUFAs were present preferentially in the phospholipid fraction. Omnivorous fish species (carp, herring) contained more TGs than did predatory ones (pike, cod). Higher amounts of PUFAs were detected in the marine species than in the freshwater ones. The impact of heat treatments on the lipid composition in the fish tissue seems to be species-specific, as indicated by multivariate data analysis. Herring tissue is most heat-stable, and the mildest heat treatment for PUFA preservation was oven-baking.

  7. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  8. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to fish consumption and intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sontrop, Jessica; Avison, William R; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Campbell, M Karen

    2008-07-01

    An inverse association between depression and the n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), primarily obtained from fish consumption, is observed in both observational and experimental research and is biologically plausible. Study objectives were to examine whether prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with lower intakes of fish or EPA+DHA. Pregnant women (n = 2394) completed a telephone interview between 10 and 22 weeks' gestation in London, Ontario, 2002-05. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D). Intakes of fish and EPA+DHA were measured using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Sequential multiple regression was used to examine associations of depressive symptoms with intake of fish and EPA+DHA, respectively, while controlling for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle variables. The mean CES-D score was 9.9 (SD 8.0). Intake of EPA+DHA was dichotomised at the median value of 85 mg/day. Fish consumption and intake of EPA+DHA were not associated with prenatal depressive symptoms after adjustment for confounders; however, depressive symptoms were significantly higher for lower intakes of EPA+DHA among current smokers and women of single/separated/divorced marital status. The adjusted difference in CES-D scores between intake categories of EPA+DHA was -2.4 [95% CI -4.2, -0.4] for current smokers and -2.8 [95% CI -5.2, -0.4] for women of single marital status. Although pregnant women may be at risk for low concentrations of EPA and DHA, an association between low intakes of EPA+DHA and increased depressive symptoms was only observed among current smokers and women of single marital status.

  9. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations. PMID:25804267

  10. Effects of Dietary n-3 Fatty Acids on Hepatic and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Insulin-Resistant Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lalia, Antigoni Z.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Jensen, Michael D.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Port, John D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prevent insulin resistance and stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in rodents, but the findings of translational studies in humans are thus far ambiguous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of EPA and DHA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic humans using a robust study design and gold-standard measurements. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-one insulin-resistant adults received 3.9 g/day EPA+DHA or placebo for 6 months in a randomized double-blind study. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with somatostatin was used to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Postprandial glucose disposal and insulin secretion were measured after a meal. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Abdominal fat distribution was evaluated by MRI. Muscle oxidative capacity was measured in isolated mitochondria using high-resolution respirometry and noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. RESULTS Compared with placebo, EPA+DHA did not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity, postprandial glucose disposal, or insulin secretion. Hepatic insulin sensitivity, determined from the suppression of endogenous glucose production by insulin, exhibited a small but significant improvement with EPA+DHA compared with placebo. Muscle mitochondrial function was unchanged by EPA+DHA or placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that dietary EPA+DHA does not improve peripheral glucose disposal, insulin secretion, or skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in insulin-resistant nondiabetic humans. There was a modest improvement in hepatic insulin sensitivity with EPA+DHA, but this was not associated with any improvements in clinically meaningful outcomes. PMID:25852206

  11. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P<0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P<0.001), respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of women in the cohort were not meeting the EU recommendation for DHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  12. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; Tian, Jian-Hui

    2012-11-23

    In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs. PMID:23103373

  13. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  14. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism.

  15. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  16. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  17. Effects of dietary combination of n-3 and n-9 fatty acids on the deposition of linoleic and arachidonic acid in broiler chicken meats.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Choi, S H; Go, G; Park, J H; Narciso-Gaytán, C; Morgan, C A; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X; Ruiz-Feria, C A

    2012-04-01

    To minimize the amount of n-6 fatty acids in broiler chicken meat, 120 Cobb × Ross male broilers were divided into 6 different groups and fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fat from 5 different lipid sources: 1) a commercial mix of animal and vegetable oil, 2) soybean oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 3) flaxseed oil and olive oil (2.5% each), 4) flaxseed oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FEO), 5) flaxseed oil, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA; n-3), and olive oil (2.45, 0.05, and 2.5% respectively; FDO), and 6) fish oil and olive oil (2.5% each; FHO). At 6 and 9 wk, one bird per pen (4 pens per treatment) was processed, and liver, breast, and thigh samples were collected and used for fatty acid profiles or Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase mRNA gene expression levels. The deposition of linoleic acid (C18:2; n-6) or arachidonic acid (C20:4; n-6) was decreased in breast and thigh muscles of chickens fed n-3 fatty acids for 9 wk compared with chickens fed animal and vegetable oil and soybean oil and olive oil diets (P < 0.05). The addition of EPA to the diet (FEO; P > 0.05) did not reduce the deposition of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid as much as DHA (FDO; P < 0.05), and it suppressed the expression of Δ6- and Δ9-desaturase. When EPA and DHA were blended (FHO) and supplied to broiler chickens for 9 wk, EPA and DHA combination effects were observed on the deposition of LA and arachidonic acid in breast and thigh muscles. Thereby, the addition of a mixed EPA and DHA to a broiler chicken diet may be recommendable to reduce arachidonic acid accumulation in both broiler chicken breast and thigh meats, providing a functional broiler chicken meat to consumers.

  18. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    PubMed Central

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. PMID:25689563

  19. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat.

  20. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

  1. Long-term treatment of N-3 PUFAS on plasma lipoprotein levels and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    PubMed

    Putadechakum, Supanee; Tanphaichitr, Vichai; Leelahagul, Preeya; Pakpeankitvatana, Varapat; Surapisitchart, Thitima; Komindr, Surat

    2005-02-01

    The low incidence of coronary heart disease in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishermen who have high consumption of fish and seafood has called the attention in the role of eicosapentaenoic (EPA = 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA = 22: 6n-3) acids, the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in fish oils, in reducing cardiovascular risk. N-3 PUFAs may reduce serum lipids by promoting fatty acid oxidation and decrease VLDL producing from the liver, depress tissue arachidonate synthesis and alter the composition and tissue PUFAs. Plasma lipoprotein and fatty acid composition of total serum and erythrocyte lipids in 9 hypertriglyceridemic patients consisting of 4 males and 5 females aged 39-72 yr who attended the Nutrition Clinic, Ramathibodi Hospital were investigated. The study period consisted of 4 wks of dietary advice only followed by 48 wks of dietary advice with a daily intake of 6 g of fish oil capsules (FOC). Six grams of FOC provided 1080 mg of 2:5n-3 and 720 mg of 22:6n-3. Their plasma triglyceride (TG) levels at wk 0, 12, 24, 36, 48 were 356.7, 230.1, 209.7, 192.9, 22 7.4 mg/dL and M-particle (equivalent to very low density lipoprotein, VLDL) were 484.4, 354.8, 383.1, 349.7, 453.2 mg/dL respectively that decreased significantly, whereas their plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at the same periods were 139.4, 164.9, 171.0, 157.1, 158.3 mg/dL that increased significantly. Serum and erythrocyte 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in these subjects were significantly higher than those at wk 0 throughout the study. These findings indicate the bioavailability of 20: 5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in TG lowering effect of FOC. Fatty acids from fish oil have a remarkable effect on the synthesis and clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, especially VLDL and chylomicrons. Though daily treatment with 6 g of FOC has a striking effect in increasing plasma LDL-C levels. PMID:15962668

  2. Effects on transthyretin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by DHA-rich n - 3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, Maria; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Palmblad, Jan; Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) binds amyloid-β (Aβ) and may reduce brain Aβ, a pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). N - 3 fatty acids (FA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may increase TTR transcription in rat hippocampus. We studied effects of n - 3 FA supplementation on TTR-levels in patients with AD. Outpatients were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (n - 3/n - 3 group) or placebo (placebo/n - 3 group) during 6 months. After 6 months, all patients received n - 3 FA for another 6 months. TTR and FA were measured in plasma in all subjects, whereas TTR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in a subgroup. The study was completed by 89 patients in the n - 3/n - 3 group (75 y, 57% w) and 85 in the placebo/n - 3 group (75 y, 46% w). Baseline plasma-TTR was within normal range in both groups. After 6 months, plasma-TTR decreased in the placebo/n - 3 group (p < 0.001 within and p < 0.015 between the groups). No changes were observed in CSF TTR. From 6 to 12 months when both groups were supplemented, plasma-TTR increased significantly in both groups. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated an increase in TTR over time (p = 0.04) in those receiving n - 3 FA for 12 months. By linear regression analyses, n - 3 FA treatment was independently associated with increased plasma-TTR at 6 months (β = -0.172, p = 0.028). Thus, n - 3 FA treatment appeared to increase plasma-TTR in patients with AD. Since TTR may influence Aβ deposition in the brain, the results warrant further exploration. PMID:23563245

  3. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong; and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  4. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bovine uterine endometrial and hepatic gene expression of the insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Gerard S; Kenny, David A; Waters, Sinéad M

    2011-02-01

    Supplementation of cattle diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been suggested to have positive effects on fertility. In addition, the actions of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system both systemically and locally have been shown to influence reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on hepatic and endometrial expression of IGF signalling genes in cattle. Beef heifers were supplemented with a rumen protected source of either a saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid; CON) or high n-3 PUFA diet (n-3 PUFA) for 45 days before slaughter and tissue recovery. Transcription level of candidate IGF signalling genes was measured by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in total RNA isolated from uterine endometrial and liver tissue from seven CON and seven n-3 PUFA supplemented animals. Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA liver tissues was higher for IGF-2R, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-5 (P < 0.05); lower for GHR-1A (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-6, ALS and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Compared to controls, mRNA abundance in n-3 PUFA endometrial tissues was higher for IGF-2, IGF-1R, IGF-2R and IGFBP-2 (P < 0.05); lower for IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-6 (P < 0.05); and unchanged for IGFBP-1, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5 and GHR(total) (P > 0.05). Thus, dietary supplementation of cattle with n-3 PUFA affects transcription of genes involved in IGF signalling, in a tissue dependent fashion.

  5. Effects of a high n-3 fatty acid diet on membrane lipid composition of heart and skeletal muscle in normal swine and in swine with the genetic mutation for malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Otten, W; Iaizzo, P A; Eichinger, H M

    1997-10-01

    Knowledge concerning the genetic defects underlying malignant hyperthermia (MH) has expanded rapidly in recent years. In contrast, our understanding of the accompanying physiological changes is less clear. In this regard, the aim of this study was to determine whether normal swine and swine susceptible to MH (both heterozygous and homozygous animals) differ in their abilities to incorporate n-3 (omega 3) fatty acids into their skeletal and heart muscles. Swine of each genotype were fed either a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids (i.e., 5% fish oil) or an equal caloric diet low in n-3 fatty acids (i.e., 5% coconut oil). All dietary supplementations were given over a 13-week period. Subsequently, for each muscle type the following was determined: 1) the relative fatty acid profiles of eight different phospholipid classes and of neutral lipids, and 2) the total phospholipid and the total lipid content. The incorporation of n-3 fatty acids (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) occurred within the various phospholipids and neutral lipids without influencing their total lipid content. The increased content of n-3 fatty acids in neutral lipids of skeletal muscle was related to a decreased content of medium-chain saturated fatty acids, whereas an increased incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into the membrane phospholipids was often related to a decreased content of linoleic acid and/or arachidonic acid. In general, the pattern of n-3 fatty acid incorporation was considerably different between the normal animals and the MH homozygous and heterozygous animals. The significant interaction between diet-induced n-3 fatty acid profiles and the stress-susceptible MH genotype may indicate an altered mechanism for fatty acid turnover and a repair mechanism to maintain cellular functions and structure.

  6. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  7. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. PMID:26645280

  8. Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil. Colitis was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days followed by 10-days of recovery period. Rats of MCT group exhibit severe disease activity, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon compared to the olive oil group. Furthermore, there was persistent body weight loss, loose stools, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the rats of MCT group, even after DSS was withdrawn from drinking water. Conversely, fish oil has remarkably attenuated the DSS induced alterations in both MCT and olive oil diet groups with significantly greater effect in the olive oil group. Thus, MCT increase the susceptibility to colitis through oxidative damage and IL-8 synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The beneficial effects of virgin olive oil could be partially attributed to hydroxytyrosol. Combined treatment of hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids exhibit huge therapeutic benefits in colitis. PMID:27016717

  9. Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil. Colitis was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days followed by 10-days of recovery period. Rats of MCT group exhibit severe disease activity, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon compared to the olive oil group. Furthermore, there was persistent body weight loss, loose stools, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the rats of MCT group, even after DSS was withdrawn from drinking water. Conversely, fish oil has remarkably attenuated the DSS induced alterations in both MCT and olive oil diet groups with significantly greater effect in the olive oil group. Thus, MCT increase the susceptibility to colitis through oxidative damage and IL-8 synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The beneficial effects of virgin olive oil could be partially attributed to hydroxytyrosol. Combined treatment of hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids exhibit huge therapeutic benefits in colitis.

  10. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs. PMID:23459977

  11. Current evidence for the clinical use of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dacks, P A; Shineman, D W; Fillit, H M

    2013-03-01

    An NIH State of the Science Conference panel concluded in 2010 that insufficient evidence is available to recommend the use of any primary prevention therapy for Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline with age. Despite the insufficient evidence, candidate therapies with varying levels of evidence for safety and efficacy are taken by the public and discussed in the media. One example is the long-chain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), DHA and EPA, found in some fish and dietary supplements. With this report, we seek to provide a practical overview and rating of the level and type of available evidence that n-3 LC-PUFA supplements are safe and protective against cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease, with additional discussion of the evidence for effects on quality of life, vascular aging, and the rate of aging. We discuss available sources, dose, bioavailability, and variables that may impact the response to n-3 LC-PUFA treatment such as baseline n-3 LC-PUFA status, APOE ε4 genotype, depression, and background diet. Lastly, we list ongoing clinical trials and propose next research steps to validate these fatty acids for primary prevention of cognitive aging and dementia. Of particular relevance, epidemiology indicates a higher risk of cognitive decline in people in the lower quartile of n-3 LC-PUFA intake or blood levels but these populations have not been specifically targeted by RCTs.

  12. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  13. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  14. Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on metabolic control and vascular reactivity in the type 2 diabetic ob/ob mouse.

    PubMed

    Mustad, Vikkie A; Demichele, Stephen; Huang, Yung-Sheng; Mika, Amanda; Lubbers, Nathan; Berthiaume, Nathalie; Polakowski, Jim; Zinker, Brad

    2006-10-01

    Diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are recommended for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The American Heart Association recommends increasing intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to reduce the risk of vascular disease in high-risk individuals; however, the long-term effects of these bioactive fatty acids on glucose metabolism in insulin resistance are controversial. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of diets rich in both MUFA and alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA), or docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), on glycemic control and other parameters related to vascular health in a mouse model of T2DM and insulin resistance. Male ob/ob mice (n = 15 per treatment) were fed 1 of 4 lipid-modified formula diets (LFDs) for 4 weeks: (1) MUFA control, (2) ALA blend, (3) EPA blend, and (4) DHA blend. A portion of a MUFA-rich lipid blend in the control LFD was replaced with 11% to 14% energy as n-3 PUFA. After 4 weeks, plasma glucose response to a standard meal (1.5 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) and insulin challenge (2 U/kg body weight, IP) was assessed, and samples were collected for analysis of glucose, insulin, and lipids. Vascular reactivity of isolated aortic rings was assessed in an identical follow-up study. The results showed that insulin-resistant mice fed an LFD with EPA and/or DHA blends had significantly (P < .05) lower triglycerides and free fatty acids, but insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose were not improved. However, mice fed with the ALA blend had significantly improved insulin sensitivity when compared to those fed with other LFD (P < .05). Animals fed an LFD with n-3 PUFA from marine or plant sources showed significantly improved vascular responses as compared with the MUFA-rich LFD (E(max), P < .05) and ob/ob reference mice consuming chow (E(max) and pEC(50), P < .05). In summary, long-term consumption of LFD with n-3 PUFAs improved blood

  15. A method for assessing dietary intakes of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids in an Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Leite, J Costa; Hearty, A P; Nugent, A P; Gibney, M J

    2010-09-01

    The present study aimed to quantify dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and trans fatty acids (trans FA) in Irish adults using the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (NSIFCS). To update the NSIFCS database, specific approaches were necessary to select accurate data. Published references were the main data source used to update for EPA and DHA (21.7%), while the UK Nutrient Databank was most frequently used to update for trans FA (46.7%). Total EPA and DHA mean daily intake was 275 mg/day whilst trans FA mean daily intake was 0.72% food energy. Younger adults had significantly lower intakes of EPA and DHA than older adults. The present study shows that dietary EPA and DHA intakes in the Irish adult population are below recommendations, especially among the younger population. Conversely, trans FA intakes are within the recommended value of < 2% food energy.

  16. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men) from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en%) was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en%) was high in SFA (63.8%) and low in PUFA (9.2%). Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA) made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group. PMID:21854590

  17. Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase of mouse cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum is affected by membrane n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J E; Lokesh, B R; Kinsella, J E

    1989-03-01

    White mice, 18-20 g, were fed purified diets containing two weight percent safflower oil plus ten weight percent menhaden, corn, or olive oil for 2 wk. Menhaden oil ingestion resulted in significantly higher levels of 22:6(n-3) and 20:5(n-3), particularly 22:6(n-3), and lower levels of 20:4(n-6) and 18:2(n-6) in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) phospholipids than did corn or olive oil ingestion. These changes in fatty acid composition resulted in a significant decrease in the value of the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of cardiac SR phospholipids. The ratio was 2.8 versus 0.2 in choline phospholipids and 1.9 versus 0.2 in ethanolamine phospholipids in SR of mice fed corn or menhaden oil, respectively. This reduction in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was associated with a lower relative activity of Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase, and a lower initial rate of calcium transport and maximum calcium uptake in SR vesicles from mice fed menhaden oil rather than olive or corn oils. The specific activity of NADPH cytochrome C reductase (EC 1.6.2.3) of cardiac SR was not affected by dietary lipids. These data indicate that modification of SR by 22:6(n-3) may change the SR bilayer structure resulting in alteration of the calcium transport properties of SR vesicles. In addition, our results suggest that reduction of calcium flux across cardiac SR following fish oil consumption may also reduce the susceptibility of myocytes to rapid changes in calcium concentrations which may occur during ischemia and reperfusion.

  18. Polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids susceptible to peroxidation are increased in plasma and tissue lipids of rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-containing oils.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Fujimoto, K; Miyazawa, T

    2000-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)], a major component of membrane phospholipids in brain and retina, is profoundly susceptible to oxidative stress in vitro. The extent of this peroxidation in organs when DHA is ingested in mammals, however, is not well elucidated. We investigated the effect of dietary DHA-containing oils (DHA 7.0-7.1 mol/100 mol total fatty acids), in the form of triacylglycerols (TG), ethyl esters (EE) and phospholipids (PL), on tissue lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation in rats. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets containing 15 g/100 g test oils and were compared with those fed 80% palm oil and 20% soybean oil as the control (unsupplemented group) for 3 wk. The DHA oil diets markedly increased (P: < 0.05) the levels of DHA in the plasma, liver and kidney, 1.5-1.9, 2.5-3.8 and 2.2-2.5 times the control values, respectively, whereas there was a concomitant reduction (P: < 0.05) in arachidonic acid. All forms of DHA oil caused lower TG concentrations in plasma (P: < 0.05) and liver (P: < 0.05), but had no effect in kidney. The DHA oil-fed rats had greater phospholipid hydroperoxide accumulations in plasma (191-192% of control rats), liver (170-230%) and kidney (250-340%), whereas the alpha-tocopherol level was reduced concomitantly (21-73% of control rats). Consistent with these results, rats fed DHA-containing oils had more thiobarbituric reactive substances in these organs than the controls. Thus, high incorporation of (n-3) fatty acids (mainly DHA) into plasma and tissue lipids due to DHA-containing oil ingestion may undesirably affect tissues by enhancing susceptibility of membranes to lipid peroxidation and by disrupting the antioxidant system.

