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Sample records for na placenta durante

  1. Placenta previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 178. Hull A, Resnick R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio ... PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review ...

  2. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 178. Hull AD, Resnik R. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, abruptio ... PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review ...

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes migration and β-epithelial Na+ channel expression in cytotrophoblasts and ischemic placentas.

    PubMed

    Warrington, Junie P; Coleman, Kayla; Skaggs, Courtney; Hosick, Peter A; George, Eric M; Stec, David E; Ryan, Michael J; Granger, Joey P; Drummond, Heather A

    2014-05-01

    Preeclampsia is thought to arise from inadequate cytotrophoblast migration and invasion of the maternal spiral arteries, resulting in placental ischemia and hypertension. Evidence suggests that altered expression of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) proteins may be a contributing mechanism for impaired cytotrophoblast migration. ENaC activity is required for normal cytotrophoblast migration. Moreover, β-ENaC, the most robustly expressed placental ENaC message, is reduced in placentas from preeclamptic women. We recently demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects against hypertension in a rat model of placental ischemia; however, whether HO-1 regulation of β-ENaC contributes to the beneficial effects of HO-1 is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-ENaC mediates cytotrophoblast migration and whether HO-1 enhances ENaC-mediated migration. We showed that placental ischemia, induced by reducing uterine perfusion suppressed, and HO-1 induction restored, β-ENaC expression in ischemic placentas. Using an in vitro model, we found that HO-1 induction, using cobalt protoporphyrin, stimulates cytotrophoblast β-ENaC expression by 1.5- and 1.8-fold (10 and 50 μM). We then showed that silencing of β-ENaC in cultured cytotrophoblasts (BeWo cells), by expression of dominant-negative constructs, reduced migration to 56 ± 13% (P < 0.05) of control. Importantly, HO-1 induction enhanced migration (43 ± 5% of control, P < 0.05), but the enhanced migratory response was entirely blocked by ENaC inhibition with amiloride (10 μM). Taken together, our results suggest that β-ENaC mediates cytotrophoblast migration and increasing β-ENaC expression by HO-1 induction enhances migration. HO-1 regulation of cytotrophoblast β-ENaC expression and migration may be a potential therapeutic target in preeclamptic patients.

  4. Morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    Abuhamad, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta, which describes placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, implies an abnormal implantation of the placenta into the uterine wall. The incidence of placenta accreta has increased significantly over the past several decades, with the main risk factors include prior cesarean section and placental previa. Sonographic markers of placenta accreta can be present as early as the first trimester and include a low uterine implantation of a gestational sac, multiple vascular lacunae within the placenta, loss of the normal hypoechoic retroplacental zone, and abnormality of the uterine serosa-bladder interface, among others. Ultrasound has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of placenta accreta and MRI should be reserved for rare cases in which the ultrasound is non-diagnostic. The optimum time for planned delivery for a patient with placenta accreta is around 34-35 weeks following a course of corticosteroid injection. The successful management of placenta accreta includes a multidisciplinary care team approach with the successful management relying heavily on the prenatal diagnosis of this entity and preparing for the surgical management in a multidisciplinary approach by assuring the most skilled team is available for those patients.

  5. Placenta accreta following hysteroscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mie; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Matsuzaki, Satoko; Kakigano, Aiko; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Ueda, Yutaka; Endo, Masayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Hardly any report exists on the influence of hysteroscopic myomectomy on subsequent pregnancy. Placenta accreta is most often associated with placenta previa in women with multiple prior cesarean sections. We report the first case of placenta accreta without placenta previa during the first pregnancy subsequent to hysteroscopic myomectomy.

  6. Pseudotumors of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Evelyn T

    2016-01-01

    The placenta is one of the most common gross pathology specimens encountered by surgical pathologists, yet primary tumors are exceptionally rare and even rarer are entities with the potential to mimic malignancy. There are many nonneoplasticmass forming lesions in the placenta that are important to be aware of as many of these can be associated with adverse outcomes in the mother and fetus. Also important are entities which may be observed microscopically in the placenta and potentially confused as a malignancy. Knowledge of these potential pitfalls is essential to avoid making an incorrect diagnosis and causing undue alarm.

  7. Steps of glucocorticoid action in normal and diabetic rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Heller, C L; Weisenberg, L S; Ortí, E; De Nicola, A F

    1988-07-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Streptozotocin diabetes in pregnancy on several parameters of glucocorticoid action in the rat placenta. Pregnant diabetic rats showed reduced body weight, increased adrenal weight and serum corticosterone concentrations. Glucocorticoid receptors in placental cytosol of labyrinthine zone, measured in the absence of MoO4Na2 were similar in control and diabetic rats, but after addition of MoO4Na2 receptor number were moderately, but significantly reduced in diabetic placentas (P less than 0.01). No changes in affinity were detected in saturation analysis. Furthermore, transformation of the receptor assessed by its capacity for binding to DNA-cellulose, was enhanced in diabetic animals, suggesting increased efficiency of the receptor-bound hormone. Since the function of the glucocorticoid receptor of rat placenta may be the inhibition of local progesterone production (Heller and De Nicola, J. steroid Biochem. 19 (1983) 1339-1343), we determined progesterone synthesis in vitro and found that diabetic placentas synthesized significantly less progesterone than control tissue (P less than 0.05). Lastly, we found that the metabolism of corticosterone to 11-dehydrocorticosterone, while declining in control placentas as pregnancy advanced, it was sustained in diabetic pregnancy. It is suggested that diabetic rat placentas showed increased activity towards the glucocorticoid receptor, resulting in reduction in progesterone synthesis and sustained catabolism of corticosterone. The latter may possibly constitute a compensatory mechanism to protect the fetal compartment from high levels of maternal glucocorticoids.

  8. The placenta in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, James M.; Escudero, C.

    2012-01-01

    The root cause of preeclampsia is the placenta. Preeclampsia begins to abate with the delivery of the placenta and can occur in the absence of a fetus but with the presence of trophoblast tissue with hydatidiform moles. In view of this, study of the placenta should provide insight into the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. In this presentation we examine placental pathological and pathophysiological changes with preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction (FGR). It would seem that this comparison should be illuminating as both conditions are associated with similarly abnormal placentation yet only in preeclampsia is there a maternal pathophysiological syndrome. Similar insights about early and late onset preeclampsia should also be provided by such information. We report that the placental abnormalities in preeclampsia are what would be predicted in a setting of reduced perfusion and oxidative stress. However, the differences from FGR are inconsistent. The most striking differences between the two conditions are found in areas that have been the least studied. There are differences between the placental findings in early and late onset preeclampsia but whether these are qualitative, indicating different diseases, or simply quantitative differences within the same disease is difficult to determine. We attempt to decipher the true differences, seek an explanation for the disparate results and provide recommendations that we hope may help resolve these issues in future studies. PMID:22745921

  9. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  10. Placenta percreta and the urologist.

    PubMed

    Konijeti, Ramdev; Rajfer, Jacob; Askari, Asghar

    2009-01-01

    Placenta percreta, the rarest and most severe form of placenta accreta, can involve the urinary bladder. Because of its propensity for severe hemorrhage, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. Although commonly discovered at the time of delivery, antenatal diagnosis may be achieved with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and/or cystoscopy. Every attempt should be made to minimize potential for blood loss by avoiding removal of the placenta at the time of delivery and either performing a hysterectomy or using methotrexate therapy to ablate the residual placenta in the postpartum period. If hemorrhage does occur during delivery, immediate surgical removal of the uterus should be considered and, depending on the severity of the hemorrhage and the depth of invasion of the placenta into the bladder, excision and/or reconstruction of the bladder may be necessary.

  11. Urological Manifestations of Placenta Percreta

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mina A.; Liu, Angela; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar A.

    2015-01-01

    Placenta percreta is a condition of pregnancy associated with abnormal decidua placenta. It is characterized by invasion of chorionic villi past the myometrium and serosa, towards urogenital organs. Complications include massive hemorrhage, bladder dysfunction, and severe infections during delivery. Reports suggest an increasing prevalence of this condition. From a urological perspective, this review suggests how early diagnostic modalities, effective treatment plans, and appropriate surgical methods may aid in decreasing the morbidity and mortality of placenta percreta. The importance of maintaining bladder integrity during hysterectomy is emphasized. PMID:26889119

  12. Heparin treatment in abruptio placentae

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T. R.; Read, H. C.; Fraser, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two cases of abruptio placentae with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were treated with heparin, and coagulation was monitored by thromboelastography as well as the usual hematology tests. The cases demonstrated the vagaries of DIC and both showed decreased overt hemorrhage after heparin treatment was started. Heparin may be indicated for the management of abruptio placentae where delivery is not imminent, where significant disseminated intravascular coagulation exists, and when adequate serial coagulation studies are available. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4829841

  13. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Joergen; Istre, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery. PMID:25838908

  14. Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Placental disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are all associated with vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. They are also important causes of serious fetal and maternal morbidity and even mortality. Moreover, the rates of previa and accreta are increasing, probably as a result of increasing rates of cesarean delivery, maternal age, and assisted reproductive technology. The routine use of obstetric ultrasonography as well as improving ultrasonographic technology allows for the antenatal diagnosis of these conditions. In turn, antenatal diagnosis facilitates optimal obstetric management. This review emphasizes an evidence-based approach to the clinical management of pregnancies with these conditions as well as highlights important knowledge gaps.

  15. Optimal transport and the placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Simon; Xia, Qinglan; Salafia, Carolym

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  16. TPRV-1 expression in human preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Abán, Cyntia E; Leguizamón, Gustavo F; Damiano, Alicia E; Farina, Mariana G

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, characterized by abnormal placentation. Although its causes remain unclear, it is known that the expression of several transporters is altered. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) is a nonselective cation channel, present in human placenta. Here, we evaluated the expression of TRPV-1 in preeclamptic placentas. We observed a deregulation in TRPV-1 expression in these placentas which may explain the impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis found in preeclampsia.

  17. Placenta accreta spectrum: accreta, increta, and percreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M; Barbour, Kelli D

    2015-06-01

    Placenta accreta can lead to hemorrhage, resulting in hysterectomy, blood transfusion, multiple organ failure, and death. Accreta has been increasing steadily in incidence owing to an increase in the cesarean delivery rate. Major risk factors are placenta previa in women with prior cesarean deliveries. Obstetric ultrasonography can be used to diagnose placenta accreta antenatally, which allows for scheduled delivery in a multidisciplinary center of excellence for accreta. Controversies exist regarding optimal management, including optimal timing of delivery, surgical approach, use of adjunctive measures, and conservative (uterine-sparing) therapy. We review the definition, risk factors, diagnosis, management, and controversies regarding placenta accreta.

  18. Regeneration of ascorbic acid in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Bode, A.M. )

    1990-02-26

    The free radical scavenging function of ascorbic acid (AA) results in the formation of the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA). The enzymatic reduction of DHAA may be an important means of recycling and conserving ascorbic acid in various tissues. The role of the human placenta in the enzymatic reduction of the potentially toxic oxidized form was examined in tissue homogenized in 50 mM MOPs buffer. Assay of DHAA, AA, DKG (diketogulonic acid) were made by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting. Activity of the placental factor in reducing DHAA was dependent on the presence of both NADPH and GSH. Activity was reduced 81% by incubation with 2% trypsin and was unaffected by BSA, glycerol, EtOH, or Na-AZIDE. Inhibition was observed with 10 mM EDTA and 0.2M KCI but not with 1 mM EDTA or 0.1 M KCI or less. Studies are underway to further purify and characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for the observed activity.

  19. Autophagy in term normal human placentas.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, P; Avagliano, L; Virgili, E; Gagliostro, V; Doi, P; Braidotti, P; Bulfamante, G P; Ghidoni, R; Marconi, A M

    2011-06-01

    Autophagy is an inducible catabolic process that responds to environment and is essential for cell survival during stress, starvation and hypoxia. Its function in the human placenta it is not yet understood. We collected 14 placentas: 7 at vaginal delivery and 7 at elective caesarean section after uneventful term pregnancies. The presence of autophagy was assessed in different placental areas by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We found that autophagy is significantly higher in placentas obtained from cesarean section than in those from vaginal delivery. Moreover there is a significant inverse relationship between autophagy and umbilical arterial glucose concentration.

  20. Transport of calcium by the placenta of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Stulc, J; Stulcová, B

    1986-01-01

    Transport of 45Ca and of radioactively labelled inert saccharides across the intact or perfused placenta was measured in the rat on day 21 of pregnancy, the day after mating being day 1. The values of permeability--surface area product (PS) of the intact placenta to radioactive mannitol, sucrose, raffinose, and methoxyinulin were approximately proportional to their diffusion coefficients in water. This suggests that diffusion of inert hydrophilic molecules across the rat placenta takes place through wide aqueous channels. Net flux of Ca from mother to fetus, estimated from the increase of the fetal Ca content between day 20 and day 21 is 100 +/- 4 nmol min-1 (the limits here and below are S.E. of means). The unidirectional maternal-fetal flux of Ca (Jmf) in non-anaesthetized animals, estimated from the flux of 45Ca, is 100 +/- 7 nmol min-1. The similarity of the two values suggests that the fetal-maternal flux (Jfm) is small The umbilical vascular bed of the rat placenta was perfused in situ with Krebs-dextran fluid. Jmf estimated from the transfer of 45Ca from maternal plasma to perfusate was 81 +/- 4 nmol min-1. PS of the perfused placenta to radioactive sucrose was 2.6 +/- 0.3 microliter min-1. Jmf decreased reversibly when the placenta was perfused with 0.5 mM-dinitrophenol or 1 mM-CN-, which is consistent with the presumed active nature of the maternal-fetal transport of Ca. Jmf did not decrease when the placenta was perfused with Na-free fluids (substitution with Tris, Li or sucrose), indicating that Na-Ca exchange across the fetal border of the placental trophoblast is not involved in maternal-fetal transport of Ca. Transport of 45Ca to the perfusate was reduced to about 60% when maternal plasma concentration of Ca was doubled. This suggests that the affinity of the maternal-fetal transport system to Ca is high. Jmf did not change when the umbilical concentration of Ca was varied between 0.1 and 3 mM. There thus seems to be no rapid feed-back between

  1. Placenta: How It Works, What's Normal

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure. High blood pressure can affect your placenta. Twin or other multiple pregnancy. If you're pregnant with more than one baby, you might be at increased risk of certain placental problems. Blood-clotting disorders. Any ...

  2. Genomic imprinting in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Monk, David

    2015-10-01

    With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression. This review discusses the differences in allelic expression and epigenetic profiles of imprinted genes that are identified between different species, which reflect the continuous evolutionary adaption of this form of epigenetic regulation. These observations divulge that placenta-specific imprinted gene that is reliant on repressive histone signatures in mice are unlikely to be imprinted in humans, whereas intense methylation profiling in humans has uncovered numerous maternally methylated regions that are restricted to the placenta that are not conserved in mice. Imprinting has been proposed to be a mechanism that regulates parental resource allocation and ultimately can influence fetal growth, with the placenta being the key in this process. Furthermore, I discuss the developmental dynamics of both classic and transient placenta-specific imprinting and examine the evidence for an involvement of these genes in intrauterine growth restriction and placenta-associated complications. Finally, I focus on examples of genes that are regulated aberrantly in complicated pregnancies, emphasizing their application as pregnancy-related disease biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies early in gestation.

  3. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    PubMed Central

    Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C.; Dassanayake, Rohana P.; O'Rourke, Katherine I.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naı¨ve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats. PMID:25888622

  4. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  5. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Findeklee, S; Costa, S D

    2015-08-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy.

  6. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  7. Escalating placenta invasiveness: repeated placenta accreta at the limit of viability.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Shirley; Khashper, Alla; Leron, Elad; Ohana, Eric; Meirovitz, Mihai; Hershkovitz, Reli; Erez, Offer

    2016-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an obstetric condition in which the placenta invades through the myometrium. This is the most severe form of placenta accreta and may result in spontaneous uterine rupture, a rare complication that threatens the life of both mother and fetus. In this case report, we describe a 32-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy, diagnosed with repeated placenta accreta, which was eventually complicated by spontaneous uterine rupture at 24 weeks' gestation. This patient had a history of abnormal placentation in prior pregnancies and previous uterine injuries. This case demonstrates a pattern of escalating placental invasiveness, and raises questions regarding the process of abnormal placentation and the manifestation of uterine rupture in scarred uteri.

