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Sample records for na margem equatorial

  1. Probing the equatorial groove of the hookworm protein and vaccine candidate antigen, Na-ASP-2.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lyndel; Tribolet, Leon; Simon, Anne; von Gnielinski, Natascha; Nienaber, Lisa; Taylor, Paul; Willis, Charlene; Jones, Malcolm K; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Loukas, Alex; Hofmann, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Hookworm activation-associated secreted proteins can be structurally classified into at least three different groups. The hallmark feature of Group 1 activation-associated secreted proteins is a prominent equatorial groove, which is inferred to form a ligand binding site. Furthermore, a conserved tandem histidine motif is located in the centre of the groove and believed to provide or support a yet to be determined catalytic activity. Here, we report three-dimensional crystal structures of Na-ASP-2, an L3-secreted activation-associated secreted protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus, which demonstrate transition metal binding ability of the conserved tandem histidine motif. We further identified moderate phosphohydrolase activity of recombinant Na-ASP-2, which relates to the tandem histidine motif. By panning a random 12-mer peptide phage library, we identified a peptide with high similarity to the human calcium-activated potassium channel SK3, and confirm binding of the synthetic peptide to recombinant Na-ASP-2 by differential scanning fluorimetry. Potential binding modes of the peptide to Na-ASP-2 were studied by molecular dynamics simulations which clearly identify a preferred topology of the Na-ASP-2:SK3 peptide complex.

  2. Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    Attention in this discussion of Equatorial Guinea is directed to the following: the people, history, geography, government, political conditions, the economy, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Equatorial Guinea. The population was estimated at 304,000 in 1983 and the annual growth rate was estimated in the range of 1.7-2.5. The infant mortality rate is 142.9/1000 with a life expectancy of 44.4 years for males and 47.6 years for females. The majority of the Equatoguinean people are of Bantu origin. The largest tribe, the Fang, is indigenous to the mainland, although many now also live on Bioko Island. Portuguese explorers found the island of Bioko in 1471, and the Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and the commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooue Rivers were ceded to Spain. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in Equatorial Guinea during the 1st half of this century, but the Spanish did help Equatorial Guinea achieve 1 of the highest literacy rates in Africa. They also founded a good network of health care facilities. In March 1968, under pressure from Guinean nationalists, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea as rapidly as possible. A referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a general assembly and presidentially appointed judges in the Supreme Court. After the coup in August 1979, power was placed in the hands of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution came into effect after a popular vote in August 1982, abolishing the Supreme Military Council. Under the terms of the constitution, the president was given extensive powers. By the end of 1983, a 60-member Chamber of Representatives of the people had been formed. The government, which is credited with restoring greater personal freedom, is regarded

  3. Multiwavelength observations of NaSt1 (WR 122): equatorial mass loss and X-rays from an interacting Wolf-Rayet binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon; Smith, Nathan; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Males, Jared R.; Rodigas, Timothy J.

    2015-07-01

    NaSt1 (aka Wolf-Rayet 122) is a peculiar emission-line star embedded in an extended nebula of [N II] emission with a compact dusty core. The object was previously characterized as a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star cloaked in an opaque nebula of CNO-processed material, perhaps analogous to η Car and its Homunculus nebula, albeit with a hotter central source. To discern the morphology of the [N II] nebula we performed narrow-band imaging using the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide-field Camera 3. The images reveal that the nebula has a disc-like geometry tilted ≈12° from edge-on, composed of a bright central ellipsoid surrounded by a larger clumpy ring. Ground-based spectroscopy reveals radial velocity structure (±10 km s-1) near the outer portions of the nebula's major axis, which is likely to be the imprint of outflowing gas. Near-infrared adaptive-optics imaging with Magellan AO has resolved a compact ellipsoid of Ks-band emission aligned with the larger [N II] nebula, which we suspect is the result of scattered He I line emission (λ2.06 μm). Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have revealed an X-ray point source at the core of the nebula that is heavily absorbed at energies <1 keV and has properties consistent with WR stars and colliding-wind binaries. We suggest that NaSt1 is a WR binary embedded in an equatorial outflow that formed as the result of non-conservative mass transfer. NaSt1 thus appears to be a rare and important example of a stripped-envelope WR forming through binary interaction, caught in the brief Roche lobe overflow phase.

  4. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  5. Study of equatorial scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza, J.; Woodman, R.; Tisnado, G.; Nakasone, E.

    1972-01-01

    Observations of the amplitude scintillations produced by the F-region in equatorial areas are presented. The equipment used for conducting the observations is described. The use of transmissions from the ATS-1, ATS-3, and ATS-5 for obtaining data is described. The two principal subjects discussed are: (1) correlation between satellite and incoherent radar observations of scintillations and (2) simultaneous observations of scintillations at 136 MHz and 1550 MHz.

  6. Modeling the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stening, R. J.

    1985-02-01

    The equatorial electrojet is studied using a conductivity model with electron collision frequencies consistent with laboratory results. Electric fields and currents are calculated by an equivalent circuit method, and the results are compared with observations. Results are obtained for the electrojet height profile, the height and latitude of the cross-section profile, the height-integrated current density, the internal currents contribution, the scaling problem, the horizontal and vertical magnetic variation with latitude, and the effects of local winds in the F region.

  7. Anomalous opening of the Equatorial Atlantic due to an equatorial mantle thermal minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Enrico

    1996-09-01

    margins are particularly well developed in the Equatorial Atlantic. After further continental separation the cold equatorial mantle caused a low degree of melting (with Na-rich MORB and alkali basalt rather than normal MORB and with undepleted mantle peridotities), thin crust, depressed ridge segments and a prevalence of amagmatic extension. Similar conditions still exist today. Long transforms offsetting short ridge segments kept sea floor spreading unstable and dominated by transform tectonics, with transform migration, transpression, and transtension causing strong vertical motion, emersion and subsidence of lithospheric blocks, development of deep pull-apart basins, and preservation of relict slivers of old lithosphere (occasionally even of continental lithosphere) within younger crust. The equatorial transforms are caused ultimately by a long lived thermal minimum in the upper mantle and not vice versa; however, they then create second-order 'rebound' thermal effects that help maintain the thermal minimum in the upper mantle. It can be speculated that mantle thermal minima at the Earth's equator might be related to true polar wander triggered by subduction of dense masses into the mantle.

  8. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  9. Lidar Observation of Ozone Profiles in the Equatorial Tropopause Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo, M.; Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone in the tropics zone is significant in terms of the oxidizing efficiency and greenhouse effect. However, in the upper troposphere, the ozone budget in the tropics has not been fully understood yet because of the sparsity of the range-resolved observations of vertical ozone concentration profiles. We have constructed the lidar facility for survey of atmospheric structure over troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and low thermosphere over Kototabang (100.3E, 0.2S), Indonesia in the equatorial region. The lidar system consists of the Mie and Raman lidars for tropospheric aerosol, water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements, the Rayleigh lidar for stratospheric and mesospheric temperature measurements and the Resonance lidar for metallic species such as Na, Fe, Ca ion measurements and temperature measurements in the mesopause region. The lidar observations started from 2004, and routine observations of clouds and aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere are continued now. We have installed DIAL (differential absorption lidar) system for high-resolution measurements of vertical ozone profiles in the equatorial tropopause region over Kototabang. There were many ozone DIAL systems in the world, but their systems are almost optimized for stratospheric ozone layer measurement or tropospheric ozone measurement. Because of deep ozone absorption in the UV region, the wavelength selection is important. Over the equatorial region, the tropopause height is almost 17km. So we use 305nm for on-line and 355nm for off-line using second harmonics of dye laser and third harmonics of Nd:YAG laser. We have observed large ozone enhancement in the upper troposphere, altitude of 13-17km in June 2014, concurring with a zonal wind oscillation associated with the equatorial Kelvin wave around the tropopause[1] at equatorial region. References Fujiwara, M. et al., JGR, 103, D15, 19,173-19,182, 1998.

  10. Interplay Between the Equatorial Geophysical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, R.

    2006-11-01

    r_sridharanspl@yahoo.com With the sun as the main driving force, the Equatorial Ionosphere- thermosphere system supports a variety of Geophysical phenomena, essentially controlled by the neutral dynamical and electro dynamical processes that are peculiar to this region. All the neutral atmospheric parameters and the ionospheric parameters show a large variability like the diurnal, seasonal semi annual, annual, solar activity and those that are geomagnetic activity dependent. In addition, there is interplay between the ionized and the neutral atmospheric constituents. They manifest themselves as the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ), Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), Equatorial Spread F (ESF), Equatorial Temperature and Wind Anomaly (ETWA). Recent studies have revealed that these phenomena, though apparently might show up as independent ones, are in reality interlinked. The interplay between these equatorial processes forms the theme for the present talk.

  11. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  12. Equatorial refuge amid tropical warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2012-07-01

    Upwelling across the tropical Pacific Ocean is projected to weaken in accordance with a reduction of the atmospheric overturning circulation, enhancing the increase in sea surface temperature relative to other regions in response to greenhouse-gas forcing. In the central Pacific, home to one of the largest marine protected areas and fishery regions in the global tropics, sea surface temperatures are projected to increase by 2.8°C by the end of this century. Of critical concern is that marine protected areas may not provide refuge from the anticipated rate of large-scale warming, which could exceed the evolutionary capacity of coral and their symbionts to adapt. Combining high-resolution satellite measurements, an ensemble of global climate models and an eddy-resolving regional ocean circulation model, we show that warming and productivity decline around select Pacific islands will be mitigated by enhanced upwelling associated with a strengthening of the equatorial undercurrent. Enhanced topographic upwelling will act as a negative feedback, locally mitigating the surface warming. At the Gilbert Islands, the rate of warming will be reduced by 0.7+/-0.3°C or 25+/-9% per century, or an overall cooling effect comparable to the local anomaly for a typical El Niño, by the end of this century. As the equatorial undercurrent is dynamically constrained to the Equator, only a handful of coral reefs stand to benefit from this equatorial island effect. Nevertheless, those that do face a lower rate of warming, conferring a significant advantage over neighbouring reef systems. If realized, these predictions help to identify potential refuges for coral reef communities from anticipated climate changes of the twenty-first century.

  13. Radio wave scintillations at equatorial regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Radio waves, passing through the atmosphere, experience amplitude and phase fluctuations know as scintillations. A characterization of equatorial scintillation, which has resulted from studies of data recorded primarily in South America and equatorial Africa, is presented. Equatorial scintillation phenomena are complex because they appear to vary with time of day (pre-and postmidnight), season (equinoxes), and magnetic activity. A wider and more systematic geographical coverage is needed for both scientific and engineering purposes; therefore, it is recommended that more observations should be made at earth stations (at low-geomagnetic latitudes) to record equatorial scintillation phenomena.

  14. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  15. Instability of some equatorially trapped waves

    PubMed Central

    Constantin, Adrian; Germain, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    [1] A high-frequency asymptotics approach within the Lagrangian framework shows that some exact equatorially trapped three-dimensional waves are linearly unstable when their steepness exceeds a specific threshold. Citation: Constantin, A., and P. Germain (2013), Instability of some equatorially trapped waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 2802–2810, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20219. PMID:26213669

  16. EQUATORIAL SUPERROTATION ON TIDALLY LOCKED EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, Adam P.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2011-09-01

    The increasing richness of exoplanet observations has motivated a variety of three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of these planets. Under strongly irradiated conditions, models of tidally locked, short-period planets (both hot Jupiters and terrestrial planets) tend to exhibit a circulation dominated by a fast eastward, or 'superrotating', jet stream at the equator. When the radiative and advection timescales are comparable, this phenomenon can cause the hottest regions to be displaced eastward from the substellar point by tens of degrees longitude. Such an offset has been subsequently observed on HD 189733b, supporting the possibility of equatorial jets on short-period exoplanets. Despite its relevance, however, the dynamical mechanisms responsible for generating the equatorial superrotation in such models have not been identified. Here, we show that the equatorial jet results from the interaction of the mean flow with standing Rossby waves induced by the day-night thermal forcing. The strong longitudinal variations in radiative heating-namely intense dayside heating and nightside cooling-trigger the formation of standing, planetary-scale equatorial Rossby and Kelvin waves. The Rossby waves develop phase tilts that pump eastward momentum from high latitudes to the equator, thereby inducing equatorial superrotation. We present an analytic theory demonstrating this mechanism and explore its properties in a hierarchy of one-layer (shallow-water) calculations and fully 3D models. The wave-mean-flow interaction produces an equatorial jet whose latitudinal width is comparable to that of the Rossby waves, namely the equatorial Rossby deformation radius modified by radiative and frictional effects. For conditions typical of synchronously rotating hot Jupiters, this length is comparable to a planetary radius, explaining the broad scale of the equatorial jet obtained in most hot-Jupiter models. Our theory illuminates the dependence of the equatorial jet

  17. On the modelling of equatorial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, A.

    2012-03-01

    The present theory of geophysical waves that either raise or lower the equatorial thermocline, based on the reduced-gravity shallow-water equations on the β-plane, ignores vertical variations of the flow. In particular, the vertical structure of the Equatorial Undercurrent is absent. As a remedy we propose a simple approach by modeling this geophysical process as a wave-current interaction in the f-plane approximation, the underlying current being of positive constant vorticity. The explicit dispersion relation allows us to conclude that, despite its simplicity, the proposed model captures to a reasonable extent essential features of equatorial waves.

  18. Longitudinal variations of the equatorial electojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, Esayas

    We have utilized a three dimensional electrostatic potential model to explain the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet. The model runs were constrained by net H component magnetic field measurements from three equatorial stations, namely, Huancayo (Peru) 12.05 S, 284.67 E; Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 9.8 N, 38.8 E; Tirunelveli (India) 8.42 N, 77.48 E. The model runs were done in an iterative fashion until the computed and measured H component magnetic field values come into a close agreement. The physical mechanisms for the longitudinal variations of the equatorial electrojet were inferred by comparing and contrasting the resulting computed vertical polarization electric field (which drives the equatorial electrojet), and zonal current density profiles for the three stations mentioned above.

  19. Equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Thayer, J. P.; Wang, W.; Richmond, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several mechanisms including heat transport due to zonal winds, chemical heating and field-aligned ion drag have been proposed to explain the formation of the Equatorial Thermosphere Anomaly (ETA), but the real cause of the ETA formation in thermosphere temperature is still a mystery. Various observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere have been used to investigate the variations of equatorial anomalies in both the ETA and EIA, and their interactions. The similarities and differences between the ETA and the EIA can provide important insight to the physical connections of this ion-neutral coupling problem. Meanwhile, the combination of observations and theoretical models allows us to understand the fundamental physical and chemical ion-neutral processes in the equatorial F region. This talk will highlight the recent progress of the formation of the ETA associated with the ion-neutral coupling in the equatorial region.

  20. Understanding the Unique Equatorial Density Irregularities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    monitoring devices. In addition, the Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites ion density observations show unique features for the African sector [Hei et al. 2005...installed in Africa [Amory-Mazaudier, et al. 2009] since 2007. Alongside this activity, universities in Africa (e.g. Bahir Dar Uni- versity, Ethiopia...African sector, show unique equatorial iono- spheric structure [Hei et al. 2005]. For example, this region equatorial plasma bubbles, which produce

  1. EQUATORIAL ZONAL JETS AND JUPITER's GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D.; Liao, X.; Zhang, K.; Schubert, G.

    2014-08-20

    The depth of penetration of Jupiter's zonal winds into the planet's interior is unknown. A possible way to determine the depth is to measure the effects of the winds on the planet's high-order zonal gravitational coefficients, a task to be undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. It is shown here that the equatorial winds alone largely determine these coefficients which are nearly independent of the depth of the non-equatorial winds.

  2. Periodic Structures in the Equatorial Ionosphere (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-13

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2012-0004 TP-2012-0004 PERIODIC STRUCTURES IN THE EQUATORIAL IONOSPHERE (POSTPRINT) Cheryl Y. Huang...in the Equatorial Ionosphere (Postprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2301...International Reference Ionosphere model to remove variations in density due to changes in spacecraft altitude and latitude along the orbit. In this

  3. Latitudinal comparisons of equatorial Pacific zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, M. R.; Dam, H. G.; Le Borgne, R.; Zhang, X.

    Zooplankton biomass and rates of ingestion, egestion and production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean along 140°W and 180° exhibit maximum values in the High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll (HNLC) zone associated with equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) as compared to the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. Zooplankton biomass and rates are not usually highest on the equator, but increase "downstream" of the upwelling center as the zooplankton populations exhibit a delayed response to enhanced phytoplankton production. The vertical distribution of zooplankton biomass in the equatorial HNLC area tends to be concentrated in surface waters and is more uniform with depth in oligotrophic regions to the north and south of the equatorial upwelling zone. In general, the amount of mesozooplankton (>200 μm) carbon biomass is approximately 25% of estimated phytoplankton biomass and 30% of bacterial biomass in the HNLC area of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton is low in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, generally <5% of the total chlorophyll-a standing stock grazed per day. Based on estimates of metabolic demand, it is apparent that zooplankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are omnivores, consuming primarily microzooplankton and detritus. Estimated zooplankton growth rates in the warm waters of the HNLC equatorial Pacific Ocean are high, ranging from 0.58 d -1 for 64-200 μm zooplankton to 0.08 d -1 for 1000-2000 μm zooplankton. Thus, the numerical and functional response of equatorial zooplankton to increases in phytoplankton production are more rapid than normally occurs in sub-tropical and temperate waters. Potential zooplankton fecal pellet production, estimated from metabolic demand, is approximately 1.6 times the estimated gravitational carbon flux at 150 m in the zone of equatorial upwelling (5°S-5°N) and 1.1 times the export flux in the more oligotrophic regions to the north and south. The active flux of carbon by diel migrant

  4. The Dynamics of Equatorial F Layer Irregularities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-8158 650 THE DYNAMICS OF EQUATORIAL F LAYER IRREGULARITIE5(U) BOSTON UNIV MR DEPT OF ASTRONOMY J AARONS ET AL. 38 JUN 85 RCBU-6276-5 N88814-82-K...Jules Aarons and Michael Mendillo, Co-Principal Investigators Department of Astronomy Boston University Boston, MA 02215 BOSTON UNIVERSITY Thi doumnt

  5. Wave Forcing of Saturn's Equatorial Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schlinder, P. J.; Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based measurements and Cassini data from CIRS thermal-infrared spectra and radio-occultation soundings have characterized the spatial structure and temporal behavior of a 15-year equatorial oscillation in Saturn's stratosphere. The equatorial region displays a vertical pattern of alternating warm and cold anomalies and, concomitantly, easterly and westerly winds relative to the cloud-top winds, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 200 m/s. Comparison of the Cassini data over a four-year period has established that the pattern of mean zonal winds and temperatures descends at a rate of roughly I scale height over 4 years. This behavior is reminiscent of the equatorial oscillations in Earth's middle atmosphere. Here the zonal-mean spatial structure and descending pattern are driven by the absorption of vertically propagating waves. The maximum excursions in the pattern of easterly and westerly winds is determined by the limits of the zonal phase velocities of the waves. Here we report on the characterization of the waves seen in the temperature profiles retrieved from the Cassini radio-occultation soundings. The equatorial profiles exhibit a complex pattern of wavelike structure with dimensions one pressure scale height and smaller. We combine a spectral decomposition with a WKBJ analysis, where the vertical wavelength is assumed to vary slowly with the ambient static stability and doppler-shifted phase velocity of the wave. Use of the temperature and zonal wind maps from CIRS makes this approach viable. On Earth, the wave forcing associated with the equatorial oscillations generates secondary meridional circulations that affect the mean flow and planetary wave ducting well away from the equator. This may relate to the triggering of the recently reported mid-latitude storms on Saturn.

  6. Long waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, George; Halpern, David; Hansen, Donald; Legeckis, Richard; Miller, Laury; Watts, Randolph; Wimbush, Mark; Paul, Carl; Watts, Randolph; Weisberg, Robert

    Westward traveling waves, with a period of 3 weeks and a wavelength of ˜1000 km, are observed intermittently in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (see cover). The waves were first detected in 1975 in satellite measurements of the sea surface temperature [Legeckis, 1977]. Since then, additional measurements (under the auspices of the NOAA program Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS)) with a variety of instruments—drifting buoys, current meters and temperature sensors on moorings, and inverted echo sounders—have provided considerable information about these waves and have confirmed the hypothesis that they are caused by instabilities associated primarily with the latitudinal shear of the surface currents near the equator [Philander, 1978a; Cox, 1980].

  7. Effect of ouabain on lens equatorial currents.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-11-01

    The equatorial potassium current measured with the vibrating probe is a segment of the potassium electrical loop. The equatorial current, J, was measured simultaneously with the PD and with the response to an injected current, I. The injection of sufficient inward current, I, made the PD more negative and increased the electrical gradient so that the current J became zero. The PD at which this occurs (PDJ-0) is the reversal potential. Following treatment with ouabain, the PD and PDJ-0 both become less negative. Since the driving force for the current, J, is equal to the difference between PD and PDJ-0, J may increase, stay the same or decrease depending on the relative changes in PD and PDJ-0. In the presence of ouabain, the PDJ-0 changes in parallel with or more rapidly than the PD.

  8. Models of the Equatorial Ocean Circulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    doctoral committee for their encouragement and advice in the development of this work. I am especially indebted to Dr. Julian P. McCreary of Nova University...large scale wind fluctuations thousands of kilometers to the west in the Central Pacific ( McCreary , 1977). A better understanding of such events could...all equatorial oceans can be found in Knauss (1963); Philander (1973b); Leetmaa, McCreary and Moore (1980); Tsuchiya (1975); Cochrane et al. (1979) and

  9. Equatorial scintillations: advances since ISEA-6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Our understanding of the morphology of equatorial scintillations has advanced due to more intensive observations at the equatorial anomaly locations in the different longitude zones. The unmistakable effect of the sunspot cycle in controlling irregularity belt width and electron concentration responsible for strong scintillation in the controlling the magnitude of scintillations has been recognized by interpreting scintillation observations inthe light of realistic models of total electron content at various longitudes. A hypothesis based on the alignment of the solar terminator with the geomagnetic flux tubes as an indicator of enhanced scintillation occurrence and another based on the influence of a transequatorial thermospheric neutral wind have been postulated to describe the observed longitudinal variation. A distinct class of equatorial irregularities known as the bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) type was identified. These irregularities occur in very large patches, sometimes in excess of several thousand kilometers in the E-W direction and are associated with frequency spread on ionograms. Scintillations caused by such irregularities exist only in the VHF band, exhibit Fresnel oscillations in intensity spectra and are found to give rise to extremely long durations (approx. several hours) of uninterrrupted scintillations.

  10. Sunrise enhancement of equatorial vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Zhang, Ruilong; Le, Huijun

    2016-04-01

    Sunrise enhancement in vertical plasma drift over equatorial regions is not discernible in the statistical picture compared with the significant enhancement during dusk hours. In this report, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag. Moreover, we will report the effects of the sunrise enhancement of vertical plasma drift on the equatorial ionosphere as indicated from the observations and model simulations. We thanks National Central University of Taiwan providing the ROCSAT-1 data. The Ap and F107 indices are obtained from the National Geophysical Data Center (http://spidr.ngdc.noaa.gov/spidr/). This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065), the Chinese Academy of Sciences project (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41321003).

  11. Evidence for Ancient Equatorial Ice Sheets on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kite, E. S.

    2004-12-01

    During August 2004, a survey of available high-resolution MOLA gridded topography and THEMIS VIS imagery in the Equatorial Transition Zone of Mars was carried out. Other data sets, paticurlarly THEMIS IR and MOC NA, were exploited to study areas of interest. Although ~100 metres-per-pixel THEMIS daytime IR coverage is almost complete at the equator, ~18 metres-per-pixel THEMIS VIS coverage was patchy at the time of the survey, and repeat observations are lacking. Therefore, the THEMIS VIS survey could only capture a subset of the geomorphology of the Equatorial Transition Zone. Nevertheless, a suite of features were catalogued: some may be of relevance to the problem of the genesis and postdepositional history of the Medusae Fossae Formation. At the THEMIS scale, the features include eskers, subparallel hummocky ridge packages, ridge-bounded hummocky terrain, metre-scale layering, small-scale chaos terrain / outflow channel landsystems, dissected terrain, rim and central mound crater-interior deposits, polygonally fractured and channelized mesa tops, "wirebrush," "eggbox/bullseye," outcrops of a pasty lithology, and apparent cwms and aretes. At MOLA scale (as noted by other workers) they include rampart craters and trough-and-lobe landscapes. One possible framework for an initial synthesis of these early results will be adumbrated, exploiting recent progress in numerical modelling of the Martian water cycle at high obliquity, and the chaotic diffusion of Mars' obliquity over geological time. Finally, the relationship of these initial results to those of other workers will be described, and some future research directions will be sketched out.

  12. Lunar influence on equatorial atmospheric angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian; Zotov, Leonid; Sidorenkov, Nikolay

    2014-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum oscillation in the nonrotating frame and the quasi-diurnal lunar tidal potential. Between 2 and 30 days, the corresponding equatorial component, called Celestial Atmospheric Angular Momentum (CEAM), is mostly constituted of prograde circular motions, especially of a harmonic at 13.66 days, a sidelobe at 13.63 days, and of a weekly broadband variation. A simple equilibrium tide model explains the 13.66 day pressure term as a result of the O1 lunar tide. The powerful episodic fluctuations between 5 and 8 days possibly reflect an atmospheric normal mode excited by the tidal waves Q1 (6.86 days) and σ1 (7.095 days). The lunar tidal influence on the spectral band from 2 to 30 days is confirmed by two specific features, not occurring for seasonal band dominated by the solar thermal effect. First, Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute equally and synchronously to the CEAM wind term. Second, the pressure and wind terms are proportional, which follows from angular momentum budget considerations where the topographic and friction torques on the solid Earth are much smaller than the one resulting from the equatorial bulge. Such a configuration is expected for the case of tidally induced circulation, where the surface pressure variation is tesseral and cannot contribute to the topographic torque, and tidal winds blow only at high altitudes. The likely effects of the lunar-driven atmospheric circulation on Earth's nutation are estimated and discussed in light of the present-day capabilities of space geodetic techniques.

  13. Equatorial Oscillations in Jupiter's and Saturn's Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Schinder, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial oscillations in the zonal-mean temperatures and zonal winds have been well documented in Earth's middle atmosphere. A growing body of evidence from ground-based and Cassini spacecraft observations indicates that such phenomena also occur in the stratospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Earth-based midinfrared measurements spanning several decades have established that the equatorial stratospheric temperatures on Jupiter vary with a cycle of 4-5 years and on Saturn with a cycle of approximately 15 years. Spectra obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the Cassini swingby at the end of 2000, with much better vertical resolution than the ground-based data, indicated a series of vertically stacked warm and cold anomalics at Jupiter's equator; a similar structurc was seen at Saturn's equator in CIRS limb measurements made in 2005, in the early phase of Cassini's orbital tour. The thermal wind equation implied similar patterns of mean zonal winds increasing and decreasing with altitude. On Saturn the peak-to-pcak amplitude of this variation was nearly 200 meters per second. The alternating vertical pattern of wanner and colder cquatorial tcmperatures and easterly and westerly tendencies of the zonal winds is seen in Earth's equatorial oscillations, where the pattern descends with time, The Cassini Jupiter and early Saturn observations were snapshots within a limited time interval, and they did not show the temporal evolution of the spatial patterns. However, more recent Saturn observations by CIRS (2010) and Cassini radio-occultation soundings (2009-2010) have provided an opportunity to follow the change of the temperature-zonal wind pattern, and they suggest there is descent, at a rate of roughly one scale height over four years. On Earth, the observed descent in the zonal-mean structure is associated with the absorption of a combination of vertically propagating waves with easlerly and westerly phase velocities. The peak-to-peak zonal wind

  14. The equatorial electrojet satellite and surface comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, J. C. (Editor); Sweeney, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The OGO 4 and 6 (POGO) magnetic field results for the equatorial electrojet indicate that while the present models are approximately correct, the possibility of a westward component must be incorporated. The scatter diagrams of POGO amplitudes and surface data show a correlation. The ratios between the amplitudes estimated from surface data and those at 400 km altitude are as follows: India 5 to 8, East Africa (Addis Ababa) 4, Central Africa 3, West Africa (Nigeria) 3, South America (Huancayo) 5, and Philippines 5. The variation in the ratio is due to the conductivity structure of the earth in various zones.

  15. Nighttime ionospheric D region: Equatorial and nonequatorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Neil R.; McRae, Wayne M.

    2009-08-01

    Nighttime ionospheric D region parameters are found to be generally well modeled by the traditional H‧ and β as used by Wait and by the U.S. Navy in their Earth-ionosphere VLF radio waveguide programs. New comparisons with nonequatorial, mainly all-sea VLF path observations reported over several decades are shown to be consistent with the previously determined height H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and sharpness β ˜ 0.63 km-1. These paths include NPM (Hawaii) to Washington, D. C., Omega Hawaii and NLK (Seattle) to Japan, NWC (N.W. Australia) to Madagascar, and NBA (Panama) to Colorado. In marked contrast, transequatorial path observations (even when nearly all-sea) are found to be often not well modeled: for example, for Omega Japan and JJI (Japan) to Dunedin, New Zealand, the observed amplitudes are markedly lower than those which would be expected from H‧ ˜ 85.0 km and β ˜ 0.63 km-1, or any other realistic values of H‧ and β. Other transequatorial observations compared with modeling include NWC to Japan, Omega Hawaii to Dunedin, and NPM (Hawaii) to Dunedin. It is suggested that the effects of irregularities in the equatorial electrojet may extend down into the nighttime D region and so account for the observed equatorial VLF perturbations through scattering or mode conversion.

  16. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  17. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1997-10-01

    A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956-1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  18. LF radio wave propagation at equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    We analyse night-side electric field observations recorded by the ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. We show the presence of multiple spaced frequency bands between 30 kHz and 500 kHz, and sometimes in the range 3 MHz - 3.5 MHz, the upper frequency of the instrument. The frequency bandwidth is found to be less than 5 kHz and the time duration about several minutes. The frequency bands are recorded close to the equatorial plane, when the satellite latitudes extend between -05° and +05°. Particular enhancements occur at two geographical longitudes: 130°E and 160°W. Those LF radio waves may be associated to density irregularities in the equatorial region. These irregularities are occurring along the ray path between the emission source region and the satellite. We discuss in this study the locations where such frequency bands are generated, and we show that the observed spectral features may be comparable to the kilometric continuum radiation which is considered as a non-thermal radio emission.

  19. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  20. Topside sounder observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, P. L.; Benson, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    Large scale regions of depleted equatorial ionospheric plasma, called equatorial bubbles, are investigated using topside sounder data. The sounder's unique remote measuring capability enables the magnetic field-aligned nature of the bubbles to be investigated. A search of all available Alouette 2 and ISIS 1 ionograms during nighttime perigee passes near the magnetic equator has revealed a variety of echo signatures associated with bubbles. In addition to a sudden drop in electron density, these signatures usually include in situ spread F and ducted traces. The ducted traces have been used to determine the electron density distribution and to infer changes in ion composition along the magnetic field line within the duct associated with the bubble. In some cases it can be determined that the bubble is asymmetric with respect to the magnetic equator. Even though such features require 3 dimensional models for their explanation, the great field-aligned extent of the bubbles (relative to their cross section) suggests that current theories, which ignore variations along the magnetic field, are still applicable.

  1. Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

  2. Electromagnetic and Stress Analyses of the ITER Equatorial Thermal Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Mingzhun; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke; Wang, Xianwei

    2013-08-01

    The ITER equatorial thermal shield is located inside the cryostat and outside the vacuum vessel, and its purpose is to provide a thermal shield from hot components to the superconducting magnets. Electromagnetic analysis of the equatorial thermal shield was performed using the ANSYS code, because electromagnetic load was one of the main loads. The 40° sector finite element model was established including the vacuum vessel, equatorial thermal shield, and superconducting magnets. The main purpose of this analysis was to investigate the eddy current and electromagnetic force in the equatorial thermal shield during plasma disruption. Stress analysis was implemented under the electromagnetic load. The results show that the equatorial thermal shield can accommodate the calculated electromagnetic loads.

  3. A Three-Way Comparison of Sea Level from the Central Equatorial Pacific, 1985-89

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    of Sea Level from the Central Equatorial Pacific,1985-89 (Xiaoli Zhu, Mark lVimbush, Kathleen A. Donohue,tor, Dr. Julian P. McCreary , but, in the... McCreary and observed sea-level data sets (tide gauges, suit in error ranges at least equal to those of Anderson. 1991; Neelin etal.. 1992). Analy...GEOS -"Fand isNa!da ea level of3 to ( McCreary , 19811. Gentetal.(1983)discuss of a few centimeters. 4cm (Cheney etal.. 1991b). TOGA Notes .Innuarv 1993

  4. Formation of Jets and Equatorial Superrotation on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjun; Schneider, T.

    2008-09-01

    The zonal flow in Jupiter's upper troposphere is organized into alternating retrograde and prograde jets, with a prograde (superrotating) jet at the equator. Existing models posit as the driver of the flow either differential radiative heating of the atmosphere or intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior; however, they do not reproduce all large-scale features of Jupiter's jets and thermal structure. Here it is shown that the difficulties in accounting for Jupiter's jets and thermal structure resolve if the effects of differential radiative heating and intrinsic heat fluxes are considered together and if upper-tropospheric dynamics are linked to a magnetohydrodynamic drag deep in the atmosphere. Baroclinic eddies generated by differential radiative heating can account for the off-equatorial jets; meridionally propagating equatorial Rossby waves generated by intrinsic convective heat fluxes can account for the equatorial superrotation. The zonal flow extends deeply into the atmosphere, with its speed changing with depth, up to depths at which the magnetohydrodynamic drag acts. The theory is supported by simulations with an energetically consistent general circulation model of Jupiter's outer atmosphere. A simulation that incorporates differential radiative heating and intrinsic heat fluxes reproduces Jupiter's observed jets and thermal structure. A control simulation that incorporates only differential radiative heating but no intrinsic heat fluxes produces off-equatorial jets but no equatorial superrotation; another control simulation that incorporates only intrinsic heat fluxes but no differential radiative heating produces equatorial superrotation but no off-equatorial jets. The proposed mechanisms act in the atmospheres of all giant planets. Saturn's prograde equatorial jet is wider and stronger than Jupiter's due to its larger tropospheric gravity wave speed and consequently greater equatorial Rossby radius. Uranus and Neptune do not exhibit

  5. The Eastern Equatorial Pacific Chlorophyll Dynamics: Update of the `Equatorial Box' Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westberry, T.; Wang, X.; Murtugudde, R.; Behrenfeld, M.; Roesler, C.

    2006-12-01

    The `Equatorial Box' Project utilizes the mooring observations along the 125 and 140 TAO lines to provide carbon component data, including chlorophyll, primary production, POC and DOC. These parameters together with other oceanographic properties can be used to validate ocean circulation-ecosystem models. In turn, a validated model can offer considerable promise for not only filling the gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage from the available observations, but also enhancing our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the variability. Here, we present both measured and simulated vertical-meridional chlorophyll distributions and primary production along 125W and 140W. While there is a permanent layer of deep chlorophyll maximum at 30-60 m, there is no deep maximum in phytoplankton carbon biomass or primary production. Our analyses focus on impact of nutrient stress and light conditions on chlorophyll dynamics in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We also compare modeled primary productivity with ocean color derived rates.

  6. Particle entry into the equatorial magnetosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, T. A.; Barfield, J. N.; Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Konradi, A.

    1973-01-01

    Explorer-45 data are reviewed which concern the behavior and dynamics of protons associated with the storm-time and quiet-time extraterrestrial ring current at the equatorial plane. The quiet-time proton energy spectrum exhibits a peak in the interval between 100 and 200 keV. During storm conditions, the intensities of the higher energy protons decrease while the intensities of protons from 10 to 100 keV are greatly enhanced, making them the dominant contributor to the storm-time particle energy density. It is shown that during magnetic storms, the ratio of the particle energy density to the magnetic field energy density reaches values greater than unity, and that the plasmasphere has a strong influence on the characteristics of particle injection.

  7. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-03-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  8. Electric field observations of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Maynard, N. C.; Hanson, W. B.; Saba, Jack L.

    1992-01-01

    Results from the double floating probe experiment performed on the San Marco D satellite are presented, with emphasis on the observation of large incremental changes in the convective electric field vector at the boundary of equatorial plasma bubbles. Attention is given to isolated bubble structures in the upper ionospheric F regions; these observed bubble encounters are divided into two types - type I (live bubbles) and type II (dead bubbles). Type I bubbles show varying degrees of plasma depletion and large upward velocities range up to 1000 km/s. The geometry of these bubbles is such that the spacecraft orbit may cut them where they are tilting either eastward or (more often) westward. Type II bubbles exhibit plasma density depletion but no appreciable upward convection. Both types of events are usually surrounded by a halo of plasma turbulence, which can extend considerably beyond the region of plasma depletion.

  9. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view to the west, from between the cloud layers and over the patchy white clouds to the east of the hotspot. This is probably an area where moist convection is occurring over large horizontal distances, similar to the atmosphere over the equatorial ocean on Earth. The clouds are high and thick, and are observed to change rapidly over short time scales.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756

  10. Ozone variability in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chirong; Leovy, C. )

    1990-08-20

    Ozone variability in the equatorial middle atmosphere is investigated and related to temperature and zonal wind variations using data from the Nimbus 7 and Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite. The dominant component of the seasonal variability at most levels from the middle stratosphere to the lower thermosphere is the semiannual oscillation (SAO) which has maxima near 10, 3, 0.07, 0.01 mbar, and near or above 0.0024 mbar. There is evidence that the 10-mbar peak is due to vertical advection of odd nitrogen (NO{sub y}) by the semiannually varying residual mean circulation, while temperature dependence of chemical reactions coupled with the thermal SAO near the stratopause and in the upper mesosphere is responsible for the peaks near 3 and 0.07 mbar. The seasonal dependence suggests a contribution from gravity wave modulated vertical mixing of water vapor near the 0.01 mbar level, and the authors speculate that semiannually modulated mixing of atomic oxygen by the (1,1) mode of the thermal tide contributes to the SAO ozone peak above 0.0024 mbar. The negative correlation between temperature and ozone is so strong in the 7- to 0.5-mbar layer that ozone is a useful proxy for temperature variability on time scales from a few days to many months. A preliminary look at annual and interannual variations shows that differing patterns of winter high latitude Rossby wave variability in the two hemispheres are reflected in the signatures of equatorial ozone and temperature in the same layer.

  11. Lidar Observation of Tropopause Ozone Profiles in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yasukuni; Nagasawa, Chikao; Abo, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone in the tropics zone is significant in terms of the oxidizing efficiency and greenhouse effect. However, in the upper troposphere, the ozone budget in the tropics has not been fully understood yet because of the sparsity of the range-resolved observations of vertical ozone concentration profiles. A DIAL (differential absorption lidar) system for vertical ozone profiles have been installed in the equatorial tropopause region over Kototabang, Indonesia (100.3E, 0.2S). We have observed large ozone enhancement in the upper troposphere, altitude of 13 - 17 km, concurring with a zonal wind oscillation associated with the equatorial Kelvin wave around the tropopause at equatorial region.

  12. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view to the southeast, from between the cloud layers and over the north center of the region. The tall white clouds in the lower cloud deck are probably much like large terrestrial thunderclouds. They may be regions where atmospheric water powers vertical convection over large horizontal distances.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly simplistic, but is based on

  13. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The upper haze layer has some features that match the lower cloud, such as the bright streak in the foreground of the frame. These are probably thick clouds that span several tens of vertical kilometers.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly

  14. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view from the southwest looking northeast, from an altitude just above the high haze layer. The streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot are visible. The upper haze layer is mostly flat, with notable small peaks that can be matched with features in the lower cloud. In reality, these areas may represent a continuous vertical cloud column.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756

  15. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view to the northeast, from between the cloud layers and above the streaks in the lower cloud leading towards the hotspot. The hotspot is clearly visible as a deep blue feature. The cloud streaks end near the hotspot, consistent with the idea that clouds traveling along these streak lines descend and evaporate as they approach the hotspot. The upper haze layer is slightly bowed upwards above the hotspot.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional

  16. Three dimensional Visualization of Jupiter's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Frames from a three dimensional visualization of Jupiter's equatorial region. The images used cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles) near an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the site where the probe from NASA's Galileo spacecraft entered Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7th, 1995. These features are holes in the bright, reflective, equatorial cloud layer where warmer thermal emission from Jupiter's deep atmosphere can pass through. The circulation patterns observed here along with the composition measurements from the Galileo Probe suggest that dry air may be converging and sinking over these regions, maintaining their cloud-free appearance. The bright clouds to the right of the hotspot as well as the other bright features may be examples of upwelling of moist air and condensation.

    This frame is a view from above and to the south of the visualized area, showing the entire model. The entire region is overlain by a thin, transparent haze. In places the haze is high and thick, especially to the east (to the right of) the hotspot.

    Galileo is the first spacecraft to image Jupiter in near-infrared light (which is invisible to the human eye) using three filters at 727, 756, and 889 nanometers (nm). Because light at these three wavelengths is absorbed at different altitudes by atmospheric methane, a comparison of the resulting images reveals information about the heights of clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere. This information can be visualized by rendering cloud surfaces with the appropriate height variations.

    The visualization reduces Jupiter's true cloud structure to two layers. The height of a high haze layer is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity of Jupiter at 889 nm. The height of a lower tropospheric cloud is assumed to be proportional to the reflectivity at 727 nm divided by that at 756 nm. This model is overly simplistic, but is based on more sophisticated studies of Jupiter's cloud structure. The upper

  17. Equatorial cloud level convection on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Imamura, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Sato, Takao M.; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-10-01

    In the equatorial region on Venus, a clear cloud top morphology difference depending on solar local time has been observed through UV images. Laminar flow shaped clouds are shown on the morning side, and convective-like cells on the afternoon side (Titov et al. 2012). Baker et al. (1998) suggested that deep convective motions in the low-to-middle cloud layers at the 40-60 km range can explain cellular shapes. Imamura et al. (2014), however argued that this cannot be a reason, as convection in the low-to-middle cloud layers can be suppressed near sub solar regions due to a stabilizing effect by strong solar heating. We suggest that the observed feature may be related to strong solar heating at local noon time (Lee et al. 2015). Horizontal uneven distribution of an unknown UV absorber and/or cloud top structure may trigger horizontal convection (Toigo et al. 1994). In order to examine these possibilities, we processed 1-D radiative transfer model calculations from surface to 100 km altitude (SHDOM, Evans 1998), which includes clouds at 48-71 km altitudes (Crisp et al. 1986). The results on the equatorial thermal cooling and solar heating profiles were employed in a 2D fluid dynamic model calculation (CReSS, Tsuboki and Sakakibara 2007). The calculation covered an altitude range of 40-80 km and a 100-km horizontal distance. We compared three conditions; an 'effective' global circulation condition that cancels out unbalanced net radiative energy at equator, a condition without such global circulation effect, and the last condition assumed horizontally inhomogeneous unknown UV absorber distribution. Our results show that the local time dependence of lower level cloud convection is consistent with Imamura et al.'s result, and suggest a possible cloud top level convection caused by locally unbalanced net energy and/or horizontally uneven solar heating. This may be related to the observed cloud morphology in UV images. The effective global circulation condition, however

  18. Condor equatorial electrojet campaign: Radar results

    SciTech Connect

    Kudeki, E.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.; Hanuise, C.

    1987-12-01

    A review of the experimental and theoretical background to the Condor equatorial electrojet compaign is followed by the presentation and discussion of VHF radar interferometer and HF radar backscatter data taken concurrently with two rocket in situ experiments reported in companion papers (Pfaff et al., this issue (a, b). Both experiments were conducted in strongly driven periods with the on-line radar interferometer displaying signatures of what has been interpreted in earlier radar work (Kudeki et al., 1982) as kilometer scale gradient drift waves. Low-frequency density fluctuations detected by in situ rocket sensors confirm the earlier interpretation. VHF radar/rocket data comparisons also indicate the existence of a turbulent layer in the upper portion of the daytime electrojet at about 108 km altitude driven purely by the two-stream instability. Nonlinear mode coupling of linearly growing two-stream waves to linearly damped 3-m vertical modes could account for the radar echoes scattered from this layer, which showed no indication of large-scale gradient drift waves. Nonlinear mode coupling may therefore compete with the wave-induced anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed recently by Sudan (1983) for the saturation of directly excited two-stream waves. Nighttime radar data show a bifurcated layer with the two parts having comparable echo strength but oppositely directed zonal drift velocities. The lower layer shows narrow backscatter spectra; the upper layer is characterized by kilometer scale waves and vertically propagating type 1 waves.

  19. Vertical motions in the equatorial middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    A single station vertical velocity equation which considers ageostrophic and diabatic effects derived from the first law of thermodynamics and a generalized thermal wind relation is presented. An analysis and verification procedure which accounts for measurement and calculation errors as well as time and space continuity arguments and theoretical predictions are described. Vertical velocities are calculated at every kilometer between 25 and 60 km and for approximately every three hours for the above diurnal period at Kourou (French Guiana), Fort Sherman (Panama Canal Zone), Ascension Island, Antigua (British West Indies) and Natal (Brazil). The results, plotted as time series cross sections, suggest vertical motions ranging in magnitude from 1 or 2 cm/sec at 30 km to as much as 15 cm/sec at 60 km. Many of the general features of the results agree well with atmospheric tidal predictions but many particular features suggest that both smaller time scale gravity waves (periods less than 6 hours) and synoptic type waves (periods greater than 1 day) may be interacting significantly with the tidal fields. The results suggest that vertical motions can be calculated for the equatorial middle atmosphere and must be considered a significant part of the motion for time scales from 8 to 24 hours.

  20. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Peter D; Abernethy, Kate A; Bermejo, Magdalena; Beyers, Rene; De Wachter, Pauwel; Akou, Marc Ella; Huijbregts, Bas; Mambounga, Daniel Idiata; Toham, Andre Kamdem; Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Lahm, Sally A; Latour, Stefanie; Maisels, Fiona; Mbina, Christian; Mihindou, Yves; Obiang, Sosthène Ndong; Effa, Ernestine Ntsame; Starkey, Malcolm P; Telfer, Paul; Thibault, Marc; Tutin, Caroline E G; White, Lee J T; Wilkie, David S

    2003-04-10

    Because rapidly expanding human populations have devastated gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) habitats in East and West Africa, the relatively intact forests of western equatorial Africa have been viewed as the last stronghold of African apes. Gabon and the Republic of Congo alone are thought to hold roughly 80% of the world's gorillas and most of the common chimpanzees. Here we present survey results conservatively indicating that ape populations in Gabon declined by more than half between 1983 and 2000. The primary cause of the decline in ape numbers during this period was commercial hunting, facilitated by the rapid expansion of mechanized logging. Furthermore, Ebola haemorrhagic fever is currently spreading through ape populations in Gabon and Congo and now rivals hunting as a threat to apes. Gorillas and common chimpanzees should be elevated immediately to 'critically endangered' status. Without aggressive investments in law enforcement, protected area management and Ebola prevention, the next decade will see our closest relatives pushed to the brink of extinction.

  1. Equatorial Staphyloma Associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yoshiaki; Horiguchi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with a recently self-detected lump under his left eyebrow. Previous ophthalmological history was unremarkable except for unilateral high myopia (left eye) since childhood. The appearance of the left eye was seemingly normal; however, with the top lid pulled up on downward gaze, a dark brown bulge emerged. The bulge was 10 × 7 mm and approximately 4 mm in height, and was covered by the extended superior rectus muscle. The diagnosis of equatorial staphyloma was made after coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the dilatation of the vitreous cavity. Ocular movements were fully maintained and visual acuity was largely spared: 20/15 in the right eye without correction and 20/25 in the left eye with −10.00 spheres and −4.00 × 80 degrees cylinders. His past and family histories were unremarkable; however, small neurofibromas and café au lait spots all over his body led to the diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). From this case, similar to previous reports, we suggest that manifestations of NF1 are extremely variable and unpredictable. PMID:27721788

  2. POGO observations of the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, J. C.; Sweeney, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    During intervals in 1967 to 1970, the OGO-4 and 6 spacecraft made over 2000 traversals over the equatorial electrojet in the altitude range 400-800 km when local times were between 9 and 15 hours. These spacecraft carried total field magnetometers making measurements to an accuracy of 2 gamma with a sample rate greater than once a second. Delta F values, the deviations from these observations, were formed from an internal reference model. The results were plotted for a 30 deg band about the equator, and the characteristics of the electrojet effect in the data were investigated. This effect was characterized by a sharp negative V-signature of some 16-19 deg in width and a variable amplitude. The position of this minimum was found to lie within 0.5 deg of the dip equator. A slight northward shift was noted at the longitude of Huancayo. The jet amplitudes were normalized to 400 km amplitudes and observed to be highly variable in time. Amplitudes over the longitude range 50 to 90 deg W averaged 60% higher than elsewhere, as expected, due to the weaker main field. However, though the scatter of amplitudes is high, the expected minima in east Asia was not evident. It was speculated that this could be due to a less conducting upper mantle in this area.

  3. The formation of an equatorial coronal hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liheng; Jiang, Yunchun; Zhang, Jun

    2010-02-01

    The formation of an equatorial coronal hole (CH) from 2006 January 9 to 12 was simultaneously observed by GOES-12/SXI, SOHO/EIT and SOHO/MDI instruments. The varieties of soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux in the CH were examined and compared with that of a quiet-sun (QS) region nearby. The following results are obtained. (1) A preexisting dark lane appeared on the location of the followed CH and was reinforced by three enhanced networks. (2) The CH gradually formed in about 81 hours and was predominated by positive magnetic flux. (3) During the formation, the soft X-ray and EUV brightness, coronal temperature, and total magnetic flux obviously decreased in the CH, but were almost no change in the QS region. The decrease of the total magnetic flux may be the result of magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic lines, probably indicating the physical mechanism for the birth of the CH.

  4. Periodic equatorial water flows from a Hamiltonian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia; Martin, Calin Iulian

    2017-04-01

    The main result of this paper is a Hamiltonian formulation of the nonlinear governing equations for geophysical periodic stratified water flows in the equatorial f-plane approximation allowing for piecewise constant vorticity.

  5. Photoelectron escape fluxes over the equatorial and midlatitude regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasingarao, B. C.; Singh, R. N.; Maier, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite measurements of photoelectron escape flux around noontime made by Explorer 31 in 600-800 km altitude range are reported for the equatorial and midlatitude regions. The pitch angle distributions and the spectral distributions are derived from the data. Analyzed data show that the flux for equatorial regions is lower by a factor 2 to 3 in comparison to that of midlatitude regions. Theoretical calculations are also made to compare with observed escape fluxes.

  6. On Irrotational Flows Beneath Periodic Traveling Equatorial Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    We discuss some aspects of the velocity field and particle trajectories beneath periodic traveling equatorial surface waves over a flat bed in a flow with uniform underlying currents. The system under study consists of the governing equations for equatorial ocean waves within a non-inertial frame of reference, where Euler's equation of motion has to be suitably adjusted, in order to account for the influence of the earth's rotation.

  7. Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NUWC-NPT Technical Report 11,676 25 April 2005 Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems John P. Casey...Overview of the Equatorial Electrojet and Related Ionospheric Current Systems PR A590045 6. AUTHOR(S) John P. Casey 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...that flows in the ionosphere in a narrow zone above the magnetic dip equator during the daytime. The electrojet current produces a large enhancement of

  8. Influence of Assimilation of Subsurface Temperature Measurements on Simulations of Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current Along the Pacific Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Leetmaan, Ants; Reynolds, Richard W.; Ji, Ming

    1997-01-01

    Equatorial Pacific current and temperature fields were simulated with and without assimilation of subsurface temperature measurements for April 1992 - March 1995, and compared with moored bouy and research vessel current measurements.

  9. Eastward traverse of equatorial plasma plumes observed with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukao, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Tayama, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.

    2006-07-01

    The zonal structure of radar backscatter plumes associated with Equatorial Spread F (ESF), probably modulated by atmospheric gravity waves, has been investigated with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in West Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20° S, 100.32° E; dip latitude 10.1° S) and the FM-CW ionospheric sounders on the same magnetic meridian as the EAR. The occurrence locations and zonal distances of the ESF plumes were determined with multi-beam observations with the EAR. The ESF plumes drifted eastward while keeping distances of several hundred to a thousand kilometers. Comparing the occurrence of the plumes and the F-layer uplift measured by the FM-CW sounders, plumes were initiated within the scanned area around sunset only, when the F-layer altitude rapidly increased. Therefore, the PreReversal Enhancement (PRE) is considered as having a zonal variation with the scales mentioned above, and this variation causes day-to-day variability, which has been studied for a long time. Modulation of the underlying E-region conductivity by gravity waves, which causes inhomogeneous sporadic-E layers, for example, is a likely mechanism to determine the scale of the PRE.

  10. Isostatic compensation of equatorial highlands on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucinskas, Algis B.; Turcotte, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    Spherical harmonic models for Venus' global topography and gravity incorporating Magellan data are used to test isostatic compensation models in five 30 deg x 30 deg regions representative of the main classes of equatorial highlands. The power spectral density for the harmonic models obeys a power-law scaling with spectral slope Beta approximately 2 (Brown noise) for the topography and Beta approximately 3 (Kaula's law) for the geoid, similar to what is observed for Earth. The Venus topography spectrum has lower amplitudes than Earth's which reflects the dominant lowland topography on Venus. Observed degree geoid to topography ratios (GTRs) on Venus are significantly smaller than degree GTRs for uncompensated topography, indicative of substantial compensation. Assuming a global Airy compensation, most of the topography is compensated at depths greater than 100 km, suggesting a thick lithosphere on Venus. For each region considered we obtain a regional degree of compensation C from a linear regression of Bouguer anomaly versus Bouguer gravity data. Geoid anomaly (N) versus topography variation (h) data for each sample were compared, in the least-squares sense, to theoretical correlations for Pratt, Airy, and thermal thinning isostasy models yielding regional GTR, zero-elevation crustal thickness (H), and zero elevation thermal lithosphere thickness (y(sub L(sub 0)), respectively. We find the regional compensation to be substantial (C approximately 52-80%), and the h, N data correlations in the chosen areas can be explained by isostasy models applicable on the Earth and involving variations in crustal thickness (Airy) and/or lithospheric (thermal thinning) thickness. However, a thick crust and lithosphere (y(sub L(sub 0)) approximately 300 km) must be assumed for Venus.

  11. Equatorial Kelvin Waves: A UARS MLS View.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-10-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves.The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined.For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone. The ratios of the ozone perturbation amplitude to the temperature perturbation amplitude for the various observed Kelvin wave modes are in agreement with model estimates and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observations in the lower half of the region sampled but appear to be too large in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  12. Equatorial Kelvin waves: A UARS MLS view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to compare two periods of Kelvin wave activity during different stages of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation. The analysis is carried out using an asynoptic mapping technique. A wide bandpass filter is used to isolate the frequency bands where Kelvin waves have been identified in previous studies. Time-height and time-latitude plots of the bandpassed data are used to identify Kelvin wave activity in the temperature and ozone fields. Frequency spectra of temperature and ozone amplitudes are constructed to further analyze the latitudinal and meridional distribution of Kelvin wave activity in zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2. The characteristics identified in these plots agree well with theoretical predictions and previous observations of middle atmosphere Kelvin waves. The time-height and time-latitude plots support the existence of Kelvin waves in discrete frequency bands; the slow, fast, and ultrafast Kelvin modes are all identified in the data. The characteristics of these modes do not vary much despite different mean flow conditions in the two periods examined. For the Kelvin wave-induced perturbations in ozone, the change from a transport-dominated regime below 10 hPa to a photochemically controlled regime above 10 hPa is clearly apparent in the height dependence of the phase difference between temperature and ozone. The ratios of the ozone perturbation amplitude to the temperature perturbation amplitude for the various observed Kelvin wave modes are in agreement with model estimates and LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observations in the lower half of the region sampled but appear to be too large in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere.

  13. Climatology of equatorial stratosphere over Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi Samuel

    We have used 12 complete calendar years (January 1993-December 2004) of monthly averages of measurements made by the Dobson spectrophotometer instrument over an urban site, Lagos (6.6oN, 3.3oE), southwest Nigeria, to study equatorial stratospheric column ozone variations and trends. Our results indicate that the time-averaged total column ozone has a seasonal cy-cle, which maximizes in June and July with a value of 259 Dobson units (DU) and minimizes in February with a magnitude of 250 DU. Statistical analysis of the climatological mean monthly total Dobson O3 record for 1993-2004 show that the local trend is approximately +0.041±0.0011 DU/year (+0.49±0.013% per decade). Spectral analysis was applied to the monthly averages series. The significant periodicity at 95% confidence level demonstrate prominent spectra peaks near 1.9 and 3.6 years, representative of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and quasi-triennial oscillation (QTO), respectively. Signal due to semiannual variation is also identified at Lagos sounding site. Comparison with the ozone observations from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrom-eter (TOMS) on board the Earth-Probe (EP) satellite for the period from 1997 to 2002 reveal that EP/TOMS instrument consistently larger than the ground-based measurement from Dob-son station. Percentage mean relative disparity ranges from -11% to 15%. The root mean square error (RMSE) between satellite and ground-based observations over Lagos ranges be-tween ˜35-83 DU with largest and lowest variability occurring during the ascending phase of solar activity (1999, 10.7 cm radio flux, F10.7 equals 154 flux units) and during the peak phase of solar activity (2001, F10.7 equals 181), respectively.

  14. More on accreting black hole spacetime in equatorial plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salahshoor, K.; Nozari, K.; Khesali, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    Spacetime around an accreting black hole is an interesting issue to study. The metric of an isolated black hole (rotating or non-rotating) spacetime has been well-known for decades. Although metrics of some spacetimes containing accreting black holes are known in some situations, the issue has some faces that are not well-known yet and need further investigation. In this paper, we construct a new form of metric which the effect of accretion disk on black hole spacetime is taken into account in the equatorial plane. We study motion and trajectories of massive particles and also photons falling from infinity towards black hole in equatorial plane around the black hole. We use an exponential form for the density profile of the accretion disk in equatorial plane as ρ =ρ0e^{-α r}. We show that with this density profile, the disk is radially stable if α ≤ 3 × 10^{-3} (in units of length inverse). In order to study some important quantities related to the accretion disks such as locations of marginally stable circular orbits (r_{ms} or r_{ISCO}), marginally bounded circular orbits (r_{mb}), and also photon orbits in equatorial plane, we use the effective potential approach. We show that in this spacetime metric the innermost stable circular orbit in equatorial plane is given by r_{ISCO}=4.03 μ (where μ =MG/c 2) which is different, but comparable, with the Schwarzschild spacetime result, r^{(Sch)}_{ISCO}=6 μ . We show that the maximum radiation efficiency of the accretion disk, η , in equatorial plane is 8.6 percent which is greater than the corresponding value for Schwarzschild spacetime. Finally, we show that in this setup photons can have stable circular orbits in equatorial plane unlike the Schwarzschild spacetime.

  15. Polar and equatorial ionosphere interaction during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biktash, L.

    The solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling as applied to the polar and equatorial ionosphere dynamics is examined. To do this simultaneous observations of the IMF, ground-based measurements of the ionospheric parameters and geomagnetic field variations from the high latitudes to the equator are used during magnetic storms. It is shown that the auroral electric fields during magnetically disturbed conditions by the magnetospheric current systems can play a dominant role in the equatorial ionosphere processes. During magnetic storms the equatorial ionosphere parameters h'F, foF2 and etc. widely deviated from quiet day conditions and different kinds of ionospheric irregularities are formed. The equatorial ionospheric irregularities manifest as spread F in ionograms, reversals of drift velocities, scintillation of radio transmissions through the ionosphere, etc. These phenomena can interpret as the result of direct penetration of electric fields from the high latitude field-aligned currents (FAC) to the equatorial ionosphere. Model of direct penetration of FAC electric field of Polar Regions 1 and Region 2, which are controlled by the solar wind, to the equatorial ionosphere is presented. From this model the solar wind electric field through the FAC is likely to the factor wich generate or inhibit the equatorward penetration of the high latitude electric field. We demonstrate that the model is suitable to explain h'F, foF2 variations and scintillation activity during geomagnetic storms. Taking into account of the equatorial and auroral electric fields coupling, relationship, between these regions can be useful to study difficult auroral conditions during magnetic storms.

  16. Seasonal influence of ENSO on the Atlantic ITCZ and equatorial South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münnich, M.; Neelin, J. D.