  19. Long term adequate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid diet protects from depressive-like behavior but not from working memory disruption and brain cytokine expression in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Moranis, Aurélie; Delpech, Jean-Christophe; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Aubert, Agnès; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Joffre, Corinne; Layé, Sophie

    2012-07-01

    Converging epidemiological studies suggest that dietary essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of mood and cognitive disorders linked to aging. The question arises as to whether the decreased prevalence of these symptoms in the elderly with high n-3 PUFA consumption is also associated with improved central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in the brain. To answer this, we measured memory performance and emotional behavior as well as cytokine synthesis and PUFA level in the spleen and the cortex of adult and aged mice submitted to a diet with an adequate supply of n-3 PUFA in form of α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) or a n-3 deficient diet. Our results show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, was higher in the spleen and cortex of n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice and this difference was maintained throughout life. Interestingly, high level of brain DHA was associated with a decrease in depressive-like symptoms throughout aging. On the opposite, spatial memory was maintained in adult but not in aged n-3 adequate mice relative to n-3 deficient mice. Furthermore, increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased IL-10 expression were found in the cortex of aged mice independently of the diets. All together, our results suggest that n-3 PUFA dietary supply in the form of α-LNA is sufficient to protect from deficits in emotional behavior but not from memory disruption and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression linked to age.

  20. Effects of dietary n-3, n-6 and n-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis in C57BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, R A; Muñoz, S E; Guzmán, C A; Eynard, A R; Evnard, A R

    1995-10-01

    The modulating effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach tumorigenesis was assayed in mice fed with corn oil (CO), olein (O), Zizyphus mistol seed oil (MO), cod liver oil (CLO), and mixed fat (Stock diet). The fatty acid composition of liver lipids correlated well with the fatty acid composition of each diet. Only mice fed the O diet showed biochemical and clinical evidences of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Only 3 animals developed well-differentiated invading squamous cell carcinomas in the O group. The papilloma incidence was reduced in MO and CLO with respect to the O group. Forestomach papillomatosis was increased in mice fed an n-9 enriched diet in comparison to stock and CO groups. In comparison with stock mice, the frequency of multiple epidermoidal hyperplasia (MEH) was significantly decreased in the CLO group. Animals fed n-3 enriched diets (MO and CLO) showed significant antipromoting effect. These findings indicate that dietary fat can modulate tumorigenesis initiated in mouse forestomach by benzo(a)pyrene. In addition, the lack of action of an n-6 fatty acid-enriched diet in our experimental model suggests that the effect of PUFAs on tumorigenesis has target-tissue specificity. Mistol seed oil might be of potential value as a natural vegetable antipromoter nutrient.

  1. n-3 enrichment of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long-chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their influence on meat quality: fish oil.

    PubMed

    López-Ferrer, S; Baucells, M D; Barroeta, A C; Grashorn, M A

    2001-06-01

    We assessed the effect of a diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) on the performance, fatty acid (FA) composition, quality, and sensory traits of broiler meat. Diets enriched with 0, 2, or 4% FO plus tallow (T) up to 8% added fat (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) were given to the birds throughout a 38-d growth period. T3 was replaced by a mixture of FO, linseed oil (LO), and T (1, 3, and 4% respectively) for 1 wk (T4) or 2 wk (T5) before slaughter. Meat quality, taste, and FA profile were determined. Higher final weights were recorded for birds fed T3, although feed efficiency was not affected. Other performance or objective meat quality parameters did not show significant differences among treatments. High FO concentrations decreased the saturated and monoenoic FA contents in the thigh samples. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased when added to the diet (FO diets), mainly as long-chain n-3 FA [eicosapentaenoic fatty acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic fatty acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA)]. On the other hand, levels of total n-6 FA resulted in slight changes, mostly in linoleic acid (LA). By replacing the FO diet with the experimental mixture (T4, T5), the n-3 and n-6 FA contents increased, mainly in the form of linolenic acid and LA, respectively, only 1 wk later. After 1 wk of T4, the DHA levels in chicken decreased. Sensory panelists could not identify the meats from T4 and T5 as being different from the control diet (T1).

  2. Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure in broiler chickens reared at high altitude is affected by dietary source of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Rostami, A; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Hassanpour, H; Khajali, F

    2016-08-01

    The present study evaluated the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure in broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m) as affected by dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid sources. Flax oil and soy oil were used as sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, respectively, either with or without α-tocopheryl acetate. A total of 192 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in a completely randomized design using isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Results showed that dietary flax oil significantly (p < 0.05) improved feed conversion ratio during 21-42 days of age. However, body weight gain did not significantly differ among the experimental groups in entire trial. Birds received flax oil had significantly higher serum concentration of nitric oxide (NO) but they had lower serum concentration of malondialdehyde when compared with their counterparts fed with soy oil. Liver and abdominal fat weights were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by substitution of soy oil for flax oil. The right-to-total ventricle weight ratio (RV/TV) and mortality from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in birds that received flax oil. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acids could significantly reduce RV:TV and PAH mortality in birds by increasing circulatory level of NO and suppressing hepatic lipogenesis. PMID:26849162

  3. Liver microsomal mixed-function oxidases in response to polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios of dietary lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Yamaguchi, M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of various polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S; 0.29-2.74) and n-6/n-3 (0.49-11.21) ratios of dietary fatty acids and of phenobarbital (PB) stimulation on the activity of liver microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFO) system were studied in rats using a combination of palm oil, safflower oil and fish oil concentrate. When the n-6/n-3 ratio was kept constant (4.6-4.9) without induction by PB, the highest P/S ratio (2.74) tended to increase the basal PB-uninduced MFO activities; while the PB-induced MFO activities were elevated as the dietary P/S ratio increased. This definitely indicates the role of both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the elevation of MFO activities with and without PB stimulation. Whereas the n-6/n-3 ratio was varied while maintaining a constant P/S ratio (1.3), the PB-induced MFO activities were significantly elevated by decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio although the MFO activities were not affected without PB stimulation. The MFO activities induced by PB were directly related to the n-3 PUFA content and inversely related to the n-6 PUFA content of the diets with n-6/n-3 ratios less than 4.55. These results obtained herein suggest that there are significant differences in the effects of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on liver microsomal MFO activities, especially in relation to the induction of MFOs by PB.

  4. The amount of dietary cholesterol changes the mode of effects of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huei; Lu, Shao-Chun; Huang, Po-Chao; Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of the interaction between dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and different dietary cholesterol content on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters consumed diets containing an incremental increase in dietary cholesterol content (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%, w/w) with either (n-3) PUFA (21 g/100 g fatty acids) or (n-6) PUFA (37.4 g/100 g fatty acids) fat for 6 weeks. In hamsters fed the nonatherogenic diet (0 or 0.025% dietary cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were not significantly different from those in the (n-6) PUFA group, and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly lower than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. In contrast, in hamsters fed the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol), VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in the (n-3) PUFA group were significantly higher than those in the (n-6) PUFA group, in a dose-dependent manner. When the hamsters were fed with 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 or 0.2% (w/w) dietary cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was significantly lower in the (n-3) PUFA group than those in the (n-6) PUFA group. Hepatic cholesteryl esters were significantly lower, while hepatic microsomal acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and VLDL-cholesteryl esters were significantly higher in hamsters fed (n-3) PUFA with the atherogenic diet (0.1 or 0.2% dietary cholesterol) than in those fed (n-6) PUFA with the atherogenic diet. Our results demonstrate that the amount of dietary cholesterol is an important factor in determining the mode and extent of effects of dietary (n-3) PUFA, especially on VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels. When dietary cholesterol intake was above 0.1% (w/w), the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of (n-3) PUFA disappeared, and instead, it showed a cholesterol-increasing effect. However, the

  5. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  6. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids modify blood and cardiac phospholipids and reduce protein kinase-C-delta and protein kinase-C-epsilon translocation.

    PubMed

    Judé, Sébastien; Martel, Eric; Vincent, Fanny; Besson, Pierre; Couet, Charles; Ogilvie, Gregory K; Pinault, Michelle; De Chalendar, Catherine; Bougnoux, Philippe; Richard, Serge; Champeroux, Pascal; Crozatier, Bertrand; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on cardiac cell membrane phospholipid fraction compositions and associated protein kinase-C (PKC) translocation modification have never been studied in higher mammals. This is of importance since membrane fatty acid composition has been shown to influence PKC signalling pathways. In the present study, we have tested whether the incorporation of n-3 PUFA in cardiac membrane phospholipids correlated with changes in the fatty acid composition of diacylglycerols (DAG) and led to a differential translocation of PKC isoforms. Two groups of five dogs were fed the standard diet supplemented with palm oil or fish oil for 8 weeks. Dogs fed a fish oil-enriched diet showed a preferential incorporation of EPA and, to a lesser extent, of DHA, at the expense of arachidonic acid, in the circulating TAG, plasma phospholipids, erythrocyte phospholipids and cardiomyocyte phospholipid fractions. Analysis of 1,2-DAG fatty acid composition also indicated a preferential enrichment of EPA compared with DHA. Associated with these results, a reduction in the expression of PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon isoforms in the particulate fractions was observed whereas no effect was seen for PKC-alpha and PKC-zeta. We conclude that a fish oil-enriched diet induces a modification in fatty acid composition of cardiac membrane phospholipids, associated with a differential translocation of PKC isoforms. These results can be explained by the production of structurally different DAG that may participate in some of the protective effects of n-3 PUFA against various chronic diseases.

  7. Suppression of VLDL secretion by cultured hepatocytes incubated with chylomicron remnants enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is regulated by hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha.

    PubMed

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Avella, Michael; Botham, Kathleen M

    2009-12-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suppress the secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) directly when delivered to the liver in chylomicron remnants (CMR). The role of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and hepatic nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) in the regulation of this effect was investigated. Chylomicron remnant-like particles (CRLPs) containing triacylglycerol (TG) from palm (rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA)) or fish (rich in n-3 PUFA) oil were incubated with cultured rat hepatocytes (24h) and the expression of protein and mRNA for SREBP-1, SREBP-2 and HNF-4alpha, and levels of mRNA for their target genes were determined. SREBP-1 and -2 protein expression in the membrane and nuclear fractions was unaffected by either type of CRLPs. mRNA abundance for SREBP-1c and -2 was also unchanged by CRLP-treatment, as were levels of mRNA for target genes of SREBP-1, including steroyl CoA desaturase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase and ATP citrate lyase, and SREBP-2 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase). In contrast, HNF-4alpha protein and mRNA levels were significantly decreased by CRLPs enriched in n-3 PUFA, but not SFA, and the expression of mRNA for HNF-4alpha target genes, including HNF-1alpha, apolipoprotein B and the microsomal TG transfer protein, was also lowered by n-3 PUFA-, but not SFA-enriched CRLPs. These findings suggest that the direct suppression of VLDL secretion by dietary n-3 PUFA delivered to the liver in CMR is mediated via decreased expression of HNF-4alpha.

  8. AMP-activated Protein Kinase α2 Subunit Is Required for the Preservation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jelenik, Tomas; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kuda, Ondrej; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Medrikova, Dasa; Kus, Vladimir; Hensler, Michal; Janovska, Petra; Miksik, Ivan; Baranowski, Marcin; Gorski, Jan; Hébrard, Sophie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Flachs, Pavel; Hawley, Simon; Viollet, Benoit; Kopecky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The induction of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance by high-fat diet in rodents can be prevented by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). We tested a hypothesis whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the beneficial effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice with a whole-body deletion of the α2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (AMPKα2−/−) and their wild-type littermates were fed on either a low-fat chow, or a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF), or a cHF diet with 15% lipids replaced by n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate (cHF+F). RESULTS Feeding a cHF diet induced obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and whole-body insulin resistance in mice of both genotypes. Although cHF+F feeding increased hepatic AMPKα2 activity, the body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and the accumulation of hepatic triglycerides were prevented by the cHF+F diet to a similar degree in both AMPKα2−/− and wild-type mice in ad libitum-fed state. However, preservation of hepatic insulin sensitivity by n-3 LC-PUFAs required functional AMPKα2 and correlated with the induction of adiponectin and reduction in liver diacylglycerol content. Under hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic conditions, AMPKα2 was essential for preserving low levels of both hepatic and plasma triglycerides, as well as plasma free fatty acids, in response to the n-3 LC-PUFA treatment. CONCLUSIONS Our results show that n-3 LC-PUFAs prevent hepatic insulin resistance in an AMPKα2-dependent manner and support the role of adiponectin and hepatic diacylglycerols in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. AMPKα2 is also essential for hypolipidemic and antisteatotic effects of n-3 LC-PUFA under insulin-stimulated conditions. PMID:20693347

  9. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids delay progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Duff, Ashley; Lightfoot, Stan; Brush, Richard S; Anderson, Robert E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2012-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1) transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs) and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Six-week-old female p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) and compound Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice were fed (AIN-76A) diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P < .02) in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Importantly, significant reductions of pancreatic ducts with carcinoma (90%; P < .0001) and PanIN 3 (~50%; P < .001) lesions were observed in the compound transgenic mice. The levels of n-3 PUFA were much higher (>85%; P < .05-0.01) in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice compared to p48(Cre/+)-LSL-Kras(G12D/+) mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  10. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  11. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA. PMID:25958281

  12. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. Milk trans-11 18:1, α-linolenic acid, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, and the sum of n-3 FA all increased linearly and quadratically, whereas the milk ratio of n-6 to n-3 decreased linearly in cows fed GFX. Overall, compared with the control diet (0% GFX), the diet with 15% GFX supplementation resulted in the lowest milk yield but highest milk proportions and yields (data not shown) of cis-9,trans-11 18:2 and n-3 FA.

  13. The near-ideal catalytic property of Candida antarctica lipase A to highly concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via one-step ethanolysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Declining quantity/quality of available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) resources demand innovative technology to concentrate n-3 PUFAs from low quality oils into value-added products/health-beneficial ingredients rich in n-3 PUFAs. This work proposed the catalytic property and specificity of an ideal enzyme required to tackle this task and identified Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) is such a near-ideal enzyme in practice, which concentrates n-3 PUFAs from 25% to 27% in oils to a theoretically closer value 90% in monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via one-step enzymatic ethanolysis. Non-regiospecificity and high non-n-3 PUFAs preference of CAL-A are the catalytic feature to selectively cleave non-n-3 PUFAs in all 3 positions of triacylglycerols (TAGs); while high ethanol/TAGs ratio, low operation temperature and high tolerance to polar ethanol are essential conditions beyond biocatalyst itself. C-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis and competitive factor estimation verified the hypothesis and confirmed the plausible suggestion of catalytic mechanism of CAL-A.

  14. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate B cell activity in pre-clinical models: Implications for the immune response to infections.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jarrett; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2016-08-15

    B cell antigen presentation, cytokine production, and antibody production are targets of pharmacological intervention in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Here we review recent pre-clinical evidence demonstrating that pharmacologically relevant levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from marine fish oils influence key aspects of B cell function through multiple mechanisms. N-3 PUFAs modestly diminish B cell mediated stimulation of classically defined naïve CD4(+) Th1 cells through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II pathway. This is consistent with existing data showing that n-3 PUFAs suppress the activation of Th1/Th17 cells through direct effects on helper T cells and indirect effects on antigen presenting cells. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs lower antigen presentation and T cell signaling by disrupting the formation of lipid microdomains within the immunological synapse. We then review data to show that n-3 PUFAs boost B cell activation and antibody production in the absence and presence of antigen stimulation. This has potential benefits for several clinical populations such as the aged and obese that have poor humoral immunity. The mode of action by which n-3 PUFA boost B cell activation and antibody production remains unclear, but may involve Th2 cytokines, enhanced production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, and targeting of protein lateral organization in lipid microdomains. Finally, we highlight evidence to show that different n-3 PUFAs are not biologically equivalent, which has implications for the development of future interventions to target B cell activity.

  15. The near-ideal catalytic property of Candida antarctica lipase A to highly concentrate n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via one-step ethanolysis of triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Declining quantity/quality of available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) resources demand innovative technology to concentrate n-3 PUFAs from low quality oils into value-added products/health-beneficial ingredients rich in n-3 PUFAs. This work proposed the catalytic property and specificity of an ideal enzyme required to tackle this task and identified Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) is such a near-ideal enzyme in practice, which concentrates n-3 PUFAs from 25% to 27% in oils to a theoretically closer value 90% in monoacylglycerols (MAGs) via one-step enzymatic ethanolysis. Non-regiospecificity and high non-n-3 PUFAs preference of CAL-A are the catalytic feature to selectively cleave non-n-3 PUFAs in all 3 positions of triacylglycerols (TAGs); while high ethanol/TAGs ratio, low operation temperature and high tolerance to polar ethanol are essential conditions beyond biocatalyst itself. C-13 Nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis and competitive factor estimation verified the hypothesis and confirmed the plausible suggestion of catalytic mechanism of CAL-A. PMID:27521783

  16. Effect of dietary enrichment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or n-9 PUFA on arachidonate metabolism in vivo and experimentally induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Masaru; Watanabe, Shiro; Niimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2004-03-01

    Mice were fed a diet supplemented with palm oil (control diet), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-, or n-9 PUFA-rich oil for 3 weeks. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet suppressed the generation of both leukotrienes (LT) and prostaglandins (PG), but the n-9 PUFA-rich diet did LT but not PG generation during acute inflammation. Leukocyte accumulation during acute inflammation was not different in the n-3 or n-9 PUFA-rich diet group as compared with the control group. The n-3 PUFA-rich diet but not the n-9 PUFA-rich diet suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced granuloma formation. The n-9 PUFA-rich diet significantly attenuated galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury more effectively than the n-3 PUFA-rich diet as compared with the control diet. The present study revealed the differential modification of experimentally induced inflammation in mice by dietary n-3 PUFA and n-9 PUFA, which may be due to their different effects on 5-lipoxygenease and cyclooxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid during inflammatory processes.

  17. Effects of dietary N-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipoproteins and intimal foam cell accumulation in the casein-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Adelstein, R; Ferguson, L D; Rogers, K A

    1992-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary N-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipoprotein profiles and intimal foam cell accumulation in rabbits fed a cholesterol-free semipurified casein diet for 10 weeks. Diets were supplemented with a low-cholesterol fish oil preparation (MaxEPA) or a mixture of corn, palm, and safflower oils with a polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) fatty acid ratio equivalent to the MaxEPA. Plasma cholesterol levels in both groups doubled after two weeks on diet and remained elevated throughout the study. Plasma triglycerides of both groups decreased uniformly from baseline, reaching at sacrifice a mean concentration that was 52% of baseline values. Neither of these plasma measures were affected by the type of oil supplement. Concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and protein measured at sacrifice were significantly elevated in MaxEPA treated rabbits. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), indicators of lipid peroxidation, were not significantly different between groups. A macroscopic survey of the thoracic aortas revealed that lesions were restricted to the aortic arch regions in both groups. Microscopically it was determined that these intimal lesions were primarily comprised of oil red O positive foam cell aggregates. N-3 fatty acids did not have an effect on the number of intimal foam cells within these lesions. These data suggest that dietary fish oils may exacerbate an LDL hypercholesterolemia, but not the atherosclerotic process in the casein-fed rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

  18. Mead acid (20:3n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not associated with risk of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, Kei; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2015-05-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves the replacement of ligamentous tissue with ectopic bone. Although genetics and heritability appear to be involved in the development of OPLL, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Given previous findings that 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid [20:3n-9, Mead acid (MA)] has depressive effects on osteoblastic activity and anti-angiogenic effects, and that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a preventive effect on heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that both fatty acids would be involved in OPLL development. To examine the biological significance of these and other fatty acids in OPLL, we conducted this case-control study involving 106 patients with cervical OPLL and 109 age matched controls. Fatty acid composition was determined from plasma samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident OPLL were evaluated by logistic regression. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences between patients and controls in the levels of MA or n-3 PUFAs (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any associations with OPLL risk for MA or n-3 PUFAs. In conclusion, no potential role was found for MA or n-3 PUFAs in ectopic bone formation in the spinal canal.