  8. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  9. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options. PMID:26199801

  10. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  11. The placenta in toxicology. Part IV: Battery of toxicological test systems based on human placenta.

    PubMed

    Göhner, Claudia; Svensson-Arvelund, Judit; Pfarrer, Christiane; Häger, Jan-Dirk; Faas, Marijke; Ernerudh, Jan; Cline, J Mark; Dixon, Darlene; Buse, Eberhard; Markert, Udo R

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the potential and also some limitations of using human placentas, or placental cells and structures for toxicology testing. The placenta contains a wide spectrum of cell types and tissues, such as trophoblast cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, stem cells, endothelial cells, vessels, glands, membranes, and many others. It may be expected that in many cases the relevance of results obtained from human placenta will be higher than those from animal models due to species specificity of metabolism and placental structure. For practical and economical reasons, we propose to apply a battery of sequential experiments for analysis of potential toxicants. This should start with using cell lines, followed by testing placenta tissue explants and isolated placenta cells, and finally by application of single and dual side ex vivo placenta perfusion. With each of these steps, the relative workload increases while the number of feasible repeats decreases. Simultaneously, the predictive power enhances by increasing similarity with in vivo human conditions. Toxic effects may be detected by performing proliferation, vitality and cell death assays, analysis of protein and hormone expression, immunohistochemistry or testing functionality of signaling pathways, gene expression, transport mechanisms, and so on. When toxic effects appear at any step, the subsequent assays may be cancelled. Such a system may be useful to reduce costs and increase specificity in testing questionable toxicants. Nonetheless, it requires further standardization and end point definitions for better comparability of results from different toxicants and to estimate the respective in vivo translatability and predictive value.

  12. Transcriptome profile of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Marta; Lipka, Aleksandra; Paukszto, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Jan Pawel; Myszczynski, Kamil; Gowkielewicz, Marek; Jozwik, Marcin; Majewski, Mariusz Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    The human placenta is a particular organ that inseparably binds the mother and the fetus. The proper development and survival of the conceptus relies on the essential interplay between maternal and fetal factors involved in cooperation within the placenta. In our study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was applied to analyze the global transcriptome of the human placenta during uncomplicated pregnancies. The RNA-seq was utilized to identify the global pattern of the gene expression in placentas (N = 4) from women in single and twin pregnancies. During analyses, we obtained 228,044 transcripts. More than 91% of them were multi-exon, and among them 134 were potentially unknown protein coding genes. Expression levels (FPKM) were estimated for 38,948 transcriptional active regions, and more than 3000 of genes were expressed with FPKM >20 in each sample. Additionally, all unannotated transcripts with estimated FPKM values were localized on the human genome. Highly covered splice junctions unannotated in the human genome (6497) were identified, and among them 30 were novel. To gain a better understanding of the biological implications, the assembled transcripts were annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms. Single nucleotide variants were predicted for the transcripts assigned to each analyzed GO category. Our results may be useful for establishing a general pattern of the gene expression in the human placenta. Characterizing placental transcriptome, which is crucial for a pregnancy's outcome, can serve as a basis for identifying the mechanisms underlying physiological pregnancy, as well as may be useful for an early detection of the genomic defects.

  13. Review: Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Wildman, D E

    2011-03-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placental function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta-specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage specific birth and death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placentally expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placental biology.

  14. Placenta Percreta Presenting with Delayed Haematuria

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Sudarshan Omprakash; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Placenta percreta presents as life threatening complications with bladder invasion. A condition of placenta invading urinary bladder presented with differential diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia on imaging and responded to chemotherapy. A 35-year-old primi-gravida presented at term with per vaginal bleeding. During caesarian section placental mass totally invading uterine myometrium was found. She was given single dose of Methotrexate. After 2 months she presented with gross haematuria with clot retention two times. Her MRI was suggestive of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia of size 19 X 10 X 13cm. Her beta-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin levels were 691.23 mIU/ml. She was given total four doses of methotrexate. At present size of mass was 1.6 X1.3X 1.1cm. Her beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin level dropped down to 2mIU/ml. Patient was not willing for further intervention or for follow up. PMID:26816944

  15. [Analysis of 65 cases of abruptio placenta].

    PubMed

    Dong, J L; Fei, C

    1992-05-01

    From Jan 1, 1971 to Dec 12, 1990, 65 cases of abruptio placenta were admitted to our hospital. The incidence was 0.19%. Among them, thirty were complicated by pregnancy induced hypertension (46.2%). The perinatal fetal mortality was 19.7%; perinatal death occurred mostly in the premature group. All babies survived except two abnormalities. Cesarean section rate was 32.3%. All postpartum hemorrhage 29.2%. Couvelaire uterus 6.2%, were cured by conservative treatment. There was neither stillbirth nor newborn death in the thirty three cases treated expectant, but a newborn asphyxia rate of 6.1% and a cesarean section rate of 15.1%. Analysis showed that abruptio placentae should be suspected in cases with abnormal fetal heart rate of unknown cause accompanying signs of labor, premature labor of unknown cause, uterine tongue, ultrasonically visualized liquid from dark area behind the placenta, besides classical signs of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Expectant treatment is appropriate if gestational age is small and no acute symptoms exists so as to minimize the perinatal mortality and cesarean section rate.

  16. Anticoagulant prophylaxis for placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2011-02-01

    Thrombophilias are not yet established as a cause of the placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age and placental abruption). A thrombophilia may be only one of many factors that lead to development of these complications. Our recent large systematic review of prospective cohort studies highlight that the association between thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications is far from proven. The small step of previously describing an association in case control studies has led a large number of clinicians and opinion leaders to take the large leap of accepting this relationship as being causal and potentially treatable with anticoagulant interventions. Furthermore, while data in women with prior severe pre-eclpamsia, abruption and small for gestational age births without thrombophilia suggests some promise for anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent complications in subsequent pregnancies in these women, in the absence of large well done and generalisable "no intervention" controlled studies adopting anticoagulant prophylaxis to prevent these complications is premature. The absence of strong evidence, coupled with the small potential for harm from anticoagulant prophylaxis suggests that these drugs should be considered experimental in thrombophilic and non-thrombophilic women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications.

  17. Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-06-25

    The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting.

  18. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaicher, Wibke; Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Schwindt, Jens; Deutinger, Josef; Bernaschek, Gerhard; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of investigation was 29.5 weeks (range 19-40). Patients with suspected utero-placental insufficiency (UPI) or placental anomalies were excluded. Signal intensities were assessed and correlated with the respective GA. Antenatal MRI without contrast medium was able to depict placental status and morphological changes during gestation. A regular homogeneous structure was found in weeks 19-23. Subsequently, sporadic, slightly marked lobules appeared, which increased in number and markedness with ongoing gestation. Stratification of the lobules was observed after 36 weeks. The ratio of placental and amniotic fluid signal intensities decreased significantly with higher GA and with placental grading. MRI is well suited as an imaging method for the placenta. Our data may be used as a reference in the assessment of the placenta on MRI, and may have further clinical impact with respect to the determination of UPI.

  20. Abnormal placentation: evidence-based diagnosis and management of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria; Yankowitz, Jerome; Spinnato, Joseph A

    2012-08-01

    Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa cause significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of both cesarean delivery and pregnancies using assisted reproductive technology, these 3 conditions are becoming more common. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans to achieve the best outcomes for mother and baby. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on abnormal placentation including an evidence-based approach to diagnosis and management.

  1. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors.

  2. Circadian Kisspeptin expression in human term placenta.

    PubMed

    de Pedro, M A; Morán, J; Díaz, I; Murias, L; Fernández-Plaza, C; González, C; Díaz, E

    2015-11-01

    Kisspeptin is an essential gatekeeper of reproductive function. During pregnancy high circulating levels of kisspeptin have been described, however the clear role of this neuropeptide in pregnancy remains unknown. We tested the existence of rhythmic kisspeptin expression in human full-term placenta from healthy pregnant women at six different time points during the day. The data obtained by Western blotting were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), demonstrating, for the first time, the existence of a circadian rhythm in placental kisspeptin expression.

  3. [Placenta percreta with bladder invasion. Case report].

    PubMed

    Torres Gómez, Luis Guillermo; Torres Farías, Emigdio; Rodríguez Sandoval, Rosa María

    2007-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old woman, who had two previous caesarean sections, attended for the first time at 18 weeks of gestation. Pelvic ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging showed a placenta percreta invading the urinary bladder. A caesarean section was carried out at 27th week of gestation for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Placental tissue was firmly attached to the anterior surface of the bladder. A cesarean hysterectomy was performed with bilateral anterior internal iliac artery ligation before hysterectomy was finished. The bladder was repaired, leaving a suprapubic catheter.

  4. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 ...

  5. [Massive hemorrhage during cesarean section for placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Komura, Reiko; Mochida, Takashi; Imai, Hidekazu; Shibue, Chieko; Tobita, Toshiyuki; Baba, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    A 37-year-old multigravida presented at 37 weeks of gestation with low-lying placenta and highly suspected placenta accreta. The placenta adhered widely to the anterior wall of the uterus. Therefore, a longitudinal incision of the uterine corpus at the thinnest part of the placenta was made during surgery. Concurrent with the incision, rapid and massive hemorrhage occurred. After the delivery of the baby and confirmation of the placental adhesion, the hysterectomy was started promptly. The bladder adhered strongly to the uterus, and was injured during the dissection. The total volume of hemorrhage was estimated to be 24,480 ml (including amniotic fluid and urine). No arterial clamp for hemostasis was used during the procedure. The patient was discharged on the 12th postoperative day with no sequela. The pathological diagnosis was placenta percreta. Placenta accreta is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. The hemorrhage becomes difficult to control in case of injury of placenta accreta. The hysterectomy following cesarean section also becomes complicated. Bladder injury is one of the complications of the cesarean hysterectomy which makes the hemorrhage greader. In conclusion, when placenta accreta is suspected a strategy to minimize blood loss during surgery should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team.

  6. Effect of chlorpromazine on rat placenta development.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Hagio, Souichiro; Irie, Kota; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ogawa, Izumi; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the sequential histopathological changes in the placentas from rats exposed to chlorpromazine. Chlorpromazine was intraperitoneally administered on GD 14 at 50 and 100 mg/kg and the placentas were sampled on GDs 14.5, 15, 17 and 21. The incidence of dams with complete fetal resorption was increased from GD 17 up to 20% at 50 mg/kg and 44.4% at 100 mg/kg. The embryo/fetal weights reduced on GDs 15 and 17 at 50 mg/kg and during GDs 15-21 at 100 mg/kg. The placental weights reduced on GD 17 at 50 mg/kg and during GDs 14.5-21 at 100 mg/kg. Histopathologically, in the labyrinth zone, apoptotic cells were scattered in the trophoblastic septa without inhibition of cell proliferation on GDs 14.5 and 15 at 50 and 100 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. A decrease in trophoblasts led to labyrinth zone hypoplasia. In the basal zone, apoptotic cells were scattered on GDs 14.5 and 15 at 100 mg/kg, and most of them appeared to be glycogen cells. A decrease in glycogen cells induced the delayed development of glycogen cell islands and the subsequent remaining glycogen cell islands, and led to the cystic degeneration of glycogen cells. In addition, failure of development of the glycogen cell islands led to the impaired interstitial invasion of the glycogen cells, and then metrial gland hypoplasia occurred.

  7. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  8. [Location of the placenta in pregnancy with previous caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Ivanov, St; Masseva, A; Frandeva, B; Ibriam, I

    2014-01-01

    Previous Caesarean section (SC) is considered to be established predisposing factor for abnormal placentation. In this study we examined whether prior SC is a risk factor for low laying placenta. Retrospective documentation was studied of 171 pregnant women after a SC (test group) and of 150 pregnant women after a normal birth (control), and cases of hysterectomy after giving birth to five years. Pathological lying placenta have established at 1.34% in the test group versus 0.67% in controls (p - 0.058), i.e. no proven link between prior Cesarean section and location of the placenta in the lower uterine segment during the next pregnancy. The analysis of cases of postpartum hysterectomy is found that the combination of condition after Cesarean section, placenta praevia and placenta accreta is a risk factor for hysterectomy after childbirth.

  9. Vaginal delivery through annular placenta – case report

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Nikica; Krezo, Stipe; Matijević, Ratko; Živković, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Annular placenta is an extremely rare morphological type of human placenta. It is commonly related to placental vessel abnormalities frequently causing antenatal and postnatal hemorrhage and operative delivery. Gravida 4 para 1 had an uneventful course of pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery followed by moderate postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was found to be local in origin but the placenta was annular in shape and the newborn was delivered through one of the openings. Annular placenta was not recognized before delivery. Its implantation site was in the lower uterine segment but high enough to allow the passage of the fetus through its annular defect and vaginal birth. To our knowledge, this is a first report of annular placenta ending in normal vaginal delivery. PMID:23630149

  10. Quantitative morphology of the placenta. II. The growth of the placenta and the problem of postmaturity.

    PubMed

    Bouw, G M; Stolte, L A; Baak, J P; Oort, J

    1978-02-01

    The morphological changes in the placenta concomitant with the transition from maturity to postmaturity were investigated by stereology under early clamping of the umbilical cord. 37 placentas from nonpathological pregnancies delivered after a period of 224-303 days of amenorrhea were examined. It appeared that after 267-288 days of amenorrhea, 8 out of 9 placental components showed no further growth and even showed regression. Only the volume of the trophoblast continued to grow in postmaturity. It is suggested that during postmaturity the villous capacity to produce steroids is continuing at a normal rate (as judged by the increase of the volume of the trophoblast), whereas the capability to transfer is deteriorating (as testified by the decreasing surface of the trophoblast).

  11. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi . E-mail: tkhoda.epgn@tmd.ac.jp; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-10-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of invasive placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa G; Allen, Lisa; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John; Pollard, Lindsay; Pantazi, Sophia; Keating, Sarah; Carvalho, Jose C A; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l’efficacité d’une approche d’équipe multidisciplinaire visant l’atténuation de la morbidité maternelle grave chez les femmes qui présentent un placenta prævia invasif. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude prospective auprès de 33 femmes qui présentaient un placenta prævia et increta-percreta (diagnostiqué par échographie et/ou imagerie par résonance magnétique) et qui accouchaient au Mount Sinai Hospital de Toronto, à la suite du lancement (en janvier 2008) d’une approche d’équipe visant les femmes qui présentaient une telle placentation. Nous avons inclus les accouchements chez les femmes visées jusqu’en juin 2012. Nous avons analysé les dossiers prénataux (services externes et services hospitaliers) en vue d’y repérer l’utilisation par l’obstétricien titulaire de six composantes d’équipe prédéfinies : (1) consultation prénatale en médecine fœto-maternelle; (2) consultation en chirurgie gynécologique; (3) IRM prénatale; (4) consultation en radiologie interventionnelle et mise en place préopératoire de sondes à ballonnet dans les divisions antérieures des artères iliaques internes; (5) planification à l’avance de la date de chirurgie; et (6) chirurgie menée par des membres de l’équipe chirurgicale vouée aux cas de placenta invasif. Les détails de l’évolution prénatale, de l’accouchement et de la période postpartum ont été consignés afin d’établir un score composite de morbidité maternelle grave en cinq points fondé sur la présence ou l’absence de ce qui suit : (1) admission à l’USI à la suite de l’accouchement; (2) transfusion de plus de deux unités de sang; (3) anesthésie générale (administration ou conversion); (4) temps opératoire se situant dans le quartile le plus élevé (> 125 minutes); et (5) complications postopératoires significatives (réhospitalisation, hospitalisation postpartum prolongée et/ou embolie pulmonaire). R

  13. The dysfunctional placenta epigenome: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue-Ann; Ding, Chunming

    2012-10-01

    The placenta is a fetal-maternal endocrine organ responsible for ensuring proper fetal development throughout pregnancy. Adverse insults to the intrauterine environment often lead to expression level changes in placental genes, many of which are epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation, histone modifications and ncRNA interference. These epigenetic alterations may cause placental dysfunction, resulting in offspring of low birthweight owing to adverse pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between low birthweight and increased risk of developing metabolic diseases and neurological imbalances in adulthood, and in subsequent generations, indicating that epigenetic regulation of gene expression can be propagated stably with long-term effects on health. This article provides an overview of the various environmental factors capable of inducing detrimental changes to the placental epigenome, as well as the corresponding mechanisms that prime the offspring for onset of disease later in life.