    2005-11-01

    In late boreal spring, especially May, a strong relationship exists in observations among precipitation anomalies over equatorial South America and the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and eastern equatorial Pacific and central equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). A chain of correlations of equatorial Pacific SSTA, western equatorial Atlantic wind stress (WEA), equatorial Atlantic SSTA, sea surface height, and precipitation supports a causal chain in which El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) induces WEA stress anomalies, which in turn affect Atlantic equatorial ocean dynamics. These correlations show strong seasonality, apparently arising within the atmospheric links of the chain. This pathway and the influence of equatorial Atlantic SSTA on South American rainfall in May appear independent of that of the northern tropical Atlantic. Brazil's Nordeste is affected by the northern tropical Atlantic. The equatorial influence lies further to the north over the eastern Amazon and the Guiana Highlands.

  17. Sources of variability in equatorial topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, Roger H.; Hysell, David L.; Huba, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    Jicamarca measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (500-1500km) from the last solar minimum routinely show variations of hundreds of Kelvin from day-to-day. Possible sources of these variations are explored using the SAMI2-PE is another model of the ionosphere including photoelectron transport (SAMI2-PE) model, which includes a multistream photoelectron transport model. Changes to the electric fields, meridional winds, and thermospheric densities can all change the electron densities and temperatures at high altitudes. The high altitude electron temperatures are primarily determined by a balance between heating from photoelectrons which travel up the field lines and thermal diffusion which carries heat back down the field lines. The winds and electric fields will change the altitude and densities of the off-equatorial F-region peaks, especially on the field lines connected to the equatorial arcs. The densities and temperatures in the plasmasphere will self consistently adjust themselves to achieve diffusive equilibrium with the off-equatorial F-regions. Furthermore, decreases in the density and/or altitude of the F-region makes it easier for photoelectrons to escape to high altitudes. These connections between the equatorial plasmasphere, the off-equatorial F-regions, and the neutral thermosphere suggest that high altitude measurements at Jicamarca could be used to study thermospheric variability.

  18. Equatorial Winds on Saturn and the Stratospheric Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Jian, Xun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; Porco, Carolyn C.; West, Robert A.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Ewald, Shawn P.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Baines, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    The zonal jets on the giant planets are generally thought to be stable with time. Recently, there are still some debates about the general thought. Here, we report a significant temporal variation of the equatorial jet at high-altitude on Saturn. Long-term (2004-2009) observations by Cassini reveal that wind speed at the 60-mbar level increased from 270 m/s in 2004 to 290 m/s in 2008, while the wind speed has been mostly constant over time at the 500-mbar level in the southern equatorial region. The Cassini observations further reveal that the equatorial jet intensified approximately 60 m/s in the stratosphere (1-5 mbar) from 2005 to 2008. The fact that the wind acceleration is weaker at the 60-mbar level (approximately 20 m/s) than at the 1-mbar level (approximately 60 m/s) demonstrates that the equatorial oscillation is damped when it propagates downwards to the tropopause around 60 mbar. The direct measurement of the varying equatorial jet around the tropopause also serves as a key boundary condition when deriving the thermal wind fields in the stratosphere.

  19. Meridional equatorial electrojet current in the American sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1999-02-01

    Huancayo is the only equatorial electrojet station where the daytime increase of horizontal geomagnetic field (H) is associated with a simultaneous increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y). It is shown that during the counter electrojet period when H is negative, Y also becomes negative. Thus, the diurnal variation of Y at equatorial latitudes is suggested to be a constituent part of the equatorial electrojet current system. Solar flares are known to increase the H field at an equatorial station during normal electrojet conditions (nej). At Huancayo, situated north of the magnetic equator, the solar flare effect, during nej, consists of positive impulses in H and Y and negative impulse in Z field. During counter electrojet periods (cej), a solar flare produces a negative impulse in H and Y and a positive impulse in Z at Huancayo. It is concluded that both the zonal and meridional components of the equatorial electrojet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes, flows in the same, E region of the ionosphere.

  20. Equatorial Mountain Torques and Cold Surges in a GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, Francois; Mailler, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    The dynamical relations between the equatorial atmospheric angular momentum, the equatorial mountain torque and the cold surges are analysed in a General Circultaion Model (GCM). First we show that the global equatorial atmospheric momentum budget is very well closed in the model which is a clear benefit when we compare with results from the NCEP reanalysis. We then confirm that the equatorial torques due to the Tibetan plateau, the Rockies and the Andes are well related to the cold surges developping over South Eastern China, North America, and the Southern South America respectively. For all these mountains, a peack in the Equatorial mountain torque component that points locally toward the pole preceeds by few days the development of the cold surges, yielding a predictive interest to our results. We also analyse the contributions to the torques of the parameterized mountain stresses and find that they contribute substantially. In experiments without the parameterized stresses, we also find that the explicit terms partly compensate the parameterized contributions to the torque, and the cold surges are not much affected. This shows that the cold surges can be well captured by models, providing that the synoptic conditions prior to their onset are well represented. The compensation between torques is nevertheless not complete and some weekening of the cold surges is found when the mountain forcings are reduced. This illustrates how the exact torques are needed at a given time to produce the correct synoptic scale dynamics at a later stage.

  1. Effects of Ca++ depletion on lens equatorial currents in frog lenses.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J W; Walsh, S; Wind, B E

    1989-01-01

    The combination of the vibrating probe measuring the outward equatorial current (J) with microelectrodes measuring PD and the response to injected current provides one of the best means of relating macro findings of lens currents to the micro data that have been reported using the patch clamp technique. In standard frog Ringers solution the equatorial current appears to be a relatively pure K+ current with a reversal potential of -95 mV. This agrees with the reversal potential of the 45 pS K+ channel. When Ca++ is removed from the medium bathing the lens the input resistance (R) decreases, the PD becomes less negative and the current J increases. This process can be reversed by adding Ca++ or Mn++ to the Ca++ deficient medium. When all Ca++ is removed from the medium by adding EGTA in the absence of Ca++, the increase in J is less than expected. However, if Na+ is replaced by TMA in the Ca++ depleted EGTA medium the current is seven times as great. These changes are consistent with those found in non-selective cation channels in the absence of Ca++.

  2. Propagation of VLF waves through the equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Cairo, L.

    1980-12-01

    The propagation characteristics of artificial VLF waves (NBA, 24.0 kHz) through the equatorial ionosphere have been studied by means of data obtained onboard the FR-1 satellite at 750 km altitude over Latin America. Large latitudinal variations of the vertical component of the wave normal generally appear in the evening at geomagnetic latitudes of 10 to 15 deg, and they also appear on most of the passes examined at night at latitudes of 5 to 10 deg. Ray and wave normal directions of the VLF waves are computed in various models of field-aligned equatorial anomaly. The latitudinal variations in the evening are due to large negative latitudinal gradients of electron density associated with the equatorial anomaly, and the latitudinal variations at night are due to relatively small density gradients.

  3. The Equatorial Ridges of Pan and Atlas: Terminal Accretionary Ornaments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sébastien; Brahic, André; Thomas, Peter C.; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2007-12-01

    In the outer regions of Saturn’s main rings, strong tidal forces balance gravitational accretion processes. Thus, unusual phenomena may be expected there. The Cassini spacecraft has recently revealed the strange “flying saucer” shape of two small satellites, Pan and Atlas, located in this region, showing prominent equatorial ridges. The accretion of ring particles onto the equatorial surfaces of already-formed bodies embedded in the rings may explain the formation of the ridges. This ridge formation process is in good agreement with detailed Cassini images showing differences between rough polar and smooth equatorial terrains. We propose that Pan and Atlas ridges are kilometers-thick “ring-particle piles” formed after the satellites themselves and after the flattening of the rings but before the complete depletion of ring material from their surroundings.

  4. Bistability between equatorial and axial dipoles during magnetic field reversals.

    PubMed

    Gissinger, Christophe; Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2012-06-08

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo in the presence of heterogeneous heating are presented. We study the dynamics and the structure of the magnetic field when the equatorial symmetry of the flow is broken. If the symmetry breaking is sufficiently strong, the m=0 axial dipolar field is replaced by a hemispherical magnetic field, dominated by an oscillating m=1 magnetic field. Moreover, for moderate symmetry breaking, a bistability between the axial and the equatorial dipole is observed. In this bistable regime, the axial magnetic field exhibits chaotic switches of its polarity, involving the equatorial dipole during the transition period. This new scenario for magnetic field reversals is discussed within the framework of Earth's dynamo.

  5. Iron sources and pathways into the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xuerong; Menviel, Laurie; Sen Gupta, Alex; Sebille, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Using a novel observationally constrained Lagrangian iron model forced by outputs from an eddy-resolving biogeochemical ocean model, we examine the sensitivity of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) iron distribution to EUC source region iron concentrations. We find that elevated iron concentrations derived from New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCU) alone is insufficient to explain the high concentrations observed in the EUC. In addition, due to the spread in transit times, interannual NGCU iron pulses are scavenged, diluted, or eroded, before reaching the eastern equatorial Pacific. With an additional iron source from the nearby New Ireland Coastal Undercurrent, EUC iron concentrations become consistent with observations. Furthermore, as both the New Guinea and New Ireland Coastal Undercurrents strengthen during El Niño, increased iron input into the EUC can enhance the iron supply into the eastern equatorial Pacific. Notably, during the 1997/1998 El Niño, this causes a simulated 30% iron increase at a 13 month lag.

  6. The effect of islands on low frequency equatorial motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Du Penhoat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A complete analytic solution is presented for the influence of equatorial islands on steady low-frequency waves. If the island is small (the meridional extent is much less than the equatorial radius of deformation, R), the waves pass it almost undisturbed, with the mass flux incident on the upstream side flowing around it nearly equally to the north and to the south and continuing on downstream in the lee of the island. For large islands (comparable in extent with R or larger), the principal response is organized as it would be if the island barrier were meridionally infinite. An incident Kelvin wave is largely reflected as long Rossby waves; symmetric long Rossby waves are reflected as equatorial Kelvin waves, while antisymmetric ones stop at the island barrier. In all cases, a boundary current composed of short Rossby waves forms at the eastern side of the island and accomplishes the required meridional redistribution of the zonal mass flux.

  7. The seismicity of the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge and its long-offset transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Dziak, R. P.; Palmiotto, C.; Parnell-Turner, R. E.; Zheleznov, A.

    2012-12-01

    An array of eight hydrophones is monitoring seismicity of the equatorial Atlantic between 20N and 10S. The array is obtaining a two-year, continuous record of seismicity, which will provide an important new view of the spatial and temporal patterns of seismicity at the slow-spreading equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and its long-offset transforms. The hydroacoustically-recorded seismicity, which will be in hand in 2014, can be used to address several key questions concerning the modes of spreading along the strongly offset equatorial MAR, the short-term earthquake predictability on some of the longest transform faults in the oceans, and the dynamics of the NA-SA-AF triple junction whose exact location is not known. In addition, seismic patterns of the entire South Atlantic will be obtained (at reduced location accuracy), and will aid in understanding the dynamics of the southern MAR, Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise, and other prominent seafloor features. The hydroacoustic data will also allow characterization of cetacean populations in the region as well as an assessment of the ambient noise levels due to shipping and oil exploration. To provide additional information on the short-term earthquake predictability (retrospective) on oceanic transform faults, we are identifying all magnitude mb >5 earthquakes in our existing hydroacoustic databases and searching for systematic foreshock activity associated with these events. We have multi-year earthquake databases accumulated from past hydrophone experiments along the Central, Southwest and Southeast Indian Ridges, the Juan de Fuca Ridge system, and the northern MAR. Preliminary results are very promising, and there appear to be several examples of clear foreshocks preceding mainshocks by several hours. Also as part of this project, we are compiling a bathymetric map of the equatorial MAR and its transforms between 20N and 10S. There have been several international mapping efforts in this region and the integration of

  8. A recent, equatorial, periglacial environment on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, M. R.; Gallagher, C.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    During the Viking era, Mars' recent climatic history was held to be cold and dry with little evidence for long-lived liquid water near the surface; signs of a past wetter, warmer climate were confined to ancient Noachian or Hesperian-aged terrains. Recent missions have revealed contemporary near-surface water-ice to be abundant at high latitudes, and a population of mid-latitude fluvial-like gullies that appear to have formed by transient melting of ice or snow. Thus today's view of Mars' recent surface evolution is one of global permafrost existing within a framework of climate change, the timescales of which are governed by obliquity cycles with periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, in recent mapping work of the equatorial Elysium Planitia region using the latest very high resolution images of Mars (HiRISE; 25cm/pixel) we have found evidence for longer-lived, geologically recent liquid water at the martian surface. This suggests that there was a recent period when the climate was warmer than current obliquity cycle-based models predict. The Elysium Planitia region of Mars is both geologically young (late Amazonian period; <100 Ma) and hosts a variety of landforms that are morphologically similar to those of periglacial and permafrost environments on Earth. The region was exposed to massive flooding from deep underground sources during the late Amazonian, as demonstrated by the distinctive fluvial morphologies seen in the outflow channel Athabasca Vallis. These floods would have provided both the source of ice and particulate material required for a periglacial or permafrost landscape and there was probably a long-lived, but slowly freezing, lake or sea in the downstream Elysium basin. However, the provenance of the materials and landforms of this region is disputed: many authors still regard the Athabasca Vallis and Elysium basin as being flood lava provinces, with effusive volcanic materials reoccupying earlier flood landscapes (a classic

  9. Equatorial Atmospheric and Ionospheric Modeling for Space Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-04

    170 Longitude (deg E) 30 15 -15 0 La tit ud e (d eg N ) Equatorial Anomaly SMH 11/24/99 Equatorial Spread-F A l t i t u d e ( k m ) Local Time...Operation T E C ( 1 0 1 6 e l e c t r o n s m - 2 ) Model Integration and Test SMH 11/24/99 Two Frequency Radar vs IECM TEC -6.5 6.50 E l e v a t i o n

  10. Longitudinal Variation and Waves in Jupiter's South Equatorial Wind Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, A. A.; Rogers, John H.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Choi, David; Allison, Michael; Adamoli, Gianluigi; Mettig, Hans-Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed study of the cloud features in the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 S planetographic latitude. To understand the apparent variations in average zonal wind jet velocity at this latitude [e.g.. 1,2,3], we have searched for variations iIi both feature latitude and velocity with longitude and time. In particular, we focused on the repetitive chevron-shaped dark spots visible on most dates and the more transient large anticyclonic system known as the South Equatorial Disturbance (SED). These small dark spots are interpreted as cloud holes, and are often used as material tracers of the wind field.

  11. Optimal joint remote state preparation of equatorial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xihan; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    We present a scheme for optimal joint remote state preparation of two-qubit equatorial states. Our protocol improves on a previous scheme (Choudhury and Dhara in Quantum Inf Process 14:373-379, 2015) that had a success probability of 25 %, which increased to 50 % when extra classical information is sent to the receiver. We show that using our modified scheme, the desired state can be prepared deterministically with the same quantum channel. Moreover, we generalize the scheme to prepare N-qubit equatorial states in which the receiver can reconstruct the original state with 100 % success probability.

  12. Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In

  13. Do Sverdrup transports account for the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, G.

    1980-02-20

    Poleward and equatorward geostrophic transports calculated from density are nearly equal to Sverdrup transports calculated from the curl of the wind stress in the North and South Pacific subtropical gyres. But the Sverdrup transports do not account for the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent.

  14. The equatorial electrojet current modelling from SWARM satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaissa, Mahfoud

    2016-07-01

    Equatorial ElectroJet (EEJ) is an intense eastward electric current circulating in the ionospheric magnetic equator band between 100 and 130 km of altitude in E region. These currents vary by day, by season, by solar activity, and also with the main magnetic field of internal origin. The irregularity of the ionosphere has a major impact on the performance of communication systems and navigation (GPS), industry.... Then it becomes necessary study the characteristics of EEJ. In this paper, we present a study of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) phenomenon along one year (2014) period. In addition, the satellite data used in this study are obtained with SWARM satellite scalar magnetometer data respecting magnetically quiet days with KP < 2. In this paper, we process to separate and extract the electrojet intensity signal from other recorded signal-sources interfering with the main signal and reduce considerably the signal to noise ratio during the SWARM measurements. This pre-processing step allows removing all external contributions in regard to EEJ intensity value. Key words: Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Electric fields and currents; Equatorial electrojet (EEJ)); SWARM.

  15. Local Stability for an Exact Steady Purely Azimuthal Equatorial Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu-Kruse, Delia; Martin, Calin Iulian

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short-wavelength stability analysis of an exact steady equatorial flow which does not vary in the azimuthal direction, but has an arbitrary variation with depth. We show that for some velocity profiles of the basic flow, this flow is locally stable to short-wavelength perturbations.

  16. Exact Nonlinear Internal Equatorial Waves in the f-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu

    2016-07-01

    We present an explicit exact solution of the nonlinear governing equations for internal geophysical water waves propagating westward above the thermocline in the f-plane approximation near the equator. Moreover, the mass transport velocity induced by this internal equatorial wave is eastward and a westward current occurs in the transition zone between the great depth where the water is still and the thermocline.

  17. Equatorial decline of reef corals during the last Pleistocene interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiessling, Wolfgang; Simpson, Carl; Beck, Brian; Mewis, Heike; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-12-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG; ca. 125,000 y ago) resulted from rapid global warming and reached global mean temperatures exceeding those of today. The LIG thus offers the opportunity to study how life may respond to future global warming. Using global occurrence databases and applying sampling-standardization, we compared reef coral diversity and distributions between the LIG and modern. Latitudinal diversity patterns are characterized by a tropical plateau today but were characterized by a pronounced equatorial trough during the LIG. This trough is governed by substantial range shifts away from the equator. Range shifts affected both leading and trailing edges of species range limits and were much more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere than south of the equator. We argue that interglacial warming was responsible for the loss of equatorial diversity. Hemispheric differences in insolation during the LIG may explain the asymmetrical response. The equatorial retractions are surprisingly strong given that only small temperature changes have been reported in the LIG tropics. Our results suggest that the poleward range expansions of reef corals occurring with intensified global warming today may soon be followed by equatorial range retractions.

  18. Evolution of Ion Clouds in the Equatorial Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrochuk, Yevgeny; Blaunstein, Nathan; Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd; Caton, Ron; Viggiano, Al; Schuman, Nick

    2015-11-01

    We report on the results of 2- and 3-dimentional numerical investigations of the evolution of samarium ion clouds injected in the equatorial ionosphere, alike the recent MOSC experiments. The ambient conditions are described by a standard model of the quiet-time equatorial ionosphere from 90 to 350 km. The altitudinal distribution of the transport processes and ambient electric and magnetic fields is taken into account. The fast process of stratification of ion clouds and breaking into small plasmoids occur only during the late stage of the cloud evolution. The role of the background plasma and its depletion zones formed due to the short-circuiting currents is not as evident as in mid latitudes. It is also revealed that the altitudinal dependence of the diffusion and drift plays a minor role in the cloud evolution at the equator. Likewise, the cloud remains stable with respect to the Raleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instabilities. These two features are defined by the equatorial near-horizontal magnetic field which leads to a strongly-elongated ellipsoid-like plasma cloud. The critical dip angle separating the stable (equatorial) and unstable (mid-latitude) cloud regimes will be defined in future simulation studies, as well as the dependence on the ambient electric field and neutral wind. 2Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory

  19. History of the Italian San Marco equatorial mobile range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, H. N.

    1971-01-01

    Events leading to the development of the San Marco Equatorial Range are presented. Included are background information leading to the cooperative space program between the United States and Italy, conceptual planning, training activities, equipment design and fabrication, and range utilization. The technical support provided the San Marco Program by Scout Project Office, and other NASA installations is described.

  20. Upwelling: a unit of disturbance in equatorial spread F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma structure in the nighttime equatorial F layer, often referred to as equatorial spread F (ESF), is not uniformly distributed, either in time or in space. Observations indicate that ESF in the bottomside F layer takes the form of patches; plasma structure within the F layer takes the form of localized plasma depletions, called equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs), which tend to occur in clusters. Another observed feature is an upwelling, which has been described as a localized, upward modulation of isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer. Interestingly, zonal widths of ESF patches, EPB clusters, and upwellings are similar. Moreover, all display an east-west asymmetry. The objective of this paper is to show, for the first time, that an ESF patch is the bottomside counterpart of an EPB cluster, and that both are products of the electrodynamical process that takes place within an upwelling. The process can be described as having three phases: (1) amplification of upwelling amplitude during the post-sunset rise of the F layer, (2) launching of the first EPB of the evening, from crest of the upwelling, and (3) structuring of plasma within the upwelling. Hence, an upwelling, whose presence is responsible for the formation of ESF patches and EPB clusters, can be envisioned as a unit of disturbance that occurs in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere.

  1. Commercial Logging and HIV Epidemic, Rural Equatorial Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi, Mireille; Butel, Christelle; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric

    2004-01-01

    We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination. PMID:15550206

  2. Observations of ULF wave related equatorial electrojet and density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Anad, F.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Global magnetospheric Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) pulsations with frequencies in the Pc 4-5 range (f = 1.0 - 8 mHz) have been observed for decades in space and on Earth. ULF pulsations contribute to magnetospheric particle transport and diffusion and play an important role in magnetospheric dynamics. However, only a few studies have been performed on ionospheric observations of ULF wave-related perturbations in the vicinity of the equatorial region. In this paper we report on Pc5 wave related electric field and thus vertical drift velocity oscillations at the equator as observed by ground magnetometers and radar. We show that the magnetometer estimated equatorial ExB drift oscillate with the same frequency as ULF Pc5 waves, creating significant ionospheric density fluctuations. For independent confirmation of the vertical drift velocity fluctuation, we used JULIA 150 km radar drift velocities and found similar fluctuation with the period of 8-10 minutes. We also show ionospheric density fluctuations during the period when we observed ULF wave activities. All these demonstrate that the Pc5 wave can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere and modulate the equatorial electrodynamics. Finally, in order to detect the ULF activities both on the ground and in space, we use groundbased magnetometer data from African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and the South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA). From space, we use magnetic field observations from the GOES 12 and the Communication/Navigation Outage and Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellites. Using the WIND spacecraft as the upstream solar wind monitor, we present direct evidence that solar wind number density and ram pressure fluctuations observed far upstream from the terrestrial magnetosphere are the main drivers of ULF wave activity inside the magnetosphere. Finally, we show that the ULF waves in the same frequency range are observed in the magnetosphere by the geosynchronous GOES spacecraft, in the

  3. Post-midnight occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    The equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)/equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities are an important topic of space weather interest because of their impact on transionospheric radio communications, satellite-based navigation and augmentation systems. This local plasma depleted structures develop at the bottom side F layer through Rayleigh-Taylor instability and rapidly grow to topside ionosphere via polarization electric fields within them. The steep vertical gradients due to quick loss of bottom side ionization and rapid uplift of equatorial F layer via prereversal enhancement (PRE) of zonal electric field makes the post-sunset hours as the most preferred local time for the formation of EPBs. However, there is a different class of irregularities that occurs during the post-midnight hours of June solstice reported by the previous studies. The occurrence of these post-midnight EPBs maximize during the low solar activity periods. The growth characteristics and the responsible mechanism for the formation of these post-midnight EPBs are not yet understood. Using the rapid beam steering ability of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. The responsible mechanism for the genesis of summer time post-midnight EPBs were discussed in light of growth rate of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using SAMI2 model.

  4. Longitudinal Differences of Ionospheric Vertical Density Distribution and Equatorial Electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Damtie, B.; Mebrahtu, A.; Valledares, C.E.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimation of global vertical distribution of ionospheric and plasmaspheric density as a function of local time, season, and magnetic activity is required to improve the operation of space-based navigation and communication systems. The vertical density distribution, especially at low and equatorial latitudes, is governed by the equatorial electrodynamics that produces a vertical driving force. The vertical structure of the equatorial density distribution can be observed by using tomographic reconstruction techniques on ground-based global positioning system (GPS) total electron content (TEC). Similarly, the vertical drift, which is one of the driving mechanisms that govern equatorial electrodynamics and strongly affect the structure and dynamics of the ionosphere in the low/midlatitude region, can be estimated using ground magnetometer observations. We present tomographically reconstructed density distribution and the corresponding vertical drifts at two different longitudes: the East African and west South American sectors. Chains of GPS stations in the east African and west South American longitudinal sectors, covering the equatorial anomaly region of meridian approx. 37 deg and 290 deg E, respectively, are used to reconstruct the vertical density distribution. Similarly, magnetometer sites of African Meridian B-field Education and Research (AMBER) and INTERMAGNET for the east African sector and South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) are used to estimate the vertical drift velocity at two distinct longitudes. The comparison between the reconstructed and Jicamarca Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) measured density profiles shows excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of tomographic reconstruction technique in providing the vertical density distribution at different longitudes. Similarly, the comparison between magnetometer estimated vertical drift and other independent drift observation

  5. Industrial concessions, fires and air pollution in Equatorial Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C. L.; Gaveau, D. L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires in Indonesia emit large quantities of smoke leading to poor air quality across Equatorial Asia. Marlier et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 085005) explore the contribution of fires occurring on oil palm, timber (wood pulp and paper) and natural forest logging concessions to smoke emissions and exposure of human populations to the resulting air pollution. They find that one third of the population exposure to smoke across Equatorial Asia is caused by fires in oil palm and timber concessions in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Logging concessions have substantially lower fire emissions, and contribute less to air quality degradation. This represents a compelling justification to prevent reclassification of logging concessions into oil palm or timber concessions after logging. This can be achieved by including logged forests in the Indonesian moratorium on new plantations in forested areas.

  6. Bispectral analysis of equatorial spread F density irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labelle, J.; Lund, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    Bispectral analysis has been applied to density irregularities at frequencies 5-30 Hz observed with a sounding rocket launched from Peru in March 1983. Unlike the power spectrum, the bispectrum contains statistical information about the phase relations between the Fourier components which make up the waveform. In the case of spread F data from 475 km the 5-30 Hz portion of the spectrum displays overall enhanced bicoherence relative to that of the background instrumental noise and to that expected due to statistical considerations, implying that the observed f exp -2.5 power law spectrum has a significant non-Gaussian component. This is consistent with previous qualitative analyses. The bicoherence has also been calculated for simulated equatorial spread F density irregularities in approximately the same wavelength regime, and the resulting bispectrum has some features in common with that of the rocket data. The implications of this analysis for equatorial spread F are discussed, and some future investigations are suggested.

  7. Relationship between Fe /+/ ions and equatorial spread F.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Sanatani, S.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of observations from the retarding potential analyzer on Ogo 6 near the magnetic equator, demonstrating an intimate relationship between the presence of Fe(+) ions and irregularities in the total ion concentration. The ionospheric irregularities (or structure) are probably another manifestation of equatorial spread F, although this has not yet been verified. Nearly half the nighttime equatorial crossings below 700 km exhibit both Fe(+) and structure, but only 10% of the passes without Fe(+) have structure. Approximately one-third of the passes with Fe(+) are not structured, which indicates that Fe(+) may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for structure formation. The Atlantic region shows an extremely high and detailed correlation between Fe(+) ions and the irregularities.

  8. Small-Scale Magnetic Reconnection at Equatorial Coronal Hole Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Derek; DeForest, C. E.

    2011-05-01

    Coronal holes have long been known to be the source of the fast solar wind at both high and low latitudes. The equatorial extensions of polar coronal holes have long been assumed to have substantial magnetic reconnection at their boundaries, because they rotate more rigidly than the underlying photosphere. However, evidence for this reconnection has been sparse until very recently. We present some evidence that reconnection due to the evolution of small-scale magnetic fields may be sufficient to drive coronal hole boundary evolution. We hypothesize that a bias in the direction of that reconnection is sufficient to give equatorial coronal holes their rigid rotation. We discuss the prospects for investigating this using FLUX, a reconnection-controlled coronal MHD simulation framework. This work was funded by the NASA SHP-GI program.

  9. Lunar-solar interactions in the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, F.; Forbes, J. M.

    2014-05-01

    To first order the ground magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) reflects the height integral of J = σE, where σis a conductivity and E represents some combination of the global dynamo-generated electric field and the electric field due to local winds. Day-to-day variations in the conductivity are strongly controlled by the solar flux, while E depends on solar and lunar tides, planetary waves, and the disturbance dynamo. In this study we demonstrate how complexity is introduced into the EEJ due to the interaction between lunar tide variability in the equatorial electric field and solar-driven variability in the E region conductivity. Toward this end, we analyze magnetometer data from the Huancayo observatory both in the time and frequency domain. We present results for the year 1990, and we show that 86% of the variance in the EEJ is due to the lunar-solar interaction.

  10. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  11. Modeling study of equatorial ionospheric height and spread F occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1996-03-01

    In the ionospheric F region at equatorial latitudes, the strength of the zonal electric field in the evening hours is closely connected with the generation of equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles. Many researchers discuss the electric fields and dynamics of the ionosphere in terms of the time derivative of F layer virtual heights (dh'F/dt) scaled on the ionograms, and this paper examines the accuracy of zonal electric fields derived by such a method. Although the effect of transequatorial thermospheric wind had been thought to be negligible, model calculations of ion concentration show that this wind significantly changes ionospheric height in the evening hours. Further, the electric field strength is estimated based on observed dh'F/dt, considering the apparent vertical drift of the ionosphere due to the thermospheric wind effect. Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates calculated for those electric fields agree quantitatively with the spread F occurrence.

  12. Equatorial plasma bubbles/range spread firregularities and the QBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei-Ren

    1993-11-01

    Investigation of the relationship between the percentage occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles/range spread F irregularities (EPBRSI) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratospheric mean zonal wind in the equatorial zone reveals a QBO-modulation effect on the percentage occurrence of the EPBRSI. A longitudinal dependence of this QBO-modulation effect has also been found: the percentage occurrence of EPBRSI increases (decreases) in the easterly phase of the QBO in the Indian-East African sector (in the American sector) and decreases (increases) in the westerly phase of the QBO in the Indian-East African sector (in the American sector). It is suggested that this represents new evidence that the low-latitude ionosphere is modulated by atmospheric planetary waves from below.

  13. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  14. Altitude and latitude dependence of the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Cole, K. D.

    1988-07-01

    A self-consistent and high-resolution dynamo model is used to investigate the effects of day-to-day or seasonal variation of altitude and latitude profiles of the E-plasma density in the equatorial ionosphere on equatorial electrojet (EEJ) structure. Variations in the E-layer peak altitude and amplitude are shown to significantly affect EEJ structure. The results indicate that, for any shape, the EEJ peak appears at or below the E-layer peak altitude. Distinct double peaks occur in the EEJ structure if the E-layer peak is above 105 km or if the gradient is large. The effect of the latitudinal variation of the integrated conductivities of ionospheric field lines upon the amplitude and altitude of the EEJ peak is discussed.

  15. The effect of subtropical aerosol loading on equatorial precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, G.; Chemke, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cloud-aerosol interactions are considered as one of the largest sources of uncertainties in the study of climate change. Here another possible cloud-aerosol effect on climate is proposed. A series of large eddy simulations (LES) with bin microphysics reveal a sensitivity of the total atmospheric water vapor amount to aerosol concentration. Under polluted conditions the rain is suppressed and the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere increases with time compared to clean precipitating conditions. Theoretical examination of this aerosol effect on water vapor transport from the subtropics to the tropics, and hence on the equatorial rain and Hadley circulation, is conducted using an idealized general circulation model (GCM). It is shown that a reduction in the subtropical rain amount results in increased water vapor advection to the tropics and enhanced equatorial rain and Hadley circulation. This joins previously proposed mechanisms on the radiative aerosol effect on the general circulation.

  16. Westward propagating twin gyres in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.; Deo, A. A.; Ganer, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    A reduced-gravity (1$\\frac{1}{2-layer) model forced by daily climatological winds simulates twin, anticyclonic gyres, which propagate westward on either side of the equator. The gyres form at the beginning of both the Southwest Monsoon and the Northeast monsoon in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean, and subsequently propagate across the basin. Their existence is supported by velocity observations taken during WOCE in 1995 and by TOPEX/Poseidon sea-level observations during 1993. They are also present in the ECCO model/data product. They form at the front of a Rossby-wave packet generated by the reflection of the equatorial jet (EJ) from the eastern boundary of the basin. They are likely either Rossby solitons or result from the nonlinear interaction between the EJ and the Rossby-wave front.

  17. The dawn enhancement of the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported that a dawn enhancement does not present in the statistical picture of the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift, while it clearly shows in case measurements. In this statistical study, it is the first time to investigate the occurrence of the dawn enhancement in the equatorial ionospheric vertical plasma drift from ROCSAT-1 observations during geomagnetic quiet times. The dawn enhancements occur most frequently in June solstice and least frequently in December solstice. The statistical survey shows that the occurrence depends on the magnetic declination. The enhancement has the strongest amplitude in regions near 320° longitude and peaks during June solstice. The dawn enhancement reaches its peak after the sunrise in conjugated E regions. Furthermore, it is found that the dawn enhancement is closely related to the difference between the sunrise times in the conjugated E regions (sunrise time lag). The dawn enhancement occurs easily in regions with a large sunrise time lag.

  18. Day-To Variability of the Quiet-Time Equatorial Electrojet and Post-Sunset Occurrence of Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Archana; Okpala, Kingsley

    Strength of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) derived from measurements of the horizontal component H of the geomagnetic field at an equatorial station, Tirunelveli, and a low-latitude station Alibag, outside the influence of the EEJ, on International quiet (IQ) days of the years 2001-2005, have been subjected to Principal Component Analysis to determine the principal components (PCs) that describe the variability of the quiet-time EEJ. It is found that the first three PCs together account for 94% of the variability of the EEJ observed during the IQ days of this period. PC1 itself represents about 64% of the EEJ variations, while PC2 and PC3 respectively account for 23% and 7% of the quiet-time variability of the EEJ during these years when the daily adjusted 10.7 cm solar flux, Sa, decreased from values exceeding 200 to around 100. The temporal structure of PC1 is such that it contributes only to the variability of the normal electrojet and cannot explain events such as the counter-electrojet (CEJ). A model is constructed for quiet-day PC1 scores as a function of day number and solar activity to describe a major part of the variability of the normal quiet-time EEJ. However, the CEJ and other 'abnormal' variations such as an afternoon enhancement of the EEJ, are only associated with PC2 and PC3. The quiet-day PC2 and PC3 scores obtained in this study, therefore, indicate the influence of forcing of the equatorial ionosphere from below. The day-to-day variability of the quiet-time pre-reversal enhancement of the post-sunset equatorial F region zonal electric field, which plays a crucial role in the occurrence of scintillation-producing equatorial ionospheric irregularities, is also influenced by forcing from below. In this context, occurrence of scintillations on a 251 MHz signal, transmitted from a geostationary satellite, and recorded at Tirunelveli, is studied in relation to the PC scores, which describe the variability of the EEJ, in order to identify a possible

  19. Time Sequence of Jupiter's Equatorial Region (Time Sets 2 & 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Time sequence of Jupiter's equatorial region at 756 nanometers (nm). The mosaics cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 22,000 kilometers and were taken ten hours (approximately one Jovian rotation) apart. The dark region near the center of the mosaic is an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the Galileo Probe entry site. The near-infrared continuum filter shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating jets of east/west (zonal) winds. The bands have different widths and wind speeds but have remained constant as long as telescopes and spacecraft have measured them. The top half of these mosaics lies within Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt, a westward (left) current. The bottom half shows part of the Equatorial Zone, a fast moving eastward current. The clouds near the hotspot are the fastest moving features in these mosaics, moving at about 100 meters per second, or 224 miles per hour.

    North is at the top. The mosaics cover latitudes 1 to 19 degrees and are centered at longitude 336 degrees West. The grid lines, fixed in longitude, mark 350 degrees west (on the left edge) with decreasing longitude lines marking every 5 degrees moving east (to the right). The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. Geomagnetic Activity and the Equatorial Scintillation of Satellite Signals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-19

    BEORE COMPLETING FORM i. �T NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION No. 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NOSC Technical Report 554 (TR 554) /. 4. TITLE (and SW 441111...Occurrence and intensity of equatorial scintillation have been correlated with daily summed geomagnetic 3 -hour Kp indices, through scintillation data from...satellites at two elevation angles for uhf and 1--hand. They also have been correlated with the individual 3 -hour Kp indices and the correlations

  1. Equatorial irregularity belt and its movement during a magnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.; Chandra, H.; Deshpande, M. R.; Rastogi, R. G.; Murthy, B. S.; Janve, A. V.; Rai, R. K.; Singh, M.; Gurm, H. S.; Jain, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence for an equatorial irregularity belt and its movement during a magnetic storm has been obtained from Faraday rotation measurements at a chain of 140-MHz radio beacons receiving from the ATS-6 satellite. The stations covered a latitude region from the magnetic equator to the 45 deg N dip on the Indian subcontinent. An irregularity belt extending from the magnetic equator to about 27 deg N latitude was observed during the main phase of the magnetic storm of 10 January, 1976.

  2. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillat, Valdir Gil; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Guimarães, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 min or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W, dip latitude 17.6°S-low latitude) and Palmas (10.2°S, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.5°S-near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  3. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F occurrence on ionograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Pillat, V. G.; Guimarães, L. N. F.

    2015-12-01

    F-region large-scale irregularities, also called plasma bubbles, are one of the most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena. These irregularities are generated in the equatorial region and afterwards extend to lower latitudes. They are one of the important topics of investigation in equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics and, therefore, are subject to intense theoretical and experimental research. The ionosonde is the most used scientific equipment to study the ionosphere and the F-region. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a cadence of 5 minutes or even with 1-minute cadence. To analyse a large amount of ionograms, more sophisticated tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms has become very important to space science researchers. Multiple echoes recorded on ionograms are the signature of these irregularities in the ionograms, usually called Spread-F. Spread-F is classified into three types: range, frequency, and mixed. Thus, automatic identification of Spread-F is important in ionospheric studies, because studies usually involve the analysis and interpretation of large numbers of ionograms. The main objective of this paper is to present a new computational tool, based on fuzzy relation, designed to automatically identify the occurrence of Spread-F in ionograms. The test was conducted in ionograms recorded in the Brazilian sector (São José dos Campos (23.2° S, 45.9° W, dip latitude 17.6° S - low latitude) and Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip latitude 5.5° S - near the magnetic equatorial)). The automatic identification of Spread-F occurrence was compared with those obtained manually and good agreement was found.

  4. The Growth and Decay of Equatorial Backscatter Plumes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    instabilities. However, other characteristics have been found that suggest key roles played by the eastward neutral wind and by altitude-modulation of the...and (c) an Eastward Neutral wind . . . 33 2 I INTRODUCTION Current theoretical understanding of the development of equatorial irregularities is that...Bibl et al., 1977). The ionograms showed a quiet F layer whose bottomside rose from 250 km altitude at 0700 UT to greater than 300 km by 0800 UT

  5. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  6. Vertical fine structure observations in the eastern equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.P.

    1981-11-20

    Measurements of vertical displacement and horizontal velocity finestructure near the equator at 110/sup 0/W in the eastern Pacific Ocean are reported. Profiles were scaled to a constant Bruent-Vaeisaelae frequency ocean (N/sub 0/ = 1 cph) in accordance with a WKBJ approximation. A total of 57 CTD casts between 3/sup 0/N and 3/sup 0/S taken during five cruises in 1979 were analyzed. Results show an equatorial enhancement of vertical displacement is similar variance for vertical wavelengths longer than 50 sdbar (stretched decibars). This enhancement is similar to that which has been reported at 125/sup 0/W and 179/sup 0/E. Difference between locations can be accounted for by the observed temporal variability at 110/sup 0/W. Coherence between vertical displacement profiles separated in time by dealys of 2 hours to 120 hour indicate that the high wave number structures were largely associated with time scales of 4 days and less. Meridionally, vertical structures longer than 300 sdbar were coherent within 50 km of the equator. We interpret this vertical displacement fine structure enhancement as high wave number equatorially trapped inertial-gravity waves. The velocity fine structure measurements in July 1979 also indicate equatorially enhanced horizontal kinetic energy for vertical wave lengths longer than 100 sdbar. The velocity structures persisted over the 56 hour of measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy measurement and appeared to have longer time scales than the vertical displacements. Meridional energy exceeded zonal energy; however, the two components were coherent. We interpret these velocity structures as inertial-gravity waves which were produced off the equator and are propagating through the equatorial region.

  7. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  8. Solar activity effects on the equatorial thermosphere temperature profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, C.; Laneve, G.; Nobile, L.

    In this paper we present the effects of solar activity on the temperature profiles of the equatorial thermosphere as derived from the neutral density data collected by the San Marco 5 (SM5) satellite. This satellite flew during the increasing part of the solar cycle 22 (1988). It had a quasi-equatorial orbit, with inclination lower than 3 deg. The range of measurements, from April to December, allows the inference of seasonal and diurnal effects on the temperature profiles. The density data are collected every second along arcs of orbit lasting up to 50 minutes. The analysis of these densities has been already partially presented and provided evidence for several interesting features, in particular the vertical structure of the diurnal harmonic content and its seasonal variations. The temperatures derived from the same data set provide a useful complement to this picture. The SM5 satellite carried on board 5 instruments for studying the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere, among them, the Drag Balance Instrument (DBI) for measuring the neutral density and the Ion Drift Meter and Potential Retarding Analyzer (IVI) that allow the evaluation of ions concentration, velocity and temperature. It is possible, therefore, to compare the neutral temperature derived from the neutral density data with the ion temperature given by the IVI.

  9. Stratospheric constituent response to vertically propagating equatorial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salby, Murry L.

    1988-02-01

    Planetary-scale equatorial waves play an important role in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere. They are believed to be excited in unsteady convective heating in the tropical troposphere. From convective centers in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), equatorial waves propagate vertically into the upper atmosphere where they are eventually absorbed, e.g., through radiative dissipation. A spectrum of vertically propagating Kelvin waves was revealed to be trapped about the equator, radiating vertically out of the tropical troposphere. Two other Kelvin waves were found with phase velocities 2 and 4 times as fast. The ultrafast Kelvin waves move at nearly 120 m/s and are seen to propagate to the highest altitude observed by Nimbus-7 LIMS. Each class has the form of a Kelvin wave, a Gaussian centered on the equator and propagating vertically, and all satisfy the dispersion relationship for equatorial Kelvin waves. These vertically propagating Kelvin waves account for a substantial fraction of the temperature variability in the tropical stratosphere. In combination, they lead to temperature fluctuations in excess of 5K in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Because several chemical constituents are photochemically controlled in this region, vertically propagating Kelvin waves are expected to lead to variations in the abundances of such species.

  10. On the return current of the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwumechili, C. A.

    In practically all cases, investigators have found it compelling to include westward currents on the flanks of the dip equator in order to fit well the observed dip equatorial magnetic variation profiles. There are three sources of the return currents: the geometry of field lines in the dynamo region, the polarization at the boundaries of enhanced conductivity at the dip equator, and the local neutral winds varying with height. These combine constructively, taking advantage of the peaks of conductivities around 5-deg-dip latitude, to provide for the return currents of practically all the eastward electrojet current. The return currents flow on the flanks of the dip equator for about 3.5 deg to about 20-deg-dip latitude, in any case not extending beyond the Sq focus. The negative correlation between the width and the intensity of the equatorial electrojet has been confirmed with data derived from physical model, indicating its origin in the return currents. The ionospheric current system so far detected by rockets is essentially in two layers. The intense lower layer including the return currents peaking around 5-deg-dip latitude may be associated with the equatorial electrojet; and the weak upper layer that maintains fairly steady altitude characteristics everywhere may be associated with the worldwide part of the Sq currents.

  11. Tropical Cyclone - Equatorial Ionosphere Coupling: A Statistical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagavathiammal, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the equatorial ionosphere response to tropical cyclone events which was observed over the Indian Ocean. This statistical study tries to reveal the possible Tropical Cyclone (TC) - Ionosphere coupling. Tropical cyclone track and data can be obtained from the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi. Digisonde/Ionosonde data for the equatorial latitudes can be obtained from Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory. It is believed that TC induced convection as the driving agent for the increased gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere and these propagating gravity waves deposit their energy and momentum into the upper atmosphere as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs). The convective regions are identified with the help of Outgoing Long wave radiation (OLR) data from NOAA Climate Data Center/ Precipitation data from TRMM Statellite. The variability of ionospheric parameter like Total Electron Content (TEC), foF2, h'F2 and Drift velocity are examined during TC periods. This study will report the possibility of TC-Ionosphere Coupling in equatorial atmosphere.

  12. Candidate ice-rich material within equatorial craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    The floors and walls of many mid-latitude (~30-60°) craters on Mars appear to be mantled by relatively young material(s) with distinct morphology and erosional properties [1,2]. Collectively, this material (“fill”) is often interpreted as ice-rich, with emplacement and modification related to climatically controlled/induced processes [1,3]. Here, I document material and associated landforms within 38 craters between ~4-12°S and ~335-355°W in the Sinus Sabaeus region (south of Schiaparelli Crater) that appear morphologically similar to material and landforms within mid-latitude craters. The morphological similarities between the equatorial and mid-latitude fill material suggest that they potentially share a similar composition, are subjected to similar erosional processes, and share a similar emplacement mechanism. Nearly all craters containing fill material in Sinus Sabaeus are ~2.0-9.0 km in diameter (median 5.3 km) and they tend to be relatively young with steep interior wall slopes of ~15-30°. At least 30 additional craters in the region display evidence suggestive of past fill presence. A survey of available Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX) data at equatorial latitudes did not identify this material or evidence for its former presence within any other equatorial craters. Near-surface ice is unstable at equatorial latitudes under present conditions, suggesting that emplacement could have occurred under different climate conditions in the past. High-obliquity (35-45°) general circulation model simulations [4] show surface ice accumulation in Sinus Sabaeus and Tharsis, where similar material and landforms have been documented within steep-walled depressions and troughs [5]. The documentation of this material in Sinus Sabaeus is consistent with the hypothesis that past obliquity-driven climate change resulted in equatorward volatile migration on Mars. This fill material is >80-100 m thick in some craters. It is unclear from available data

  13. Longitudinal Variation and Waves in Jupiter's South Equatorial Wind Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, David; Rogers, John H.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Allison, Michael D.; Adamoli, Gianluigi; Mettig, Hans-Joerg

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The presence of the large anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) has a profound effect on the chevron velocity, causing slower velocities to its east and accelerations over distance from the disturbance. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx 140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with a gravity-inertia wave (n = 75 to 100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, for the first time, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a 6.7 +/- 0.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx 20 and a speed of 101 +/- 3 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it. All dates show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this larger wave is present during other epochs, as there are no other suitable time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of mUltiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S is likely due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  14. Longitudinal variation of the equatorial ionosphere: Modeling and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. R.; Asevedo, W. D.; dos Santos, P. C. P.; Petry, A.; Bailey, G. J.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    We describe a new version of the Parameterized Regional Ionospheric Model (PARIM) which has been modified to include the longitudinal dependences. This model has been reconstructed using multidimensional Fourier series. To validate PARIM results, the South America maps of critical frequencies for the E (foE) and F (foF2) regions were compared with the values calculated by Sheffield Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM) and IRI representations. PARIM presents very good results, the general characteristics of both regions, mainly the presence of the equatorial ionization anomaly, were well reproduced for equinoctial conditions of solar minimum and maximum. The values of foF2 and hmF2 recorded over Jicamarca (12°S; 77°W; dip lat. 1°N; mag. declination 0.3°) and sites of the conjugate point equatorial experiment (COPEX) campaign Boa Vista (2.8°N; 60.7°W; dip lat. 11.4°; mag. declination -13.1°), Cachimbo (9.5°S; 54.8°W; dip lat. -1.8°; mag. declination -15.5°), and Campo Grande (20.4°S; 54.6°W; dip lat. -11.1°; mag. declination -14.0°) have been used in this work. foF2 calculated by PARIM show good agreement with the observations, except during morning over Boa Vista and midnight-morning over Campo Grande. Some discrepancies were also found for the F-region peak height (hmF2) near the geomagnetic equator during times of F3 layer occurrences. IRI has underestimated both foF2 and hmF2 over equatorial and low latitude sectors during evening-nighttimes, except for Jicamarca where foF2 values were overestimated.

  15. Equatorial Pacific Thermostad response to El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Birnbaum, Abigail N.

    2016-11-01

    El Niños are characterized by a shift of warm surface water from the western to eastern equatorial Pacific due to weakening of easterly trade winds. This shift is associated with the pycnocline (or thermocline), the large vertical density gradient beneath the surface mixed layer, shoaling in the west and deepening in the east, inducing a redistribution of ocean heat with global impacts. Here the response of the Equatorial Pacific Thermostad, a layer of low vertical stratification below the pycnocline to, El Niño is investigated using a monthly Argo float climatology and Argo float deep velocity data. A mean, seasonal cycle, trend, and time-lagged linear response to the Niño3.4 index are fit by least squares to temperature and salinity at each grid point as well as to deep float velocities (omitting the trend). The results of these fits are used to characterize the response of physical properties in the Thermostad, including layer thickness and velocity, to El Niño by comparing the mean properties following neutral conditions (Niño3.4 = 0°C) versus those following a moderate El Niño (Niño3.4 = 1°C). Following an El Niño, a strengthening of the westward-flowing Equatorial Intermediate Current of about 2.7 × 106 m3 s-1 shifts about 97 × 1012 m3 of Thermostad water from the east to the west, allowing conservation of volume within the Thermostad as the pycnocline above deepens in the east and shoals in the west. This transport and volume change imply a 14 month time scale, consistent with El Niño.

  16. 234Th and particle cycling in the central equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, John P.; Murray, James W.; Young, Jennifer; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Bishop, James

    US JGOFS-EgPac 234Th data sets for 1992 boreal spring (Survey I, TT007) and fall (Survey 11, TT011) cruises from 12°N to 12°S along 140°W were used to determine rates of 234Th and particle cycling using a thorium sorption model and three coupled particle-thorium models. Sampling methodology had a large impact on model results — estimates of particulate organic carbon varied by a factor of 3 between bottle and in-situ filtration techniques. Adsorption rate constants and residence times from the thorium sorption model showed strong depth, latitudinal and seasonal variability which we were able to attribute to changes in particle concentration. A reevaluation of the `particle concentration effect' on the adsorption rate constant, k', showed that our values of k' increased with particle concentration and were consistent with other study sites with similar particle concentrations. Recycling of particulate organic carbon in the euphotic zone of the central equatorial Pacific was 2-10 times faster than sites previously studied. Calculations of adsorption rate constants from the thorium sorption, coupled particle- 234Th and phytoplankton models were extremely dependent on the model treatment of remineralization. Results from the coupled particle- 234Th model, where particles have a constant ]ability, suggested that 234Th recycled three to four times between the dissolved and paticulate phases before being removed from the euphotic zone. Aggregation rate constants and sinking rates in the central equatorial system were compared with other sites using the size-fractionated model developed by Clegg and Whitfield (1991, Deep-Sea Research, 38, 91-120). Removal of particles by sinking from the equatorial euphotic zone depended on a mechanism of differential recycling of organic matter in the euphotic zone in which only a fraction of the particles are remineralized and the more refractory particles sink.

  17. Jovian Equatorial H Lyman-alpha and the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, Gilda E.

    An excess of H Ly alpha emission has been a persistent feature in Jupiter's equatorial upper atmosphere since its discovery in 1978. This Ly alpha 'bulge' was found by high-resolution IUE observations to be due to broadening of the Jovian line increasing the resonant scattering of the solar Ly alpha, rather than from a local enhancement in the H density. The line broadening implies that the H column at the bulge is disturbed by a localized, non-thermal process, and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this: one by the generation of turbulence from strong thermospheric winds or jets meeting at the bulge region and originating in the active Jovian auroral zones, the other involving a superthermal population of H atoms produced by a process analogous to the equatorial anomaly and tropical arcs on the Earth. Some line broadening was also observed in the off-bulge region while modelling of the usual bulge profile does not predict this behavior, but these observations may have been performed at a time of an unusually large extension of the bulge. We propose to make a series of high-dispersion observations (of improved S/N) for a detailed longitudinal study of the line profile which would be of benefit independently of the particular bulge conditions (to be determined with low-dispersion exposures). In addition, new insight will be gained with simultaneous ground-based observations of the newly discovered global ionospheric H3+ emissions. These emissions are diagnostic of the ionospheric temperature and ion density, and have already shown very particular characteristics in the H Ly alpha bulge region. Coordinated observations of the whole longitudinal range should therefore set new constraints on the mechanisms operating in the Jovian equatorial upper atmosphere.

  18. Formerly emerging crustal blocks in the equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Enrico; Chermak, Andy

    1981-02-01

    Anomalous crustal topographic highs, exceeding the level predicted by the thermal contraction model by up to 2-3 km, are observed along the Romanche Transform Zone in the equatorial Atlantic. Previous studies of shallow-water reef limestones recovered from one of the shallowest sites on these crustal highs indicated that this site was at or above sea level 5 million years ago and subsided since at an average rate one order of magnitude faster than the subsidence estimated by thermal contraction of the crust. Seismic reflection profiles obtained across the Romanche Transform Zone suggest that the anomalous highs are capped by reef limestones not only where limestones were actually sampled, but also at other locations. These findings support the idea that long segments of crust reached close to sea level in the past along the Romanche Transform Zone. The vertical crustal motions are probably caused by tectonism typical of long-offset transforms. Inasmuch as the Romanche has been a ridge—ridge transform since the earliest stages of the opening of the equatorial Atlantic, it is likely that intense vertical tectonic motions occurred along it throughout the evolution of the Atlantic. Support for this hypothesis is provided by the recovery during DSDP Leg 4 of shallow water reef limestone of the Eocene Age from the summit of the North Brazilian Ridge along the western extension of the Romanche Fracture Zone. The presence of shallow or emergent crust across the equatorial zone during the early stages of opening had probably important consequences upon the water circulation between the North and the South Atlantic, and may even have provided "land bridges" for faunal migrations between Africa and South America in early Cenozoic times after the two continents had already separated.

  19. Equatorial spread-F (ESF) and vertical winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavarao, R.; Suhasini, R.; Mayr, H. G.; Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

    1999-05-01

    The Equatorial Spread-F (ESF) phenomenon is recorded in ionograms as a hierarchy of plasma instabilities in the F-layer of the equatorial ionosphere. The ESF is characterized by irregularities in the plasma (electron and ion) density and electric field distributions perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field. Large scale irregularities are generated by a primary plasma instability that develops in electric fields and plasma densities. Other secondary instabilities then develop and generate irregularities at several scale sizes that often produce a plasma `hole' or `bubble' that rises up with high E×B velocities. The ESF/plasma bubble phenomenon has been studied extensively with experimental techniques and modeling, which revealed important features. In the bottom side F-layer, near sunset, when the vertical density gradient steepens as the layer is supported by the horizontal (North-South) Earth's magnetic field lines against the omnipresent Earth's gravitational acceleration (g), the plasma conditions can give rise to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) type instability. But the observed day to day variability of the ESF occurrence suggested that other agencies may also be involved in generating the instability. Sekar and Raghavarao (1987) with linear theory, and Raghavarao, Sekar and Suhasini (1992), with non-linear numerical modeling, suggested that vertical downward (upward) winds in the ambient gas have the potential to cause (inhibit) the ESF/bubble phenomenon. The presence of downward winds near the equator was reported earlier. In this paper, we show evidence for the presence of downward winds collocated with irregularities in electric fields and plasma densities as revealed by an unique combination of highly accurate measurements with instruments onboard the DE-2 satellite. The observations reported here are also consistent with the notion that the build-up of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) prior to local sunset is important for the ESF instability.

  20. Interannual atmospheric variability forced by the deep equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Peter; Funk, Andreas; Hormann, Verena; Dengler, Marcus; Greatbatch, Richard J; Toole, John M

    2011-05-26

    Climate variability in the tropical Atlantic Ocean is determined by large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, which particularly affect deep atmospheric convection over the ocean and surrounding continents. Apart from influences from the Pacific El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, the tropical Atlantic variability is thought to be dominated by two distinct ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability that are characterized by meridional and zonal sea-surface-temperature gradients and are mainly active on decadal and interannual timescales, respectively. Here we report evidence that the intrinsic ocean dynamics of the deep equatorial Atlantic can also affect sea surface temperature, wind and rainfall in the tropical Atlantic region and constitutes a 4.5-yr climate cycle. Specifically, vertically alternating deep zonal jets of short vertical wavelength with a period of about 4.5 yr and amplitudes of more than 10 cm s(-1) are observed, in the deep Atlantic, to propagate their energy upwards, towards the surface. They are linked, at the sea surface, to equatorial zonal current anomalies and eastern Atlantic temperature anomalies that have amplitudes of about 6 cm s(-1) and 0.4 °C, respectively, and are associated with distinct wind and rainfall patterns. Although deep jets are also observed in the Pacific and Indian oceans, only the Atlantic deep jets seem to oscillate on interannual timescales. Our knowledge of the persistence and regularity of these jets is limited by the availability of high-quality data. Despite this caveat, the oscillatory behaviour can still be used to improve predictions of sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic. Deep-jet generation and upward energy transmission through the Equatorial Undercurrent warrant further theoretical study.

  1. Characterizing Cratering at the Iapetus Equatorial Ridge using Stereo Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since the arrival of the Cassini probe to the Saturnian system in 2004, the flattened shape and extreme equatorial ridge of the moon Iapetus have posed a number of questions regarding its geophysical evolution. Current models suggest either tidal despinning or a collapsed ring system formed the ridge, with 26Al decay serving as an additional heating mechanism and warm ice or liquid water beneath a thick lithosphere potentially allowing for large-scale topography and deformation to occur (Sandwell and Schubert 2010). Structure at the ridge itself provides further questions in understanding the deformation of Iapetus at its equator. Persaud and Phillips (2014) use stereo topography to present a trend of crater relaxation and crater diameter that suggests a secondary heating event has relaxed younger, smaller craters focused at this region. The extreme slopes along the ridge, however, complicate understanding the order of events that have occurred on Iapetus, including ridge formation, crater relaxation, secondary thermal events, and mass wasting. We use topographic profiles of Iapetus impact craters extracted from digital elevation models (DEMs) constructed with stereo images from the Cassini ISS Instrument to characterize crater complexity and transition diameters versus crater floor geometry, proximity to the equatorial ridge, and relaxation percentage. We then use these results to begin to develop a geometric model of events at the ridge on Iapetus to understand its deformation history. We will present results and discussion of using stereo topography for these analyses. References: Sandwell, D., and G. Schubert. A contraction model for the flattening and equatorial ridge of Iapetus, Icarus 210, 817-822, 2010. Persaud, D.M., and C.B. Phillips. Methods of Estimating Initial Crater Depths on Icy Satellites using Stereo Topography, AGU Fall Meeting 2014, abstract 17043. This work was supported by the 2015 NASA Ames Academy for Space Exploration.

  2. Discovery Of A Rossby Wave In Jupiter's South Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Choi, D. S.; Rogers, J. H.; Gierasch, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed study of the chevron-shaped dark spots on the strong southern equatorial wind jet near 7.5 deg S planetographic latitude shows variations in velocity with longitude and time. The chevrons move with velocities near the maximum wind jet velocity of approx.140 m/s, as deduced by the history of velocities at this latitude and the magnitude of the symmetric wind jet near 7 deg N latitude. Their repetitive nature is consistent with an inertia-gravity wave (n = 75-100) with phase speed up to 25 m/s, relative to the local flow, but the identity of this wave mode is not well constrained. However, high spatial resolution movies from Cassini images show that the chevrons oscillate in latitude with a approx.7-day period. This oscillating motion has a wavelength of approx.20 deg and a speed of approx.100 m/s, following a pattern similar to that seen in the Rossby wave plumes of the North Equatorial Zone, and possibly reinforced by it, though they are not perfectly in phase. The transient anticyclonic South Equatorial Disturbance (SED) may be a similar wave feature, but moves at slower velocity. All data show chevron latitude variability, but it is unclear if this Rossby wave is present during other epochs, without time series movies that fully delineate it. In the presence of multiple wave modes, the difference in dominant cloud appearance between 7 deg N and 7.5 deg S may be due to the presence of the Great Red Spot, either through changes in stratification and stability or by acting as a wave boundary.