  19. Use of manufactured foods enriched with fish oils as a means of increasing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, J A; Brooks, C N; Murphy, M C; Gould, B J; Williams, C M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of using manufactured foods, enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a means of increasing the intake of these n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to determine the effect of the consumption of these foods on postprandial lipaemia and other metabolic responses to a high-fat mixed test meal. Nine healthy, normotriacylglycerolaemic, free-living male volunteers (aged 35-60 years) completed the randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover study. The study consisted of two periods (each of 22 d) of dietary intervention, separated by a 5-month washout period. During these two periods the subjects were provided with the manufactured foods enriched with EPA and DHA (n-3 enriched) or identical but unenriched foods (control). A mixed test meal containing 82 g fat was given to the fasted subjects on day 22 of each dietary intervention period. Two fasting, and thereafter hourly, blood samples were collected from the subjects for an 8 h period postprandially. Plasma triacylglycerol, total and HDL-cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels, post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (EC 3.1.1.34) activity and the plasma free fatty acid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions were measured. A mean daily intake of 1.4 g EPA+DHA (0.9 g EPA, 0.5 g DHA) was ingested during the n-3-enriched dietary period, which was significantly higher than the intake during the habitual and control periods (P < 0.001) assessed by a 3 d weighed food intake. A significantly higher level of EPA+DHA enrichment of the plasma fatty acids and phospholipids (P < 0.001) after the n-3-enriched compared with the control intervention periods was also found. The energy intake on both of the dietary intervention periods was found to be significantly higher than on the habitual diet (P < 0.001), with an increase in body weight of the subjects, which reached

  20. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P < 0.05). For DPAn-3 the higher level was also found in muscle and gonad of abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P < 0.05). Elongase 2 expression was markedly higher in the muscle of abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P < 0.05), followed by the diet containing 2% FO supplement. For ∆6 desaturase, significantly higher expression was observed in muscle of abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P < 0.05). Supplementation with FO in the normal commercial diet can significantly improve long chain n-3 PUFA level in cultured abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  1. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  2. Plant compared with marine n-3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2014-07-01

    Plants provide α-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3n-3 (18:3ω-3)], which can be converted via eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which is required for normal visual and cognitive function. Dietary ALA is provided mainly by vegetable oils, especially soybean and rapeseed oils, but is destroyed by partial hydrogenation; it is also present in high amounts in walnuts and flaxseed. Dietary EPA and DHA are provided mainly by fish and so are absent from vegan diets and only present in trace amounts in vegetarian diets. Vegetarians and vegans have lower proportions of DHA in blood and tissue lipids compared with omnivores. High intakes of EPA and DHA (typically in the range of 3-5 g/d) but not ALA have favorable effects on several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and have been postulated to delay arterial aging and cardiovascular mortality, but these intakes are beyond the range of normal dietary intake. Arterial stiffness, which is a measure of arterial aging, appears to be lower in vegans than in omnivores; and risk of CVD in vegetarians and vegans is approximately one-third that in omnivores. Prospective cohort studies showed higher intakes of EPA+DHA, and less consistently ALA, to be associated with a lower risk of CVD, especially fatal coronary heart disease, but meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of supplementation of EPA+DHA or ALA in secondary prevention of CVD showed no clear benefit. Current evidence is insufficient to warrant advising vegans and vegetarians to supplement their diets with EPA or DHA for CVD prevention.

  3. Dietary n-3 fatty acids increase spleen size and postendotoxin circulating TNF in mice; role of macrophages, macrophage precursors, and colony-stimulating factor-1.

    PubMed

    Blok, W L; de Bruijn, M F; Leenen, P J; Eling, W M; van Rooijen, N; Stanley, E R; Buurman, W A; van der Meer, J W

    1996-12-15

    In experimental studies in mice, dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (FA) alleviates inflammation and increases resistance to infection. Nevertheless, TNF production capacity was found to be increased in n-3 FA-fed mice. We previously found increased relative spleen weights in n-3 FA-fed mice. In this study, the nature of this increased spleen size was further investigated. Spleen cellularity was increased significantly in mice fed n-3 FA (fish oil 15% w/w), compared with controls fed corn oil (15%) or normal lab chow (p < 0.05). Experiments with T cell-deficient nude mice and experiments using macrophage depletion through liposomal dichloromethylene-biphosphonate revealed that the increase in spleen cellularity is T cell independent and largely due to macrophage accumulation in the spleen. Accumulation of marginal zone and red pulp macrophages was histologically and immunohistochemically confirmed. n-3 FA induced peripheral blood monocytosis and an aspecific increase in bone marrow cellularity. Postendotoxin circulating TNF concentrations were increased significantly in n-3 FA-fed mice compared with controls. Splenectomy did not abolish this increase in circulating TNF. However, after macrophage depletion through liposomal dichloromethylene-biphosphonate, circulating TNF was not detectable after endotoxin challenge. Circulating concentrations of CSF-1 did not differ between the various experimental groups. It is suggested that the cellular changes observed relate to increased constitutive production of TNF.

  4. Metabolic and immunomodulatory effects of n-3 fatty acids are different in mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Tobias; Worsch, Stefanie; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Daniel, Hannelore; Hauner, Hans; Bader, Bernhard L

    2013-06-01

    In studies emphasizing antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n-3 PUFA), diets with very high fat content, not well-defined fat quality, and extreme n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios have been applied frequently. Additionally, comparative analyses of visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were neglected. Considering the link of visceral obesity to insulin resistance or inflammatory bowel diseases, we hypothesized that VAT, especially mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), may exhibit differential responsiveness to diets through modulation of metabolic and inflammatory processes. Here, we aimed to assess dietary LC-n-3 PUFA effects on MAT and epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and on MAT-adjacent liver and intestine in diet-induced obese mice fed defined soybean/palm oil-based diets. High-fat (HF) and LC-n-3 PUFA-enriched high-fat diet (HF/n-3) contained moderately high fat with unbalanced and balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, respectively. Body composition/organ analyses, glucose tolerance test, measurements of insulin, lipids, mRNA and protein expression, and immunohistochemistry were applied. Compared with HF, HF/n-3 mice showed reduced fat mass, smaller adipocytes in MAT than EAT, improved insulin level, and lower hepatic triacylglycerol and plasma NEFA levels, consistent with liver and brown fat gene expression. Gene expression arrays pointed to immune cell activation in MAT and alleviation of intestinal endothelial cell activation. Validations demonstrated simultaneously upregulated pro- (TNFα, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and M1/M2-macrophage markers in VAT and reduced CD4/CD8α expression in MAT and spleen. Our data revealed differential responsiveness to diets for VAT through preferentially metabolic alterations in MAT and inflammatory processes in EAT. LC-n-3 PUFA effects were pro- and anti-inflammatory and disclose T cell-immunosuppressive potential.

  5. A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to <2.5% energy (%E) on n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a <2.5%E LA diet for 4 weeks. Nutrient intakes were estimated from diet diaries and blood samples were collected for assessment of fatty acid composition in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids. LA intakes were reduced from 4.6%E to 2%E during the low LA intervention (P<0.001) while n-3 LCPUFA intakes were unchanged. LA and total n-6 PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake.

  6. Mitochondrial and Oxidative Stress Aspects in Hippocampus of Rats Submitted to Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency After Exposure to Early Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; da Silva, Diego Carrilho; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; de Souza Mota, Carina; Krolow, Rachel; Weis, Simone Nardin; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Kapczinski, Flávio; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Dalmaz, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Chronic dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) deficiency may lead to changes in cortex and hippocampus neuronal membrane phospholipids, and may be linked to impaired central nervous system function. Particularly docosahexaenoic acid deficiency appears to be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, adverse events early in life may also profoundly affect brain development, leading to long-lasting effects on neurophysiology, neurobiology and behavior. This research assessed if neonatal stress and a dietary n-3 PUFAs deficiency could interact to produce hippocampal alterations related to mitochondrial functions in adult rats. There were no effects of diet, neonatal intervention or interactions on superoxide dismutase or catalase enzymatic activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain complexes. Rats fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet displayed higher levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity, higher free radicals production and higher thiol content compared to rats fed n-3 PUFAs adequate diet. There were interactions among diets and neonatal stress, since glutathione peroxidase, free radicals production and thiol content were increased in groups that were subjected to neonatal interventions fed n-3 PUFAs deficient diet. Additionally, reduced mitochondrial potential was observed in handled animals. Total thiol revealed a neonatal stress effect, since animals subjected to neonatal interventions displayed lower thiol content. In conclusion, we observed that a chronic treatment with deficient n-3 PUFAs diet, from the puberty period on, increased free radicals production and imbalanced antioxidant enzymes activities, and these increases were higher in animals subjected to neonatal interventions.

  7. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Hichami, A; Grissa, O; Mrizak, I; Benammar, C; Khan, N A

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  8. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Hichami, A.; Grissa, O.; Mrizak, I.; Benammar, C.; Khan, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  9. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protect against imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation via the IL-17/IL-23 axis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si; Wen, Ju; Bai, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Tian-Yu; Zheng, Rong-Chang; Zhou, Gui-Bin; Ma, Jing; Feng, Jie-Ying; Zhong, Bi-Ling; Li, Yi-Ming

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on psoriasis have been reported in rats, mice and humans, but the specific mechanisms involved have not been well defined. The present study utilized the fat-1 mouse, a transgenic model that can endogenously convert n-6 FAs into n-3 PUFAs, to directly determine if the outcomes of psoriasis were correlated with n-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) and fat-1 mice, which were treated daily with imiquimod (IMQ) cream or control cream on the shaved right ear and dorsal skin, were fed the same diet. The severity of inflammation of the ear and dorsal skin was scored according to the clinical Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and epidermal hyperplasia was measured by H&E staining. The expression of inflammatory factors in the epidermis was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis. Flow cytometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure the differences in the content of inflammatory factors in the blood serum and to determine which of CD4+ T cells were present in the spleen between IMQ-induced fat-1 mice and WT mice. Fat-1 IMQ-induced mice exhibited significantly lower levels of inflammatory cell-like T helper 17 cells (Th17 cells) and higher levels of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the spleen as compared with the WT IMQ-induced mice. n-3 fatty acids stimulated Th17 cells to produce lower levels of inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23 and stimulated Treg cells to produce higher anti-inflammatory factors, such as Foxp3. In conclusion, the present study provides further insight into the mechanisms involved in preventing inflammation in psoriasis-like mice by n-3 PUFAs using a fat-1 transgenic mouse model.

  10. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation together with early maternal separation increases anxiety and vulnerability to stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Géraldine; Oualian, Catherine; Denis, Isabelle; Lavialle, Monique; Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Vancassel, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Low concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and chronic stress are implicated in susceptibility to mood disorders. We have investigated the combined effects of chronic n-3 PUFA dietary deficiency and early maternal separation (MS) stress on the reactivity to stressful situations of rats as adults. Pups fed a control or an n-3 PUFA deficient diet were daily separated for two weeks before weaning They were all tested at 3 month-old to determine their anxiety, and their ability to learn two aversive tasks differing in the control they could exert on the situation: auditory fear conditioning and brightness avoidance discrimination. Neither the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet nor MS alone significantly affected behavior. But n-3 PUFA-deficient rats that had been separated were more anxious and fearful in inescapable situations, while their ability to cope with an aversive avoidance task remained unaffected. These results support the notion that PUFA-unbalanced diet, together with stress, may be a determinant risk factor in emotional disorders.

  11. Perinatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively reduces myo-inositol levels in the adult rat PFC: an in vivo 1H-MRS study*s⃞

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Robert K.; Able, Jessica; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Lindquist, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on phosphatidylinositol signaling in brain, myo-inositol (mI) concentrations were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of omega-3 fatty acid deficient rats by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). To generate graded deficits in PFC docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) composition, perinatal and postweaning α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (ALA) deficiency models were used. Adult male rats were scanned in a 7T Bruker Biospec system and a 1H-MRS spectrum acquired from the bilateral medial PFC. Rats were then challenged with SKF83959, a selective agonist at phosphoinositide (PI)-coupled dopamine D1 receptors. Postmortem PFC fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Relative to controls, PFC DHA composition was significantly reduced in adult postweaning (−27%) and perinatal (−65%) ALA-deficiency groups. Basal PFC mI concentrations were significantly reduced in the perinatal deficiency group (−21%, P = 0.001), but not in the postweaning deficiency group (−1%, P = 0.86). Among all rats, DHA composition was positively correlated with mI concentrations and the mI/creatine (Cr) ratio. SKF83959 challenge significantly increased mI concentrations only in the perinatal deficiency group (+16%, P = 0.02). These data demonstrate that perinatal deficits in cortical DHA accrual significantly and selectively reduce mI concentrations and augment receptor-generated mI synthesis. PMID:18802197

  12. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant defense and sperm quality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions.

    PubMed

    Köprücü, Kenan; Yonar, Muhammet Enis; Özcan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; semen and liver fatty acid compositions; and spermatological values (semen volume and pH, sperm density, percentage and duration of sperm motility) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under regular stripping conditions. For this purpose, one control and two experimental diets were prepared as isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The control diet did not contain n-3 PUFA. However, the D1 and D2 diets were supplemented with n-3 PUFA concentrated anchovy oil at a 1% and 2% level, respectively. The n-3 PUFA content in the semen and liver, semen volume, initial sperm motility, duration of 50% sperm motility, total duration of sperm motility and sperm density values of the control fish fed the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet were decreased and were accompanied by a reduction of the antioxidant defense (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH) and an elevation of MDA in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney at all of the sampling periods (P<0.01 for each case). However, the effects of the sampling period on the MDA and antioxidant defense values in the blood, gonad, liver and kidney of the control diet fish (with the exception of the GSH and GSH-Px activities) and the D1 and D2 diet fish were not significant (P>0.01). However, supplementation with n-3 PUFA protected the fish from these adverse effects. The modulations were clearly observed in the fish fed the D2 diet because they were under lower oxidative stress, as indicated by MDA. The increased enzyme activity corresponds with the physiological mechanisms combating the elevation of free radicals under oxidative stress. The highest n-3 PUFA levels in the semen and liver and spermatological values were obtained from the fish fed the D2 diet at all of the sampling periods. On the other hand, the effects of the sampling stage on the

  13. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of inter-family variability in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic selection of Atlantic salmon families better adapted to alternative feed formulations containing high levels of vegetable ingredients has been suggested to ensure sustainable growth of aquaculture. The present study aimed to identify molecular pathways that could underlie phenotypic differences in flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels when fish are fed vegetable oil diets. Liver transcriptome was analyzed and compared in four families presenting higher or lower n-3 LC-PUFA contents at two contrasting flesh total lipid levels. Results The main effect of n-3 LC-PUFA contents was in the expression of immune response genes (38% of all significantly affected genes), broadly implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes and innate immune response. Although genetic evaluations of traits used in the breeding program revealed that the chosen families were not balanced for viral disease resistance, this did not fully explain the preponderance of immune response genes in the transcriptomic analysis. Employing stringent statistical analysis no lipid metabolism genes were detected as being significantly altered in liver when comparing families with high and low n-3 LC-PUFA flesh contents. However, relaxing the statistical analysis enabled identification of potentially relevant effects, further studied by RT-qPCR, in cholesterol biosynthesis, lipoprotein metabolism and lipid transport, as well as eicosanoid metabolism particularly affecting the lipoxygenase pathway. Total lipid level in flesh also showed an important effect on immune response and 8% of significantly affected genes related to lipid metabolism, including a fatty acyl elongase (elovl2), an acyl carrier protein and stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Conclusions Inter-family differences in n-3 LC-PUFA content could not be related to effects on lipid metabolism, including transcriptional modulation of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway. An association was found between flesh

  14. Endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis in fat-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seong Ji; Lim, Kyu; Park, Su Yeon; Jung, Mun Yhung; Lim, Hye Song; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Il; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    It is suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can be used in the preventive or therapeutic management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial results have been reported. Here, we examined the effects of a decrease in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio on RA using fat-1 transgenic mice. First, we tested whether fat-1 expression modulated signaling pathways in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). TNF-α activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in wild type (WT) FLSs but not in fat-1 FLSs. Arthritis was induced by injection of K/BxN serum. Based on clinical scores, ankle thickness and pathological severity, we showed that WT mice developed clinically overt arthritis, whereas fat-1 mice showed attenuated arthritis. Moreover, fat-1 mice exhibited down-regulated local and systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) of WT mice differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts, whereas the osteoclastogenenic process was suppressed in BMMs of fat-1 mice. The endogenous conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs via fat-1 plays a key role in attenuation of RA; therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFAs may have therapeutic potential for the management of RA. PMID:25910895

  15. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  16. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    PubMed

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species. PMID:26842427

  17. Is it possible to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs without affecting their technological and/or sensorial quality and the laying performance of hens?

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) content of eggs without affecting their sensorial and/or technological properties or the laying performance of hens. Laying hens from line 477 were divided into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets over the laying period: control diet (C) and diets containing extruded linseed with a high level of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseed with a low level of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or a combination of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the laying performance, hen body weight or egg white viscosity. The egg yolks produced by hens fed the diet containing microalgae were redder than egg yolks from the other groups, suggesting the presence of red pigments in the microalgae preparation. However, the colour difference was low and not perceptible to the human eye. Moreover, colour measurement of egg yolks by sensorial analysis panellists using the Roche colour fan did not reveal a diet effect on this parameter. Egg yolk lipid content was not affected by diet. The egg yolk of hens fed on diets containing linseed and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (×2.5 to 2.9 compared to group C). Linseed mainly increased the linolenic acid content (×3.0 to 3.4 compared to group C) and the microalgae increased the LC n-3 FA content (×4.1 compared to group C). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensorial quality of shell cooked eggs except for the "unusual flavour" criterion for which the score was higher for the MA group compared to the other groups and corresponded to a fishy flavour.