  14. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Sun, J; Gu, Y; Zhao, S; Groome, L J; Alexander, J S

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placenta, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We examined D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin was determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n = 6) and preeclamptic (n = 5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder.

  15. Oxygen metabolism in human placenta mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Czerniczyniec, A; Cicerchia, D; Aguilar de Plata, A C; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2014-12-01

    Due to the high metabolic demands of the placental tissue during gestation, we decide to analyzed the mitochondrial bioenergetic functions in the human term placenta. Different mitochondrial morphological parameters, membrane potential and cardiolipin content were determined by flow cytometry. Oxygen uptake, hydrogen peroxide production and cytochrome P450 content, were also measured. Some apoptotic mitochondrial proteins were also analyzed by western blot. Two isolated mitochondrial fractions were observed: large/heavy and small/light with different functional characteristics. Oxygen uptake showed a respiratory control (RC) of 3.4 ± 0.3 for the heavy mitochondria, and 1.1 ± 0.4 for light mitochondria, indicating a respiratory dysfunction in the light fraction. Good levels of polarization were detected in the heavy fraction, meanwhile the light population showed a collapsed ΔΨm. Increased levels of cytochrome P450, higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and low cardiolipin content were described for the light fraction. Three pro-apoptotic proteins p53, Bax, and cytochrome c were found increased in the heavy mitochondrial fraction; and deficient in the light fraction. The heavy mitochondrial fraction showed an improved respiratory function. This mitochondrial fraction, being probably from cytotrophoblast cells showed higher content of proteins able to induce apoptosis, indicating that these cells can effectively execute an apoptotic program in the presence of a death stimulus. Meanwhile the light and small organelles probably from syncytiotrophoblast, with a low oxygen metabolism, low level of ΔΨm, and increased hydrogen peroxide production, may not actively perform an apoptotic process due to their deficient energetic level. This study contributes to the characterization of functional parameters of human placenta mitochondria in order to understand the oxygen metabolism during the physiological process of gestation.

  16. Protein Nitration in Placenta – Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, RP; Roberts, VHJ; Myatt, L

    2009-01-01

    Crucial roles of the placenta are disrupted in early and mid-trimester pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. The pathophysiology of these disorders includes a relative hypoxia of the placenta, ischemia/reperfusion injury, an inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species including nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide and superoxide have been shown to participate in trophoblast invasion, regulation of placental vascular reactivity and other events. Superoxide, which regulates expression of redox sensitive genes, has been implicated in up-regulation of transcription factors, antioxidant production, angiogenesis, proliferation and matrix remodeling. When superoxide and nitric oxide are present in abundance, their interaction yields peroxynitrite a potent pro-oxidant, but also alters levels of nitric oxide, which in turn affect physiological functions. The peroxynitrite anion is extremely unstable thus evidence of its formation in vivo has been indirect via the occurrence of nitrated moieties including nitrated lipids and nitrotyrosine residues in proteins. Formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (protein nitration) is a “molecular fingerprint” of peroxynitrite formation. Protein nitration has been widely reported in a number of pathological states associated with inflammation but is reported to occur in normal physiology and is thought of as a prevalent, functionally relevant post-translational modification of proteins. Nitration of proteins can give either no effect, a gain or a loss of function. Nitration of a range of placental proteins is found in normal pregnancy but increased in pathologic pregnancies. Evidence is presented for nitration of placental signal transduction enzymes and transporters. The targets and extent of nitration of enzymes, receptors, transporters and structural proteins may markedly influence placental cellular function in both physiologic and pathologic settings. PMID:18851882

  17. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  18. Conservative management of abnormally invasive placenta: four case reports.

    PubMed

    Ramoni, Angela; Strobl, Eva-Maria; Tiechl, Johanna; Ritter, Magdalena; Marth, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of placenta increta and percreta is essential to avoid potentially life-threatening hemorrhage by optimizing peripartal management. Invasive placentation presents significant challenges at cesarean section even for highly skilled surgeons. In the four cases of placenta increta/percreta presented here we tried to avoid hysterectomy by leaving the placenta behind and tried to accelerate regression of placental tissue by administering methotrexate. The outcome in each of the four women was different, but no major bleeding occurred in any of the cases. Close follow-up for many weeks is mandatory.

  19. Origin stories from a regional placenta tissue collection

    PubMed Central

    Fannin, Maria; Kent, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago when women and their children were recruited to a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study during pregnancy, placentas were collected at birth. This paper explores the history of a regional placenta biobank and contemporary understandings of its value for the constitution of a research population. We draw on interviews with some of the mothers and those responsible for the establishment and curation of the placenta collection in order to explore the significance and meaning of the collection for them. Given its capacity to stand in for the study cohort of mothers and children, we argue that the material significance of the placenta biobank as a research tool seems far less important than the work it does in constituting a population. The stories about this collection may be understood within the wider context of developments in biobanking and the bioeconomy. PMID:25745355

  20. Identification of ATP diphosphohydrolase activity in human term placenta using a novel assay for AMP.

    PubMed

    Papamarcaki, T; Tsolas, O

    1990-09-03

    Human term placenta contains an ATP diphosphohydrolase activity which hydrolyses ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate and ADP to AMP and a second mole of inorganic phosphate. The activity has a pH optimum between 8.0 and 8.5. Magnesium or calcium ions are required for maximum activity. Other nucleoside phosphates, p-nitrophenyl phosphate or sodium pyrophosphate, are not hydrolysed. The activity is not due to ATPases, or to myokinase, as determined by the use of inhibitors. NaF and NaN3 were found to inhibit strongly the activity thus identifying it as an ATP diphosphohydrolase. A sensitive enzymatic assay for measurement of AMP, one of the products of the reaction, was established, based on the strong inhibition of muscle fructose 1,6-biphosphatase by AMP. The range of the assay was 0.05-0.8 microM AMP. ATP diphosphohydrolase was found to have a rate of AMP production from ADP twice the rate from ATP. Under the same conditions, the assay for Pi release, on the other hand, gave velocities similar to each other for the two substrates. The activity appears to be identical to the ADP-hydrolysing activity in placenta reported by others.

  1. Effect of Placenta Previa on Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hao; Lu, Yi; Dong, Yi-Nuo; Wang, De-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between gestational hypertension-preeclampsia (GH-PE) and placenta previa (PP) is controversial. Specifically, it is unknown whether placenta previa has any effect on the various types of preeclampsia (PE), and the role PP with concurrent placenta accreta (PA) play in the occurrence of GH-PE are not well understood. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the effects of PP on GH, mild and severe preeclampsia (MPE and SPE), and early- and late-onset preeclampsia (EPE and LPE). Another aim of the study was to determine if concurrent PA impacts the relationship between PP and GH-PE. Methods A retrospective single-center study of 1,058 patients having singleton pregnancies with PP was performed, and 2,116 pregnant women were randomly included as controls. These cases were collected from a tertiary hospital and met the inclusion criteria for the study. Clinical information, including PP and the gestational age at the onset of GH-PE were collected. Binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted after the confounding variables were controlled to assess the effects of PP on different types of GH-PE. Results There were 155 patients with GH-PE in the two groups. The incidences of GH-PE in the PP group and the control group were 2.5% (26/1058) and 6.1% (129/2116), respectively (P = 0.000). Binary and multiple regression analyses were conducted after controlling for confounding variables. Compared to the control group, in the PP group, the risk of GH-PE was reduced significantly by 78% (AOR: 0.216; 95% CI: 0.135–0.345); the risks of GH and PE were reduced by 55% (AOR: 0.451; 95% CI: 0.233–0.873) and 86% (AOR: 0.141; 95% CI: 0.073–0.271), respectively; the risks of MPE and SPE were reduced by 73% (AOR: 0.269; 95% CI: 0.087–0828) and 88% (AOR: 0.123; 95% CI: 0.055–0.279), respectively; and the risks of EPE and LPE were reduced by 95% (AOR: 0.047; 95% CI: 0.012–0.190) and 67% (AOR: 0.330; 95% CI: 0.153–0

  2. Case with pyoderma gangrenosum abruptly emerging around the wound of cesarean section for placenta previa with placenta accrete.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Taro; Yoshida, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Aizawa, Atsuko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Takakuwa, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    A 39-year-old woman underwent emergency cesarean section (CS) due to placenta previa totalis with massive bleeding. Two major problems emerged in this patient after CS was carried out. One was partial retention of the placenta due to placenta accreta. Another major and more serious problem was pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) widely appearing at the skin of the abdomen around the CS wound. Conservative treatment was performed for the retained placenta, and it had completely disappeared by 76 days after the CS. The diagnosis of PG was promptly made in consultation with a plastic surgeon and a dermatologist when a wide ulcer emerged around the CS wound, and high-dose prednisolone was administered as treatment. At 90 days following the CS, near-complete epithelialization was achieved. This extremely rare case reflects the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of PG.

  3. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  4. Transplacental differences in Ca, Na, K, and electropotential in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Twardock, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The fetal side of hemochorial placentas from guinea pigs between 58 and 62 days gestation were perfused in situ. Concurrent measurements were made of the clearances of radiocalcium and tritiated water from maternal to fetal circulation of the placenta, transplacental potential difference (TPD), maternal plasma and perfusate Ca, Na, and K concentrations, maternal blood pressure, gross permeability of albumin in the placenta, and net water movements. Movement of Ca from dam to fetus appeared to occur against an electrochemical gradient and was not associated with the movements of Na and K across the placenta. A negative correlation between perfusate Na and K concentrations, not dependent on maternal plasma Na and K concentrations and abolished by high concentrations of Ca in the fetal circulation of the placenta, strongly supports the concept of a Na-K exchange mechanism in the placenta directed so that K is moved against a concentration gradient towards the dam. There was no evidence that the TPD existed at the site of maternal-fetal exchange for Ca, Na, or K.

  5. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  6. Drug transfer and metabolism by the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Syme, Michael R; Paxton, James W; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    The major function of the placenta is to transfer nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the foetus and to assist in the removal of waste products from the foetus to the mother. In addition, it plays an important role in the synthesis of hormones, peptides and steroids that are vital for a successful pregnancy. The placenta provides a link between the circulations of two distinct individuals but also acts as a barrier to protect the foetus from xenobiotics in the maternal blood. However, the impression that the placenta forms an impenetrable obstacle against most drugs is now widely regarded as false. It has been shown that that nearly all drugs that are administered during pregnancy will enter, to some degree, the circulation of the foetus via passive diffusion. In addition, some drugs are pumped across the placenta by various active transporters located on both the fetal and maternal side of the trophoblast layer. It is only in recent years that the impact of active transporters such as P-glycoprotein on the disposition of drugs has been demonstrated. Facilitated diffusion appears to be a minor transfer mechanism for some drugs, and pinocytosis and phagocytosis are considered too slow to have any significant effect on fetal drug concentrations. The extent to which drugs cross the placenta is also modulated by the actions of placental phase I and II drug-metabolising enzymes, which are present at levels that fluctuate throughout gestation. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in particular have been well characterised in the placenta at the level of mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. CYP1A1, 2E1, 3A4, 3A5, 3A7 and 4B1 have been detected in the term placenta. While much less is known about phase II enzymes in the placenta, some enzymes, in particular uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases, have been detected and shown to have specific activity towards marker substrates, suggesting a significant role of this enzyme in placental drug detoxification. The increasing

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Tanaka, H; Noguchi, J; Hata, K

    2011-02-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of the placenta during pregnancy. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes the morphology, anatomy, location, implantation, anomaly, size, and color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment of the placenta. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of the placenta, such as surface-rendered imaging and volume measurement. With the recent advances in 3D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound as well as quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis, quantitative and qualitative assessments of the vascularization and blood flow of the placenta have become feasible. These novel techniques may assist in the evaluation of the feto-placental function, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional 2D sonographic assessments. 3D ultrasound may be an important modality in future placental research, in the evaluation of feto-placental insufficiency in clinical practice, and in the prediction of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, although some limitations regarding the assessment of the placenta employing 3D ultrasound still remain unresolved.

  8. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Saben, J; Zhong, Y; McKelvey, S; Dajani, N K; Andres, A; Badger, T M; Gomez-Acevedo, H; Shankar, K

    2014-02-01

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies using RNA-seq. To identify genes that were highly expressed and unique to the placenta we compared placental RNA-seq data to data from 7 other tissues (adipose, breast, hear, kidney, liver, lung, and smooth muscle) and identified several genes novel to placental biology (QSOX1, DLG5, and SEMA7A). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the RNA-seq results and immunohistochemistry indicated these proteins were highly expressed in the placental syncytium. Additionally, we mined our RNA-seq data to map the relative expression of key developmental gene families (Fox, Sox, Gata, Tead, and Wnt) within the placenta. We identified FOXO4, GATA3, and WNT7A to be amongst the highest expressed members of these families. Overall, these findings provide a new reference for understanding of placental transcriptome and can aid in the identification of novel pathways regulating placenta physiology that may be dysregulated in placental disease.

  9. LMWH to prevent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: an update.

    PubMed

    Duffett, Lisa; Rodger, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, placental abruption, intrauterine growth restriction/small for gestational age and recurrent or late pregnancy loss, affect over 5% of pregnancies and can result in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications have been suggested to at least partly arise from placental insufficiency, possibly as a result of inappropriate coagulation activation. This association has led to the hypothesis that anticoagulant therapy, such as low molecular weight heparin, might reduce their occurrence. The following review will attempt to summarize the extensive research that has been performed to date exploring this hypothesis and provide guidance on the current and future role of low molecular weight heparin in women at risk for placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. A case will be made to question the widely adopted practice of prescribing low molecular weight heparin to women with prior placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and suggest possible areas for future research.

  10. [Anaesthesia and recovery in a case of placenta percreta].

    PubMed

    Bermejo Álvarez, M A; Soto Mesa, D; González Castaño, R; Blanco Rodríguez, I; del Valle Ruiz, V

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is a sub-type of placenta accreta in which this organ invades the whole uterine wall and affects the adjacent organs. It is a condition with a high surgical risk which generally requires an obstetric hysterectomy. We present the case of a 36 year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with placenta percreta with bladder and intestinal invasion. She suffered a hypovolaemic shock during surgery which required a massive transfusion of blood products and inotropic support. Three further successive surgeries were required due to the bleeding, with selective embolisation of the hypogastric arteries being performed in one of them. She required 13 days in intensive care. The total volume of blood products transfused was, 43 units of red cells, 28 units of plasma, and 8 platelet pools. The importance of early prenatal diagnosis is emphasised in order to adequately plan the operation, and should include a multidisciplinary team (general surgeons, urologists, vascular surgeons), as well as experienced anaesthesiologists and obstetricians.

  11. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Past Issues / Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding ... again as if it were yesterday.” Drawn to Placenta Research This experience helped lay the foundation for ...

  12. Pregnancy hemoperitoneum and placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Rich, N.E.; Montag, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation has never been described. Reported is a case of placenta percreta with hemoperitoneum associated with a second-trimester incomplete abortion in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure.