  3. Ocean atmosphere thermal decoupling in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Sudheer; Ravichandran, M.; Kumar, B. Praveen; Jampana, Raju V.; Han, Weiqing

    2016-09-01

    Eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO) is one of the most climatically sensitive regions in the global ocean, which plays a vital role in modulating Indian ocean dipole (IOD) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO). Here we present evidences for a paradoxical and perpetual lower co-variability between sea-surface temperature (SST) and air-temperature (Tair) indicating instantaneous thermal decoupling in the same region, where signals of the strongly coupled variability of SST anomalies and zonal winds associated with IOD originate at inter-annual time scale. The correlation minimum between anomalies of Tair and SST occurs in the eastern equatorial Indian ocean warm pool region (≈70°E-100°E, 5°S-5°N), associated with lower wind speeds and lower sensible heat fluxes. At sub-monthly and Madden-Julian oscillation time scales, correlation of both variables becomes very low. In above frequencies, precipitation positively contributes to the low correlation by dropping Tair considerably while leaving SST without any substantial instant impact. Precipitation is led by positive build up of SST and post-facto drop in it. The strong semi-annual response of SST to mixed layer variability and equatorial waves, with the absence of the same in the Tair, contributes further to the weak correlation at the sub-annual scale. The limited correlation found in the EEIO is mainly related to the annual warming of the region and ENSO which is hard to segregate from the impacts of IOD.

  4. Regulation of primary productivity rate in the equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, R.T. ); Chavez, F.P. )

    1991-12-01

    Analysis of the Chl-specific rate of primary productivity (P{sup B}) as a function of subsurface nutrient concentration at >300 equatorial stations provides an answer to the question: What processes regulate primary productivity rate in the high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters of the equatorial Pacific In the western Pacific where there is a gradient in 60-m (NO{sub 3}) from 0 to {approximately}12 {mu}M, the productivity rate is a linear function of nutrient concentration; in the eastern Pacific where the gradient is from 12 to 28 {mu}M, the productivity rate is independent of nutrient concentration and limited to {approximately}36 mg C(mg Chl){sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1}, or a mean euphotic zone C-specific growth rate ({mu}) of 0.47 d{sup {minus}1}. However, rates downstream of the Galapagos Islands are not limited; they are 46.4 mg C(mg Chl){sup {minus}1} d{sup {minus}1} and {mu} = 0.57 d{sup {minus}1}, very close to the predicted nutrient-regulated rates in the absence of other limitation. This pattern of rate regulation can be accounted for by a combination of eolian Fe, subsurface nutrients, and sedimentary Fe derived from the Galapagos platform. In the low-nutrient western Pacific the eolian supply of Fe is adequate to allow productivity rate to be set by subsurface nutrient concentration. In the nutrient-rich easter equatorial region eolian Fe is inadequate to support productivity rates proportional to the higher nutrient concentrations, so in this region eolian Fe is rate limiting. Around the Galapagos Islands productivity rates reach levels consistent with nutrient concentrations; sedimentary Fe from the Galapagos platform seems adequate to support increased nutrient-regulated productivity rates in this region.

  5. A Tropical Ocean Recharge Mechanism for Climate Variability. Part I: Equatorial Heat Content Changes Induced by the Off-Equatorial Wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wang, Yuqing

    2003-11-01

    A reduced-gravity shallow-water model, an oceanic general circulation model for the Pacific region, and the analytical model of the equatorial β plane bounded in the zonal direction are used to investigate the equatorial thermocline response to tropical and subtropical wind stress forcing. The results show that the wind stress forcing in the tropical and subtropical region can generate a nearly zonal uniform thermocline depth change in the equatorial region. The response timescale is longer when the wind stress is placed farther away from the equator. There exist latitude bands around 10° 15°N and 10° 15°S where the forcing can cause a relatively large equatorial response. When the forcing is located in the eastern basin, the response timescale is longer and its magnitude is larger than the case when the forcing is located in the western basin. Thus the eastern tropical to subtropical region is a relatively effective area for off-equatorial wind stress to generate an equatorial thermocline response. When the wind stress forcing has a longer period, the response of the equatorial thermocline has a larger magnitude. The results from this study's numerical experiments and the analytical solution are consistent. The present study has implications for the broad-scale ocean atmosphere interaction in the tropical region.

  6. Air-Sea Interaction Patterns in the Equatorial Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys and Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies ( EPOCS ) buoys. The ATLAS buoys used in this study are located at longitudes 156...8217E, 165°E, 170W, 169°W, 155°W, 140W, 1250W, I 10°W. The EPOCS buoys used in this study are located on the equator at 165°E, 140’W, and I 10°W. Fig. 3...sea surface temperature (SST), and subsurface temperatures. The EPOCS buoys measure surface wind, AT, SST, and currents. For both types of buoys, wind

  7. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  8. Equatorial waves simulated by the NCAR community climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Xinhua; Chen, Tsing-Chang

    1988-01-01

    The equatorial planetary waves simulated by the NCAR CCM1 general circulation model were investigated in terms of space-time spectral analysis (Kao, 1968; Hayashi, 1971, 1973) and energetic analysis (Hayashi, 1980). These analyses are particularly applied to grid-point data on latitude circles. In order to test some physical factors which may affect the generation of tropical transient planetary waves, three different model simulations with the CCM1 (the control, the no-mountain, and the no-cloud experiments) were analyzed.

  9. Wave Properties of Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves as Observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Shprits, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the Cluster STAFF data set shows a number of periods in which Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves display a discrete spectrum. In some of these instances, the frequency of emissions varies in the same fashion as the background magnetic field, indicating that the wars are observed within their source region. This paper analyses the propagation characteristics of these emissions and investigates the appropriateness of the quasi-linear assumption of a gaussian spectrum used in the numerical modelling of their role in the electron dynamics within the radiation belts based in the Chirikov resonance overlap criterion.

  10. Wind Patterns in Jupiter's Equatorial Region (Time set 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind patterns of Jupiter's equatorial region. This mosaic covers an area of 34,000 kilometers by 22,000 kilometers and was taken using the 756 nanometer (nm) near-infrared continuum filter. The dark region near the center of the mosaic is an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the Galileo Probe entry site. The near-infrared continuum filter shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating jets of east/west (zonal) winds. The bands have different widths and wind speeds but have remained constant as long as telescopes and spacecraft have measured them. The top half of these mosaics lies within Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt, a westward (left) current. The bottom half shows part of the Equatorial Zone, a fast moving eastward current. The clouds near the hotspot are the fastest moving features in these mosaics, moving at about 100 meters per second, or 224 miles per hour.

    Superimposed on the zonal wind currents is the Jovian 'weather'. The arrows show the winds measured by an observer moving eastward (right) at the speed of the hotspot. (The observer's perspective is that the hotspot is 'still' while the rest of the planet moves around it.) Clouds south of the hotspot appear to be moving towards it, as seen in the flow aligned with cloud streaks to the southwest and in the clockwise flow to the southeast. Interestingly, there is little cloud motion away from the hotspot in any direction. This is consistent with the idea that dry air is converging over this region and sinking, maintaining the cloud-free nature of the hotspot.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 19 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  11. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Tables and plots of provisional hourly values of the equatorial Dst index for 1971 are given, a table of daily mean Dst values for 1971 is also provided. The base line values for the four observatories, Hermanus, Kakioka, Honolulu, and San Juan, were obtained from extrapolations using the coefficients for the secular variations determined for the previous years. Examining the Dst values for quiet days, the base lines so determined appear to be slightly low, so that the Dst index for quiet periods tends to be high.

  12. On the relationship between the postmidnight thermospheric equatorial mass anomaly and equatorial ionization anomaly under geomagnetic quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Libo; Zhao, Biqiang; Lei, Jiuhou; Wan, Weixing

    2011-12-01

    The equatorial mass anomaly (EMA) in the thermosphere and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the ionosphere are two interesting phenomena in low-equatorial latitude regions. Previous studies have shown that the EMA appears between 1000 and 2000 local time (LT) and its location of trough is aligned with dip equator, indicating the plausible role of the EIA structure in the development of EMA. In this report, we conducted a statistical study of the occurrence of postmidnight EMA and EIA on the basis of the CHAMP in situ measurements during 2002-2008. Our results revealed that clear EMA and EIA structures are sometimes visible in the postmidnight sector (0100-0600 LT) during geomagnetic quiet periods (Kp < 3). The postmidnight EMA is not necessarily accompanied by the EIA signature in both case study and statistics sense being distinct from the daytime situation. In addition, the occurrence rates of postmidnight EMA and EIA display contrasting behavior with respect to their local time, longitudinal and solar activity dependences. The highest occurrence rate for EMA is 8% at around 0300 LT, while the occurrence rate of the EIA decreases gradually from about 30% at around 2300 LT to ˜5% at 0600 LT. Longitudinal occurrence of postmidnight EIA presents a wave-like pattern; however, no salient feature appears for the longitudinal occurrence of EMA. Postmidnight EMA is more likely to occur at lower solar activity, whereas an opposite trend presents in the EIA. On the basis of above results, our findings imply that a simple EIA-EMA cause-effect relationship does not hold in the postmidnight sector.

  13. The Continuous Mutual Evolution of Equatorial Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation of Zonal Flow in the Equatorial Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, C.; Cai, M.; Shin, C. S.; Chagnon, J.

    2014-12-01

    The continuous mutual evolution of equatorial waves and the background QBO is demonstrated using daily NCEP-DOE reanalysis for the period from January 1, 1979 to December 31, 2010. Using a novel diagnostic technique, the phase speed, vertical tilting, and form stress of equatorial waves in the stratosphere are obtained continuously on daily basis. The results indicate that on top of a weak-amplitude annual cycle signal, all of these wave properties have a pronounced QBO signal with a downward propagation that evolves continuously together with the background QBO. Our analysis also highlights the potential role of wave-induced form stress in driving the QBO regime change. We find that the dominant waves in the equatorial stratosphere propagate very slowly relative to the ground at all times, implying that their observed intrinsic phase speed evolution follows the background QBO nearly exactly but with opposite sign, as the established theory predicts. By revealing the continuous evolution of the form stress associated with the vertically tilted waves, the new diagnostic method also demonstrates the dominance of eastward-tilted eastward-propagating waves contributing to a deceleration of easterly flow at high altitudes, which causes a downward propagation of the easterly flow signal. Similarly, the dominance of westward-tilted westward-propagating waves acts to reverse westerly flow to easterly flow and causes a downward propagation of westerly flow signal. Our results suggest that in addition to the wave-breaking processes, such continuously alternating downward transfer of westerly and easterly angular momentum by westward-tilted westward-propagating waves and eastward-tilted eastward-propagating waves contributes to the wave-mean flow interaction mechanism for the QBO.

  14. Importance of the Equatorial Undercurrent on the sea surface salinity in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Allada, C. Y.; Jouanno, J.; Gaillard, F.; Kolodziejczyk, N.; Maes, C.; Reul, N.; Bourlès, B.

    2017-01-01

    The physical processes implied in the sea surface salinity (SSS) increase in the equatorial Atlantic Cold Tongue (ACT) region during boreal spring and the lag observed between boreal spring SSS maximum and sea surface temperature (SST) summer minimum are examined using mixed-layer salinity budgets computed from observations and model during the period 2010-2012. The boreal spring SSS maximum is mainly explained by an upward flux of high salinity originating from the core of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) through vertical mixing and advection. The vertical mixing contribution to the mixed-layer salt budget peaks in April-May. It is controlled primarily by (i) an increased zonal shear between the surface South Equatorial Current and the subsurface EUC and (ii) the presence of a strong salinity stratification at the mixed-layer base from December to May. This haline stratification that is due to both high precipitations below the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone and zonal advection of low-salinity water from the Gulf of Guinea explains largely the seasonal cycle of the vertical advection contribution to the mixed-layer salt budget. In the ACT region, the SST reaches its maximum in March/April and minimum in July/August. This SST minimum appears 1 month after the maximum of SSS. The 1 month lag observed between the maximum of SSS in June and the minimum of SST in July is explained by the shallowing of the EUC salinity core in June, then the weakening/erosion of the EUC in June-July which dramatically reduces the lateral subsurface supply of high-saline waters.

  15. Investigating the effect of geomagnetic storm and equatorial electrojet on equatorial ionospheric irregularity over East African sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seba, Ephrem Beshir; Nigussie, Melessew

    2016-11-01

    The variability of the equatorial ionosphere is still a big challenge for ionospheric dependent radio wave technology users. To mitigate the effect of equatorial ionospheric irregularity on trans-ionospheric radio waves considerable efforts are being done to understand and model the equatorial electrodynamics and its connection to the creation of ionospheric irregularity. However, the effect of the East-African ionospheric electrodynamics on ionospheric irregularity is not yet well studied due to lack of multiple ground based instruments. But, as a result of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) initiative, which was launched in 2007, some facilities are being deployed in Africa since then. Therefore, recently deployed instruments, in the Ethiopian sector, such as SCINDA-GPS receiver (2.64°N dip angle) for TEC and amplitude scintillation index (S4) data and two magnetometers, which are deployed on and off the magnetic equator, data collected in the March equinoctial months of the years 2011, 2012, and 2015 have been used for this study in conjunction with geomagnetic storm data obtained from high resolution OMNI WEB data center. We have investigated the triggering and inhibition mechanisms for ionospheric irregularities using, scintillation index (S4), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), interplanetary electric field (IEFy), symH index, AE index and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz on five selected storm and two storm free days. We have found that when the eastward EEJ fluctuates in magnitude due to storm time induced electric fields at around noontime, the post-sunset scintillation is inhibited. All observed post-sunset scintillations in equinox season are resulted when the daytime EEJ is non fluctuating. The strength of noontime EEJ magnitude has shown direct relation with the strength of the post-sunset scintillations. This indicates that non-fluctuating EEJ stronger than 20 nT, can be precursor for the occurrence of the evening time ionospheric irregularities

  16. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6–59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5–87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

  17. Absolute electron density measurements in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, K. D.; Howlett, L. C.; Rao, N. B.; Ulwick, J. C.; Labelle, J.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the electron density profile and its variations is crucial to further progress in understanding the physics of the disturbed equatorial ionosphere. To accomplish this, a plasma frequency probe was included in the payload complement of two rockets flown during the Condor rocket campaign conducted from Peru in March 1983. This paper presents density profiles of the disturbed equatorial ionosphere from a night-time flight in which spread-F conditions were present and from a day-time flight during strong electrojet conditions. Results from both flights are in excellent agreement with simultaneous radar data in that the regions of highly disturbed plasma coincide with the radar signatures. The spread-F rocket penetrated a topside depletion during both the upleg and downleg. The electrojet measurements showed a profile peaking at 1.3 x 10 to the 5th per cu cm at 106 km, with large scale fluctuations having amplitudes of roughly 10 percent seen only in the upward gradient in electron density. This is in agreement with plasma instability theory. It is further shown that simultaneous measurements by fixed-bias Langmuir probes, when normalized at a single point to the altitude profile of electron density, are inadequate to correctly parameterize the observed enhancements and depletions.

  18. Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Byrne, Shane; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of liquid water is a requirement of habitability on a planet. Possible indicators of liquid surface water on Mars include intermittent flow-like features observed on sloping terrains. These recurring slope lineae are narrow, dark markings on steep slopes that appear and incrementally lengthen during warm seasons on low-albedo surfaces. The lineae fade in cooler seasons and recur over multiple Mars years. Recurring slope lineae were initially reported to appear and lengthen at mid-latitudes in the late southern spring and summer and are more common on equator-facing slopes where and when the peak surface temperatures are higher. Here we report extensive activity of recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars, particularly in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris, from analysis of data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We observe the lineae to be most active in seasons when the slopes often face the sun. Expected peak temperatures suggest that activity may not depend solely on temperature. Although the origin of the recurring slope lineae remains an open question, our observations are consistent with intermittent flow of briny water. Such an origin suggests surprisingly abundant liquid water in some near-surface equatorial regions of Mars.

  19. Ternary fission of 260No in equatorial configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Seif, W. M.; Hashem, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous ternary fission is one of the observed decay modes of heavy nuclei. We systematically investigate the equatorial ternary fission of the 260No isotope. In the framework of the three-cluster model, the three-body interaction potential is calculated in terms of the folded M3Y-Reid nucleon-nucleon force and the Coulomb one. The relative orientations of the deformed heavy nuclei participating in the fragmentation process are taken into account. All possible emitted light particles with even mass numbers A = 4-52 are considered. The favored fragmentation channels are estimated as the ones characterized with peaks in the Q-value and local minima in the fragmentation potential. In the absence of nuclear deformations, the closed shell effects are found to play the key role in determining the channels of minimum fragmentation potential and the involved two heavier fragments tend to be of comparable sizes. Inclusion of nuclear deformations manifest the participation of highly deformed prolate nuclei, with large mass asymmetry, as heavy fragment partners in the estimated favored fragmentation channels. The results indicate that the equatorial ternary fission of 260No is most favored with the light emitted nuclei 4,6,8 2He and 10 4Be through the fragmentation channels 155 60Nd + 4 2He + 101 0Zr, 153 60Nd + 6 2He + 101 40Zr, 152 60Nd + 8 2He + 100 40Zr, and 152 0Nd + 10 4Be + 98 38Sr, respectively.

  20. Equatorial Noise Emissions and Their Quasi-Periodic Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Hrbackova, Z.; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Parrot, M.; Hayosh, M.

    2015-12-01

    Equatorial noise (EN) emissions are electromagnetic waves at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency routinely observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. They propagate in the extraordinary mode nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and they exhibit a harmonic structure related to the ion cyclotron frequency in the source region. We analyze more than 2000 EN events observed by the wave instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft, and we find that about 5% of EN events are not continuous in time, but exhibit a quasi-periodic (QP) modulation of the wave intensity. Typical modulation periods are on the order of minutes. The events predominantly occur in the noon-to-dawn local time sector, and their occurrence is related to the periods of increased geomagnetic activity and higher solar wind speeds. We suggest that the QP modulation of EN events may be due to compressional ULF pulsations, which periodically modulate the wave growth in the source region. These compressional ULF pulsations were identified in about half of the events. Finally, we demonstrate that EN emissions with QP modulation of the wave intensity can propagate down to altitudes as low as 700 km.

  1. New observations of ionospheric instabilities in the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, P.; Maus, S.

    2009-12-01

    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is an intense current system flowing along the magnetic equator in the ionospheric E-region on the day-side. Early attempts to model the EEJ found that ionospheric instabilities led to significant changes in the current which had to be accounted for. Early modelers used ad-hoc empirical correction factors in the relevant ionospheric parameters to attempt to account for instability effects. Modern EEJ models continue to use these correction factors, which are still not well understood theoretically. In the last decade, a wealth of new data has been recorded by both satellites and ground radars which allows us to revisit the issue of modeling these ionospheric instabilities. In this work, we use radar and magnetic field measurements at Jicamarca in addition to magnetometer measurements from the CHAMP satellite to study the effects of ionospheric instabilities on the EEJ. We find that the effects of ionospheric instabilities lead to non-linear behavior between the eastward electric field strength and the resulting electrojet current. As predicted, the ratio of current to electric field is highest for westward and weak eastward electric fields, and the ratio decreases with stronger eastward electric fields. Quantifying this non-linearity should help improve the accuracy of equatorial electrodynamic models.

  2. Iron deficiency and phytoplankton growth in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzwater, Steve E.; Coale, Kenneth H.; Gordon, R. Michael; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Ondrusek, Michael E.

    Several experiments were conducted in the equatorial Pacific at 140°W during the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, equatorial Pacific, 1992 Time-series I (TS-I, 23 March-9 April), Time-series II (TS-II, 2-20 October) and FeLINE II cruises (10 March-14 April), to investigate the effects of added Fe on phytoplankton communities. Seven series of deckboard iron-enrichment experiments were performed, with levels of added Fe ranging from 0.13 to 1000 nM. Time-course measurements included nutrients, chlorophyll a and HPLC pigments. Results of these experiments showed that subnanomolar (sub-nM) additions of Fe increased net community specific growth rates, with resultant chlorophyll a increases and nutrient decreases. Community growth rates followed Michaelis-Menten type kinetics resulting in maximum rates of 0.99 doublings per day and a half-saturation constant of 0.12 nM iron. The dominant group responding to iron enrichment was diatoms.

  3. Equatorial ionosphere 'fountain- effect' above imminent earthquake epicenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhin, Yu.; Depueva, A. H.; Devi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Existence of lithosphere-ionosphere interaction is known for a long time, but it does not mean that the ionospheric morphology above areas of earthquakes preparation is investigated sufficiently well. It was shown that seismo-precursor variations of the atmosphere electricity cause appropriate electric field at the ionospheric heights, which being added to existing natural field may both increase or decrease its action on the ionospheric plasma characteristics: drifts, aeronomy, plasma chemistry, ion composition etc. Anomalous variations appear inside whole ionosphere volume from the lowest boundary of Earth's plasma shell (100 km) up to 1000km and higher. Under fortunate coincidence seismo-precursor electric field can generate natural ionosphere phenomena, 'fountain- effect', leading to Appleton anomaly in the equatorial ionosphere over future earthquake position. Our basic idea is to take into account dependence of the observable effects on a geographical position of the earthquake epicenter. As for low latitudes it is proved by specificity of formation and dynamics of equatorial ionosphere (seismogenic ""fountain" effect , first of all), and also by features of earth crust structure close to the equator (mainly meridionally alongated tectonic faults). Ionospheric effects of low-latitude earthquakes were not investigated separately so far though rather semo-active zones are located namely at low latitudes: India, Peru, Oceania. We used the data of topside sounding of ALOUETTE-1 and ISS-b satellites, and also data of ground-based vertical sounding stationary stations Kodaikanal, Huancayo, Djibouti etc. and records of the total electron content (TEC).

  4. Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Dennis V.; Muttoni, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    India's northward flight and collision with Asia was a major driver of global tectonics in the Cenozoic and, we argue, of atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2) and thus global climate. Subduction of Tethyan oceanic crust with a carpet of carbonate-rich pelagic sediments deposited during transit beneath the high-productivity equatorial belt resulted in a component flux of CO2 delivery to the atmosphere capable to maintain high pCO2 levels and warm climate conditions until the decarbonation factory shut down with the collision of Greater India with Asia at the Early Eocene climatic optimum at ≈50 Ma. At about this time, the India continent and the highly weatherable Deccan Traps drifted into the equatorial humid belt where uptake of CO2 by efficient silicate weathering further perturbed the delicate equilibrium between CO2 input to and removal from the atmosphere toward progressively lower pCO2 levels, thus marking the onset of a cooling trend over the Middle and Late Eocene that some suggest triggered the rapid expansion of Antarctic ice sheets at around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. PMID:18809910

  5. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  6. Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends.

    PubMed

    Kent, Dennis V; Muttoni, Giovanni

    2008-10-21

    India's northward flight and collision with Asia was a major driver of global tectonics in the Cenozoic and, we argue, of atmospheric CO(2) concentration (pCO(2)) and thus global climate. Subduction of Tethyan oceanic crust with a carpet of carbonate-rich pelagic sediments deposited during transit beneath the high-productivity equatorial belt resulted in a component flux of CO(2) delivery to the atmosphere capable to maintain high pCO(2) levels and warm climate conditions until the decarbonation factory shut down with the collision of Greater India with Asia at the Early Eocene climatic optimum at approximately 50 Ma. At about this time, the India continent and the highly weatherable Deccan Traps drifted into the equatorial humid belt where uptake of CO(2) by efficient silicate weathering further perturbed the delicate equilibrium between CO(2) input to and removal from the atmosphere toward progressively lower pCO(2) levels, thus marking the onset of a cooling trend over the Middle and Late Eocene that some suggest triggered the rapid expansion of Antarctic ice sheets at around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  7. Nonmigrating tidal modulation of the equatorial thermosphere and ionosphere anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Wang, Wenbin; Yue, Jia; Dou, Xiankang

    2014-04-01

    The modulation of nonmigrating tides on both the ionospheric equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) is investigated on the basis of simulations from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). Our simulations demonstrate the distinct features of the EIA and ETA seen in observations after the inclusion of field-aligned ion drag in the model. Both the EIA and the ETA in the constant local time frame display an obvious zonal wave-4 structure associated with the modulation of nonmigrating tides. However, the modeled EIA and ETA show a primary zonal wave-1 structure when only the migrating tides are specified at the model lower boundary. Our simulations reveal that the zonal wave-4 structure of the ETA under both low and high solar activity conditions is mainly caused by the direct response of the upper thermosphere to the diurnal eastward wave number 3 and semidiurnal eastward wave number 2 nonmigrating tides from the lower atmosphere. There is a minor contribution from the ion-neutral coupling. The zonal wave-4 structure of the EIA is also caused by these nonmigrating tides but through the modulation of the neutral wind dynamo.

  8. Climatology characterization of equatorial plasma bubbles using GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdaleno, Sergio; Herraiz, Miguel; Altadill, David; de la Morena, Benito A.

    2017-01-01

    The climatology of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) for the period 1998-2008 was studied using slant total electron content (sTEC) derived from global positioning system (GPS) data. The sTEC values were calculated from data measured at 67 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations distributed worldwide around the geomagnetic equator and embracing the region of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA). EPBs and their characteristics were obtained using the Ionospheric Bubble Seeker (IBS) application, which detects and distinguishes sTEC depletions associated with EPBs. This technique bases its analysis on the time variation of the sTEC and on the population variance of this time variation. IBS finds an EPB by default when an sTEC depletion is greater than 5 TEC units (TECu). The analysis of the spatial behavior shows that the largest rate of EPB takes place at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector, while their occurrence decreases as the distance from the magnetic equator increases. The depth and duration of the sTEC depletions also maximize at the equator and in the South America-Africa sector and weaken departing from the equator. The results of the temporal analysis for the data of the IGS stations located in AREQ, NKLG, IISC, and GUAM indicate that the greatest rate of EPB occurrence is observed for high solar activity.

  9. Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves: A New Methodology for Identifying Wave Structures in Observational Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gui-Ying; Hoskins, Brian; Slingo, Julia

    2003-07-01

    Convectively coupled equatorial waves are fundamental components of the interaction between the physics and dynamics of the tropical atmosphere. A new methodology, which isolates individual equatorial wave modes, has been developed and applied to observational data. The methodology assumes that the horizontal structures given by equatorial wave theory can be used to project upper- and lower-tropospheric data onto equatorial wave modes. The dynamical fields are first separated into eastward- and westward-moving components with a specified domain of frequency-zonal wavenumber. Each of the components for each field is then projected onto the different equatorial modes using the y structures of these modes given by the theory. The latitudinal scale yo of the modes is predetermined by data to fit the equatorial trapping in a suitable latitude belt y = ±Y. The extent to which the different dynamical fields are consistent with one another in their depiction of each equatorial wave structure determines the confidence in the reality of that structure. Comparison of the analyzed modes with the eastward- and westward-moving components in the convection field enables the identification of the dynamical structure and nature of convectively coupled equatorial waves.In a case study, the methodology is applied to two independent data sources, ECMWF Reanalysis and satellite-observed window brightness temperature (Tb) data for the summer of 1992. Various convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin, mixed Rossby-gravity, and Rossby waves have been detected. The results indicate a robust consistency between the two independent data sources. Different vertical structures for different wave modes and a significant Doppler shifting effect of the background zonal winds on wave structures are found and discussed.It is found that in addition to low-level convergence, anomalous fluxes induced by strong equatorial zonal winds associated with equatorial waves are important for inducing equatorial

  10. Simulational studies of the Farley-Buneman in the equatorial electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Otani, N.; Seyler, C.; Kelley, M.

    1995-07-01

    The Farley-Buneman instability in the equatorial electrojet current system in the E-region of the ionosphere has been identified as the cause of the observed Type I electron density irregularities. The goal of this work was to study the instability in the equatorial region.

  11. Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Observed by DMSP and ROCSAT-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    interest in geophysical causes of equatorial displays and ionograms , EPBs are also referred to as plasma spread F (ESF) and equatorial plasma bubbles...propagation, they are not identical. The term that plumes/bubbles have elongated, wedge-like cross sec- ESF describes irregular signatures on ionograms

  12. Dissolution kinetics of calcium carbonate in equatorial Pacific sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berelson, William M.; Hammond, Douglas E.; McManus, James; Kilgore, Tammy E.

    1994-06-01

    Benthic chambers were deployed in the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean on a transect along the equator between 103°W and 140°W and on a transect across the equator at 140°W in order to establish the rate of calcium carbonate dissolution on the seafloor. Dissolution was determined from the rate of alkalinity increase within an incubation chamber, measured over an 80-120 hour incubation period. Dissolution rates were lowest at eastern Pacific sites (0.2-0.4 mmol CaCO3/m2/d) and highest at the equatorial, 140°W sites (0.5-0.7 mmol/m2/d). Both oxygen consumption rates and the degree of bottom water saturation govern dissolution rates. Measured dissolution and oxygen consumption rates are used with a numerical model to constrain the value of the dissolution rate constant k, formulated according to the equation developed by Keir [1980]: dissolution rate = kγ(1-Ω)n. The observed dissolution fluxes are predicted by the model when k = 5 to 100%/d and n = 4.5. This range of k values has important implications regarding the type of carbonate dissolving and its location within the sediment column. At low values of k, organic carbon rain rates to the seafloor become the dominant driving force of carbonate dissolution. At higher values of k, the degree of bottom water undersaturation becomes more important. Dissolution of carbonate within equatorial Pacific sediments can be adequately described with k = 20 ± 10%/d, a rate constant much lower than some previously used values. Dissolution rates do not vary significantly over chamber boundary layer thicknesses between 200 and 800 μm, indicating that dissolution is not controlled by hydrodynamic conditions. Chambers acidified with HCl yield very large dissolution rates, but for a given degree of acidification the dissolution rate was constant for sites ranging from water depths of 3300-4400 m. This implies that there are not more and less easily dissolved forms of CaCO3 arriving on the seafloor between these depths. A budget

  13. Interannual Variability of Boreal Summer Rainfall in the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Tropical Atlantic rainfall patterns and variation during boreal summer [June-July-August (JJA)] are quantified by means of a 28-year (1979-2006) monthly precipitation dataset from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Rainfall variability during boreal spring [March-April-May (MAM)] is also examined for comparison in that the most intense interannual variability is usually observed during this season. Comparable variabilities in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) strength and the basin-mean rainfall are found during both seasons. Interannual variations in the ITCZ's latitudinal location during JJA however are generally negligible, in contrasting to intense year-to-year fluctuations during MAM. Sea surface temperature (SST) oscillations along the equatorial region (usually called the Atlantic Nino events) and in the tropical north Atlantic (TNA) are shown to be the two major local factors modulating the tropical Atlantic climate during both seasons. During MAM, both SST modes tend to contribute to the formation of an evident interhemispheric SST gradient, thus inducing anomalous shifting of the ITCZ and then forcing a dipolar structure of rainfall anomalies across the equator primarily in the western basin. During JJA the impacts however are primarily on the ITCZ strength likely due to negligible changes in the ITCZ latitudinal location. The Atlantic Nino reaches its peak in JJA, while much weaker SST anomalies appear north of the equator in JJA than in MAM, showing decaying of the interhemispheric SST mode. SST anomalies in the tropical central-eastern Pacific (the El Nino events) have a strong impact on tropical Atlantic including both the tropical north Atlantic and the equatorial-southern Atlantic. However, anomalous warming in the tropical north Atlantic following positive SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific disappears during JJA because of seasonal changes in the large-scale circulation cutting off the ENSO influence passing through the

  14. Plasma turbulence in the equatorial ionospheric F region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Rickey Dale

    Equatorial spread F is a spectacular phenomenon in which the equatorial region ionosphere is reshaped after sunset. The plasma instabilities responsible for equatorial spread F are fascinating since they occur on time scales ranging from seconds to hours and length scales from centimeters to tens of kilometers. The plasma irregularities that occur in the F region also influence the performance and reliability of space borne and ground based electronic systems and may cause the disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electrical power distribution grids, leading to potentially broad economic losses. The ionospheric model equations that describe these plasma instabilities display different dynamical behavior based on the value of the ion-neutral collision frequency. The transition occurs at the so-called inertial regime of the ionosphere, where the model equations are similar to the Navier Stokes equations except applied to inhomogeneous fluids. A general analytic solution does not exist for these nonlinear equations; however, a numerical model is developed by maintaining charge neutrality in the vicinity of a circular bubble rising from the collisional to the inertial regime. Using this model, we are able to determine the location of the inertial regime as a function of local time, longitude, season, and solar cycle. The model results determine that the regime occurs generally from about 2000 and 2100 local time and 500-900 km apex height. Also, the model predicts that solar minimum periods are generally more conducive for inertial effects than solar maximum periods. Time series analysis performed on Dynamics Explorer II ion density data show that a turbulent cascade form in the inertial regime predicted by the model. Intermediate scale density power spectra all obey k-5/3 spectra scaling when measured in altitude and local time windows predicted by our model as failing within the inertial regime. Meanwhile, density power spectra for data

  15. Spread F - an old equatorial aeronomy problem finally resolved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    2009-05-01

    One of the oldest scientific topics in Equatorial Aeronomy is related to Spread-F. It includes all our efforts to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the existence of ionospheric F-region irregularities, the spread of the traces in a night-time equatorial ionogram - hence its name - and all other manifestations of the same. It was observed for the first time as an abnormal ionogram in Huancayo, about 70 years ago. But only recently are we coming to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for its occurrence and its capricious day to day variability. Several additional techniques have been used to reveal the spatial and temporal characteristics of the F-region irregularities responsible for the phenomenon. Among them we have, in chronological order, radio star scintillations, trans-equatorial radio propagation, satellite scintillations, radar backscatter, satellite and rocket in situ measurements, airglow, total electron content techniques using the propagation of satellite radio signals and, recently, radar imaging techniques. Theoretical efforts are as old as the observations. Nevertheless, 32 years after their discovery, Jicamarca radar observations showed that none of the theories that had been put forward could explain them completely. The observations showed that irregularities were detected at altitudes that were stable according to the mechanisms proposed. A breakthrough came a few years later, again from Jicamarca, by showing that some of the "stable" regions had become unstable by the non-linear propagation of the irregularities from the unstable to the stable region of the ionosphere in the form of bubbles of low density plasma. A problem remained, however; the primary instability mechanism proposed, an extended (generalized) Rayleigh-Taylor instability, was too slow to explain the rapid development seen by the observations. Gravity waves in the neutral background have been proposed as a seeding mechanism to form irregularities from

  16. Response of the Equatorial Ionosphere to the Geomagnetic DP 2 Current System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M. B.; Zesta, E.; Magoun, M.; Pradipta, R.; Biouele, C. M.; Rabiu, A. B.; Obrou, O. K.; Bamba, Z.; Paula, E. R. De

    2016-01-01

    The response of equatorial ionosphere to the magnetospheric origin DP 2 current system fluctuations is examined using ground-based multiinstrument observations. The interaction between the solar wind and fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz, penetrates nearly instantaneously to the dayside equatorial region at all longitudes and modulates the electrodynamics that governs the equatorial density distributions. In this paper, using magnetometers at high and equatorial latitudes, we demonstrate that the quasiperiodic DP 2 current system penetrates to the equator and causes the dayside equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and the independently measured ionospheric drift velocity to fluctuate coherently with the high-latitude DP 2 current as well as with the IMF Bz component. At the same time, radar observations show that the ionospheric density layers move up and down, causing the density to fluctuate up and down coherently with the EEJ and IMF Bz.

  17. Coincident observations of ionospheric troughs and the equatorial plasmapause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Maynard, N. C.; Tulunay, Y. K.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Electron-density observations made in the topside ionosphere by the Ariel 4 and Isis 2 satellites are examined in conjunction with results obtained by Explorer 45 when it traversed the near-equatorial plasmapause with one hour (both UT and MLT) of the Ariel and Isis traversals of the same L coordinate. Both dusk and night observations are analyzed, and an attempt is made to show that depressions in ionospheric electron density occur in the vicinity of the plasmapause field line. It is concluded that the electron distributions observed in the electron-density troughs at 550 km near dusk by Ariel and at 1400 km near midnight by Isis do not always parallel variations in the light-ion distribution inferred from the Explorer plasmapause traversals and that there appears to be no specific feature of the main ionospheric trough which can be used to identify the plasmapause field line except in a statistical sense.

  18. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise.

    PubMed

    Balikhin, Michael A; Shprits, Yuri Y; Walker, Simon N; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-07-14

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as 'equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes 'ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.

  19. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, Michael A.; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Walker, Simon N.; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H.; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as `equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes `ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.

  20. Intense low-energy ion populations at low equatorial altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The ISEE 1 satellite trajectory often passed through the magnetospheric region during the time from November 1977 to April 1978. On every occasion, the medium energy particles instrument (MEPI) of the satellite recorded an intense ion population in a region corresponding to low equatorial altitudes. An intensity peak was observed in the lowest MEPI energy channel. A comparison of high bit rate MEPI data with simultaneous data from the LEPEDEA plasma instrument on Nov. 29, 1977 1930-2000 UT shows additional peaks in the ion population existing in the L of 2 to at least 4. In the present report, data characterizing these ion populations are presented, and implications are discussed in terms of source and loss mechanisms.

  1. Pelagic microplastics around an archipelago of the Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário; Cysneiros, Francisco José A

    2013-10-15

    Plastic marine debris is presently widely recognised as an important environmental pollutant. Such debris is reported in every habitat of the oceans, from urban tourist beaches to remote islands and from the ocean surface to submarine canyons, and is found buried and deposited on sandy and cobble beaches. Plastic marine debris varies from micrometres to several metres in length and is potentially ingested by animals of every level of the marine food web. Here, we show that synthetic polymers are present in subsurface plankton samples around Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To explain the distribution of microplastics around the Archipelago, we proposed a generalised linear model (GLM) that suggests the existence of an outward gradient of mean plastic-particle densities. Plastic items can be autochthonous or transported over large oceanic distances. One probable source is the small but persistent fishing fleet using the area.

  2. El Nino/la Nina Transition In The Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Turk, D.; McPhadden, Mike; Lagerloef, G.; Asanuma, I.

    A massive bloom of phytoplankton in the normally oligotrophic Western Pacific was the first manifestation of the termination of the 1997-1998 El Nino, by most measures, the strongest on record. This bloom represented a 4-fold increase in the background chlorophyll distribution, as viewed by the Sea-Viewing, Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS). A combination of physical and bio-optical observations from satellites, moored buoys, and ships lead to the conclusion that this bloom was a direct result of the interaction of surface currents with a series of island atolls (Kiribati) that induced strong vertical mixing and subsequent downstream advection of waters rich in nutrients. The increase in phytoplankton concentration represents a lower limit to a dramatically increased level of exported carbon from the normally biologically poor western Pacific region, and is a novel observation of topographic influences which are not normally resolved by most models of equatorial ocean dynamics.

  3. Terrestrial structured radio emissions occurring close to the equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Sawas, Sami; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2015-04-01

    We study the occurrence of terrestrial radio emissions observed by the electric field experiment (ICE) onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. We principally consider the ICE observations recorded in the HF frequency range between 10 kHz and 3.175 MHz. A dynamic spectrum is recorded each half-orbit with a time and frequency resolutions, respectively, in the order of 3.25 kHz and 2.048 sec. The terrestrial structured radio emission is found to occur when the satellite is approaching the equatorial region of the Earth. It appears as a structured narrow band 'continuum' with a positive or negative low frequency drift rate, less than 1 kHz/s. The bandwidth is, on average, of about 30 kHz. We derive from our investigation the beam and the probable location of the emission source. We discuss the origin of this terrestrial radio emission and its dependence, or not, on the solar and geomagnetic activities.

  4. Scale analysis of equatorial plasma irregularities derived from Swarm constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chao; Stolle, Claudia; Lühr, Hermann; Park, Jaeheung; Fejer, Bela G.; Kervalishvili, Guram N.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the scale sizes of equatorial plasma irregularities (EPIs) using measurements from the Swarm satellites during its early mission and final constellation phases. We found that with longitudinal separation between Swarm satellites larger than 0.4°, no significant correlation was found any more. This result suggests that EPI structures include plasma density scale sizes less than 44 km in the zonal direction. During the Swarm earlier mission phase, clearly better EPI correlations are obtained in the northern hemisphere, implying more fragmented irregularities in the southern hemisphere where the ambient magnetic field is low. The previously reported inverted-C shell structure of EPIs is generally confirmed by the Swarm observations in the northern hemisphere, but with various tilt angles. From the Swarm spacecrafts with zonal separations of about 150 km, we conclude that larger zonal scale sizes of irregularities exist during the early evening hours (around 1900 LT).

  5. Implications of the small aspect angles of equatorial spread F

    SciTech Connect

    Hysell, D.L.; Farley, D.T.

    1996-03-01

    Small-scale equatorial spread F irregularities are almost perfectly aligned with the geomagnetic field. The authors develop here an analytic plasma kinetic theory of small-scale, quasi-field-aligned irregularities that include ion viscosity and finite Larmor radius effects. They conclude, for one thing, that the measured aspect angles are too small to be consistent with a dissipative drift wave source of 3-m irregularities. Nonlinearly driven flute modes appear to be the only available mechanism. The authors compare the relative influence of parallel and perpendicular dissipation and conclude that the aspect width depends only weakly on any single geophysical parameters, such as collision frequency, gradient length, temperature, etc. This finding is consistent with their observation that the measured aspect angles vary little with altitude and only weakly with instability level. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  6. How did the equatorial ridge on Saturn's moon Iapetus form?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Saturn's moon Iapetus is one of the most unusual moons in our solar system. Perhaps the most bizarre feature of Iapetus is its equatorial ridge, a 20-kilometer-high, 200-kilometer-wide mountain range that runs exactly along the equator, circling more than 75% of the moon. No other body in the solar system exhibits such a feature; as Dombard et al. show, previous models have been unable to adequately explain how the ridge formed. The authors propose that the ridge formed from an ancient giant impact that produced a subsatellite around Iapetus. Tidal interactions with Iapetus ultimately led to orbital decay, eventually bringing the subsatellite close enough that the same forces tore it apart, forming a debris ring around Iapetus. Material from this debris ring then rained down on Iapetus, the researchers say, creating the mountain ring along the equator. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, doi:10.1029/2011JE004010, 2012)

  7. Studies on equatorial shock formation during plasmaspheric refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations based on small-scale simulations of microprocesses occurring when a magnetic flux tube refills with a cold plasma are summarized. Results of these investigations are reported in the following attached papers: (1) 'Numerical Simulation of Filling a Magnetic Flux Tube with a Cold Plasma: The Role of Ion Beam-Driven Instabilities'; and (2) 'Numerical Simulation of Filling a Magnetic Flux Tube with a Cold Plasma: Effects of Magnetically Trapped Hot Plasma'. Other papers included are: 'Interaction of Field-Aligned Cold Plasma Flows with an Equatorially-Trapped Hot Plasma: Electrostatic Shock Formation'; and 'Comparison of Hydrodynamic and Semikinetic Treatments for a Plasma Flow along Closed Field Lines'. A proposal for further research is included.

  8. On the Timing of Glacial Terminations in the Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khider, D.; Ahn, S.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Lawrence, C.; Kienast, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms through which the climate system responds to orbital insolation changes requires establishing the timing of events imprinted on the geological record. In this study, we investigate the relative timing of the glacial terminations across the equatorial Pacific in order to identify a possible mechanism through which the tropics may have influenced a global climate response. The relative termination timing between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific was assessed from 15 published SST records based on Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca or alkenone thermometry. The novelty of our study lies in the accounting of the various sources of uncertainty inherent to paleoclimate reconstruction and timing analysis. Specifically, we use a Monte-Carlo process allowing sampling of possible realizations of the time series that are functions of the uncertainty of the benthic δ18O alignment to a global benthic curve, of the SST uncertainty, and of the uncertainty in the change point, which we use as a definition for the termination timing. We find that the uncertainty on the relative timing estimates is on the order of several thousand years, and stems from age model uncertainty (60%) and the uncertainty in the change point detection (40%). Random sources of uncertainty are the main contributor, and, therefore, averaging over a large datasets and/or higher resolution records should yield more precise and accurate estimates of the relative lead-lag. However, at this time, the number of records is not sufficient to identify any significant differences in the timing of the last three glacial terminations in SST records from the Eastern and Western Tropical Pacific.

  9. Numerical simulation of equatorial plasma bubbles over Cachimbo: COPEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of day-to-day variability in onset of equatorial spread F (ESF) is addressed using data from the 2002 COPEX observational campaign in Brazil and numerical modeling. The observational results show that for values of virtual height of the F layer base less than 355 km at around 18:35 LT, and for the prereversal peak enhancement of the vertical plasma drift (Vp) less than 30 m/s, the spread-F (ESF) was absent on four nights over Cachimbo (9.5°S, 54.8°W, dip latitude = -2.1°). In this work we analyze the geophysical conditions for the generation of the irregularities by comparing the nights with and without the ESF. In the comparison a numerical code is used to simulate plasma irregularity development in an extended altitude range from the bottom of the equatorial F layer. The code uses the flux corrected transport method with Boris-Book’s flux limiter for the spatial integration and a predictor-corrector method for the direct time integration of the continuity equation for O+ and the SOR (Successive-Over-Relaxation) method for electric potential equation. The code is tested with different evening eastward electric fields (or vertical drifts Vp < 30 m/s and Vp > 30 m/s) in order to study the influence of the prereversal enhancement in the zonal electric field on plasma bubble formation and development. The code also takes into account the zonal wind, the vertical electric field and the collision frequency of ions with neutrals and the amplitude of initial perturbation. The simulation shows a good agreement with the observational results of the ESF. The results of the code suggest that the instability can grow at the F layer bottomside by the Rayleigh-Taylor mechanism only when the Vp > 30 m/s. In the analyzed cases we have considered the competition of other geophysical parameters in the generation of plasma structures.

  10. Equatorial F2 characteristic variability: A review of recent observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoye, E. O.; Akala, A. O.; Adeniji-Adele, R. A.; Iheonu, E. E.; Onori, E. O.; Ogwala, A.

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the variability of equatorial/low latitude F2 characteristics with emphasis on the most general results reported by authors. On a general note, diurnal variation of ionospheric F2 layer characteristics coefficient of variability (CV) is characterised by post- and pre-midnight peaks at all seasons, epochs and longitude. The post-midnight peak is greater than pre-midnight peak for all the characteristics considered except h'F2 CV during high solar activity (HSA) possibly due to occurrence of post-sunset pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) in height of reflection prominent during HSA. NmF2 CV is greater than CV of MUF and h'F2. MUF CV and foF2 CV are of the same order of magnitude. While seasonal trend is little or nil in daytime CV of F2 layer characteristics, nighttime CV is greater in general at the equinoxes and June Solstice. Nighttime F2 layer characteristics CV are found to decrease with increasing sunspot. This is not the case with daytime CV. Except for h'F2 CV, daytime CV of F2 layer characteristics are independent of latitude while nighttime CV decreases with latitude. Equatorial stations east (Vanimo, 2.7°S, 141.3°E, dip 22.5°S) and west (Huancayo, 12°S, 75.3°W, dip 1.9°N) of the Greenwich Meridian (GM) have greater nighttime CV than those in the neighbourhood of the GM (Ouagadougou, 12.4°N, 1.5°W, dip 7.6°N) with those stations west of GM having the greatest CV, implying longitudinal effect on CV. During magnetic storms CV are reported to be greater than during quiet periods.

  11. Digital ionosonde observations during equatorial spread F-italic

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Kelley, M.C.

    1986-05-01

    In this paper we present and discuss equatorial spread F-italic data taken with a digital ionosonde/HF radar located at Huancayo, Peru. A modified phenomenology is developed which uses the system's ability to do echo location. The onset of irregularities is seen to occur in the east and to move westward, while inside this large-scale structure the plasma is found to drift eastward. A very curious difference has been identified between spread F-italic observations with the ionosonde and with the VHF radar at Jicamarca. At VHF, spread F-italic onset often occurs when the ionosphere is rising, whereas in all five examples presented here, the digital ionosonde detected onset when the apparent ionosphere motion was downward. The result even held on the one night of common data taking. The effect could be instrumental but may be related to the considerable orographic differences in the two sites. Isolated scattering patches are observed and are tentatively identified as detached or ''fossil'' plumes. At frequencies above the nominal f-italic/sub 0/F-italic/sub 2/ the system (and other ionosondes) may in fact function as a coherent radar. During one night, data were obtained simultaneously with the HF radar, a rocket, and the Jicamarca VHF radar. Comparisons of these data are discussed in detail. Finally, additional evidence is presented that acoustic gravity waves play a role in the development of equatorial spread F-italic and in the formation of detached plumes. To be self-consistent, the gravity waves must come from nearby sources such as the tropical rain forest to the east of Jicamarca.

  12. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo

  13. Poynting vector and wave vector directions of equatorial chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolík, Ondřej; Breuillard, Hugo; Li, Wen; Le Contel, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    We present new results on wave vectors and Poynting vectors of chorus rising and falling tones on the basis of 6 years of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) observations. The majority of wave vectors is closely aligned with the direction of the ambient magnetic field (B0). Oblique wave vectors are confined to the magnetic meridional plane, pointing away from Earth. Poynting vectors are found to be almost parallel to B0. We show, for the first time, that slightly oblique Poynting vectors are directed away from Earth for rising tones and toward Earth for falling tones. For the majority of lower band chorus elements, the mutual orientation between Poynting vectors and wave vectors can be explained by whistler mode dispersion in a homogeneous collisionless cold plasma. Upper band chorus seems to require inclusion of collisional processes or taking into account azimuthal anisotropies in the propagation medium. The latitudinal extension of the equatorial source region can be limited to ±6∘ around the B0 minimum or approximately ±5000 km along magnetic field lines. We find increasing Poynting flux and focusing of Poynting vectors on the B0 direction with increasing latitude. Also, wave vectors become most often more field aligned. A smaller group of chorus generated with very oblique wave normals tends to stay close to the whistler mode resonance cone. This suggests that close to the equatorial source region (within ˜20∘ latitude), a wave guidance mechanism is relevant, for example, in ducts of depleted or enhanced plasma density.

  14. Simulations of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Geomagnetic activity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang; Burns, Alan G.; Solomon, Stanley C.

    2014-08-01

    The modulation of geomagnetic activity on the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) in thermospheric temperature under the high solar activity condition is investigated using the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model simulations. The model simulations during the geomagnetically disturbed interval, when the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (Bz) oscillates between southward and northward directions, are analyzed and also compared with those under the quiet time condition. Our results show that ionospheric electron densities increase greatly in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest region and decrease around the magnetic equator during the storm time, resulting from the enhanced eastward electric fields. The impact of both the direct heat deposition at high latitudes and the modulation of the storm time enhanced EIA crests on the ETA are subsequently studied. The increased plasma densities over the EIA crest region enhance the field-aligned ion drag that accelerates the poleward meridional winds and consequently their associated adiabatic cooling effect. This process alone produces a deeper temperature trough over the magnetic equator as a result of the enhanced divergence of meridional winds. Moreover, the enhanced plasma-neutral collisional heating at higher latitudes associated with the ionospheric positive storm effect causes a weak increase of the ETA crests. On the other hand, strong changes of the neutral temperature are mainly confined to higher latitudes. Nevertheless, the changes of the ETA purely due to the increased plasma density are overwhelmed by those associated with the storm time heat deposition, which is the major cause of an overall elevated temperature in both the ETA crests and trough during the geomagnetically active period. Associated with the enhanced neutral temperature at high latitudes due to the heat deposition, the ETA crest-trough differences become larger under the minor

  15. Longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Forbes, Jeffrey M.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed similarities and differences between the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) from 20 March to 6 April 2002, when both the ETA and the EIA are distinct in the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) observations. The characteristics of the ETA and the EIA are obtained from the CHAMP accelerometer, in situ electron density measurements, and total electron content (TEC) above the CHAMP satellite. Our results show that the trough locations of the ETA and the EIA in latitude show a good agreement, and both correspond well with the dip magnetic equator, while the ETA crests are usually located poleward of the EIA. Meanwhile, the latitudinal locations of the ETA crests exhibit strong hemispheric asymmetry and large variability during our study interval. The longitudinal variations between the EIA and the ETA show significant differences. The EIA crests from the CHAMP observations show strong wave 4 structures, but the primary component in the ETA is wave 1. Moreover, the ETA densities show strong variations in response to geomagnetic activity, whereas CHAMP in situ electron densities and TEC at the EIA do not reflect such large day-to-day variability. Therefore, a simple EIA-ETA relationship cannot explain the dependence of the longitudinal and geomagnetic activity modulation of the ETA and the EIA. The meridional ion drag, which is significantly modulated by enhanced equatorward winds during elevated geomagnetic activity, is probably responsible for some of the observed features in the ETA, although no unambiguous explanation for ETA formation yet exists.

  16. Tectonic evolution of Brazilian equatorial continental margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The structural style and stratigraphic relationships of sedimentary basins along the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Continental Margin were used to construct an empirical tectonic model for the development of ancient transform margins. The model is constrained by detailed structural and subsidence analyses of several basins along the margin. The structural framework of the basins was defined at shallow and deep levels by the integration of many geophysical and geological data sets. The Barreirinhas and Para-Maranhao Basins were divided in three tectonic domains: the Tutoia, Caete, and Tromai subbasins. The Caete area is characterized by northwest-southeast striking and northeast-dipping normal faults. A pure shear mechanism of basin formation is suggested for its development. The structure of the Tutoia and Tromai subbasins are more complex and indicative of a major strike-slip component with dextral sense of displacement, during early stages of basin evolution. These two later subbasins were developed on a lithosphere characterized by an abrupt transition (<50 km wide) from an unstretched continent to an oceanic lithosphere. The subsidence history of these basins do not comply with the classical models developed for passive margins or continental rifting. The thermo-mechanical model proposed for the Brazilian equatorial margin includes heterogeneous stretching combined with shearing at the plate margin. The tectonic history comprises: (1) Triassic-Jurassic limited extension associated with the Central Atlantic evolution; (2) Neocomian intraplate deformation consisting of strike-slip reactivation of preexisting shear zones; (3) Aptian-Cenomanian two-phase period of dextral shearing; and (4) Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sea-floor spreading.

  17. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  18. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity. PMID:27185933

  19. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  20. CONVECTIVE BURSTS AND THE COUPLING OF SATURN'S EQUATORIAL STORMS AND INTERIOR ROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan M. E-mail: aurnou@ucla.edu

    2012-02-10

    Temporal variations of Saturn's equatorial jet and magnetic field hint at rich dynamics coupling the atmosphere and the deep interior. However, it has been assumed that rotation of the interior dynamo must be steady over tens of years of modern observations. Here we use a numerical convection model and scaling estimates to show how equatorial convective bursts can transfer angular momentum to the deeper interior. The numerical model allows angular momentum transfer between a fluid outer spherical shell and a rigid inner sphere. Convection drives a prograde equatorial jet exhibiting quasiperiodic bursts that fill the equatorial volume outside the tangent cylinder. For each burst strong changes in the equatorial surface velocity are associated with retrograde torque on the inner sphere. Our results suggest that Saturn's Great White Spot, a giant storm that was observed to fill the equatorial region in 1990, could mobilize a volume of fluid carrying roughly 15% of Saturn's moment of inertia. Conservation of angular momentum then implies that a 20% change in the equatorial jet angular velocity could change the average interior rotation rate by about 0.1%-roughly an order of magnitude less than the apparent rotation rate changes associated with Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) signal. However, if the SKR signal originates outside the liquid metal core in a 'planetary tachocline' that separates the layer of fast zonal flow from the magnetically controlled and slowly convecting deep interior, then convective bursts can provide a possible mechanism for the observed {approx}1% SKR changes.

  1. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  2. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    PubMed

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  3. Variable influence on the equatorial troposphere associated with SSW using ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Sourabh; Schimanke, Semjon; Spangehl, Thomas; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events are identified to investigate their influence on the equatorial tropospheric climate. Composite analysis of warming events from Era-Interim (1979-2013) record a cooling of the tropical lower stratosphere with corresponding changes in the mean meridional stratospheric circulation. A cooling of the upper troposphere induces enhanced convective activity near the equatorial region of the Southern Hemisphere and suppressed convective activity in the off-equatorial Northern Hemisphere. After selecting vortex splits, the see-saw pattern of convective activity in the troposphere grows prominent and robust.

  4. Considerations of variations in ionospheric field effects in mapping equatorial lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, D.; Hinze, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    The longitudinal, seasonal, and altitude-dependent variability of the magnetic field in equatorial latitudes is investigated to determine the effect of these variabilities on the isolation of lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies. It was found that the amplitudes of the dawn dip-latitude averages were small compared to the dusk averages, and that they were of the opposite sign. The longitudinal variation in the equatorial amplitudes of the dawn dip-latitude averages was not entirely consistent with the present knowledge of the electrojet field. Based on the results, a procedure is implemented for reducing the equatorial ionospheric effects from the Magsat data on the lithospheric component.