  18. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality among general populations: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Chong; Yang, Jing; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Zhang, Weiguo; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Prospective observational studies have shown inconsistent associations of dietary or circulating n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) with risk of all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the associations. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies involving 371 965 participants from general populations and 31 185 death events were included. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for high-versus-low n-3 LCPUFA intake was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98). The summary RR for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75–0.92) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74–0.95), respectively. In the dose-response analysis, each 0.3 g/d increment in n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with 6% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89–0.99); and each 1% increment in the proportions of circulating EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in blood was associated with 20% (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65–0.98) and 21% (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63–0.99) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across our anlayses. Our findings suggest that both dietary and circulating LCPUFA are inversely associated with all-cause mortality. PMID:27306836

  19. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06). PMID:26846575

  20. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06). PMID:26846575

  1. n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne E; Dunstan, Janet A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2006-10-01

    n--3 Fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and increase HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); however, the effect of n--3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, a hyperlipidaemic state, remains unknown. We took the opportunity to investigate maternal lipid levels and blood pressure during and after pregnancy, and fetal lipid levels at birth, in a study that aimed primarily to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in infants born to women with allergic disease. Eighty-three pregnant women who had allergic disease, but were otherwise healthy, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to receive fish oil or olive oil capsules, taken as 4 g/day, from 20 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Compared with olive oil, fish oil supplementation did not alter triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or HDL-C during or after pregnancy. There was also no effect of fish oil on cord blood triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy did not alter maternal blood pressure during or after pregnancy. The effects of fish oil on lipids and blood pressure in non-pregnant individuals appear to be lost when it is administered during pregnancy. PMID:16822237

  2. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: Is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Martinsen, Anneloes; Layé, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are known to contribute to the cascade of events culminating in the neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new strategies capable to prevent, delay the onset or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary polyphenols and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performance and reduce the neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders. We will also detail the current evidence indicating that flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are strong candidates in preventing neuroinflammation and modulating age-related memory decline, and we will describe the potential mechanisms of action underlying their neuroprotective effects. As such, these dietary bioactives represent important precursor molecules in the quest to develop a new generation of drugs capable of counteracting neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: Is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Vauzour, David; Martinsen, Anneloes; Layé, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are known to contribute to the cascade of events culminating in the neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new strategies capable to prevent, delay the onset or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary polyphenols and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performance and reduce the neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders. We will also detail the current evidence indicating that flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are strong candidates in preventing neuroinflammation and modulating age-related memory decline, and we will describe the potential mechanisms of action underlying their neuroprotective effects. As such, these dietary bioactives represent important precursor molecules in the quest to develop a new generation of drugs capable of counteracting neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26260547

  4. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2.

  5. The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood-brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; So, Po-Wah; Parkinson, James R; Yu, Wei Sheng; Hankir, Mohammad; Herlihy, Amy H; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S; Wasserfall, Clive; Bell, Jimmy D

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have cardiovascular and neuroprotective properties in both humans and rodents. Here, we use manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to compare the effects of these polyunsaturated fatty acids on the combined effects of neuronal activity and integrity of blood-brain barrier integrity with saturated fatty acids from buttermilk. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing 3% fish oil (3% FO, n=5), 12% fish oil (FO, n=6), 3% buttermilk (3% BM, n=6) or 12% buttermilk (12% BM, n=6) for 6 months. Following metabolic cage analysis these mice were scanned using a standard MEMRI protocol at 28-32 weeks of age. Adult mice aged 28-32 weeks old (RM3, n=5) and 15-16 weeks old (YRM3, n=4) maintained on standard rodent chow were also studied to assess age-related changes in brain barrier systems and neuronal activity. Signal intensity (SI) in the anterior pituitary (AP), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) was significantly reduced in young compared to older mice fed standard chow. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation led to a decrease in SI within the ARC and PVN, reaching significance in the VMH in age-matched controls. Interestingly, both fish oil and buttermilk supplementation resulted in a significant increase in SI within the AP, a structure outside the BBB. We conclude that MEMRI is able to detect the combined effects of the integrity of neuronal activity and blood-brain barrier permeability in the hypothalamus associated with dietary manipulation and aging. PMID:20097292

  6. The combined effects on neuronal activation and blood-brain barrier permeability of time and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice, as measured in vivo using MEMRI.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ting; So, Po-Wah; Parkinson, James R; Yu, Wei Sheng; Hankir, Mohammad; Herlihy, Amy H; Goldstone, Anthony P; Frost, Gary S; Wasserfall, Clive; Bell, Jimmy D

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are known to have cardiovascular and neuroprotective properties in both humans and rodents. Here, we use manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to compare the effects of these polyunsaturated fatty acids on the combined effects of neuronal activity and integrity of blood-brain barrier integrity with saturated fatty acids from buttermilk. C57BL/6 mice (4 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing 3% fish oil (3% FO, n=5), 12% fish oil (FO, n=6), 3% buttermilk (3% BM, n=6) or 12% buttermilk (12% BM, n=6) for 6 months. Following metabolic cage analysis these mice were scanned using a standard MEMRI protocol at 28-32 weeks of age. Adult mice aged 28-32 weeks old (RM3, n=5) and 15-16 weeks old (YRM3, n=4) maintained on standard rodent chow were also studied to assess age-related changes in brain barrier systems and neuronal activity. Signal intensity (SI) in the anterior pituitary (AP), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) was significantly reduced in young compared to older mice fed standard chow. Furthermore, fish oil supplementation led to a decrease in SI within the ARC and PVN, reaching significance in the VMH in age-matched controls. Interestingly, both fish oil and buttermilk supplementation resulted in a significant increase in SI within the AP, a structure outside the BBB. We conclude that MEMRI is able to detect the combined effects of the integrity of neuronal activity and blood-brain barrier permeability in the hypothalamus associated with dietary manipulation and aging.

  7. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  8. Association of Fish Consumption-Derived Ratio of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Risk With the Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-05-13

    We investigated the relationships between the ratio of serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) to n-6PUFA (arachidonic acid [AA]) and the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and assessed the association of the ratio of serum n-3 to n-6 PUFAs with atherosclerosis-related markers.This study was designed as a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive outpatients who had undergone regular examinations between April 2009 and October 2009. We divided the patients into 5 groups based on the quintiles of the EPA/AA ratio or quintiles of the DHA/AA ratio to determine independent factors for the prevalence of CAD.In multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjustment for coronary risk factors and serum n-3PUFAs levels to minimize confounding factors to the extent possible because the serum levels of EPA and DHA showed a strong correlation (r = 0.812, P < 0.0001), the group with the highest EPA/AA ratio had a lower probability of CAD prevalence (odds ratio: 0.328, 95% confidence interval: 0.113 to 0.956, P = 0.041), but this was not true for the DHA/AA ratio. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in the EPA/AA ratio, but not in the DHA/AA ratio, was associated with effects on atherosclerosis-related markers, especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) containing apolipoprotein A-1, and leukocyte count in an anti-atherogenic direction.The results suggest a higher EPA/AA ratio, but not a higher DHA/AA ratio, might be associated with a lower prevalence of CAD and improvements of triglyceride metabolism and HDL metabolism, and systemic inflammation. PMID:25902881

  9. Transgenic Increase in n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Ratio Protects Against Cognitive Deficits Induced by an Immune Challenge through Decrease of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnès; Kang, Jing Xuan; Nadjar, Agnès; Layé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) display immunomodulatory properties in the brain, n-3 PUFAs being able to reduce inflammation whereas n-6 PUFAs are more pro-inflammatory. It has been extensively demonstrated that exposure to a peripheral immune challenge leads to the production and release of inflammatory mediators in the brain in association with cognitive deficits. The question arises whether n-3 PUFA supplementation could downregulate the brain inflammatory response and subsequent cognitive alterations. In this study, we used a genetically modified mouse line carrying the fat-1 gene from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, encoding an n-3 PUFA desaturase that catalyzes conversion of n-6 into n-3 PUFA. Consequently, these mice display endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA tissue contents. Fat-1 mice or wild-type (WT) littermates were injected peripherally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, to induce an inflammatory episode. Our results showed that LPS altered differently the phenotype of microglia and the expression of cytokines and chemokines in Fat-1 and WT mice. In Fat-1 mice, pro-inflammatory factors synthesis was lowered compared with WT mice, whereas anti-inflammatory mechanisms were favored 24 h after LPS treatment. Moreover, LPS injection impaired spatial memory in WT mice, whereas interestingly, the Fat-1 mice showed normal cognitive performances. All together, these data suggest that the central n-3 PUFA increase observed in Fat-1 mice modulated the brain innate immune system activity, leading to the protection of animals against LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and subsequent spatial memory alteration. PMID:25228141

  10. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Major Eicosanoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 18 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Kelei; Wang, Fenglei; Yang, Bo; Fu, Yuanqing; Zheng, Jusheng; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    Background Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have a beneficial effect on inflammation via lowering pro-inflammatory eicosanoid concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) through systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Method and Findings A structured search strategy on PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane up to November 2015 was undertaken in this meta-analysis. Standard mean difference was used to calculate the effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4 in a random-effect model. A total of 18 RCTs with 826 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA significantly decreased concentrations of TXB2 in serum/plasma in subjects with high risk of cardiovascular diseases (SMD:-1.26; 95% CI: -1.65, -0.86) and LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects (subjects with non-autoimmune chronic diseases or auto-immune diseases) (SMD:-0.59: 95% CI: -1.02, -0.16). Subgroup analyses showed a significant reduction of LTB4 in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (SMD: -0.83; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.29), but not in non-autoimmune chronic disease patients (SMD: -0.33; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.31). No significant publication bias was shown in the meta-analysis. Conclusions Marine-derived n-3 PUFA had a beneficial effect on reducing the concentration of TXB2 in blood of subjects with high risk of CVD as well as LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects, and that subjects with RA showed lower LTB4 content with supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA. PMID:26808318

  11. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify novel loci associated with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in Chinese and European-ancestry populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao; Li, Huaixing; Lu, Ling; Manichaikul, Ani; Zhu, Jingwen; Chen, Yii-Der I; Sun, Liang; Liang, Shuang; Siscovick, David S; Steffen, Lyn M; Tsai, Michael Y; Rich, Stephen S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lin, Xu

    2016-03-15

    Epidemiological studies suggest that levels of n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with risk of cardio-metabolic outcomes across different ethnic groups. Recent genome-wide association studies in populations of European ancestry have identified several loci associated with plasma and/or erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids. To identify additional novel loci, we carried out a genome-wide association study in two population-based cohorts consisting of 3521 Chinese participants, followed by a trans-ethnic meta-analysis with meta-analysis results from 8962 participants of European ancestry. Four novel loci (MYB, AGPAT4, DGAT2 and PPT2) reached genome-wide significance in the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (log10(Bayes Factor) ≥ 6). Of them, associations of MYB and AGPAT4 with docosatetraenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 11.5 and 8.69, respectively) also reached genome-wide significance in the Chinese-specific genome-wide association analyses (P = 4.15 × 10(-14) and 4.30 × 10(-12), respectively), while associations of DGAT2 with gamma-linolenic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.16) and of PPT2 with docosapentaenoic acid (log10(Bayes Factor) = 6.24) were nominally significant in both Chinese- and European-specific genome-wide association analyses (P ≤ 0.003). We also confirmed previously reported loci including FADS1, NTAN1, NRBF2, ELOVL2 and GCKR. Different effect sizes in FADS1 and independent association signals in ELOVL2 were observed. These results provide novel insight into the genetic background of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their differences between Chinese and European populations.

  12. Unmasking Differential Effects of Rosiglitazone and Pioglitazone in the Combination Treatment with n-3 Fatty Acids in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kus, Vladimir; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Svobodova, Michaela; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Yu, Zhonghao; Illig, Thomas; Kopecky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Combining pharmacological treatments and life style interventions is necessary for effective therapy of major diseases associated with obesity, which are clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Acting via multiple mechanisms, combination treatments may reduce dose requirements and, therefore, lower the risk of adverse side effects, which are usually associated with long-term pharmacological interventions. Our previous study in mice fed high-fat diet indicated additivity in preservation of insulin sensitivity and in amelioration of major metabolic syndrome phenotypes by the combination treatment using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and rosiglitazone, i.e. an anti-diabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) family. We investigated here whether pioglitazone, a TZD-drug in clinical use, could elicit the additive beneficial effects when combined with n-3 LC-PUFA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various dietary treatments (i) cHF+F, cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids; (ii) cHF+ROSI, cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet; (iii) cHF+F+ROSI; (iv) cHF+PIO, cHF with 50 mg pioglitazone/kg diet; and (v) cHF+F+PIO, or chow-fed. Plasma concentrations of 163 metabolites were evaluated using a targeted metabolomics approach. Both TZDs preserved glucose homeostasis and normal plasma lipid levels while inducing adiponectin, with pioglitazone showing better effectiveness. The beneficial effects of TZDs were further augmented by the combination treatments. cHF+F+ROSI but not cHF+F+PIO counteracted development of obesity, in correlation with inducibility of fatty acid β-oxidation, as revealed by the metabolomic analysis. By contrast, only cHF+F+PIO eliminated hepatic steatosis and this treatment also reversed insulin resistance in dietary obese mice. Our results reveal differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, unmasked in the

  13. Unmasking differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in the combination treatment with n-3 fatty acids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kus, Vladimir; Flachs, Pavel; Kuda, Ondrej; Bardova, Kristina; Janovska, Petra; Svobodova, Michaela; Jilkova, Zuzana Macek; Rossmeisl, Martin; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Yu, Zhonghao; Illig, Thomas; Kopecky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Combining pharmacological treatments and life style interventions is necessary for effective therapy of major diseases associated with obesity, which are clustered in the metabolic syndrome. Acting via multiple mechanisms, combination treatments may reduce dose requirements and, therefore, lower the risk of adverse side effects, which are usually associated with long-term pharmacological interventions. Our previous study in mice fed high-fat diet indicated additivity in preservation of insulin sensitivity and in amelioration of major metabolic syndrome phenotypes by the combination treatment using n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) and rosiglitazone, i.e. an anti-diabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) family. We investigated here whether pioglitazone, a TZD-drug in clinical use, could elicit the additive beneficial effects when combined with n-3 LC-PUFA. Adult male mice (C57BL/6N) were fed an obesogenic corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF) for 8 weeks, or randomly assigned to various dietary treatments (i) cHF+F, cHF with n-3 LC-PUFA concentrate replacing 15% of dietary lipids; (ii) cHF+ROSI, cHF with 10 mg rosiglitazone/kg diet; (iii) cHF+F+ROSI; (iv) cHF+PIO, cHF with 50 mg pioglitazone/kg diet; and (v) cHF+F+PIO, or chow-fed. Plasma concentrations of 163 metabolites were evaluated using a targeted metabolomics approach. Both TZDs preserved glucose homeostasis and normal plasma lipid levels while inducing adiponectin, with pioglitazone showing better effectiveness. The beneficial effects of TZDs were further augmented by the combination treatments. cHF+F+ROSI but not cHF+F+PIO counteracted development of obesity, in correlation with inducibility of fatty acid β-oxidation, as revealed by the metabolomic analysis. By contrast, only cHF+F+PIO eliminated hepatic steatosis and this treatment also reversed insulin resistance in dietary obese mice. Our results reveal differential effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, unmasked in the

  14. Modification of brain lipids but not phenotype in alpha-synucleinopathy transgenic mice by long-term dietary n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Muntané, Gerard; Janué, Anna; Fernandez, Nuria; Odena, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Eliandre; Boluda, Susana; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Naudí, Alba; Boada, Jordi; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidre

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing both wild mouse alpha-synuclein and the Parkinson's disease associated A53T mutated human alpha-synuclein were subjected to long-term diets impoverished in n-3 or diets impoverished in n-3 and supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 6 months. Transgenic mice evidenced mild phenotype characterized by increased total alpha-synuclein expression, truncated alpha-synuclein forms, and abnormal solubility and aggregation, in the absence of Lewy bodies and neurites, and lack of apparent neuronal loss, astrocytosis and microgliosis. These diets produced a reduction in the content of linolenic, n-3 docosapentaenoic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids, leading to significantly lower double bond and peroxidizability indexes as well as to lower protein oxidative damage, with no effects in alpha-synuclein expression and with no modifications in the number of cortical astrocytes and microglial cells. The present results show that diets may modify brain lipid composition and susceptibility to oxidative damage that do not interfere with phenotype in models with a genetic susceptibility to develop alpha-synucleinopathy.

  15. Serum metabolomics profiles in response to n-3 fatty acids in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Lin, Mei; Imamura, Fumiaki; Cai, Wenwen; Wang, Ling; Feng, Jue-Ping; Ruan, Yue; Tang, Jun; Wang, Fenglei; Yang, Hong; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the change of serum metabolomics in response to n-3 fatty acid supplements in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a double-blind parallel randomised controlled trial, 59 Chinese T2D patients were randomised to receive either fish oil (FO), flaxseed oil (FSO) or corn oil capsules (CO, served as a control group) and followed up for 180 days. An additional 17 healthy non-T2D participants were recruited at baseline for cross-sectional comparison between cases and non-cases. A total of 296 serum metabolites were measured among healthy controls and T2D patients before and after the intervention. Serum 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoate (CMPF) (P-interaction = 1.8 × 10(-7)) was the most significant metabolite identified by repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by eicosapentaenoate (P-interaction = 4.6 × 10(-6)), 1-eicosapentaenoylglycerophosphocholine (P-interaction = 3.4 × 10(-4)), docosahexaenoate (P-interaction = 0.001), linolenate (n-3 or n-6, P-interaction = 0.005) and docosapentaenoate (n-3, P-interaction = 0.021). CMPF level was lower in T2D patients than in the healthy controls (P = 0.014) and it was significantly increased in the FO compared with CO group (P = 1.17 × 10(-7)). Furthermore, change of CMPF during the intervention was negatively correlated with change of serum triglycerides (P = 0.016). In conclusion, furan fatty acid metabolite CMPF was the strongest biomarker of fish oil intake. The association of CMPF with metabolic markers warrants further investigation. PMID:27404516

  16. Serum metabolomics profiles in response to n-3 fatty acids in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Lin, Mei; Imamura, Fumiaki; Cai, Wenwen; Wang, Ling; Feng, Jue-Ping; Ruan, Yue; Tang, Jun; Wang, Fenglei; Yang, Hong; Li, Duo

    2016-07-12

    We aimed to investigate the change of serum metabolomics in response to n-3 fatty acid supplements in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a double-blind parallel randomised controlled trial, 59 Chinese T2D patients were randomised to receive either fish oil (FO), flaxseed oil (FSO) or corn oil capsules (CO, served as a control group) and followed up for 180 days. An additional 17 healthy non-T2D participants were recruited at baseline for cross-sectional comparison between cases and non-cases. A total of 296 serum metabolites were measured among healthy controls and T2D patients before and after the intervention. Serum 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoate (CMPF) (P-interaction = 1.8 × 10(-7)) was the most significant metabolite identified by repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by eicosapentaenoate (P-interaction = 4.6 × 10(-6)), 1-eicosapentaenoylglycerophosphocholine (P-interaction = 3.4 × 10(-4)), docosahexaenoate (P-interaction = 0.001), linolenate (n-3 or n-6, P-interaction = 0.005) and docosapentaenoate (n-3, P-interaction = 0.021). CMPF level was lower in T2D patients than in the healthy controls (P = 0.014) and it was significantly increased in the FO compared with CO group (P = 1.17 × 10(-7)). Furthermore, change of CMPF during the intervention was negatively correlated with change of serum triglycerides (P = 0.016). In conclusion, furan fatty acid metabolite CMPF was the strongest biomarker of fish oil intake. The association of CMPF with metabolic markers warrants further investigation.