  13. Combined Spinal Epidural Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section and Hysterectomy in a Parturient with Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Seyhan, Tülay Özkan; Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Edipoğlu, İpek; Baştu, Ercan

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta complicates the anaesthetic and surgical approach in caesarean section. In this report, a parturient with placenta accreta and multiple drug allergies who was managed using combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for caesarean hysterectomy is discussed. PMID:27366410

  14. Isolation and analysis of hematopoietic stem cells from the placenta.

    PubMed

    Gekas, Christos; E Rhodes, Katrin; K A Mikkola, Hanna

    2008-06-24

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to self-renew and generate all cell types of the blood lineages throughout the lifetime of an individual. All HSCs emerge during embryonic development, after which their pool size is maintained by self-renewing cell divisions. Identifying the anatomical origin of HSCs and the critical developmental events regulating the process of HSC development has been complicated as many anatomical sites participate during fetal hematopoiesis. Recently, we identified the placenta as a major hematopoietic organ where HSCs are generated and expanded in unique microenvironmental niches (Gekas, et al 2005, Rhodes, et al 2008). Consequently, the placenta is an important source of HSCs during their emergence and initial expansion. In this article, we show dissection techniques for the isolation of murine placenta from E10.5 and E12.5 embryos, corresponding to the developmental stages of initiation of HSCs and the peak in the size of the HSC pool in the placenta, respectively. In addition, we present an optimized protocol for enzymatic and mechanical dissociation of placental tissue into single-cell suspension for use in flow cytometry or functional assays. We have found that use of collagenase for single-cell suspension of placenta gives sufficient yields of HSCs. An important factor affecting HSC yield from the placenta is the degree of mechanical dissociation prior to, and duration of, enzymatic treatment. We also provide a protocol for the preparation of fixed-frozen placental tissue sections for the visualization of developing HSCs by immunohistochemistry in their precise cellular niches. As hematopoietic specific antigens are not preserved during preparation of paraffin embedded sections, we routinely use fixed frozen sections for localizing placental HSCs and progenitors.

  15. Colonization of mouse placentas by Brucella abortus inoculated during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Bosseray, N.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant mice were challenged at Day 3, 7, 11 or 15 of pregnancy with Brucella abortus Strain 544 and killed at Day 18 of pregnancy for the enumeration of brucella in the spleens and individual placentas. Whatever the route of challenge--i.p., i.v. or s.c. into the foot-pad (F-s.c.) no abortions or foetal deaths were observed. Placental colonization involved either all, none or only some of the placentas in the same uterus (partial placental colonization: 25% of the mice). In the latter case, the probability of colonization was the same for all sites of implantation. Placentas were independent units as regards colonization and bacterial proliferation. Placental colonization was expressed either by (1) the class of placental infection within the uterus, which might be total, partial or nil; (2) the ratio of infected to total placentas analysed per group; or (3) the mean degree of infection per group. Whatever means of expression was chosen, placental colonization increased with the dose of challenge in parallel with splenic infection in the mouse. The challenge doses required at Day 7 to infect 50% of the placentas differed according to the route (i.p. = 54; i.v. = 5.6 x 10(2) and F-s.c. = 3.6 x 10(4) brucella). Placentas were more frequently and more intensively colonized when the challenge was performed at Days 7 and 11 than at Days 3 and 15 at pregnancy. Mice immunized with H.38 B. melitensis killed vaccine 36 days before pregnancy were found to be protected against an i.p. challenge with 2 x 10(5) brucella at Day 7 of pregnancy. PMID:6775668

  16. Implantation and the placenta: Key pieces of the development puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.C.; Werb, Z.; Fisher, S.J.

    1994-12-02

    The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic functions to the embryo`s advantage. These complex activities are sensitive to disruption, as shown by the high incidence of early embryonic mortality and pregnancy diseases in humans, as well as the numerous peri-implantation lethal mutations in mice. Integration of molecular and developmental approaches has recently produced insights into the molecules that control these processes.

  17. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  18. An update on thrombophilia and placenta mediated pregnancy complications: what should we tell our patients?

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    The placenta mediated pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, birth of a small for gestational age child, placental abruption or late pregnancy loss, are common and often devastating pregnancy complications leading to important maternal/fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. In this narrative review I examine two common questions related to women with prior placenta mediated pregnancy complications. Do thrombophilias cause placenta mediated pregnancy complications? Does low molecular weight heparin prevent recurrent placenta mediated pregnancy complications?

  19. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M S; Aleksunes, L M; Boeuf, P; Chung, M K; Daoud, G; Desoye, G; Díaz, P; Golos, T G; Illsley, N P; Kikuchi, K; Komatsu, R; Lao, T; Morales-Prieto, D M; Nanovskaya, T; Nobuzane, T; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R; Tamura, I; Tamura, K; Than, N G; Tomi, M; Umbers, A; Wang, B; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, K; Yoshie, M; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta.

  20. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: Epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, M.S.; Aleksunes, L.M.; Boeuf, P.; Chung, M.K.; Daoud, G.; Desoye, G.; Díaz, P.; Golos, T.G.; Illsley, N.P.; Kikuchi, K.; Komatsu, R.; Lao, T.; Morales-Prieto, D.M.; Nanovskaya, T.; Nobuzane, T.; Roberts, C.T.; Saffery, R.; Tamura, I.; Tamura, K.; Than, N.G.; Tomi, M.; Umbers, A.; Wang, B.; Weedon-Fekjaer, M.S.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Yoshie, M.; Lash, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta. PMID:23253784

  1. [Application of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Cui, S H; Zhi, Y X; Zhang, K; Zhang, L D; Shen, L N; Gao, Y N

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the value of temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta in the treatment of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2016, 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta were treated with temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta(the study group)before cesarean, and 24 cases of complete placenta previa with placenta accreta did not receive balloon occlusion(the control group). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion volume, the perioperative hemoglobin level, the hysterectomy rate and the related complications were compared retrospectively.Also, the hospitalization time, the blood coagulation parameters after operation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer and reperfusion injury parameters including creatine phosphokinase(CK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)and serum creatinine were compared between the 2 groups. Results: The blood loss[750 ml(400- 2 000 ml)vs 2 000 ml(1 500- 2 375 ml); Z=-3.214, P=0.001]and blood transfusion volume[200 ml(0-800 ml)vs 800 ml(0-1 200 ml); Z=- 2.173, P=0.030]in the study group were lower than in the control group. The hemoglobin difference between before and after operation in the study group was lower than the control group[(12.8±13.4)g/L vs(22.9±20.1)g/L; t=-2.041, P=0.047]. In the study group, there were still bleeding in 13 cases after releasing the balloon, 5 of them received uterine artery embolization, 5 cases received uterine artery ligation, and 3 cases received uterine packing. One case had venous thrombosis in the right lower limb. Two cases(8%,2/24)in the control group had hysterectomy, while none in the study group, there was no statistical significance(P= 0.489). Conclusions: Temporary balloon occlusion of the abdominal aorta can effectively reduce blood loss and blood transfusion in the treatment of

  2. Active and passive transport of drugs in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Stanisław; Pałasz, Artur; Kamiński, Marcin

    2009-10-01

    The human placenta, characterized by the processes of passive transport and facilitated diffusion, contains numerous active transport proteins, usually located in the microvilli of the syncytiotrophoblast or in the endothelium of the capillaries of the villi. These proteins use either the energy from ATP hydrolysis or other mechanisms resulting, among others, from the formation of the maternofetal ion gradient, which facilitates the transfer of various endogenous substances or xenobiotics across the body membranes. The proteins either trigger the efflux of these substances from the fetal tissues via the placenta into the maternal bloodstream, or conversely they accumulate them in the fetal tissues. Both the placenta and the fetus are equipped with independent systems of enzymes of 1st and 2nd phase of substrate metabolism, such as CYP450, glucuronyltransferase or sulphatase. An active therapy with a wide range of drugs, often at high toxicity levels, either shortly before or during pregnancy, has naturally posed a question concerning the degree of impermeability of the placental barrier and how effectively it can be crossed, including any possible negative embryotoxic or teratogenic consequences. Such hazards seem to be quite real, as many drugs are substrates for ABC transporters. Also the placenta itself, including its structure, is subject to vast transformations during pregnancy which may be observed as the thinning of the barrier separating the maternal blood from the fetal one, from 20-30 microm in the first trimester of gestation down to 2-4 microm in the third trimester of gestation.

  3. [Placenta chorioangioma. Case report at Hospital Español].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Camacho, Eric Emilio; Sánchez Herrera, Rafael; García García, Gerardo; Estrada Natoli, Laura; Sánchez Lazcano, Javier; Saules Bezanilla, Cynthia

    2007-07-01

    Placenta chorioangioma is the most frequent non-trophoblastic tumor of the placenta. Its real incidence is unknown. This incidence is reported as 1% in microscopically examined placentas and counts with clinical evidence in approximately 1: 3,500 to 9,000 births. This tumor is not generally associated to maternal fetal complications, unless the tumor size surpasses a diameter of 5 cm or is near the place of umbilical cord insertion. When the tumor is big, it can complicate the pregnancy with hydramnios, postpartum bleeding, delay in the intrauterine growth, or congestive heart failure in the newborn. The clinic case belongs to a Korean female patient, aged 32, without important antecedents. A placental tumouration, 50.2 x 44.1 mm, was detected by ultrasound to this patient in her 37 1/7 week of pregnancy. She has a normoevolutive pregnancy whose was a term, she had an a eutocic delivery, getting a male whose weight was 2,850 g. The baby is still alive. The placenta histopathological study reported placental chorioangioma, which infracted partially, with multifocal calcification areas.

  4. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we f...

  5. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Robert; Gläser, Marcus; Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  6. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  7. Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Gregory, K E

    1999-01-01

    Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P<.01) and likely contributed to the higher incidence of retained placenta associated with twin births (27.9 vs. 1.9%; P<.01). Incidence of retained placenta was also higher in the spring (March-April) than in the fall (August-September) calving season (18.3 vs. 11.4%; P<.01). The higher incidence of dystocia with twins than with singles (46.9 vs. 20.6%, P<.01) was primarily due to abnormal presentation (37.0 vs. 4.5%, respectively) of one or both twin calves at parturition. First- (40.5%) and second- (22.7%) parity dams with a single birth had more (P<.01) dystocia than older dams (13.4%), whereas dystocia was not affected (P>.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.

  8. Placenta Maps: In Utero Placental Health Assessment of the Human Fetus.

    PubMed

    Miao, Haichao; Mistelbauer, Gabriel; Karimov, Alexey; Alansary, Amir; Davidson, Alice; Lloyd, David; Damodaram, Mellisa; Story, Lisa; Hutter, Jana; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary; Preim, Bernhard; Kainz, Bernhard; Groller, M Eduard

    2017-02-24

    The human placenta is essential for the supply of the fetus. To monitor the fetal development, imaging data is acquired using ultrasound (US). Although it is currently the gold-standard in fetal imaging, it might not capture certain abnormalities of the placenta. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe alternative for the in utero examination while acquiring the fetus data in higher detail. Nevertheless, there is currently no established procedure for assessing the condition of the placenta and consequently the fetal health. Due to maternal respiration and inherent movements of the fetus during examination, a quantitative assessment of the placenta requires fetal motion compensation, precise placenta segmentation and a standardized visualization, which are challenging tasks. Utilizing advanced motion compensation and automatic segmentation methods to extract the highly versatile shape of the placenta, we introduce a novel visualization technique that presents the fetal and maternal side of the placenta in a standardized way. Our approach enables physicians to explore the placenta even in utero. This establishes the basis for a comparative assessment of multiple placentas to analyze possible pathologic arrangements and to support the research and understanding of this vital organ. Additionally, we propose a three-dimensional structure-aware surface slicing technique in order to explore relevant regions inside the placenta. Finally, to survey the applicability of our approach, we consulted clinical experts in prenatal diagnostics and imaging. We received mainly positive feedback, especially the applicability of our technique for research purposes was appreciated.

  9. The evolving placenta: convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-05-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting of maternal endothelium, interstitial lamina, trophoblast, individual or conjoint basal laminas, and fetal endothelium. We commonly think of such placentas as having hypertrophied maternal endothelium with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and as having hemophagous regions. Considering them as a whole, the trophoblast may be syncytial or cellular, fenestrated or nonfenestrated, and there may or may not be hemophagous regions. Variations also appear in the extent of hypertrophy of the maternal endothelium and in the abundance of rER in these cells. This combination of traits and a few other features produces many morphological variants. In addition to endotheliochorial as a definitive condition, a transitory endotheliochorial condition may appear in the course of forming a hemochorial placenta. In some emballonurid bats the early endotheliochorial placenta has two layers of trophoblast, but the definitive placenta lacks an outer syncytial trophoblast layer. In mollosid bats a well developed endotheliochorial placenta is present for a short time even after a definitive hemochorial placenta has developed in a different region. It is concluded that the endotheliochorial placenta is more widespread and diversified than originally thought, with the variant with cellular trophoblast in particular appearing in several species studied recently.

  10. Extensive load of somatic CNVs in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a temporary, but indispensable organ in mammalian pregnancy. From its basic nature, it exhibits highly invasive tumour-like properties facilitating effective implantation through trophoblast cell proliferation and migration, and a critical role in pregnancy success. We hypothesized that similarly to cancer, somatic genomic rearrangements are promoted in the support of placental function. Here we present the first profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) in human placental genomes, showing an extensive load of somatic CNVs, especially duplications and suggesting that this phenomenon may be critical for normal gestation. Placental somatic CNVs were significantly enriched in genes involved in cell adhesion, immunity, embryonic development and cell cycle. Overrepresentation of imprinted genes in somatic duplications suggests that amplified gene copies may represent an alternative mechanism to support parent-of-origin specific gene expression. Placentas from pregnancy complications exhibited significantly altered CNV profile compared to normal gestations, indicative to the clinical implications of the study. PMID:25666259

  11. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio; Street, Maria Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  12. Placenta previa percreta with urinary bladder and ureter invasion.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, E; Tan, O; Kurtaran, V; Dilbaz, B; Haberal, A

    2003-10-01

    A 26-year-old woman, with one previous cesarean delivery and two uterine curettage due to incomplete abortion, was admitted to the labor ward with the diagnosis of partial placenta previa at 35 weeks of gestation. Repeat cesarean section was performed due to profuse vaginal bleeding. Placenta previa percreta invading the bladder trigone was confirmed with cystotomy. As bilateral hypogastric artery ligation and supracervical hysterectomy performed were not successful in stopping the profuse bleeding, the abdomen was packed with laparotomy pads. Dilatation of the left ureter was noticed on the second postoperative day. Relaparotomy was performed to remove the pads, and placental invasion of the distal left ureter was noticed. Ureteroneocystostomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the double-J-catheter was removed two months later.

  13. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Bridget M; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-10-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment.

  14. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. PMID:26368654

  15. The placenta and neurodevelopment: sex differences in prenatal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Bale, Tracy L

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta. Through a genome-wide screen after maternal stress in mice, we identified the X-linked gene O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and demonstrated its causality in neurodevelopmental programming producing a male-specific stress phenotype. Elucidating the sex-specific molecular mechanisms involved in transplacental signals that impact brain development is key to understanding the sex bias in neurodevelopmental disorders and is expected to yield novel insight into disease risk and resilience.

  16. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy. PMID:27746590

  17. The placenta and neurodevelopment: sex differences in prenatal vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal stress, are associated with an increased neurodevelopmental disease risk and impact males significantly more than females, including increased rates of autism, mental retardation, stuttering, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the placenta, which begin with sex chromosomes, are likely to produce sex-specific transplacental signals to the developing brain. Our studies and others have identified X-linked genes that are expressed at higher levels in the female placenta. Through a genome-wide screen after maternal stress in mice, we identified the X-linked gene O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and demonstrated its causality in neurodevelopmental programming producing a male-specific stress phenotype. Elucidating the sex-specific molecular mechanisms involved in transplacental signals that impact brain development is key to understanding the sex bias in neurodevelopmental disorders and is expected to yield novel insight into disease risk and resilience. PMID:28179817

  18. Structure of the definitive placenta of the tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Blankenship, T N; Künzle, H; Enders, A C

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, tenrecs were classified with insectivores in the order Lipotyphla, but nucleotide sequence data suggest they have closer affinities with a group of African mammals called Afrotheria. The placenta of Echinops has not been described and no studies involving electron microscopy of the placenta of any species of tenrec have been published. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine fixed placentae of embryos ranging from 25-66 mm in length. The placental disk is situated in the antimesometrial portion of the bicornuate uterus. The greater part of the disk consists of a labyrinth underlain by a spongy zone. The interhaemal barrier is unusual in that the trophoblastic component is a single layer of cytotrophoblast. These trophoblast cells have thick areas especially near the nuclei and extensive thin flanges but only occasionally have membrane-closed pore regions. The luminal surface has isolated patches of microvilli, and pinocytotic vesicles are numerous both apically and basally. In the centre of the placental disk is an elaborately folded haemophagous region. The primary folds have allantoic endoderm at one surface and columnar cytotrophoblast at the other. These trophoblast cells have numerous lipid droplets and vesicles, and often contain large yellow pigment crystalloids. The labyrinthine zone ends abruptly at the margins of the placental disk. However, the endoderm and connective tissue of the allantois and a layer of cytotrophoblast extend beyond the placental disk as a paraplacental region. Some of these distinctive features of Echinops placenta are shared with individual afrotherians, but no significant characteristic of definitive placentation is shared by all the Afrotheria.