  5. Modeling carbon and silicon cycling in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Masahiko; Chai, Fei

    2007-03-01

    The equatorial Pacific is a region of significant particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) and biogenic silica sedimentation, the majority of which is carried out by coccolithophorids and diatoms. We developed an ecosystem model that explicitly includes three phytoplankton functional groups (picoplankton, coccolithophorids, and diatoms), two zooplankton functional groups (microzooplankton and mesozooplankton), nutrients (nitrate NO 3, ammonium NH 4, and silicate Si(OH) 4), detritus (particulate organic matter, biogenic silica, and PIC), total alkalinity, total CO 2, and partial pressure of CO 2 at the surface water (pCO 2sea). The model is capable of reproducing many biogeochemical features for the region, such as high-nutrient low-chlorophyll condition, significant exposure of phytoplankton under grazing controls by zooplankton, and large CO 2 release to the atmosphere. The export ratio of PIC to particulate organic carbon (rain ratio) to the deep water was 0.16, higher than the global-mean values, implying predominant PIC sedimentation in the equatorial Pacific upwelling region. Comparison between calcification and no-calcification model results indicates that when coccolithophorids are present, the community interactions actually induce more diatom biomass, export fluxes of detritus, and CO 2 release to the atmosphere. The model results show remarkable calcification in the subsurface layers, which suggests more field data on calcification processes are needed. Increase of source (120 m depth) Si(OH) 4 concentration associated with the tropical instability waves lead to a linear increase in biogenic silica export. Higher Si(OH) 4 concentration stimulates diatom growth, which causes a decrease in picoplankton because feeding pressure by mesozooplankton switched from picoplankton's grazer, microzooplankton, to the abundant diatoms. Surface coccolithophorid biomass has its maximum at intermediate source Si(OH) 4 concentrations as a result of higher grazing pressure on

  6. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    DEMETER, the first micro-satellite of the CNES MYRIAD program, was launched from Baikonour on June 29, 2004 on a nearly circular, quasi helio-synchronous polar orbit at ~ 715 km altitude. The DEMETER mission focuses primarily on the search for a possible coupling between seismic activity and ionospheric disturbances as well as on the effects of natural phenomena such as tropospheric thunderstorms and man-made activities on the ionosphere. The scientific payload provides fairly complete measurements of the ionospheric plasma, energetic particles above ~ 70 keV, and plasma waves, up to 20 kHz for the magnetic and 3.3 MHz for the electric components. Several studies related to space weather and ionospheric physics have been conducted over the past years. Following a brief description of the payload and the satellite modes of operation, this presentation will focus on a set of results that provide a new insight into the physics of instabilities in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. The observations were performed during the major magnetic storm of November 2004. Deep plasma depletions were observed on several night-time passes at low latitudes characterized by the decrease of the plasma density by nearly 3 orders of magnitude relative to the undisturbed plasma, and a significant abundance of molecular ions. These features can be best interpreted as resulting from the rise of the F-layer above the satellite altitude over an extended region of the ionosphere. In one of the passes, DEMETER was operated in the Burst mode and the corresponding high resolution data allowed for the discovery of two unexpected phenomena. The first one is the existence of high intensity monochromatic wave packets at the LH frequency that develop during the decay phase of intense bursts of broadband LH turbulence. The broadband LH turbulence is triggered by whistlers emitted by lightning from atmospheric thunderstorms beneath the satellite. The second unexpected feature is the detection of a

  7. Snowball Earth termination by destabilization of equatorial permafrost methane clathrate.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Martin; Mrofka, David; von der Borch, Chris

    2008-05-29

    The start of the Ediacaran period is defined by one of the most severe climate change events recorded in Earth history--the recovery from the Marinoan 'snowball' ice age, approximately 635 Myr ago (ref. 1). Marinoan glacial-marine deposits occur at equatorial palaeolatitudes, and are sharply overlain by a thin interval of carbonate that preserves marine carbon and sulphur isotopic excursions of about -5 and +15 parts per thousand, respectively; these deposits are thought to record widespread oceanic carbonate precipitation during postglacial sea level rise. This abrupt transition records a climate system in profound disequilibrium and contrasts sharply with the cyclical stratigraphic signal imparted by the balanced feedbacks modulating Phanerozoic deglaciation. Hypotheses accounting for the abruptness of deglaciation include ice albedo feedback, deep-ocean out-gassing during post-glacial oceanic overturn or methane hydrate destabilization. Here we report the broadest range of oxygen isotope values yet measured in marine sediments (-25 per thousand to +12 per thousand) in methane seeps in Marinoan deglacial sediments underlying the cap carbonate. This range of values is likely to be the result of mixing between ice-sheet-derived meteoric waters and clathrate-derived fluids during the flushing and destabilization of a clathrate field by glacial meltwater. The equatorial palaeolatitude implies a highly volatile shelf permafrost pool that is an order of magnitude larger than that of the present day. A pool of this size could have provided a massive biogeochemical feedback capable of triggering deglaciation and accounting for the global postglacial marine carbon and sulphur isotopic excursions, abrupt unidirectional warming, cap carbonate deposition, and a marine oxygen crisis. Our findings suggest that methane released from low-latitude permafrost clathrates therefore acted as a trigger and/or strong positive feedback for deglaciation and warming. Methane hydrate

  8. Investigation of plasma motion in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of evening and nighttime F-region vertical drift component of is vital for understanding the physics of the development of the occurrence of equatorial irregularities. In addition, postsunset ionospheric height has also been attributed as one of the most important factors for the occurrence of equatorial irregularities. We report vertical plasma drift velocities derived from the base (h'F) and the peak height (hmF2) of F-layer using 1-year of data obtained at Ibadan (Geog Long 3.9oE) during International Geophysical Year (1957-58) period for geomagnetic quiet-time and high solar activity conditions. We compared our results with International Reference Ionosphere 2012 model (IRI-2012). The results of this investigation include: (a) overall local- time characteristics of vertical drift between 1800 LT and 0600 LT are in good agreement for equinoxes, December, and June; (b) annual vertical drift derived from time variation of h'F and hmF2 and the corresponding annual variation of h'F and hmF2 variation indicate low correlation (R = 0.30), while IRI-2012 model vertical drift and IRI-2012 model of hmF2 show fairly good correlation ( R = 0.67); (c) regression analysis between time variation of h'F and Scherliess / Fejer model demonstrate correlation coefficient of approximately 0.74 (equinox), 0.85 (December), 0.57 (June) and 0.74 (all-year), while that of time variation of hmF2 and IRI-2012 vertical velocities show 0.95 (equinox), 0.74 (December), 0.43 (June), and 0.74 (all-year); (d) plasma motion derived from the time rate of change of h'F and those of hmF2 are correlated at 0.94, 0.88, 0.63, and 0.90 for equinoxes, December, June, and all-year, respectively; (e) the evening prereversal vertical drifts enhancement rage between ~20 - 45 m/s, ~18 - 46 m/s, ~20 - 50 m/s for time variation of h'F, hmF2, and Scherliess / Fejer model, respectively; (f) the corresponding peak altitudes vary between 430 - 540 km (h'F), 560 - 740 km ( hmF2), and 570 - 620 km (IRI

  9. Priority Areas for Large Mammal Conservation in Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S.

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437–1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719–13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and R

  10. Iapetus' Geophysics: Rotation Rate, Shape, and Equatorial Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Matson, D. L.; Sotin, C.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Thomas, P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Iapetus has preserved evidence that constrains the modeling of its geophysical history from the time of its accretion until now. The evidence is (a) its present 79.33-day rotation or spin rate, (b) its shape that corresponds to the equilibrium figure for a hydrostatic body rotating with a period of approximately 16 h, and (c) its high, equatorial ridge, which is unique in the Solar System. This paper reports the results of an investigation into the coupling between Iapetus' thermal and orbital evolution for a wide range of conditions including the spatial distributions with time of composition, porosity, short-lived radioactive isotopes (SLRI), and temperature. The thermal model uses conductive heat transfer with temperature-dependent conductivity. Only models with a thick lithosphere and an interior viscosity in the range of about the water ice melting point can explain the observed shape. Short-lived radioactive isotopes provide the heat needed to decrease porosity in Iapetus? early history. This increases thermal conductivity and allows the development of the strong lithosphere that is required to preserve the 16-h rotational shape and the high vertical relief of the topography. Long-lived radioactive isotopes and SLRI raise internal temperatures high enough that significant tidal dissipation can start, and despin Iapetus to synchronous rotation. This occurred several hundred million years after Iapetus formed. The models also constrain the time when Iapetus formed because the successful models are critically dependent upon having just the right amount of heat added by SLRI decay in this early period. The amount of heat available from short-lived radioactivity is not a free parameter but is fixed by the time when Iapetus accreted, by the canonical concentration of Al-26, and, to a lesser extent, by the concentration of Fe-60. The needed amount of heat is available only if Iapetus accreted between 2.5 and 5.0Myr after the formation of the calcium aluminum

  11. Characteristics of Extreme Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fourteen years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) version 7 data for June-August show the temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme convection over equatorial regions of the American and African continents. We identify three types of extreme systems: storms with deep convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes extending ≥10 km in height), storms with wide convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes with areas >1,000 km2) and storms with broad stratiform regions (stratiform echo >50,000 km2). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis is used to describe the environmental conditions around these forms of extreme convection. Storms with deep convective cores occur mainly over land: in the equatorial Americas, maximum occurrence is in western Mexico, Northern Colombia and Venezuela; in Africa, the region of maximum occurrence is a broad zone enclosing the central and west Sudanian Savanna, south of the Sahel region. Storms with wide convective radar echoes occur in these same general locations. In the American sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation regions (typifying robust mesoscale convective systems) occur mainly over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Colombia-Panama bight. In the African sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation areas occur primarily over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean near the coast of West Africa. ECMWF reanalyses show how the regions of extreme deep convection associated with both continents are located mainly in regions affected by diurnal heating and influenced by atmospheric jets in regions with strong humidity gradients. Composite analysis of the synoptic conditions leading to the three forms of extreme convection provides insights into the forcing mechanisms in which these systems occur. These analyses show how the monsoonal flow directed towards the Andes slopes is mainly what concentrates the occurrence of extreme

  12. GPS Observations of Plasma Bubbles and Scintillations over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Valladares, C. E.; Semala, G. K.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Adeniyi, J.; Amaeshi, L. L.; Damtie, B.; D'Ujanga Mutonyi, F.; Ndeda, J. D.; Baki, P.; Obrou, O. K.; Okere, B.; Tsidu, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored in part by the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program, Boston College, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and several universities in Africa have collaborated to deploy a network of GPS receivers throughout equatorial Africa, a region which has been largely devoid of ground-based ionospheric monitoring instruments. High date-rate GPS receivers capable of measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) and GPS scintillations were installed at Abidjan, Ivory Coast (5.3°N, 4.0°W, dip 3.5°S); Addis Ababa (9.0°N, 38.8°E, dip 0.1°N ); Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (26.1°N, 50.6°E, dip 20.1°N); Cape Verde (16.6°S, 22.9°W, dip 4.9°N); Ilorin, Nigeria (8.4°S, 4.7°E, dip 1.9°S); Kampala, Uganda (0.3°S, 32.6°E, dip 9.2°S); Lagos, Nigeria (6.5°N, 3.4°E, dip 3.1°S); Nairobi, Kenya (1.3°S, 36.8°W, dip 10.7°S); Nsukka, Nigeria (6.8°S, 7.4°W, dip 3.0°S); and Zanzibar, Tanzania (6.2°S, 39.2°E, dip 15.9°S). In this paper we report on the longitudinal, local time and seasonal occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over equatorial Africa in 2009 and 2010, as a first step toward establishing the climatology of ionospheric irregularities over Africa. The scintillation intensity is obtained by measuring the standard deviation of normalized GPS signal power. The plasma bubbles are detected using an automated technique, whereby the GPS TEC is detrended to remove the diurnal variation and excursions exceeding a particular threshold are extracted for further analysis. A harmonic analysis (FFT) of these extracted events is performed to exclude wavelike features indicative of gravity waves or traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the remaining events are identified as plasma bubbles. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over Africa are well correlated, but that some discrepancies in their morphologies are evident. While plasma bubbles and scintillations are generally observed during equinoctial

  13. Fertilizing the Amazon and equatorial Atlantic with West African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Charlie S.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Chappell, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust plays a vital role in Earth's climate and biogeochemical cycles. The Bodélé Depression in Chad has been identified as the single biggest source of atmospheric mineral dust on Earth. Dust eroded from the Bodélé is blown across the Atlantic Ocean towards South America. The mineral dust contains micronutrients such as Fe and P that have the potential to act as a fertilizer, increasing primary productivity in the Amazon rain forest as well as the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, and thus leading to N2 fixation and CO2 drawdown. We present the results of chemical analysis of 28 dust samples collected from the source area, which indicate that up to 6.5 Tg of Fe and 0.12 Tg of P are exported from the Bodélé Depression every year. This suggests that the Bodélé may be a more significant micronutrient supplier than previously proposed.

  14. Geology, hydrocarbon potential of Rio Muni area, Equatorial Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Hempstead, N. )

    1993-08-30

    The Republic of Equatorial Guinea, located in the oil producing province of West Africa, consists of three islands and an enclave in continental Africa with a total surface area of about 28,000 sq km. The islands are in the Gulf of Guinea. The largest, Bioko, lies off Nigeria and Cameroon. The continental enclave, Rio Muni, is bounded to the north by Cameroon and to the east and south by Gabon. The coastal basin of Rio Muni, which is the subject of this article, contributes the major portion of areas offered in the current exploration licensing round. Some 5,275 km of seismic data have been recorded the past 10 years covering most of the offshore and onshore areas of Rio Muni. The quality of seismic data is generally good. Data from all size wells drilled in the area and an aeromagnetic survey of the whole onshore and offshore are also available. The paper describes the West African setting, exploration history, basin development, presalt play, postsalt Aptian play, Albian play, clastic play, Senonian/Paleogene play, and the current licensing round.

  15. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  16. SpIES:The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; SpIES Team

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey, SpIES, is an Exploration Science program using Warm Spitzer to map over 100deg^2 of the SDSS Stripe 82 field, and is the largest extragalactic area surveyed by Spitzer. The primary science drivers are: the measurement of z>3 quasar clustering and the luminosity function in order to test different "AGN feedback'' models; to identify obscured AGN (and take advantage of the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data on the Stripe 82 field); to identify z>6 quasars, and to support other wide-field ancillary science. With our observations very recently completed, we present the first preliminary science results from SpIES. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  17. A Cenozoic record of the equatorial Pacific carbonate compensation depth.

    PubMed

    Pälike, Heiko; Lyle, Mitchell W; Nishi, Hiroshi; Raffi, Isabella; Ridgwell, Andy; Gamage, Kusali; Klaus, Adam; Acton, Gary; Anderson, Louise; Backman, Jan; Baldauf, Jack; Beltran, Catherine; Bohaty, Steven M; Bown, Paul; Busch, William; Channell, Jim E T; Chun, Cecily O J; Delaney, Margaret; Dewangan, Pawan; Dunkley Jones, Tom; Edgar, Kirsty M; Evans, Helen; Fitch, Peter; Foster, Gavin L; Gussone, Nikolaus; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Hathorne, Ed C; Hayashi, Hiroki; Herrle, Jens O; Holbourn, Ann; Hovan, Steve; Hyeong, Kiseong; Iijima, Koichi; Ito, Takashi; Kamikuri, Shin-ichi; Kimoto, Katsunori; Kuroda, Junichiro; Leon-Rodriguez, Lizette; Malinverno, Alberto; Moore, Ted C; Murphy, Brandon H; Murphy, Daniel P; Nakamura, Hideto; Ogane, Kaoru; Ohneiser, Christian; Richter, Carl; Robinson, Rebecca; Rohling, Eelco J; Romero, Oscar; Sawada, Ken; Scher, Howie; Schneider, Leah; Sluijs, Appy; Takata, Hiroyuki; Tian, Jun; Tsujimoto, Akira; Wade, Bridget S; Westerhold, Thomas; Wilkens, Roy; Williams, Trevor; Wilson, Paul A; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Zeebe, Richard E

    2012-08-30

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate are regulated on geological timescales by the balance between carbon input from volcanic and metamorphic outgassing and its removal by weathering feedbacks; these feedbacks involve the erosion of silicate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks. The integrated effect of these processes is reflected in the calcium carbonate compensation depth, which is the oceanic depth at which calcium carbonate is dissolved. Here we present a carbonate accumulation record that covers the past 53 million years from a depth transect in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The carbonate compensation depth tracks long-term ocean cooling, deepening from 3.0-3.5 kilometres during the early Cenozoic (approximately 55 million years ago) to 4.6 kilometres at present, consistent with an overall Cenozoic increase in weathering. We find large superimposed fluctuations in carbonate compensation depth during the middle and late Eocene. Using Earth system models, we identify changes in weathering and the mode of organic-carbon delivery as two key processes to explain these large-scale Eocene fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth.

  18. Measurements of nitrogen productivity in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, Frances P.; Dugdale, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    During the R/V Wecoma WEC88 cruise that sampled a meridional transect along 150 deg W from 15 deg N to 15 deg S, uptake of nitrate and ammonium by phytoplankton was measured using the stable isotope N-15 with simulated in-situ bottle incubations and shipboard mass spectrometry. A set of 25 daily productivity stations showed the influence of equatorial upwelling on nitrate distribution and N-15 uptake in a band from 6 deg N to 7.5 deg S compared with the oligotrophic waters to the north and south, with the highest values of nitrate uptake occurring at the equator. During a 5-day time series at the equator, there was an increase in nitrate accompanied by increased nitrate uptake. Interestingly, nitrate uptake rates (equivalent to new production rates) at the equator were lower than those predicted by previous investigators. Holdover experiments and uptake versus irradiance curves showed that the phytoplankton was in an early stage of metabolic adaptation and that can be a contributing factor.

  19. Equatorial and Low-Latitudes Ionospheric Reaction to Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoli Candido, C. M.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Paula, E. R.; Takahashi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons are responsible for ionizing the terrestrial atmosphere and create the ionosphere. During solar flares, a fast increase in the electron density at different altitude regions takes place due to the abrupt enhance of the X-ray and EUV fluxes reaching Earth. With these changes in the ionosphere, radio communication and navigation can be drastically affected. The magnitudes of these Space Weather events can be related to the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth's atmosphere. Other aspects defining these changes in a particular region are the local time, the solar zenith angle, and the position of the flare in the solar disc for each event. In order to improve the understand of radio signal degradation and loss in the Brazilian sector due to solar abrupt electromagnetic emissions, total electron content (TEC) data obtained by a GPS network formed by tents of dual-frequency receivers spread all over Brazilian territory were analyzed. It was observed different ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events identified by GOES satellite regarding the 0.1-0.8 nm range, and some case studies were ponder for a more detailed analysis of these effects. Considering the results, we have made an estimation of the ionospheric disturbances range for a particular event with great chance to affect space based communications in the equatorial and low-latitude regions.

  20. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise

    PubMed Central

    Balikhin, Michael A.; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Walker, Simon N.; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H.; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as ‘equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes ‘ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations. PMID:26169360

  1. The equatorial total electron content and shape factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Davies, K.; Anderson, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    The diurnal variations of electron content and shape factor observed at an equatorial station during sunspot minimum are shown to be consistent with the electron density profiles observed at Jicamarca during sunspot minimum. The rapid increase in electron content and the shape factor at sunrise results from the EUV production of ionization in the E and F regions. Day-to-day variations in daytime electron content are observed to be quite small at the equator. The evening decrease in the shape factor results from an upward drift of the F region at sunset and the evening decay of the E and bottomside F regions. The nighttime peak or plateau in the shape factor is produced by the slow downward drift of the electron density profile. The deep predawn dip in the shape factor is caused by the main peak of the F layer reaching low altitudes where high loss rates cause a large reduction in ionization below 300 km and very flat electron density profile.

  2. Hydrothermal pits in sediments of the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M.; Mitchel, N. C.; Pälike, H.; Backman, J.

    2006-12-01

    Swath mapping and seismic surveying of the equatorial Pacific sediment mound have revealed the common occurrence of pits in the sediment surface. The pits are sub-circular to elongate with horizontal dimensions of 1 to 4 km and are on the order of 50 100m deep. They often are seen in clusters or in linear trends; and in denser fields of such pits, they may appear to overlap. They were mapped in sediment overlying crust from 15 Ma to 55 Ma in age. Their density in the region is about 1 per 220 km2 and their occurrence shows no relationship to water depth, age of crust, latitude or longitude. They most frequently occur over sedimented basement highs where sediment is 300-350 m thick and do not seem to occur where sediment thickness in adjacent valleys is greater than ~500m or less than ~150m. They are believed to be related to hydrothermally driven discharge through vertical conduits of higher permeability in the sediment. These conduits are associated with faulting and fracturing over basement highs and along basement faults that extend well into the sediment column. The pervasive presence of such features on the seafloor indicates the profound effect that such "old-crust" hydrothermal circulation must have on ocean chemistry, crustal weathering, and ecology of the sub seafloor microbial community.

  3. Ubiquitous equatorial accretion disc winds in black hole soft states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Fender, R. P.; Begelman, M. C.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Neilsen, J.; Coriat, M.

    2012-05-01

    High-resolution spectra of Galactic black holes (GBHs) reveal the presence of highly ionized absorbers. In one GBH, accreting close to the Eddington limit for more than a decade, a powerful accretion disc wind is observed to be present in softer X-ray states and it has been suggested that it can carry away enough mass and energy to quench the radio jet. Here we report that these winds, which may have mass outflow rates of the order of the inner accretion rate or higher, are a ubiquitous component of the jet-free soft states of all GBHs. We furthermore demonstrate that these winds have an equatorial geometry with opening angles of few tens of degrees, and so are only observed in sources in which the disc is inclined at a large angle to the line of sight. The decrease in Fe XXV/Fe XXVI line ratio with Compton temperature, observed in the soft state, suggests a link between higher wind ionization and harder spectral shapes. Although the physical interaction between the wind, accretion flow and jet is still not fully understood, the mass flux and power of these winds and their presence ubiquitously during the soft X-ray states suggest they are fundamental components of the accretion phenomenon.

  4. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  5. Anthropogenic CO2 changes in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, N. M.; Guallart, E. F.; Steinfeldt, R.; Ríos, A. F.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Pelejero, C.; Calvo, E.; Pérez, F. F.

    2015-05-01

    Methods based on CO2 and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) data are used to describe and evaluate the anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) concentrations, Cant specific inventories, and Cant storage rates in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The Cant variability in the water masses is evaluated from the comparison of two hydrographic sections along 7.5°N carried out in 1993 and 2010. During both cruises, high Cant concentrations are detected in the upper layers, with values decreasing progressively towards the deep layers. Overall, the Cant concentrations increase from 1993 to 2010, with a large increment in the upper North Atlantic Deep Water layer of about 0.18 ± 0.03 μmol kg-1 y-1. In 2010, the Cant inventory along the whole section amounts to 58.9 ± 2.2 and 45.1 ± 2.0 mol m-2 using CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively, with most Cant accumulating in the western basin. Considering the time elapsed between the two cruises, Cant storage rates of 1.01 ± 0.18 and 0.75 ± 0.17 mol m-2 y-1 (CO2 and CFC based methods, respectively) are obtained. Below ∼1000 m, these rates follow the pace expected from a progressive increase of Cant at steady state; above ∼1000 m, Cant increases faster, mainly due to the retreat of the Antarctic Intermediate Waters.

  6. SO2-rich equatorial basins and epeirogeny of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of Io's large scale topography with an SO2 abundance map shows that SO2 is concentrated in equatorial topographic basins. In these basins, about 30 pct. of the surface is covered by SO2 at all elevations above the mean triaxial figure, and SO2 coverage increases with decreasing elevation to as much as 56 pct. at elevations below -1.5 km. The correlation is not good from long 240 to 360 degs where bright areas are covered by red, Pele type plume fallout, and in the polar regions where the topography is poorly known. The histogram of SO2 abundance binned by elevation appears bimodal, with a secondary concentration of SO2 at high elevations, but it is not certain that this is significant. Additional observations suggest that the basins have relatively little higher frequency topographic relief. The distribution of active plumes and hotspots show no obvious correlation with the topography. However, the Pele type plume all erupted from regions higher than the mean figure, and five of the eight Prometheus type plumes are more energetic and are associated with high temperature hotspots, whereas Prometheus type plumes are long lived and require large volatile reservoirs.

  7. The localized origin of equatorial F region irregularity patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarons, J.; Buchau, J.; Mcclure, J. P.; Basu, S.

    1978-01-01

    An intensive study of nighttime irregularities of electron density in the equatorial ionosphere was performed in October 1976 by making 50-MHz radar backscatter measurements at Jicamarca, Peru, and scintillation measurements of 249-MHz transmissions from Les 9 at two ground stations (Ancon and Huancayo, both in Peru) as well as by aircraft flying in the vicinity of the stations. The 137-MHz scintillations from the orbiting Wideband satellite were also recorded at Huancayo. The results of such measurements made on October 16-17, 1976, are discussed in this report. We find that on this particular night a large-scale irregularity patch evolved first in the west, as was detected by the radar at Jicamarca, and drifted eastward to cause successive onsets of scintillation activity on propagation paths from Ancon and Huancayo. The observations indicate the east-west dimension of the large-scale structure to be 400 km drifting eastward at a speed of approximately 100 m/s, having a lifetime of several hours, and containing a hierarchy of irregularity scale sizes in the range of kilometers to meters causing both scintillations at 249 MHz and radar backscatter at 50 MHz.

  8. Analysis of Korean astronomical records with Chinese equatorial coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. W.

    2012-08-01

    The historical documents of ancient Korea contain abundant records on various astronomical phenomena. The historical documents of the Joseon dynasty contain observational values based on Chinese equatorial coordinate system (i.e., angular distances from the reference star of a lunar mansion and the North Pole). However, quantitative analysis of the observational values has not been carried out. In this study, we investigate the observational accuracy during the Joseon dynasty by comparing the astronomical records of Joseonwangjo Sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty) and Seungjeongwon Ilgi (Daily Records of the Royal Secretariat) with modern astronomical calculations. Consequently, we find that the observational accuracy during the early Joseon dynasty was approximately 1.2° 0.3° in the right ascension and declination, respectively. On the other hand, we find that the observational accuracy during the later Joseon dynasty was considerably poor. Observations of Halley's comet in 1759 were off by approximately 7° in declination. We believe that further investigation is required to verify the reason for this poor accuracy. Thus, we list the complete records used for this study in the appendix. We believe that these records also can contribute to modern studies on phenomena such as supernovae or Halley's comet. In conclusion, we believe that this study is useful for understanding ancient Korean astronomical records, even though we have considered a small number of astronomical events.

  9. Mathematical modeling of plasma drifts over equatorial low latitude regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, S.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model to simulate ionospheric plasma drifts at equatorial low latitude regions by coupling of E- and F-regions. The governing non-linear differential equations (of elliptic and parabolic nature) are solved numerically through finite-difference schemes and obtained neutral winds and electric fields. The temperature and electron density profiles are generated utilizing MSIS-86 atmospheric model. The continuity equation is employed to obtain night-time E-region density profile using measured ionograms at Trivandrum (India). The computed vertical and zonal plasma drifts are comparable with measured Jacamarca plasma drifts with little variations during noon and evening times. The plasma drifts at Trivandrum (8.5° N, 76.5° E, dip 0.5° N) are compared with those of Jicamarca (12° S, 76.9° W, dip 2° N). Neutral wind simulations of present model agree well with those of horizontal wind model (HWM-93). The post-sunset enhancement and its reversal are also discussed.

  10. Source extension of chorus waves in the equatorial plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, M.; Santolik, O.; Parrot, M.

    2009-04-01

    We use measurements of the Cluster spacecraft and a ray tracing simulation to estimate the location and size of the global source of whistler-mode chorus emissions. In this study we use the data provided simultaneously by the STAFF-SA instruments on the four Cluster spacecraft on 19 August, 2003. To determine the direction of propagation of chorus we calculate Poynting vector whereas a ray-tracing method is used to estimate the chorus source extension. For the first time this analysis has been made along whole particular Cluster orbit in both hemispheres. Our study shows that minimum size of the global chorus source region in the equatorial plane is between 1-3 Earth's radii. The resulting location of the chorus source region is at radial distances between 3 and 8 Earth radii. This result is in agreement with previous analysis of Cluster data by Parrot et al., 2003, 2004 and with the study of Santolik et al., 2005 who analyzed data from the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft.

  11. Annual and longitudinal variations of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolk, Nina K.

    1992-01-01

    The climatological annual cycle of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) simulated by an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) was studied. The longitudinal variation of transports, degree of geostrophy, and the relationship between Ekman pumping and vertical displacement of the thermocline were emphasized. The longitudinal variation was explored using six sections along 150 deg E, 180 deg, 160 deg W, 140 deg W, 125 deg W, and 110 deg W. A primitive equation OGCM of the Pacific Ocean was run for three years and the fields used were from the third year. The fields consisted of zonal, meridional, and vertical current components and temperature and salinity averaged every three days. The model was forced with the Hellerman and Rosenstein climatological wind stress. The mean annual eastward transport (19.9 Sv) was largest at 160 deg W. The maximum-current boundaries along 160 deg W were 9.2 deg N (1.0 deg), 5.1 deg N (1.1 deg), and 187 m (90.6 m). The annual-cycle amplitude of the NECC was greatest between 160 deg W and 140 deg W. Although the NECC is geostrophic to the first order, deviations from geostrophy were found in the boreal spring and summer near the southern boundary and near the surface. Meridional local acceleration played a role between 3 deg N-5 deg N.

  12. Equatorial Kelvin wave variability during 1992 and 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canziani, Pablo O.; Holton, James R.; Fishbein, Evan; Froidevaux, Lucien

    1995-01-01

    Temperature and ozone data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to analyze the variability of Kelvin wave activity during the first two years of the UARS mission. The analysis is carried out using the asynoptic mapping technique. Time frequency plots for zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2, at two heights representing the middle stratosphere and the stratopause, respectively, are used to analyze the temporal variability of the waves, and its possible relationship to the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO). Kelvin wave activity reaches a maximum during the solstice seasons and almost disappears during the equinoxes, in agreement with previous studies. Eastward propagating variance is estimated for wave periods from 4 to 20 days, at all UARS pressure surfaces currently available for MLS. The semiannual modulation of variance is observed to extend down to the lower limits of the height ranges of the temperature and ozone retrievals. Furthermore, a superposed QBO modulation is detected up to the stratopause. Comparison between the variance in eastward propagating waves and the mean zonal wind shows a possible participation of kelvin waves in the forcing of the QBO. At the stratopause the role of Kelvin waves in forcing the SAO appears to be limited, in agreement with previous results. Between the 21-hPa and 4.6-hPa surfaces there appears to be a transition zone where there is no clear relationship between Kelvin wave activity and mean zonal flow acceleration.

  13. Equatorial plasma bubbles with enhanced ion and electron temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Min, Kyoung Wook; Kim, Vitaly P.; Kil, Hyosub; Su, Shin-Yi; Chao, Chi Kuang; Lee, Jae-Jin

    2008-09-01

    While the ion and electron temperatures inside equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are normally lower than those in an ambient plasma, bubbles with enhanced temperatures (BETs) are found occasionally in the topside ionosphere. Here we report the characteristics of BETs identified from observations of the first Republic of China Satellite (ROCSAT-1), the first Korea Multi-purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT-1), and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 during the solar maximum period between 2000 and 2001. The oxygen ion fraction inside the BETs, which was no lower than that of the ambient ionosphere, was similar to the case of ordinary low-temperature EPBs. These observations indicate that the BETs and low-temperature EPBs detected on the topside were produced by the upward drift of low-density plasma from lower altitudes. The feature that distinguishes BETs from normal EPBs is the occurrence of an unusually fast poleward field-aligned plasma flow relative to the ambient plasma. The BETs occurred preferentially around geomagnetic latitudes of 10° in the summer hemisphere, where the ambient ion and electron temperatures are lower than those in the conjugate winter hemisphere. The occurrence of BETs did not show any notable dependence on geomagnetic activities. The characteristics of the BETs suggest that the BETs were produced by adiabatic plasma heating associated with a fast poleward oxygen ion transport along magnetic flux tubes.

  14. Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of equatorial surface winds

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, D. )

    1989-04-15

    Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of surface wind components were made under normal weather conditions with unsurpassed space and time resolutions during August and September 1978. Longitudinal distributions of the monthly mean zonal component were markedly different in each ocean: in the Pacific the zonal profile resembled a semicircle; a linear change occurred in the Atlantic, and quasi-uniform values prevailed in the Indian Ocean. Only in the Atlantic and Pacific was the prevailing direction of the zonal component westward. In the Pacific the monthly mean standard deviations increased towards the west. This indicated that the larger day-to-day wind variability observed at the western islands compared to moored buoy measurements in the eastern region was a natural phenomenon and not caused by islands. The average monthly mean slope of the wave number spectra throughout the 550- to 2,200-km wavelength band was {minus}1.7, which was approximately equal to the {minus}5/3 power law associated with turbulent motions. That the spectra levels of the zonal wind, but not the meridional component, were substantially different in each equatorial ocean represents an enigma. Largest spectral values occurred in the Atlantic where variances were nearly 10 times greater than in the Pacific, which contained the smallest values.

  15. Persistence in rainfall occurrence over Tropical south-east Asia and equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahale, S. D.; Panchawagh, N.; Singh, S. V.; Ranatunge, E. R.; Brikshavana, M.

    1994-03-01

    Daily rainfall observations during the principal rainy seasons over a large part of Tropical Asia and the equatorial Pacific are analysed for persistence by fitting Markov chains of various order. Daily rainfall data of 98 stations from India, Sri Lanka and Thailand falling in the monsoonal regime and 9 stations in the non-monsoonal regime of the equatorial Pacific are examined. The appropriate order of Markov chain is determined by analyzing wet and dry spell length characteristics and by applying the Schwarz Baysian Criterion to the arbitrary sequences of 5-day length. Markov chains of order greater than 1 are found to characterize the persistence in rainfall over India and to some extent over wet zones of Sri Lanka and central equatorial Pacific. Simple Markov chains are suggested for Thailand, the dry zone of Sri Lanka and the stations of central equatorial Pacific lying some what away from the equator.

  16. Provisional hourly values of equatorial Dst for January to June 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.; Poros, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Provisional hourly values of equatorial atmospheric radiation conditions for the period January to June 1972 were obtained. The data are presented in numerical tables with graphical presentation of the digital data included.

  17. Temperature and Wind Variations in the Equatorial Stratosphere: Instability and the Semiannual Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Waters, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    UARS Microwave Limb Sounder data and data from the UK meteorological Office indicate that the equatorial zonal mean temperature exhibits a cold anomaly symmetric about the equator, typically lasting 10-20 days and with changes of about 12 K.

  18. Understanding the Longitudinal Variability of Equatorial Electrodynamics using integrated Ground- and Space-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the

  19. Rocket observations of electron-density irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere below 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaus, D. E.; Smith, L. G.

    1978-01-01

    Nike Apache rockets carring instrumentation to measure electron density and its fine structure in the equatorial ionosphere were launched from Chilca, Peru in May and June 1975. The fine structure experiment and the data reduction system are described. Results obtained from this system are presented and compared with those obtained by VHF radar and from other rocket studies. A description of the equatorial ionosphere and its features is also presented.

  20. The Descent Rates of the Shear Zones of the Equatorial QBO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnersley, Jonathan S.; Pawson, Steven

    1996-07-01

    The influence of vertical advection on the descent rate of the zero-wind line in both phases of the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is investigated with the help of the `THIN AIR' stratosphere two-and-a-half-dimensional model. The model QBO is forced by two symmetric easterly and westerly waves, and yet the model reproduces qualitatively the observed asymmetry in the descent rates of the two shear zones due to the enhanced heating during easterly descent combined with the equatorial heating induced by the extratropical planetary waves. Observations show that the maximum easterly accelerations occur predominantly from May until July, which is when the modeled equatorial planetary-wave-induced heating rates are weakest. Hence, model results are consistent with the theory that vertical advection induced by extratropical planetary waves slows significantly the descent of the easterly shear zone. The model also shows the observed increase in vertical wind shear during stalling of the easterly descent (which increases the impact of vertical advection). In the model, the effect of cross-equatorial advection of momentum by the mean flow is negligible compared to the vertical advection. Changes in the propagation of planetary waves depending on the sign of the equatorial zonal wind have a small effect on the modeled equatorial heating rates and therefore do not play a large part in producing the modeled asymmetry in descent rates.

  1. Equatorial segment protein (ESP) is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, M J; Digilio, L; Klotz, K; Shetty, J; Flickinger, C J; Herr, J C

    2008-01-01

    The equatorial segment of the sperm head is known to play a role in fertilization; however, the specific sperm molecules contributing to the integrity of the equatorial segment and in binding and fusion at the oolemma remain incomplete. Moreover, identification of molecular mediators of fertilization that are also immunogenic in humans is predicted to advance both the diagnosis and treatment of immune infertility. We previously reported the cloning of Equatorial Segment Protein (ESP), a protein localized to the equatorial segment of ejaculated human sperm. ESP is a biomarker for a subcompartment of the acrosomal matrix that can be traced through all stages of acrosome biogenesis (Wolkowicz et al, 2003). In the present study, ESP immunoreacted on Western blots with 4 (27%) of 15 antisperm antibody (ASA)-positive serum samples from infertile male patients and 2 (40%) of 5 ASA-positive female sera. Immunofluorescent studies revealed ESP in the equatorial segment of 89% of acrosome-reacted sperm. ESP persisted as a defined equatorial segment band on 100% of sperm tightly bound to the oolemma of hamster eggs. Antisera to recombinant human ESP inhibited both oolemmal binding and fusion of human sperm in the hamster egg penetration assay. The results indicate that ESP is a human alloantigen involved in sperm-egg binding and fusion. Defined recombinant sperm immunogens, such as ESP, may offer opportunities for differential diagnosis of immune infertility.

  2. Mixing in the equatorial thermocline: the importance of small vertical scale velocity features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, K. J.; Natarov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The overturning cells in the ocean are closed by isopycnic mixing. For the shallow sub-tropical cells the majority of this mixing occurs in the equatorial thermocline. In addition the level of mixing in the equatorial thermocline influences the characteristics of ENSO. Mixing in the equatorial thermocline is therefore important. But it is poorly understood. Here we present recent high vertical resolution observations that show a predominance of small vertical scale features in the velocity field in the equatorial thermocline. These features have a vertical scale of order 10m and a meridional coherency that can extend in excess of a hundred kilometres. Estimates suggest these features contribute significantly to both vertical and lateral mixing. We speculate that the observed small vertical scale features are produced by a combination of instabilities of the equatorial current system and wind-induced near-inertial oscillations, which in turn provide a significant control on the level of mixing in the equatorial thermocline. The picture is very different to that assumed in present-day climate models and calls for a rethinking of the way mixing processes are prescribed in such models.

  3. Ocean Color and the Equatorial Annual Cycle in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of chlorophyll, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and other scatterers in ocean surface waters affect the flux divergence of solar radiation and thus the vertical distribution of radiant heating of the ocean. While this may directly alter the local mixed-layer depth and temperature (Martin 1985; Strutton & Chavez 2004), non-local changes are propagated through advection (Manizza et al. 2005; Murtugudde et al. 2002; Nakamoto et al. 2001; Sweeny et al. 2005). In and coupled feedbacks (Lengaigne et al. 2007; Marzeion & Timmermann 2005). Anderson et al. (2007), Anderson et al. (2009) and Gnanadesikan & Anderson (2009) have performed a series of experiments with a fully coupled climate model which parameterizes the e-folding depth of solar irradiance in terms of surface chlorophyll-a concentration. The results have so far been discussed with respect to the climatic mean state and ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific. We extend the discussion here to the Pacific equatorial annual cycle. The focus of the coupled experiments has been the sensitivity of the coupled system to regional differences in chlorophyll concentration. While runs have been completed with realistic SeaWiFS-derived monthly composite chlorophyll ('green') and with a globally chlorophyll-free ocean ('blue'), the concentrations in two additional runs have been selectively set to zero in specific regions: the oligotrophic subtropical gyres ('gyre') in one case and the mesotrophic gyre margins ('margin') in the other. The annual cycle of ocean temperatures exhibits distinctly reduced amplitudes in the 'blue' and 'margin' experiments, and a slight reduction in 'gyre' (while ENSO variability almost vanishes in 'blue' and 'gyre', but amplifies in 'margin' - thus the frequently quoted inverse correlation between ENSO and annual amplitudes holds only for the 'green' / 'margin' comparison). It is well-known that on annual time scales, the anomalous divergence of surface currents and vertical

  4. Equatorial Pacific ``stable isotope reference curve'' for the Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pälike, H.; Norris, R.; Herle, J. O.; Wilson, P. A.; Lear, C. H.; Coxall, H. K.; Tripati, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    We present an uninterrupted chronology of climate and ocean carbon chemistry from ODP Site 1218 recovered in the equatorial Pacific, from the Eocene / Oligocene to the Oligocene / Miocene boundary, ~34 to 23 Ma. Using astronomically age calibrated data we find a strong imprint of the 405, 127 and 96-thousand-year (kyr) Earth's eccentricity as well as a dominant influence of the 1.2 million year (Myr) obliquity amplitude modulation cycles on periodically re-occurring Oligocene glacial and carbon cycle events. In combination, these astronomical modulations act as the ``heartbeat'' of the Oligocene climate system. The response of the climate system to intricate orbital variations is striking and suggests a fundamental role of the carbon cycle in the interaction between solar forcing and climate. Our record provides a new high-resolution view of the Oligocene climate system, prompts a re-evaluation of the previously hypothesised late Oligocene deglaciation, and sheds new light on Oligocene inter-ocean isotope gradients. Salient observations include foraminiferal benthic stable oxygen and carbon isotopes that co-vary, a phase lag of δ13C w.r.t. δ18O for the 405 kyr cycle, preferential filtering of longer orbital periods in δ13C, presumably due to σCO2 reservoir buffering. We then use simple orbitally forced carbon cycle box models and manage to re-create the patterns observed in our data, including the overall strong amplitude of 405 kyr cycles in δ13C. Depending on ice-sheet presence and pCO2 concentrations, our model predicts re-occurring conditions favouring glaciations every 2.4 Myr, including the Eocene/Oligocene transition.

  5. Planetary wave and solar emission signatures in the equatorial electrojet

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, H.F.; Forbes, J.M.; Kamalabadi, F. )

    1994-01-01

    Recent analyses of observational data reveal the presence of perturbations in the E and F regions of the equatorial ionosphere with periods ranging from 2 to 45 days. The characteristic periods of many of these perturbations suggest an association with free Rossby (resonant mode) oscillations, perhaps excited either in the lower atmosphere or in situ. In the present work, the authors analyze hourly magnetic observations from Huancayo Observatory, Peru (12.00[degrees]S, 75.30[degrees]W geographic; 0.72[degrees]S, 4.78[degrees]W geomagnetic), for the presence and persistence of these oscillations during the whole year of 1979. The measured variations can be interpreted in terms of oscillations of the wind field in the E region (approximately 100-160 km), which in turn cause perturbations in the electric fields generated by the wind-driven atmospheric dynamo and in the magnetic field intensity measured at the ground. The observations suggest that the effects of planetary wave oscillations with periods close to 2.5, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10.5, and 16 days may regularly propagate into the thermosphere and ionosphere, causing oscillations which are significant in magnitude. On the basis of an averaged periodogram analysis, they estimate that planetary wave effects may account for up to 75% of the total energy in [delta]H values in the 2 to 35 day period range, suggesting that planetary waves may provide an important contribution to the dynamics and electrodynamics of the lower ionosphere and thermosphere. EUV fluxes during 1979 are noted to have a predominant 13.5-day periodicity during the first half of the year and the more typical 27-day oscillation during the latter half of 1979. These features can in principle affect the [delta]H variations through their influence on the E region conductivity. The authors examine such influence here, especially those that affect the interpretation of the quasi 16-day oscillation.

  6. Modeling Tides, Planetary Waves, and Equatorial Oscillations in the MLT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Applying Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for gravity waves (GW), our 3D model reproduces some essential features that characterize the observed seasonal variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. In 2D, our model also reproduces the large Semi-Annual Oscillation (SAO) and Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) observed in this region at low latitudes. It is more challenging to describe these features combined in a more comprehensive self consistent model, and we give a progress report that outlines the difficulties and reports some success. In 3D, the GW's are partially absorbed by tides and planetary waves to amplify them. Thus the waves are less efficient in generating the QBO and SAO at equatorial latitudes. Some of this deficiency is compensated by the fact that the GW activity is observed to be enhanced at low latitudes. Increasing the GW source has the desired effect to boost the QBO, but the effect is confined primarily to the stratosphere. With increasing altitude, the meridional circulation becomes more important in redistributing the momentum deposited in the background flow by the GW's. Another factor involved is the altitude at which the GW's originate, which we had originally chosen to be the surface. Numerical experiments show that moving this source altitude to the top of the troposphere significantly increases the efficiency for generating the QBO without affecting much the tides and planetary waves in the model. Attention to the details in which the GW source comes into play thus appears to be of critical importance in modeling the phenomenology of the MLT. Among the suite of numerical experiments reported, we present a simulation that produced significant variations of tides and planetary waves in the upper mesosphere. The effect is related to the QBO generated in the model, and GW filtering is the likely cause.

  7. Multiscale equatorial electrojet turbulence for GNSS disruption physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W., Jr.; Hassan, E.; Litt, S. K.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Rainwater, D.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of the turbulent plasma density and electric fields are modeled in ionospheric E region using a new set of nonlinear plasma fluid equations. The fluid model combines both Farley-Buneman (Type-I) and Gradient-Drift (Type-II) plasma instabilities in the equatorial electrojet region. The unified model of the plasma instabilities includes the ion viscosity in the ion momentum equation and electron inertia in the electron momentum equation. Electron heating from the electrojet currents is included. Nonlinear simulations in 2D and 3D in massively parallel codes for the coupled equations are run on TACC and NERSC computers. Rising plumes and falling spikes of high-density plasma are ubiquitous as in earlier 2D simulations. 3D movies of structures like TIDs are shown. The simulation results show some agreement with a number of features of rocket and radar observations as reported in Hassan et al. JGR 2015. At sunset, the strong electric fields driven both by neutral thermosphere winds and the dynamo electric field the turbulence are severe. The source field aligned currents [FACs] is the solar wind dynamo electric field. During periods of magnetospheric storms and substorms these plasma currents surge to large values producing ionospheric storms. The turbulent fluctuations in the ionosphere are intrinsic part of the dynamics of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The plasma fluctuations are a source of multipath GNSS rays and loss-of-lock. Monitoring of ionosphere irregularities is used as a diagnostic tool for the state of the ionosphere for GNSS disruption and space weather issues. The theoretical/simulation model of ionospheric irregularities is based on advanced nonlinear plasma physics.

  8. Changes in the Equatorial Undercurrent from 1861 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenkard, E.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is a vital component of the tropical Pacific circulation. It transports massive amounts of cold, nutrient- and carbon-rich water eastward, where upwelling feeds the cold tongue, reinforces the zonal SST gradient, and plays an important role in global biogeochemical cycling at seasonal and longer time scales. To first-order, the momentum budget of the EUC is a balance between an eastward oceanic zonal pressure gradient force that is established by the trade winds and downward mixing of westward momentum from the surface current. The EUC is located between 100 and 300m depth and is constrained to within ~2 degrees latitude of the equator by the Coriolis force. A recent study has proposed that Pacific islands and atolls near the equator that experience topographic upwelling of cooler EUC waters, may be spared the brunt of global warming because global climate models project future strengthening of the EUC. This strengthening is in response to increasing atmospheric CO2-forcing by way of a weakening of the trade winds and surface current. Given the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures, a natural question is whether or not these changes have already been occurring. Our analyses of an ocean reanalysis product (SODA) indicate that EUC intensification is already underway. Various metrics including core velocity and volume transport calculated from the extended SODA reanalysis (1871-2008) indicate that the EUC has strengthened significantly over the past 130 years. Trends in zonal wind stress and the surface current appear to be consistent with the mechanism governing the annual cycle and future projections when considering the spatiotemporal evolution of these changes. The role of data assimilation and boundary forcing of reanalyses products, and implications of this observed change in characterizing the response of the overall tropical Pacific coupled climate system to global warming will be discussed.

  9. Chemical fluctuations associated with vertically propagating equatorial Kelvin waves

    SciTech Connect

    Salby, M.L.; Callaghan, P. ); Soloman, S. NOAA, Boulder, CO ); Garcia, R.R. )

    1990-11-20

    Satellite retrievals of ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the Nimbus-7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) reveal distinct spectral features which are collocated in frequency with Kelvin wave temperature fluctuations. These features represent a significant component of the unsteady variance in retrievals of O{sub 3} and nighttime NO{sub 2} in the tropics and are very similar to Kelvin wave temperature disturbances. Chemical fluctuations occur symmetrically about the equator, in phase across the tropics, and propagate downward, all consistent with the behavior of equatorial Kelvin waves. The phase structure of ozone perturbations mirrors that of temperature fluctuations in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, only shifted 180{degree}. The regular phase tilt with altitude disappears in the middle to lower stratosphere, where it is replaced by more or less barotropic behavior. That change in phase structure marks a transition fromn photochemical control in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere to dynamical control in the lower stratosphere. Fluctuations in ozone are consistent with dynamical and chemical mechanisms operating on that species. The response of ozone in a detailed photochemical calculation driven by observed temperature variability locks into agreement with the observed ozone variability above about 4 mbar, where O{sub 3} is under photochemical control. At lower altitudes, vertical transport is able to explain both the magnitude and phase of the observed fluctuations in ozone. The same considerations have only mixed success in explaining the observed variability of nitrogen dioxide. The amplitude of nighttime NO{sub 2} fluctuations is underestimated in the photochemical calculation by about a factor of 2. Although large enough to explain the discrepancy, contributions from vertical transport have the wrong phase.

  10. Magnetospheric conditions near the equatorial footpoints of proton isotropy boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaev, I. A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Data from a cluster of three THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) spacecraft during February-March 2009 frequently provide an opportunity to construct local data-adaptive magnetospheric models, which are suitable for the accurate mapping along the magnetic field lines at distances of 6-9 Re in the nightside magnetosphere. This allows us to map the isotropy boundaries (IBs) of 30 and 80 keV protons observed by low-altitude NOAA POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites) to the equatorial magnetosphere (to find the projected isotropy boundary, PIB) and study the magnetospheric conditions, particularly to evaluate the ratio KIB (Rc/rc; the magnetic field curvature radius to the particle gyroradius) in the neutral sheet at that point. Special care is taken to control the factors which influence the accuracy of the adaptive models and mapping. Data indicate that better accuracy of an adaptive model is achieved when the PIB distance from the closest spacecraft is as small as 1-2 Re. For this group of most accurate predictions, the spread of KIB values is still large (from 4 to 32), with the median value KIB ~13 being larger than the critical value Kcr ~ 8 expected at the inner boundary of nonadiabatic angular scattering in the current sheet. It appears that two different mechanisms may contribute to form the isotropy boundary. The group with K ~ [4,12] is most likely formed by current sheet scattering, whereas the group having KIB ~ [12,32] could be formed by the resonant scattering of low-energy protons by the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) waves. The energy dependence of the upper K limit and close proximity of the latter event to the plasmapause locations support this conclusion. We also discuss other reasons why the K ~ 8 criterion for isotropization may fail to work, as well as a possible relationship between the two scattering mechanisms.

  11. Coral Settlement on a Highly Disturbed Equatorial Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Andrew G.; Guest, James R.; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world’s most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m-2 yr-1) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March–May and September–November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March–April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December–February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure (‘others’; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of

  12. Phase space variations of near equatorially mirroring ring current ions

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    We present Isee 1 observations of near equatorially mirroring ring current ions before and after the magnetic storm of November 25-26, 1977. The data are presented as phase space densities, f(s/sup 2//cm/sup 6/), versus the first adiabatic invariant, m(MeV/G), for the L range approx.2.7-8 R/sub E/. The m range covered varies from approx.50-1000 MeV/G at L = 8 to approx.1-100 MeV/G at L = 2.7. The prestorm phase space densities show an intensity peak at a m value which varies with L as m/sub peak/approx.38 MeV/G for 5< or approx. =L< or approx. =8 and m/sub peak/approx.10e/sup( 0.7L/-3) for 2.7< or approx. =L< or approx. =5. Phase space densities remain nearly constant throughout the storm for m values greater that m/sub peak/ and are enhanced for m values less than m/sub peak/. Thus high-energy ions respond adiabatically to the magnetic field changes caused by the low-energy ion enhancements. This result agrees with earlier Explorer 45 results (Lyons and Williams, 1976). The Isee 1 data are compared directly with the Explorer 45 data and are found to agree very well. The time difference of approx.6 years and local time separation of approx.12 hours between the two data sets lead to the conclusion that the ring current ion behavior presented here is a characteristic feature of geomagnetic storms.

  13. Pleistocene dynamics of the Pacific South Equatorial Countercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuernberg, D.; Raddatz, J.; Rippert, N.; Tiedemann, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) with extremely high sea-surface-temperatures (SST) is a key area for global climate. It also acts as a crossroad for mode and intermediate water masses such as the South Equatorial Countercurrent (SECC) transporting water masses originating from higher latitudes. The SECC flows above the main thermocline and strongly interacts with the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). To constrain changes in sea-surface and subsurface water mass dynamics affecting thermocline depth, we reconstruct SST, subSST and salinity conditions using combined δ18O and Mg/Ca signals of surface (Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer) and subsurface dwelling (Globorotalia tumida) planktonic foraminifera. Our study is based on RV SONNE SO-225 piston cores retrieved from Manihiki plateau, which is located at the southeastern margin of the WPWP (between ~ 5°S-15°S and 170-160°W). The proxy records cover the last ~ 3 Myr SSTMg/Ca remained nearly constant throughout the entire Pleistocene varying between ~30 to 32 (°C), while the subSSTMg/Ca reconstructions reveal pronounced variations from ~10 to 16 (°C). Our results imply that the WPWP thermocline depth has undergone significant vertical movements throughout the Pleistocene. Notably, thermocline depth is continuously decreasing from the early to the late Pleistocene, and coincides with the change from the 41 kyr to a dominant 100 kyr climate periodicity between 1 and 1.7 Ma. We hypothesize that the repeated change in thermocline depth is due to either 1) changes in mode or intermediate water masses advection from Southern Ocean sources via "ocean tunneling", 2) changes in the tropical Pacific wind regime, and/or 3) changes in the Western Pacific Monsoon sytem.

  14. Evening and nighttime features of equatorial ionospheric F2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    We have used ionosonde observations recorded at Ibadan (7.4 degree North, 3.9 degree East) during the International Geophysical year (1957-58) to investigate evening and nighttime characteristic features of equatorial ionosphere during high solar flux and quiet magnetic conditions. We have also used International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) data. Our results show that the base of the ionosphere descends at a rate of -27.5 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0400 LT, whereas the observed bottomside peak of the ionosphere move down at a rate of -29.3 km/hr between 1900 and 0500 LT, while IRI2012 bottomside peak show -29.8 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0500 LT. The downward flow rate of plasma concentration between 1900 LT and 0500 LT and between 1800 LT and 0400 LT is approximately 0.040 electron per cubic metre per hour and 0.081 electron per cubic metre per hour, respectively for observed and for modeled NmF2. Month-by-month averaged altitudes (h'F, hmF2, and modeled hmF2) indicate significant local time variation. In addition, the month-by month variation indicates nighttime double crest of averaged peak height (hmF2) in the ionosonde measurements and in the IRI-2012 empirical model with a trough in June-August for data and In July for model. The monthly mean downward vertical drift velocities derived from local time variation of h'F and hmF2 together with global drift model essential demonstrate much fluctuations. We found a "domed shape" in modeled drift velocity, indicating equatorward plasma between April and September.

  15. Diagenetic processes in cretaceous sandstones from occidental Brazilian Equatorial Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrank, A. B. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2015-11-01

    Despite a great interest in Brazilian Equatorial Margin exploration, very little was published on the diagenesis of sandstones from that area. A wide recognition petrographic study was performed to identify the major diagenetic processes that impacted the porosity of Lower Cretaceous sandstones of the Pará-Maranhão, São Luís, Bragança-Viseu and Barreirinhas basins. Arkoses from the Pará-Maranhão Basin show neoformed or infiltrated clay coatings, mica replacement and expansion by kaolinite and vermiculite, and precipitation of grain-replacive and pore-filling quartz, kaolinite, albite, chlorite, calcite, dolomite, siderite, pyrite and titanium oxides. Compaction, quartz and calcite cementation were the main porosity-reducing processes. Barreirinhas Basin lithic arkoses and subarkoses display clay coatings, compaction of metamorphic fragments into pseudomatrix, and precipitation of grain-replacive and pore-filling kaolinite, quartz, albite, chlorite, calcite, dolomite, TiO2 and pyrite. The main porosity-reducing processes were calcite cementation in the subarkoses, and compaction and quartz cementation in lithic arkoses. Quartzarenites from this basin were early- and pervasively cemented by dolomite. Arkoses and lithic arkoses of the São Luís and Bragança-Viseu basins show clay coatings, pseudomatrix from mud intraclasts compaction, and precipitation of pore-filling and grain-replacive kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, quartz, albite, chlorite, illite, calcite, dolomite, hematite, TiO2 and pyrite. Compaction of mud intraclasts and dissolution of feldspars and heavy minerals were the main porosity-modification processes. These preliminary results may contribute to the understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of the diagenetic processes and their impacts on the porosity of the sandstones from these basins.

  16. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae <1%. Other, unidentifiable families represented 10% of the coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore

  17. Evolution and dynamics of equatorial plasma bubbles: Relationships to ExB drift, postsunset total electron content enhancements, and equatorial electrojet strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabas, R. S.; Singh, Lakha; Lakshmi, D. R.; Subramanyam, P.; Chopra, P.; Garg, S. C.

    2003-08-01

    The growth in altitude/latitude of equatorial plasma bubbles was monitored, using simultaneous recordings of VHF scintillations at five locations situated between 3° and 23°N magnetic latitudes along a common meridian (84°E) during February 1980. The onsets of postsunset scintillation were mostly abrupt in character, and their occurrence at higher latitudes was conditional on their prior appearance at lower latitudes, indicating a causal link to irregularities associated with rising equatorial plasma bubbles. The day-to-day occurrence and the latitudinal, and effectively altitudinal, growths are examined in relation to the prereversal enhancement in h'F during sunset hours and its rate of rise, the onset of a postsunset secondary maximum (PSSM) in ionospheric electron content (IEC), and equatorial electrojet strength (EEJ) variations. It is observed that the bubble and associated irregularities, after its onset over the magnetic equator, reached the highest altitudes/latitudes only on those days when a prior PSSM in IEC is observed there in addition to high values of h'F, dh'F/dt and bubble rise velocity; otherwise it will be confined to near equatorial latitudes only. Also, the equatorial h'F, dh'F/dt, magnitude of PSSM and intensity of 4 GHz scintillations at low latitude are all showing positive correlation with daytime EEJ strength variations. It is concluded that, after the initial development of a bubble, the ExB drift and the PSSM play an important role in the subsequent growth and evolution, and EEJ is a useful parameter for the prediction of the development.

  18. Pacific decadal variability in the view of linear equatorial wave theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J. B.; Cane, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has recently been proposed, within the framework of the linear shallow water equations, that tropical Pacific decadal variability can be accounted for by basin modes with eigenperiods of 10 to 20 years, amplifying a mid- latitude wind forcing with an essentially white spectrum (Cessi and Louazel 2001; Liu 2003). We question this idea here, using a different formalism of linear equatorial wave theory. We compute the Green's function for the wind forced response of a linear equatorial shallow water ocean, and use the results of Cane and Moore (1981) to obtain a compact, closed form expression for the motion of the equatorial thermocline, which applies to all frequencies lower than seasonal. At very low frequencies (decadal timescales), we recover the planetary geostrophic solution used by Cessi and Louazel (2001), as well as the equatorial wave solution of Liu (2003), and give a formal explanation for this convergence. Using this more general solution to explore more realistic wind forcings, we come to a different interpretation of the results. We find that the equatorial thermocline is inherently more sensitive to local than to remote wind forcing, and that planetary Rossby modes only weakly alter the spectral characteristics of the response. Tropical winds are able to generate a strong equatorial response with periods of 10 to 20 years, while midlatitude winds can only do so for periods longer than about 50 years. Since the decadal pattern of observed winds shows similar amplitude for tropical and midlatitude winds, we conclude that the latter are unlikely to be responsible for the observed decadal tropical Pacific SST variability. References : Cane, M. A., and Moore, D. W., 1981: A note on low-frequency equatorial basin modes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11(11), 1578 1584. Cessi, P., and Louazel, S., 2001: Decadal oceanic response to stochastic wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3020 3029. Liu, Z., 2003: Tropical ocean decadal variability and resonance of planetary

  19. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burls, N.; Muir, L.; Vincent, E. M.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in this project). Our study investigates the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis confirms that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific translate into a cold equatorial SST bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extended extra-tropical Pacific, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs - a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias is to improve the representation of cloud albedo in mid-latitudes.

  20. Multiple embryos, multiple nepionts and multiple equatorial layers in Cycloclypeus carpenteri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wolfgring, Erik; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-04-01

    In this study, 17 specimens of Cycloclypeus carpenteri have been analyzed by means of microCT scanning. We used CT scanning technique as it enables the visualization and the quantifications of internal structures of hollow specimens without their destruction. It has been observed that many specimens possessing the natural morphology of this taxon, actually contain multiple embryos (up to 16 in one single specimen) and, in some few cases, multiple nepionts each with its own heterosteginid chambers (up to three separated nepionts). The diameter of each proloculus has been measured, and as a result, they are very variable even within the same specimen, therefore questioning the long known theory that schizonts have smaller proloculi than gamonts and also questioning the fact that proloculi in the same species should all have comparable size. Furthermore, we have observed the presence of additional equatorial planes on several specimens. Such additional planes are always connected to what seems to be the main equatorial plane. Such connections are T-shaped and are located at the junction between two equatorial layers; these junctions are made by a chamberlet, which possesses an unusually higher number of apertures. The connections between equatorial planes are always perfectly synchronized with the relative growth step and the same chamber can be therefore followed along the multiple equatorial planes. Apparently there is a perfect geometric relationship between the creation of additional equatorial planes and the position of the nepionts. Whenever the nepionts are positioned on different planes, additional planes are created and the angle of the nepionts is related to the banding angle of the equatorial planes. The presence of additional planes do not hamper the life of the cell, on the contrary, it seems that the cell is still able to build nicely shaped chamberlets and, after volumetric calculations, it seems all specimens managed to keep their logistic growth

  1. The role of the Indonesian Throughflow in equatorial Pacific thermocline ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Keith B.; Cane, Mark A.; Naik, Naomi H.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    1999-09-01

    The role of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the thermocline circulation of the low-latitude Pacific Ocean is explored using a high-resolution primitive equation ocean circulation model. Seasonally forced runs for a domain with an open Indonesian passage are compared with seasonally forced runs for a closed Pacific domain. Three cases are considered: one with no throughflow, one with 10 Sv of imposed ITF transport, and one with 20 Sv of ITF transport. Two idealized tracers, one that tags northern component subtropical water and another that tags southern component subtropical water, are used to diagnose the mixing ratio of northern and southern component waters in the equatorial thermocline. It is found that the mixing ratio of north/south component waters in the equatorial thermocline is highly sensitive to whether the model accounts for an ITF. Without an ITF, the source of equatorial undercurrent water is primarily of North Pacific origin, with the ratio of northern to southern component water being approximately 2.75 to 1. The ratio of northern to southern component water in the Equatorial Undercurrent with 10 Sv of ITF is approximately 1.4 to 1, and the ratio with 20 Sv of imposed ITF is 1 to 1.25. Estimates from data suggest a mean mixing ratio of northern to southern component water of less than 1 to 1. Assuming that the mixing ratio changes approximately linearly as the ITF transport varies between 10 and 20 Sv, an approximate balance between northern and southern component water is reached when the ITF transport is approximately 16 Sv. It is also shown that for the isopycnal surfaces within the core of the equatorial undercurrent, a 2°C temperature front exists across the equator in the western equatorial Pacific, beneath the warm pool. The implications of the model results and the temperature data for the heat budget of the equatorial Pacific are considered.