  17. Serum metabolomics profiles in response to n-3 fatty acids in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Lin, Mei; Imamura, Fumiaki; Cai, Wenwen; Wang, Ling; Feng, Jue-Ping; Ruan, Yue; Tang, Jun; Wang, Fenglei; Yang, Hong; Li, Duo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the change of serum metabolomics in response to n-3 fatty acid supplements in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a double-blind parallel randomised controlled trial, 59 Chinese T2D patients were randomised to receive either fish oil (FO), flaxseed oil (FSO) or corn oil capsules (CO, served as a control group) and followed up for 180 days. An additional 17 healthy non-T2D participants were recruited at baseline for cross-sectional comparison between cases and non-cases. A total of 296 serum metabolites were measured among healthy controls and T2D patients before and after the intervention. Serum 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoate (CMPF) (P-interaction = 1.8 × 10−7) was the most significant metabolite identified by repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by eicosapentaenoate (P-interaction = 4.6 × 10−6), 1-eicosapentaenoylglycerophosphocholine (P-interaction = 3.4 × 10−4), docosahexaenoate (P-interaction = 0.001), linolenate (n-3 or n-6, P-interaction = 0.005) and docosapentaenoate (n-3, P-interaction = 0.021). CMPF level was lower in T2D patients than in the healthy controls (P = 0.014) and it was significantly increased in the FO compared with CO group (P = 1.17 × 10−7). Furthermore, change of CMPF during the intervention was negatively correlated with change of serum triglycerides (P = 0.016). In conclusion, furan fatty acid metabolite CMPF was the strongest biomarker of fish oil intake. The association of CMPF with metabolic markers warrants further investigation. PMID:27404516

  18. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation of long-term frozen n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork patties.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Botsoglou, Nikolas

    2014-10-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated the protective effects of olive leaf extracts on the oxidation of pork patties from n-3 fatty acid-enriched meat during refrigerated storage. The target of the present study was to examine these effects during frozen storage. Results showed that frozen storage accelerated (P=0.05) both lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties, but an addition of olive leaf extract at 200mg gallic acid equivalent/kg improved sensory attributes by delaying oxidation of lipids (reduction (P=0.05) of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), and of proteins (reduction (P=0.05) of protein carbonyls and inhibition (P=0.05) of the decrease of protein sulfhydryls).

  19. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption produces neurobiological effects associated with prevention of depression in rats after the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological data and clinical trials suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have preventive and therapeutic effects on depression; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aimed to examine the behavioral effects and antidepressant mechanism of n-3 PUFA using a forced swimming test. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0%, 0.5% or 1% EPA and DHA relative to the total energy intake in their diet for 12 weeks (n=8 per group). Total dietary intake, body weight and hippocampus weights were not significantly different among groups. The groups administered 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA diets had significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFA in their brain phospholipids compared to those in the control group. The immobility time was significantly decreased and the climbing time was significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Plasma serotonin concentration and hippocampus c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly reduced in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with that in the 0% EPA+DHA group. However, there were no dose-dependent effects of n-3 PUFA and no significant differences in expressions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphorylated CREB. In conclusion, long-term intake of EPA+DHA induced antidepressant-like effects in rats and overexpression of CREB via decreased IL-6 expression.

  20. Influence of parturition and diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune response of dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Lessard, M; Gagnon, N; Godson, D L; Petit, H V

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the functional properties of immunocompetent cells in dairy cows fed diets enriched in n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during the transition period. Six weeks before calving, 21 primiparous and 27 multiparous pregnant Holstein dairy cows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary fat treatments: calcium salts of palm oil (Megalac), micronized soybeans, or whole flaxseed, which are, respectively, rich in saturated, n-6, or n-3 fatty acids. On wk 6 and 3 before parturition, cows received a subcutaneous injection of ovalbumin to measure the antibody response in colostrum and serum. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and blood samples were taken 6, 3, and 1 wk before the expected calving date and 1, 3, and 6 wk after calving. Blood mononuclear cells were cultured to evaluate the proliferative response to concanavalin A and the in vitro productions of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2. The serum antibody response to ovalbumin was unaffected by dietary fatty acids, but the response was lower in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. A significant diet x parity interaction indicated that colostral antibody level against ovalbumin was significantly higher in multiparous cows fed soybeans than in those fed flaxseed or Megalac; there was no difference among treatments for primiparous cows. The lymphocyte response to concanavalin A was lower in cows fed soybeans than in those receiving flaxseed or Megalac when the cells were incubated with autologous serum. The proliferative response of mononuclear cells incubated with autologous serum was suppressed in the 1st wk after calving in both primiparous and multiparous cows, and multiparous cows showed a higher response than primiparous cows throughout the experiment. There was a significant interaction between parity and diet as a result of a greater production of interferon-gamma by mononuclear

  1. The Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Androgen Status in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Hajishafiee, M; Askari, G; Iranj, B; Ghiasvand, R; Bellissimo, N; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Salehi-Abargouei, A

    2016-05-01

    The anti-androgenic role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has recently been proposed. The present study aimed to systematically review clinical trials assessing the effects of n-3 PUFAs consumption on androgen status among adult females with PCOS. PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched up to December 2015. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of n-3 PUFAs on adult females with PCOS were included. Mean±standard deviation of change in serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEAS) were extracted. Eight clinical trials with 298 participants were eligible. Meta-analysis showed that n-3 PUFAs supplementation marginally reduces total testosterone (mean difference [MD]: - 0.19 nmol/l; 95% CI: - 0.39 to 0.00; p=0.054), but not SHBG (MD: 1.75 nmol/l; 95% CI: -0.51 to 4.01; p=0.129) or serum DHEAS levels (Hedes' g: -0.11 nmol/l; 95% CI: -0.29 to 0.06; p=0.19) among adult females with PCOS. Subgroup analyses showed that only before-after studies (Hedges' g: 0.15; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.04; p=0.01) and long-term interventions (>6 weeks) (Hedges' g: -0.17; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.05; p=0.004) had reducing effects on serum DHEAS levels. The majority of long-term trials utilized a single group design (no control group). It does not appear that n-3 PUFAs supplementation significantly affects the androgenic profile of females with PCOS; however, some before-after and long-term intervention studies show reduced DHEAS levels. Future studies incorporating double blinded placebo controlled clinical trials with long follow-up periods are warranted. PMID:27077458

  2. Comparison of supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on cytokine gene expression and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Karcher, E L; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L; Vito, N; Sordillo, L M; Vandehaar, M J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reduce incidence of disease in calves and improve early vaccination strategies is of particular interest for dairy producers. The n-3 fatty acids have been reported to reduce inflammatory diseases in humans but limited research has been done in calves. The objective of this study was to compare supplementation of n-3 fatty acids from fish and flax oil on gene expression of whole blood cells and growth of milk-fed Holstein calves. Forty-eight Holstein bull calves from a commercial dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets beginning at 4d old: (1) control milk replacer (MR) with all pork fat, (2) MR with 2% flax oil, and (3) MR with 2% fish oil. All MR were 17% fat, 27% crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis, with all protein from whey sources. Calves were each fed 654g DM of MR daily for the first 25d and then 327g/d for d26, 27, and 28. On d28, calves were challenged with a Pasteurella vaccine and the temperature response to the vaccine was recorded. Milk and feed intake and fecal scores were recorded daily, and body weight and hip width were recorded weekly. Blood was collected from all calves on d25. One tube of collected blood was incubated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) for 2h and frozen with a second tube of control blood. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the effects of LPS stimulation on cytokine gene expression. During the 28 d, calves supplemented with flax oil had a greater growth rate and feed efficiency than calves fed fish oil (0.52±0.02 vs. 0.48±0.02g of gain:g of feed). Fish oil tended to decrease LPS stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-α expression. Flax oil, but not fish oil, decreased the expression of IL-4 and tended to decrease expression of osteopontin and IL-8. Flax oil tended to reduce the increase in rectal temperature in response to a Pasteurella vaccine. In conclusion, our data support the idea that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids affects cytokine gene expression. PMID:24485693

  3. Changes in piglet tissue composition at birth in response to increasing maternal intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are non-linear.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Sinclair, A G; Ewen, M

    2001-10-01

    Addition of marine oils containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet of pregnant sows may reduce piglet mortality. In previous experiments, when marine oils have been fed to pregnant sows, improvements in piglet tissue 22 : 6n-3 status have been accompanied by potentially undesirable decreases in 20 : 4n-6. The objective of the present experiment was to establish an amount of dietary salmon oil which would enhance piglet 22 : 6n-3 status while minimising reductions in 20 : 4n-6. Twenty-four pregnant multiparous sows were used in the experiment which began on day 60 of pregnancy (gestation length 115 d). To give four diets, salmon oil was added in increasing amounts (0, 5, 10 and 20 g/kg diet) to a basal diet; the diets were made isoenergetic by adding palm oil to each diet to give a total of 20 g oil/kg diet. Diets were offered to the sows in fixed amounts (2.5 kg/d) until parturition. Piglet tissue samples (brain, liver and retina) were obtained at birth before consumption of colostrum. The greatest increase in piglet tissue 22 : 6n-3 proportions occurred between 0 and 5 g salmon oil/kg diet, with only small increases between 10 and 20 g salmon oil/kg diet. In contrast, tissue 20 : 4n-6 proportions declined progressively as the amount of salmon oil fed to the sow increased. In brain, the change in the value 22 : 6n-3/22 : 5n-6 was greatest between 0 and 5 g salmon oil/kg diet, whereas in liver the value increased linearly with added salmon oil. In addition, piglet brain weight (g/kg live weight) increased to a maximum at 10 g salmon oil/kg diet. The optimum amount of supplementary salmon oil in the current experiment, defined as that which gave the greatest response in brain 22 : 6n-3 proportions with minimum reduction in 20 : 4n-6,was 10 g salmon oil/kg diet. This corresponds to an intake of approximately 2.4 g 20 : 5n-3 plus 3.6 g 22 : 6n-3/d or 0.6 % digestible energy.

  4. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  5. A Novel Process for the Synthesis of Highly Pure n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)-Enriched Triglycerides by Combined Transesterification and Ethanolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Wang, Weifei; Qin, Xiaoli; Li, Xingxing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-31

    In this study, a novel two-step enzymatic reaction was developed for the synthesis of highly pure triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a high content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Glyceride mixtures were primarily synthesized by Novozym 435-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters (EEs), followed by removal of partial glycerides, for the first time, by immobilized mono- and diacylglycerol lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed ethanolysis. TAG yield as high as 98.66% was achieved under the optimized conditions, and highly pure (98.75%) n-3 PUFA-enriched TAGs with 88.44% of n-3 PUFA was obtained after molecular distillation at lower temperature (140 °C). In addition, the EEs produced during ethanolysis had a FA composition similar to that of the original EEs, making them feasible for cyclic utilization. This was the first study reporting removal of partial glycerides by ethanolysis. Through ethanolysis, a higher purity product could be easily obtained at a relatively low temperature compared with the conventional high-temperature molecular distillation. PMID:27540752

  6. Endogenously synthesized n-3 fatty acids in fat-1 transgenic mice prevent melanoma progression by increasing E-cadherin expression and inhibiting β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuan; Yu, Xiong-Wei; Zhu, Pan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Yan, Wang; Xi, Yang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Kang, Jing-Xuan; Zou, Zu-Quan; Bu, Shi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts. This reduction in tumor growth in fat‑1 mice compared with wild‑type controls may have been associated, in part, to the: i) Increased expression of E‑cadherin and the reduced expression of its transcriptional repressors, the zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1 and snail family transcriptional repressor 1; ii) significant repression of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/β‑catenin signaling pathway; and iii) formation of significant levels of n‑3 PUFA‑derived lipid mediators, particularly resolvin D2 and E1, maresin 1 and 15‑hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. In addition, vitamin E administration counteracted n‑3 PUFA‑induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antitumor effect of n‑3 PUFAs, which suggests that the protective role of n‑3 PUFAs against melanoma is not mediated by n‑3 PUFAs‑induced lipid peroxidation. These results highlight a potential role of n‑3 PUFAs supplementation for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high‑risk individuals, and as a putative adjuvant agent in the treatment of malignant melanoma.

  7. Endogenously synthesized n-3 fatty acids in fat-1 transgenic mice prevent melanoma progression by increasing E-cadherin expression and inhibiting β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuan; Yu, Xiong-Wei; Zhu, Pan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Yan, Wang; Xi, Yang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Kang, Jing-Xuan; Zou, Zu-Quan; Bu, Shi-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Although preclinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are beneficial for prevention of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of n‑3 PUFAs on melanoma remain largely unknown. In the present study, endogenously increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the tumor tissues of omega‑3 fatty acid desaturase (fat‑1) transgenic mice was associated with a reduction in the growth rate of melanoma xenografts. This reduction in tumor growth in fat‑1 mice compared with wild‑type controls may have been associated, in part, to the: i) Increased expression of E‑cadherin and the reduced expression of its transcriptional repressors, the zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1 and snail family transcriptional repressor 1; ii) significant repression of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt/β‑catenin signaling pathway; and iii) formation of significant levels of n‑3 PUFA‑derived lipid mediators, particularly resolvin D2 and E1, maresin 1 and 15‑hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. In addition, vitamin E administration counteracted n‑3 PUFA‑induced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antitumor effect of n‑3 PUFAs, which suggests that the protective role of n‑3 PUFAs against melanoma is not mediated by n‑3 PUFAs‑induced lipid peroxidation. These results highlight a potential role of n‑3 PUFAs supplementation for the chemoprevention of melanoma in high‑risk individuals, and as a putative adjuvant agent in the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:27573698

  8. Stability and consumer acceptance of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5, n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6, n-3) in cream-filled sandwich cookies.

    PubMed

    Borneo, R; Kocer, D; Ghai, G; Tepper, B J; Karwe, M V

    2007-01-01

    We formulated a filling for sandwich cookies containing 400 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5, n-3 (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6, n-3 (DHA) encapsulated in a matrix of starch and gelatin. Cookies were stored at 2 different temperatures (18 degrees C and 35 degrees C) and under 2 different packaging conditions (atmospheric and vacuum packed) for 28 d. At regular intervals, cookies were analyzed for moisture, water activity, and concentrations of EPA, DHA, and dienes. Results showed that there were no significant losses of EPA and DHA during storage under the conditions of study. A maximum loss of 5% was observed after 28 d of storage. The concentration of dienes obtained under different conditions were low (< 25 mmol/kg) as compared to a salmon oil sample with appreciable signs of oxidation (600 mmol/kg). Sensory evaluation of cookies by an untrained panel of healthy consumers and ulcerative colitis patients revealed no aftertaste and high acceptability of the cookies. Our results demonstrated that it is possible to make shelf-stable fortified foods with high levels of long-chain omega3FA.

  9. Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Lokesh, B R

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant spice principles curcumin and eugenol when given by gavage lowered the carrageenan-induced edema in the foot pads of rats. This lowering effect was dependent on the concentration, the time gap between the administration of spice principles and the induction of inflammation by carrageenan. Dietary lipids also influenced the extent of inflammation. Animals fed 10% cod liver oil [containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)] for 10 weeks showed a significantly lower inflammation compared to that observed in animals fed diets supplemented with 10% groundnut oil (rich in n-6 PUFA) or 10% coconut oil (rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Supplementation of diets with 1 weight% of curcumin did not affect the inflammatory responses of animals to carrageenan injection. However, supplementation of diets with 0.17 weight% eugenol further lowered inflammation by 16, 32 and 30% in animals fed coconut oil, groundnut oil and cod liver oil, respectively. Therefore, combinations of dietary lipids with spice principles like eugenol can help in lowering inflammation.

  10. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kelei; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Jusheng; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies did not draw a consistent conclusion about the effects of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fasting blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods and Findings A comprehensive search of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Medline (from 1950 to 2013) and bibliographies of relevant articles was undertaken. Sixty-eight RCTs with a total of 4601 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation showed a lowering effect on Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in three groups of subjects (subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, subjects with chronic autoimmune disease and healthy subjects). A significant negative linear relationship between duration and effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation on fasting blood levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease was observed, indicating that longer duration of supplementation could lead to a greater lowering effect. A similar linear relationship was also observed for IL-6 levels in healthy subjects. Restricted cubic spline analysis and subgroup analysis showed that the lowering effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease became weakened when body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m2. The effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs from dietary intake was only assessed in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, and a significant lowering effect was observed on IL-6, but not on CRP and TNF-α. Conclusions Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α level. The lowering effect was most effective in non-obese subjects and consecutive long-term supplementation was recommended. PMID:24505395

  11. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (≥90 cm for males and ≥84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol <1 mmol/L (males) or <1.3 mmol/L (females), blood pressure ≥130 mmHg (systolic) and/or ≥85 mmHg (diastolic), and glucose ≥5.5 mmol/L. Weight-maintaining diets that included shakes with one of the dietary oil blends were provided during each of the five 30-day dietary phases. Dietary phases were separated by four-week washout periods. Treatment oils were canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), flax oil and safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. Results One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Conclusions Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study

  12. Maternal dietary n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio affects type 1 diabetes development in the offspring of non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kagohashi, Yukiko; Abiru, Norio; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu; Otani, Hiroki

    2010-12-01

    Environment factors, including maternal or infant dietary nutrition have been reported to have an influence on the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, to investigate the effect of maternal or post-weaning offspring's nutrition, in particular the essential fatty acid ratio (n-6/n-3) on the development of type 1 diabetes, we prepared two kinds of chows with n-6/n-3 ratios of 3.0 (L) and 14.5 (H), and provided them to mothers of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice during gestation and lactation and to the offspring after weaning. The n-6/n-3 ratios in breast milk and erythrocyte membrane of NOD offspring became nearly the same with that of the maternal diet at 2 weeks after birth. In the L chow-fed offspring from L chow-fed mother (LLL), levels of insulitis were higher than those in the H chow-fed offspring from H chow-fed mother (HHH) at 4 weeks of age, while the levels in the LLL offspring became lower than those in the HHH after 6 weeks. Early insulin autoantibody expressions were found from 2 to 6 weeks in the HHH offspring, but not in the LLL. The LLL offspring exhibited strong suppression of overt diabetes development in regard to the onset and accumulated incidence of diabetes compared to the HHH. The study with combined L and H chows during gestation, lactation in mother and in post-weaning offspring revealed that only the LLH chow significantly suppressed the development of diabetes with similar kinetics to LLL chow, although the other combinations may delay the onset of diabetes. The present findings suggest that n-6/n-3 ratio of the maternal diet during gestation and lactation rather than that of offspring after weaning strongly affects the development of overt diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:20846138

  13. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour. PMID:26573368

  14. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial investigating the behavioural effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 fatty acid supplementation in typically developing adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Jonathan D; Steinsaltz, David; Bester, D W; Semb-Andenaes, Turid; Stein, John F

    2016-01-28

    Nutrient deficiencies have been implicated in anti-social behaviour in schoolchildren; hence, correcting them may improve sociability. We therefore tested the effects of vitamin, mineral and n-3 supplementation on behaviour in a 12-week double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial in typically developing UK adolescents aged 13-16 years (n 196). Changes in erythrocyte n-3 and 6 fatty acids and some mineral and vitamin levels were measured and compared with behavioural changes, using Conners' teacher ratings and school disciplinary records. At baseline, the children's PUFA (n-3 and n-6), vitamin and mineral levels were low, but they improved significantly in the group treated with n-3, vitamins and minerals (P=0·0005). On the Conners disruptive behaviour scale, the group given the active supplements improved, whereas the placebo group worsened (F=5·555, d=0·35; P=0·02). The general level of disciplinary infringements was low, thus making it difficult to obtain improvements. However, throughout the school term school disciplinary infringements increased significantly (by 25 %; Bayes factor=115) in both the treated and untreated groups. However, when the subjects were split into high and low baseline infringements, the low subset increased their offences, whereas the high-misbehaviour subset appeared to improve after treatment. But it was not possible to determine whether this was merely a statistical artifact. Thus, when assessed using the validated and standardised Conners teacher tests (but less clearly when using school discipline records in a school where misbehaviour was infrequent), supplementary nutrition might have a protective effect against worsening behaviour.