  19. Transplacental transfer of nitrosodimethylamine in perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Annola, K; Heikkinen, A T; Partanen, H; Woodhouse, H; Segerbäck, D; Vähäkangas, K

    2009-03-01

    Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a carcinogenic compound present in tobacco smoke and food such as cured meat, smoked fish and beer. The O(6)-methylguanine formed in human cord blood in mothers highly exposed to such products implicates NDMA exposure of the fetus. Dual recirculating human placental perfusion was used to get direct evidence of the transplacental transfer of NDMA and DNA adduct formation in perfused human placenta. Eleven placentas from normal full-term pregnancies were collected immediately after delivery and an isolated lobule was perfused with 1 or 5 microM of (14)C-NDMA with a reference substance, antipyrine (0.1mg/ml) added to the maternal circulation. Perfusate samples were collected from both maternal and fetal circulations every half an hour for the first two hours and once per hour from thereon. NDMA was analyzed by scintillation counting and antipyrine by high performance liquid chromatography. The transfer of NDMA was comparable to that of antipyrine and probably occurred through passive diffusion, with the concentrations in maternal and fetal sides equilibrating in 2-3h. No indication of any effect by efflux transporters on NDMA kinetics was noticed in the experiments utilizing Caco-2 or MDCK- MDCKII-MDR1 cell culture monolayer in a transwell system, either. Furthermore, no NDMA-DNA-adducts were found after the perfusions and no DNA-binding of NDMA was seen in in vitro incubations with human placental microsomes from 8 additional placentas. Thus, our study demonstrates that the human fetus can be exposed to NDMA from the maternal circulation. According to this study and the literature, NDMA is not metabolized in full-term human placenta from healthy non-smoking, non-drinking mothers. It remains to be studied whether NDMA concentrations high enough to evoke fetal toxicity can be obtained from dietary sources.

  20. [Ultrastructural study of placentas from HIV seropositive women].

    PubMed

    Villegas Castrejon, H; Carrillo Farga, J; Paredes, Y; Barrón, A; Karchmer, S

    1994-05-01

    Eleven placentas from seropositive women for HIV, were analyzed. In three cases the material came from first trimester abortions and the other eight from term pregnancies. In five cases retroviruses were identified, similar to HIV in the placental tissue. It was demonstrated for the first time the internalization of a retrovirus and its presence in the syncytiotrophoblast. It is communicated for the first time the presence of one cell in the placental stroma different to Hofbauer's by its granules type.

  1. Examination of the placenta: medico-legal implications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kenneth Tou-En

    2014-10-01

    Formal examination of the placenta may provide valuable information to the clinicians, family, and court of law in cases of adverse pregnancy outcome when litigation is initiated. Placental examination contributes towards the identification of specific intrinsic or secondary placental lesions, and understanding the nature of the intrauterine environment. This article provides an update of important placental pathologies that may contribute towards neurologic injury of the newborn child, and describes the role of placental findings in the adjudication of cases of adverse neonatal outcome.

  2. Functional MRI of the placenta--From rodents to humans.

    PubMed

    Avni, R; Neeman, M; Garbow, J R

    2015-06-01

    The placenta performs a wide range of physiological functions; insufficiencies in these functions may result in a variety of severe prenatal and postnatal syndromes with long-term negative impacts on human adult health. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of placental function, in both animal models and humans, have contributed significantly to our understanding of placental structure, blood flow, oxygenation status, and metabolic profile, and have provided important insights into pregnancy complications.

  3. Consumption of the Placenta in the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Emily Hart

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum women are consuming their placentas to achieve claimed health benefits, including improved mood, energy, and lactation. Strong scientific evidence to substantiate these claims is lacking. Self-reported benefits from some women include improved mood and lactation; animal models suggest there may be an analgesic effect. Possible risks include infection, thromboembolism from estrogens in placental tissue, and accumulation of environmental toxins. Women's health care providers should be aware of this practice to help women make informed decisions.

  4. [Modification of placenta blood serum proteins under low temperature effect].

    PubMed

    Fal'ko, O V; Zemlianskikh, N G; Lipina, O V; Prokopiuk, O S

    2013-01-01

    Changes in environmental physical and chemical factors upon freeze-thawing and low temperature storage of biological samples can result in impairments of protein structures. This work specifies spontaneous and diamide-induced protein aggregations of placenta blood serum stored at -20 degrees and -196 degrees C during 2 years with SDS-PAGE. It was shown that storage of placenta blood serum at low temperatures did not cause any quantitative and qualitative changes in fraction distribution of proteins denatured with SDS in comparison to the native samples which were not frozen. Application of beta-mercaptoethanol revealed that placenta blood serum proteins upon freeze-thawing did not form spontaneous aggregates linked by disulphide bridges. Oxidation of amino acid sulfhydryl groups induced by diamide and accompanied by high molecular aggregate formation proved to be a quite effective way for indirect estimation of structural changes in protein upon low temperature effects. In samples thawed after low temperature storage the protein aggregation with 4 microM diamide was significantly higher than in native serum. These discrepancies between native and frozen-thawed samples are stipulated by impairments of protein structure under low temperature and increased in accessibility of reactive SH-groups of proteins for oxidation with diamide. Structural changes in placenta blood serum proteins, which caused by low temperatures and revealed by elevated sensibility to diamide-induced aggregate formation, did not depend on temperature (-20 degrees and -196 degrees C) and storage terms (2 years and 3 weeks). They reflect protein reaction to freeze-thawing processes and could be sequence of ice crystal formation which takes place in unprotected media.

  5. Kisspeptins and the placenta: regulation of trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Hiden, Ursula; Bilban, Martin; Knöfler, Martin; Desoye, Gernot

    2007-03-01

    The invasion of extravillous trophoblasts into the uterine wall is of crucial importance for placental and fetal development, and its dysregulation has been implicated in a wide spectrum of abnormal pregnancies. Mechanistically, trophoblast invasion strongly resembles the invasion of tumour cells, but differs from it by tight regulation in time and space. This regulation is accomplished by different factors including cytokines and hormones, which are produced by both fetal as well as maternal tissues i.e., placenta and uterus, respectively. Recently, products of the KiSS-1 gene (kisspeptins) have been identified to not only inhibit metastasis in various tumours, but also to repress trophoblast invasion via binding to the G protein-coupled receptor KiSS-1R. In the placenta, expression levels of kisspeptins and their receptor are highest in the first trimester in humans and at day 12.5 in rats, respectively. This coincides with the time when invasiveness peaks and invasion regulation is of central importance. Human kisspeptins are predominantly produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas KiSS-1R is additionally expressed on the invading extravillous trophoblasts indicating a paracrine regulation of extravillous trophoblast invasion by the syncytiotrophoblast. In the structurally different rat placenta both KiSS-1 and its receptor are predominantly expressed by the invasive trophoblast giant cells, thus establishing an autocrine system in the invasion regulation of this trophoblast subpopulation. Amongst all kisspeptins the highly conserved kisspeptin Kp-10 has strongest invasion inhibiting effects suggesting its major role in regulation of trophoblast invasion.

  6. Quantitative morphology of the placenta. III. The growth of the placenta and its relationship to birth weight.

    PubMed

    Bouw, G M; Stolte, L A; Baak, J P; Oort, J

    1978-04-01

    The relationship of placental components to birth weight was investigated by stereology. 37 placentas from nonpathological pregnancies delivered after a period of 224-303 days of amenorrhea were examined. The umbilical cord was clamped immediately after birth. The ratios of the volume, the surface, the length of the villous vessels and the surface of the villi with birth weight showed a decrease after 277 days of amenorrhea. In contrast to this decrease, the ratio of the volume of the trophoblast with birth weight seems to increase. No difference could be found for the ratios of the placental volume (placental index), the volume of the villous tissue, the volume of the intervillous space and the volume of the nonfunctional tissue with birth weight. These ratios reveal a quantitative morphological base for the clinical experience that postmature fetuses are at a higher risk through deterioration of the placenta.

  7. Equine retained placenta: technique for and tolerance to umbilical artery injections of collagenase.

    PubMed

    Haffner, J C; Fecteau, K A; Held, J P; Eiler, H

    1998-03-01

    Under laboratory conditions and in clinical experiments, bacterial collagenase has proven to be effective in hydrolyzing placenta and detaching cotyledon from caruncle in the bovine species. Laboratory studies in which placental samples were incubated with collagenase have also demonstrated that collagenase is 3.7 times more effective in hydrolyzing equine placenta than bovine placenta. This led to the hypothesis that collagenase may be a potential treatment for mares with retained placenta. However, that collagenase may hydrolyze the uterine wall and perforate the uterus was a concern. It was the purpose of this study thus to determine any adverse effects of collagenase on the equine uterus and to develop a method for intraplacental injection of collagenase. Three normally expelled intact placentas from Arabian mares, 10 cyclic mixed-breed mares, and 4 mares of various breeds with retained placenta were used. Fluoroscein dye and latex were used to study the placental vasculature and to determine a suitable dose of collagenase; placentas were hydrolyzed by collagenase solution in vitro. Bacterial collagenase solution (40,000 units, 200 ml) was infused into the uterine lumen of each cyclic mare. Uterine biopsies were obtained from the mares before collagenase infusion and again at 16 h and 26 d after infusion. In the mares with retained placenta, each placenta was infused via its umbilical cord vessels with 200,000 units of bacterial collagenase in 1 L of saline. Results showed that none of the uteri from cyclic mares were damaged by collagenase treatment. During a 4-wk period of monitoring (including endoscopy) mares with retained placenta did not show any abnormalities. Retained placentas were expelled in less than 6 h after collagenase treatment. It was concluded that intraplacental injections of collagenase are a safe and potentially effective treatment for retained placenta in mares.

  8. Purification and characterization of the human interferon-. gamma. receptor from placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, J.; Sheehan, K.C.F.; Chance, C.; Thomas, M.L.; Schreiber, R.D. )

    1988-07-01

    Purification of the human interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) receptor was facilitated by identification of human placenta as a large-scale receptor source. When analyzed in radioligand binding experiments, intact placental membranes and detergent-solubilized membrane proteins expressed 1.3 and 5.9 {times} 10{sup 12} receptors per mg of protein, respectively, values that were 13-163 times greater than that observed for U937 membranes. Two protocols were followed to purify the IFN-{gamma} receptor from octyl glucoside-solubilized membranes: (i) sequential affinity chromatography over wheat germ agglutinin- and INF-{gamma}-Sepharose and (ii) affinity chromatography over columns containing receptor-specific monoclonal antibody and wheat germ agglutinin. Both procedures resulted in fully active preparations that were 70-90% pure. Purified receptor migrated as a single molecular species of 90 kDa either when analyzed on silver-stained NaDodSO{sub 4}/polyacrylamide gels or when subjected to electrophoretic transfer blot analysis using a labeled IFN-{gamma} receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. The identity of the 90-kDa component as the receptor was confirmed by demonstrating its ability to specifically bind {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-{gamma} following NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. The ligand binding site, the epitope for the receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, and all of the N-linked carbohydrate could be localized to the 55-kDa domain of the molecule.

  9. Prophylactic hypogastric artery ballooning in a patient with complete placenta previa and increta.

    PubMed

    Yi, Kyong Wook; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Tae-Seok; So, Kyeong A; Paek, Yu Chin; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2010-04-01

    Abnormal attachment of the placenta (Placenta accreta, increta, and percreta) is an uncommon but potentially lethal cause of maternal mortality from massive postpartum hemorrhage. A 33-yr-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a placenta previa, was referred at 30 weeks gestation. On ultrasound, a complete type of placenta previa and multiple intraplacental lacunae, suggestive of placenta accreta, were noted. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis MRI was performed and revealed findings suspicious of a placenta increta. An elective cesarean delivery and subsequent hysterectomy were planned for the patient at 38 weeks gestation. On the day of delivery, endovascular catheters for balloon occlusion were placed within the hypogastric arteries, prior to the cesarean section. In the operating room, immediately after the delivery of the baby, bilateral hypogastric arteries were occluded by inflation of the balloons in the catheters previously placed within. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed in the usual fashion. The occluding balloons were deflated after closure of the vaginal cuff with hemostasis. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period; she was discharged six days after delivery without complications. The final pathology confirmed a placenta increta.

  10. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  11. Influence of Tropolone on Poria placenta Wood Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, P. N.; Delbarre, N.; Perrin, D.; Gérardin, P.; Rapin, C.; Jacquot, J. P.; Gelhaye, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fenton reactions are believed to play important roles in wood degradation by brown rot fungi. In this context, the effect of tropolone (2-hydroxycyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone), a metal chelator, on wood degradation by Poria placenta was investigated. Tropolone (50 μM) strongly inhibits fungal growth on malt agar, but this inhibition could be relieved by adding iron salts. With an experimental system containing two separate parts, one supplemented with tropolone (100 μM) and the other not, it was shown that the fungus is able to reallocate essential minerals from the area where they are available and also to grow in these conditions on malt-agar in the presence of tropolone. Nevertheless, even in the presence of an external source of metals, P. placenta is not able to attack pine blocks impregnated with tropolone (5 mM). This wood degradation inhibition is related to the presence of the tropolone hydroxyl group, as shown by the use of analogs (cyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone and 2-methoxycyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone). Furthermore, tropolone possesses both weak antioxidative and weak radical-scavenging properties and a strong affinity for ferric ion and is able to inhibit ferric iron reduction by catecholates, lowering the redox potential of the iron couple. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that tropolone inhibits wood degradation by P. placenta by chelating iron present in wood, thus avoiding initiation of the Fenton reaction. This study demonstrates that iron chelators such as tropolone could be also involved in novel and more environmentally benign preservative systems. PMID:12200290

  12. Effects of cadmium of the human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Human placental lobules (25 g) were maintained in vitro for 12 hours by dual perfusion of the fetal vessels and intervillous space (maternal circulation). A synthetic tissue culture medium was used for the perfusates. Maternal perfusate was gassed with 95% O/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/; fetal perfusate was gassed with 95% N/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/. Both perfusates were recirculated (maternal 15-25 ml/min, fetal 3 ml/min) and exchanged for fresh perfusates every 4 hours. The integrity of the fetal vasculature was demonstrated by the stabilities of fetal arterial pressure (30-36 mm Hg) and circulatory volume (volume loss <2 ml/h). The metabolic viability of the placenta was documented by measurements of oxygen consumption (100-137 umole/min.kg), glucose consumption (133-163 umole/min.kg), and lactate production (163-229 umole/min.kg). Exposure of placenta to 10 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate led to accumulation of cadmium (45 nmole Cd/g), yet there was limited movement of cadmium from maternal to fetal circulations. This exposure did not result in significant changes in fetal capillary permeability of resistance, oxygen or glucose consumptions, lactate production, nCg release, transport of AlB by placental slices, or ultrastructure. Transfer of zinc from maternal to fetal circulations did not appear to be reduced. Exposure of perfused placenta to 100 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate resulted in a cadmium burden of 150 nmole Cd/g. This exposure induced syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, increased fetal capillary permeability, and reduced hCG release.