  2. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma bubbles are large-scale (10 to 100 km) depletions in plasma density found in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. Their formation has been found to entail the upward transport of plasma over hundreds of kilometers in altitude, suggesting that bubbles play significant roles in the physics of many of the diverse and unique features found in the low-latitude ionosphere. In the simplest scenario, plasma bubbles appear first as perturbations in the bottomside F layer, which is linearly unstable to the gravitationally driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Once initiated, bubbles develop upward through the peak of the F layer into its topside (sometimes to altitudes in excess of 1000 km), a behavior predicted by the nonlinear form of the same instability. While good general agreement has been found between theory and observations, little is known about the detailed physics associated with plasma bubbles. Our research activity centered around two topics: the shape of plasma bubbles and associated electric fields, and the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of plasma bubbles. The first topic was pursued because of a divergence in view regarding the nonlinear physics associated with plasma bubble development. While the development of perturbations in isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer into plasma bubbles is well accepted, some believed bubbles to be cylinder-like closed regions of depleted plasma density that floated upward leaving a turbulent wake behind them (e.g., Woodman and LaHoz, 1976; Ott, 1978; Kelley and Ott, 1978). Our results, summarized in a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, consisted of incoherent scatter radar measurements that showed unambiguously that the depleted region is wedgelike and not cylinderlike, and a case study and modeling of SM-D electric field instrument (EFI) measurements that showed that the absence of electric-field perturbations outside the plasma-depleted region is a distinct signature of wedge

  3. Metal quotas of plankton in the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Benjamin S.; Baines, Stephen B.; Bozard, James B.; Vogt, Stefan; Walker, Elyse A.; Nelson, David M.

    2011-03-01

    The micronutrient metals Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn are required for phytoplankton growth, and their availability influences ocean productivity and biogeochemistry. Here we report the first direct measurements of these metals in phytoplankton and protozoa from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cells representing 4 functional groups (diatoms, autotrophic flagellates, heterotrophic flagellates and autotrophic picoplankton) were collected from the surface mixed layer using trace-metal clean techniques during transects across the equator at 110°W and along the equator between 110°W and 140°W. Metal quotas were determined for individual cells with synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and cellular stoichiometries were calculated relative to measured P and S, as well as to C calculated from biovolume. Bulk particulate (>3 μm) metal concentrations were also determined at 3 stations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for comparison to single-cell stoichiometries. Phosphorus-normalized Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn ratios were significantly higher in diatoms than other cell types, while Co stoichiometries were highest in autotrophic flagellates. The magnitude of these effects ranged from approximately 2-fold for Mn in diatoms and autotrophic flagellates to nearly an order of magnitude for Fe in diatoms and picoplankton. Variations in S-normalized metal stoichiometries were also significant but of lower magnitude (1.4 to 6-fold). Cobalt and Mn quotas were 1.6 and 3-fold higher in autotrophic than heterotrophic flagellates. Autotrophic picoplankton were relatively enriched in Ni but depleted in Zn, matching expectations based on known uses of these metals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Significant spatial variability in metal stoichiometries was also observed. At two stations deviations in Fe stoichiometries reflected features in the dissolved Fe distribution. At these same stations, high Ni stoichiometries in autotrophic flagellates were correlated with elevated ammonium

  4. Equatorial wave activity derived from fluctuations in observed convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, John W.; Salby, Murry L.

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of equatorial wave activity propagating vertically into the stratosphere is calculated from high-resolution imagery of the global convective pattern. Synoptic Global Cloud Imagery (GCI), constructed from six satellites simultaneously observing the earth, is used to diabatically force the linearized primitive equations. Having resolution of 0.5 deg and 3 h, that imagery captures the dominant scales of organized convection, including several harmonics of the diurnal cycle. Its global coverage with high space-time resolution allows the GCI to represent heating variability and dynamical behavior excited by it over a wide range of scales. The dynamical response above the heating is evaluated globally in terms of a space-time spectrum of Hough modes, one which includes planetary-scale Kelvin waves, Rossby waves, and gravity waves down to the resolution of the GCI. The geopotential response, which is indicative of temperature fluctuations observed by satellite, is very red in frequency. Therefore, planetary-scale waves with periods longer than two days dominate the spectrum of geopotential, while high-frequency gravity waves make a comparatively small contribution. Some 80% of the geopotential variance is accounted for by the Kelvin and gravest-symmetric Rossby modes, while the Rossby-gravity mode is comparatively weak. In horizontal eddy motion, the excited wave spectrum is still dominated by planetary-scale components. However, meridional wind fluctuations associated with the Rossby-gravity mode have variance comparable to that of zonal wind fluctuations associated with the Kelvin mode, even though the Rossby-gravity mode is nearly invisible in the geopotential response. Estimates of tropospheric heating lead to amplitudes and propagation characteristics that are broadly consistent with satellite and radiosonde observations of wave activity in the lower stratosphere. The space-time spectrum of EP flux is significantly whiter than the response in either

  5. Compound-specific nitrogen isotopes of equatorial Pacific sedimentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, W.; Ravelo, A. C.; Mccarthy, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Compound specific nitrogen isotopic analysis of amino acids (δ15N-AA) is a technique that is widely used in regional ecology and food web studies, with newly expanding applications in organic geochemistry. However, its applicability to marine sediment has been minimally examined. This study is one of the first δ15N-AA applications into the paleorecord of marine sediment. We explore how δ15N-AA measurements provide insights into past changes in water column N cycling and N utilization, and into post-depositional processes that impact sedimentary N. This is possible because δ15N-AA investigates the molecular-level basis of the bulk sedimentary δ15N signal, revealing possible diagenetic alteration of sedimentary organic matter. Our goal was is to investigate the extent of alteration (vs. preservation) of individual sedimentary amino acid δ15N values from surface nitrate δ15N across a wide range of depositional environments. The δ15N of bulk sediment differs from that of the surface nitrate δ15N signal because of water column processes or more often because of alteration of the signal during initial sedimentation. To investigate this alteration we compare δ15N-AA to bulk δ15N measurements in a suite of equatorial Pacific core tops (378-4360 m below sea level) across contrasting oceanographic and sedimentary depositional conditions (e.g. high vs. low productivity, hypoxic vs. oxic bottom waters). To examine down core diagenetic alteration of the sediment record, we present δ15N-AA and bulk δ15N of selected deeper depths to observe 1) if diagenetic shift is coherently resolved by both types of measurements and 2) if select individual δ15N-AA values remain representative of the surface organic δ15N signal. We hypothesize that compound specific analysis (δ15N-AA) will provide a molecular level assessment of mechanism for diagenetic changes in bulk organic δ15N values while also preserving detailed information about planktonic ecosystem structure.

  6. Nitric oxide from nitrite photolysis in the central equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafiriou, O. C.; McFarland, M.

    1981-04-01

    Sunlight photolyzes nitrite in seawater: NO2- + HOH + hv = NO + OH + OH-. We studied nitrite loss and nitric oxide production attributed to this reaction in surface waters of the equatorial Pacific near 170°W. Net photochemical loss rates of 2-15% per day were derived from two different types of laboratory incubation experiments. The net nitrite loss rate in the surface water of this region is calculated to average 4 × 10-13 mol l-l s-l during the day, or ˜6 × 10-2 mol m-2 y-1. Nitric oxide was detected in situ with a floating gas-seawater equilibrator. NO was always detectable in nitrite-containing seawater during the day but was undetectable at night or in nitrite-free water. Near sunrises and sunsets the estimated NO vapor pressure, pNO(sea) covaried with the ambient UV insolation in air according to log pNO(sea) = a log UVair + b. Best-fit values to the in situ data indicate a ≈ 1 with r2 ≥ 0.9; simple kinetic models rationalize a values of O, ½, or 1. During the day, pNO(sea) averaged ˜3.1 × 10-8 atm, corresponding to ˜4.6 × 10-11 M [NO]aq. The ambient atmospheric pNO was ˜104 -fold lower, implying a substantial seawater supersaturation and a sea → air flux. From the stagnant-boundary layer model and our measurements, we estimate ˜2 × 10-16 mol 1-1 s-1 (˜1.3 × 108 molecule cm-2 s-1) of NO efflux in daylight, an insignificant NO loss from the sea. The photochemical NO source and the estimated dark reaction sink are, within the accuracy of the data, in balance. These results provide evidence for the presence of NO, a free radical, in surface seawater. They substantiate that photochemical reactions produce measurable concentrations of reactive intermediates in surface seawater and that these enter into rapid secondary reactions. These processes may reach sufficient intensity to provide significant effects, such as sea → air fluxes.

  7. A Campaign to Study Equatorial Ionospheric Phenomena over Guam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash Krause, L.; Balthazor, R.; Dearborn, M.; Enloe, L.; Lawrence, T.; McHarg, M.; Petrash, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; Stuart, T.

    2007-05-01

    With the development of a series of ground-based and space-based experiments, the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is in the process of planning a campaign to investigate the relationship between equatorial ionospheric plasma dynamics and a variety of space weather effects, including: 1) ionospheric plasma turbulence in the F region, and 2) scintillation of radio signals at low latitudes. A Digisonde Portable Sounder DPS-4 will operate from the island of Guam (with a magnetic latitude of 5.6° N) and will provide measurements of ionospheric total electron content (TEC), vertical drifts of the bulk ionospheric plasma, and electron density profiles. Additionally, a dual-frequency GPS TEC/scintillation monitor will be located along the Guam magnetic meridian at a magnetic latitude of approximately 15° N. In campaign mode, we will combine these ground-based observations with those collected from space during USAFA's FalconSAT-3 and FalconSAT-5 low-earth orbit satellite missions, the first of which is scheduled to be active over a period of several months beginning in the 2007 calendar year. The satellite experiments are designed to characterize in situ irregularities in plasma density, and include measurements of bulk ion density and temperature, minority-to- majority ion mixing ratios, small scale (10 cm to 1 m) plasma turbulence, and ion distribution spectra in energy with sufficient resolution for observations of non-thermalized distributions that may be associated with velocity- space instabilities. Specific targets of investigation include: a) a comparison of plasma turbulence observed on- orbit with spread F on ionograms as measured with the Digisonde, b) a correlation between the vertical lifting of the ionospheric layer over Guam and the onset of radio scintillation activity along the Guam meridian at 15° N magnetic latitude, and c) a correlation between on-orbit turbulence and ionospheric scintillation at 15° N magnetic latitude. These relationships

  8. Characteristics of equatorial electrojet derived from Swarm satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Neethal; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    The vector magnetic field measurements from three satellite constellation, Swarm mission (Alpha 'Swarm-A', Bravo 'Swarm-B', and Charlie 'Swarm-C') during the quiet days (daily ∑Kp ⩽ 10) of the years 2014-2015 are used to study the characteristic features of equatorial electrojet (EEJ). A program is developed to identify the EEJ signature in the X (northward) component of the magnetic field recorded by the satellite. An empirical model is fitted into the observed EEJ signatures separately for both the hemispheres, to obtain the parameters of electrojet current such as peak current density, total eastward current, the width of EEJ, position of the electrojet axis, etc. The magnetic field signatures of EEJ at different altitudes are then estimated. Swarm B and C are orbiting at different heights (separation ∼50 km) and during the month of April 2014, both the satellites were moving almost simultaneously over nearby longitudes. Therefore, we used those satellite passes to validate the methodology used in the present study. The magnetic field estimates at the location of Swarm-C obtained using the observations of Swarm B are compared with the actual observations of Swarm-C. A good correlation between the actual and the computed values (correlation coefficient = 0.98) authenticates the method of analysis. The altitudinal variation of the amplitude and the width of the EEJ signatures are also depicted. The ratio of the total eastward flowing forward to westward return currents is found to vary between 0.1 and 1.0. The forward and return current values in the northern hemisphere are found to be ∼0.5 to 2 times of those in the southern hemisphere, thereby indicating the hemispheric asymmetry. The latitudinal extents of the forward and return currents are found to have longitudinal dependence similar to that of the amplitude and the width of EEJ showing four peak structures. Local time dependence of EEJ parameters has also been investigated. In general, the results

  9. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    PubMed

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  10. Seismo-ionospheric coupling appearing as equatorial electron density enhancements observed via DEMETER electron density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, K.; Lee, E.; Chae, J. S.; Parrot, M.; Pulinets, S.

    2014-10-01

    We report the processes and results of statistical analysis on the ionospheric electron density data measured by the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite over a period of 6 years (2005-2010), in order to investigate the correlation between seismic activity and equatorial plasma density variations. To simplify the analysis, three equatorial regions with frequent earthquakes were selected and then one-dimensional time series analysis between the daily seismic activity indices and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) intensity indices, which represent relative equatorial electron density increase, were performed for each region. The statistically significant values of the lagged cross-correlation function, particularly in the region with minimal effects of longitudinal asymmetry, indicate that some of the very large earthquakes with M > 5.0 in the low-latitude region can accompany observable precursory and concurrent EIA enhancements, even though the seismic activity is not the most significant driver of the equatorial ionospheric evolution. The physical mechanisms of the seismo-ionospheric coupling is consistent with our observation, and the possibility of earthquake prediction using the EIA intensity variation is discussed.

  11. Equatorial noise emissions observed by the DEMETER spacecraft during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, O.

    2016-10-01

    Equatorial noise emissions are electromagnetic waves routinely observed in the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere at frequencies between the proton cyclotron frequency and the lower hybrid frequency. Their observations are, however, typically limited to radial distances larger than about 2RE. We use the data measured by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft (altitude of about 700 km) to confirm that during periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity, these emissions penetrate down to low radial distances and eventually become a dominant wave emission close to the proton cyclotron frequency in the equatorial region. Wave data obtained during six intense geomagnetic storms (Dst <- 100 nT) are analyzed. It is shown that during the analyzed time intervals, the daytime wave activity within about 20° from the geomagnetic equator is significantly enhanced, while the nightside wave activity shows a weaker increase at lower frequencies. Multicomponent wave data allow us to determine dayside wave propagation parameters. It is shown that the waves are nearly linearly polarized and their wave vector directions are almost perpendicular to the ambient Earth's magnetic field, as it has been previously observed for equatorial noise emissions. Finally, we analyze the dependence of the equatorial wave intensity at the proton cyclotron frequency on Dst and AE geomagnetic indices, and we demonstrate that the dayside wave intensity increases by as much as 3 orders of magnitude during severely disturbed periods.

  12. Daily variations of geomagnetic H D and Z-field at equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, F. N.; Hamano, Y.

    2000-04-01

    With the establishment of the new geomagnetic field observations in the Ocean Hemisphere Network Project (OHP) in Japan, minutes values of geomagnetic components, H D and Zhave been recorded. The hourly mean values were used to study the variations in these three components at these new equatorial electrojet regions. The results of the analysis carried out revealed that the amplitude of dHhas diurnal variation which peaks during the day at about local noon in all the three equatorial electrojet regions. This diurnal variation in Hwith Sq(H) enhancement in all the three regions are attributed to the enhanced dynamo action at these regions. Diurnal variation as observed in Dindicates that the equatorial electrojet current system has both east-west and north-south components. The pronounced magnitude of Zvariation as observed in Kiritimati is attributed mainly to sea induction. Also some abnormal features were observed on 23rd of January at Huancayo, in the components. Seasonal variations with more pronounced equinoctial maximum were observed in Hthan in Z. Dcomponent showed no consistent seasonal variation in all the regions. The equinoctial maximum is due to enhanced equatorial electron density at equinox. More research work, if carried out in these new regions will be useful in making more new contributions to the field of the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet region.

  13. Impact of East Asian winter monsoon on MJO over the equatorial western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiong; Li, Chongyin; Ling, Jian; Tan, Yanke

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the processes and mechanisms by which the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) affects the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) over the equatorial western Pacific in boreal winter (November-April). The results show that both the EAWM and MJO over the equatorial western Pacific have prominent interannual and interdecadal variabilities, and they are closely related, especially on the interannual timescales. The EAWM influences MJO via the feedback effect of convective heating, because the strong northerlies of EAWM can enhance the ascending motion and lead the convection to be strengthened over the equatorial western Pacific by reinforcing the convergence in the lower troposphere. Daily composite analysis in the phase 4 of MJO (i.e., strong MJO convection over the Maritime Continent and equatorial western Pacific) shows that the kinetic energy, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), moisture flux, vertical velocity, zonal wind, moist static energy, and atmospheric stability differ greatly between strong and weak EAWM processes over the western Pacific. The strong EAWM causes the intensity of MJO to increase, and the eastward propagation of MJO to become more persistent. MJO activities over the equatorial western Pacific have different modes. Furthermore, these modes have differing relationships with the EAWM, and other factors can also affect the activities of MJO; consequently, the relationship between the MJO and EAWM shows both interannual and interdecadal variabilities.

  14. Glacial to interglacial fluctuations in productivity in the equatorial Pacific as indicated by marine barite

    SciTech Connect

    Paytan, A.; Kastner, M.; Chavez, F.P.

    1996-11-22

    An empirical correlation between marine barite (BaSO{sub 4}) accumulation rate in core-top sediment samples from two equatorial Pacific transects (at 140{degrees}W and 110{degrees}W) and the estimated primary productivity of the overlying water column were used to evaluate glacial to interglacial changes in productivity. Fluctuations in barite accumulation rates down-core indicate that during glacial periods of the past 450,000 years, the productivity in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific was about two times that during intervening interglacial periods. This result is consistent with other evidence that productivity was high in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific during the last glacial. 48 refs., 3 figs.

  15. First observational evidence for the connection between the meteoric activity and occurrence of equatorial counter electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vineeth, C.; Mridula, N.; Muralikrishna, P.; Kumar, K. K.; Pant, T. K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first direct observational evidence for the possible role of meteoric activity in the generation of the equatorial Counter Electrojets (CEJ), an enigmatic daytime electrodynamical process over the geomagnetic equatorial upper atmosphere. The investigation carried out using the data from Proton Precession Magnetometer and Meteor Wind Radar over a geomagnetic dip equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, 0.5°N dip lat.) in India, revealed that the occurrence of the afternoon CEJ events during a month is directly proportional to the average monthly meteor counts over this location. The observation is found to be very consistent during the considered period of study, i.e the years 2006 and 2007. The study vindicates that the meteor showers play a major role in setting up the background condition conducive for the generation of CEJ by reducing the strength of the upward polarization field.

  16. Observations of equatorial ionization anomaly over Africa and Middle East during a year of deep minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, Olawale; Owolabi, Oluwafisayo; Falayi, Elijah; Jimoh, Emmanuel; Kotoye, Afolabi; Odeyemi, Olumide; Rabiu, Babatunde; Doherty, Patricia; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Yamazaki, Yosuke; Adeniyi, Jacob; Kaka, Rafiat; Onanuga, Kehinde

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the veracity of an ion continuity equation in controlling equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) morphology using total electron content (TEC) of 22 GPS receivers and three ground-based magnetometers (Magnetic Data Acquisition System, MAGDAS) over Africa and the Middle East (Africa-Middle East) during the quietest periods. Apart from further confirmation of the roles of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) in determining hemispheric extent of EIA crest over higher latitudes, we found some additional roles played by thermospheric meridional neutral wind. Interestingly, the simultaneous observations of EIA crests in both hemispheres of Africa-Middle East showed different morphology compared to that reported over Asia. We also observed interesting latitudinal twin EIA crests domiciled at the low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Our results further showed that weak EEJ strength associated with counter electrojet (CEJ) during sunrise hours could also trigger twin EIA crests over higher latitudes.

  17. On the mutual relationship of the equatorial electrojet, TEC and scintillation in the Peruvian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Sovit M.; Valladares, Cesar; Pradipta, Rezy; Pacheco, Edgardo; Condor, Percy

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the interrelationship between the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) strength, Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived total electron content (TEC), and postsunset scintillation from ground observations with the aim of finding reliable precursors of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities. Mutual relationship studies provide a possible route to predict the occurrence of TEC fluctuation and scintillation in the ionosphere during the late afternoon and night respectively based on daytime measurement of the equatorial ionosphere. Data from ground based observations in the low latitudes of the west American longitude sector were examined during the 2008 solar minimum. We find a strong relationship exists between the noontime equatorial electrojet and GPS-derived TEC distributions during the afternoon mediated by vertical E × B drift via the fountain effect, but there is little or no relationship with postsunset ionospheric scintillation.

  18. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  19. Effects of the equatorial ionosphere on L-band Earth-space transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ernest K.; Flock, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    Ionosphere scintillation can effect satellite telecommunication up to Ku-band. Nighttime scintillation can be attributed to large-scale inhomogeneity in the F-region of the ionosphere predominantly between heights of 200 and 600 km. Daytime scintillation has been attributed to sporadic E. It can be thought of as occurring in three belts: equatorial, high-latitude, and mid-latitude, in order of severity. Equatorial scintillation occurs between magnetic latitudes +/- 25 degrees, peaking near +/- 10 degrees. It commonly starts abruptly near 2000 local time and dies out shortly after midnight. There is a strong solar cycle dependence and a seasonal preference for the equinoxes, particularly the vernal one. Equatorial scintillation occurs more frequently on magnetically quiet than on magnetically disturbed days in most longitudes. At the peak of the sunspot cycle scintillation depths as great as 20 dB were observed at L-band.

  20. Natural Light Exposure, Sleep and Depression among Day Workers and Shiftworkers at Arctic and Equatorial Latitudes

    PubMed Central

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Vasconcelos, Suleima; Garefelt, Johanna; Skene, Debra J.; Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Lowden, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between individual natural light exposure, sleep need, and depression at two latitudes, one extreme with a few hours of light per day during winter, and the other with equal hours of light and darkness throughout the year. Methods This cross-sectional study included a sample of Brazilian workers (Equatorial, n = 488 workers) and a Swedish sample (Arctic, n = 1,273). Results The reported mean total natural light exposure per 4-week cycle differed significantly between the Equatorial and Arctic regions. However, shiftworkers from both sites reported similar hours of natural light exposure. Short light exposure was a predictor for insufficient sleep. Conclusion Reduced exposure to natural light appears to increase the perception of obtaining insufficient sleep. Arctic workers were more prone to develop depression than Equatorial workers. PMID:25874859

  1. Plasma sheets, plasma currents and electric field double layers in the equatorial ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma measurements carried out in the equatorial ionosphere at altitudes of 80-200 km are discussed. It is found that within this region the ion collision frequency exceeds the gyro-frequency. For electrons, however, the collision frequency is much lower than their gyro-frequency. It is pointed out that the earth's magnetic field is horizontal in the equatorial ionosphere, particularly at altitudes of approximately 100 km, where the curvature of the magnetic field can be neglected. The results obtained from rocket-borne probes in the equatorial ionosphere over Thumba (India) are presented. Localized regions illustrating the polarity of the vertical electric field are shown, as are current density profiles obtained at different times of the day. It is found that as expected, the vertical electric field becomes very small during a weak magnetic storm.

  2. Long-term trend of Pacific South Equatorial Current bifurcation over 1950-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Fangguo; Hu, Dunxin; Wang, Qingye; Wang, Fujun

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the long-term change of the Pacific South Equatorial Current (SEC) bifurcation latitude (SBL) over 1950-2010 with Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 2.2.4. Results indicate that the SBL averaged within upper 200 m has migrated southward at 0.020°S yr-1, comparable in magnitude with -0.024°N yr-1 for the North Equatorial Current bifurcation latitude (NBL). The SEC transport into the Coral Sea has increased. Due to the southward SBL migration, most of the increased SEC water was transported equatorward, contributing to the Equatorial Undercurrent intensification. Experiments with a nonlinear 1.5 layer reduced gravity model indicate that the southward migration of SBL is mainly caused by positive Ekman flux divergence trend in the eastern tropical South Pacific, while that of NBL is caused by negative Ekman flux divergence trend in the western tropical North Pacific.

  3. The Neogene equatorial Pacific: A view from 2009 IODP drilling on Expedition 320/321. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, M. W.; Shackford, J.; Holbourn, A. E.; Tian, J.; Raffi, I.; Pälike, H.; Nishi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The equatorial Pacific responds strongly to global climate and is a source of ENSO, the largest global decadal climate oscillation. Equatorial Pacific circulation and upwelling result from global atmospheric circulation patterns so it is unsurprising that oceanographic changes in the equatorial Pacific reverberate globally. IODP expedition 320/321 (Pacific Equatorial Age Transect) drilled 8 sites to reconstruct a 50-million-year record of ocean change for the equatorial Pacific. The resulting record, when spliced together, will resolve orbital variations through most of the Cenozoic. All sedimentary sequences have now been scanned by XRF, so that biogeochemical changes through the Cenozoic can be studied. Here we report data from IODP Sites U1335, U1336, U1337, and U1338, the Neogene part of the PEAT megasplice. Sediments of the Neogene equatorial Pacific are primarily biogenic carbonates, with about 15% biogenic silica tests and 5% assorted other components, including clays. Typically, highest sediment deposition occurs when plate tectonic movement carries a drill site underneath the equatorial zone, indicating that equatorial upwelling and high productivity have been consistent features of the Neogene equatorial Pacific. Sedimentation rates become significantly slower and dissolution of both biogenic carbonates and silica are more pronounced when sites are beyond 3° in latitude away from the equator, as biogenic sediment production drops but dissolution does not. The differences between equatorial and off-equator sites allow assessment of productivity vs dissolution as drivers of the sediment record. Carbonate dissolution can also be assessed by a ratio of XRF-estimated carbonate to dissolution resistant biogenic residue, like barite. There is a common stratigraphy of carbonate variation in the Neogene equatorial Pacific, as proposed by earlier work from DSDP Leg 85 and ODP Leg 138. The new Exp 320/321 drilling extends the high-resolution record from ~0-5 Ma

  4. Larger CO2 source at the equatorial Pacific during the last deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Obrochta, Stephen; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    While biogeochemical and physical processes in the Southern Ocean are thought to be central to atmospheric CO2 rise during the last deglaciation, the role of the equatorial Pacific, where the largest CO2 source exists at present, remains largely unconstrained. Here we present seawater pH and pCO2 variations from fossil Porites corals in the mid equatorial Pacific offshore Tahiti based on a newly calibrated boron isotope paleo-pH proxy. Our new data, together with recalibrated existing data, indicate that a significant pCO2 increase (pH decrease), accompanied by anomalously large marine 14C reservoir ages, occurred following not only the Younger Dryas, but also Heinrich Stadial 1. These findings indicate an expanded zone of equatorial upwelling and resultant CO2 emission, which may be derived from higher subsurface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. PMID:24918354

  5. Satellite-observed biological variability in the equatorial Pacific during the 2009-2011 ENSO cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

    2014-11-01

    The event of 2009-2011 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) provides an opportunity to gain insight into the biological variability of the equatorial Pacific Ocean for an entire ENSO cycle with satellite and in situ observations. Even though El Niño and La Niña in general led to respectively weakened and enhanced chlorophyll-a concentration and net primary production (NPP) along the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 2009-2011 ENSO cycle, biological responses were highly disparate along the equator and attributed to different driving mechanisms. In the eastern equatorial Pacific east of 150°E, the El Niño-La Niña biological change was in general small except for the transition period even though sea surface temperature (SST) showed over ∼5 °C drop from El Niño to La Niña. In the central-eastern (170°W-140°W) equatorial Pacific, moderate change of biological activity is attributed to the changes of thermocline driven by the eastward propagating equatorial Kelvin waves and changes of zonal currents and undercurrents. Highest biological response in this ENSO cycle was located in the central (170°E-170°W) and central-western (150°E-170°E) equatorial Pacific with quadruple chlorophyll-a concentration and over ∼400 mg C m-2 d-1 increase of NPP from El Niño in 2009 to La Niña in 2010. However, spatial pattern of ENSO biological variability as represented with NPP is not exactly the same as chlorophyll-a variability. Wind-driving mixing of nutrients and eastward advection of the oligotrophic warm pool waters are attributed to this significant biological variability in this region.

  6. An endurign rapidly moving storm as a guide to Saturn's equatorial jet complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Wong, Mike H.; Simon, Amy; Hueso, Ricardo; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Antuñano, Arrate; Rojas, Jose Felix; del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Barrado-Izagirre, Naiara; Garate-Lopez, Itziar; Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Francisco Sanz-Requena, Jose; Gomez-Forrellad, Josep Maria; de Pater, Imke

    2015-11-01

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet at cloud level whose variability and meridional and vertical structure are complex and actively debated. Due to its 27º rotation axis tilt and orbital eccentricity, Saturn is under a strong seasonal insolation cycle, enhanced at equator by the ring shadowing periods. These factors make it a good natural laboratory to test models of equatorial jet generation in giant planets. We report on a bright equatorial storm at 6 degrees North latitude observed in 2015 that moved rapidly but steadily at a high speed of 450 ms-1, not reported since Voyagers times (Sanchez-Lavega et al., Icarus 147, 405-420, 2000). Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 showed detailed storm morphology at red wavelengths (689, 750 and 937 nm) confirming its high speed. Other equatorial clouds moved with lower velocities matching the Cassini ISS profile (García-Melendo et al., Icarus, 215, 62-74, 2011), while the storm matches the Voyager 1 and 2 profile. We interpret this result as the simultaneous detection of the wind profile at two separated altitude levels within the cloud layer. In addition, the HST methane band and ultraviolet images, allowed retrieving winds at a third altitude level of motion, in the haze layer above the cloud deck. Combining the current wind data with previous dates allowed us to construct a vertical - meridional section of the structure of Saturn’s equatorial jet at cloud level. We discuss the implications of these results on the long-term stability of Saturn’s equatorial jet.

  7. An Enduring Rapidly Moving Storm as a Guide to Saturn's Equatorial Jet Complex Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Wong, M. H.; Simon, A. A.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Antuñano, A.; Rojas, J. F.; del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Gomez-Forrelad, J. M.; De Pater, I.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet at cloud level whose variability and meridional and vertical structure are complex and actively debated. Due to its 27º rotation axis tilt and orbital eccentricity, Saturn is under a strong seasonal insolation cycle, enhanced at equator by the ring shadowing periods. These factors make it a good natural laboratory to test models of equatorial jet generation in giant planets. We report on a bright equatorial storm observed in 2015 that moved rapidly but steadily at a high speed of 450 ms-1, not reported since Voyagers times (Sanchez-Lavega et al., Icarus 147, 405-420, 2000). Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3 showed detailed storm morphology at red wavelengths (689, 750 and 937 nm) confirming its high speed. Other equatorial clouds moved with velocities matching the Cassini ISS profile (García-Melendo et al., Icarus, 215, 62-74, 2011), while the storm matches the Voyager 1 and 2 profile. We interpret this result as the simultaneous detection of the wind profile at two separated altitude levels within the cloud layer. In addition, the HST methane band and ultraviolet images, allowed retrieving winds at a third altitude level of motion, in the haze layer above the cloud deck. Combining the current wind data with previous dates allowed us to construct a vertical - meridional section of the structure of Saturn's equatorial jet at cloud level. We discuss the implications of these results on the long-term stability of Saturn's equatorial jet.

  8. Occurrence of Equatorial F Region Irregularities: Evidence for Tropospheric Seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. P.; Singh, S.; Bamgboye, D. K.; Johnson, F. S.; Kil, Hyosub

    1998-01-01

    We present a new gap-free version of the seasonal and longitudinal 0 (s/l) variations of P(sub EFI), the equatorial F region irregularity (EFI) occurrence probability, based on data from the AE-E spacecraft. The agreement of this and three earlier partial P(sub EFI) patterns verifies all four. We reinterpret another earlier gap-ridden pattern, that of D(bar)(sub RSF), a topside ionogram index of average darkening by range spread F. We compare it with P(sub EFI) and, using ionosonde radio science considerations, we conclude that D(bar)(sub RSF) = P(sub EFI) times a factor depending on the average number of topside plasma bubbles visible to the ionosonde. The s/l variations of D(baar)(sub RSF) thus imply s/l variations in the average spacing of bubbles, whose seeds have an occurrence probability pattern P(sub seed). For discussion we assume P(sub EFI) = P(sub inst)P(sub seed) is the pattern of F region instability. The P(sub EFI) pattern, which is by definition independent of seed and/or bubble spacing, is far too complex to be explained by the dominant paradigm, that of changes in P(sub inst) by simple changes in the F region altitude and/or north-south asymmetry. We examine evidence behind this dominance, and find it unconvincing. Both the asymmetry and sunset-node/altitude hypotheses of 1984 and 1985, respectively, seem to be partly based on misunderstood data, and their features appear displaced in time and space from those of our repeatable P(sub EFI) pattern. In contrast, if P(sub seed) variations influence the P(sub EFI) pattern and depend on thermospheric gravity waves from tropospheric convection near the dip equator, then the seasonal maxima (minima) Of P(sub EFI) could be explained, since they all occur above relatively warm (cold) surface features, where convection is maximal (minimal). Also, the hypothesis of the dominance of the P(sub seed) term could explain an unusual December/January P(sub EFI) maximum in the deep, wide, normal Pacific minimum in the

  9. Equatorial disk formation around rotating stars due to ram pressure confinement by the stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, J. E.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The axisymmetric 2D supersonic solution of a rotating, radiation-driven stellar wind presently obtained by a simple approximation predicts the formation of a dense equatorial disk, when the star's rotation rate lies above a threshold value that depends on the ratio of the wind's terminal speed to the escape speed of the star. The disk is formed because the trajectories of the wind leaving the stellar surface at high latitudes carry it down to the equatorial plane; there, the material passes through a standing oblique shock atop the disk; it is therefore the ram pressure of the polar wind that compresses and confines the disk.

  10. Elevated Glyoxal Concentrations over the Eastern Equatorial Pacific: A Direct Biogenic Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Lerot, C.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric glyoxal (CHOCHO) was observed over the eastern equatorial Pacific by satellite and ship measurements. We investigated the source contributions through inverse modeling using GOME-2 observations (2007-2012) and the GEOS-Chem model. The observed high glyoxal to HCHO column ratio over the region indicates the potential presence of a direct source of glyoxal rather than secondary production. A bimodal seasonal cycle of glyoxal concentrations was found, providing further evidence for a biogenic origin of glyoxal emission. The estimate of the primary glyoxal emission over the eastern equatorial Pacific is 20-40Tg/yr, which is comparable to the previous estimate of the global continential glyoxal emission.

  11. Optimal Joint Remote State Preparation of Arbitrary Equatorial Multi-qudit States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Jiang, Min

    2016-12-01

    As an important communication technology, quantum information transmission plays an important role in the future network communication. It involves two kinds of transmission ways: quantum teleportation and remote state preparation. In this paper, we put forward a new scheme for optimal joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of an arbitrary equatorial two-qudit state with hybrid dimensions. Moreover, the receiver can reconstruct the target state with 100 % success probability in a deterministic manner via two spatially separated senders. Based on it, we can extend it to joint remote preparation of arbitrary equatorial multi-qudit states with hybrid dimensions using the same strategy.

  12. Optimal Joint Remote State Preparation of Arbitrary Equatorial Multi-qudit States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Jiang, Min

    2017-03-01

    As an important communication technology, quantum information transmission plays an important role in the future network communication. It involves two kinds of transmission ways: quantum teleportation and remote state preparation. In this paper, we put forward a new scheme for optimal joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of an arbitrary equatorial two-qudit state with hybrid dimensions. Moreover, the receiver can reconstruct the target state with 100 % success probability in a deterministic manner via two spatially separated senders. Based on it, we can extend it to joint remote preparation of arbitrary equatorial multi-qudit states with hybrid dimensions using the same strategy.

  13. Comparison of Galileo Probe and Earth-Based Translation Rates of Jupiter's Equatorial Clouds

    PubMed

    Beebe; Simon; Huber

    1996-05-10

    The Doppler wind speeds derived from Galileo probe data are comparable with the maximum translation speeds observed in the equatorial zone by Voyager 1 and the Hubble Space Telescope. Slower published values of east-west winds are based on measurements of larger features and should be interpreted as translation rates of large weather systems interacting with the wind. The nature of the hot-spot region that the Galileo probe entered is compatible with a high-speed jet at 6 degrees north. The hot spot is associated with an equatorial weather system that spans 5 degrees of latitude and translates at 103 meters per second.

  14. Comparison of equatorial electron content in the Indian and American longitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Klobuchar, J.A.; Rastogi, R.G.

    1988-06-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements taken at the magnetically equatorial stations located at Ootacamund, India and Huancayo, Peru by the group delay technique from radio beacon signals transmitted from the ATS 6 geostationary satellite show excellent agreement, though these stations are at widely different longitudes and are at nearly opposite geographic latitudes. Data from both stations were taken during the solar minimum period 1975-1976. The equivalent slab thickness, the ratio TEC/N(max) also indicated similar F region profile shape in the two longitude sectors. The standard deviation of equatorial daytime TEC is significantly smaller than at other latitudes. 20 references.

  15. Coronal holes near the equatorial plane and the solar wind abundance of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.; Yellin, K. A.

    1996-03-01

    Composition analysis of the solar wind from two equatorial coronal holes has been carried out with the Ion Composition Instrument on the ISEE-3 spacecraft. The abundances of oxygen, neon and iron were determined as coronal hole-related material flowed past the spacecraft. The results show that the edges of the hole-related flow are sharply defined with abundances closer to the abundances in the photosphere than in the slower solar wind. These results are similar to those found in flows from the southern polar coronal hole and suggest an underlying unity between the polar and equatorial regions of the sun.

  16. Response of night-time equatorial F-region to magnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somayajulu, V. V.; Murthy, B. V. K.; Subbarao, K. S. V.

    1991-10-01

    The responsne of the equatorial night-time F-region to magnetic stormtime disturbances has been examined using mainly ionograms recorded at Trivandrum and magnetograms recorded at high, middle and low latitudes during the magnetic storm of 23-26 November 1986. The analysis revealed a close coupling between the equatorial F-region and high-latitude magnetic field disturbances originating in solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. The presence of spread-F on ionograms during this period is found to be consistent with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for the growth of the irregularities.

  17. Observation of low energy particle precipitation at low altitude in the equatorial zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miah, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Precipitation of protons in the equatorial zone was investigated by the Phoenix-1 experiment on the S81-1 mission from May to November, 1982. The protons show a precipitation peak along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a FWHM of 13 deg. The index of equatorial pitch angle distribution is about 19. The peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, and the proton flux shows approximately a factor of 3 times increase in 1982 compared to that in 1969 due, possibly, to the stronger solar maximum conditions of 10.7-cm radiation in 1982.

  18. Observations of the nighttime electron volt range electron fluxes in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. C. N.; Singh, R.; Maier, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the features observed among the nighttime equatorial data of Explorer 31 is discussed with respect to the nighttime thermal structure of the topside ionosphere. The very short-lived photoelectrons being absent, the nighttime measurements represent the background flux due to magnetospheric particles.

  19. Comparison of the ionospheric plasma turbulence over seismic and equatorial regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciesza, M.; Blecki, J.; Parrot, M.; Wronowski, R.

    2012-04-01

    Many strong earthquakes which are objects of interest in investigations of the changes registered in the electric field in the ELF frequency range (1 Hz - 1250 Hz) in the ionospheric plasma, occurs in the equatorial region. In order to determine, if the observed disturbances are connected with the coupling between the ground and the ionosphere in the seismic active region, it is necessary to analyse and compare plasma instability phenomena occurring in the equatorial F-region ionosphere and are known as equatorial spread F (ESF) to changes before earthquakes because their character is very similar. The aim of this paper is the analysis of changes in the electromagnetic ELF field, registered by the French micro-satellite DEMETER over epicentres of three selected strong earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 6, which took place in: Sichuan, Chile and Haiti. A comparison between those cases and changes observed by the same satellite over the equatorial region in the similar time of year is presented. The analysis of the data, was conducted with the Fourier, wavelet and bispectral methods. The last one gives answer to question, whether the changes localized with the spectral analysis are nonlinear. Further processing consists the determination of the power spectrum and its slope, which allows to determine the type of turbulence which was inducted by the three wave interaction. The last stage of the presented research, was finding the characteristic remarks of changes, by calculation of the probability density function (PDF) and calculation of its characteristic values such as kurtosis and skewness.

  20. Hiss or equatorial noise? Ambiguities in analyzing suprathermal ion plasma wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Santolik, Ondrej; Morley, Steven K.; Breneman, Aaron; Larsen, Brian A.; Reeves, Geoff; Wygant, John R.; Hospodarsky, George; Kletzing, Craig; Moldwin, Mark B.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Zou, Shasha

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that low-energy ion heating occurs in the magnetosphere due to strong equatorial noise emission. Observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument recently determined that there was a depletion in the 1-10 eV ion population in the postmidnight sector of Earth during quiet times at L < 3. The diurnal variation of equatorially mirroring 1-10 eV H+ ions at 2 < L < 3 is connected with similar diurnal variation in the electric field component of plasma waves ranging between 150 and 600 Hz. Measurements from the Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) data set are used to analyze waves of this frequency in near-Earth space. However, when we examine the polarization of the waves in the 150 to 600 Hz range in the equatorial plane, the majority are right-hand polarized plasmaspheric hiss waves. The 1-10 eV H+ equatorially mirroring population does not interact with right-hand waves, despite a strong statistical relationship suggesting that the two are linked. We present evidence supporting the relationship, both in our own work and the literature, but we ultimately conclude that the 1-10 eV H+ heating is not related to the strong enhancement of 150 to 600 Hz waves.

  1. Day-to-day variability of the global post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Clayton; Dymond, Kenneth; Budzien, Scott; Chua, Damien

    We report global observations of the daily variability of the post-sunset Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). Multiple Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) sensors on the Constellation Ob-serving System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) constellation are used to produce high resolution maps the global pattern of the post-sunset equatorial anomaly for indi-vidual days. TIP is a compact, nadir directed, ultraviolet photometer operating at the 135.6-nm wavelength. TIP measures the horizontal structure of the ionosphere with 15-30 km resolution and high sensitivity. For the near solar minimum condition and equinox period of Septem-ber 2006, evidence of tidal influences is observed in the equatorial anomaly. The day-to-day persistence of the 4-cell pattern produced by the diurnal eastward zonal wavenumber-3 (DE3) tide is remarkable. The daily 4-cell patterns display more dramatic variation in the equatorial anomaly than indicated by earlier studies using multi-day averages. In some longitude sectors the anomaly disappears completely on some days. The crest width is also much narrower than indicated by multi-day averages of the 4-cell pattern. Additionally, daily variations in magni-tude of individual cells are observed and appear to occur on hemispheric scales, suggesting a large scale day-to-day variability in the global neutral wind pattern. Finally, the impact of this daily variability on low latitude irregularity development and scintillation is examined.

  2. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan; Wicht, Johannes

    2005-11-10

    The bands of Jupiter represent a global system of powerful winds. Broad eastward equatorial jets are flanked by smaller-scale, higher-latitude jets flowing in alternating directions. Jupiter's large thermal emission suggests that the winds are powered from within, but the zonal flow depth is limited by increasing density and electrical conductivity in the molecular hydrogen-helium atmosphere towards the centre of the planet. Two types of planetary flow models have been explored: shallow-layer models reproduce multiple high-latitude jets, but not the equatorial flow system, and deep convection models only reproduce an eastward equatorial jet with two flanking neighbours. Here we present a numerical model of three-dimensional rotating convection in a relatively thin spherical shell that generates both types of jets. The simulated flow is turbulent and quasi-two-dimensional and, as observed for the jovian jets, simulated jet widths follow Rhines' scaling theory. Our findings imply that Jupiter's latitudinal transition in jet width corresponds to a separation between the bottom-bounded flow structures in higher latitudes and the deep equatorial flows.

  3. Responses in the polar and equatorial ionosphere to the March 2015 St. Patrick Day storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, Marc; Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, Russell

    2016-11-01

    The St. Patrick Day storm of 2015 (17 March 2015) occurred at a unique time when there were multiple spacecraft observing the Earth's ionosphere between 350 and 885 km. Observations of the plasma flows and densities from the five operational polar-orbiting DMSP spacecraft combined with those from the equatorial-orbiting C/NOFS spacecraft provided a comprehensive global record of the both the polar and equatorial ionosphere regions' responses to the storm. This paper presents an overview of the data from this suite of spacecraft focusing on the following aspects: (1) the polar cap ionosphere's reaction to the storm, (2) the change in the penetration electric field in the midlatitude region as a function of time and the solar local time during the storm, (3) the equatorial ionosphere's response of the meridional (vertical) flows to the penetration electric field and the disturbance dynamo during the storm, and (4) the creation of a predawn ionospheric bubble system near the equator during the storm's main phase that was observed at low altitudes by C/NOFS and later at high altitudes by several DMSP. Examining these phenomenon enable us to trace the dynamic flow of energy from the solar wind input in the polar ionosphere all the way to the equatorial ionosphere.

  4. An enduring rapidly moving storm as a guide to Saturn's Equatorial jet's complex structure.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Lavega, A; García-Melendo, E; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Hueso, R; Wong, M H; Simon, A; Sanz-Requena, J F; Antuñano, A; Barrado-Izagirre, N; Garate-Lopez, I; Rojas, J F; Del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T; Gómez-Forrellad, J M; de Pater, I; Li, L; Barry, T

    2016-11-08

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet with a complex three-dimensional structure mixed with time variability. The equatorial region experiences strong seasonal insolation variations enhanced by ring shadowing, and three of the six known giant planetary-scale storms have developed in it. These factors make Saturn's equator a natural laboratory to test models of jets in giant planets. Here we report on a bright equatorial atmospheric feature imaged in 2015 that moved steadily at a high speed of 450 ms(-1) not measured since 1980-1981 with other equatorial clouds moving within an ample range of velocities. Radiative transfer models show that these motions occur at three altitude levels within the upper haze and clouds. We find that the peak of the jet (latitudes 10° N to 10° S) suffers intense vertical shears reaching +2.5 ms(-1) km(-1), two orders of magnitude higher than meridional shears, and temporal variability above 1 bar altitude level.

  5. Dynamical theory driven observational analysis of ENSO modes in the equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weare, Bryan C.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of tropical Pacific sea surface height changes associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been explored using a melding of a simple dynamical model and maximum covariance analysis (MCA). Two dominant MCA modes, which are degenerate and well correlated at a lag of about 4 months, have a combined time series which is strongly correlated with the Niño3.4 ENSO index. The leading Equatorial Mode shows a strong equatorial signature and is associated with Kelvin wave forcing, Ekman pumping, the wind stress curl, and the Recharge Oscillator hypothesis. The lagging East/West Mode shows a less equatorially trapped east/west pattern of variation and is most associated with zonal wind stress and the Delayed Oscillator hypothesis. The net effect of internal equatorial Rossby waves is dissipative and is not confined to the western boundary. The relevant zonal stress and stress curl fields stretch across the basin. Additional analyses show that both the zonal wind stress and the wind stress curl terms are required for the development of classic ENSO events. Removal of either term gives rise to weaker events, which have properties similar to the central Pacific ENSO events. The seasonal phase-locking of ENSO events is shown to be related to a north to south excursion of wind stress anomalies.

  6. Eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S variations with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, O.; Fukumori, I.; Lee, T.; Johnson, G. C.

    2004-01-01

    Temperature-Salinity (T-S) relationship variability in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5 degrees S ??degrees N, 150 degrees W ?? degrees W) over the last two decades is investigated using observational data and model simulation.

  7. High Frequency Drift Waves with Wavelengths Below the Ion Gyroradius in Equatorial Spread F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    Freidberg and Gerwin, 1977; Gary and Sanderson, 1977) p" r kvdi 1 G = J dt exp iuot + b.(cost -l) - i —— sin t (h) and for...McClure Equatorial Spread F: Implications of VHF Radar Observations, J. Geophys. Res., JJ>, 7199, 1970. Freidberg , J. P., and R. A. Gerwin, Lower

  8. An enduring rapidly moving storm as a guide to Saturn's Equatorial jet's complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; García-Melendo, E.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Wong, M. H.; Simon, A.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Antuñano, A.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Rojas, J. F.; Del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; de Pater, I.; Li, L.; Barry, T.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet with a complex three-dimensional structure mixed with time variability. The equatorial region experiences strong seasonal insolation variations enhanced by ring shadowing, and three of the six known giant planetary-scale storms have developed in it. These factors make Saturn's equator a natural laboratory to test models of jets in giant planets. Here we report on a bright equatorial atmospheric feature imaged in 2015 that moved steadily at a high speed of 450 ms-1 not measured since 1980-1981 with other equatorial clouds moving within an ample range of velocities. Radiative transfer models show that these motions occur at three altitude levels within the upper haze and clouds. We find that the peak of the jet (latitudes 10° N to 10° S) suffers intense vertical shears reaching +2.5 ms-1 km-1, two orders of magnitude higher than meridional shears, and temporal variability above 1 bar altitude level.

  9. Mean Flow Velocities and Mass Transport for Equatorially-Trapped Water Waves with an Underlying Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, David; Sastre-Gomez, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the mean flow velocities, and related mass transport, which are induced by certain equatorially-trapped water waves. In particular, we examine a recently-derived exact and explicit solution to the geophysical governing equations in the {β}-plane approximation at the equator which incorporates a constant underlying current.

  10. An enduring rapidly moving storm as a guide to Saturn's Equatorial jet's complex structure

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; García-Melendo, E.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Wong, M. H.; Simon, A.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Antuñano, A.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Rojas, J. F.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; de Pater, I.; Li, L.; Barry, T.

    2016-01-01

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet with a complex three-dimensional structure mixed with time variability. The equatorial region experiences strong seasonal insolation variations enhanced by ring shadowing, and three of the six known giant planetary-scale storms have developed in it. These factors make Saturn's equator a natural laboratory to test models of jets in giant planets. Here we report on a bright equatorial atmospheric feature imaged in 2015 that moved steadily at a high speed of 450 ms−1 not measured since 1980–1981 with other equatorial clouds moving within an ample range of velocities. Radiative transfer models show that these motions occur at three altitude levels within the upper haze and clouds. We find that the peak of the jet (latitudes 10° N to 10° S) suffers intense vertical shears reaching +2.5 ms−1 km−1, two orders of magnitude higher than meridional shears, and temporal variability above 1 bar altitude level. PMID:27824031

  11. Centralspindlin regulates ECT2 and RhoA accumulation at the equatorial cortex during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yukako; Yonemura, Shigenobu

    2006-01-01

    During determination of the cell division plane, an actomyosin contractile ring is induced at the equatorial cell cortex by signals from the mitotic apparatus and contracts to cause cleavage furrow progression. Although the small GTPase RhoA is known to regulate the progression, probably by controlling actin filament assembly and enhancing actomyosin interaction, any involvement of RhoA in division plane determination is unknown. In this study, using a trichloroacetic acid (TCA) fixation protocol we recently developed, we show that RhoA accumulates at the equatorial cortex before furrow initiation and continues to concentrate at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. We also demonstrate that both Rho activity and microtubule organization are required for RhoA localization and proper furrowing. Selective disruption of microtubule organization revealed that both astral and central spindle microtubules can recruit RhoA at the equatorial cortex. We find that centralspindlin and ECT2 are required for RhoA localization and furrowing. Centralspindlin is localized both to central spindle microtubules and at the tips of astral microtubules near the equatorial cortex and recruits ECT2. Positional information for division plane determination from microtubules is transmitted to the cell cortex to organize actin cytoskeleton through a mechanism involving these proteins.

  12. Effect of geomagnetic activity on equatorial radio VHF scintillations and spread F

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.G.; Mullen, J.P.; MacKenzie, E.

    1981-05-01

    The paper discusses the occurrence of scintillations of ATS 3 (137 MHz) beacons recorded at Huancayo on geomagnetically quiet and disturbed days during the years 1969--1976 and compared the results with the corresponding occurrence of range and frequency spread F at Huancayo. During the equinoctial months and the December solstical months the geomgnetic activity reduces the equatorial scintillations during premidnight hours but increases their occurrence during the postmidnight hours. These features are very similar to the effect of geomagnetic activity on the occurrence of the range type of equatorial spread F rather than on the occurrence of frequency spread, which decreases for any hour of the night during geomagnetic active periods. During the June solsticial months, the occurrence of both scintillations and spread F is very much reduced; however, both the phenomena are more frequent on disturbed than on quiet days for any of the hours of the night. These effects are consistently the same for any of the years within the solar cycle. It is suggested that the equatorial radio scintillations at 137 MHz during the nighttime are produced primarily by the occurrence of the range type of spread F. The geomagnetic effects are due to the modifications of the equatorial electric field by the geomagnetic disturbance and thereby affect the development of F region irregularities causing scintillations.

  13. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean.

  14. The ultraviolet photodissociation of axial and equatorial conformers of 3-pyrroline

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Thomas A. A.; King, Graeme A.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2010-11-21

    Resolved sets of photoproducts arising from the photodissociation of axial and equatorial conformers of 3-pyrroline have been observed using H(Rydberg) atom photofragment translational spectroscopy following excitation in the wavelength range of 250-213 nm. 3-pyrroline (alternatively 2,5-dihydropyrrole) is a five membered partially saturated heterocycle in which the bonding around the N atom is pyramidal (sp{sup 3} hybridized) and the N-H bond can lie either axial or equatorial to the ring. Careful analysis of total kinetic energy release data derived from H atom time-of-flight measurements reveals excitation of the 3-pyrrolinyl cofragment consistent with N-H bond fission in both the axial and equatorial conformers. This allows determination of the energy difference between the ground state conformers to be 340{+-}50 cm{sup -1} and the N-H bond strength for axial and equatorial conformers as 31 610{+-}50 and 31 270{+-}50 cm{sup -1}, respectively.

  15. Inference of Equatorial Field-Line Integrated Electron Density Values Using Whistlers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Introduction During the post sunset period the equatorial Ionosphere Is known to be turbulent over scale sizes from tens of kilometws to tens of...trace will be associated with 3/2 of a field line, the third trace will be associated with 5/2 of a field line, etc. Ve should emphasize that there Is no

  16. Magnetic-Field-Aligned Characteristics of Plasma Bubbles in the Nighttime Equatorial Ionosphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    The best evidence published to date is that of Dyson and Benson [19781. Using topside ionograms taken from Alouette II and ISIS I satellites, they...inferred the existence of depleted magnetic flux tubes in the equatorial ionosphere by interpreting anomalous ionogram traces in terms of high-frequency

  17. Layered basic complex in oceanic crust, romanche fracture, equatorial atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Melson, W G; Thompson, G

    1970-05-15

    A layered, basic igneous intrusion, analogous in mineralogy and texture to certain large, continental layered complexes, is exposed in the Romanche Fracture, equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Crustal intrusion of large masses of basic magmas with their subsequent gravity differentiation is probably one of a number of major processes involved in the formation of new oceanic crust during sea-floor spreading.

  18. Ion-neutral coupling: Geomagnetic activity modulation of the Equatorial Thermosphere Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Dou, X.; Thayer, J. P.; Wang, W.; Luan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The two-way momentum coupling between the neutral thermosphere and its plasma environment plays an important role in producing the trough of the Equatorial Thermosphere Anomaly (ETA). It was found that field-aligned ion drag associated with the equatorial ionosphere anomaly (EIA) can result in vertical motion in the neutral gas over the magnetic equator leading to a reduction in temperature and a trough in thermosphere density at a given altitude. It was also found that the formation of the ETA crests is attributed to plasma-neutral heating which has two peaks in the topside ionosphere aside the magnetic equator. This study is devoted to address the geomagnetic activity affect on the coupling between the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere on the basis of satellite observations and first-principle ionosphere-thermosphere simulations. The deposited magnetospheric energy into the upper atmosphere associated with geomagnetic activity changes the ionosphere and its background neutral atmosphere significantly and hence their coupling processes. On the other hand, the enhanced electric field and neutral wind during storm time can modulate the EIA and ETA and alter the momentum and energy coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere in the equatorial F region. Results from NCAR-TIEGCM simulations will help elucidate the ion-neutral coupling processes related to the ETA under active geomagnetic conditions

  19. The interplanetary and magnetospheric causes of extreme dB/dt at equatorial locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebesin, Babatunde O.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2016-11-01

    The 1 min resolution solar wind and geomagnetic data obtained from seven equatorial/low-latitude stations during four extreme geomagnetic activities are used to investigate the extreme dB/dt perturbations. Simulations of the magnetospheric-ionospheric environment were also performed for varying amplitudes of the solar proton density. Simulations were carried out using the Space Weather Modeling Framework/BATS-R-US + RCM model. Both the observations and simulations demonstrated that the appearance time of the extreme dB/dt perturbations at equatorial stations during disturbed conditions is instantaneous and equitable to those experienced at auroral regions yielding time lags of the order of a few seconds. We find that the rapid dB/dt enhancements are caused by the electric field of magnetospheric current origin, which is being enhanced by solar wind density and ram pressure variations and boosted by the equatorial electrojet. Our results indicate that the solar wind proton density variations could be used as a predictor of extreme dB/dt enhancement at equatorial latitudes.

  20. Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016.

    PubMed

    Priest, David H; Nutman, Thomas B

    2017-01-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa overlaps geographically with Onchocera volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti filariae in central Africa. Accurate information regarding this overlap is critical to elimination programs targeting O. volvulus and W. bancrofti. We describe a case of loiasis in a traveler returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, a location heretofore unknown for L. loa transmission.

  1. An Enduring Rapidly Moving Storm as a Guide to Saturn's Equatorial Jet's Complex Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Garcia-Melendo, E.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.; Wong, M. H.; Simon, A.; Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Antunano, A.; Barrado-Izagirre, N.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Rojas, J. F.; del Rio-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Gomez-Forrellad, J. M.; de Pater, I.; Li, L.; Barry, T.

    2016-01-01

    Saturn has an intense and broad eastward equatorial jet with a complex three-dimensional structure mixed with time variability. The equatorial region experiences strong seasonal insolation variations enhanced by ring shadowing, and three of the six known giant planetary-scale storms have developed in it. These factors make Saturn's equator a natural laboratory to test models of jets in giant planets. Here we report on a bright equatorial atmospheric feature imaged in 2015 that moved steadily at a high speed of 450/ms not measured since 1980-1981 with other equatorial clouds moving within an ample range of velocities. Radiative transfer models show that these motions occur at three altitude levels within the upper haze and clouds. We find that the peak of the jet (latitudes 10degN to 10degS) suffers intense vertical shears reaching + 2.5/ms/km, two orders of magnitude higher than meridional shears, and temporal variability above 1 bar altitude level.

  2. Annual and semi-annual cycle of equatorial Atlantic circulation associated with basin mode resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Peter; Claus, Martin; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Kopte, Robert; Toole, John M.; Johns, William E.; Böning, Claus W.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variability of the tropical Atlantic circulation is dominated by the annual cycle, but semi-annual variability is also pronounced, despite weak forcing at that period. Here we use multi-year, full depth velocity measurements from the central equatorial Atlantic to analyze the vertical structure of annual and semi-annual variations of zonal velocity. A baroclinic modal decomposition finds that the annual cycle is dominated by the 4th mode and the semi-annual cycle by the 2nd mode. Similar local behavior is found in a high-resolution general circulation model. This simulation reveals that the annual and semi-annual cycles of the respective dominant baroclinic modes are associated with characteristic basin-wide structures. Using an idealized linear reduced-gravity model to simulate the dynamics of individual baroclinic modes, it is shown that the observed circulation variability can be best explained by resonant equatorial basin modes. Companion simulations using the reduced-gravity model varying the basin geometry, i.e. square basin versus realistic coastlines, and forcing, i.e. spatially uniform versus spatially varying wind forcing, show a structural robustness of the simulated basin modes. A main focus of this study is the seasonal variability of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) as identified in recent observational studies. Main characteristics of the observed EUC including seasonal variability of transport, core depth, and maximum core velocity can be explained by the linear superposition of the dominant equatorial basin modes as obtained from the reduced-gravity model.

  3. Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Nutman, Thomas B.

    2017-01-01

    The filarial parasite Loa loa overlaps geographically with Onchocera volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti filariae in central Africa. Accurate information regarding this overlap is critical to elimination programs targeting O. volvulus and W. bancrofti. We describe a case of loiasis in a traveler returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, a location heretofore unknown for L. loa transmission. PMID:27983940

  4. Mechanisms controlling warm water volume interannual variations in the equatorial Pacific: diabatic versus adiabatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengaigne, M.; Hausmann, U.; Madec, G.; Menkes, C.; Vialard, J.; Molines, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Variations of the volume of warm water above the thermocline in the equatorial Pacific are a good predictor of ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) and are thought to be critical for its preconditioning and development. In this study, the Warm Water Volume (WWV) interannual variability is analysed using forced general circulation model experiments and an original method for diagnosing processes responsible for WWV variations. The meridional recharge/discharge to higher latitudes drives 60% of the ENSO-related equatorial WWV variations, while diabatic processes in the eastern equatorial Pacific account for the remaining 40%. Interior meridional transport is partially compensated by western boundary transports, especially in the southern hemisphere. Diabatic equatorial WWV formation (depletions) during La Niña (El Niño) are explained by enhanced (reduced) diathermal transport through enhanced (reduced) vertical mixing and penetrating solar forcing at the 20°C isotherm depth. The respective contribution of diabatic and adiabatic processes during build-ups/depletions strongly varies from event-to-event. The WWV build-up during neutral ENSO phases (e.g. 1980-1982) is almost entirely controlled by meridional recharge, providing a text-book example for the recharge/discharge oscillator's theory. On the other hand, diabatic processes are particularly active during the strongest La Niña events (1984, 1988, 1999), contributing to more than 70% of the WWV build-up, with heating by penetrative solar fluxes explaining as much as 30% of the total build-up due to a very shallow thermocline in the eastern Pacific. This study does not invalidate the recharge/discharge oscillator theory but rather emphasizes the importance of equatorial diabatic processes and western boundary transports in controlling WWV changes.