  15. Spatial and visual discrimination reversals in adult and geriatric rats exposed during gestation to methylmercury and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Paletz, Elliott M.; Day, Jeremy J.; Craig-Schmidt, Margaret C.; Newland, M. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Fish contain essential long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (or n-3) PUFA, but are also the main source of exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a potent developmental neurotoxicant. Since n-3 PUFAs support neural development and function, benefits deriving from a diet rich in n-3s have been hypothesized to protect against deleterious effects of gestational MeHg exposure. To determine whether protection occurs at the behavioral level, female Long-Evans rats were exposed, in utero, to 0, 0.5, or 5 ppm of Hg as MeHg via drinking water, approximating exposures of 0, 40, and 400 μg Hg/kg/day and producing 0, 0.29, and 5.50 ppm of total Hg in the brains of siblings at birth. They also received pre- and postnatal exposure to one of two diets, both based on the AIN-93 semipurified formulation. A “fish-oil” diet was high in, and a “coconut-oil” diet was devoid of, DHA. Diets were approximately equal in α-linolenic acid and n-6 PUFAs. As adults, the rats were first assessed with a spatial discrimination reversal (SDR) procedure and later with a visual (nonspatial) discrimination reversal (VDR) procedure. MeHg increased the number of errors to criterion for both SDR and VDR during the first reversal, but effects were smaller or nonexistent on the original discrimination and on later reversals. No such MeHg-related deficits were seen when the rats were retested on SDR after two years of age. These results are consistent with previous reports and hypotheses that gestational MeHg exposure produces perseverative responding. No interactions between Diet and MeHg were found, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs do not guard against these behavioral effects. Brain Hg concentrations did not differ between the diets, either. In geriatric rats, failures to respond were less common and response latencies were shorter for rats fed the fish oil diet, suggesting that exposure to a diet rich in n-3s may lessen the impact of age

  16. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to obese leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA- cp rats modifies immune function and lipid-raft fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Megan R; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J

    2009-05-01

    Dietary EPA and DHA modulate immunity and thereby may improve the aberrant immune function in obese states. To determine the effects of feeding fish oil (FO) containing EPA and DHA on splenocyte phospholipid (PL) and lipid-raft fatty acid composition, phenotypes and cytokine production, 14-week-old obese, leptin receptor-deficient JCR:LA-cp rats (cp/cp; n 10) were randomised to one of three nutritionally adequate diets for 3 weeks: control (Ctl, 0 % EPA+DHA); low FO (LFO, 0.8 % (w/w) EPA+DHA); high FO (HFO, 1.4 % (w/w) EPA+DHA). Lean JCR:LA-cp (+/ - or +/+) rats (n 5) were fed the Ctl diet. Obese Ctl rats had a higher proportion of n-3 PUFA in splenocyte PL than lean rats fed the same diet (P < 0.05). The lower n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of splenocyte PL was consistent with the lower mitogen-stimulated interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-1beta production by cells from obese rats (P < 0.05). Obese rats fed the FO diet had lower mitogen-stimulated Th1 (IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokine responses, but IL-2 production (concanavalin A; ConA) did not differ (P < 0.05). The HFO diet was more effective in lowering IL-1beta and increasing IL-10 production (ConA, P < 0.05). This lower IL-1beta production was accompanied by a lower proportion of major histocompatability complex class II-positive cells and a higher incorporation of DHA into lipid rafts. This is the first study to demonstrate impaired responses to mitogen stimulation and altered fatty acid incorporation into the membrane PL of JCR:LA-cp rats. Feeding FO lowered the ex vivo inflammatory response, without altering IL-2 production from ConA-stimulated splenocytes which may occur independent of leptin signalling.

  17. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decreases milk production but increases n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFLAX) on milk yield and fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112 ± 68 da...

  18. Oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acids encapsulated in filled hydrogel particles and of pork meat systems containing them.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Matalanis, Alison; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The effect of storage time (2°C, 19 days) and heating (70°C, 30 min) on physical characteristics and oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in filled hydrogel particles was determined and compared with a conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion with the same oil content (8.5%). Subsequently they were used to enrich meat systems with n-3 LCPUFAs, and their lipid oxidation was evaluated and compared with two other meat systems: one containing all animal fat and another with fish oil added directly. Filled hydrogel particles were more effective in lowering the oxidation rate than O/W emulsion, even when thermal treatment was applied. Oxidative stability over the storage time was best in the n-3 LCPUFA-enriched meat system containing filled hydrogel particles, in which TBARS levels were up to 62% lower than other systems containing fish oil. Hydrogel particles offer a promising means of controlling lipid oxidation in n-3 LCPUFA-enriched meat products.

  19. Oxidative stability of n-3 fatty acids encapsulated in filled hydrogel particles and of pork meat systems containing them.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Matalanis, Alison; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The effect of storage time (2°C, 19 days) and heating (70°C, 30 min) on physical characteristics and oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in filled hydrogel particles was determined and compared with a conventional oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion with the same oil content (8.5%). Subsequently they were used to enrich meat systems with n-3 LCPUFAs, and their lipid oxidation was evaluated and compared with two other meat systems: one containing all animal fat and another with fish oil added directly. Filled hydrogel particles were more effective in lowering the oxidation rate than O/W emulsion, even when thermal treatment was applied. Oxidative stability over the storage time was best in the n-3 LCPUFA-enriched meat system containing filled hydrogel particles, in which TBARS levels were up to 62% lower than other systems containing fish oil. Hydrogel particles offer a promising means of controlling lipid oxidation in n-3 LCPUFA-enriched meat products. PMID:25872446

  20. Brain phospholipid arachidonic acid half-lives are not altered following 15 weeks of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid adequate or deprived diet

    PubMed Central

    Green, Joshua T.; Liu, Zhen; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have infused radiolabeled arachidonic acid (AA) into rat brains and followed AA esterification into phospholipids for up to 24 h; however, the half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids is unknown. Eighteen day old rats were fed either an n-3 PUFA adequate or deprived diet for 15 weeks. Following the 15 weeks, 40 µCi of [3H] AA was injected intracerebroventricularly into the right lateral ventricle using stereotaxic surgery and returned to their dietary treatment. From 4–120 days after [3H] AA administration, brains were collected for chemical analyses. The half-life of AA in rat brain phospholipids was 44 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA adequate group and 46 ± 4 days for the n-3 PUFA deprived group, which closely approximates the predicted half-life previously reported, based on the rate of entry from the plasma unesterified pool, suggesting the plasma unesterified pool is a major contributor to brain uptake of AA. Furthermore, unlike a previous report in which the half-life of brain phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased in n-3 PUFA deprived rats, n-3 PUFA deprivation did not significantly alter the AA half-life, suggesting different mechanisms exist to maintain brain concentrations of AA and DHA. PMID:19661256

  1. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  2. Alteration of the lipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes by dietary (n-3) fatty acids changes the responsiveness of Leydig cells and testosterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sebokova, E; Garg, M L; Wierzbicki, A; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1990-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess whether changing dietary fat composition altered phospholipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes in a manner that altered receptor-mediated action of luteinizing hormone (LH)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Weanling rats were fed diets that provided high or low cholesterol intakes and that were enriched with linseed oil, fish oil or beef tallow for 4 wk. Feeding diets high in (n-3) fatty acids decreased plasma and testicular plasma membrane 20:4(n-6) content. A marked reduction of the 22:5(n-6) content and an increase in the 22:6(n-3) content of testicular plasma membrane was found only in animals fed fish oil. A decrease in binding capacity of the gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptor in the plasma membrane, with no change in receptor affinity, was observed for animals fed either linseed oil or fish oil diets. Dietary treatments that raised plasma membrane cholesterol content and the cholesterol to phospholipid ratio in the membrane were associated with increased binding capacity of the gonadotropin receptor. Feeding diets high in 18:3(n-3) vs. those high in fish oil altered receptor-mediated adenylate cyclase activity in a manner that depended on the level of dietary cholesterol. Feeding diets high in cholesterol or fish oil increased basal and LH-stimulated testosterone synthesis relative to that in animals fed the low cholesterol diet containing linseed oil. It is concluded that changing the fat composition of the diet alters the phospholipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes and that this change in composition influences membrane-mediated unmasking of gonadotropin receptor-mediated action in testicular tissue. PMID:2352035

  3. Effects of dietary enrichment with n-3 fatty acids on the quality of raw and processed breast meat of high and low growth rate chickens.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Tauty, S; Meteau, K; Lessire, M; Berri, C

    2013-01-01

    1. The enrichment of raw poultry meat with n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) has been investigated in detail, particularly in high growth rate genotype standard broiler chickens, whereas low growth rate genotype Label Rouge chickens have received less attention. With the increased development of processed poultry products, it is necessary to ensure that the nutritional and sensory quality of meat enriched with n-3 FA is not affected by processing. 2. Two experiments were undertaken for this purpose. In the first experiment, 696 male Ross 708 chickens were reared under standard conditions, and in the second, 750 male JA 657 chickens were reared under Label Rouge conditions. All birds received the same starting and growing diets containing palm and soya oils in each experiment. Birds were distributed into three groups from 21 or 57 d of age for standard and Label Rouge chickens, respectively, and given a control, linseed oil or extruded linseed diet. Diets were also supplemented with vitamin E (100-200 mg/kg). Birds were slaughtered at 56 or 84 d of age for standard and Label Rouge chickens, respectively. A total amount of 60 kg of breast meat from each group was processed into white cured-cooked meat. 3. The dietary treatment had no effect on the growth performance of chickens or meat yield. The use of extruded linseed or linseed oil only decreased the carcass fatness of the standard chickens but had no effect on the carcass fatness of Label Rouge chickens. The nutritional quality of raw and cured-cooked meat was improved (increased concentration of n-3 FA), whereas the technological quality of the meat (pH, juice loss after cold storage, susceptibility to oxidation, colour, processing yield and shear force value) and sensory quality of the processed products were not or slightly affected. 4. Linked to lower breast yield, to lower lipid content in breast meat and to higher slaughter age, Label Rouge chickens seemed to be less efficient for n-3 FA deposition in breast muscles

  4. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL) study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Clemens, Felicity; Elbourne, Diana; Fasey, Nicky; Fletcher, Astrid E; Hardy, Pollyanna; Holder, Graham E; Huppert, Felicia A; Knight, Rosemary; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Truesdale, Ann; Vickers, Madge; Uauy, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs) most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid) while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance. PMID:16945130

  5. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    PubMed

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin. PMID:12794672

  6. N-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially regulate adipose angiotensinogen and other inflammatory adipokines in part via NF-kB dependent mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive secretion of angiotensinogen (Agt) and other adipokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) have been linked to obesity and associated metabolic disorders, with a common feature being inflammation. We have previously shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty ...

  7. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Karen; Julien, Pierre; Davis, Teresa A; Myre, Alexandre; Thivierge, M Carole

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula containing 3.5% LCn-3PUFAs until 10 or 28 days of age. There was a developmental decline in the insulin sensitivity of amino acid disposal in control pigs during the first month of life, with a slope of -2.24 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1) (P = 0.01) per unit of insulin increment, as assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps. LCn-3PUFA feeding blunted this developmental decline, resulting in differing insulin sensitivities (P < 0.001). When protein metabolism was assessed under parenteral feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia, LCn-3PUFAs reduced by 16% whole body oxidative losses of amino acids (from 238 to 231 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1); P = 0.06), allowing 41% more amino acids to accrete into body proteins (from 90 to 127 micromol.kg(-1).h(-1); P = 0.06). The fractional synthetic rate of muscle mixed proteins remained unaltered by the LCn-3PUFA feeding. However, LCn-3PUFAs retarded a developmental increase in the essential-to-nonessential amino acid ratio of the muscle intracellular free pool (P = 0.05). Overall, alterations in metabolism were concomitant with a preferential incorporation of LCn-3PUFAs into muscle total membrane phospholipids (P < 0.001), in contrast to intramuscular triglycerides. These results underscore the potential role of LCn-3PUFAs as regulators of different aspects of protein metabolism in the neonate. PMID:17673528

  8. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Karen; Julien, Pierre; Davis, Teresa A.; Myre, Alexandre; Thivierge, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying 0% or a formula containing 3.5% LCn-3PUFAs until 10 or 28 days of age. There was a developmental decline in the insulin sensitivity of amino acid disposal in control pigs during the first month of life, with a slope of −2.24 μmol·kg−1·h−1 (P = 0.01) per unit of insulin increment, as assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps. LCn-3PUFA feeding blunted this developmental decline, resulting in differing insulin sensitivities (P < 0.001). When protein metabolism was assessed under parenteral feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia, LCn-3PUFAs reduced by 16% whole body oxidative losses of amino acids (from 238 to 231 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06), allowing 41% more amino acids to accrete into body proteins (from 90 to 127 μmol·kg−1·h−1; P = 0.06). The fractional synthetic rate of muscle mixed proteins remained unaltered by the LCn-3PUFA feeding. However, LCn-3PUFAs retarded a developmental increase in the essential-to-nonessential amino acid ratio of the muscle intracellular free pool (P = 0.05). Overall, alterations in metabolism were concomitant with a preferential incorporation of LCn-3PUFAs into muscle total membrane phospholipids (P < 0.001), in contrast to intramuscular triglycerides. These results underscore the potential role of LCn-3PUFAs as regulators of different aspects of protein metabolism in the neonate. PMID:17673528

  9. Omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids down-regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene and blood cell adhesion molecule expression in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Daak, Ahmed A; Elderdery, Abozer Y; Elbashir, Leana M; Mariniello, Katia; Mills, Jeremy; Scarlett, Garry; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and reduced blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) are known characteristics of sickle cell disease (SCD).The anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids are well recognized. Omega-3 treated (n = 24), hydroxyurea (HU) treated (n = 18), and n-3 untreated (n=21) homozygous SCD patients (HbSS) and healthy (HbAA) controls (n = 25) matched for age (5-16 years), gender and socioeconomic status were studied. According to age (5-10) or (11-16) years, two or three capsules containing 277.8 mg docosahexaenoic (DHA) and 39.0mg eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or high oleic acid placebo (41%) were assigned to n-3 treated and n-3 untreated groups, respectively. Hydroxyurea treated group was on dosage more than 20 mg/kg/day. The effect of supplementation on systemic and blood cell markers of inflammation was investigated. The n-3 treated group had higher levels of DHA and EPA (p < 0.001) and lower white blood cell count and monocyte integrin (p < 0.05) compared with the n-3 untreated. No difference was detected between the two groups regarding C-reactive protein, granulocytes integrin and selectin, plasma tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10. The n-3 treated group had lowered nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) gene expression compared to n-3 untreated and HU treated groups (p < 0.05). This study provides evidence that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may ameliorate inflammation and blood cell adhesion in patients with SCD.

  10. Apple flavonols and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich fish oil lowers blood C-reactive protein in rats with hypercholesterolemia and acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Wang, Yanwen; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-06-01

    Both quercetin glycosides and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well established for their individual health benefits in ameliorating metabolic disease. However, their combined effects are not well documented. It was hypothesized that the beneficial properties of quercetin glycosides can be enhanced when provided in combination with n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of apple flavonols (AF) and fish oil (FO), alone and in combination, on proinflammatory biomarkers and lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12) and fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. One of the 5 groups of rats was used as the high-fat control. The other 4 groups of rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 5 hours before euthanization. One of these 4 groups was used as the hypercholerolemic and inflammatory control (high-fat with lipopolysaccharide [HFL]), and the other 3 received AF (HFL + 25 mg/kg per day AF), FO (HFL + 1 g/kg per day FO), or the combination (HFL + AF + FO). Compared to the HFL group, the AF, FO, and AF + FO groups showed lower serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The AF, FO, and AF + FO also had lowered serum triacylglycerol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, but higher HDL-C levels relative to the HFL group. An additive effect was observed on serum CRP in the AF + FO group as compared with the AF or FO groups. The results demonstrated that AF and FO inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators and showed an improved efficacy to lower serum CRP when administered in combination, and they significantly improved blood lipid profiles in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia and LPS-induced acute inflammation.

  11. Apple flavonols and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich fish oil lowers blood C-reactive protein in rats with hypercholesterolemia and acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Catalli, Adriana; Kulka, Marianna; Wang, Yanwen; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-06-01

    Both quercetin glycosides and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are well established for their individual health benefits in ameliorating metabolic disease. However, their combined effects are not well documented. It was hypothesized that the beneficial properties of quercetin glycosides can be enhanced when provided in combination with n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of apple flavonols (AF) and fish oil (FO), alone and in combination, on proinflammatory biomarkers and lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12) and fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. One of the 5 groups of rats was used as the high-fat control. The other 4 groups of rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally, 5 hours before euthanization. One of these 4 groups was used as the hypercholerolemic and inflammatory control (high-fat with lipopolysaccharide [HFL]), and the other 3 received AF (HFL + 25 mg/kg per day AF), FO (HFL + 1 g/kg per day FO), or the combination (HFL + AF + FO). Compared to the HFL group, the AF, FO, and AF + FO groups showed lower serum concentrations of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The AF, FO, and AF + FO also had lowered serum triacylglycerol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, but higher HDL-C levels relative to the HFL group. An additive effect was observed on serum CRP in the AF + FO group as compared with the AF or FO groups. The results demonstrated that AF and FO inhibited the production of proinflammatory mediators and showed an improved efficacy to lower serum CRP when administered in combination, and they significantly improved blood lipid profiles in rats with diet-induced hyperlipidemia and LPS-induced acute inflammation. PMID:25026921

  12. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    PubMed

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (<300 mg/day in Western countries vs. >1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  13. Modulation of systemic and aortic nitric oxide by melatonin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in isoproterenol affected spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chaudagar, K K; Viczenczova, C; Szeiffova Bacova, B; Egan Benova, T; Barancik, M; Tribulova, N

    2016-09-19

    We aimed to explore the effects of melatonin and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on plasma and aortic nitric oxide (NO) levels in isoproterenol (Iso) affected spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar rats. Untreated control rats were compared with Iso injected (118 mg/kg, s.c.) rats, and Iso injected plus supplemented with melatonin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or PUFA (1.68 g/kg, p.o.) for two months. Plasma and aortic basal, L-NAME inhibited, adrenaline and acetylcholine stimulated NO were determined using Griess method. Plasma NO levels were lower in SHR versus Wistar rats. Iso decreased NO in Wistar while not in SHR. PUFA but not melatonin intake of Iso treated SHR increased plasma NO along with a decrease in systolic blood pressure. Basal aortic NO level was higher in SHR than Wistar rats and not altered by Iso. Intake of melatonin increased but PUFA decreased basal NO levels in Wistar+Iso and did not affect in SHR+Iso rats. Acetylcholine and adrenaline induced aortic NO release was significantly increased in Wistar+Iso but not SHR+Iso group. Melatonin intake increased Ach induced aortic NO in Wistar+Iso and SHR+Iso groups, whereas there was no effect of PUFA intake. Findings suggest that PUFA modulates plasma and melatonin aortic NO levels of isoproterenol affected rats in a strain-dependent manner. PMID:27643932

  14. (n-3) Fatty acid content of red blood cells does not predict risk of future cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aarsetoey, Hildegunn; Pönitz, Volker; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Harris, William S; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2009-03-01

    A reduced risk of fatal coronary artery disease has been associated with a high intake of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) and a direct cardioprotective effect by their incorporation into myocardial cells has been suggested. Based on these observations, the omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in cell membranes of RBC expressed as percent of total FA) has been suggested as a new risk marker for cardiac death. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the omega-3 index as a prognostic risk marker following hospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The omega-3 index was measured at admission in 460 patients with an ACS as defined by Troponin-T (TnT) > or = 0.02 microg/L. During a 2-y follow-up, recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) (defined as TnT > 0.05 microg/L with a typical MI presentation) and cardiac and all-cause mortality were registered. Cox regression analyses were used to relate the risk of new events to the quartiles of the omega-3 index at inclusion. After correction for age, sex, previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine, BMI, and medication, there was no significant reduction in risk for all-cause mortality, cardiac death, or MI with increasing values of the index. In conclusion, we could not confirm the omega-3 index as a useful prognostic risk marker following an ACS. PMID:19158216