  13. Landscape of Transcriptional Deregulations in the Preeclamptic Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Miralles, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease affecting 5 to 8% of pregnant women and a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Because of a default in the process of implantation, the placenta of preeclamptic women undergoes insufficient vascularization. This results in placental ischemia, inflammation and subsequent release of placental debris and vasoactive factors in the maternal circulation causing a systemic endothelial activation. Several microarray studies have analyzed the transcriptome of the preeclamptic placentas to identify genes which could be involved in placental dysfunction. In this study, we compared the data from publicly available microarray analyses to obtain a consensus list of modified genes. This allowed to identify consistently modified genes in the preeclamptic placenta. Of these, 67 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. Assuming that changes in the transcription level of co-expressed genes may result from the coordinated action of a limited number of transcription factors, we looked for over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of these genes. Indeed, we found that the promoters of up-regulated genes are enriched in putative binding sites for NFkB, CREB, ANRT, REEB1, SP1, and AP-2. In the promoters of down-regulated genes, the most prevalent putative binding sites are those of MZF-1, NFYA, E2F1 and MEF2A. These transcriptions factors are known to regulate specific biological pathways such as cell responses to inflammation, hypoxia, DNA damage and proliferation. We discuss here the molecular mechanisms of action of these transcription factors and how they can be related to the placental dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia. PMID:23785430

  14. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  16. [Procedure for purifying RNA polymerase II from human placenta].

    PubMed

    Kandyba, L V; Matsanova, V R; Shamovskiĭ, I V; Raĭt, V K

    1994-12-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IIB having a specific activity of 320 u./mg has been isolated from the term placenta homogenate using extraction performed at 4-6 degrees C in the presence of 75 mM ammonium sulfate and 1.5% nonidet P40, fractionation on DEAE-cellulose DE 23, desalting and heparin-agarose chromatography, resulting in 330-fold purification and a 18% yield. Technical details have been determined which are of crucial importance for reproducibility of affinity chromatography. The possibility of proteolysis of the IIc subunit during enzyme purification has been demonstrated.

  17. Kappa-opioid receptor from human placenta: hydrodynamic characteristics and evidence for its association with a G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Porthe, G.; Frances, B.; Verrier, B.; Cros, J.; Meunier J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The kappa nature of opioid binding sites in a brush border membrane (BBM) fraction from human placenta has been confirmed: these sites display considerably higher apparent affinity for the kappa selective ligand U-50488 than they do for the ..mu.. and delta selective ligands enkephalin and enkephalyl-Thr, respectively. Two lines of evidence indicated that the placental kappa opioid receptor is capable of interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory (G) protein: (i) equilibrium binding of the angonist /sup 3/H-etorphine in the BBM fraction was clearly inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), especially in the presence of Na/sup +/ ions while binding of the antagonist /sup 3/H-diprenorphine was significantly less so and (ii) the sedimentation velocity of the kappa opioid receptor was decreased down to about 10 S when the BBM fraction was prelabeled with radioligand in the presence of Gpp(NH)p prior to its solubilization with digitonin. The G protein that mediates the effect of Gpp(NH)p might be neither G/sub s/ nor G/sub i/ since no adenylate cyclase activity could be demonstrated in the BBM fraction from human placenta.

  18. Apical uptake of choline and cationic drugs in epithelial cell lines derived from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Müller, J; Born, I; Neubert, R H; Brandsch, M

    2005-01-01

    Many cationic drugs are administered during pregnancy and might enter the fetal circulation by transplacental passage. This study was performed to characterize the apical uptake of choline and several cationic drugs at cultured epithelial cells of the human placenta. Total uptake of [3H]choline in BeWo cells was H(+)-independent and to 65% Na(+)-independent. Uptake rates into both cell lines were saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (Kt) of 108 microM (BeWo) and 206 microM (JEG-3), respectively. Cationic drugs such as etilefrine, clonidine, ranitidine, diphenhydramine, imipramine and butylscopolamine strongly inhibited the [3H]choline uptake in BeWo cells and in JEG-3 cells, with Ki values ranging from 0.18 to 3.3 mM. In contrast, tetraethylammonium had only little inhibitory effect on [3H]choline uptake. Using high-performance capillary electrophoresis for quantitative analyses, uptake of etilefrine and diphenhydramine into JEG-3 or BeWo cells was measured. Diphenhydramine was transported into JEG-3 cells in a saturable manner with a Kt value of 0.75 mM. In the presence of sodium, diphenhydramine uptake at BeWo cells was inhibited to 69% by the addition of 50 mM choline chloride. Like choline uptake, total diphenhydramine uptake was to 68% Na(+)-independent in BeWo cells. We conclude that in addition to choline, several cationic drugs, in particular diphenhydramine, are taken up by placental epithelial cells from the maternal blood by carrier-mediated processes. Etilefrine, clonidine, ranitidine, diphenhydramine and butylscopolamine interact with the Na(+)-independent placental choline transport system.

  19. Differential expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in canine early placenta.

    PubMed

    Diessler, M; Ventureira, M; Hernandez, R; Sobarzo, C; Casas, L; Barbeito, C; Cebral, E

    2017-02-01

    The zonary and endotheliochorial dog placenta is the most invasive placenta of carnivores. The importance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in placenta invasiveness has been determined in several mammals including species with haemochorial, epitheliochorial and endotheliochorial placentation. Regarding the latter, the expression of MMP enzymes has been studied in the cat and the mature canine placenta. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the early dog placenta. Placentae from 18 to 30 days of pregnancy were collected from four bitches. Two placentae from each bitch were analysed. Placental tissue from one uterine horn was fixed in formaldehyde for immunohistochemistry, while marginal haematoma, labyrinth, non-implantative and implantative endometrium from the contralateral horn were immediately frozen in dry ice for the analysis of MMP expression (Western blot [WB]) and activity (zymography). MMP-2 and MMP-9 were evidenced in the labyrinth, maternal glands and marginal haematoma; this finding was directly correlated with levels of MMP expression by WB, and with the activity of MMP-2, mainly in the haematoma (the area of major remodelling of tissues). Thus, although MMP-9 is well expressed in the early canine placenta, it is not active. Given the important role of MMPs for invasiveness, maternal-foetal angiogenesis and the establishment of a correct foetal nutrition, the results are consistent with the findings in other species in which the MMP-2 activation precedes the MMP-9 one in early placentation.

  20. Hectd1 is required for development of the junctional zone of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anjali A; Nuwayhid, Samer J; Maynard, Thomas; Ghandchi, Frederick; Hill, Jonathon T; Lamantia, Anthony S; Zohn, Irene E

    2014-08-15

    The placenta plays a critical role in the growth and survival of the fetus. Here we demonstrate that the Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain E3 ubiquitin ligase, Hectd1, is essential for development of the mouse placenta. Hectd1 is widely expressed during placentation with enrichment in trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) and other trophoblast-derived cell subtypes in the junctional and labyrinth zones of the placenta. Disruption of Hectd1 results in mid-gestation lethality and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Variable defects in the gross structure of the mutant placenta are found including alterations in diameter, thickness and lamination. The number and nuclear size of TGCs is reduced. Examination of subtype specific markers reveals altered TGC development with decreased expression of Placental lactogen-1 and -2 (Pl1 and Pl2) and increased expression of Proliferin (Plf). Reduced numbers of spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen trophoblasts were also found at the junctional zone of the Hectd1 mutant placenta. Finally, there was an increase in immature uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the maternal decidua of the Hectd1 mutant placenta. Proliferation and apoptosis are differentially altered in the layers of the placenta with an increase in both apoptosis and proliferation in the maternal decidua, a decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in the labyrinth layer and both unchanged in the junctional zone. Together these data demonstrate that Hectd1 is required for development of multiple cell types within the junctional zone of the placenta.

  1. Functional amino acids in the development of the pig placenta.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Herring, Cassandra; Seo, Heewon; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Zhenlong; Wang, Xiaolong

    2017-04-08

    The mammalian placenta is essential for supplying nutrients (e.g., amino acids and water) and oxygen from the mother to fetus and for removing fetal metabolites (e.g., ammonia and CO2 ) from fetus to mother. Thus, placental growth and development are determinants of fetal survival, growth, and development. Indeed, low birth weight is closely associated with reduced placental growth. Providing gestating gilts or sows with dietary supplementation of arginine and glutamine, however, increases placental growth (including vascular growth), improves embryonic/fetal growth and survival, and reduces the large variation in birth weight among litters. These two amino acids serve as building blocks for tissue protein as well as substrates for the production of polyamines and nitric oxide, which stimulate DNA and protein synthesis and angiogenesis and vascular growth in the placenta. These recent findings greatly advance the field of mammalian amino acid metabolism and nutrition, but also provide practical, mechanism-based methods to enhance reproductive efficiency in swine. These results may also help improve embryonic/fetal survival and growth in other livestock species (e.g., sheep and cattle) and in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrastructural findings in placentae of HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Villegas, H; Carrillo-farga, J; Paredes, Y; Karchmer, S

    1993-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from an infected mother to the fetus has been shown to occur. The route of infection is probably through the placenta, yet the exact mechanism of how this occurs is still unclear. Researchers in Mexico report in this article their findings on placental tissue taken from 9 HIV-seropositive women. The placentas from new deliveries were sectioned and the tissue fixed and embedded in plastic. Thin sections were cut, stained, and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HIV-like particles were found near or inside the trophoblastic villi in 4 placental specimens examined. In one case these particles were found in the endothelium of the umbilical artery. Mast-like cells were found in the free villous stroma in 2 tissue samples. Vertical transmission of HIV has been a major source of HIV infections in Europe and the US. On the other hand, Mexico doesn't report similar findings. The authors suggest that this is the case because of lower female drug use. It is still unclear why some babies from HIV-seropositive mothers become infected while others do not.

  3. Localisation of Lactate Transporters in Rat and Rabbit Placentae

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Charlap, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels). In the rabbit, staining for MCT1 was associated with blood vessels containing nucleated red blood cells while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing enucleated red blood cells. Strength of staining for MCT1 decreased during gestation in both species, but that for MCT4 was stronger than that for MCT1 and was consistent between gestation days. The results imply an opposite polarity of MCT1 and MCT4 across the trophoblast between rat and rabbit. PMID:27843454

  4. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  5. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  6. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more {sup 14}C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose and (6-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro.

  7. Vitamin D Effects on Pregnancy and the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joong Sik; Choi, Mee Yun; Longtine, Mark S.; Nelson, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a pleiotropic secosteroid hormone important for health and disease prevention. The actions of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor that binds the active form of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] to induce both transcriptional and non-genomic responses. Vitamin D has well known classical functions in calcium uptake and bone metabolism, but more recent work highlights the importance of the nonclassical actions of vitamin D in a variety of cell types. These actions include modulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems and regulation of cell proliferation. Adequate vitamin D intake is essential for maternal and fetal health during pregnancy, and epidemiological data indicate that many pregnant women have sub-optimal vitamin D levels. Notably, vitamin D deficiency correlates with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and bacterial vaginosis, and an increased risk for C-section delivery. Recent work emphasizes the importance of nonclassical roles of vitamin D in pregnancy and the placenta. The placenta produces and responds to vitamin D where vitamin D functions as a modulator of implantation, cytokine production and the immune response to infection. We describe vitamin D metabolism and the cellular responses to vitamin D, and then summarize the role of vitamin D in placental trophoblast, pregnancy and the fetus. PMID:20863562

  8. Gene expression in the placenta: maternal stress and epigenetic responses.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Ciprian P; Goyal, Ravi; Mittal, Ashwani; Longo, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Successful placental development is crucial for optimal growth, development, maturation and survival of the embryo/fetus into adulthood. Numerous epidemiologic and experimental studies have demonstrated the profound influence of intrauterine environment on life, and the diseases to which one is subject as an adult. For the most part, these invidious influences, whether maternal hypoxia, protein or caloric deficiency or excess, and others, represent types of maternal stress. In the present review, we examine certain aspects of gene expression in the placenta as a consequence of maternal stressors. To examine these issues in a controlled manner, and in a species in which the genome has been sequenced, most of these reported studies have been performed in the mouse. Although each individual maternal stress is characterized by up- or down-regulation of specific genes in the placenta, functional analysis reveals some patterns of gene expression common to the several forms of stress. Of critical importance, these genes include those involved in DNA methylation and histone modification, cell cycle regulation, and related global pathways of great relevance to epigenesis and the developmental origins of adult health and disease.

  9. Review: The placenta is a programming agent for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L; O'Tierney, P F; Louey, S

    2010-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in western nations in spite of declines in death rates following improvements in clinical care. It has been 20 years since David Barker and colleagues showed that slow rates of prenatal growth predict mortality from ischemic heart disease. Thus, fetal undergrowth and its associated cardiovascular diseases must be due, in part, to placental inadequacies. This conclusion is supported by a number of studies linking placental characteristics with various adult diseases. A "U" shaped relationship between placental-to-fetal weight ratio and heart disease provides powerful evidence that placental growth-regulating processes initiate vulnerabilities for later heart disease in offspring. Recent evidence from Finland indicates that placental morphological characteristics predict risks for coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension and several cancers. The level of risk imparted by placental shape is sex dependent. Further, maternal diet and body composition strongly influence placental growth, levels of inflammation, nutrient transport capacity and oxidative stress, with subsequent effects on offspring health. Several animal models have demonstrated the placental roots of vulnerability for heart disease. These include findings that abnormal endothelial development in the placenta is associated with undergrown myocardial walls in the embryo, and that placental insufficiency leads to depressed maturation and proliferation of working cardiomyocytes in the fetal heart. Together these models suggest that the ultimate fitness of the heart is determined by hemodynamic, growth factor, and oxygen/nutrient cues before birth, all of which are influenced, if not regulated by the placenta.

  10. DNA flow cytometric analysis in variable types of hydropic placentas

    PubMed Central

    Atabaki pasdar, Fatemeh; Khooei, Alireza; Fazel, Alireza; Rastin, Maryam; Tabasi, Nafise; Peirouvi, Tahmineh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Differential diagnosis between complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion, known as hydropic placentas is still a challenge for pathologists but it is very important for patient management. Objective: We analyzed the nuclear DNA content of various types of hydropic placentas by flowcytometry. Materials and Methods: DNA ploidy analysis was performed in 20 non-molar (hydropic and non-hydropic spontaneous abortions) and 20 molar (complete and partial moles), formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by flow cytometry. The criteria for selection were based on the histopathologic diagnosis. Results: Of 10 cases histologically diagnosed as complete hydatiform mole, 9 cases yielded diploid histograms, and 1 case was tetraploid. Of 10 partial hydatidiform moles, 8 were triploid and 2 were diploid. All of 20 cases diagnosed as spontaneous abortions (hydropic and non-hydropic) yielded diploid histograms. Conclusion: These findings signify the importance of the combined use of conventional histology and ploidy analysis in the differential diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole, partial hydatidiform mole and hydropic abortion. PMID:26221125

  11. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity.

    PubMed

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina; Myatt, Leslie

    2014-09-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming.

  12. Bovine placenta: a review on morphology, components, and defects from terminology and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Peter, Augustine T

    2013-10-15

    The bovine placenta has been the subject of many studies. Concurrently, several specialized terms have been developed to describe its development, morphology, components, function, and pathology. Many of these terms are simple, some are difficult to understand and use, and others are antiquated and may not be scientifically accurate. Defining and adopting terminology for the bovine placenta that is clear, precise and understandable, and available in a single source is expected to facilitate exchange of clinical and research information. This review presents a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the bovine placenta and attempts to define terms. In this process, conventional terminology is presented, and contemporary and novel terms are proposed from a biological perspective. For example, use of terms such as syndesmochorial, retained placenta, and large offspring syndrome should be revisited. Furthermore, the clinical relevance of the structure and function of the bovine placenta is reviewed. Finally, terms discussed in this review are summarized (in table format).