  5. Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) Observations of the Equatorial Nightside Ionosphere at Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, D. H.; Coker, C.; Dymond, K.; McDonald, S. E.; Nicholas, A. C.; Budzien, S. A.; Dandenault, P. B.; Serengulian, P.; Walker, P. W.; Bust, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the variability of the equatorial, nightside ionosphere during solar minimum conditions using observations by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F18 satellite. SSULI limb profiles of the OI 135.6 nm radiative recombination emission are inverted using a 2-D tomographic code to infer nightside electron density profiles in the equatorial, post-sunset ionosphere near 2000 local time (LT) every 100 minutes. Through its first two years of operation in 2010 and 2011, SSULI/F18 has provided a new perspective on the daily variability of the equatorial ionosphere and the seasonal climatology of this region as we transition out of solar minimum into the rise of the next solar cycle. We find that variations in the low-latitude, nightside electron density have no clear correlation with changes in solar flux, suggesting that the ionosphere is driven more by transport than by daytime production (photoionization). During this period, the most prominent departures to the daily and seasonal variations in the low-latitude ionosphere are associated with quasi-periodic geomagnetic disturbances driven mainly by solar co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs). For most of these ionospheric disturbances we observe significant increases in electron density at all altitudes but find little evidence of uplift in the F-layer, suggesting that penetration electric fields are not playing a strong role in shaping the equatorial, post-sunset ionosphere at these times. The SSULI electron density reconstructions are compared to output from the IDA4D assimilative model of the ionosphere to provide further insight into the short term and seasonal variability of the equatorial, nightside ionosphere during these solar minimum conditions.

  6. Radiative and Dynamical Feedbacks Over the Equatorial Cold-Tongue: Results from Seven Atmospheric GCMs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, D; Zhang, T; Covey, C; Klein, S; Collins, W; Kiehl, J; Meehl, J; Held, I; Suarez, M

    2005-01-04

    The equatorial Pacific is a region with strong negative feedbacks. Yet coupled GCMs have exhibited a propensity to develop a significant SST bias in that region, suggesting an unrealistic sensitivity in the coupled models to small energy flux errors that inevitably occur in the individual model components. Could this 'hypersensitivity' exhibited in a coupled model be due to an underestimate of the strength of the negative feedbacks in this region? With this suspicion, the feedbacks in the equatorial Pacific in seven atmospheric GCMs (AGCMs) have been quantified using the interannual variations in that region and compared with the corresponding calculations from the observations. The seven AGCMs are: the NCAR CAM1, the NCAR CAM2,the NCAR CAM3, the NASA/NSIPP Atmospheric Model, the Hadley Center Model, the GFDL AM2p10, and the GFDL AM2p12. All the corresponding coupled runs of these seven AGCMs have an excessive cold-tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The net atmospheric feedback over the equatorial Pacific in the two GFDL models is found to be comparable to the observed value. All other models are found to have a weaker negative net feedback from the atmosphere--a weaker regulating effect on the underlying SST than the real atmosphere. A weaker negative feedback from the cloud albedo and a weaker negative feedback from the atmospheric transport are the two leading contributors to the weaker regulating effect from the model atmosphere. All models overestimate somewhat the positive feedback from water vapor. These results confirm the suspicion that an underestimate of negative feedbacks from the atmosphere over the equatorial Pacific region is a prevalent problem. The results also suggest, however, that a weaker regulatory effect from the atmosphere is unlikely solely responsible for the 'hypersensitivity' in all models. The need to validate the feedbacks from the ocean transport is therefore highlighted.

  7. Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Arunachalam

    Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes. A.Thiagarajan Huancayo(Hua) is the only station in equatorial region where the daytime rise in horizontal geomagnetic field (H) is associated with an increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y) simultaneously. Indian longitude stations are one of the best regions to study about the Sq current system in low latitudes and mid latitudes. The paper describes the daily variations in the geomagnetic components of the ionospheric current at the equatorial stations, Huancayo (inclination 1.99°S) and Trivandrum (Trd) (Inclination: 0.17°S) for the period (1997-1999). It is shown that the amplitude of Del Y at Huancayo were more in most of the days than that of Trivandrum. Some evidences are seen indicating a close relationship between EEJ strength in Indian longitudes and Del Y in American longitudes. The range (Maximum-minimum of a day) of del Y is found to show more amplitude at Hua compared with Trd. There is close relation exists between amplitude EEJ at Trivandrum and of Y at Huancayo. It is suggested that the day-to-day variability in the time as well as in the magnitude of the daily peak of the X and Y field at the equatorial electro jet stations are due to the superimposition of a semi-diurnal wave of the electric field over the normal mean daily variation and that both the zonal and meridional components flows in the same E region of the ionosphere in the equatorial electro jet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes,

  8. Equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric response due to 2009 sudden stratospheric warming, South American sector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Gende, Mauricio; De Jesus, Rodolfo; Goncharenko, Larisa; Coster, Anthea; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; De Abreu, Alessandro; Pillat, ValdirGil; Pezzopane, Michael

    The equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere/thermosphere system is permanently disturbed by waves (MSTIDs, tides, and planetary waves), which are generated in the lower atmosphere or in situ, as well as electric fields and TIDs produced by geomagnetic storm and UV, EUV, and X-ray solar radiation. Until recently it was thought, that during geomagnetic quiet conditions the equatorial and low-latitude F-layer was mainly perturbed by waves that were generated not far away from the observed location or electric fields generated by electroject. On the contrary during geomagnetic storms when the energy sources are in high latitudes the waves (TIDs) travel a very long distance from high latitude to equatorial region and electric fields can be mapped via magnetic field lines. However, recently an unexpected coupling between high latitude, -mid latitude, and -equatorial/low-latitude was discovered during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW). The exploration of all aspects involved in this process must be investigated in order to improve our knowledge about the Earth's atmosphere. This investigation, studies the consequences of the vertical coupling from lower to upper atmosphere during a major Northern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warming, which took place in January 2009, on the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere in the Southern Hemisphere. Using 16 ground-based GPS stations over the Brazilian sector, spanning from latitude 2.8N to 30.1S and longitude 62.0W to 37.7W, it was possible to notice that the ionosphere was disturbed by SSW from the Equator to low latitude. The TEC at all 16 stations was severely disturbed during several days after the SSW temperature peak.

  9. Attributing Tropical Cyclogenesis to Equatorial Waves in the Western North Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreck, Carl J., III; Molinari, John; Mohr, Karen I.

    2009-01-01

    The direct influences of equatorial waves on the genesis of tropical cyclones are evaluated. Tropical cyclogenesis is attributed to an equatorial wave when the filtered rainfall anomaly exceeds a threshold value at the genesis location. For an attribution threshold of 3 mm/day, 51% of warm season western North Pacific tropical cyclones are attributed to tropical depression (TD)-type disturbances, 29% to equatorial Rossby waves, 26% to mixed Rossby-Gravity waves, 23% to Kelvin waves, 13% to the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), and 19% are not attributed to any equatorial wave. The fraction of tropical cyclones attributed to TD-type disturbances is consistent with previous findings. Past studies have also demonstrated that the MJO significantly modulates tropical cyclogenesis, but fewer storms are attributed to the MJO than any other wave type. This disparity arises from the difference between attribution and modulation. The MJO produces broad regions of favorable conditions for cyclogenesis, but the MJO alone might not determine when and where a storm will develop within these regions. Tropical cyclones contribute less than 17% of the power in any portion of the equatorial wave spectrum because tropical cyclones are relatively uncommon equatorward of 15deg latitude. In regions where they are active, however, tropical cyclones can contribute more than 20% of the warm season rainfall and up to 50% of the total variance. Tropical cyclone-related anomalies can significantly contaminate wave-filtered precipitation at the location of genesis. To mitigate this effect, the tropical cyclone-related rainfall anomalies were removed before filtering in this study.

  10. Impacts of Indonesian Throughflow on seasonal circulation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Dongliang; Zhao, Xia

    2017-03-01

    Impacts of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) on seasonal circulation in the equatorial eastern Indian Ocean are investigated using the ocean-only model LICOM by opening and closing ITF passages. LICOM had daily forcing from NCEP reanalysis data during 2000-2011. It can reproduce vertical profiles of mean density and buoyancy frequency of World Ocean Atlas 2013 data. The model also simulates well annual oscillation in the central Indian Ocean and semiannual oscillation in the eastern Indian Ocean of sea level anomalies (SLA) using satellite altimeter data, as well as the semiannual oscillation of surface zonal equatorial currents of Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real Time current data in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The wave decomposition method is used to analyze the propagation and reflection of equatorial long waves based on LICOM output. Wave analysis suggests that ITF blockage mainly influences waves generated from the Indian Ocean but not the Pacific Ocean, and eastern boundary reflections play an important role in semiannual oscillations of SLA and zonal current differences in the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with ITF. Reconstructed ITF-caused SLA using wave decomposition coefficient differences between closed and open ITF-passage experiments suggest both Kelvin and Rossby waves from the first baroclinic mode have comparable contributions to the semiannual oscillations of SLA difference. However, reconstructed ITF-caused surface zonal currents at the equator suggest that the first meridional-mode Rossby wave has much greater contribution than the first baroclinic mode Kelvin wave. Both reconstructed sea level and zonal currents demonstrate that the first baroclinic mode has a greater contribution than other baroclinic modes.

  11. Free and Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves Simulated by CMIP5 Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Castanheira, José M.

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that precipitation in the equatorial belt does not occur randomly, but is often organized into synoptic to planetary-scale disturbances with time scales smaller than a season. Several studies have shown that a large fraction of the convection variability in such disturbances is associated with dynamical Equatorial Waves, such as the Kelvin, Equatorial Rossby, Mixed Rossby-Gravity, Eastward and Westward Inertio-Gravity waves (e.g. Kiladis et al., Rev. Geophys., 2009). The horizontal structures and dispersion characteristics of such Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves (CCEWs) correspond to the solutions of the shallow water (SW) equations on an equatorial β-plane obtained by Matsuno (J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 1966). CCEWs have broad impacts within the tropics, but their simulation in general circulation models is still problematic. Using space-time spectral analyses of a proxy field for tropical convection (e.g. outgoing long wave radiation (OLR)), it has been shown the existence of spectral peaks aligned along the dispersion curves of equatorially trapped wave modes of SW theory, which have been interpreted as the effect of equatorial wave processes (e.g. Takayabu, J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 1994; Wheeler and Kiladis, JAS, 1999). However, different equatorial modes may not be well separated in the wavenumber-frequency domain due to a vertical variation of the horizontal basic flow, that may introduce Doppler shiftings and changes in the vertical heating profiles which may distort the theoretical dispersion curves (Yang et al., JAS, 2003). In this communication, we present a new methodology for the diagnosis of CCEWs, which is based on a pre-filtering of the geopotential and horizontal wind, via three-dimensional (3-D) normal mode functions of the adiabatic linearized equations of a resting atmosphere, followed by a space-time power and cross spectral analysis applied to the 3-D normal mode filtered fields and the OLR (or other fields that may be proxies

  12. Why are rings regularly shed in the western equatorial Atlantic but not in the western Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron

    The western equatorial Atlantic is characterized by the formation and shedding of 3-4 large anticyclonic rings per year. These rings originate from the North Brazil Current which, in response to the vanishing wind stress curl (over the ocean interior), retroflects and turns eastward at around 4°N. After their formation and shedding the rings propagate toward the northwest along the South American coast carrying an annual average of about 4Sv. As such, the rings constitute an important part of the meridional heat flux in the Atlantic. The same cannot be said, however, of the western equatorial Pacific. Here, the situation is entirely different even though the South Equatorial Current retroflects at roughly the same latitude as its Atlantic counterpart, the North Brazil Current. Although the South Equatorial Current retroflection is flanked by two quasi-permanent eddies (the so-called Halmahera and the Mindanao eddies), these eddies are an integral part of the current itself and are not shed. Consequently, they are not associated with any meridional heat flux. An important question is, then, why the two oceans behave in such a fundamentally different way even though the source of the rings, the retroflected currents, are very similar in the two oceans. To answer this question, the two oceans are compared using recently developed analytical and numerical models for the western equatorial oceans. It is first pointed out that, according to recent developments in the modelling of the western equatorial Atlantic, the North Brazil Current retroflection rings are formed, shed and drift to the west because, in the Atlantic, this is the only way by which the momentum flux of the approaching and retroflecting current can be balanced. In this scenario, the northwestward flow force exerted by the approaching and retroflecting North Brazil Current (analogous to the force created by a rocket) is balanced by the southwestward force exerted by the rings as they are formed

  13. Structure and dynamics of the Indian-Ocean cross-equatorial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyama, Toru; McCreary, Julian P.; Jensen, Tommy G.; Loschnigg, Johannes; Godfrey, Stuart; Ishida, Akio

    2003-07-01

    The cross-equatorial cell (CEC) in the Indian Ocean is a shallow ( z≳-500 m) meridional overturning circulation, consisting of northward flow of southern-hemisphere thermocline water, upwelling in the northern hemisphere, and a return flow of surface water. In this study, several types of ocean models, varying in complexity from a 1 1/2-layer analytic model to a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM), are used to investigate CEC structure and its dynamics. Pathways are illustrated by tracking model drifters from the northern-hemisphere upwelling regions, both forwards in time to follow the surface pathways and backwards in time to follow the subsurface flows. In the subsurface branch, cross-equatorial flow occurs via a western-boundary current, where strong horizontal mixing can alter the sign of its potential vorticity. In contrast, surface pathways cross the equator in the interior ocean at almost all longitudes. Sources of CEC water are flow into the basin in the southeastern ocean, subtropical subduction, and the Indonesian Throughflow. The models differ in which source is most prominent, a consequence of their different parameterizations of vertical-mixing processes and basin boundary conditions. The surface, cross-equatorial branch is driven by the annual-mean component of the zonal wind stress τx. It is predominantly antisymmetric about the equator with westerlies (easterlies) north (south) of the equator, and so is roughly proportional to latitude y. The resulting negative wind curl drives a southward Sverdrup flow across the equator. For a τx that is exactly proportional to y, the Ekman pumping velocity is identically zero; as a consequence, no geostrophic currents are generated by the wind, and the Sverdrup transport is equal to the Ekman drift. In GCM solutions, the southward, cross-equatorial flow occurs just below the surface ( z<-100 m), typically beneath a northward surface current, so that there is a shallow, cross-equatorial "roll

  14. Thermal Structure of Jupiter's Infrared Hotspots and Plumes in the Northern Equatorial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Rogers, John H.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Momary, Thomas W.; Giles, Rohini Sara; Melin, Henrik; Sinclair, James; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Vedovato, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The most prominent features of Jupiter's northern equatorial region are the visibly dark, 5-µm-bright 'hotspots' that move rapidly eastward on the southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB, Allison 1990, doi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90069-L). We combine high-resolution thermal-infrared (5-20 µm) imaging from VLT/VISIR and IRTF/SpeX with spatially resolved spectroscopy from IRTF/TEXES to examine the thermal and chemical conditions in the equatorial region during the 2015-2016 apparition. The high spatial resolution permits the first detailed cross-comparison of thermal and visible-albedo conditions within the hotspots. We find that: (i) cloud-clearing within the hotspots creates 8.6-µm bright patches that are broader and more diffuse than their 5-µm counterparts; (ii) cloudy, cool cells ("plumes") in the northern Equatorial Zone are ammonia-rich and dark in the 5- and 8-12 µm range; (iii) the hotspots sometimes demonstrate a westward tilt with altitude in the 0.1-0.8 bar region (Fletcher et al., 2016, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.008); and (iv) blue-grey streaks on the southeastern edges of these ammonia-rich cells are also cloud free and bright at 5-12 µm. This regular longitudinal pattern of cloudy cells and cloud-free hotspots is consistent with condensation of NH3-rich air as it ascends in cells, and subsidence of dry, volatile-depleted air in the hotspots. The westward tilt of the NEB hotspots with height that was detected in 2014 (but not in 2016) supports the equatorial Rossby-wave hypothesis for the NEB pattern. This equatorial wave is distinct from those in the upper troposphere during the 2015-16 NEB expansion event (Orton et al., DPS/EPSC 2016). The cells and hotspots observed in the thermal-IR are the same type as those detected at near-IR wavelengths by Galileo/NIMS (Baines et al. 2002, doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6901) and in the radio, probing the deep atmosphere (de Pater et al., 2016, doi:10.1126/science.aaf2210), suggesting a coherent structure

  15. A launch strategy for high-inclination orbit missions from the San Marco Equatorial Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinalducci, Antonio

    The San Marco Equatorial Range (SMER), due to its favourable geographic position (less than three degrees away from the Equator), has represented an ideal launch facility to achieve low-inclination and equatorial orbits. However, safety restrictions does not allow to achieve high-inclination orbits by in-plane launch maneuvers, requiring a large fuel expense for plane-change by means of the so called dog-leg maneuver. A guidance system has been developed to execute the out-of-plane maneuver during the guided ascent phase, in order to reduce the Δv required for plane changes. The numerical test of this guidance algorithm showed satisfying performances in terms of orbit acquisition (small errors on the orbital elements); at the same time, it proved itself capable to execute plane-change maneuvers, allowing signifiant reductions in fuel consumption with respect to the dog-leg technique.

  16. The Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions Project and the International Heliospherical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.; Lima, Jose P.; Miller, Ethan S.; Armstrong, Shaun J.

    2009-04-01

    We describe a new suite of instruments planned for deployment to Cape Verde as part of the International Heliospherical Year. The Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions (RENOIR) project consists of a bistatic Fabry-Perot interferometer system, an all-sky imaging system, a dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, and an array of single-frequency GPS scintillation monitors. This instrumentation will allow for studying the low-latitude thermosphere/ionosphere (TI) system in great detail. Investigations to be conducted using this instrumentation while in Cape Verde include studying equatorial irregularity processes, the effects of neutral winds and gravity waves on irregularity development, the midnight temperature maximum, and ion-neutral coupling in the nighttime TI system. Initial observations from the RENOIR instrumentation during pre-deployment testing at the Urbana Atmospheric Observatory are presented, as is the deployment scenario for the project in Cape Verde.

  17. High resolution properties of the equatorial Pacific marine atmospheric boundary layer from lidar and radiosonde observations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.E.; Hynes, M.V.; Keller, C.F.; Lebeda, C.F.; Poling, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    Water vapor and relative aerosol concentration were measured with two shipboard lidars from the ocean surface to tropospheric and lower stratospheric altitudes in support of the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) program. The goal of CEPEX is to evaluate the ``thermostat`` hypothesis regarding feedback mechanisms between the tropical ocean and the atmosphere. This paper describes some of the features observed with the first two kilometers of the equatorial troposphere, known as the marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL), as well as the coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere. This paper will present the initial analysis of the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. Finally, we will look at the implications of this structure for ocean-atmosphere coupling by comparing the height of the mixing layer with sea surface temperatures and other factors.

  18. Rapid ocean wave teleconnections linking Antarctic salinity anomalies to the equatorial ocean-atmosphere system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, C. P.; Wells, N. C.; Blaker, A. T.; Sinha, B.; Ivchenko, V. O.

    2009-04-01

    The coupled climate model FORTE is used to investigate rapid ocean teleconnections between the Southern Ocean and equatorial Pacific Ocean. Salinity anomalies located throughout the Southern Ocean generate barotropic signals that propagate along submerged topographic features and result in the growth of baroclinic energy anomalies around Indonesia and the tropical Pacific. Anomalies in the Ross, Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas exchange the most barotropic kinetic energy between high and low latitudes. In the equatorial Pacific, baroclinic Kelvin waves are excited which propagate eastwards along the thermocline, resulting in SST anomalies in the central and eastern Pacific. SST anomalies are subsequently amplified to magnitudes of 1.25°C by air-sea interaction, which could potentially influence other coupled Pacific phenomena.

  19. Chemical and hydrographic measurements from the equatorial pacific during boreal autumn, 1992. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, M.F.; Lantry, T.; Hendee, J.; McTaggart, K.E.; Murphy, P.P.

    1995-09-01

    In the boreal autumn of 1992, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program sponsored a major cooperative effort with the U.S. JGOFS Program in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific to investigate the unique role of equatorial processes on CO2 cycling during, and following, the 1991-92 ENSO event. Data were collected meridionally along four transects, generally between 10 N and 10 S. The first leg (Leg 3) included the 140 W and 125 W transects; the second leg (Leg 4) sampled along 110 W, and the thrid leg (Leg 5) included stations along 95 W and three short transects extending westward from the Peru coast. Chemical parameters sampled included fCO2, DIC, TAlk, pH, TOC, and nutrients. Ancillary measurements of salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also taken. Descriptions of sampling methods and data summaries are given in this report.

  20. Investigation of the role of gravity waves in the generation of equatorial bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Francis S.; Coley, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The following areas of interest in this progress report are: (1) the continuation of software development in the examination of F-region gravity-wave power using in-situ data from the Atmosphere Explorer (AE-E); (2) the inquiry into the use of the San Marco data for the study of the initiation and growth of bubbles, particularly when the satellite passes through the early evening hours at relatively high altitudes, and the development of bubbles using not only the San Marco data but includes the use of airglow observations made in Hawaii; and (3) the promising development in the observation of distinct well formed waves at about 400 km altitude in the equatorial region. These waves look very much like waves seen over the polar cap that are attributed to internal gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere driving ionization up and down the magnetic field lines. These equatorial waves show no modulation of the total ion concentration.

  1. A perspective of Middle-Atmosphere Dynamics (MAD) studies at the New International Equatorial Observatory (NIEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.; Fukao, S.

    1989-01-01

    The equatorial region has attracted many MAD studies mainly based on data of limited locations and resolutions. Established at NIEO are: (1) Climatology of the equatorial middle atmosphere (all of the mean zonal flow, the meridional and/or east-west circulations and the planetary/gravity waves are described based on massive, reliable data statistics); (2) Troposphere-stratosphere coupling at the equator (the candidate location of NIEO is just at the stratospheric fountain area where the tracers and waves are pumped up into the middle atmosphere); and (3) Mesosphere-thermosphere coupling at the equator; thermospheric superrotation, which may be caused either by ion drag or by tidal breaking, is examined in detail by observations covering a wide altitude range from the mesosphere through the thermosphere.

  2. Mid-Piacenzian sea surface temperature record from ODP Site 1115 in the western equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoll, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Planktic foraminifer assemblages and alkenone unsaturation ratios have been analyzed for the mid-Piacen-zian (3.3 to 2.9 Ma) section of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1115B, located in the western equatorial Pacific off the coast of New Guinea. Cold and warm season sea surface temperature (SST) estimates were determined using a modern analog technique. ODP Site 1115 is located just south of the transition between the planktic foraminifer tropical and subtropical faunal provinces and approximates the southern boundary of the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool. Comparison of the faunal and alkenone SST estimates (presented here) with an existing nannofossil climate proxy shows similar trends. Results of this analysis show increased seasonal variability during the middle of the sampled section (3.22 to 3.10 Ma), suggesting a possible northward migration of both the subtropical faunal province and the southern boundary of the WEP warm pool.

  3. The trapping of equatorial magnetosonic waves in the Earth's outer plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, L.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of equatorial magnetosonic waves observed by the Van Allen Probes and describe evidence for a trapping mechanism for magnetosonic waves in the Earth's plasmasphere. Intense equatorial magnetosonic waves were observed inside the plasmasphere in association with a pronounced proton ring distribution, which provides free energy for wave excitation. Instability analysis along the inbound orbit demonstrates that broadband magnetosonic waves can be excited over a localized spatial region near the plasmapause. The waves can subsequently propagate into the inner plasmasphere and remain trapped over a limited radial extent, consistent with the predictions of near-perpendicular propagation. By performing a similar analysis on another observed magnetosonic wave event, we demonstrate that magnetosonic waves can also be trapped within local density structures. We suggest that perpendicular wave propagation is important for explaining the presence of magnetosonic waves in the Earth's plasmasphere at locations away from the generation region.

  4. What controls the sea surface salinity variability in the equatorial Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) indicate that the long-term averaged surface freshwater flux is well balanced by ocean dynamics, in which subsurface processes account for a major part. Both surface freshwater flux and ocean dynamics are at work in generating the sea surface salinity variability in the equatorial Pacific. Particular attention is paid to the vertical entrainment of high salinity water from below. Water of subtropical origin resurfaces in the equatorial Pacific, directly contributing to the sea surface salinity variability there. Both the volume and barycenter of the resurfacing subtropical water show a strong ENSO signal. Their possible role in ENSO evolution is discussed.

  5. The appearance of sustained equatorial surface westerlies during the 1982 pacific warm event.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D E

    1984-06-08

    In June 1982 a band of anomalous southerly surface wind, extending from the equator as far south as the Tasman Sea, formed east of Australia (150 degrees E to 160 degrees E). This flow crossed the equator just before the appearance of sustained westerly winds on the equator somewhat west of the date line. Because these westerly winds induced the initial strong equatorial warming of the ocean east of the date line during the 1982 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, the southerly jet appears to be an important atmospheric component leading to the onset of the vigorous phase of this event. Some historical evidence suggests that anomalous southerly winds in the same region occurred prior to the appearance of sustained equatorial westerly winds in the major ENSO events of 1957, 1965, and 1972.

  6. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Equatorial Spread F: Results and Observations in the Pacific Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  7. Phase scintillations due to equatorial F region irregularities with two-component power law spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Rastogi, R. G.

    1986-10-01

    Power spectra of weak phase scintillations on a 140-MHz signal, transmitted from the geostationary satellite ATS 6 and observed during premidnight and postmidnight periods at an equatorial station Ootacamund (magnetic dip 6 N), show that the nighttime equatorial F region irregularities in the wavelength range of about hundred meters to a few kilometers exhibit a two-component power law spectrum. The long- and short-wavelength spectral indices and the break scale at which the transition from a shallow to a steep slope occurs are determined self-consistently using both the phase and amplitude scintillation data. As the power spectra of phase scintillations do not exhibit the effect of Fresnel filtering, they provide fairly accurate estimates of the spectral indices and the break scale. These estimated parameters are utilized in a model calculation of the dependence of the S4 index on signal frequency based on weak scattering theory.

  8. On the multiple scattering of VHF/UHF waves in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Using amplitude data of radio beacons at 40, 140, and 360 MHz from ATS 6 (phase II), an attempt has been made to study scattering of these waves in the equatorial ionosphere. A comparison of observed scintillation index S sub 4 with the theoretical results of the multiple scattering approach and variation of autocorrelation time with frequency indicates that this theory explains the results to a large extent. A comparison of power spectra of amplitude records with the ionograms of a nearby equatorial station has led to the following conclusions: the change from a weak scattering regime to a strong scattering regime is gradual and occurs because of the gradual decrease in the scale size of the irregularities (i.e., broadening of the spectra) and the gradual increase in the thickness of the irregular region.

  9. Sensitivity of population smoke exposure to fire locations in Equatorial Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Patrick S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Myers, Samuel S.; Chew, Boon Ning; Mao, Yuhao H.

    2015-02-01

    High smoke concentrations in Equatorial Asia, primarily from land conversion to oil palm plantations, affect a densely populated region and represent a serious but poorly quantified air quality concern. Continued expansion of the oil palm industry is expected but the resulting population exposure to smoke is highly dependent on where this expansion takes place. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to map the sensitivity of smoke concentrations in major Equatorial Asian cities, and for the population-weighted region, to the locations of the fires. We find that fires in southern Sumatra are particularly detrimental, and that a land management policy protecting peatswamp forests in Southeast Sumatra would be of great air quality benefit. Our adjoint sensitivities can be used to immediately infer population exposure to smoke for any future fire emission scenario.

  10. Hydrated states of MgSO4 at equatorial latiudes on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldman, W.C.; Mellon, M.T.; Maurice, S.; Prettyman, T.H.; Carey, J.W.; Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Fialips, C.I.; Chipera, S.J.; Kargel, J.S.; Elphic, R.C.; Funsten, H.O.; Lawrence, D.J.; Tokar, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of water ice, epsomite, and hexahydrite to loss of H 2O molecules to the atmosphere at equatorial latitudes of Mars was studied to determine their potential contributions to the measured abundance of water-equivalent hydrogen (WEH). Calculation of the relative humidity based on estimates of yearly averages of water-vapor pressures and temperatures at the Martian surface was used for this purpose. Water ice was found to be sufficiently unstable everywhere within 45?? of the equator that if the observed WEH is due to water ice, it requires a low-permeability cover layer near the surface to isolate the water ice below from the atmosphere above. In contrast, epsomite or hexahydrite may be stable in many near-equatorial locations where significant amounts of WEH are observed. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. The tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus.

  12. Equatorial semiannual oscillation in zonally averaged temperature observed by the Nimbus 7 SAMS and LIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1988-04-01

    Zonally averaged equatorial temperatures obtained aboard Nimbus 7 by the stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS) are compared to comparable data obtained from the limb IR monitor of the stratosphere. The SAMS data are shown to confirm the seasonal asymmetry in semiannual wind regimes previously noted in rocketsonde observations near the equator. Two explanations for the asymmetry are considered: (1) an improved Kelvin and gravity wave transmissivity in stronger equatorial easterlies (resulting from planetary Rossby wave momentum transport), implying stronger westerly mean flow acceleration in the first cycle than in the second; and (2) evidence of strong polar-tropical coupling in the northern winter indicating that mean meridional circulations are present on a global scale.

  13. Quasi-Stationary Zonally Asymmetric Circulations in the Equatorial Lower Mesosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchman, Matthew H.; Leovy, Conway B.; Gille, John C.; Bailey, Paul L.

    1987-08-01

    Data from the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) are used to identify a new type of planetary scale disturbance in the equatorial lower mesosphere during northern winter 1978/79. The disturbances consist of two or three vertically stacked temperature extrema of alternating sign. They persist for as long as two weeks and do not propagate. Their occurrence is confined to regions of very weak or negative inertial stability, and their meridional to vertical aspect ratio, meridional structure and zonal spectrum are consistent with disturbances predicted by inertial instability theory. However, they are found only when there is strong forcing of the subtropical mesosphere by zonal wavenumber one and two Rossby waves. This fact, together with the absence of zonal propagation, suggests that stationary Rossby waves determine their occurrence and longitudinal structure. These structures can significantly modify the zonal mean flow and should be taken into account in dynamical models of the equatorial mesosphere.

  14. Joint remote state preparation (JRSP) of two-qubit equatorial state in quantum noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepoju, Adenike Grace; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Camacho-Nieto, Oscar; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2017-02-01

    This letter reports the influence of noisy channels on JRSP of two-qubit equatorial state. We present a protocol for JRSP of two-qubit equatorial state. Afterward, we investigate the effects of five quantum noises on the protocol. We find that the system loses some of its properties as consequence of unwanted interactions with environment. For instance, within the domain 0 < λ < 0.65, the information lost via transmission of qubits in amplitude channel is most minimal, while for 0.65 < λ ≤ 1, the information lost in phase flip channel becomes the most minimal. Also, for any given λ, the information transmitted through depolarizing channel has the least chance of success.

  15. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2016-09-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed, and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in the precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  16. Gyroscope precession along unbound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2016-12-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along unbound equatorial plane geodesic orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed with respect to a static reference frame whose axes point towards the "fixed stars." The accumulated precession angle after a complete scattering process is evaluated and compared with the corresponding change in the orbital angle. Limiting results for the nonrotating Schwarzschild black hole case are also discussed.

  17. Hydroclimatogical Changes and Impacts on Seasonal Regimes of African Equatorial Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, changes in the pattern of hydroclimatogical cycle have been observed with impacts on seasonal regimes of African equatorial rivers. This communication reports on studies carried out for a set of river basins in equatorial Africa, tributaries of the Atlantic Gulf of Guinea: the Ogooue River in Gabon, the Kouilou River in Congo, and the basins of South Cameroon. These rivers are compared to the Congo River. A new monthly gridded rainfall dataset, and streamflow from selected rivers where used in the analysis. The observed changes include changes in seasonal pattern of rainfall and changes in monthly streamflow regimes. The study shows a decrease of rainfall in the southern hemisphere during February to May since the end of the 80s, while the decrease is much more limited in the Northern hemisphere. For the equatorial rivers, the March-June flood decreased steadily between the 70s and 80s, in correlation with a slight decrease of the rainfall between March and June, while the October-December flood showed no change. This trend was confirmed during the 2000s for the Ogooue River from updated times series, including a shift of the maximum in April instead of May. Locally, the dry season (July-September) disappeared on the coastal basin of the Kienke River at Kribi in Cameroon. It seems that these two months of July and August have become part of a 'single' large rainy season instead of separating the former two rainy seasons. A slight decrease in seasonal rainfall together with a small change in the intra-seasonal rainfall distribution, most probably led to one of the biggest change in hydrological regimes in Equatorial Africa, which could be a clue to understanding climate change in the region. This rainfall change is different for the Congo River which large basins integrates various climatic forcings.

  18. Performance of Mixed Layer Models in Simulating SST in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-23

    the SST drop (,,7’C) occurring in the eastern equatorial Pacific Antarctic for computational efficiency. Hereinafter, the [Harrison and Vecchi, 2001...based Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/1) clearly HYCOM simulations introduces some error ( z50 W m2) relative to the shortwave radiation measured by...Thi6baux, J., E. Rogers, W. Wang, and B. Katz (2003), A new high-resolu- tion blended real-time global sea surface temperature analysis, Bull. Am. E

  19. African Equatorial GPS Scintillations during the Minimum and Ascending Phases of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, Andrew; Groves, K. M.; Amaeshi, Larry; Idolor, Raphael; Okoro, Ekemini; Carrano, Charles; Bridgwood, Christopher; Baki, Paul; Dujanga, Florence; Doherty, Patricia

    Abstract This study characterizes African equatorial scintillations at L-band frequency during the minimum and ascending phases of solar cycle 24. Three years’ (2009-2011) of amplitude scintillation data from three African equatorial GPS stations namely; Lagos (3.48oN, 3.27oE, mag. lat: 3.04oS), Nigeria; Nairobi (1.30oS, 36.80oE, mag. lat: 8.03oS), Kenya; and Kampala (0.30oN, 32.50oE, mag. lat: 9.26oS), Uganda were used for the investigation. We grouped the data on daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales at three levels of scintillation (weak (0.3≤S4<0.4), moderate (0.4≤S4<0.7), and intense (S4≥0.7)), and adopted three data cut-off criteria. Scintillations exhibit daily trend of occurrence during the hours of 1900 LT-0200 LT, with higher levels being localized within the hours of 2000-2300 LT. Generally, highest scintillation occurrences were recorded during the equinoxes, and the trend increased with solar activity. Specifically, scintillations were almost absent during June Solstices of the period under investigation, and it appears as if January is a non-scintillation month over equatorial Africa. On a scintillation active day, the number of satellites available to the receiver’s view reduces as the duration of observation reduces. These results may support the development of future models that could provide real-time predictability of African equatorial scintillations, with a view to supporting the implementation of GNSS-based navigation in Africa.

  20. Height variation of electron temperature associated with equatorial plasma bubbles - some recent rocket observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralikrishna, P.; Batista, I. S.; Domingos, S.; Aquino, M. G.

    2013-05-01

    In-situ measurements made from Brazil recently using rocket-borne swept-bias Langmuir Probes show that the electron temperatures in the valley region between the equatorial E and F regions get modified before the onset of plasma bubbles. During one of the post sunset launches made on 18-th December 1995 from the equatorial rocket launching station CLA in Alcântara, Brazil the Langmuir probe measured abnormally large electron temperatures below the F-region just before the onset of plasma bubbles but temperatures became normal soon after the onset of bubbles. Later on 2-nd December 2011 a Brazilian VS-30 single stage rocket was launched from the equatorial rocket launching station CLBI in Natal, Brazil carrying a Langmuir probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes to measure both electron temperature and electron density respectively. The ground equipments operated before and during the rocket launch clearly showed the presence of plasma bubbles above the F-region. At the time of launch the bubble activity was at its peak. The electron density and temperature height profiles could be estimated from the LP data up to the rocket apogee altitude of 139km. During the rocket upleg and downleg the valley region showed the presence electron temperatures as high as 2000 degree K while the temperatures expected from the existing models are around 500 degree K. A two stage VS-30/Orion rocket was launched on 8-th December soon after sunset carrying a Langmuir Probe operating alternately in swept and constant bias modes to measure the electron density and electron temperature, mainly in the valley between the E and F regions. At the time of launch ground equipments operated at equatorial stations showed ionospheric conditions favorable for the generation of plasma bubbles. These profiles are compared with model electron density and temperature profiles as well as with electron density and temperature profiles observed under conditions of no plasma bubbles.

  1. Cross-Equatorial Interactions in the Development of a Winter Typhoon: Nancy 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    trades to form the Northern Hemisphere near equatorial trough (NET). This trough is the spawning grounds for most tropical cyclones. North of the...grounds. Since the tropical upper tropospheric trough (TUTT), which can also induce tropical cyclone development (Sadler, 1974), is non- existent in...greater than normal equatorward penetration of the upper tropospheric mid-latitude trough and a shift in the long wave pattern. Table 1 shows that

  2. Characteristics of penetration electric fields to the equatorial ionosphere during southward and northward IMF turnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta

    2013-07-01

    The signatures of abrupt turnings of the vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), Bz, can be seen at equatorial latitudes through the prompt transmission of high-latitude electric fields to the lower latitudes, called as prompt penetration electric field (PPE). The present work studies the signatures of PPE in daytime equatorial electrojet (EEJ) index derived in the Indian sector during 2001-2005. The signatures are observed in polar (PCN index) and equatorial (EEJ index) ionosphere almost instantaneously (<1 min). The communication time of 12±6 min is observed between bow shock nose and the equatorial ionosphere, and it is found to have inverse relationship with radial component of solar wind velocity during southward and northward Bz turnings which might indicate magnetosphere crossing time scale by solar wind. Ionospheric reconfiguration time during southward turnings shows inverse relationship with solar wind flow in contrast to northward turnings with "no relationship," indicating differences in underlying physical mechanisms during both turnings. We observe no local time dependence (within 06-18 h) in conductivity-corrected EEJ signatures associated with Bz turnings. Regression analysis between conductivity-corrected EEJ and interplanetary electric field shows higher efficiency during northward turnings. However, further analysis investigating the effect of actual orientation of Bz indicates that the magnitude of northward Bz does not have influence on the ionospheric signatures. It is noticed that the response signatures are mainly controlled by the magnitudes of southward Bz. Thus, the present study signifies the role of inner magnetospheric shielding electric field in addition to ceasing of convection during northward turnings.

  3. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes using Cassini ISS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-10-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 microns; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  4. Topographic constraints on the origin of the equatorial ridge on Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Garcia, Erika J.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Schenk, Paul M.; Hammond, Noah P.; Barr, Amy C.

    2014-07-01

    Saturn’s moon Iapetus has an equatorial ridge system, which may be as high as 20 km, that may have formed by endogenic forces, such as tectonic and convective forces, or exogenic processes such as debris infall. We use high-resolution topographic data to conduct a topographic analysis of the ridge, which suggests a predominantly triangular morphology, with some ridge face slopes reaching 40°, allowing for an exogenic formation mechanism.

  5. Variation of Equatorial F-Region Irregularity Parameters as a Function of Solar Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    stations at Ancon and Huancayo and the coordinates (Ancon L9 and Huancayo MS) pertaining to these measurements are illus- trated in Figure 1. The...ionosonde data were obtained at Huancayo (H) and scintillation measurements were performed from both Ancon (A) and lHuancayo (H). 3 2. IONOGRAM ANALYSIS...VIRTUAL IEIGHT AND SPREAD-F Early observations of equatorial spread-F at Huancayo (Booker and Wells, 1938) indicated that the onset of spread-F is

  6. Seasonal variation of the surface North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yuanlong; Wang, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) is an important zonal flow in the upper circulation of the tropical Pacific Ocean, which plays a vital role in the heat budget of the western Pacific warm pool. Using satellite-derived data of ocean surface currents and sea surface heights (SSHs) from 1992 to 2011, the seasonal variation of the surface NECC in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was investigated. It was found that the intensity (INT) and axis position (Y CM ) of the surface NECC exhibit strikingly different seasonal fluctuations in the upstream (128°-136°E) and downstream (145°-160°E) regions. Of the two regions, the seasonal cycle of the upstream NECC shows the greater interannual variability. Its INT and YCM are greatly influenced by variations of the Mindanao Eddy, Mindanao Dome (MD), and equatorial Rossby waves to its south. Both INT and Y CM also show semiannual signals induced by the combined effects of equatorial Rossby waves from the Central Pacific and local wind forcing in the western Pacific Ocean. In the downstream region, the variability of the NECC is affected by SSH anomalies in the MD and the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. Those in the MD region are especially important in modulating the YCM of the downstream NECC. In addition to the SSH-related geostrophic flow, zonal Ekman flow driven by meridional wind stress also plays a role, having considerable impact on INT variability of the surface NECC. The contrasting features of the variability of the NECC in the upstream and downstream regions reflect the high complexity of regional ocean dynamics.

  7. Physical mechanism and statistics of occurrence of an additional layer in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Bailey, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    A physical mechanism and the location and latitudinal extent of an additional layer, called the F3 layer, that exists in the equatorial ionosphere are presented. A statistical analysis of the occurrence of the layer recorded at the equatorial station Fortaleza (4°S, 38°W dip 9°S) in Brazil is also presented. The F3 layer forms during the morning-noon period in that equatorial region where the combined effect of the upward E×B drift and neutral wind provides a vertically upward plasma drift velocity at altitudes near and above the F2 peak. This velocity causes the F2 peak to drift upward and form the F3 layer while the normal F2 layer develops at lower altitudes through the usual photochemical and dynamical effects of the equatorial region. The peak electron density of the F3 layer can exceed that of the F2 layer. The F3 layer is predicted to be distinct on the summer side of the geomagnetic equator during periods of low solar activity and to become less distinct as the solar activity increases. Ionograms recorded at Fortaleza in 1995 show the existence of an F3 layer on 49% of the days, with the occurrence being most frequent (75%) and distinct in summer, as expected. During summer the layer occurs earlier and lasts longer compared to the other seasons; on the average, the layer occurs at around 0930 LT and lasts for about 3 hours. The altitude of the layer is also high in summer, with the mean peak virtual height being about 570 km. However, the critical frequency of the layer (foF3) exceeds that of the F2 layer (foF2) by the largest amounts in winter and equinox; foF3 exceeds foF2 by a yearly average of about 1.3 MHz.

  8. Simulations of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Field-aligned ion drag effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Wang, Wenbin; Richmond, Arthur D.; Roble, Raymond; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang; Xue, Xianghui; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the field-aligned ion drag on equatorial thermosphere temperature and density is quantitatively investigated on the basis of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR TIEGCM) simulations under high solar activity (F107 = 180). The increase of upward vertical winds over the magnetic equator associated with the additional divergence of meridional winds, caused by the inclusion of field-aligned ion drag, leads to a reduction in thermosphere temperature and density at the magnetic equator through enhanced adiabatic cooling. We found that the field-aligned ion drag has an obvious impact on the thermosphere only over the magnetic equatorial region in the daytime and evening sectors, whereas it has less effect on the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) crests. The daytime neutral temperature over the magnetic equator is reduced by about 30 K, for altitudes above 250 km without significant altitudinal variations, when field-aligned ion drag is included in the simulation. The thermosphere density in the magnetic equatorial region starts to change slightly at 300 km and depletes by about 5% at 400 km, while experiencing a greater decrease with altitude. Furthermore, the trough produced in the neutral temperature and density corresponds well with the magnetic dip equator. The ETA features during 12:00-18:00 LT become obvious as a result of the inclusion of the field-aligned ion drag. Specifically, our results show that at 400 km the crest-trough differences in neutral temperature are about 30-60 K, and the crest-trough ratios in thermosphere density are 1.03-1.06, comparable with observations.

  9. Surprising detection of an equatorial dust lane on the AGB star IRC+10216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, S. V.; Min, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Canovas, H.; Pols, O. R.; Rodenhuis, M.; de Juan Ovelar, M.; Keller, C. U.; Decin, L.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: Understanding the formation of planetary nebulae remains elusive because in the preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase these stars are heavily enshrouded in an optically thick dusty envelope. Methods: To further understand the morphology of the circumstellar environments of AGB stars we observe the closest carbon-rich AGB star IRC+10216 in scattered light. Results: When imaged in scattered light at optical wavelengths, IRC+10216 surprisingly shows a narrow equatorial density enhancement, in contrast to the large-scale spherical rings that have been imaged much further out. We use radiative transfer models to interpret this structure in terms of two models: firstly, an equatorial density enhancement, commonly observed in the more evolved post-AGB stars, and secondly, in terms of a dust rings model, where a local enhancement of mass-loss creates a spiral ring as the star rotates. Conclusions: We conclude that both models can be used to reproduce the dark lane in the scattered light images, which is caused by an equatorially density enhancement formed by dense dust rather than a bipolar outflow as previously thought. We are unable to place constraints on the formation of the equatorial density enhancement by a binary system. Final reduced images (FITS) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A3Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  10. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes Using Cassini ISS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial 5-micron hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but a diffuse western edge serving as a nebulous boundary with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-iike 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. This raises the possibility that the plumes and fast-moving clouds are at higher altitudes, because their speed does not match previously published zonal wind profiles. Most profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. Instead, our expanded data set demonstrating the rapid flow of these scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  11. How changes in the mean east-west equatorial SST gradient affect ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manucharyan, G. E.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    Using a comprehensive coupled climate model (CESM), we study the dependence of ENSO characteristics on the background state of the tropical Pacific, specifically the mean east-west SST gradient along the equator (ΔT). In a suite of numerical experiments, we modify upper-ocean vertical mixing in the extra-tropics, poleward of 15°N/S, which allows us to vary the supply of cold water feeding equatorial upwelling and controlling temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The latter factor modifies the zonal SST gradient and related characteristics of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the equatorial band, including the atmospheric Walker circulation and the east-west tilt of the ocean thermocline. The imposed changes in the extra-tropics do not affect ENSO dynamics directly, but only through changes in the background state of the coupled system in the equatorial band. In particular, when in the coupled model ΔT is reduced from 5° to 1°C, the period of the simulated ENSO increases from 3 to 5 years, whereas its amplitude decreases by a factor of 4. Despite such a strong reduction in amplitude, the spectral peak associated with ENSO remains statistically significant. Further we show that changes in the tropical background state influence ENSO through two main mechanisms: reduction in the effective coupling between wind and SST anomalies and an increase in the damping of SST anomalies by surface heat fluxes. Ultimately, estimating the magnitude of changes in the mean state of the tropical Pacific necessary to alter ENSO and assessing the relevant physical mechanisms, this study has direct implications for the ongoing debates on how El Niño might change with global warming or in past climates.

  12. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.

    2014-02-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  13. On the origin of late Holocene sea-level highstands within equatorial ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Milne, G. A.

    2002-11-01

    Late Holocene sea-level highstands of amplitude ˜3 m are endemic to equatorial ocean basins. These highstands imply an ongoing and moderate, sub-mm/yr, sea-level fall in the far field of the Late Pleistocene ice cover that has long been linked to the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA; Clark et al., 1978). Mitrovica and Peltier (1991) coined the term 'equatorial ocean syphoning' to describe the GIA-induced sea-level fall and they provided the first physical explanation for the process. They argued that water migrated away from far-field equatorial ocean basins in order to fill space vacated by collapsing forebulges at the periphery of previously glaciated regions. We provide a complete physical explanation for the origin of equatorial ocean syphoning, and the associated development of sea-level highstands, using numerical solutions of the equation that governs meltwater redistribution on spherical, viscoelastic Earth models. In particular, we separate the total predicted sea-level change into contributions associated with ice and meltwater loading effects, and, by doing so, isolate a second mechanism that contributes significantly to the ocean syphoning process. Ocean loading at continental margins induces a 'levering' of continents and a subsidence of offshore regions that has also long been recognized within the GIA literature (Walcott, 1972). We show that the influx of water into the volume created by this subsidence produces a sea-level fall at locations distant from these margins—indeed over the major ocean basins—that is comparable in amplitude to the syphoning mechanism isolated by Mitrovica and Peltier (1991).

  14. Observations of the Mindanao current during the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Roger; Firing, Eric; Hacker, Peter; Richardson, Philip L.; Collins, Curtis A.; Fine, Rana; Gammon, Richard

    1991-04-01

    The Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (WEPOCS) III expedition was conducted from June 18 through July 31, 1988, in the far western equatorial Pacific Ocean to observe the low-latitude western boundary circulation there, with emphasis on the Mindanao Current. This survey provides the first quasi-synoptic set of current measurements which resolve all of the important upper-ocean currents in the western tropical Pacific. Observations were made of the temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and current profiles with depth; of water mass properties including transient tracers; and of evolving surface flows with a dense array of Lagrangian drifters. This paper provides a summary of the measurements and a preliminary description of the results. The Mindanao Current was found to be a narrow, southward-flowing current along the eastward side of the southern Philippine Islands, extending from 14°N to the south end of Mindanao near 6°N, where it then separates from the coast and penetrates into the Celebes Sea. The current strengthens to the south and is narrowest at 10°N. Direct current measurements reveal transports in the upper 300 m increasing from 13 Sv to 33 Sv (1 Sverdrup = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) between 10°N and 5.5°N. A portion of the Mindanao Current appears to recurve cyclonically in the Celebes Sea to feed the North Equatorial Countercurrent, merging with waters from the South Equatorial Current and the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent. Another portion of the Mindanao Current appears to flow directly into the NECC without entering the Celebes Sea. The turning of the currents into the NECC is associated with the Mindanao and Halmahera eddies.

  15. Interaction of field-aligned cold plasma flows with an equatorially-trapped hot plasma - Electrostatic shock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1993-01-01

    Effects of equatorially trapped hot plasma on the highly supersonic cold-plasma flow occurring during early stage plasmaspheric refilling are studied by means of numerical simulations. It is shown that the equatorially trapped hot ions set up a potential barrier for the cold ion beams and facilitate formation of electrostatic shocks by reflecting them from the equatorial region. Simulations with and without the hot plasma show different flow properties; the formation of electrostatic shocks occur only in the former case. The simulation with the hot plasma also reveals that the magnetic trapping in conjunction with the evolution of the electrostatic potential barrier produces ion velocity distribution functions consisting of a cold core and a hot ring in the perpendicular velocity. Such a distribution function provides a source of free energy for equatorial waves. The corresponding electron population is warm and field-aligned.

  16. Impact of Indian Ocean Dipole on the salinity budget in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Based on ocean reanalysis data sets and observations, this study analyzes the variability of salinity and its associated ocean dynamics in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO). The results show that significant interannual variability of salinity in boreal fall are mainly associated with the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) events, especially the positive IOD (pIOD) events. During pIOD events, forced by anomalous easterly winds, westward current anomalies strengthen the westward advection in summer and weaken the eastward advection of Wyrtki Jets in fall. Analysis of salinity budget indicates that salinity anomalies are mainly dominated by advection, in which zonal component is the key. As the zonal current anomalies are symmetric off the equator, mean zonal salinity gradients dominate the asymmetric distribution of low-salinity advection. Low-salinity water advects to the west, shoals mixed layer, favoring SST increasing after the mature phase of pIOD. After the decay phase, low-salinity water advects across the equator to the southwestern IO, which associates with the off-equatorial anticyclonic circulations in the southern IO. When pIOD events concur with El Niño, the low-salinity water advection strengthens and advects northward and southward simultaneously after the decay phase, due to the strong off-equatorial influence from El Niño.

  17. Indonesia coverage simulation of SAR satellite at near-equatorial orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septanto, Harry; Utama, Satriya; Heru Triharjanto, Robertus; Suhermanto

    2017-01-01

    Properties of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) that able to penetrate the cloud and does not depend on the sunlight are a number of advantages when utilized for monitoring tropical region like the IMC (Indonesian Maritime Continent). Moreover, since having areas along equatorial belt, the IMC is at a shortcoming from perspective of highly inclined LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. It would result shorter and infrequent pass times when compared with a near-equatorial LEO satellite whose low inclination. This paper reports on the investigation of a near-equatorial LEO SAR satellite coverage property through simulations. The simulations is run in nine scenarios of orbit parameter that consist of combinations of attitude {500 km, 600 km, 700 km} and inclination {80, 90, 100}. The target area is defined as 50 km x 50 km around Jakarta. Meanwhile, the SAR sensor simulation is run with swath width of 40 km, incidence angle around 250-290 and Stripmap mode. Minimum, Maximum and Mean Access Revisit of the target for each scenarios are resulted.

  18. Optimization of the ITER electron cyclotron equatorial launcher for improved heating and current drive functional capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Henderson, M.; Saibene, G.

    2014-06-15

    The design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) system has evolved in the last years both in goals and functionalities by considering an expanded range of applications. A large effort has been devoted to a better integration of the equatorial and the upper launchers, both from the point of view of the performance and of the design impact on the engineering constraints. However, from the analysis of the ECCD performance in two references H-mode scenarios at burn (the inductive H-mode and the advanced non-inductive scenario), it was clear that the EC power deposition was not optimal for steady-state applications in the plasma region around mid radius. An optimization study of the equatorial launcher is presented here aiming at removing this limitation of the EC system capabilities. Changing the steering of the equatorial launcher from toroidal to poloidal ensures EC power deposition out to the normalized toroidal radius ρ ≈ 0.6, and nearly doubles the EC driven current around mid radius, without significant performance degradation in the core plasma region. In addition to the improved performance, the proposed design change is able to relax some engineering design constraints on both launchers.

  19. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153–17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality. PMID:27848989

  20. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153–17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  1. Gravity-driven structures and rift basin evolution: Rio Muni Basin, offshore equatorial West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    Offshore Equatorial Guinea, west Africa, gravity-driven nappes, more than 1 km thick and 15 km from head to toe, provide key evidence in reconstructing the late synrift: evolution of this part of the South Atlantic margin basin system. Furthermore, Aptian-Cenomanian carbonate and clastic rocks in the nappes` allochthonous hanging walls are attracting interest as a new exploration play in west Africa. The nappes exhibit a range of geometries that suggest they share many of the same deformation processes as thin-skin thrust and linked extensional fault systems. Not only are these structures significant in their own right, representing a rare example of gravity tectonics in the virtual absence of major halokinesis, but their presence may record an other-wise undetectable process active during the transition from a rift basin to a passive continental margin. A review of Equatorial Guinea in its pre-Atlantic configuration, alongside neighboring basins in Brazil (the Sergipe-Alagoas basin) and Gabon, suggests that gravity gliding was sustained by a relatively steep, westward paleoslope promoted by east-ward offset of the locus of thermal uplift from the rift basin (i.e., a simple shear model of basin formation). In contrast to gravity-driven structures in most postrift settings, the Equatorial Guinea nappes developed at the close of the Aptian-Albian synrift episode in response to a growing bathymetric deep caused by rapid subsidence outpacing restricted sedimentation.

  2. Measuring the magnetic field of a trans-equatorial loop system using coronal seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David; Perez-Suarez, David; Valori, Gherardo

    2016-05-01

    First observed by SOHO/EIT, "EIT waves" are strongly associated with the initial evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and after almost 20 years of investigation a consensus is being reached which interprets them as freely-propagating waves produced by the rapid expansion of a CME in the low corona. An "EIT wave" was observed on 6 July 2012 to erupt from active region AR11514 into a particularly structured corona that included multiple adjacent active regions as well as an adjacent trans-equatorial loop system anchored at the boundary of a nearby coronal hole. The eruption was well observed by SDO/AIA and CoMP, allowing the effects of the "EIT wave" on the trans-equatorial loop system to be studied in detail. In particular, it was possible to characterise the oscillation of the loop system using Doppler velocity measurements from CoMP. These Doppler measurements were used to estimate the magnetic field strength of the trans-equatorial loop system via coronal seismology. It was then possible to compare these inferred magnetic field values with extrapolated magnetic field values derived using a Potential Field Source Surface extrapolation as well as the direct measurements of magnetic field provided by CoMP. These results show that the magnetic field strength of loop systems in the solar corona may be estimated using loop seismology.

  3. A Long, Consistent Surface Wind Dataset for Climate Change Analysis: Application over the Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokinaga, H.; Xie, S.

    2010-12-01

    Surface wind change is a principal factor for spatial patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) warming through changes in surface evaporation, ocean vertical mixing and wind-driven ocean circulation. However, historical ship-based measurements of sea surface wind speed displays a spurious upward trend due to increases in anemometer height. To correct this bias, we construct the Wave and Anemometer-based Sea-surface Wind (WASWind) dataset for the last six decades from ICOADS ship reports, applying height correction for anemometer measured winds, rejecting spurious Beaufort winds, and using wind wave height to estimate wind speed. WASWind substantially reduces the upward trend in wind speed and its trend patterns are quite similar to satellite-measured surface wind changes for the recent two decades. Surface wind changes in WASWind are consistent with historical sea level pressure observations over the global oceans, illustrating its utility for climate change analysis. As an example, WASWind captures relaxation of the equatorial trade winds coupled with a weakening of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue over the last six decades. The surface wind changes are also consistent with those in atmospheric convection and subsurface temperature in this region, indicating that thermocline feedback plays a key role in recent climate change over the equatorial Atlantic.

  4. Public health professionals’ perceptions of mental health services in Equatorial Guinea, Central-West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Peter Robert; McGinnis, Shannon Marcail; Reuter, Kim Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mental health disorders constitute 13% of global disease burden, the impacts of which are disproportionality felt in sub-Saharan Africa. Equatorial Guinea, located in Central-West Africa, has the highest per-capita investment in healthcare on the African continent, but only two studies have discussed mental health issues in the country and none of have examined the perspective of professionals working in the field. The purpose of this study was to gain a preliminary understanding of Equatoguinean health care professionals' perspectives on the mental health care system. Methods Nine adult participants (directors or program managers) were interviewed in July 2013 in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from government agencies, aid organizations, hospitals, and pharmacies. Interviews were designed to collect broad information about the mental healthcare system in Equatorial Guinea including the professionals' perspectives and access to resources. This research was reviewed and approved by an ethical oversight committee. Results All individuals interviewed indicated that the mental health system does not currently meet the needs of the community. Professionals cited infrastructural capacity, stigmatization, and a lack of other resources (training programs, knowledgeable staff, medications, data) as key factors that limit the effectiveness of mental healthcare. Conclusion This study provides a preliminary understanding of the existing mental health care needs in the country, highlighting opportunities for enhanced healthcare services. PMID:28293352

  5. Survival probability of precipitations and rain attenuation in tropical and equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohebbi Nia, Masoud; Din, Jafri; Panagopoulos, Athanasios D.; Lam, Hong Yin

    2015-08-01

    This contribution presents a stochastic model useful for the generation of a long-term tropospheric rain attenuation time series for Earth space or a terrestrial radio link in tropical and equatorial heavy rain regions based on the well-known Cox-Ingersoll-Ross model previously employed in research in the fields of finance and economics. This model assumes typical gamma distribution for rain attenuation in heavy rain climatic regions and utilises the temporal dynamic of precipitation collected in equatorial Johor, Malaysia. Different formations of survival probability are also discussed. Furthermore, the correlation between these probabilities and the Markov process is determined, and information on the variance and autocorrelation function of rain events with respect to the particular characteristics of precipitation in this area is presented. The proposed technique proved to preserve the peculiarities of precipitation for an equatorial region and reproduce fairly good statistics of the rain attenuation correlation function that could help to improve the prediction of dynamic characteristics of rain fade events.

  6. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  7. 34Si accompanied ternary fission of 242Cm in equatorial and collinear configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith; Priyanka, B.