  15. Association of Serum n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio With T-Wave Alternans in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Nodera, Minoru; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamioka, Masashi; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that oral intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevents ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between the serum EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and electrophysiological properties in patients with ischemic heart disease. The study subjects consisted of 57 patients (46 males, mean age, 66 ± 13 years) with ischemic heart disease. T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate variability were assessed by 24hour Holter ECG, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was determined by echocardiography. Fasting blood samples were collected, and the serum EPA/AA ratio was determined. Based on a median value of the serum EPA/AA ratio, all subjects were divided into two groups: serum EPA/AA ratio below 0.33 (Group-L, n = 28) or not (Group-H, n = 29). We compared these parameters between the two groups. LVEF was not different between the two groups. The maximum value of TWA was significantly higher in Group-L than in Group-H (69.5 ± 22.8 μV versus 48.7 ± 12.0 μV, P = 0.007). In addition, VT defined as above 3 beats was observed in 7 cases (25%) in Group-L, but there were no cases of VT in Group-H (P = 0.004). However, low-frequency (LF) component, high-frequency (HF) component, LF to HF ratio, and standard deviation of all R-R intervals were not different between the two groups. These results suggest that a low EPA/AA ratio may induce cardiac electrical instability, but not autonomic nervous imbalance, associated with VT in patients with ischemic heart disease. PMID:26549288

  16. Association of Serum n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio With T-Wave Alternans in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Nodera, Minoru; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamioka, Masashi; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that oral intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevents ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Thus, we examined the relation between the serum EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio and electrophysiological properties in patients with ischemic heart disease. The study subjects consisted of 57 patients (46 males, mean age, 66 ± 13 years) with ischemic heart disease. T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate variability were assessed by 24hour Holter ECG, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was determined by echocardiography. Fasting blood samples were collected, and the serum EPA/AA ratio was determined. Based on a median value of the serum EPA/AA ratio, all subjects were divided into two groups: serum EPA/AA ratio below 0.33 (Group-L, n = 28) or not (Group-H, n = 29). We compared these parameters between the two groups. LVEF was not different between the two groups. The maximum value of TWA was significantly higher in Group-L than in Group-H (69.5 ± 22.8 μV versus 48.7 ± 12.0 μV, P = 0.007). In addition, VT defined as above 3 beats was observed in 7 cases (25%) in Group-L, but there were no cases of VT in Group-H (P = 0.004). However, low-frequency (LF) component, high-frequency (HF) component, LF to HF ratio, and standard deviation of all R-R intervals were not different between the two groups. These results suggest that a low EPA/AA ratio may induce cardiac electrical instability, but not autonomic nervous imbalance, associated with VT in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  17. Characterisation of (R)-2-(2-Fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-Methylpyridin-2-yl)Propanamide as a Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Karlsson, Jessica; Deplano, Alessandro; Hashemian, Sanaz; Svensson, Mona; Fredriksson Sundbom, Marcus; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Fowler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased endocannabinoid tonus by dual-action fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and substrate selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors is a promising approach for pain-relief. One such compound with this profile is 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)propanamide (Flu-AM1). These activities are shown by Flu-AM1 racemate, but it is not known whether its two single enantiomers behave differently, as is the case towards COX-2 for the parent flurbiprofen enantiomers. Further, the effects of the compound upon COX-2-derived lipids in intact cells are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings COX inhibition was determined using an oxygraphic method with arachidonic acid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as substrates. FAAH was assayed in mouse brain homogenates using anandamide (AEA) as substrate. Lipidomic analysis was conducted in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Both enantiomers inhibited COX-2 in a substrate-selective and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the absence of a preincubation phase of: (R)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 6 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 20 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 1 μM; (S)-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid) 3 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid) 10 μM; COX-2 (2-AG) 0.7 μM. The compounds showed no enantiomeric selectivity in their FAAH inhibitory properties. (R)-Flu-AM1 (10 μM) greatly inhibited the production of prostaglandin D2 and E2 in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Levels of 2-AG were not affected either by (R)-Flu-AM1 or by 10 μM flurbiprofen, either alone or in combination with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (1 μM). Conclusions/Significance Both enantiomers of Flu-AM1 are more potent inhibitors of 2-AG compared to arachidonic acid oxygenation by COX-2. Inhibition of COX in lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells is insufficient to affect 2-AG levels despite the

  18. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring. PMID:27632922

  19. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring.

  20. Dairy fat blends high in α-linolenic acid are superior to n-3 fatty-acid-enriched palm oil blends for increasing DHA levels in the brains of young rats.

    PubMed

    Du, Qin; Martin, Jean-Charles; Agnani, Genevieve; Pages, Nicole; Leruyet, Pascale; Carayon, Pierre; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    Achieving an appropriate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both male and female rats. Forty rats of each gender were born from dams fed over gestation and lactation with a low α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (0.4% of fatty acids) and subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to a palm oil blend-based diet (10% by weight) that provided either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid or to an anhydrous dairy fat blend that provided 1.5% or 2.3% ALA. Fatty acids in the plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and whole brain were determined by gas chromatography. The 1.5% ALA dairy fat was superior to both the 1.5% ALA palm oil blends for increasing brain DHA (14.4% increase, P<.05), and the 2.3% ALA dairy blend exhibited a further increase that could be ascribed to both an ALA increase and n-6/n-3 ratio decrease. Females had significantly higher brain DHA due to a gender-to-diet interaction, with dairy fats attenuating the gender effect. Brain DHA was predicted with a better accuracy by some plasma and RBC fatty acids when used in combination (R(2) of 0.6) than when used individually (R(2)=0.47 for RBC n-3 docosapentaenoic acid at best). In conclusion, dairy fat blends enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of postweaning rats. Human applications are worth considering.

  1. Enteral n-3 fatty acids and micronutrients enhance percentage of positive neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion molecules: a potential mediator of pressure ulcer healing in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Theilla, Miriam; Schwartz, Betty; Zimra, Yael; Shapiro, Haim; Anbar, Ronit; Rabizadeh, Esther; Cohen, Jonathan; Singer, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    n-3 Fatty acids are recognised as influencing both wound healing and immunity. We assessed the impact of a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula (study formula) on the healing of pressure ulcers and on immune function in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. A total of forty patients with pressure ulcers and receiving nutritional support were enrolled (intervention group, n 20, received study formula; and a control group, n 20, received an isoenergetic formula). Total and differential leucocyte count and percentage of adhesion molecule positive granulocyte and lymphocyte cells (CD11a, CD11b, CD18 and CD49b) were measured on days 0, 7 and 14. Percentage of positive lymphocytes for CD54, CD49b, CD49d and CD8 were also measured on days 0, 7 and 14. The state of pressure ulcers was assessed by using the pressure ulcer scale for healing tool score on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. No between-group differences in patient demographics, anthropometry or diagnostic class were observed. Patients who received the study formula showed significant increases in the percentage of positive CD18 and CD11a lymphocytes and of CD49b granulocytes as compared to controls (P < 0·05). While the severity of pressure ulcers was not significantly different between the two groups on admission, severity increased significantly over time for the control group (P < 0·05), but not for the study group. The present study suggests that a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula may prevent worsening of pressure ulcers and that this effect may be mediated by an effect on adhesion molecule expression.

  2. Colon cancer cell apoptosis is induced by combined exposure to the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid and butyrate through promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngmi; Turner, Nancy D; Davidson, Laurie A; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation contribute to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in apoptosis. We have demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and butyrate enhance colonocyte apoptosis. To determine if DHA and/or butyrate elevate apoptosis through epigenetic mechanisms thereby restoring the transcription of apoptosis-related genes, we examined global methylation; gene-specific promoter methylation of 24 apoptosis-related genes; transcription levels of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25; and global histone acetylation in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. Cells were treated with combinations of (50 µM) DHA or linoleic acid (18:2 n-6), (5 mM) butyrate or an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC, 2 µM). Among highly methylated genes, the combination of DHA and butyrate significantly reduced methylation of the proapoptotic Bcl2l11, Cideb, Dapk1, Ltbr, and Tnfrsf25 genes compared to untreated control cells. DHA treatment reduced the methylation of Cideb, Dapk1, and Tnfrsf25. These data suggest that the induction of apoptosis by DHA and butyrate is mediated, in part, through changes in the methylation state of apoptosis-related genes.

  3. Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and cyclooxygenase by the N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)amide derivatives of flurbiprofen and naproxen.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Mariateresa; Björklund, Emmelie; Wilson, Alan A; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Fowler, Christopher J

    2013-11-15

    Inhibitors of the metabolism of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) reduce the gastric damage produced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and synergise with them in experimental pain models. This motivates the design of compounds with joint FAAH/cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity. Here we present data on the N-(3-methylpyridin-2-yl)amide derivatives of flurbiprofen and naproxen (Flu-AM1 and Nap-AM1, respectively) with respect to their properties towards these two enzymes. Flu-AM1 and Nap-AM1 inhibited FAAH-catalysed hydrolysis of [(3)H]anandamide by rat brain homogenates with IC50 values of 0.44 and 0.74 µM. The corresponding values for flurbiprofen and naproxen were 29 and >100 µM, respectively. The inhibition by Flu-AM1 was reversible, mixed-type, with K(i)slope and K(i)intercept values of 0.21 and 1.4 µM, respectively. Flurbiprofen and Flu-AM1 both inhibited COX in the same manner with the order of potencies COX-2 vs. 2-arachidonoylglycerol>COX-1 vs. arachidonic acid>COX-2 vs. arachidonic acid with flurbiprofen being approximately 2-3 fold more potent than Flu-AM1 in the assays. Nap-AM1 was a less potent inhibitor of COX. Flu-AM1 at low micromolar concentrations inhibited the FAAH-driven uptake of [(3)H]anandamide into RBL2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells in vitro, but did not penetrate the brain in vivo sufficiently to block the binding of [(18)F]DOPP to brain FAAH. It is concluded that Flu-AM1 is a dual-action inhibitor of FAAH and COX that may be useful in exploring the optimal balance of effects on these two enzyme systems in producing peripheral alleviation of pain and inflammation in experimental models.

  4. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  5. Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil - results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Surette, Marc E

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil. PMID:26793308

  6. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Dietary (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit ischemia and reperfusion arrhythmias and infarction in rat heart not enhanced by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Abdukeyum, Grace G; Owen, Alice J; McLennan, Peter L

    2008-10-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and (n-3) PUFA are both cardioprotective. This study compared effects of dietary fish oil, IPC, and their interactions on heart function and injury during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were fed diets containing 10% wt:wt fat comprising either 7% high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6(n-3)] tuna fish oil + 3% olive oil [(n-3) PUFA]; 5% sunflower seed oil + 5% olive oil [(n-6) PUFA]; or 7% beef tallow + 3% olive oil [saturated fat (SF)] for 6 wk. In control experiments, isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 30-min regional ischemia and reperfused for 120 min. The IPC hearts were subjected to 3 cycles of 5-min global ischemia before the ischemia and reperfusion. Control (n-3) PUFA hearts had significantly lower heart rate, coronary flow, end diastolic pressure, maximum relaxation rate, and ischemic and reperfusion arrhythmias. In reperfusion, they had greater developed pressure and maximum relaxation rate and smaller infarct (10.9 +/- 0.6% ischemic zone, n = 6) than (n-6) PUFA (47.4 +/- 0.3%, n = 6) or SF (50.3 +/- 0.3%, n = 6). Compared with control, IPC significantly improved heart function and reduced infarct in (n-6) PUFA (11.8 +/- 0.4%, n = 6) and SF hearts (13.1 +/- 0.1%, n = 6). Heart function and infarct [(n-3) PUFA 9.6 +/- 0.1%, n = 6] did not differ among dietary IPC groups. Arrhythmias, significantly reduced by IPC in (n-6) PUFA and SF hearts, were significantly lower in (n-3) PUFA IPC hearts. Dietary fish oil induces a form of preconditioning, nutritional preconditioning, limiting ischemic cardiac injury, and myocardial infarction and endows cardioprotection as powerful as IPC, which provides no additional protection in (n-3) PUFA hearts.

  8. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study. Methods In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment. Results Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p < 0.05) compared to the standard egg but not the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. However, walnut treatment significantly reduced total: HDL cholesterol ratio compared to both egg treatments. There were no differences between treatments for any of the inflammatory markers. Conclusions For LOV, a direct source of DHA such as n-3 FA enriched eggs seems necessary to increase membrane levels of DHA. However for producing an overall favorable blood lipid profile, daily consumption of a handful of walnuts rich in ALA may be a preferred option for lacto-ovo vegetarian. PMID:24673793

  9. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design multicenter study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Lee, AeRi; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Ahn, Hongyup; Choi, Chan Bum; Sung, Yoon Kyoung; Bae, Sang Cheol

    2013-07-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory effects and may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA).We examined the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on RA on top of standard anti-inflammatory treatment. Patients with RA were randomized into two groups in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design multicenter study. One hundred nine patients received five capsules of either n-3 PUFA (2.090 g of EPA and 1.165 g of DHA) or high-oleic-acid sunflower oil for 16 weeks. Eighty-one patients completed the study, and no adverse effects were reported. Dietary intake did not change significantly during the study. There were significant increases in n-3 PUFA and EPA levels in erythrocytes in the n-3 PUFA group versus the placebo group, but decreases in n-6 PUFA, 18:2n6, 20:4n6 and 18:1n9 levels in the n-3 PUFA group versus the placebo group. N-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant effects on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) requirements, clinical symptoms of RA or the concentration of cytokines, eicosanoids and bone turnover markers. However, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly decreased NSAID requirements and leukotriene B4 levels in patients who weighed more than 55 kg. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation has no significant effect on RA but may decrease the requirement for NSAIDs in Korean patients with RA who weigh more than 55 kg. PMID:23333088

  10. Addition of n-3 fatty acids to a 4-hour lipid infusion does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mostad, Ingrid L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Basu, Samar; Sutton, Pauline; Frayn, Keith N; Grill, Valdemar

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acids (FA) can impair glucose metabolism to a varying degree depending on time of exposure and also of type of FA. Here we tested for acute effects of marine n-3 FA on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in 11 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A 4-hour lipid infusion (Intralipid [Fresenius Kabi, Halden, Norway], total of 384 mL) was compared with a similar lipid infusion partly replaced by Omegaven (Fresenius Kabi) that contributed a median of 0.1 g fish oil per kilogram body weight, amounting to 0.04 g/kg of marine n-3 FA. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps; insulin secretion (measured after the clamps), by C-peptide glucagon tests; and energy metabolism, by indirect calorimetry. Infusion of Omegaven increased the proportion of n-3 FA in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) compared with Intralipid alone (20:5n-3: median, 1.5% [interquartile range, 0.6%] vs -0.2% [0.2%], P = .001; 22:6n-3: 0.8% [0.4%] vs -0.7% [0.2%], P = .001). However, glucose utilization was not affected; neither was insulin secretion or total energy production (P = .966, .210, and .423, respectively, for the differences between the lipid clamps). Omegaven tended to lower oxidation of fat (P = .062) compared with Intralipid only, correlating with the rise in individual n-3 NEFA (r = 0.627, P = .039). The effects of clamping on phospholipid FA composition, leptin, adiponectin, or F(2)-isoprostane concentrations were not affected by Omegaven. Enrichment of NEFA with n-3 FA during a 4-hour infusion of Intralipid failed to affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. Potential Approach of Microbial Conversion to Develop New Antifungal Products of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Omega-3/('-3) or n-3 fatty acids are a family of unsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-3 position. n-3 Fatty acids which are important in human nutrition are: a-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3; ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, n-3; EPA), and docosahexaen...

  12. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  13. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE(2) synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dommels, Yvonne E M; Haring, Merel M G; Keestra, Nynke G M; Alink, Gerrit M; van Bladeren, Peter J; van Ommen, Ben

    2003-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE(2) in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) both inhibited cell proliferation of Caco-2 cells compared with the long chain fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6). Neither incubation with PGE(2) nor reduction in PGE(2) synthesis by EPA compared with AA led to differential effects on cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells. This suggests that n-6 and n-3 PUFA-mediated cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells is not regulated via PGE(2) levels. AA and EPA had no effect on growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells with a low COX activity. However, stimulation of COX-2 activity by IL-1 beta resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation and an induction of cytotoxicity by AA as well as by EPA. Both inhibition of the COX pathway by indomethacin as well as inhibition of direct lipid peroxidation by antioxidants such as vitamin E and C diminished the anti-proliferative effects of AA as well as EPA. Also, malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation and COX-activity was decreased by addition of vitamin E and partially decreased by indomethacin. These data support the hypothesis that growth inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of PUFAs with methylene-interrupted double bonds such as AA and EPA are due to peroxidation products that are generated during lipid peroxidation and COX activity. PMID:12663496

  14. The effect of dietary n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1) replication in tissues of experimentally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jimena, Benjamin; Lyons, Philip; Herath, Tharangani; Richards, Randolph H; Leaver, Michael; Bell, J Gordon; Adams, Alexandra; Thompson, Kim D

    2015-07-01

    Salmon pancreas disease (SPD) is one of the most commercially significant viral diseases of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In this study, the potential for dietary mitigation of the disease using different polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles was assessed in rainbow trout. We experimentally infected fish with salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV-1), the causative agent of SPD. These fish were fed two diets with different n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio (high omega 3, 3.08, and high omega 6, 0.87). We assessed the influence of the diets on the fatty acid composition of the heart at 0 days post infection (d.p.i.) (after 4 weeks of feeding the experimental diets prior to SAV-1 infection), and sampled infected and control fish at 5, 15 and 30d.p.i. Viral E1 and E2 glycoprotein genes were quantified by two absolute real-time PCRs in all the organs sampled, and significantly lower levels of the virus were evident in the organs of fish fed with high omega 6. Characteristic pathological lesions were identified in infected fish as early as 5d.p.i., with no significant differences in the pathology lesion scores between the two dietary regimes. This study shows that decreasing the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in experimental diets of rainbow trout changes the fatty acid content of the fish, and is associated with reduced SAV-1 replication in rainbow trout.

  15. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  16. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    PubMed

    Watson, Aaron M; Barrows, Frederic T; Place, Allen R

    2013-09-01

    We examined growth performance and the lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5 %), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM + SOY) plus soybean oil (~9 % CL) and the second was a canola oil supplemented with the essential fatty acids (EFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (~8 % CL). The diet using the thraustochytrid meal plus soybean oil performed equivalently to the fish oil diet; both resulting in significantly higher growth rates, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher survival than the supplemented canola oil diet, even though all three diets were similar in overall energy and met known protein and lipid requirements for cobia. The poor performance of the canola oil diet was attributed to insufficient addition of EFA in the supplemented canola oil source. Increasing levels of EFA in the supplemented canola oil above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1) would likely improve results with cobia. When fish fed either of the fish oil replacement diets were switched to the fish oil control diet, fatty acid profiles of the fillets were observed to transition toward that of the fish oil diet and could be predicted based on a standard dilution model. Based on these findings, a formulated diet for cobia can be produced without fish products providing 100 % survivorship, specific growth rates greater than 2.45 and feed conversion ratios less than 1.5, as long as taurine is added and EFA levels are above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1).