  13. Cervical varix complicated by placenta previa: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mie; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kumasawa, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yosuke; Endo, Masayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Uterine cervical varix is rare, and its clinical course is poorly understood. Therefore, we present a case report of cervical varix complicating placenta previa before describing our findings in the context of an electronic database search of relevant reports. In the case report, we describe the clinical course and imaging results of a 35-year-old woman who was diagnosed with cervical varix complicated by placenta previa. Investigation by magnetic resonance imaging, serial ultrasonography, and speculum confirmed the diagnosis, and a healthy baby was successfully delivered at 36 weeks of gestation by cesarean section. An electronic search identified nine previous cases of cervical varix complicated by placenta previa in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of cervical varices when managing placenta previa to avoid iatrogenic rupture or misdiagnosis of placenta accreta by magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin. By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  15. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  16. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  17. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  18. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  19. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  20. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  1. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 expression in the human placenta: the effects of severe intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Chan, S-Y; Franklyn, J A; Pemberton, H N; Bulmer, J N; Visser, T J; McCabe, C J; Kilby, M D

    2006-06-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal fetal development, with even mild perturbation in maternal thyroid status in early pregnancy being associated with neurodevelopmental delay in children. Transplacental transfer of maternal THs is critical, with increasing evidence suggesting a role for 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine (T3) in development and function of the placenta itself, as well as in development of the central nervous and other organ systems. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal hypothyroxinaemia, a factor that may contribute to neurodevelopmental delay. The recent description of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a powerful and specific TH membrane transporter, and the association of MCT8 mutations with profound neurodevelopmental delay, led us to explore MCT8 expression in placenta. We describe the expression of MCT8 in normal human placenta throughout gestation, and in normal third-trimester placenta compared with that associated with IUGR using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. MCT8 mRNA was detected in placenta from early first trimester, with a significant increase with advancing gestation (P=0.007). In the early third trimester, MCT8 mRNA was increased in IUGR placenta compared with normal samples matched for gestational age (P<0.05), but there was no difference between IUGR and normal placenta in the late third trimester. Western immunoblotting findings in IUGR and normal placentae were in accord with mRNA data. MCT8 immunostaining was demonstrated in villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast as well as extravillous trophoblast cells from the first trimester onwards with increasingly widespread immunoreactivity seen with advancing gestation. In conclusion, expression of MCT8 in placenta from early gestation is compatible with an important role in TH transport during fetal development and a specific role in placental development. Altered expression in placenta associated with IUGR may reflect a

  2. Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta That Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, David; Presta, Marco; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    1986-04-01

    A protein that stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells has been purified 106-fold from term human placenta by using a combination of heparin affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The purified molecule has a molecular weight of 18,700 as determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The purified molecule stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in a dose-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng of protein/ml. The purified protein also stimulates DNA synthesis and chemotaxis in capillary endothelial cells in the same concentration range. Thus, this molecule has all of the properties predicted for an angiogenic factor.

  3. Immunoregulatory effects on T lymphocytes by human mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and placenta.

    PubMed

    Mareschi, Katia; Castiglia, Sara; Sanavio, Fiorella; Rustichelli, Deborah; Muraro, Michela; Defedele, Davide; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Fagioli, Franca

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising tool in cell therapies because of their multipotent, bystander, and immunomodulatory properties. Although bone marrow represents the main source of MSCs, there remains a need to identify a stem cell source that is safe and easily accessible and yields large numbers of cells without provoking debates over ethics. In this study, MSCs isolated from amniotic fluid and placenta were compared with bone marrow MSCs. Their immunomodulatory properties were studied in total activated T cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA-PBMCs). In particular, an in vitro co-culture system was established to study: (i) the effect on T-lymphocyte proliferation; (ii) the presence of T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg); (iii) the immunophenotype of various T subsets (Th1 and Th2 naïve, memory, effector lymphocytes); (iv) cytokine release and master gene expression to verify Th1, Th2, and Th17 polarization; and (v) IDO production. Under all co-culture conditions with PHA-PBMCs and MSCs (independently of tissue origin), data revealed: (i) T proliferation inhibition; (ii) increase in naïve T and decrease in memory T cells; (iii) increase in T regulatory lymphocytes; (iv) strong Th2 polarization associated with increased interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, Th1 inhibition (significant decreases in interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-12) and Th17 induction (production of high concentrations of interleukins-6 and -17); (v) indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mRNA induction in MSCs co-cultured with PHA-PBMCs. AF-MSCs had a more potent immunomodulatory effect on T cells than BM-MSCs, only slightly higher than that of placenta MSCs. This study indicates that MSCs isolated from fetal tissues may be considered a good alternative to BM-MSCs for clinical applications.

  4. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  5. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. Methods We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. Results There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique. PMID:27004200

  6. Management of patients with placenta accreta in association with fever following vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liuying; Chen, Dunjin; Zhong, Mei; He, Yutian; Su, Chunhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and to manage patients with retained placenta left in situ accompanied by fever following vaginal delivery. Twenty-one patients with retained placenta in association with fever following vaginal delivery were enrolled and managed at the maternity department of our university hospital between 2012 and 2014. All patients had risk factors for development of placenta accreta: previous cesarean sections (4/21), previous curettage (15/21), or uterine malformations (7/21). Placenta accreta was diagnosed following vaginal delivery in all patients, and manual removal of the placenta was attempted in 20 of 21 patients. The placenta left in situ was partial in 19 patients and was complete in 2 patients. All patients were managed with a multidisciplinary approach. Mifepristone was administrated to 16 patients. Fourteen patients received uterine artery embolization. Eleven patients were treated with ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following delivery. Seven patients needed delayed-hysterectomy due to development of complications. Intrauterine operations during labor are not recommended if placenta accreta occurs in the fundus and/or in the cornual region of the uterus. Antibiotic treatment, interventional therapy, and ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following vaginal delivery are the recommended conservative management strategies. PMID:28272244

  7. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-04-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications.

  8. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Ultrasound Assessment and Supplemental Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Dryden, Damla K

    2015-08-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta or placenta accreta is being increasingly encountered in obstetrical practice mainly owing to the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. This condition is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from postpartum hemorrhage. When unsuspected, outcomes can be catastrophic to the pregnant woman. Timely diagnosis during the antenatal period, on the contrary, allows for optimal planning of a multidisciplinary management approach and delivery at a tertiary care institution. A higher index of suspicion in those at greatest risk such as in women with placenta previa and with history of some prior cesarean deliveries should lead to diligent antenatal evaluation for possible placenta accreta. Management of invasive placenta implantation often involves cesarean delivery hysterectomies; uterus-sparing alternatives to manage this condition can be an option in selected cases. Ultrasound imaging remains the modality of choice for the diagnosis. This review article discusses the ultrasound image findings in placenta accreta, its limitations and pitfalls, and the supplemental role of magnetic resonance imaging in the imaging evaluation of placenta accreta.

  9. Risk Factors and Consequent Outcomes of Placenta Previa: Report From a Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Saleh Gargari, Soraya; Seify, Zahra; Haghighi, Ladan; Khoshnood Shariati, Maryam; Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh

    2016-11-01

     Because of an unknown factor, the frequency of complicated pregnancy with placenta previa has been raised during past decade. This study was designed to deepen our understanding of risk factors and outcomes of placenta previa in our country. This study investigated 694 cases of placenta previa comparing with 600 healthy pregnant women with not overlie placenta in two referral and tertiary Obstetrics and Gynecological Hospital in Iran on the basis of the clinical and para-clinical analysis, in order to find the probable risk factors for occurrence of placenta previa and its effect on maternal and neonatal complications. The most important risk factor for the occurrence of placenta previa was advanced maternal age (P<0.001) and history of stillbirth (OR=117.2, CI=58.3-236.0). In the other hand, the most substantial outcome of this disorder was a reduction of gestational age (P<0.001) and low birth weight neonatally (P<0.001). The conservative follow-up should be programmed for women with placenta previa based on the type of risk factors which can provide the best possible management to decrease the morbidity and mortality of their related complications.

  10. Management of patients with placenta accreta in association with fever following vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liuying; Chen, Dunjin; Zhong, Mei; He, Yutian; Su, Chunhong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and to manage patients with retained placenta left in situ accompanied by fever following vaginal delivery.Twenty-one patients with retained placenta in association with fever following vaginal delivery were enrolled and managed at the maternity department of our university hospital between 2012 and 2014.All patients had risk factors for development of placenta accreta: previous cesarean sections (4/21), previous curettage (15/21), or uterine malformations (7/21). Placenta accreta was diagnosed following vaginal delivery in all patients, and manual removal of the placenta was attempted in 20 of 21 patients. The placenta left in situ was partial in 19 patients and was complete in 2 patients. All patients were managed with a multidisciplinary approach. Mifepristone was administrated to 16 patients. Fourteen patients received uterine artery embolization. Eleven patients were treated with ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following delivery. Seven patients needed delayed-hysterectomy due to development of complications.Intrauterine operations during labor are not recommended if placenta accreta occurs in the fundus and/or in the cornual region of the uterus. Antibiotic treatment, interventional therapy, and ultrasound-guided curettage within 24 hours following vaginal delivery are the recommended conservative management strategies.

  11. Different characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different layers of full term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin A; Heo, Jin-Chul; Han, Woo-Jung; Oh, Soo-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics. Methods Placenta was divided into amniotic epithelium (AE), amniotic membrane (AM), chorionic membrane (CM), chorionic villi (CV), chorionic trophoblast without villi (CT-V), decidua (DC), and whole placenta (Pla). Cells isolated from each layer were subjected to analyses for their morphology, proliferation ability, surface markers, and multi-lineage differentiation potential. MSCs were isolated from all placental layers and their characteristics were compared. Findings Surface antigen phenotype, morphology, and differentiation characteristics of cells from all layers indicated that they exhibited properties of MSCs. MSCs from different placental layers had different proliferation rates and differentiation potentials. MSCs from CM, CT-V, CV, and DC had better population doubling time and multi-lineage differentiation potentials compared to those from other layers. Conclusions Our results indicate that MSCs with different characteristics can be isolated from all layers of term placenta. These finding suggest that it is necessary to appropriately select MSCs from different placental layers for successful and consistent outcomes in clinical applications. PMID:28225815

  12. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    PubMed

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; Lotgering, F K; Bulten, J; van Kempen, L C

    2010-12-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in immune response in the basal decidua between PA and control placentas (CP). We performed a descriptive analysis of immunohistochemical differences in 17 PA and 10 CP. Our results show that in PA the amount of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells is significantly reduced (0.2 uNK cell/standardised area) as compared to CP (9.8 uNK cell/standardised area, p < 0.001) whereas the number of trophoblast cells and the expression of HLA-G by trophoblast are similar in the decidua of PA and CP. We speculate that adequate numbers of uNK cells in the basal decidua are needed for normal expulsion of the placenta.

  13. Kinetic assessment of manganese using magnetic resonance imaging in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.K.; Mattison, D.R.; Panigel, M.; Ceckler, T.; Bryant, R.; Thomford, P.

    1987-10-01

    The transfer and distribution of paramagnetic manganese was investigated in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro (using 10, 20, 100 ..mu..M Mn with and without /sup 54/Mn) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiochemical techniques. The human placenta concentrated /sup 54/Mn rapidly during the first 15 min of perfusion and by 4 hr was four times greater than the concentrations of Mn in the maternal perfusate, while the concentration of Mn in the fetal perfusate was 25% of the maternal perfusate levels. Within placentae, 45% of the /sup 54/Mn was free in the 100,000g supernatant, with 45% in the 1000g pellet. The magnetic field dependence of proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/) in placental tissue supports this Mn binding. Mn primarily affected the MRI partial saturation rather than spin-echo images of the human placenta, which provided for the separation of perfusate contributions from those produced by Mn. The washout of the Mn from the placenta was slow compared with its uptake, as determined by MRI. Thus, Mn was concentrated by the human placenta, but transfer of Mn across the placenta was limited in either direction. These studies also illustrate the opportunity for studies of human placental function using magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive biomarker.

  14. The placenta and neurologic and psychiatric outcomes in the child: study design matters.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K B; Blair, E

    2011-09-01

    Much information exists about functions of the human placenta and about potential mechanisms by which the placenta may influence human health or disease, including developmental disorders of brain. Recent studies indicate a high frequency of placental pathology in infants with developmental brain disorders, or with risk factors for such disorders. However, most clinical studies of the association of placental features with adverse neurologic or psychiatric outcome have substantial methodologic limitations. We discuss issues of study design as they relate to studies of the placenta and human brain disorders. In addition to the need for further consensus on procedures and terminology for placental evaluation, there are a number of special features that make clinical studies of the association of placental features with neurologic and psychiatric disorders especially difficult: most such disorders are not diagnosed until months or years after the majority of placentas have been discarded; these disorders are individually uncommon, so that prospective studies - needed to provide denominator data to enable estimation of risks - will require very large sample sizes; the administrative structures required to relate features of the placenta with clinical outcome will be complicated and costly. We offer some suggestions concerning study design in the face of these practical difficulties. Systematic and methodologically rigorous exploration of the role of the placenta in human developmental brain disorders has scarcely begun. A new generation of studies, difficult but potentially enormously rewarding, will be needed for clinical investigations of the placenta and fetal brain development.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-01-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications. PMID:27053569

  16. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junjie; Yang, Genling; Tian, Na; Wang, Xiaojie; Tan, Yi; Tan, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may be associated

  17. Barrier Capacity of Human Placenta for Nanosized Materials

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Peter; Malek, Antoine; Manser, Pius; Meili, Danielle; Maeder-Althaus, Xenia; Diener, Liliane; Diener, Pierre-Andre; Zisch, Andreas; Krug, Harald F.; von Mandach, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans have been exposed to fine and ultrafine particles throughout their history. Since the Industrial Revolution, sources, doses, and types of nanoparticles have changed dramatically. In the last decade, the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology has led to an increase of engineered nanoparticles with novel physical and chemical properties. Regardless of whether this exposure is unintended or not, a careful assessment of possible adverse effects is needed. A large number of projects have been carried out to assess the consequences of combustion-derived or engineered nanoparticle exposure on human health. In recent years there has been a growing concern about the possible health influence of exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy, hence an implicit concern about potential risk for nanoparticle exposure in utero. Previous work has not addressed the question of whether nanoparticles may cross the placenta. Objective In this study we investigated whether particles can cross the placental barrier and affect the fetus. Methods We used the ex vivo human placental perfusion model to investigate whether nanoparticles can cross this barrier and whether this process is size dependent. Fluorescently labeled polystyrene beads with diameters of 50, 80, 240, and 500 nm were chosen as model particles. Results We showed that fluorescent polystyrene particles with diameter up to 240 nm were taken up by the placenta and were able to cross the placental barrier without affecting the viability of the placental explant. Conclusions The findings suggest that nanomaterials have the potential for transplacental transfer and underscore the need for further nanotoxicologic studies on this important organ system. PMID:20064770

  18. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-09

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

  19. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, G.; Cama, G.; Guerresi, E.; Cocchi, G.; Dalla Casa, P.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Tonelli, D.

    1988-11-01

    After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.

  20. A Lipidomic Analysis of Placenta in Preeclampsia: Evidence for Lipid Storage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Simon H. J.; Eather, Samuel R.; Freeman, Dilys J.; Meyer, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    In preeclampsia, maternal insulin resistance leads to defective expansion of adipocytes, enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, up-regulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis, maternal hypertriglyceridaemia and the potential for ectopic fat storage. Our aim was to quantitate and compare the total amount and type of lipid in placenta from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies. Quantitative lipid analysis of lipid extracts from full thickness placental biopsies was carried out by shotgun lipidomics. Placental lipid profiles from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 23) were compared to healthy pregnancies (n = 68), and placenta from intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies (n = 10) were used to control for gross differences in placental pathology. Placentae from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia had higher neutral lipid content than healthy placentae (40% higher triacyglycerol (P = 0.001) and 33% higher cholesteryl ester (P = 0.004)) that was specific to preeclampsia and independent of maternal gestation. PMID:27685997

  1. Independent origins and rapid evolution of the placenta in the fish genus Poeciliopsis.

    PubMed

    Reznick, David N; Mateos, Mariana; Springer, Mark S

    2002-11-01

    The evolution of complex organs is a source of controversy because they require the contributions of many adaptations to function properly. We argue that placentas are complex, that they have evolved multiple times in Poeciliopsis, and that there are closely related sister taxa that have either no placentas or intermediate stages in the evolution of a placenta. Furthermore, placentas can evolve in 750,000 years or less, on the same time scale as suggested by theoretical calculations for the evolution of complex eyes. Independent origins of such complexity, accompanied by sister taxa that either lack or have intermediate stages in the evolution of the trait, present an opportunity to study the evolution of novelty and complexity from a comparative, evolutionary perspective.