    2014-11-01

    Taking the interacting potential as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential, 34Si accompanied cold ternary fission of 242Cm has been studied with fragments in the equatorial and collinear configuration. The cold valley plots (plot of driving potential versus mass number of fragments) and the calculations on the yields for the charge minimized fragments have been used to obtain the favorable fragment combinations. Thus, our study on the 34Si accompanied ternary fission of 242Cm reveals the role of near doubly magic shell closures (of 130Sn, 132Te, 134Te, etc.) in cold ternary fission. The comparison of relative yield reveals that in 34Si accompanied ternary fission of 242Cm, collinear configuration is preferred than the equatorial configuration. The relative yield for binary exit channel is found to be higher than that of ternary fragmentation (both equatorial and collinear configuration). The predicted yield for the binary fragmentation of 4He and 34Si from 242Cm are in agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Stratospheric ozone variations in the equatorial region as seen in Stratiospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiotani, Masato; Hasebe, Fumio

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is made of equatorial ozone variations for 5 years, 1984-1989, using the ozone profile data derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument. Attention is focused on the annual cycle and also on interannual variability, particularly the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variations in the lower stratosphere, where the largest contribution to total column ozone takes place. The annual variation in zonal mean total ozone around the equator is composed of symmetric and asymmetric modes with respect to the equator, with maximum contributions being around 19 km for the symmetric mode and around 25 km for the asymmetric mode. The persistent zonal wavenumber 1 structure observed by the total ozone mapping spectrometer over the equator is almost missing in the SAGE-derived column amounts integrated in the stratosphere, suggesting a significant contribution from tropospheric ozone. Interannual variations in the equatorial ozone are dominated by the QBO above 20 km and the ENSO-related variation below 20 km. The ozone QBO is characterized by zonally uniform phase changes in association with the zonal wind QBO in the equatorial lower stratosphere. The ENSO-related ozone variation consists of both the east-west vacillation and the zonally uniform phase variation. During the El Nino event, the east-west contrast with positive (negative) deviations in the eastern (western) hemisphere is conspicuous, while the decreasing tendency of the zonal mean values is maximum at the same time.

  9. Fault evolution in the Potiguar rift termination, Equatorial margin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. L.; Bezerra, F. H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The transform shearing between South American and African plates in the Cretaceous generated a series of sedimentary basins on both plate margins. In this study, we use gravity, aeromagnetic, and resistivity surveys to identify fault architecture and to analyse the evolution of the eastern Equatorial margin of Brazil. Our study area is the southern onshore termination of the Potiguar rift, which is an aborted NE-trending rift arm developed during the breakup of Pangea. The Potiguar rift is a Neocomian structure located in the intersection of the Equatorial and western South Atlantic and is composed of a series of NE-trending horsts and grabens. This study reveals new grabens in the Potiguar rift and indicates that stretching in the southern rift termination created a WNW-trending, 10 km wide and ~40 km long right-lateral strike-slip fault zone. This zone encompasses at least eight depocenters, which are bounded by a left-stepping, en-echelon system of NW- to EW-striking normal faults. These depocenters form grabens up to 1200 m deep with a rhomb-shaped geometry, which are filled with rift sedimentary units and capped by post-rift sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the rift termination is consistent with the right-lateral shearing of the Equatorial margin in the Cretaceous and occurs not only at the rift termination, but also as isolated structures away from the main rift.

  10. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail from 10 to 40 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical study of IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetotail magnetic field measurements near the equatorial plane reveals new information about various aspects of magnetospheric structure. More magnetic flux crosses the equatorial plane on the dawn and dusk flanks of the tail than near midnight, but no evidence is found for a dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field sector polarity. Field magnitudes within 3 earth radii of the equatorial plane near dawn are more than twice as large as those near dusk for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii. The frequency of occurrence of southward fields is greatest near midnight, and such fields are seen almost twice as often for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii as for Xsm beyond -20 earth radii. This latter result supports the idea that the midnight region of the tail between 10 and 20 is a special location where neutral lines are particularly apt to form. Such a neutral line will approach nearest the earth in the midnight and premidnight region, where substorms are thought to have their onset.

  11. Forcing of recent decadal variability in the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, P. R.; Piecuch, C. G.; Merrifield, M. A.; McCreary, J. P.; Firing, E.

    2016-09-01

    Recent decadal sea surface height (SSH) variability across the Equatorial and North Indian Ocean (ENIO, north of 5°S) is spatially coherent and related to a reversal in basin-scale, upper-ocean-temperature trends. Analysis of ocean and forcing fields from a data-assimilating ocean synthesis (ECCOv4) suggests that two equally important mechanisms of wind-driven heat redistribution within the Indian Ocean account for a majority of the decadal variability. The first is the Cross-Equatorial Cell (CEC) forced by zonal wind stress curl at the equator. The wind stress curl variability relates to the strength and position of the Mascarene High, which is influenced by the phase of the Indian Ocean Subtropical Dipole. The second mechanism is deep (700 m) upwelling related to zonal wind stress at the equator that causes deep, cross-equatorial overturning due to the unique geometry of the basin. The CEC acts to cool the upper ocean throughout most of the first decade of satellite altimetry, while the deep upwelling delays and then amplifies the effect of the CEC on SSH. During the subsequent decade, reversals in the forcing anomalies drive warming of the upper ocean and increasing SSH, with the effect of the deep upwelling leading the CEC.

  12. Equatorial electrojet in the Indian region during the geomagnetic storm of 13-14 November 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, H.; Rastogi, R. G.; Choudhary, R. K.; Sharma, Som

    2016-04-01

    The geomagnetic storm of November 1998 is a unique event where IMF-Bz remained southward with values exceeding -15 nT for more than a day. The SYM/H index decreased from about 07 hr on 13 November 1998 reaching a minimum of about -120 nT around midnight of 13-14 November 1998. Features of the equatorial electrojet in the Indian region are studied during the geomagnetic storm event of 13-14 November 1998, based on the geomagnetic data from the chain of observatories in India. Sudden northward turning of IMF-Bz for a very short duration around 08 hr on 13 November 1998 resulted in a small and very short duration counter electrojet. A strong (-50 nT) and a long duration counter electrojet, right from 08 to 13 hr on 14 November 1998 was observed resulting in the absence of equatorial Es at Thumba. Absence of the equatorial ionization anomaly was also observed as seen from the ionograms over Thumba and ionspheric data from Ahmedabad. The delayed effect on 14 November 1998 is due to the disturbance dynamo effect.

  13. A Science Mission for QSAT Project: Study of FACs in the Polar and Equatorial Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akiko; Ueno, Tamiki; Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    2009-04-01

    Kyushu University, Kyushu Institute of Technology and Fukuoka Institute of Technology are now designing, developing and building a micro-satellite called “QSAT”. The primary objective of QSAT is understanding the mechanism of spacecraft charging, which can be achieved with the onboard magnetometer, high-frequency probe (HP) and Langmuir probe (LP). The magnetometer measures the magnetic field variations caused by field-aligned currents (FACs) in the polar and equatorial regions. Polar FACs are well understood, while equatorial FACs are not. The science goals are as follows: (1) to better understand FACs in the polar region, (2) to compare the FACs observed in orbit with ground-based MAGDAS observations, (3) to investigate spatial distribution of FACs in the equatorial region. FACs play a crucial role in the coupling between solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere in terms of energy transfer. Also if we understand the relationship between the space and ground-based FACs data, then we can conduct long-term study on the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in the future by mainly using data from ground-based magnetometer arrays.

  14. Mid-Pliocene equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction: a multi-proxy perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth, which can be used to examine conditions predicted for the near future. An accurate spatial representation of the low-latitude Mid-Pliocene Pacific surface ocean is necessary to understand past climate change in the light of forecasts of future change. Mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies show a strong contrast between the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) regardless of proxy (faunal, alkenone and Mg/Ca). All WEP sites show small differences from modern mean annual temperature, but all EEP sites show significant positive deviation from present-day temperatures by as much as 4.4°C. Our reconstruction reflects SSTs similar to modern in the WEP, warmer than modern in the EEP and eastward extension of the WEP warm pool. The east-west equatorial Pacific SST gradient is decreased, but the pole to equator gradient does not change appreciably. We find it improbable that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) alone would cause such a heterogeneous warming and more likely that the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth is a combination of several forcings including both increased meridional heat transport and increased GHG.

  15. Mid-Pliocene equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction: A multi-proxy perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-Pliocene is the most recent interval of sustained global warmth, which can be used to examine conditions predicted for the near future. An accurate spatial representation of the low-latitude Mid-Pliocene Pacific surface ocean is necessary to understand past climate change in the light of forecasts of future change. Mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies show a strong contrast between the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) regardless of proxy (faunal, alkenone and Mg/Ca). All WEP sites show small differences from modern mean annual temperature, but all EEP sites show significant positive deviation from present-day temperatures by as much as 4.4??C. Our reconstruction reflects SSTs similar to modern in the WEP, warmer than modern in the EEP and eastward extension of the WEP warm pool. The east-west equatorial Pacific SST gradient is decreased, but the pole to equator gradient does not change appreciably. We find it improbable that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) alone would cause such a heterogeneous warming and more likely that the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth is a combination of several forcings including both increased meridional heat transport and increased GHG. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  16. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia.

    PubMed

    Crippa, P; Castruccio, S; Archer-Nicholls, S; Lebron, G B; Kuwata, M; Thota, A; Sumin, S; Butt, E; Wiedinmyer, C; Spracklen, D V

    2016-11-16

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153-17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  17. On the fresh development of equatorial plasma bubbles around the midnight hours of June solstice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-09-01

    Using the 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang, Indonesia, the nocturnal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) was examined during the moderate solar activity years 2011-2012. While the evolution of EPBs was mostly (86%) confined to post sunset hours (1900-2100 LT) during equinoxes, in contrast, the majority of EPBs ( 71%) in June solstice found evolve around the midnight hours (2200-0300 LT). The mechanisms behind the fresh evolution of summer time midnight EPBs were investigated, for the first time, through SAMI2 model simulations with a realistic input of background ExB drift variation derived from CINDI IVM on board C/NOFS satellite. The term-by-term analysis of linear growth rate of RT instability indicates that the formation of high flux tube electron content height gradient (KF) (steep vertical gradient) region at higher altitudes is the key factor for the enhanced growth rate of RT instability. The responsible factors are discussed in light of relatively weak westward zonal electric field in the presence of equatorward neutral wind and bottomside recombination around the midnight hours of June solstice. The effects of neutral winds and weak westward electric fields on the uplift of equatorial F layer were examined separately using controlled SAMI2 simulations. The results indicate that relatively larger linear growth rate is more likely to occur around midnight during June solstice because of relatively weak westward electric field than other local times in the presence of equatorward meridional wind.

  18. Annual and semiannual variations of the geomagnetic field at equatorial locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, W. H.

    1981-06-01

    The annual and semiannual variations of the quiet-sun year (1965) geomagnetic field are examined using geomagnetic records obtained from observatories located between about 0 and 30 deg N geomagnetic latitude. Three separate contributions are analyzed: (1) the quiet-day midnight level (MDT), (2) the solar-quiet daily variation (Sq), and (3) the quiet-time lunar semidiurnal tidal variation (L). Methods of three recent studies (Campbell, 1980a, 1980b) are used to emphasize the equatorial features, and the differences in the seasonal amplitude and phase changes, obtained from a Fourier analysis of annual and semiannual components in the three orthogonal magnetic-field directions, are illustrated. Conclusions are presented, including: (1) the equatorial MDT variations of the northward and vertical components at quiet periods seem to represent the expected seasonal nighttime magnetospheric distortions, (2) the seasonal equatorial region Sq follows closely the annual and semiannual patterns expected to be caused by ionospheric conductivity and heating variations that give rise to a dynamo current at E-region heights, and (3) the lunar seasonal variations show characteristics of dayside ionospheric electrojet origin.

  19. Composition and origin of ferromanganese crusts from equatorial western Pacific seamounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guozhi; Jansa, Luba; Chu, Fengyou; Zou, Can; Sun, Guosheng

    2015-04-01

    In the equatorial western Pacific, iron-manganese oxyhydroxide crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) and nodules form on basaltic seamounts and on the top of drowned carbonate platform guyots that have been swept free of pelagic sediments. To date, the Fe-Mn crusts have been considered to be almost exclusively of abiotic origin. However, it has recently been suggested that these crusts may be a result of biomineralization. Although the Fe-Mn crust textures in the equatorial western Pacific are similar to those constructed by bacteria and algae, and biomarkers also document the existence of bacteria and algae dispersed within the Fe-Mn crusts, the precipitation, accumulation and distribution of elements, such as Fe, Mn, Ni and Co in Fe-Mn crusts are not controlled by microbial activity. Bacteria and algae are only physically incorporated into the crusts when dead plankton settle on the ocean floor and are trapped on the crust surface. Geochemical evidence suggests a hydrogenous origin of Fe-Mn crusts in the equatorial western Pacific, thus verifying a process for Fe-Mn crusts that involves the precipitation of colloidal phases from seawater followed by extensive scavenging of dissolved trace metals into the mineral phase during crust formation.

  20. Possible causes of the Central Equatorial African long-term drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wenjian; Zhou, Liming; Chen, Haishan; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Raghavendra, Ajay; Jiang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies found that Central Equatorial Africa (CEA) has experienced a long-term drying trend over the past two decades. To further evaluate this finding, we investigate possible mechanisms for this drought by analyzing multiple sources of observations and reanalysis data. We examine the atmospheric circulation changes related to sea surface temperature (SST) variations that control the equatorial African rainfall. Our results indicate that the long-term drought during April, May and June over CEA may reflect the large-scale response of the atmosphere to tropical SST variations. Likely the drought results primarily from SST variations over Indo-Pacific associated with the enhanced and westward extended tropical Walker circulation. These are consistent with the weakened ascent over Central Africa that is associated with the reduced low-level moisture transport. The large-scale atmospheric circulation changes associated with a weaker West African monsoon also have some contribution. These results reinforce the notion that tropical SSTs have large impacts on rainfall over equatorial Africa and highlight the need to further distinguish the contribution of SSTs changes (e.g., La Niña-like pattern and Indian Ocean warming) due to natural variability and anthropogenic forcing to the drought.

  1. Equatorial symmetry of Boussinesq convective solutions in a rotating spherical shell allowing rotation of the inner and outer spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Keiji; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio

    2014-08-15

    We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the respective rotation of the inner and outer spheres due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number, and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1, and 500{sup 2}, respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 10{sup 4} to 3.4 × 10{sup 4}. In this parameter range, the behaviours of obtained asymptotic convective solutions are almost similar to those in the system whose inner and outer spheres are restricted to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, although the difference is found in the transition process to chaotic solutions. The convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one to an equatorially symmetric chaotic one, and further to an equatorially asymmetric chaotic one, as the Rayleigh number is increased. This is in contrast to the transition in the system whose inner and outer spheres are assumed to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, where the convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one, to an equatorially asymmetric quasi-periodic one, and to equatorially asymmetric chaotic one. The inner sphere rotates in the retrograde direction on average in the parameter range; however, it sometimes undergoes the prograde rotation when the convective solution becomes chaotic.

  2. North and equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation in the CORE-II hindcast simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-heng; Lin, Hongyang; Chen, Han-ching; Thompson, Keith; Bentsen, Mats; Böning, Claus W.; Bozec, Alexandra; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Chow, Chun Hoe; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Farneti, Riccardo; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Patara, Lavinia; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sui, Chung-Hsiung; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yeager, Steve G.

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the mean circulation patterns, water mass distributions, and tropical dynamics of the North and Equatorial Pacific Ocean based on a suite of global ocean-sea ice simulations driven by the CORE-II atmospheric forcing from 1963-2007. The first three moments (mean, standard deviation and skewness) of sea surface height and surface temperature variability are assessed against observations. Large discrepancies are found in the variance and skewness of sea surface height and in the skewness of sea surface temperature. Comparing with the observation, most models underestimate the Kuroshio transport in the Asian Marginal seas due to the missing influence of the unresolved western boundary current and meso-scale eddies. In terms of the Mixed Layer Depths (MLDs) in the North Pacific, the two observed maxima associated with Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water formation coalesce into a large pool of deep MLDs in all participating models, but another local maximum associated with the formation of Eastern Subtropical Mode Water can be found in all models with different magnitudes. The main model bias of deep MLDs results from excessive Subtropical Mode Water formation due to inaccurate representation of the Kuroshio separation and of the associated excessively warm and salty Kuroshio water. Further water mass analysis shows that the North Pacific Intermediate Water can penetrate southward in most models, but its distribution greatly varies among models depending not only on grid resolution and vertical coordinate but also on the model dynamics. All simulations show overall similar large scale tropical current system, but with differences in the structures of the Equatorial Undercurrent. We also confirm the key role of the meridional gradient of the wind stress curl in driving the equatorial transport, leading to a generally weak North Equatorial Counter Current in all models due to inaccurate CORE-II equatorial wind fields. Most models show a larger

  3. Low-Level Cloud Variability over the Equatorial Cold Tongue in Observations and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansbach, David K.; Norris, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth paper now in press is, Low-level cloud variability over the equatorial cold tongue in observations and models, by D. K. Mansbach and J. R. Norris (2007, J. Climate). This study examined cloud and meteorological observations from satellite, surface, and reanalysis datasets and fount that monthly anomalies in low-level cloud amount and near-surface temperature advection are strongly negatively correlated on the southern side of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. This inverse correlation occurs independently of relationships between cloud amount and sea surface temperature (SST) or lower tropospheric static stability (LTS) and the combination of advection plus SST or LTS explains significantly more interannual cloud variability in a multilinear regression than does SST or LTS alone. Warm anomalous advection occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is well defined and the southeastern Pacific trade winds bring relatively warm air over colder water. Ship meteorological reports and soundings show that the atmospheric surface layer becomes stratified under these conditions, thus inhibiting the upward mixing of moisture needed to sustain cloudiness against subsidence and entrainment drying. Cold anomalous advection primarily occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is weak or absent and the air-sea temperature difference is substantially negative. These conditions favor a more convective atmospheric boundary layer, greater cloud amount, and less frequent occurrence of clear sky. Examination of output from global climate models developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) indicates that both models generally fail to simulate the cloud-advection relationships observed on the northern and southern sides of the equatorial cold tongue. Although the GFDL atmosphere model does reproduce the expected signs of cloud-advection correlations when forced with prescribed historical SST variations, it does not

  4. Short-Term Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rate of Sunspot Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.; Bertello, L.

    2016-12-01

    We have detected several periodicities in the solar equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups in the catalog Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) during the period 1931 - 1976, the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) during the period 1977 - 2014, and the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) during the period 1974 - 2014. We have compared the results from the fast Fourier transform (FFT), the maximum entropy method (MEM), and the Morlet wavelet power-spectra of the equatorial rotation rates determined from SOON and DPD sunspot-group data during the period 1986 - 2007 with those of the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data during the same period determined by Javaraiah et al. ( Solar Phys. 257, 61, 2009). We have also compared the power-spectra computed from the DPD and the combined GPR and SOON sunspot-group data during the period 1974 - 2014 to those from the GPR sunspot-group data during the period 1931 - 1973. Our results suggest a ˜ 250-day period in the equatorial rotation rate determined from both the Mt. Wilson Doppler-velocity data and the sunspot-group data during 1986 - 2007. However, a wavelet analysis reveals that this periodicity appears mostly around 1991 in the velocity data, while it is present in most of the solar cycles covered by the sunspot-group data, mainly near the minimum epochs of the solar cycles. We also found the signature of a period of ˜ 1.4 years in the velocity data during 1990 - 1995, and in the equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups mostly around the year 1956. The equatorial rotation rate of sunspot groups reveals a strong ˜ 1.6-year periodicity around 1933 and 1955, a weaker one around 1976, and a strong ˜ 1.8-year periodicity around 1943. Our analysis also suggests periodicities of ˜ 5 years, ˜ 7 years, and ˜ 17 years, as well as some other short-term periodicities. However, short-term periodicities are mostly present at the time of solar minima. Hence, short-term periodicities cannot be confirmed because of

  5. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphy of ODP Site 709 (equatorial Indian Ocean).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Giuliana; Fioroni, Chiara; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the lower Eocene-Oligocene sediments has shown great potential, through identification of several new nannofossil species and bioevents (e.g. Fornaciari et al., 2010; Bown and Dunkley Jones, 2012; Toffanin et al., 2013). These studies formed the basis for higher biostratigraphic resolution leading to definition of a new nannofossil biozonation (Agnini et al., 2014). In this study, we investigate the middle Eocene-lower Oligocene sediments from ODP Hole 709C (ODP Leg 115) by means of calcareous nannofossils and magnetostratigraphy. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 709 was located in the equatorial Indian Ocean and biostratigraphy has been investigated in the nineties (Okada, 1990; Fornaciari et al., 1990) while paleomagnetic data from the Initial Report provided only a poorly constrained magnetostratigraphic interpretation, thus the cored succession was dated only by means of biostratigraphy. Our goal is to test the reliability in the Indian Ocean of the biohorizons recently identified at Site 711 (Fioroni et al., in press), by means of high resolution sampling, new taxonomic updates, quantitative analyses on calcareous nannofossils allowed to increase the number of useful bioevents and to compare their reliability and synchroneity. The new magnetostratigraphic analyses and integrated stratigraphy allow also to achieve an accurate biochronology of the time interval spanning Chrons C20 (middle Eocene) and C12 (early Oligocene). In addition, this equatorial site represents an opportunity to study the carbonate accumulation history and the large fluctuations of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) during the Eocene (e.g. Pälike et al., 2012). The investigated interval encompasses the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), and the long cooling trend that leads to the Oligocene glacial state. By means of our new bio-magnetostratigraphic data and paleoecological results we provide further insights on

  6. Development of intermediate-scale structure at different altitudes within an equatorial plasma bubble: Implications for L-band scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Kakad, B.; Gurram, P.; Sripathi, S.; Sunda, S.

    2017-01-01

    An important aspect of the development of intermediate-scale length (approximately hundred meters to few kilometers) irregularities in an equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) that has not been considered in the schemes to predict the occurrence pattern of L-band scintillations in low-latitude regions is how these structures develop at different heights within an EPB as it rises in the postsunset equatorial ionosphere due to the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Irregularities at different heights over the dip equator map to different latitudes, and their spectrum as well as the background electron density determine the strength of L-band scintillations at different latitudes. In this paper, VHF and L-band scintillations recorded at different latitudes together with theoretical modeling of the scintillations are used to study the implications of this structuring of EPBs on the occurrence and strength of L-band scintillations at different latitudes. Theoretical modeling shows that while S4 index for scintillations on a VHF signal recorded at an equatorial station may be >1, S4 index for scintillations on a VHF signal recorded near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) generally does not exceed the value of 1 because the intermediate-scale irregularity spectrum at F layer peak near the EIA crest is shallower than that found in the equatorial F layer peak. This also explains the latitudinal distribution of L-band scintillations. Thus, it is concluded that there is greater structuring of an EPB on the topside of the equatorial F region than near the equatorial F layer peak.

  7. A Comparison of Solar Cycle Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rates of the Sun's Subsurface, Surface, Corona, and Sunspot Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2013-10-01

    Using the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot-group data for the period 1985 - 2010, the variations in the annual mean equatorial-rotation rates of the sunspot groups are determined and compared with the known variations in the solar equatorial-rotation rates determined from the following data: i) the plasma rotation rates at 0.94R⊙,0.95R⊙,…,1.0R⊙ measured by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) during the period 1995 - 2010, ii) the data on the soft-X-ray corona determined from Yohkoh/SXT full-disk images for the years 1992 - 2001, iii) the data on small bright coronal structures (SBCS) that were traced in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/EIT images during the period 1998 - 2006, and iv) the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity measurements during the period 1986 - 2007. A large portion (up to ≈ 30∘ latitude) of the mean differential-rotation profile of the sunspot groups lies between those of the internal differential-rotation rates at 0.94R⊙ and 0.98R⊙. The variation in the yearly mean equatorial-rotation rate of the sunspot groups seems to be lagging behind that of the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the GONG measurements by one to two years. The amplitude of the GONG measurements is very small. The solar-cycle variation in the equatorial-rotation rate of the solar corona closely matches that determined from the sunspot-group data. The variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data closely resembles the corresponding variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the sunspot-group data that included the values of the abnormal angular motions (> |3∘| day-1) of the sunspot groups. Implications of these results are pointed out.

  8. Spatial and temporal oceanographic variability of the eastern equatorial Pacific during the late Pleistocene: Evidence from Radiolaria microfossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisias, Nicklas G.; Mix, Alan C.

    1997-06-01

    Eight 150,000 year long records of sea surface temperatures combined with two additional records spanning 400,000 years constrain the spatial and temporal patterns of oceanographic change in the eastern equatorial Pacific and possible mechanisms of variability in the region. Empirical orthogonal function analysis shows two important modes of variability, one associated with the eastern boundary current and another associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The two long time series located in the equatorial divergence and within the Peru Current have very different patterns of change. The spectrum for the time series from the Peru Current is dominated by orbital periods of 100, 41, and 23 kyr and is similar in variance distribution and phase to records from the Southern Ocean. In contrast, the equatorial divergence site has spectral concentrations at the orbital frequencies and also concentration of variance at the nonorbital 31,000 year period. The phase and amplitude spectra of these two sites support the importance of changes in eastern boundary advection and also document a nonlinear response of the equatorial Pacific to orbital changes. Finally, these data provide a new evaluation of the temperature change in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the last glacial maximum. Cooling in the Peru Current region is predicted to be about 4°C, and cooling in the equatorial divergence is estimated to be 3° to 5°C. The estimated cooling of the region is of the order of 2°C greater than the cooling predicted by Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction (CLIMAP).

  9. Extra-tropical origin of equatorial Pacific cold bias in climate models with links to cloud albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burls, Natalie J.; Muir, Leslie; Vincent, Emmanuel M.; Fedorov, Alexey

    2016-11-01

    General circulation models frequently suffer from a substantial cold bias in equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). For instance, the majority of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have this particular problem (17 out of the 26 models evaluated in the present study). Here, we investigate the extent to which these equatorial cold biases are related to mean climate biases generated in the extra-tropics and then communicated to the equator via the oceanic subtropical cells (STCs). With an evident relationship across the CMIP5 models between equatorial SSTs and upper ocean temperatures in the extra-tropical subduction regions, our analysis suggests that cold SST biases within the extra-tropical Pacific indeed translate into a cold equatorial bias via the STCs. An assessment of the relationship between these extra-tropical SST biases and local surface heat flux components indicates a link to biases in the simulated shortwave fluxes. Further sensitivity studies with a climate model (CESM) in which extra-tropical cloud albedo is systematically varied illustrate the influence of cloud albedo perturbations, not only directly above the oceanic subduction regions but across the extra-tropics, on the equatorial bias. The CESM experiments reveal a quadratic relationship between extra-tropical Pacific albedo and the root-mean-square-error in equatorial SSTs—a relationship with which the CMIP5 models generally agree. Thus, our study suggests that one way to improve the equatorial cold bias in the models is to improve the representation of subtropical and mid-latitude cloud albedo.

  10. Continuous day-time time series of E-region equatorial electric fields derived from ground magnetic observatory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, P.; Chulliat, A.; Maus, S.

    2012-12-01

    The day-time eastward equatorial electric field (EEF) in the ionospheric E-region plays an important role in equatorial ionospheric dynamics. It is responsible for driving the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) current system, equatorial vertical ion drifts, and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Due to its importance, there is much interest in accurately measuring and modeling the EEF. However, there are limited sources of direct EEF measurements with full temporal and spatial coverage of the equatorial ionosphere. In this work, we propose a method of estimating a continuous day-time time series of the EEF at any longitude, provided there is a pair of ground magnetic observatories in the region which can accurately track changes in the strength of the EEJ. First, we derive a climatological unit latitudinal current profile from direct overflights of the CHAMP satellite and use delta H measurements from the ground observatory pair to determine the magnitude of the current. The time series of current profiles is then inverted for the EEF by solving the governing electrodynamic equations. While this method has previously been applied and validated in the Peruvian sector, in this work we demonstrate the method using a pair of magnetometers in Africa (Samogossoni, SAM, 0.18 degrees magnetic latitude and Tamanrasset, TAM, 11.5 degrees magnetic latitude) and validate the resulting EEF values against the CINDI ion velocity meter (IVM) instrument on the C/NOFS satellite. We find a very good 80% correlation with C/NOFS IVM measurements and a root-mean-square difference of 9 m/s in vertical drift velocity. This technique can be extended to any pair of ground observatories which can capture the day-time strength of the EEJ. We plan to apply this work to more observatory pairs around the globe and distribute real-time equatorial electric field values to the community.

  11. Characteristics of High-latitude and Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillation of GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, several years of multi-constellation global navigation satellite scintillation data collected at Alaska, Peru, and Ascension Island are analyzed to characterize scintillation features observed at high latitude and equatorial locations during the current solar maximum. Recognizing that strong scintillation data are often lost due to the lack of robustness in conventional GPS receivers used for ionosphere scintillation monitoring (ISM), an autonomous event driven scintillation data collection system using software-defined raw RF sampling devices have been developed deployed at a number of strategically selected high latitude and equatorial locations since 2009. This unique scintillation data recording system is triggered by indicators computed from a continuously operating ISM receiver and the raw RF data is post processed using advanced receiver signal processing algorithms designed to minimize carrier phase cycle slips and loss of lock of signals during strong scintillations. Based on scintillation events extracted from the raw data, several statistical distributions are established to characterize the intensity, duration and occurrence frequency of scintillation. Results confirm that scintillation at low latitudes is generally more intense and longer lasting, while high-latitude scintillation is milder and usually dominated by phase fluctuations. Results also reveal the impacts of solar activity, geomagnetic activity and seasons on scintillation in different areas. Combining measurements from a co-located geo-magnetometer and corresponding global geomagnetic activities, qualitative and quantitative correlations between scintillation and both local and global geomagnetic activities have been obtained. Results show that in Alaska, the occurrence frequency and intensity of scintillation, especially phase fluctuations, have strong correlations with geomagnetic field intensity disturbances, while in equatorial stations, the correlation is not obvious.

  12. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ population from Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Salmanton-García, Jon; Herrador, Zaida; Ruiz-Seco, Pilar; Nzang-Esono, Jesús; Bendomo, Veronica; Bashmakovic, Emma; Nseng-Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a serious public health problem in Equatorial Guinea, with a prevalence of 6.2% among adults. the high-activity antiretroviral treatment (HAART) coverage data is 10 points below the overall estimate for Sub-Saharan Africa, and only 61% patients continue with HAART 12 months after it started. This study aims to assess HAART adherence and related factors in Litoral Province of Equatorial Guinea. In this cross-sectional study, socio-demographic and clinical data were collected at Regional Hospital of Bata, during June-July 2014. Adherence to treatment was assessed by using the Spanish version of CEAT-VIH. Bivariate and linear regression analyses were employed to assess HAART adherence-related factors. We interviewed 50 men (35.5%) and 91 women (64.5%), with a mean age of 47.7 ± 8.9 and 36.2 ± 11.2, respectively (p < .001). Overall, 55% patients had low or insufficient adherence. CEAT-VIH score varied by ethnic group (p = .005). There was a positive correlation between CEAT-VIH score and current CD4 T-cells count (p = .013). The Cronbach's α value was 0.52. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess HAART adherence in Equatorial Guinea. Internal reliability for CEAT-VIH was low, nonetheless the positive correlation between the CEAT-VIH score and the immunological status of patients add value to our findings. Our results serve as baseline for future research and will also assist stakeholders in planning and undertaking contextual and evidence-based policy initiatives.

  13. Estimating some parameters of the equatorial ionosphere electrodynamics from ionosonde data in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodji, F. O.; Doumbia, V.; Boka, K.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Cohen, Y.; Fleury, R.

    2017-01-01

    During the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY), an IPS-42 ionosonde located at Korhogo (9.33°N, 5.42°W, -1.88° dip-lat) and a meridian chain of 10 magnetic stations were setup in West Africa (5°West longitude). In this work, some characteristic parameters of the equatorial electrojet were estimated on the basis of the IPS-42 ionosonde data at Korhogo during the years 1993 and 1994. The study consisted of determining the zonal electric field through an estimate of the plasma vertical drift velocity. The daytime plasma vertical drift velocity was estimated from the time rates of change of the F-layer virtual height variations and a correction term that takes into account the ionization production and recombination effects. This method resulted in an improved vertical drift velocity, which was found to be comparable to the results of previous studies. The estimated vertical drift velocity was used in a semi-empirical approach which involved the IRI-2012 model for the Pedersen and Hall conductivities and the IGRF-10 model for the geomagnetic main field intensity. Thus the zonal and polarization electric fields on one hand, and the eastward Pedersen, Hall and the equatorial electrojet current densities on the other hand, were estimated. Furthermore the integrated peak current density at the EEJ center was estimated from ionosonde observations and compared with that inferred from magnetometer data. The integrated EEJ peak current densities obtained from both experiments were found to be in the same order and their seasonal variations exhibit the same trends as well.

  14. A comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Zachary; Simon, Sven; Kabanovic, Slawa

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of ion cyclotron waves in the equatorial magnetosphere of Saturn, considering all magnetic field data collected during the Cassini era (totaling to over 4 years of data from the equatorial plane). This dataset includes eight targeted flybys of Enceladus, three targeted flybys of Dione, and three targeted flybys of Rhea. Because all remaining orbits of Cassini are high-inclination, our study provides the complete map of ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's equatorial magnetosphere during the Cassini era. We provide catalogs of the radial and longitudinal dependencies of the occurrence rate and amplitude of the ion cyclotron fundamental and first harmonic wave modes. The fundamental wave mode is omnipresent between the orbits of Enceladus and Dione and evenly distributed across all Local Times. The occurrence rate of the fundamental mode displays a Fermi-Dirac-like profile with respect to radial distance from Saturn. Detection of the first harmonic mode is a rare event occurring in only 0.49% of measurements taken and always in conjunction with the fundamental mode. We also search for a dependency of the ion cyclotron wave field on the orbital positions of the icy moons Enceladus, Dione, and Rhea. On magnetospheric length scales, the wave field is independent of the moons' orbital positions. For Enceladus, we analyze wave amplitude profiles of seven close flybys (E9, E12, E13, E14, E17, E18, and E19), which occurred during the studied trajectory segments, to look for any local effects of Enceladan plume variability on the wave field. We find that even in the close vicinity of Enceladus, the wave amplitudes display no discernible dependency on Enceladus' angular distance to its orbital apocenter. Thus, the correlation between plume activity and angular distance to apocenter proposed by Hedman et al. (2013) does not leave a clearly distinguishable imprint in the ion cyclotron wave field.

  15. Response of the equatorial Pacific upwelling to past shifts in the position of the ITCZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutavas, A.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Sachs, J.; Marchitto, T.; Chiang, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is presently positioned well into the Northern Hemisphere and only seasonally approaches the equator during boreal winter. In the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) the seasonal migration of the ITCZ occurs in concert with a large seasonal cycle in upwelling strength and sea surface temperature. Interannual (ENSO) perturbations of the seasonal cycle are also linked to the upwelling intensity and ITCZ position, with El Niño/La Niña phases coinciding with extreme south/north shifts of the ITCZ. We investigate whether past ITCZ variability on millennial-to-orbital timescales is linked to hydrographic changes in the upwelling system of the eastern tropical Pacific. Using foraminiferal Mg/Ca, oxygen isotope ratios, and alkenone paleothermometry in a number of EEP sites we document a consistent pattern of upwelling and SST variability in connection with past shifts in the mean position of the ITCZ relative to the equator. In general glacial/stadial climate periods are characterized by southward shifts of the ITCZ as evidenced in terrestrial and marine records of hydrologic balance. We show that during these periods the equatorial upwelling system of the EEP is least developed and the cross-equatorial oceanographic front between the cold tongue and ITCZ is weakest. By contrast during interglacial/interstadial periods the ITCZ shifts north away from the equator, allowing strong upwelling and a steep oceanographic front to develop. These modes of upwelling variability can be thought of as long-period ENSO-like modes and are likely manifestations of basin-wide adjustments of the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere occurring coherently with high-latitude climate changes. A plausible mechanism behind this linked tropical-extratropical response may be through modulation of the relative strength of northeast vs southeast trade winds, controlled by latitudinal temperature gradients in each hemisphere.

  16. The importance of ionospheric measurements in Africa for understanding global equatorial electrodynmics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Santimay; Basu, Santimay; Basu, Sunanda

    The major driver of equatorial electrodynamics is the zonal electric field that develops under the action of the zonal neutral wind and is influenced by the east-west conductivity gradient at sunrise and sunset. During daytime, the eastward electric field at the dip equator coupled with the earth's magnetic field creates an upward drift of the plasma and transport to higher latitudes forming the equatorial anomaly in F-region plasma density with a minimum at the dip equator and maxima at 15o north and south dip latitudes. Further, at sunset, the east-west conductivity gradient causes an enhancement in the eastward electric field and sets off plasma instabilities to generate irregularities of electron density. The equatorial anomaly usually persisting beyond dusk, introduces a latitude variation in the magnitude of electron density deviation, thus causing a latitude variation of amplitude and phase scintillations. This pronounced latitude variation of F-region plasma density, the total electron content and scintillations impact greatly the operation of communication and navigation systems in this region. Such measurements in low latitude regions in the Asian and South American sectors show a great deal of day-to-day, seasonal-cum-longitudinal, magnetic disturbance and solar cycle variation. Currently, there is a gap in such long-term measurements at African longitudes. It is therefore extremely important to deploy arrays of instruments under the auspices of IHY and UNBSS Programs to obtain genuinely global measurement set to satisfy the needs of modern space-based communication and navigation systems and development of space weather ionosphere-thermosphere models for use in low latitude regions.

  17. KINETIC THEORY OF EQUILIBRIUM AXISYMMETRIC COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS IN OFF-EQUATORIAL TORI AROUND COMPACT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír

    2013-11-01

    The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

  18. Fault evolution in the Potiguar rift termination, equatorial margin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, D. L.; Bezerra, F. H. R.

    2015-02-01

    The transform shearing between South American and African plates in the Cretaceous generated a series of sedimentary basins on both plate margins. In this study, we use gravity, aeromagnetic, and resistivity surveys to identify architecture of fault systems and to analyze the evolution of the eastern equatorial margin of Brazil. Our study area is the southern onshore termination of the Potiguar rift, which is an aborted NE-trending rift arm developed during the breakup of Pangea. The basin is located along the NNE margin of South America that faces the main transform zone that separates the North and the South Atlantic. The Potiguar rift is a Neocomian structure located at the intersection of the equatorial and western South Atlantic and is composed of a series of NE-trending horsts and grabens. This study reveals new grabens in the Potiguar rift and indicates that stretching in the southern rift termination created a WNW-trending, 10 km wide, and ~ 40 km long right-lateral strike-slip fault zone. This zone encompasses at least eight depocenters, which are bounded by a left-stepping, en echelon system of NW-SE- to NS-striking normal faults. These depocenters form grabens up to 1200 m deep with a rhomb-shaped geometry, which are filled with rift sedimentary units and capped by postrift sedimentary sequences. The evolution of the rift termination is consistent with the right-lateral shearing of the equatorial margin in the Cretaceous and occurs not only at the rift termination but also as isolated structures away from the main rift. This study indicates that the strike-slip shearing between two plates propagated to the interior of one of these plates, where faults with similar orientation, kinematics, geometry, and timing of the major transform are observed. These faults also influence rift geometry.

  19. Ionospheric effects of the March 13, 1989, magnetic storm at low and equatorial latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, I.S.; De Paula, E.R.; Abdu, M.A.; Trivedi, N.B. ); Greenspan, M.E. )

    1991-08-01

    The great geomagnetic storm of March 13, 1989 caused severely anomalous behavior in the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere in the Brazilian longitude sector. The ionograms over Fortaleza indicated F region upward plasma drifts exceeding 200 m s{sup {minus}1} at 1,830 LT as compared to normal values of 40 m s{sup {minus}1} for this epoch. Large negative phases were observed in foF2 over Fortaleza and Cachoeira Paulista and in total electron content measured over Sao Jose dos Campos. The equatorial ionization anomaly was totally absent either because of its anomalous expansion to higher latitudes or because of inhibition of its development on the two nights following the storm. Many anomalous variations in F region peak density and height, occurring simultaneously with sharp variations on H component of magnetic field over Fortaleza and with auroral substorms, give strong evidence of penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to equatorial and low latitudes. Auroral type sporadic E and night E layers are observed after 1,830 LT over Cachoeira Paulista, the latter showing peak electron density of about 6 {times} 10{sup 4} el cm{sup {minus}3}, therefore comparable to the E layer peak density in the morning hours at that station. The Fortaleza ionograms show the presence of the F1 layer at night, a phenomenon that has never been observed over our two stations before. The role played by electric fields penetrating from high to low latitudes, particle precipitation, and composition changes in explaining the observations is discussed.

  20. Effects of a magnetic cloud simultaneously observed on the equatorial ionosphere in midday and midnight sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Chandra, H.; Das, A. C.; Sridharan, R.; Reinisch, B. W.; Ahmed, Khurshid

    2012-04-01

    An impact of a magnetic cloud on the Earth's magnetosphere occurred at 1636 UT on 25 June, 1998, associated with a sudden increase of the solar wind density and velocity, as well as a sudden increase of the zenithal component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF- B z). Following the impact of the magnetic cloud, IMF- B z was northward (10 nT) and remained steadily strong (about 15 nT) for the next six hours. IMF- B z turned southward at 2330 UT on 25 June, 1998, and remained strongly southward (-15 nT) for the next four hours. During the positive phase of IMF- B z, both the Auroral index and ring current index SYM/H remained steadily low indicating complete isolation of the Earth's magnetosphere from the solar wind and no significant changes were observed in the equatorial ionosphere. After the southward turning, the steady southward IMF- B z permitted solar wind energy to penetrate the magnetosphere and caused the generation of a magnetic storm associated with strong auroral electrojet activity ( A E index). Strong southward IMF- B z corresponds to the dawn-dusk interplanetary electric field (eastward on the dayside and westward on the night side). The ionograms at Jicamarca (night side) showed strong spread- F and at Thumba (dayside) showed an absence of equatorial type of sporadic- E, indicating a dusk-to-dawn electric field. Thus, the observations point to an electric field opposite in direction to that expected by the prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field. An abnormally-large Auroral index ( A E) associated with the start of the storm suggests that the cause of the equatorial electric field changes is due to the disturbance dynamo effect.

  1. Observations of unusual pre-dawn response of the equatorial F-region during geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, W.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P.; Sahai, Y.; Abalde, J.; Pillat, V.

    It is known that the disturbed solar wind-magnetosphere interactions have important effects on equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics. The response of equatorial ionosphere during storm-time is an important aspect of space weather studies. It has been observed that during geomagnetic disturbances both suppression as well as generation of equatorial spread-F (ESF) or plasma irregularities takes place. However, the mechanism(s) associated with the generation of ESF still needs further investigations. This work reports some unusual events of pre-dawn occurrence of ionospheric F-region satellite traces followed by spread-F and cusp-like spread-F from ionospheric sounding observations carried out by a Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) localized at Palmas (10.2°, 48.2°W, dip latitude 5.7°S), Brazil during 2002, every 5 minutes. For the present work we have scaled and analyzed the ionospheric sounding data for three events (April 20, September 04 and 08, 2002), which are associated with geomagnetic disturbances. In the events studied, the ionograms show the occurrence of satellite trace followed by cusp-like spread. The cusp like features move up in frequency and height and finally attain the F-layer peak value (foF2) and then disappear. They had duration of about 30 min and always occurred in the early morning hours. Our studies involved seven geomagnetic disturbances as well as quiet days during the year 2002, but only on these three occasions we observed these features. We present and discuss these observations in this paper and suggest possible mechanisms for the occurrence of these unusual features.

  2. Kinetic Theory of Equilibrium Axisymmetric Collisionless Plasmas in Off-equatorial Tori around Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír

    2013-11-01

    The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

  3. foF2 correlation studies with solar and geomagnetic indices for two equatorial stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshua, E. O.; Nzekwe, N. M.

    2012-05-01

    The analysis of the contributions of solar and geomagnetic indices on the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2)-, for different seasons and two Nigerian equatorial stations- Ibadan (Lat. 7.4°N, Long. 3.9°N) and Ilorin (Lat. 8.5°N, Long. 4.55°E)- are presented. The data set was randomly sampled across three solar cycles of periods of low, moderate and high solar activities. Solar indices used in this work are Coviten solar flux (F10.7 cm), daily solar radio flux (dF10.7), International Sunspot Number (ISSN), Smoothen Sunspot Number (SmSSN), and Sun Spot Number (SSN). The geomagnetic indices used are planetary indices Am, Aa, Ap, C9, Cp, and Kp. foF2 showed a non-linear trend with an average coefficient (R) of 0.70 across the various seasons. Regression lines for polynomials of degree n=1 to n=6 was fitted, for each data set. Am, Ap, Aa, SSN, ISSN, F10.7 cm, and dF10.7 with R values of 0.71,0.74,0.61,0.59,0.72,0.80, and 0.86, for the various geomagnetic and solar indices, had the highest contributions. We therefore advocate for SSN, ISSN, F10.7 cm, dF10.7 and Am, Ap or Aa in modeling foF2 for the African equatorial ionosphere. The results of this work are in line with the results of other works carried out at different equatorial stations.

  4. Mechanism for Surface Warming in the Equatorial Pacific during 1994-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Borovikov, Anna; Schopf, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the variation in sea surface temperature warm event in the equatorial Pacific were investigated through ocean model simulations. In addition, the mechanisms of the climatological SST cycle were investigated. The dominant mechanisms governing the seasonal cycle of SST vary significantly across the basin. In the western Pacific the annual cycle of SST is primarily in response to external heat flux. In the central basin the magnitude of zonal advection is comparable to that of the external heat flux. In the eastern basin the role of zonal advection is reduced and the vertical mixing is more important. In the easternmost equatorial Pacific the vertical entrainment contribution is as large as that of vertical diffusion. The model estimate of the vertical mixing contribution to the mixed layer heat budget compared well with estimates obtained by analysis of observations using the same diagnostic vertical mixing scheme. During 1994- 1995 the largest positive SST anomaly was observed in the mid-basin and was related to reduced latent heat flux due to weak surface winds. In the western basin the initial warming was related to enhanced external heating and reduced cooling effects of both vertical mixing and horizontal advection associated with weaker than usual wind stress. In the eastern Pacific where winds were not significantly anomalous throughout 1994-1995, only a moderate warm surface anomaly was detected. This is in contrast to strong El Nino events where the SST anomaly is largest in the eastern basin and, as shown by previous studies, the anomaly is due to zonal advection rather than anomalous surface heat flux. The end of the warm event was marked by cooling in July 1995 everywhere across the equatorial Pacific.

  5. Structuring of intermediate scale equatorial spread F irregularities during intense geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakad, B.; Gurram, P.; Tripura Sundari, P. N. B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2016-07-01

    Here we examine the structuring of equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) during intense geomagnetic storm of solar cycle (SC) 24 that occurred on 17 March 2015 using spaced receiver scintillation observations on a 251 MHz radio signal, recorded by a network of stations in Indian region. As yet, this is the strongest geomagnetic storm (Dstmin˜-223nT) that occurred in present SC. Present study reveals that the structuring of equatorial spread F (ESF) irregularities was significantly different on 17 March as compared to quiet days of corresponding month. ESF irregularities of intermediate scale (100 m to few kilometers) are observed at unusually higher altitudes (≥ 800 km) covering wider longitudinal-latitudinal belt over Indian region. A presence of large-scale irregularity structures with stronger ΔN at raised F peak with small-scale irregularities at even higher altitudes is observed. It caused strong focusing effect (S4>1) that prevails throughout premidnight hours at dip equatorial station Tirunelveli. Other observational aspect is that zonal irregularity drifts over low-latitude station Kolhapur exhibited a large deviation of ˜230 m/s from their average quiet time pattern. During this geomagnetic storm, two southward turnings of significant strength (BZ≤-15 nT) occurred at 11.4 IST (Indian standard time) and 17.9 IST. The later southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)BZ resulted in a large eastward prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) close to sunset hours in Indian longitude. Estimates of PPEF obtained from real-time ionospheric model are too low to explain the observed large upliftment of F region in the post sunset hours. Possible reason for observed enhanced PPEF-linked effects is discussed.

  6. Project CONDOR: Middle atmosphere wind structure obtained with lightweight inflatable spheres near the equatorial electrojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Observed correlations between the atmospheric electric field and the neutral wind were studied using additional atmospheric measurements during Project CONDOR. Project CONDOR obtained measurements near the equatorial electrojet (12 S) during March 1983. Neutral atmosphere wind measurements were obtained using lightweight inflatable spheres and temperatures were obtained using a datasonde. The lightweight sphere technology, the wind structure, and temperature structure are described. Results show that the lightweight sphere gives higher vertical resolution of winds below 75 km compared with the standard sphere, but gives little or no improvement above 80 km, and no usable temperature and density data.

  7. ELF emissions observed by the EXOS-D satellite around the geomagnetic equatorial region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Akira; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kimura, Iwane ); Kokubun, Susumu; Hayashi, Kanji )

    1991-02-01

    As was introduced in the paper by Kimura et al. (1990), interesting ELF emissions in the frequency ranges above the cyclotron frequencies of He{sup +} and/or O{sup +} have been detected by ELF subsystem of the EXOS-D satellite. This paper is to propose that these emissions are ion cyclotron mode emissions trapped along the magnetic field lines around the magnetic equatorial plane, which are very similar phenomena detected in frequencies around the He{sup +} cyclotron frequency, F{sub He{sup +}} by GEOS 1 and 2 nearly the geostationary altitude. The propagation characteristics can be confirmed by ray tracing including the effects of ions.

  8. Data report: Permeabilities of eastern equatorial Pacific and Peru margin sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamage, K.; Bekins, B.; Screaton, E.

    2006-01-01

    Constant-flow permeability tests were conducted on core samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201 from the eastern equatorial Pacific and the Peru margin. Eighteen whole-round core samples from Sites 1225, 1226, 1227, 1230, and 1231 were tested for vertical permeabilities. Sites 1225, 1226, and 1231 represent sediments of the open ocean, whereas Sites 1227 and 1230 represent sediments of the ocean margin. Measured vertical permeabilities vary from ???8 ?? 10-19 m2 to ???1 ?? 10-16 m2 for a porosity range of 450%-90%.

  9. New method to determine proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of a dipole magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ioanoviciu, Damaschin

    2015-01-01

    A parametric description of proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of Earth's dipole magnetic field has been derived. The exact expression of the angular coordinate contains an integral to be performed numerically. The radial coordinate results from the initial conditions by basic mathematical operations and by using trigonometric functions. With the approximate angular coordinate formula, applicable for a wide variety of cases of protons trapped in Earth's radiation belts, no numerical integration is needed. The results of exact and approximate expressions were compared for a specific case and small differences were found.

  10. The large, bright QSO survey. II. QSOs in three equatorial fields

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, C.B.; Chaffee, F.H.; Hewett, P.C.; Weymann, R.J.; Anderson, S.F. Cambridge Univ. Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA Washington Univ., Seattle )

    1989-12-01

    Results from the second observing season, in which 156 QSOs have been found in three equatorial UK Schmidt field covering an effective area of 85 sq deg, are described. Of the 31 QSOs listed in the Hewitt-Burbidge catalog, 22 are identified; one of the remaining nine has an overlapping objective prism spectrum and the rest were fainter than the derived magnitude limit at the epoch of the direct plate. Coordinates, magnitudes, redshifts, and spectra of moderate resolution and signal-to-noise ratio are presented for all 156 QSOs and 12 additional extragalactic objects. 12 refs.

  11. On the Cause of Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean T-S Variations Associated with El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ou; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong; Cheng, Benny

    2004-01-01

    The nature of observed variations in temperature-salinity (T-S) relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino years in the pycnocline of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (NINO3 region, 5(deg)S-5(deg)N, 150(deg)W-90(deg)W) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model. The origin of the subject water mass is identified using the adjoint of a simulated passive tracer. The higher salinity during El Nino is attributed to larger convergence of saltier water from the Southern Hemisphere and smaller convergence of fresher water from the Northern Hemisphere.

  12. Equatorial spread F and plasma bubbles: Preliminary results from the COPEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, I.; Abdu, M.; Reinisch, B.; de Paula, E.; Groves, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) was conducted in Brazil from October 1 to December 10, 2002. The configuration of the experiment was planed in such a way that the equipments should be located in three sites along a magnetic meridian, one at the magnetic equator and the other two at magnetically conjugate points. The magnetic conjugate points should be located such that the conjugate E layers were field line mapped to the F layer peak, or to the bottomside, over the magnetic equator. The three selected locations were Campo Grande (20.5 S, 54.7 W, southern conjugate point); Boa Vista (2.8 N, 60.7 W, northern conjugate point) and Cachimbo (9.5 S, 54.8 W, magnetic equatorial point). Various instruments such as Digital Portable Sounders (DPS-4), optical imagers, GPS receivers for scintillation monitoring and for TEC measurements, magnetometers, HF receivers and a 50 MHz radar were operated during the campaign. The campaign was coordinated by the Aeronomy group at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais- INPE), in collaboration with the Brazilian Air Force group from CTA (Centro Técnico Aeroespacial) and with international groups from the Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Massachusetts Lowell (Lowell, MA, USA), the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/VSBX, Hanscom AFB, MA, USA), and the Japanese group from the Communication Research Laboratory (CRL), Tokyo. The data collected during the campaign are been used to study the equatorial spread F (ESF), a phenomena that produces large turbulent like variations of electron density at F region heights producing large index of refraction variations. ESF occurs in association with the plasma depleted flux tubes, known as plasma bubbles, which develop at the dusk hours into vertically extended formations extending to 1500 km over the magnetic equator and thousands of kilometers ( 25 ) into the low latitude ionosphere

  13. Effects of Noise on Joint Remote State Preparation of an Arbitrary Equatorial Two-Qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-xia; Huang, Li

    2016-12-01

    By using a six-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel, we investigat the joint remote state preparation of an arbitrary equatorial two-qubit state. We analytically obtain the fidelities of the joint remote state preparation process in noisy environments, such as the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise. In our scheme, the two different noise including amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise only affect the travel qubits of the quantum channel, and then we show that the fidelities in these two noisy cases only depend on the decoherence noisy rate.

  14. The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the permian-triassic ecologic crisis.

    PubMed

    Looy, C V; Brugman, W A; Dilcher, D L; Visscher, H

    1999-11-23

    In conjunction with the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis approximately 250 million years ago, massive dieback of coniferous vegetation resulted in a degradation of terrestrial ecosystems in Europe. A 4- to 5-million-year period of lycopsid dominance followed, and renewed proliferation of conifers did not occur before the transition between Early and Middle Triassic. We document this delayed re-establishment of equatorial forests on the basis of palynological data. The reconstructed pattern of vegetational change suggests that habitat restoration, migration, and evolutionary processes acted synergistically, setting the stage for successional replacement of lycopsid dominants by conifers within a period of approximately 0.5 million years.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the 1990 equatorial disturbance on Saturn - Images, albedos, and limb darkening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, James A.; Baum, William A.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Barnet, Christopher D.; De Jong, Eric M.; Danielson, G. E.; Caldwell, John

    1992-01-01

    The HST recorded 150 images of the September 1990 equatorial eruption on Saturn in six passbands; four of the passbands were selected for photometric analysis, and the images are compared with those obtained before the onset of the disturbance and those from a time when no indication of the disturbance remained. Using deconvolved images from all three observational epochs, measurements were conducted of reflectivities of the disk along parallels of latitude as a function of longitudinal distance from the central meridian, as well as along the central meridian, as a function of latitude from zero to 90 deg.

  16. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  17. Ozone and Aitken nuclei over equatorial Africa - Airborne observations during DECAFE 88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Chapuis, A.; Cros, B.; Fontan, J.; Helas, G.; Justice, C.; Kaufman, Y. J.; Minga, A.; Nganga, D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of ozone and Aitken condensation nuclei measurements made over the rain forest in equatorial Africa during February 12-25, 1988 are presented. The results indicate the presence of a layer between 1 and 4 km altitude where these species are strongly enriched. Based on information derived from simultaneous measurements of other chemical and meteorological parameters, satellite imagery, and trajectory calculations, this enrichment is attributed to emissions from biomass burning in sub-Saharan Africa, from which ozone is formed by photochemical reactions.

  18. New results on equatorial thermospheric winds and temperatures from Ethiopia, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesema, Fasil; Mesquita, Rafael; Meriwether, John; Damtie, Baylie; Nigussie, Melessew; Makela, Jonathan; Fisher, Daniel; Harding, Brian; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Sanders, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of equatorial thermospheric winds, temperatures, and 630 nm relative intensities were obtained using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI), which was recently deployed at Bahir Dar University in Ethiopia (11.6° N, 37.4° E, 3.7° N magnetic). The results obtained in this study cover 6 months (53 nights of useable data) between November 2015 and April 2016. The monthly-averaged values, which include local winter and equinox seasons, show the magnitude of the maximum monthly-averaged zonal wind is typically within the range of 70 to 90 ms-1 and is eastward between 19:00 and 21:00 LT. Compared to prior studies of the equatorial thermospheric wind for this local time period, the magnitude is considerably weaker as compared to the maximum zonal wind speed observed in the Peruvian sector but comparable to Brazilian FPI results. During the early evening, the meridional wind speeds are 30 to 50 ms-1 poleward during the winter months and 10 to 25 ms-1 equatorward in the equinox months. The direction of the poleward wind during the winter months is believed to be mainly caused by the existence of the interhemispheric wind flow from the summer to winter hemispheres. An equatorial wind surge is observed later in the evening and is shifted to later local times during the winter months and to earlier local times during the equinox months. Significant night-to-night variations are also observed in the maximum speed of both zonal and meridional winds. The temperature observations show the midnight temperature maximum (MTM) to be generally present between 00:30 and 02:00 LT. The amplitude of the MTM was ˜ 110 K in January 2016 with values smaller than this in the other months. The local time difference between the appearance of the MTM and a pre-midnight equatorial wind was generally 60 to 180 min. A meridional wind reversal was also observed after the appearance of the MTM (after 02:00 LT). Climatological models, HWM14 and MSIS-00, were compared to the

  19. The STP/S3-4 Satellite Experiment: Equatorial F-region Irregularities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-14

    mean i-n mass fluctuations at 5-20 meter resolution. The S3-4 experiment has been discussed by Szuszczewicz et al. (1981). In this paper , we discuss...observations of irregularities in an isolated and decaying plasma bubble", Paper presented at International Symposium on Equatorial Aeronomy, Aguidilla, P.R...backscatter plumes", DNA report, SRI International, (Nov. 1979). 12 Tsunoda, R.T.: M.J. Baron, J. Owen and D.M. Towle , "Altair: An incoherent

  20. A correlation between measured E-region current and geomagnetic daily variation at equatorial latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhau, S.; Osella, A. M.

    The usual methods of separation of the geomagnetic daily variations into parts of external and internal origin at equatorial latitudes have been revised to remove any previous assumption about the internal current, so that the separation may be performed in a zone of anomalous earth conductivity. The resulting procedure has been applied to obtain the distribution of the ionospheric current from the external field, at the South American dip equator and the result has been compared with previous measurements of the E-region current.

  1. Effects of Noise on Joint Remote State Preparation of an Arbitrary Equatorial Two-Qubit State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-xia; Huang, Li

    2017-03-01

    By using a six-qubit cluster state as the quantum channel, we investigat the joint remote state preparation of an arbitrary equatorial two-qubit state. We analytically obtain the fidelities of the joint remote state preparation process in noisy environments, such as the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise. In our scheme, the two different noise including amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise only affect the travel qubits of the quantum channel, and then we show that the fidelities in these two noisy cases only depend on the decoherence noisy rate.

  2. The delayed resurgence of equatorial forests after the Permian–Triassic ecologic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Looy, C. V.; Brugman, W. A.; Dilcher, D. L.; Visscher, H.

    1999-01-01

    In conjunction with the Permian–Triassic ecologic crisis ≈250 million years ago, massive dieback of coniferous vegetation resulted in a degradation of terrestrial ecosystems in Europe. A 4- to 5-million-year period of lycopsid dominance followed, and renewed proliferation of conifers did not occur before the transition between Early and Middle Triassic. We document this delayed re-establishment of equatorial forests on the basis of palynological data. The reconstructed pattern of vegetational change suggests that habitat restoration, migration, and evolutionary processes acted synergistically, setting the stage for successional replacement of lycopsid dominants by conifers within a period of ≈0.5 million years. PMID:10570163

  3. Modeling Salinity Exchanges Between the Equatorial Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of high-salinity water from the equatorial Indian Ocean into the Bay of Bengal during the northeast monsoon, although it is weaker than during the...southwest monsoon. On average, salt is transported into the Bay of Bengal between 83°E and 95°E, and low-salinity water flows southward near the...that a strong subsurface current with a speed of about 1 m s–1 intrudes into the Bay of Bengal beneath southward-flowing low-salinity water during the

  4. The Onset of the 1997-1998 El Nino and its Impact on the Phytoplankton Community of the Central Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, F. P.; Strutton, P. G.; McPhaden, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Using physical and bio-optical data from moorings in the central equatorial Pacific, the perturbations to phytoplankton biomass and productivity associated with the onset of the 1997-98 El Nino event were investigated. The data presented depict the physical progression of El Nino onset, from reversal of the trade winds in the western equatorial Pacific, through eastward propagation of equatorially trapped Kelvin waves and advection of waters from the nutrient-poor western equatorial warm pool. The physical perturbations led to fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, quantum yield of fluorescence and a 50% reduction in primary productivity.