  17. Metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and deposition) of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is affected by sex and by the oil source (krill oil or fish oil) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ghasemifard, Samaneh; Hermon, Karen; Turchini, Giovanni M; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2015-09-14

    The effects of krill oil as an alternative source of n-3 long-chain PUFA have been investigated recently. There are conflicting results from the few available studies comparing fish oil and krill oil. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and metabolic fate (absorption, β-oxidation and tissue deposition) of n-3 fatty acids originating from krill oil (phospholipid-rich) or fish oil (TAG-rich) in rats of both sexes using the whole-body fatty acid balance method. Sprague-Dawley rats (thirty-six male, thirty-six female) were randomly assigned to be fed either a krill oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·38 mg/g of diet) or a fish oil diet (EPA+DHA+DPA=1·61 mg/g of diet) to constant ration for 6 weeks. The faeces, whole body and individual tissues were analysed for fatty acid content. Absorption of fatty acids was significantly greater in female rats and was only minimally affected by the oil type. It was estimated that most of EPA (>90 %) and more than half of DHA (>60 %) were β-oxidised in both diet groups. Most of the DPA was β-oxidised (57 and 67 % for female and male rats, respectively) in the fish oil group; however, for the krill oil group, the majority of DPA was deposited (82-83 %). There was a significantly greater deposition of DPA and DHA in rats fed krill oil compared with those fed fish oil, not due to a difference in bioavailability (absorption) but rather due to a difference in metabolic fate (anabolism v. catabolism).

  18. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  19. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  20. Investigation of gene expressions related to cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acid with a cholesterol after long-term feeding using quantitative-competitive RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Shimada, K; Ohashi, E; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-06-01

    demonstrated that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lowered serum total cholesterol and VLDL+IDL+LDL-cholesterol concentrations of rats in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet compared with dietary saturated fatty acid. PMID:11575578

  1. Investigation of gene expressions related to cholesterol metabolism in rats fed diets enriched in n-6 or n-3 fatty acid with a cholesterol after long-term feeding using quantitative-competitive RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Shimada, K; Ohashi, E; Saitoh, H; Sonoyama, K; Sekikawa, M; Nakano, M

    2001-06-01

    demonstrated that both n-6 fatty acid and n-3 fatty acids such as gamma-linolenic acid and alpha-linolenic acid lowered serum total cholesterol and VLDL+IDL+LDL-cholesterol concentrations of rats in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet compared with dietary saturated fatty acid.

  2. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thusgaard, Marianne; Christensen, Jesper H; Mørn, Birgitte; Andersen, Tina S; Vige, Runar; Arildsen, Hanne; Schmidt, Erik B; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Patients on antiretroviral therapy are reported to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. We randomized 51 patients in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to receive either 2 capsules of Omacor twice daily or 2 capsules of placebo. Compliance was measured by determining levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neutrophils. Plasma triglycerides were reduced in the n-3 PUFA group by 0.14 mmol/l after 12 weeks of treatment (n=26), while plasma triglycerides increased by 0.36 mmol/l in the control group (n=25). The difference between groups was significant, p=0.03. No significant effect of treatment was found for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or apolipoproteins. There was a significant increase in leukotriene B5 (LTB5) and LTB5/LTB4 ratio in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. Baseline values for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were comparable at baseline, and the intervention did not change these parameters significantly. The present study showed that treatment with n-3 PUFA slightly decreased plasma triglycerides and induced anti-inflammatory effects by increasing formation of anti-inflammatory LTB5. PMID:19685375

  3. The delta 6 desaturase knock out mouse reveals that immunomodulatory effects of essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are both independent of and dependent upon conversion.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Cohen, Daniel J A; Tsang, Denis H; Hillyer, Lyn M; Abdelmagid, Salma A; Nakamura, Manabu T; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-06-01

    Typically fatty acids (FA) exert differential immunomodulatory effects with n-3 [α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 [linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] exerting anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, respectively. This over-simplified interpretation is confounded by a failure to account for conversion of the parent FA (LA and ALA) to longer-chain bioactive products (AA and EPA/DHA, respectively), thereby precluding discernment of the immunomodulatory potential of specific FA. Therefore, we utilized the Δ6-desaturase model, wherein knockout mice (D6KO) lack the Fads2 gene encoding for the rate-limiting enzyme that initiates FA metabolism, thereby providing a model to determine specific FA immunomodulatory effects. Wild-type (WT) and D6KO mice were fed one of four isocaloric diets differing in FA source (9weeks): corn oil (LA-enriched), arachidonic acid single cell oil (AA-enriched), flaxseed oil (ALA-enriched) or menhaden fish oil (EPA/DHA-enriched). Splenic mononuclear cell cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), T-cell receptor (TCR) and anti-CD40 stimulation was determined. Following LPS stimulation, AA was more bioactive compared to LA, by increasing inflammatory cytokine production of IL-6 (1.2-fold) and TNFα (1.3-fold). Further, LPS-stimulated IFNγ production in LA-fed D6KO mice was reduced 5-fold compared to LA-fed WT mice, indicating that conversion of LA to AA was necessary for cytokine production. Conversely, ALA exerted an independent immunomodulatory effect from EPA/DHA and all n-3 FA increased LPS-stimulated IL-10 production versus LA and AA. These data definitively identify specific immunomodulatory effects of individual FA and challenge the simplified view of the immunomodulatory effects of n-3 and n-6 FA. PMID:27142734

  4. The delta 6 desaturase knock out mouse reveals that immunomodulatory effects of essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are both independent of and dependent upon conversion.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Cohen, Daniel J A; Tsang, Denis H; Hillyer, Lyn M; Abdelmagid, Salma A; Nakamura, Manabu T; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-06-01

    Typically fatty acids (FA) exert differential immunomodulatory effects with n-3 [α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 [linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] exerting anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, respectively. This over-simplified interpretation is confounded by a failure to account for conversion of the parent FA (LA and ALA) to longer-chain bioactive products (AA and EPA/DHA, respectively), thereby precluding discernment of the immunomodulatory potential of specific FA. Therefore, we utilized the Δ6-desaturase model, wherein knockout mice (D6KO) lack the Fads2 gene encoding for the rate-limiting enzyme that initiates FA metabolism, thereby providing a model to determine specific FA immunomodulatory effects. Wild-type (WT) and D6KO mice were fed one of four isocaloric diets differing in FA source (9weeks): corn oil (LA-enriched), arachidonic acid single cell oil (AA-enriched), flaxseed oil (ALA-enriched) or menhaden fish oil (EPA/DHA-enriched). Splenic mononuclear cell cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), T-cell receptor (TCR) and anti-CD40 stimulation was determined. Following LPS stimulation, AA was more bioactive compared to LA, by increasing inflammatory cytokine production of IL-6 (1.2-fold) and TNFα (1.3-fold). Further, LPS-stimulated IFNγ production in LA-fed D6KO mice was reduced 5-fold compared to LA-fed WT mice, indicating that conversion of LA to AA was necessary for cytokine production. Conversely, ALA exerted an independent immunomodulatory effect from EPA/DHA and all n-3 FA increased LPS-stimulated IL-10 production versus LA and AA. These data definitively identify specific immunomodulatory effects of individual FA and challenge the simplified view of the immunomodulatory effects of n-3 and n-6 FA.

  5. Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Thies, F; Miles, E A; Nebe-von-Caron, G; Powell, J R; Hurst, T L; Newsholme, E A; Calder, P C

    2001-11-01

    Greatly increasing the amounts of flaxseed oil [rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALNA)] or fish oil (FO); [rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] in the diet can decrease inflammatory cell functions and so might impair host defense. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with moderate levels of ALNA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (ARA), DHA, or FO on inflammatory cell numbers and functions and on circulating levels of soluble adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects aged 55 to 75 yr consumed nine capsules per day for 12 wk. The capsules contained placebo oil (an 80:20 mix of palm and sunflowerseed oils) or blends of placebo oil with oils rich in ALNA, GLA, ARA, or DHA or FO. Subjects in these groups consumed 2 g ALNA; approximately 700 mg GLA, ARA, or DHA; or 1 g EPA plus DHA (720 mg EPA + 280 mg DHA) daily from the capsules. Total fat intake from the capsules was 4 g per day. None of the treatments affected inflammatory cell numbers in the bloodstream; neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis or respiratory burst in response to E. coli; production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide; or plasma concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In contrast, the ALNA and FO treatments decreased the plasma concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (16 and 28% decrease, respectively) and soluble E-selectin (23 and 17% decrease, respectively). It is concluded that, in contrast to previous reports using higher amounts of these fatty acids, a moderate increase in consumption of long-chain n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids does not significantly affect inflammatory cell numbers or neutrophil and monocyte responses in humans and so would not be expected to cause immune impairment. Furthermore, we conclude that moderate levels of ALNA and FO, which could be incorporated into the diet, can

  6. Comparative Effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 Unsaturated Fatty Acid-Rich Diet Consumption on Lupus Nephritis, Autoantibody Production and CD4+ T Cell-Related Gene Responses in the Autoimmune NZBWF1 Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pestka, James J.; Vines, Laura L.; Bates, Melissa A.; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune

  7. DIETARY RATIOS OF N-6/N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS DURING MATERNAL PREGNANCY AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND APOPTOSIS IN MOUSE OFFSPRING.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaonan; Sun, Wenfei; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Xia, Lulu; Lu, Yuanyuan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Qi, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: a pesar de que los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-3 (PUFAs por sus siglas en inglés) desempeñan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo y en las funciones cerebrales, aún no está bien definido el nivel óptimo de PUFAs n-3 ni la ratio óptima de PUFA n-6/n-3 en la dieta materna. En este estudio hemos investigado los efectos de las ratios nutricionales de PUFA n-6/n-3 durante la gestación sobre la neurogénesis y la apoptosis en el cerebro de crías de ratón. Métodos: se alimentó a hembras de ratón C57BL/6J con una de las tres dietas de estudio: ratio alta, media y baja de PUFA n-6/n-3 (15,7:1, 6,3:1, 1,6:1). También se añadió una dieta rica en aceite de pescado con una ratio n-6/n-3 de 1:5,7; como control se empleó una dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Los regímenes alimenticios se iniciaron dos meses antes de la concepción de los ratones y continuó durante todo el embarazo. Se detectó la neurogénesis y apoptosis del área hipocampal CA3 en las crías. Resultados: en comparación con la dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3, las dietas con PUFA que contienen n-3, particularmente aquellas con ratios PUFA n-6/n-3 de 6,3:1 y 1,6:1, aumentaron significativamente la fosforilación de histona H3 en la Ser10 (p-H3ser10) y las células calretinina positivas en el área hipocampal CA3 de las crías. Además, se detectó un aumento de la expresión de proteína Bcl2, una reducción de la expresión de proteína Bax, y una reducción de la actividad de caspasa 3, así como de las cifras de células apoptósicas TUNEL en las tres dietas, con ratios altas, medias y bajas de PUFA n-6/n-3. Sin embargo, no se observó diferencias en ninguno de estos parámetros entre el grupo de dieta rica en aceite de pescado y el grupo de dieta deficitaria en PUFA n-3. Conclusiones: estos datos sugieren que una ingesta más elevada de PUFA n-3 con una ratio más baja de PUFAs n-6/n-3 entre 6:1 y 1:1 aproximadamente, administrada a las madres durante la gestación, podría ser

  8. Targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids improve life functioning and reduce psychological distress among patients with chronic headache: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Palsson, Olafur S; MacIntosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Taha, Ameer Y; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Mann, J Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are precursors of bioactive lipid mediators posited to modulate both physical pain and psychological distress. In a randomized trial of 67 subjects with severe headaches, we recently demonstrated that targeted dietary manipulation-increasing omega-3 fatty acids with concurrent reduction in omega-6 linoleic acid (the H3-L6 intervention)-produced major reductions in headache compared with an omega-6 lowering (L6) intervention. Because chronic pain is often accompanied by psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we used data from this trial to examine whether the H3-L6 intervention favorably impacted these domains. Additionally, we examined the effect of the interventions on the number of cases with substantial physical or mental impairments as defined by cutoff values in the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms 12 (SF-12), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and the number of headache days per month. In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the H3-L6 group experienced statistically significant reductions in psychological distress (BSI-18 mean difference: -6.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.43 to -1.69) and improvements in SF-12 mental (mean difference: 6.01; 95% CI: 0.57 to 11.45) and physical (mean difference: 6.65; 95% CI: 2.14 to 11.16) health summary scores. At 12 weeks, the proportion of subjects experiencing substantial impairment according to cutoff values in the BSI-18, SF-12 physical, HIT-6, and headache days per month was significantly lower in the H3-L6 group. Dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, previously shown to produce major improvements in headache, was found to also reduce psychological distress and improve HRQOL and function.

  9. Targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids improve life functioning and reduce psychological distress among patients with chronic headache: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Christopher E; Faurot, Keturah R; Zamora, Daisy; Palsson, Olafur S; MacIntosh, Beth A; Gaylord, Susan; Taha, Ameer Y; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; Mann, J Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are precursors of bioactive lipid mediators posited to modulate both physical pain and psychological distress. In a randomized trial of 67 subjects with severe headaches, we recently demonstrated that targeted dietary manipulation-increasing omega-3 fatty acids with concurrent reduction in omega-6 linoleic acid (the H3-L6 intervention)-produced major reductions in headache compared with an omega-6 lowering (L6) intervention. Because chronic pain is often accompanied by psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), we used data from this trial to examine whether the H3-L6 intervention favorably impacted these domains. Additionally, we examined the effect of the interventions on the number of cases with substantial physical or mental impairments as defined by cutoff values in the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms 12 (SF-12), Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), and the number of headache days per month. In the intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the H3-L6 group experienced statistically significant reductions in psychological distress (BSI-18 mean difference: -6.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.43 to -1.69) and improvements in SF-12 mental (mean difference: 6.01; 95% CI: 0.57 to 11.45) and physical (mean difference: 6.65; 95% CI: 2.14 to 11.16) health summary scores. At 12 weeks, the proportion of subjects experiencing substantial impairment according to cutoff values in the BSI-18, SF-12 physical, HIT-6, and headache days per month was significantly lower in the H3-L6 group. Dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, previously shown to produce major improvements in headache, was found to also reduce psychological distress and improve HRQOL and function. PMID:25790451

  10. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP) considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics). Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily) or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death) and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%). About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P) project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high cardiovascular risk with no

  11. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(...

  13. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  14. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  15. Effects of dietary fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio fed to high-yielding dairy cows on fatty acid composition of ovarian compartments, follicular status, and oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Lehrer, H; Arieli, A; Arav, A; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Moallem, U

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the incorporation of dietary encapsulated fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio into milk fat, plasma, and various ovarian compartments and to examine the effects on ovarian follicular status, preovulatory follicle characteristics, and oocyte quality. Twenty-four multiparous Israeli Holstein cows, averaging 114 d in milk, were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) control (n=7), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet; 2) E-FLAX (n=8), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% flaxseed oil, providing 242.2g of C18:3n-3 (low n-6:n-3 ratio); or 3) E-SUN (n=9), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% sunflower oil, providing 260.0g of C18:2n-6 (high n-6:n-3 ratio). Ovaries were monitored by ultrasonography for follicular status, and after synchronization, follicles >7mm were aspirated and evaluated. Ovum pickup was performed (19 sessions for the control and E-FLAX groups and 11 for the E-SUN group), and in vitro maturation and oocyte fertilization were conducted. The E-FLAX treatment increased the proportions of C18:3n-3 (5.8 fold), C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 (approximately 4-fold) in milk fat as compared with the other 2 treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 fatty acid in plasma increased dramatically with the E-FLAX treatment, from 1.43 and 1.49% in the control and E-SUN groups, respectively, to 7.98% in the E-FLAX group. Consequently, the n-6:n-3 ratio in plasma was reduced from approximately 42 in the control and E-SUN groups to 6.74 in the E-FLAX group. Proportions of C18:3n-3 in follicular fluid and granulosa cells were approximately 5-fold higher in the E-FLAX group than in the other 2 groups. The percentage of C18:2n-6 in cumulus-oocyte complexes of cows in the E-SUN group was 54% higher than that in the E-FLAX group and was 2.4-fold higher than that in the

  16. Safety in the hypertriglyceridemia treatment with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves; Landim, Karla Câmara; Nunes, Aline Costa Santos; Dullius, Jane

    2014-10-06

    Introducción: Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 aumenta el riesgo de hipertrigliceridemia y es un factor de riesgo independiente para las enfermedades cardiovasculares. La literatura actual revela efectos beneficiosos de n-3 ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (n-3 AGPI) en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia, sin embargo, la seguridad de este tratamento en los sujetos diabéticos tipo 2 es discutible. Esta revisión de la literatura discute la seguridad del n-3 PUFA la suplementación sobre el metabolismo de la glucosa en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Se ha realizado una revisión de la literatura en la base de datos MEDLINE y EMBASE del los ensayos clínicos publicados con fecha posterior al 1990 hasta Junio de 2014 sobre los efectos de la ingesta / suplementos del n-3 AGPI en el tratamiento de la hipertrigliceridemia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Resultados y Discusión: Catorce estudios clínicos (n = 2105) se incluyeron en esta revisión. Del estudios informaron una reducción en los niveles de triglicéridos entre 12 a 34% en interior del grupo comparación y de 15 a 36% en entre grupos análisis. Cuatro estudios mostraron un aumento significativo en el LDL-c (6-18%) y otros cuatro en los niveles de HDL-c (4 - 15%). No se encontraron cambios significativos en el colesterol total, VLDL-c, la glucosa, HbA1c y el índice de sensibilidad a la insulina. Conclusión: El n-3 AGPI suplementación lleva una mejora en los niveles de triglicéridos y no arrojaron deterioro en el metabolismo de la glucosa en pacientes con hipertrigliceridemia con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 siendo una opción segura para el tratamiento de la población diabética.

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Metabolomic and genomic profiling of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid effects on muscle metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that feeding mice high-fat (HF) diets enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) decreased inflammation, adiposity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we used skeletal muscle from mice fed HF or HF-EPA for 11 weeks to further dissect mechanisms mediating EPA effects o...

  1. Generation of cloned transgenic pigs rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liangxue; Kang, Jing X; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Jingdong; Witt, William T; Yong, Hwan Yul; Hao, Yanhong; Wax, David M; Murphy, Clifton N; Rieke, August; Samuel, Melissa; Linville, Michael L; Korte, Scott W; Evans, Rhobert W; Starzl, Thomas E; Prather, Randall S; Dai, Yifan

    2006-04-01

    Meat products are generally low in omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, which are beneficial to human health. We describe the generation of cloned pigs that express a humanized Caenorhabditis elegans gene, fat-1, encoding an n-3 fatty acid desaturase. The hfat-1 transgenic pigs produce high levels of n-3 fatty acids from n-6 analogs, and their tissues have a significantly reduced ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (P < 0.001).

  2. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. PMID

  3. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies.

  4. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic childhood disorders: panacea, promising, or placebo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, or LCP) include the essential fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) as well as a number of metabolites of both, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachid...

  5. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  6. Effects of an n-3-deficient diet on brain, retina, and liver fatty acyl composition in artificially reared rats.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Toru; Lim, Sun-Young; Greiner, Rebecca; Lefkowitz, William; Loewke, James; Hoshiba, Junji; Salem, Norman

    2004-08-01

    Rat pups born to dams fed a diet with 3.1% of total fatty acids as alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) were fed, using an artificial rearing system, either an n-3-deficient (n-3-Def) or an n-3-adequate (n-3-Adq) diet. Both diets contained 17.1% linoleic acid, but the n-3-Adq diet also contained 3.1% LNA. The percentage of brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continuously decreased (71%) with time over the 29 days of the experiment, with concomitant increases in docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In the retina, the percentage of DHA rose in the n-3-Adq group, with an apparent increased rate around the time of eye opening. However, there was a flat curve for the percentage of DHA in the n-3-Def group and a rising DPAn-6 with time. Liver DHA was highest at the time of birth in the n-3-Adq group but fell off somewhat over the course of 29 days. This decrease was more pronounced in the n-3-Def group, and the DPAn-6 rose considerably during the second half of the experiment. This method presents a first-generation model for n-3 deficiency that is more similar to the case of human nutrition than is the commonly employed two-generation model.

  7. Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Lands, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy. PMID:23112921

  8. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  9. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.