  5. African Equatorial and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrences Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plumes and Other Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Thompson, Anne M.; Guan, Hong; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian Ocean to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased Atlantic ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to Atlantic Ocean regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both equatorial and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into either easterly equatorial plumes or westerly mid- troposphere plumes. Equatorial plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian Ocean, and (2) the eastward extension of an Equatorial African easterly jet.

  6. African Equatorial and Subtropical Ozone Plumes: Recurrence Timescales of the Brown Cloud Trans-African Plume and Other Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatfield, R. B.; Guan, H.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J.

    2004-05-01

    We have found repeated illustrations in the maps of Total Tropospheric Ozone (TTO) of apparent transport of ozone from the Indian Ocean to the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Most interesting are examples that coincide with the INDOEX observations of late northern winter, 1999. Three soundings associated with the SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network help confirm and quantify degree of influence of pollution, lightning, and stratospheric sources, suggesting that perhaps 40% of increased Atlantic ozone could be Asian pollution during periods of maximum identified in the TTO maps. We outline recurrent periods of apparent ozone transport from Indian to Atlantic Ocean regions both during and outside the late-winter period. These are placed in the context of some general observations about factors controlling recurrence timescales for the expression of both equatorial and subtropical plumes. Low-level subtropical plumes are often controlled by frontal systems approaching the Namib coast; these direct mid-level air into eithier easterly equatorial plumes or westerly mid-troposphere plumes. Equatorial plumes of ozone cross Africa on an easterly path due to the occasional coincidence of two phenomena: (1) lofting of ozone to mid and upper levels, often in the Western Indian Ocean, and (2) the eastward extension of an Equatorial African easterly jet.

  7. Are the Equatorial Highlands on Venus formed by mantle plume diapirs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Several origins have been proposed for the Equatorial Highlands on Venus, including spreading centers and plume-related uplift. Recently, the spreading center hypothesis has been shown to be incompatible with the measured geoid and topography variations over the highlands. It is also difficult to reconcile the range of geoid anomalies over the highlands with a steady-state plum model. There is a large variation in admittance values (geoid/topography ratios) among highland regions. This variation suggests that different uplifted regions represent distinct stages in a time dependent process. It has been proposed that the Beta Regio, Thetis Regio, Ovda Regio, and Artemis Plateau Equatorial Highland Regions are formed by large mantel diapirs. According to this model, topography and geoid height decrease with increasing age of the highland, as the diapir spreads out beneath the lithosphere. In order to determine if the diapir model is compatible with the sequence of tectonic and volcanic events recorded in the surface geology of the highlands, a series of finite difference calculations were made of the ascent and partial melting of a spherical thermal diapir in an incompressible, infinite Prandtl number, isoviscous fluid.

  8. Peculiarities of the magnetic flux emerging in the equatorial solar zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, V. L.; Starkova, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetic flux longitudinal distribution in the equatorial solar zone has been studied. The magnetic synoptic maps of the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) during Carrington rotations (CRs) 2052-2068 in 2007 and early 2008 have been analyzed. The longitudinal distributions of the area of the zones where the photospheric magnetic field locally enhanced have been constructed for each CR. The obtained distributions indicate that the zones are located discretely and that a clearly defined one narrow longitudinal interval with the maximum flux is present. The longitudinal position of this maximum shifted discretely by ≈130° at an interval of 5.5 ± 0.5 CRs. A longitudinal shift of the zones with an increased magnetic flux multiple of 60° was observed between the hemispheres. In addition, a time shift of ≈2.5 CRs existed between the instants when the position of maximum fluxes in different hemispheres shifted. The established peculiarities of the magnetic flux longitudinal distribution and time dynamics are interpreted as an action of supergiant convection cells. These actions result in that magnetic fields are removed from the generation region through the channels that are formed between such cells at a longitudinal interval of 120°. The average synodic rotation velocity of the considered equatorial channels, through which the magnetic flux emerges, is 13.43° day-1.

  9. A New Starting point for the History of South and Equatorial Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.; Olivet, J.; Labails, C.; Rabineau, M.

    2005-05-01

    The nature and genesis of the large, thinned transitional zone of the continental passive margins is still a matter of debate. Any further progress in that subject must imply an intregrated structural study of homologous margins, replaced in a very precise pre-opening kinematic reconstruction to constraint horizontal movements. In South and Equatorial Atlantic oceans, the pre-opening misfits problem has been already addressed by several authors and requires an assessment of rigidity of african and/or south american continental plates which border those oceans. Nevertheless the lack of magnetic anomalies, the pre-opening fit of the Equatorial Atlantic ocean is well constrained due to the presence of well-defined oceanic fracture zones, homologous Demerara and Guinea Plateaus, paralellism of the coasts and Kandi and Sobral continental lineations. This contraint compels us to resort to intraplate deformation to close the South Atlantic Ocean. Intregrating all continental deformations of both plates described in the litterature, we propose here the closest pre-opening fit for the Central part of the South Atlantic. This pre-opening fit leaves a large pre-drift thinned basin of several hundred kilometers which cannot be explained by any process which implies more horizontal movement (stretching, simple shear.). South of the Walvis-Rio Grande ridges, the pre-opening fit implies intraplate deformation in Paraña, Solado and Colorado basins (South America) as already suggested by Unternehr et al (1988) and Nürnberg & Müller (1991).

  10. Deep-reaching thermocline mixing in the equatorial pacific cold tongue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuanyu; Köhl, Armin; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Fan; Stammer, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Vertical mixing is an important factor in determining the temperature, sharpness and depth of the equatorial Pacific thermocline, which are critical to the development of El Ninõ and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Yet, properties, dynamical causes and large-scale impacts of vertical mixing in the thermocline are much less understood than that nearer the surface. Here, based on Argo float and the Tropical Ocean and Atmosphere (TAO) mooring measurements, we identify a large number of thermocline mixing events occurring down to the lower half of the thermocline and the lower flank of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), in particular in summer to winter. The deep-reaching mixing events occur more often and much deeper during periods with tropical instability waves (TIWs) than those without and under La Niña than under El Niño conditions. We demonstrate that the mixing events are caused by lower Richardson numbers resulting from shear of both TIWs and the EUC. PMID:27175988

  11. Mercury Concentrations in Tuna (Thunnus albacares and Thunnus obesus) from the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Goyanna, F; Bezerra, M F; Silva, G B

    2017-02-01

    Average total Hg concentrations measured in muscle of two species of tuna (Thunnus obesus and T. albacares) captured in the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Ocean varied from 95 to 1748 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. obesus and 48 to 500 ng.g(-1) wet weight in T. albacares. Higher concentrations in T. obesus are probably related to foraging on deep water carnivorous fish. Smaller individuals of both species showed the lowest concentrations, but a significant positive relationship between fish weight and length and Hg concentrations was found for T. obesus, but not for T. albacares. Largest individuals (>30 kg) of T. obesus showed Hg concentrations ≥1000 ng.g(-1), surpassing the legal limits for human consumption, although the average concentration for this species was much lower (545 ng.g(-1)). Concentrations in T. albacares from the Brazilian Equatorial were lower than those found in the African and in the North Atlantic. No comparison could be made for T. obesus due to few studies for this species in the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. An equatorially enhanced grid with smooth resolution distribution generated by a spring dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iga, Shin-ichi

    2017-02-01

    An equatorially enhanced grid is applicable to atmospheric general circulation simulations with better representations of the cumulus convection active in the tropics. This study improved the topology of previously proposed equatorially enhanced grids (Iga, 2015) [1], which had extremely large grid intervals around the poles. The proposed grids in this study are of a triangular mesh and are generated by a spring dynamics method with stretching around singular points, which are connected to five or seven neighboring grid points. The latitudinal distribution of resolution is nearly proportional to the combination of the map factors of the Mercator, Lambert conformal conic, and polar stereographic projections. The resolution contrast between the equator and pole is 2.3 ∼ 4.5 for the sampled cases, which is much smaller than that for the LML grids. This improvement requires only a small amount of additional grid resources, less than 11% of the total. The proposed grids are also examined with shallow water tests, and were found to perform better than the previous LML grids.

  13. Some new insights of the characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles obtained from Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, V. L.; Gurubaran, S.; Shiny, M. B. Berlin; Emperumal, K.; Patil, P. T.

    2017-04-01

    All-sky imaging observations of OI 630.0 nm airglow were carried out in campaign mode from Panhala (16.8°N, 74.1°E geographic; 11.1°N dip latitude), India, during January to March 2008. On 14 of 37 nights, equatorial plasma bubbles were observed. The drift speeds were observed to decrease with time in concurrence with the previous results. The tilts were mostly westward while on rare occasions the plasma bubbles tilted eastwards. The drifts were found to be relatively lesser on disturbed nights while the tilts appear to be marginally larger. The interdepletion distances (or bubble spacings) also showed a decreasing trend with time till midnight indicating that the bubbles approach each other with the passage of time. Such a behavior is not reported earlier and it seems to have important implications for understanding the time evolution of plasma bubbles. On occasions, the bubbles occurred in groups. An ionosonde operating over Indian dip equatorial site Tirunelveli (1.1°N dip latitude) was used to study the variations in the base height of the ionosphere during the plasma bubble observations. The ionosonde measurements indicate lack of significant pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) during geomagnetic quiet days in which the bubbles were observed.

  14. Equatorial Precession in the Control Software of the Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakeman, Hali L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ka-Band Object Observation and Monitoring, or KaBOOM, project is designed mainly to track and characterize near Earth objects. However, a smaller goal of the project would be to monitor pulsars and study their radio frequency signals for use as a clock in interstellar travel. The use of pulsars and their timing accuracy has been studied for decades, but never in the Ka-band of the radio frequency spectrum. In order to begin the use of KaBOOM for this research, the control systems need to be analyzed to ensure its capability. Flaws in the control documentation leave it unclear as to whether the control software processes coordinates from the J200 epoch. This experiment will examine the control software of the Intertronic 12m antennas used for the KaBOOM project and detail its capabilities in its "equatorial mode." The antennas will be pointed at 4 chosen points in the sky on several days while probing the virtual azimuth and elevation (horizon coordinate) registers. The input right ascension and declination coordinates will then be converted separately from the control software to horizontal coordinates and compared, thus determining the ability of the control software to process equatorial coordinates.

  15. Holocene ENSO Variability in the Equatorial Pacific From D/H Ratios in Alkenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahnke, K.; Sachs, J.; Keigwin, L.

    2005-12-01

    In the equatorial west Pacific and the tropics of northwestern South America, extreme phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with a coherent pattern of hydrological anomalies. While El Niño leads to reduced rainfall and river runoff, La Niña causes extreme maxima in precipitation and river discharge to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Paleo-records of rainfall and runoff variations from these areas will therefore aid understanding of past ENSO behavior. In a novel approach, we utilize the hydrogen isotopic (D/H) signature of alkenones from equatorial Pacific Ocean margin sites that reflects variations in isotopically depleted runoff to the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct past ENSO variability. We observe maximum D/H changes off the Colombian coast of around 18‰ ( vs. VSMOW) over the past three centuries with a marked increase from the mid-1960s to the 1980s, suggesting a decrease in river runoff and hence more frequent or more intense El Niño conditions. A subsequent drop to more depleted D/H values implies an increase in precipitation and freshwater influx into the ocean, reminiscent of conditions typical for La Niña phases. These patterns are consistent with instrumental records of ENSO variability and confirm this new proxy as highly valuable tool for the reconstruction of past changes in tropical climate.

  16. Equatorial Spread F Found in AN Old Airglow Scan Atlas of Dudley Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Hong, S.; Weinberg, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    We have searched for F-region ionospheric disturbances in the airglow scan atlas of Dudley observatory. The airglow scan observations were made with narrow band filters of OI 5577 A and OI 6300 A for 164 nights at Haleakala, Maui in the period of April 1965 through October 1968. The OI 6300 emissions are produced mostly via recombination of O2+ in the F-region, whereas the OI 5577 emissions are generated both in the E- and F-regions. The Dudley atlas of the airglow scan has unique significance, since it covers more than three years of observations in 1960's when there was no other program to monitor ionospheric airglows. We find disturbances in the OI airglow brightness, from which we constructed projected maps of airglow distributions at the F-region altitude. The projected maps clearly show wavelike disturbances whose crests are mostly aligned along north-south direction. The disturbances were found exclusively in the southern azimuth (toward the equator), implying that they are one of the equatorial ionospheric irregularities, known as equatorial spread F (ESF). The ESF disturbances occurred 19 nights out of total 164 nights of observations with a maximum in September. The disturbances seem to arise regardless of geomagnetic activities. The seasonal variation of the occurrence is consistent with recent analyses of satellite data in which ESF is suggested to be caused by gravity waves from the troposphere where they are generated by strong convection in inter-tropical convergence zone.

  17. Unusually long lasting multiple penetration of interplanetary electric field to equatorial ionosphere under oscillating IMF Bz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Hong, Minghua; Wan, Weixing; Du, Aimin; Lei, Jiuhou; Zhao, Biqiang; Wang, Wenbin; Ren, Zhipeng; Yue, Xinan

    2008-01-01

    During November 11-16, 2003, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B z oscillated between northward and southward directions, which suggests discontinuous magnetic reconnection associated with the multiple pulses-like reconnection electric field. The Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar (ISR) measurements of ionospheric zonal electric field showed similar fluctuations during this period. The high correlation coefficient of 0.71 between the reconnection electric field and equatorial zonal electric field during 125 hours suggests that the interplanetary electric field (IEF) pulsively penetrated into the equatorial ionosphere due to the discontinuous magnetic reconnection. It is implied that the short lifetime (<3 hours) dawn-dusk IEF pulses can penetrate into ionosphere without shielding, in other words, they may exhibit the ``shielding immunity''. The averaged penetration efficiency is about 0.136 and highly local time-dependent. Furthermore, the intense AU and AL indices imply that the multiple electric field penetration is associated with a ``High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA).''

  18. Observational evidence and dynamical interpretation of the total ozone variations in the equatorial region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiotani, Masato; Hasebe, Fumio

    1994-01-01

    The total ozone amount is sensitive to the general circulation changes in the lower stratosphere due to the photochemically inactive nature of ozone there. In the equatorial region, such circulation changes arise from the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the stratospheric zonal wind and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the first half of this study we present observational results of the long-term variations in the equatorial ozone field using the 11 year Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data, by paying special attention to the longitudinal structure. In the latter half we try to understand quantitatively these variations by using a simple mechanistic relationship. We hypothesis that the ozone modulating processes are attributable to two dynamical effects, the advection effect and tropopause effect, owing to the strong vertical stratification of ozone existing just above the tropopause. The advection effect comes from the vertical motion which maintains the temperature structure, compensating for the radiative damping. The tropopause effect is associated with the altitude change of the tropopause. The total ozone variations in the tropics is discussed in terms of these two dynamical processes with the aid of mechanistic equations combined with the wind and sea surface temperature (SST) observations. The interactions between tropical and extratropical latitudes are beyond the scope of this study. Photochemical effects are also neglected. Details of this study are given by Shiotani (1992) and Hasebe (1992).

  19. Equatorial Pacific forcing of western Amazonian precipitation during Heinrich Stadial 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yancheng; Zhang, Xu; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Zhang, Xiao; Lohmann, Gerrit; Prange, Matthias; Behling, Hermann; Zabel, Matthias; Govin, Aline; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-01-01

    Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18–15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. However, the physical viability of this mechanism has never been rigorously tested. We address this issue by combining a thorough compilation of tropical South American paleorecords and a set of atmosphere model sensitivity experiments. Our results show that the Atlantic SST variations alone, although leading to dry conditions in northern South America and wet conditions in northeastern Brazil, cannot produce increased precipitation over western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes during HS1. Instead, an eastern equatorial Pacific SST increase (i.e., 0.5–1.5 °C), in response to the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during HS1, is crucial to generate the wet conditions in these regions. The mechanism works via anomalous low sea level pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacific, which promotes a regional easterly low-level wind anomaly and moisture recycling from central Amazonia towards the Andes. PMID:27779213

  20. Observations of Equatorial Kelvin Waves and their Convective Coupling with the Atmosphere/Ocean Surface Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Patrick; Fernando, H. J. S.; Leo, Laura; Blomquist, Byron; Amelie, Vincent; Lalande, Nelson; Creegan, Ed; Hocut, Chris; MacCall, Ben; Wang, Yansen; Jinadasa, S. U. P.; Wang, Chien; Yeo, Lik-Khian

    2016-11-01

    Intraseasonal disturbances with their genesis in the equatorial Indian Ocean (IO) are an important component of global climate. The disturbances, which include Madden-Julian Oscillation and equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves in the atmosphere and ocean, carry energy which affects El Niño, cyclogenesis, and monsoons. A recent field experiment in IO (ASIRI-RAWI) observed disturbances at three sites across IO with arrays of instruments probing from surface layer to lower stratosphere. During the field campaign the most pronounced planetary-scale disturbances were Kelvin waves in tropical tropopause layer. In Seychelles, quasi-biweekly westerly wind bursts were documented and linked to the Kelvin waves aloft, which breakdown in the upper troposphere due to internal shear instabilities. Convective coupling between waves' phase in upper troposphere and surface initiates rapid (turbulent) vertical transport and resultant wind bursts at surface. Such phenomena reveal linkages between planetary-scale waves and small-scale turbulence in the surface layer that can affect air-sea property exchanges and should be parameterized in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Funded by ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0279 and N00014-13-1-0199.

  1. Variability in the origins and pathways of Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xuerong; Sen Gupta, Alex; van Sebille, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) transports water originating from a number of distinct source regions, eastward across the Pacific Ocean. It is responsible for supplying nutrients to the productive eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Of particular importance is the transport of iron by the EUC; the limiting nutrient in that region. Although the mean circulation and sources of EUC water are reasonably well understood, it is unclear how the contribution of water from these sources to the EUC vary on seasonal to interannual timescales. Here a Lagrangian analysis is applied to the eddy-resolving OFAM3 ocean simulation in order to identity variability in the makeup of the EUC over an 18 year period (1993-2010). While ENSO has an influence on the variability of source transport contributions to the EUC, the signal of increased (decreased) transport of water from the LLWBCs during El Niño (La Niña) periods does not translate to substantial changes in the makeup of the EUC between 165°E and 140°W. It is hypothesized that this is due to the large spread in travel times of water parcels as they travel from the source regions into the EUC. The consequent erosion of transport anomalies generated at the different western boundary source regions associated with ENSO may help explain why previous studies found little relationship between variability in iron fluxes off Papua New Guinea shelves and the chlorophyll response in the eastern tropical Pacific.

  2. Equatorial Pacific forcing of western Amazonian precipitation during Heinrich Stadial 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yancheng; Zhang, Xu; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Zhang, Xiao; Lohmann, Gerrit; Prange, Matthias; Behling, Hermann; Zabel, Matthias; Govin, Aline; Sawakuchi, André O.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-10-01

    Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18–15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. However, the physical viability of this mechanism has never been rigorously tested. We address this issue by combining a thorough compilation of tropical South American paleorecords and a set of atmosphere model sensitivity experiments. Our results show that the Atlantic SST variations alone, although leading to dry conditions in northern South America and wet conditions in northeastern Brazil, cannot produce increased precipitation over western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes during HS1. Instead, an eastern equatorial Pacific SST increase (i.e., 0.5–1.5 °C), in response to the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during HS1, is crucial to generate the wet conditions in these regions. The mechanism works via anomalous low sea level pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacific, which promotes a regional easterly low-level wind anomaly and moisture recycling from central Amazonia towards the Andes.

  3. Interannual variation of convectively-coupled equatorial waves and their association with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Convectively-coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) are fundamental components of tropical convection, which are important for weather and climate prediction. However, their interannual variation mechanism has received limited attention to date. By employing 6-hourly satellite-based brightness temperature data from 1983 to 2009, this study investigates the interannual variation of three dominant CCEWs. The results show that the Kelvin wave and the n = 1 westward inertia gravity (WIG) wave display maximum variability over the central Pacific at the equator in boreal winter. Intensity variations in both waves show good correlation relationship with local thermodynamic condition (i.e., sea surface temperature and moisture) and local dynamic condition (i.e., vertically sheared zonal flow). Abundant humidity and weak vertically sheared zonal flow appear in the years of intensified wave activity, whereas less humidity and strong westerly sheared flows appear in the years of suppressed wave activity. Sensitivity numerical experiments show that background moisture are important for both waves, while wind shear can only impact n = 1 WIG wave. A westerly sheared flow tends to suppress the n = 1 WIG wave in the lower troposphere, and thus results in weakened wave growth. n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER) wave displays maximum variability over the southern Pacific during boreal winter. Its intensity variation is poorly related with local environmental factors but is significantly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The results indicate that a different mechanism might be needed to explain the interannual variation of n = 1 ER wave.

  4. Variability of foF2 in the African equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Somoye, E. O.; Adeloye, A. B.; Adewale, A. O.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the impact of diurnal, seasonal and solar activity effects on the variability of ionospheric foF2 in the African equatorial latitude. Three African ionospheric stations; Dakar (14.8°N, 17.4°W, dip: 11.4°N), Ouagadougou (12.4°N, 1.5°W, dip: 2.8°N) and Djibouti (11.5°N, 42.8°E, dip: 7.2°N) were considered for the investigation. The overall aim is to provide African inputs that will be of assistance at improving existing forecasting models. The diurnal analysis revealed that the ionospheric critical frequency (foF2) is more susceptible to variability during the night-time than the day-time, with two peaks in the range; 18-38% during post-sunset hours and 35-55% during post-midnight hours. The seasonal and solar activity analyses showed a post-sunset September Equinox maximum and June Solstice maximum of foF2 variability in all the stations for all seasons. At all the stations, foF2 variability was high for low solar activity year. Overall, we concluded that equatorial foF2 variability increases with decreasing solar activity during night-time.

  5. Are the equatorial electrojet and the Sq coupled systems? Transfer entropy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2016-05-01

    Whether equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and solar quiet (Sq) are independent systems or not is a long standing question. Techniques such as correlation analysis, interpretation of the westward currents observed between EEJ and Sq focus, along with the simulation studies have been used to address this question, hitherto. In this article, we revisit this problem using a method based on transfer entropy that examines the relationship between day-to-day variability in EEJ and Sq during low solar activity period (year 2007-08). Magnetic field variations in the horizontal component from the geomagnetic observatory, Tirunelveli (TIR) from the Indian region are used as a proxy for EEJ currents. To represent variations of Sq current system, two stations outside the EEJ belt, Nagpur (NGP) and Jaipur (JAI) are analyzed. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that significant information is exchanged between EEJ and Sq variations, and hence they are in a cross-talk with each other, indicating EEJ and Sq are coupled systems. Variations of time scales less than 2 h appear at the equatorial station before Sq stations. Similar analyses carried out for the African sector also validate the above results.

  6. Equatorial Pacific forcing of western Amazonian precipitation during Heinrich Stadial 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yancheng; Zhang, Xu; Chiessi, Cristiano M; Mulitza, Stefan; Zhang, Xiao; Lohmann, Gerrit; Prange, Matthias; Behling, Hermann; Zabel, Matthias; Govin, Aline; Sawakuchi, André O; Cruz, Francisco W; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-10-25

    Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18-15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. However, the physical viability of this mechanism has never been rigorously tested. We address this issue by combining a thorough compilation of tropical South American paleorecords and a set of atmosphere model sensitivity experiments. Our results show that the Atlantic SST variations alone, although leading to dry conditions in northern South America and wet conditions in northeastern Brazil, cannot produce increased precipitation over western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes during HS1. Instead, an eastern equatorial Pacific SST increase (i.e., 0.5-1.5 °C), in response to the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during HS1, is crucial to generate the wet conditions in these regions. The mechanism works via anomalous low sea level pressure over the eastern equatorial Pacific, which promotes a regional easterly low-level wind anomaly and moisture recycling from central Amazonia towards the Andes.

  7. Deep-sea environment and biodiversity of the West African Equatorial margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, Myriam; Vangriesheim, Annick

    2009-12-01

    The long-term BIOZAIRE multidisciplinary deep-sea environmental program on the West Equatorial African margin organized in partnership between Ifremer and TOTAL aimed at characterizing the benthic community structure in relation with physical and chemical processes in a region of oil and gas interest. The morphology of the deep Congo submarine channel and the sedimentological structures of the deep-sea fan were established during the geological ZAIANGO project and helped to select study sites ranging from 350 to 4800 m water depth inside or near the channel and away from its influence. Ifremer conducted eight deep-sea cruises on board research vessels between 2000 and 2005. Standardized methods of sampling together with new technologies such as the ROV Victor 6000 and its associated instrumentation were used to investigate this poorly known continental margin. In addition to the study of sedimentary environments more or less influenced by turbidity events, the discovery of one of the largest cold seeps near the Congo channel and deep coral reefs extends our knowledge of the different habitats of this margin. This paper presents the background, objectives and major results of the BIOZAIRE Program. It highlights the work achieved in the 16 papers in this special issue. This synthesis paper describes the knowledge acquired at a regional and local scale of the Equatorial East Atlantic margin, and tackles new interdisciplinary questions to be answered in the various domains of physics, chemistry, taxonomy and ecology to better understand the deep-sea environment in the Gulf of Guinea.

  8. Genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with cervical lesions in Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    García-Espinosa, Benjamín; Nieto-Bona, Ma Paz; Rueda, Sonsoles; Silva-Sánchez, Luís Fernando; Piernas-Morales, Ma Concepción; Carro-Campos, Patricia; Cortés-Lambea, Luís; Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Background The HVP vaccine is a useful tool for preventing cervical cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine the most frequent HPV genotypes in Equatorial Guinea in order to develop future vaccination strategies to apply in this country. Methods A campaign against cervical cancer was carried out in the area on a total of 1,680 women. 26 of the women, following cytological screening, were treated surgically with a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Cases were studied histologically and were genotyped from paraffin blocks by applying a commercial kit that recognized 35 HPV types. Results Cytological diagnoses included 17 HSIL, 1 LSIL, 5 ASC-H and 3 AGUS. Histological diagnosis resulted in 3 cases of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma stage IA of FIGO, 9 CIN-3, 8 CIN-2, 2 CIN-1, 3 flat condylomas and mild dysplasia of the endocervical epithelium. Fifteen of twenty-five cases genotyped were positive for HPV (60%). HPV 16 and 33 were identified in four cases each, HPV 58 in two other cases, and HPV 18, 31, 52, and 82 in one case, with one HPV 16 and 58 coinfection. Conclusion The frequency of HPV types in the African area varies in comparison to other regions, particularly in Europe and USA. Vaccination against the five most common HPV types (16, 33, 58, 18, and 31) should be considered in the geographic region of West Africa and specifically in Equatorial Guinea. PMID:19740435

  9. Low solar activity variability and IRI 2007 predictability of equatorial Africa GPS TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adewale, A. O.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Cilliers, P. J.; McKinnell, L. A.; Adeloye, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) over the equatorial region of the African continent and a comparison with IRI-2007 derived TEC (IRI-TEC), using all three options (namely; NeQuick, IRI01-corr and IRI-2001), are presented in this paper. The variability and comparison are presented for 2009, a year of low solar activity, using data from thirteen Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. VTEC values were grouped into four seasons namely March Equinox (February, March, April), June Solstice (May, June, July), September Equinox (August, September, October), and December Solstice (November, December, January). VTEC generally increases from 06h00 LT and reaches its maximum value at approximately 15h00-17h00 LT during all seasons and at all locations. The NeQuick and IRI01-corr options of the IRI model predict reasonably well the observed diurnal and seasonal variation patterns of VTEC values. However, the IRI-2001 option gave a relatively poor prediction when compared with the other options. The post-midnight and post-sunset deviations between modeled and observed VTEC could arise because NmF2 or the shape of the electron density profile, or both, are not well predicted by the model; hence some improvements are still required in order to obtain improved predictions of TEC over the equatorial region of the Africa sector.

  10. Multiscale equatorial electrojet turbulence: Energy conservation, coupling, and cascades in a baseline 2-D fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ehab; Hatch, D. R.; Morrison, P. J.; Horton, W.

    2016-09-01

    Progress in understanding the coupling between plasma instabilities in the equatorial electrojet based on a unified fluid model is reported. Simulations with parameters set to various ionospheric background conditions revealed properties of the gradient-drift and Farley-Buneman instabilities. Notably, sharper density gradients increase linear growth rates at all scales, whereas variations in cross-field E × B drift velocity only affect small-scale instabilities. A formalism defining turbulent fluctuation energy for the system is introduced, and the turbulence is analyzed within this framework. This exercise serves as a useful verification test of the numerical simulations and also elucidates the physics underlying the ionospheric turbulence. Various physical mechanisms involved in the energetics are categorized as sources, sinks, nonlinear transfer, and cross-field coupling. The physics of the nonlinear transfer terms is studied to identify their roles in producing energy cascades, which explain the generation of small-scale structures that are stable in the linear regime. The theory of two-step energy cascading to generate the 3 m plasma irregularities in the equatorial electrojet is verified for the first time in the fluid regime. In addition, the nonlinearity of the system allows the possibility of an inverse energy cascade, potentially responsible for generating large-scale plasma structures at the top of the electrojet as found in different rocket and radar observations.

  11. Disturbance diurnal electric field in Indian and American equatorial electrojet regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1998-10-01

    The yearly mean Disturbance Daily (SD) variation, i.e., solar daily variation on International Disturbed days (Sd) minus that on International Quiet days (Sq) of the geomagnetic H field at Huancayo, an equatorial electrojet station in American zone, for any of the years 1954-61 shows a dawn-maximum and a dusk-minimum as observed at any low and middle latitude station. Contrary to this, the SD(H) variation at Kodaikanal, an equatorial station in the Indian zone, shows a prominent minimum around noon hours besides the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum for any of these years. The amplitude of SD(H) at Huancayo or at Kodaikanal decreases with the decreasing solar activity. Seasonally, SD(H) is larger during equinoctial than during solsticial months. For any particular season, the SD(H) averaged for all hours of the day is lower at Huancayo than at Kodaikanal, while the Sq(H) at Huancayo is always greater than the corresponding amplitude of Sq(H) at Kodaikanal. Thus the sources of electrojet electric fields on quiet and on disturbed days seem to be different and need to be identified.

  12. Interplanetary magnetic field variations and the electromagnetic state of the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Esq phenomena were selected in order to examine the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the ionospheric plasma and to obtain insight into the interplanetary ionospheric coupling processes. January-March 1973 interplanetary magnetic field data of Explorer 43, Huancayo ionograms, and surface equatorial magnetograms were used. The IMF observations from Explorer 43 in the form of 15-sec averages were examined around the time of disappearance of the Esq. The IMF z-component was observed to change from a negative to a positive value before the disappearance of the Esq in four events where simultaneous data were available. The general explanation is that the induced electric field becomes westward from a previous eastward direction, coinciding with the IMF z-component reversal. Thus, just before the Esq disappears, the magnetosphere is subjected to the westward electric field. If this field is impressed to the low-latitude ionosphere, the resultant electric field in the equatorial ionosphere changes from eastward (westward) to westward (eastward) in the daytime (nighttime).

  13. First calculation of phase and coherence of longitudinally separated L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first calculation of phase and coherence of cross-wavelet transform applied to longitudinally separated L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations received from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The phase and coherence analysis were employed on two pairs of observations: (1) São Luís and Rio Branco and (2) Alta Floresta and Huancayo. For these case studies, in statistically significant and high-coherence regions, scintillation observations over São Luís (Alta Floresta) lead that of Rio Branco (Huancayo) by ˜2 to 3 h with a 95%frequency. If L-band scintillation happens over São Luís (Alta Floresta), there is a 95%likelihood that scintillation would happen to the west over Rio Branco (Huancayo) after ˜2 to 3 h, suggesting that a forecast can be made ahead of scintillation occurrences. The phase and coherence relationships between the longitudinally separated scintillation-producing regions can be connected to the large-scale wave structures which are reported to be related to the generation of equatorial spread F and scintillation.

  14. Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R. ); Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A. ); Barber, R.T. ); Jacobson, A.C.

    1991-12-01

    Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO{sub 3} are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. Growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be {approximately}0.7 d{sup {minus}1} or 1 biomass doubling d{sup {minus}1} and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss rates approximate observed growth rates. Grazing rates, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated growth rates of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The growth rates of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations.

  15. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A.

    2007-01-01

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4–8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude ≈14°S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper. PMID:17601778

  16. Intraseasonal Variability of the Equatorial Indian Ocean Observed from Sea Surface Height, Wind, and Temperature Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2007-01-01

    The forcing of the equatorial Indian Ocean by the highly periodic monsoon wind cycle creates many interesting intraseasonal variabilities. The frequency spectrum of the wind stress observations from the European Remote Sensing Satellite scatterometers reveals peaks at the seasonal cycle and its higher harmonics at 180, 120, 90, and 75 days. The observations of sea surface height (SSH) from the Jason and Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon radar altimeters are analyzed to study the ocean's response. The focus of the study is on the intraseasonal periods shorter than the annual period. The semiannual SSH variability is characterized by a basin mode involving Rossby waves and Kelvin waves traveling back and forth in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 10(deg)S and 10(deg)N. However, the interference of these waves with each other masks the appearance of individual Kelvin and Rossby waves, leading to a nodal point (amphidrome) of phase propagation on the equator at the center of the basin. The characteristics of the mode correspond to a resonance of the basin according to theoretical models. The theory also calls for similar modes at 90 and 60 days.

  17. An alternative possibility to equatorial plasma bubble forecasting through mathematical modeling and Digisonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousasantos, J.; Kherani, E. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.

    2017-02-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs), or large-scale plasma depleted regions, are one of the subjects of great interest in space weather research since such phenomena have been extensively reported to cause strong degrading effects on transionospheric radio propagation at low latitudes, especially over the Brazilian region, where satellite communication interruptions by the EPBs have been, frequently, registered. One of the most difficult tasks for this field of scientific research is the forecasting of such plasma-depleted structures. This forecasting capability would be of significant help for users of positioning/navigation systems operating in the low-latitude/equatorial region all over the world. Recently, some efforts have been made trying to assess and improve the capability of predicting the EPB events. The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative approach to EPB prediction by means of the use of mathematical numerical simulation associated with ionospheric vertical drift, obtained through Digisonde data, focusing on telling beforehand whether ionospheric plasma instability processes will evolve or not into EPB structures. Modulations in the ionospheric vertical motion induced by gravity waves prior to the prereversal enhancement occurrence were used as input in the numerical model. A comparison between the numerical results and the observed EPB phenomena through CCD all-sky image data reveals a considerable coherence and supports the hypothesis of a capability of short-term forecasting.

  18. Sedimentary cover deformations in the equatorial Atlantic and their comparison with geophysical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, S. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The deformations of the sedimentary cover at near-latitudinal geotraverses west and east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the equatorial part of ocean are compared with potential fields and variations of the V p/ V s attribute at a depth of 470 km. The features of sedimentary cover deformations in abyssal basins are formulated, as well as their differences from the undisturbed bedding of sediments. The elements of chain of phenomena with common spatial manifestations and cause-and-effect relationships have been established, including heterogeneous horizontal movements, which make up macrojointing above "cold" mantle blocks at a depth of 470 km; serpentinization of upper-mantle rocks; the formation of superposed magnetic anomalies; the release of the fluids, which acoustically bleach out the sedimentary sequence in seismic imaging; and decompaction of rocks leading to vertical motions and forced folding. The origin of the Atlantic marginal dislocation zone is explained. The coincidence of the deformation boundary in the equatorial Atlantic with the zero contour line of the V p/ V s attribute is revealed. This coincidence is an indicator of the rheological state of the upper mantle.

  19. High-resolution coherent backscatter interferometric radar images of equatorial spread F using Capon's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Fabiano S.; de Paula, Eurico R.; Zewdie, Gebreab K.

    2017-03-01

    We present results of Capon's method for estimation of in-beam images of ionospheric scattering structures observed by a small, low-power coherent backscatter interferometer. The radar interferometer operated in the equatorial site of São Luís, Brazil (2.59° S, 44.21° W, -2.35° dip latitude). We show numerical simulations that evaluate the performance of the Capon method for typical F region measurement conditions. Numerical simulations show that, despite the short baselines of the São Luís radar, the Capon technique is capable of distinguishing localized features with kilometric scale sizes (in the zonal direction) at F region heights. Following the simulations, we applied the Capon algorithm to actual measurements made by the São Luís interferometer during a typical equatorial spread F (ESF) event. As indicated by the simulations, the Capon method produced images that were better resolved than those produced by the Fourier method. The Capon images show narrow (a few kilometers wide) scattering channels associated with ESF plumes and scattering regions spaced by only a few tens of kilometers in the zonal direction. The images are also capable of resolving bifurcations and the C shape of scattering structures.

  20. Plasma transport in the equatorial ionosphere during the great magnetic storm of March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, C.E. ); Greenspan, M.E. )

    1993-01-01

    We have modeled plasma transport in the low-latitude and equatorial ionosphere during the great magnetic storm of March 1989. Our goal was to provide a consistent explanation for the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) observations of dramatic decreases in ion density and rapid ion drifts in the low latitude ionosphere over South America during the storm. The modeling effort supports the hypothesis that abnormally large upward drifts lifted F region plasma above the satellite's altitude and created the density depletions observed by DMSP. Modeled O[sup +] densities at the satellite's altitude have a strong qualitative resemblance to DMSP observations. Both the model and the observations indicate a deep density through with extremely sharp boundaries surrounding the equator. The widths of both the modeled and the observed equatorial troughs increase with time. Vertical ion drifts predicted by the model also have been compared with DMSP measurements. Like the observed vertical drifts, the modeled drifts reversed sign near the trough boundaries. The modeled vertical drifts are of the same order and direction as the vertical component of E x B convection near the equator, but of opposite direction (downward) near the trough boundaries and outside of the trough. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC equatorial spread-F and global scintillation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. P.; Bilitza, D.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Radio scintillation of receiving signal is a sensitive detector of ionospheric density irregularity or Equatorial spread-F (ESF), it is been defined as a random modulation imported to propagating wave by density irregularity in the propagation medium. Thus, scintillation observations have been vice versa employed to identify irregular structure in highly varied propagation media. However, the limitation of ground-based receiver confines the research range and caused the shortage of oceanic data. Since the launch of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) in 2006, the constellation formed by six LEO satellites continuing receiving L1-band (1.5 GHz) signal from GPS system. The occultation scintillation index S4 has already been calculated and recorded for 7 years, and 72° orbital inclination makes F3/C occultation profiles capable to establishing globally observation coverage. In this report, we'll display and discuss the result from both equatorial spread-F occurrence rate and global scintillation S4 index empirical model calculated from F3/C profile data. A comparison with IRI-2012 ESF occurrence rate is also provided as reference.

  2. Gravitational self-force on eccentric equatorial orbits around a Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the first calculation of the gravitational self-force on a small compact object on an eccentric equatorial orbit around a Kerr black hole to first order in the mass ratio. That is the pointwise correction to the object's equations of motion (both conservative and dissipative) due to its own gravitational field, which is treated as a linear perturbation to the background Kerr spacetime generated by the much larger spinning black hole. The calculation builds on recent advances on constructing the local metric and self-force from solutions of the Teukolsky equation, which led to the calculation of the Detweiler-Barack-Sago redshift invariant on eccentric equatorial orbits around a Kerr black hole in a previous paper. After deriving the necessary expression to obtain the self-force from the Weyl scalar ψ4, we perform several consistency checks of the method and numerical implementation, including a check of the balance law relating the orbital average of the self-force to the average flux of energy and angular momentum out of the system. Particular attention is paid to the pointwise convergence properties of the sum over frequency modes in our method, identifying a systematic inherent loss of precision that any frequency domain calculation of the self-force on eccentric orbits must overcome.

  3. Formation of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly trough: Local time and solar cycle variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Vicki W.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.; Lei, Jiuhou; Wang, Wenbin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates the formation and behavior of the equatorial thermosphere anomaly (ETA) trough in neutral temperature and mass density using the National Center for Atmospheric Research thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics general circulation model under quiet geomagnetic activity and March equinox conditions. The driving mechanism for the generation of the ETA trough in the model is field-aligned ion drag. In our simulations, during the daytime, field-aligned ion drag on the north-south flanks of the magnetic equator causes a divergence in meridional winds, leading to an upward change in vertical winds, adiabatic cooling, and a reduction in neutral temperature of about 30 K over the magnetic equator near 400 km. This response closely links ETA behavior to variations in the equatorial ionosphere anomaly (EIA) associated with local time and solar cycle. As the EIA begins to disappear in the evening, the processes in the ETA mechanism recede, causing the ETA trough to subside. The ETA trough is not completely eliminated until about after 23:00 LT. In our simulations, the trough becomes more prominent as the solar cycle progresses from low (F10.7=80) to high (F10.7=180), in agreement with observations. The neutral-ion collision frequency (proportional to variations in electron density) controls ETA day-to-night and solar cycle variations, while plasma scale height and gradients in electron number density and plasma temperature produce a secondary structure in ETA local time behavior that varies with solar cycle levels.

  4. Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Stucchi, Marcelo; Urbina, Mario; Giannini, Norberto; Bertelli, Sara; Narváez, Yanina; Boyd, Clint A

    2007-07-10

    New penguin fossils from the Eocene of Peru force a reevaluation of previous hypotheses regarding the causal role of climate change in penguin evolution. Repeatedly it has been proposed that penguins originated in high southern latitudes and arrived at equatorial regions relatively recently (e.g., 4-8 million years ago), well after the onset of latest Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and increases in polar ice volume. By contrast, new discoveries from the middle and late Eocene of Peru reveal that penguins invaded low latitudes >30 million years earlier than prior data suggested, during one of the warmest intervals of the Cenozoic. A diverse fauna includes two new species, here reported from two of the best exemplars of Paleogene penguins yet recovered. The most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Sphenisciformes to date, combining morphological and molecular data, places the new species outside the extant penguin radiation (crown clade: Spheniscidae) and supports two separate dispersals to equatorial (paleolatitude approximately 14 degrees S) regions during greenhouse earth conditions. One new species, Perudyptes devriesi, is among the deepest divergences within Sphenisciformes. The second, Icadyptes salasi, is the most complete giant (>1.5 m standing height) penguin yet described. Both species provide critical information on early penguin cranial osteology, trends in penguin body size, and the evolution of the penguin flipper.

  5. An Analysis of Cassini Observations Regarding the Structure of Jupiter's Equatorial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David S.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of intriguing atmospheric phenomena reside on both sides of Jupiter's equator. 5-micron bright hot spots and opaque plumes prominently exhibit dynamic behavior to the north, whereas compact, dark chevron-shaped features and isolated anticyclonic disturbances periodically occupy the southern equatorial latitudes. All of these phenomena are associated with the vertical and meridional perturbations of Rossby waves disturbing the mean atmospheric state. As previous observational analysis and numerical simulations have investigated the dynamics of the region, an examination of the atmosphere's vertical structure though radiative transfer analysis is necessary for improved understanding of this unique environment. Here we present preliminary analysis of a multispectral Cassini imaging data set acquired during the spacecraft's flyby of Jupiter in 2000. We evaluated multiple methane and continuum spectral channels at available viewing angles to improve constraints on the vertical structure of the haze and cloud layers comprising these interesting features. Our preliminary results indicate distinct differences in the structure for both hemispheres. Upper troposphere hazes and cloud layers are prevalent in the northern equatorial latitudes, but are not present in corresponding southern latitudes. Continued analysis will further constrain the precise structure present in these phenomena and the differences between them.

  6. Spectral characteristics of geomagnetic field variations at low and equatorial latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Geomagnetic field spectra from eight standard observations at geomagnetic latitudes below 30?? were studied to determine the field characteristics unique to the equatorial region. Emphasis was placed upon those variations having periods between 5 min and 4 hr for a selection of magnetically quiet, average, and active days in 1965. The power spectral density at the equator was about ten times that the near 30?? latitude. The initial manifestation of the equatorial electrojet as evidenced by the east-west alignment of the horizontal field or the change in vertical amplitudes occurred below about 20?? latitude. Induced current effects upon the vertical component from which the Earth conductivity might be inferred could best be obtained at times and latitudes unaffected by the electrojet current. Values of about 1.6 ?? 103 mhos/m for an effective skin depth of 500-600 km were determined. The spectral amplitudes increased linearly with geomagnetic activity index, Ap. The spectral slope had a similar behavior at all latitudes. The slope changed systematically with Ap-index and showed a diurnal variation, centered on local noon, that changed form with geomagnetic activity.

  7. Revisiting the cause of the eastern equatorial Atlantic cold event in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Brandt, Peter; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2016-07-01

    An extreme cold sea surface temperature event occurred in the Atlantic cold tongue region in boreal summer 2009. It was preceded by a strong negative Atlantic meridional mode event associated with north-westerly wind anomalies along the equator from March to May. Although classical equatorial wave dynamics suggest that westerly wind anomalies should be followed by a warming in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, an abrupt cooling took place. In the literature two mechanisms—meridional advection of subsurface temperature anomalies and planetary wave reflection—are discussed as potential causes of such an event. Here, for the first time we use in situ measurements in addition to satellite and reanalysis products to investigate the contribution of both mechanisms to the 2009 cold event. Our results suggest that meridional advection is less important in cold events than in corresponding warm events, and, in particular, did not cause the 2009 cold event. Argo float data confirm previous findings that planetary wave reflection contributed to the onset of the 2009 cold event. Additionally, our analysis suggests that higher baroclinic modes were involved.

  8. Evaluating the formation mechanisms of the equatorial Pacific SST warming pattern in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Jun; Huang, Ping; Huang, Ronghui

    2016-04-01

    Based on the historical and RCP8.5 runs of the multi-model ensemble of 32 models participating in CMIP5, the present study evaluates the formation mechanisms for the patterns of changes in equatorial Pacific SST under global warming. Two features with complex formation processes, the zonal El Ni˜no-like pattern and the meridional equatorial peak warming (EPW), are investigated. The climatological evaporation is the main contributor to the El Ni˜no-like pattern, while the ocean dynamical thermostat effect plays a comparable negative role. The cloud-shortwave-radiation-SST feedback and the weakened Walker circulation play a small positive role in the El Ni˜no-like pattern. The processes associated with ocean dynamics are confined to the equator. The climatological evaporation is also the dominant contributor to the EPW pattern, as suggested in previous studies. However, the effects of some processes are inconsistent with previous studies. For example, changes in the zonal heat advection due to the weakened Walker circulation have a remarkable positive contribution to the EPW pattern, and changes in the shortwave radiation play a negative role in the EPW pattern.

  9. Characteristics of evolutionary-type plasma bubbles observed from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, K. K.; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Tulasiram, S.

    2016-07-01

    Using the fan sector backscatter maps of 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang (0.2°S geographic latitude, 100.3°E geographic longitude, and 10.4°S geomagnetic latitude), Indonesia, the spatial and temporal evolution of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were examined to classify the evolutionary-type EPBs from those which formed elsewhere and drifted into the field of view of radar. A total of 535 EPBs were observed during the low to moderate solar activity years 2010-2012, out of which about 210 (~39%) are of evolving type and the remaining 325 (~61%) are drifting-in EPBs. In general, both the evolving-type and drifting-in EPBs exhibit predominance during the post-sunset hours of equinoxes and December solstices. Interestingly, during June solstice the occurrence of evolving-type EPBs exhibits a clear secondary peak around midnight (2300-0100 LT). Further, the occurrence of evolving-type EPBs exhibits a clear secondary peak around midnight (2300-0100 LT), primarily, due to higher rate of occurrence during the post-midnight hours of June solstices. A significant number (~33%) of post-midnight EPBs generated during June solstices did not exhibited any clear zonal drift, while about 14% of EPBs drifted westward. Also, the westward drifting EPBs are confined only to June solstices. In the present study, we calculated the vertical bubble rise velocity of evolutionary-type EPBs during 2010-2012.

  10. A numerical strategy for efficient modeling of the equatorial wave guide.

    PubMed

    Majda, A J; Khouider, B

    2001-02-13

    Convection in the tropics is observed to involve a wide-ranging hierarchy of scales from a few kilometers to the planetary scales and also has a profound impact on short-term climate. The mechanisms responsible for this behavior present a major unsolved problem. A promising emerging approach to address these issues is cloud-resolving modeling. Here a family of numerical models is introduced specifically to model the feedback of small-scale deep convection on tropical planetary waves and tropical circulation in a highly efficient manner compatible with the approach through cloud-resolving modeling. Such a procedure is also useful for theoretical purposes. The basic idea in the approach is to use low-order truncation in the meriodonal direction through Gauss--Hermite quadrature projected onto a simple discrete radiation condition. In this fashion, the cloud-resolving modeling of equatorially trapped planetary waves reduces to the solution of a small number of purely zonal two-dimensional wave systems along a few judiciously chosen meriodonal layers that are coupled only by some additional source terms. The approach is analyzed in detail with full mathematical rigor for linearized equatorial primitive equations with source terms.

  11. Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health: ExxonMobil, Equatorial Guinea, and malaria.

    PubMed

    Shah, Naman K

    2013-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea, the most prosperous country in Africa, still bears a large malaria burden. With massive wealth from oil reserves, and nearly half its population living in island ecotypes favourable for malaria control, only poor governance can explain continued parasite burden. By financially backing the country's dictator and other officials through illicit payments, the oil company ExxonMobil contributed to the state's failure. Now ExxonMobil, having helped perpetuate malaria in Equatorial Guinea, gives money to non-governmental organizations, charitable foundations, and universities to advocate for and undertake malaria work. How, and on what terms, can public health engage with such an actor? We discuss challenges in the identification and management of conflicts of interest in public health activities. We reviewed the business and foundation activities of ExxonMobil and surveyed organizations that received ExxonMobil money about their conflict of interest policies. Reforms in ExxonMobil's business practices, as well as its charitable structure, and reforms in the way public health groups screen and manage conflicts of interest are needed to ensure that any relationship ultimately improves the health of citizens.

  12. Processes of Equatorial Thermal Structure: An Analysis of Galileo Temperature Profile with 3-D Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majeed, T.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Bougher, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    The Jupiter Thermosphere General Circulation Model (JTGCM) calculates the global dynamical structure of Jupiter's thermosphere self-consistently with its global thermal structure and composition. The main heat source that drives the thermospheric flow is high-latitude Joule heating. A secondary source of heating is the auroral process of particle precipitation. Global simulations of Jovian thermospheric dynamics indicate strong neutral outflows from the auroral ovals with velocities up to approximately 2 kilometers per second and subsequent convergence and downwelling at the Jovian equator. Such circulation is shown to be an important process for transporting significant amounts of auroral energy to equatorial latitudes and for regulating the global heat budget in a manner consistent with the high thermospheric temperatures observed by the Galileo probe. Adiabatic compression of the neutral atmosphere resulting from downward motion is an important source of equatorial heating (less than 0.06 microbar). The adiabatic heating continues to dominate between 0.06 and 0.2 microbar, but with an addition of comparable heating due to horizontal advection induced by the meridional flow. Thermal conduction plays an important role in transporting heat down to lower altitudes (greater than 0.2microbar) where it is balanced by the cooling associated with the wind transport processes. Interestingly, we find that radiative cooling caused by H3(+), CH4, and C2H2 emissions does not play a significant role in interpreting the Galileo temperature profile.

  13. On the relationship between east equatorial Atlantic SST and ISM through Eurasian wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The dominant mode of July-August (JA) seasonal variability of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) are obtained by performing empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first dominant mode of ISMR and its relationships with the sea surface temperature (SST), pressure level wind and geopotential height (GPH) fields are examined using gridded datasets for the period 1979-2014. The principal component of the first leading mode (PC1) obtained in the EOF analysis of JA rainfall over Indian landmass is highly correlated with north-west and central India rainfall, and anti-correlated with east-equatorial Atlantic SST (EEASST). The positive EEASST anomaly intensifies the inter-tropical convergence zone over Atlantic and west equatorial Africa which generates stationary wave meridionally, as meridional transfer of energy is strong, as the influence of background jet-streams are minimal over North Africa and Europe. The anomalous positive and negative GPH are generated over sub-tropics and extra-tropics, respectively, due to the stationary wave. This increases the climatological background steep pressure gradient between sub-tropics and extra-tropics consisting of anomalous negative GPH field over north-west (NW) Europe and vice versa for negative EEASST anomaly. The anomalous positive GPH over NW Europe acts as center of action for the propagation of a Rossby wave train to NW India via Europe consisting of anomalous high over NW of India. This intensifies the Tibetan High westward which reinforces the outbreak of monsoon activities over central and NW India.

  14. Interannual and interdecadal variability of the North Equatorial Countercurrent in the Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Qiu, Bo; Du, Yan; Chen, Shuiming; Qi, Yiquan

    2016-10-01

    Interannual and longer timescale variations of the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) in the western Pacific are investigated using the multidecade (1960-2014) hindcast by the Ocean general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES). The OFES-simulated sea level and upper ocean circulation changes show favorable comparisons with available tide gauge data and repeat hydrographic surveys along the 137°E meridian. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis reveals that the low-frequency NECC variability is dominated by two distinct modes. The first mode fluctuates interannually and shows strengthening and southward migration of the NECC concurrent with the development of El Niño events. Unlike the extratropical western Pacific Ocean circulation variability controlled by wind forcing west of the dateline, the interannual NECC variations are forced by equatorial wind forcing cumulative across the entire Pacific basin. The second mode of the NECC variability has an interdecadal timescale and is characterized by NECC's progressive weakening in strength, migrating poleward, and broadening in width over the past 50 years. These long-term changes in NECC are caused by the corresponding changes in the trade wind system that weakened and expanded poleward in the past half a century across the Pacific basin.

  15. Data-driven numerical simulations of equatorial spread F in the Peruvian sector: 2. Autumnal equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Milla, M. A.; Condori, L.; Meriwether, J. W.

    2014-08-01

    An ongoing effort to simulate plasma instability in the equatorial ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) in the American sector is described. Ionospheric state parameters including plasma number density and vector drift velocity profiles were measured at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in the period between 20 September and 3 October 2013. Coherent radar backscatter from plasma irregularities was recorded simultaneously, and images of the irregularities were calculated using aperture synthesis methods. Neutral winds were measured by the red line Fabry-Perot interferometers at Jicamarca and Arequipa, Peru. A fully 3-D numerical simulation of ionospheric irregularities, initialized and forced using parameterizations derived from measurements and empirical models, was used to reproduce the ESF activity observed. Simulations were able to recover many of the features of the irregularities, although some important anomalies can be noted. ESF events in which the first appearance of radar plumes occurred either very early or very late were not reproduced in simulation and may be indicative of nonlocal influence.

  16. The salinity signature of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue as revealed by the satellite SMOS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Christophe; Reul, Nicolas; Behringer, David; O'Kane, Terence

    2014-12-01

    The space-borne measurements of the SMOS mission reveal for the first time the complete features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature at the full scale of the Pacific basin. The SSS field in the equatorial cold tongue is typically found to be larger than 35.1 within a narrow 2° band of latitude that is positioned slightly south of the equator and that stretches across the eastern Pacific basin up to the Galapagos Islands. On the northern edge of the eastern equatorial Pacific this signature results in a very strong horizontal gradient (larger than 2 units over 100 km) with the fresh waters of the Panama warm pool. By considering a water density criterion, it can be shown that the cold tongue is characterized by a strong seasonal cycle with a 3°C amplitude in SST where the warm season of February-March contrasts with the cold period extending from September to November. If the present ocean reanalyzes are able to capture these features, then the assimilation of the SMOS data becomes a worthwhile objective in order to depict more accurately the salinity signature of the cold tongue of the tropical Pacific.

  17. On the Oscillations of the Jovian Atmosphere Above the Clouds of the Equatorial Zone of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, M. V.; Gorda, S. Yu.; Shagabutdinov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    Spectral observations of the equatorial zone of Jupiter and the Sun as a star in the optical range of wavelengths have been carried out. The spectra of oscillations of the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun have been constructed on the base of these observations. The spectrum of oscillations of the Jovian atmosphere can considerably change during several days. The comparison of the spectra of oscillations of the atmospheres of "quiet" Jupiter and the Sun yields the following periods of oscillations of the Jovian atmosphere: 72.7, 30.2, 13.2, 7.5, 5.3 and 2.8 min, which are the strongest ones in power. The average amplitude of oscillations of the radial velocity of 0.364±0.100 km/s is found to have a period of 32.5±1.5 min in the layer of the atmosphere above the equatorial zone of Jupiter (the rotation period of this layer around Jupiter is determined to be decreasing from 6.55 to 6.28 hours in the time interval from March 30, 2016 to April 29, 2016). The influence of the solar activity on the spectrum of oscillations of the Jovian atmosphere is discussed.

  18. High-resolution interferometric radar images of equatorial spread F scattering structures using Capon's method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zewdie, G. K.; Rodrigues, F. S.; Paula, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent backscatter radar imaging techniques use measurements made by multiple antenna baselines (visibility estimates) to infer the spatial distribution of the scatterers (brightness function) responsible for the observed echoes. It has been proposed that the Capon method for spectral estimation can be used for high-resolution estimation of the brightness distribution. We investigate the application of the Capon method to measurements made by a small (7-baseline) 30 MHz ionospheric coherent backscatter radar interferometer in Sao Luis, Brazil. The longest baseline of the interferometer is only 15 times the wavelength of radar signal (10 m), and the ionospheric radar soundings have been made using only 4-8 kW transmitters. Nevertheless, we have been able to obtain high-resolution (kilometric scales in the zonal direction) images of scattering structures during equatorial spread F (ESF) events over a wide field of view (+/- 10 degrees off zenith). We will present numerical simulations demonstrating the performance of the technique for the Sao Luis radar setup as well as results of the Capon technique applied to actual measurements. We will discuss the behavior of the ESF scattering structures as seen in the Capon images. The high-resolution images can assist our interpretation of plasma instabilities in the equatorial ionosphere and serve to test our ability to model the behavior of ionospheric irregularities during space weather events such as those associated with ESF.

  19. Thermosphere density and wind measurements in the equatorial region using a constellation of drag balance nanospacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felicetti, Leonard; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Santoni, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    A mission for in situ thermosphere density and winds measurement is described, based on nanospacecraft equipped with a drag balance instrument (DBI) and a GPS receiver. The mission is based on nanosatellite clusters deployed in three orbital planes. In this study, clusters of 10 nanospacecraft are considered, leading to a mission based on a total of 30 nanospacecraft. The geometry analyzed is a symmetrical one, including an equatorial orbit and two orbits with the same inclination and opposing ascending nodes. The main idea is that, by combining the accurate information on the satellite inertial position and velocity provided by the GPS receiver and the drag acceleration intensity provided by the DBI, due to the orbits’ geometrical configuration, both atmospheric drag and wind can be resolved in a region close to the orbit nodes. Exploiting the Earth oblateness effect, a complete scan of the equatorial regions can be accomplished in the short mission lifetime typical of very low Earth orbit satellites, even in high solar activity peaks, when the expected nanospacecraft lifetime is about 40 days.

  20. Estimation of nighttime dip-equatorial E-region current density using measurements and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kuldeep; Sekar, R.; Anandarao, B. G.; Gupta, S. P.; Chakrabarty, D.

    2016-08-01

    The existence of the possible ionospheric current during nighttime over low-equatorial latitudes is one of the unresolved issues in ionospheric physics and geomagnetism. A detailed investigation is carried out to estimate the same over Indian longitudes using in situ measurements from Thumba (8.5 ° N, 76.9 ° E), empirical plasma drift model (Fejer et al., 2008) and equatorial electrojet model developed by Anandarao (1976). This investigation reveals that the nighttime E-region current densities vary from ∼0.3 to ∼0.7 A/km2 during pre-midnight to early morning hours on geomagnetically quiet conditions. The nighttime current densities over the dip equator are estimated using three different methods (discussed in methodology section) and are found to be consistent with one another within the uncertainty limits. Altitude structures in the E-region current densities are also noticed which are shown to be associated with altitudinal structures in the electron densities. The horizontal component of the magnetic field induced by these nighttime ionospheric currents is estimated to vary between ∼2 and ∼6 nT during geomagnetically quiet periods. This investigation confirms the existence of nighttime ionospheric current and opens up a possibility of estimating base line value for geomagnetic field fluctuations as observed by ground-based magnetometer.