  2. Buttock Necrosis after Uterine Artery Embolization for Delayed Hysterectomy in Placenta Percreta

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Delboy, Annette; Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is increasing in incidence and is commonly associated with maternal hemorrhage and cesarean hysterectomy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) may be utilized in the conservative management of placenta percreta to potentially reduce blood loss. The incidence of complications from UAE in the conservative management of placenta percreta is poorly described. To our knowledge, we present the first reported case of buttock necrosis in this setting. Case. A 39-year-old gravida nine para two with placenta percreta who underwent conservative management with UAE complicated by right buttock necrosis. Conclusion. While UAE may potentially decrease blood loss, it is not without risk. More studies must be performed in order to quantify those risks and determine the clinical utility of UAE. PMID:28050294

  3. Asymptomatic "placental prolapse" with cervical funneling in a patient with complete placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Adekola, Henry; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Bronshtein, Elena; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-02-01

    We describe the transvaginal sonographic findings in a patient with complete placenta previa and increased risk of preterm birth owing to a prior history of mid-trimester pregnancy loss in whom we observed a short cervix and prolapse of the placenta and fetal membranes into the endocervical canal. We believe that this could lead to antepartum hemorrhage and mandate close observation when diagnosed. We introduced the term "placental prolapse" to describe our finding.

  4. Clearance of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and /sup 14/C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of /sup 14/C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of /sup 3/H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta.

  5. Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles from Pre-Eclampsia Placentas Differentially Affect Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Tannetta, Dionne S.; Hunt, Kathryn; Jones, Chris I.; Davidson, Naomi; Coxon, Carmen H.; Ferguson, David; Redman, Christopher W.; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Sargent, Ian L.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) complicates around 3% of all pregnancies and is one of the most common causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The pathophysiology of PE remains unclear however its underlying cause originates from the placenta and manifests as raised blood pressure, proteinuria, vascular or systemic inflammation and hypercoagulation in the mother. Women who develop PE are also at significantly higher risk of subsequently developing cardiovascular (CV) disease. In PE, the failing endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative and inflammatory stressed syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta sheds increased numbers of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) into the maternal circulation. Platelet reactivity, size and concentration are also known to be altered in some women who develop PE, although the underlying reasons for this have not been determined. In this study we show that STBEV from disease free placenta isolated ex vivo by dual placental perfusion associate rapidly with platelets. We provide evidence that STBEV isolated from normal placentas cause platelet activation and that this is increased with STBEV from PE pregnancies. Furthermore, treatment of platelets with aspirin, currently prescribed for women at high risk of PE to reduce platelet aggregation, also inhibits STBEV-induced reversible aggregation of washed platelets. Increased platelet reactivity as a result of exposure to PE placenta derived STBEVs correlates with increased thrombotic risk associated with PE. These observations establish a possible direct link between the clotting disturbances of PE and dysfunction of the placenta, as well as the known increased risk of thromboembolism associated with this condition. PMID:26551971

  6. Receptor-mediated uptake and transport of macromolecules in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Henning; Miller, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The human placenta is required to be the anchor, the conduit and the controller during pregnancy. The survival of the baby and its associated placenta is dependent upon the placenta shielding the embryo/fetus from harm, e.g., autoimmune disease - thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome or infections, while simultaneously providing for the passage of critical nutrients (e.g., amino acids, vitamins) and beneficial immunoglobulins. In a number of instances, the movements of macromolecules into and through the placenta can result in the passage of the intact molecules into the fetal circulation or in the case of proteins - catabolism to amino acids which are utilized by the placenta and the fetus for continued growth and development. The transfer of two such macromolecules, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or B12), are examined as to the unique receptor-mediated transfer capability of the human placenta, its transfer specificity as related to specific receptors and the role of endogeneous placental proteins (trancobalamins) in facilitating the recognition and transport of specifically B12. Brief comparisons will be made to other animal species and the differences in specific organ transfer capabilities.

  7. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  8. Selenoprotein P expression in liver, uterus and placenta during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kasik, J W; Rice, E J

    1995-01-01

    To identify genes that exhibit increased expression in the placenta during late pregnancy, the technique of differential cDNA library screening was used to isolate a clone subsequently identified as the 3' untranslated region of the mouse selenoprotein p gene. Random primed radiolabelled cDNA probes were constructed from this clone and these probes were used to conduct Northern hybridizations against total RNA purified from mouse placenta, liver (maternal and fetal) and uterus collected sequentially during the latter third of pregnancy. Signal is present in the placenta and beginning 4 days before birth, the level of message increases, reaching maximal levels at term. The level of expression in the placenta at maximum is approximately 25 per cent of that observed in adult liver. In liver obtained from pregnant females, the level of message is increased compared to nonpregnant adults, but returns to normal shortly after birth. Message is also found in the fetal liver beginning at 4 days before birth and exhibits a pattern of expression similar to the placenta. The similarity of expression observed in fetal liver and placenta suggests a coordinated regulation of expression of this gene in these tissues. There is a minimal amount of signal present in the uterus and the expression does not appear to vary. We speculate that selenoprotein p may play a role in the transplacental transport of selenium to the fetus during late pregnancy.

  9. Proteomics of the Human Placenta: Promises and Realities

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J.M.; Ackerman, W.E.; Kniss, D.A.; Takizawa, T.; Vandré, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics is an area of study that sets as its ultimate goal the global analysis of all of the proteins expressed in a biological system of interest. However, technical limitations currently hamper proteome-wide analyses of complex systems. In a more practical sense, a desired outcome of proteomics research is the translation of large protein data sets into formats that provide meaningful information regarding clinical conditions (e.g., biomarkers to serve as diagnostic and/or prognostic indicators of disease). Herein, we discuss placental proteomics by describing existing studies, pointing out their strengths and weaknesses. In so doing, we strive to inform investigators interested in this area of research about the current gap between hyperbolic promises and realities. Additionally, we discuss the utility of proteomics in discovery-based research, particularly as regards the capacity to unearth novel insights into placental biology. Importantly, when considering under studied systems such as the human placenta and diseases associated with abnormalities in placental function, proteomics can serve as a robust ‘shortcut’ to obtaining information unlikely to be garnered using traditional approaches. PMID:18222537

  10. Isolation and characterization of human fetal macrophages from placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, L N; Mason, D Y; Redman, C W

    1989-01-01

    Human fetal macrophages expressing class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens have been isolated from the stroma of the chorionic plate of term placentas, using enzymatic digestion procedures, and enriched by Percoll density centrifugation. These cells are adherent, phagocytic and express Fc receptors for IgG. By rosetting with bovine erythrocytes coated with IgG, they can be enriched to 77-95% purity. Placental macrophages isolated in this way stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes from unrelated donors in mixed-cell cultures, and act as accessory cells in oxidative mitogenesis. In a family study, placental macrophages stimulated proliferation of maternal and paternal lymphocytes but there was no evidence for either priming to, or suppression by, the fetal cells when the responses of lymphocytes from the mother and her HLA identical twin were compared. The possibility that these cells can protect the fetus from infection and/or stimulate the production of maternal anti-fetal HLA-antibodies is discussed. PMID:2532993

  11. The endocrine function of human placenta: an overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana A

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development. In addition, because they are released into maternal circulation, the profile of their blood levels throughout pregnancy has been the target of intense research towards finding potential robust and reliable biomarkers to predict and diagnose pregnancy-associated complications. In fact, altered levels of these hormones have been associated with some pathologies, such as chromosomal anomalies or pre-eclampsia. This review proposes to revise and update the main pregnancy-related hormones, addressing their major characteristics, molecular targets, function throughout pregnancy, regulators of their expression and their potential clinical interest.

  12. Evaluation of gestational deficiencies in cloned sheep fetuses and placentae.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, P A; King, T; Harkness, L; Young, L E; Walker, S K; Wilmut, I

    2001-07-01

    Sheep fetal development at 35 days of gestation was examined following natural mating, in vitro production (IVP) of fertilized embryos, or somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT). Five crossbred (Blackface x Black Welsh) and four purebred (Black Welsh) fetuses and their associated placentae produced by natural mating were morphologically normal and consistent with each other. From 10 ewes receiving 21 IVP embryos, 17 fetuses (81%) were recovered, and 15 of these (88%) were normal. The NT fetuses were derived from two Black Welsh fetal fibroblast cell lines (BLW1 and 6). Transfer of 21 BLW1 and 22 BLW6 NT embryos into 12 and 11 ewes, respectively, yielded 7 (33%) and 8 (36%) fetuses, respectively. Only three (43%) BLW1 and two (25%) BLW6 NT fetuses were normal, with the rest being developmentally retarded. The NT fetal and placental deficiencies included liver enlargement, dermal hemorrhaging, and lack of placental vascular development reflected by reduced or absent cotyledonary structures. Fibroblasts isolated from normal and abnormal cloned fetuses did not differ in their karyotype from sexually conceived fetuses or nuclear donor cell lines. Our results demonstrate that within the first quarter of gestation, cloned fetuses are characterized by a high incidence of developmental retardation and placental insufficiency. These deficiencies are not linked to gross defects in chromosome number.

  13. ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity. PMID:21118087

  14. Chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes related to occurrence of retained placenta in dexamethasone induced parturition in cattle.

    PubMed

    Benedictus, L; Jorritsma, R; Knijn, H M; Vos, P L A M; Koets, A P

    2011-09-15

    Induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids in cattle is used for research purposes, in diseased or injured pregnant cows, and as a management tool to time parturition. A negative side effect of induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids is the high incidence of retained placenta that occurs after these calvings. Reaction of the maternal immune system against the 'foreign' foetal membranes contributes to the breakdown of the foetal-maternal attachment. Several studies indicate that failure of this immune assisted detachment increases the occurrence of retained placenta. We hypothesized that retained placenta occurring after induction of parturition with glucocorticosteroids is caused by failure of immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes. The chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes was used as a parameter to see whether immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes had occurred. Cotyledons were collected from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows and from dexamethasone induced non-retained placenta and retained placenta cows. The study showed that the chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes was lower (P < 0.001) in cotyledons obtained from retained placenta cows in which parturition was induced with dexamethasone compared to the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows, whereas the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from induced non-retained placenta cows was not lower (P = 0.10) than the chemotactic activity of cotyledons obtained from spontaneously calving non-retained placenta cows. We concluded that induction of parturition with dexamethasone causes a failure of immune assisted detachment of the foetal membranes and the accompanying release of chemotactic factors. As a result, the chemotactic activity of cotyledons for mononuclear leukocytes is lower in induced retained placenta cows than in cotyledons from non

  15. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ALTERS APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION OF TROPHOBASTS FROM HUMAN TERM PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    MAGEE, Thomas R.; ROSS, Michael G.; WEDEKIND, Lauren; DESAI, Mina; KJOS, Siri; BELKACEMI, Louiza

    2014-01-01

    AIM Increased placental growth secondary to reduced apoptosis may contribute to the development of macrosomia in GDM pregnancies. We hypothesize that reduced apoptosis in GDM placentas is caused by dysregulation of apoptosis related genes from death receptors or mitochondrial pathway or both to enhance placental growth in GDM pregnancies. METHODS Newborn and placental weights from women with no pregnancy complications (controls; N=5), or with GDM (N=5) were recorded. Placental villi from both groups were either fixed for TUNEL assay, or snap frozen for gene expression analysis by apoptosis PCR microarrays and qPCR. RESULTS Maternal, placental and newborn weights were significantly higher in the GDM group vs. Controls. Apoptotic index of placentas from the GDM group was markedly lower than the Controls. At a significant threshold of 1.5, seven genes (BCL10, BIRC6, BIRC7, CASP5, CASP8P2, CFLAR, and FAS) were down regulated, and 13 genes (BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L11, CASP4, DAPK1, IκBκE, MCL1, NFκBIZ, NOD1, PEA15, TNF, TNFRSF25, and XIAP) were unregulated in the GDM placentas. qPCR confirmed the consistency of the PCR microarray. Using Western blotting we found significantly decreased placental pro-apoptotic FAS receptor and FAS ligand (FASL), and increased mitochondrial anti-apoptotic BCL2 post GDM insult. Notably, caspase-3, which plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis, and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly down regulated in GDM placentas, as compared to non-diabetic Control placentas. CONCLUSION . Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for having macrosomic newborns, and larger placentas with reduced apoptosis. Decreased apoptosis subsequent to alterations in apoptotic and inflammatory genes may promote elevated weight in the GDM placentas. PMID:24768206

  16. Expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the human placenta and changes associated with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Loubière, L S; Vasilopoulou, E; Bulmer, J N; Taylor, P M; Stieger, B; Verrey, F; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S-Y

    2010-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are important for the development of the human fetus and placenta from very early gestation. The transplacental passage of TH from mother to fetus and the supply of TH into trophoblasts require the expression of placental TH plasma membrane transporters. We describe the ontogeny of the TH transporters MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, LAT2, OATP1A2 and OATP4A1 in a large series (n = 110) of normal human placentae across gestation and describe their expression changes with intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR n = 22). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that all the mRNAs encoding TH transporters are expressed in human placenta from 6 weeks gestation and throughout pregnancy. MCT8, MCT10, OATP1A2 and LAT1 mRNA expression increased with gestation. OATP4A1 and CD98 (LATs obligatory associated protein) mRNA expression reached a nadir in mid-gestation before increasing towards term. LAT2 mRNA expression did not alter throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry localised MCT10 and OATP1A2 to villous cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, and extravillous trophoblasts while OATP4A1 was preferentially expressed in the villous syncytiotrophoblasts. Whilst MCT8 protein expression was increased, MCT10 mRNA expression was decreased in placentae from IUGR pregnancies delivered in the early 3rd trimester compared to age matched appropriately grown for gestational age controls. No significant change was found in the mRNA expression of the other transporters with IUGR. In conclusion, several TH transporters are present in the human placenta from early 1st trimester with varying patterns of expression throughout gestation. Their coordinated effects may regulate both transplacental TH passage and TH supply to trophoblasts, which are critical for the normal development of the fetus and placenta. Increased MCT8 and decreased MCT10 expression within placentae of pregnancies complicated by IUGR may contribute to aberrant development of the fetoplacental unit.

  17. Cotinine in Human Placenta Predicts Induction of Gene Expression in Fetal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Haley, Kathleen J.; Sharma, Sunita; Dai, Hongying; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Leeder, J. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying adverse birth outcomes following prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke remain unknown due, in part, to the absence or unreliability of information regarding maternal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Our goal was to determine if placental cotinine could be a reliable biomarker of fetal cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Cotinine levels were determined in placentas from 47 women who reported smoking during pregnancy and from 10 women who denied cigarette smoke exposure. Cotinine levels were significantly higher in placentas from women reporting cigarette smoking (median = 27.2 ng/g) versus women who reported no smoke exposure (2.3 ng/g, P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified an optimal cut point of 7.5 ng/g (sensitivity = 78.7%, specificity = 100%) to classify placenta samples from mothers who smoked versus those from mothers who did not. Among 415 placentas for which maternal cigarette smoking status was unavailable, 167 had cotinine levels > 7.5 ng/g and would be considered positive for cigarette smoke exposure. Data from quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that in utero cigarette smoke exposure predicted by cotinine in placenta is associated with changes in the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in fetal tissues. CYP1A1 mRNA in fetal lung and liver tissue and CYP1B1 mRNA in fetal lung tissue were significantly induced when cotinine was detected in placenta. These findings indicate that cotinine in placenta is a reliable biomarker for fetal exposure and response to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy. PMID:23209192

  18. Effects of netrin-1 and netrin-1 knockdown on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and angiogenesis of rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Xie, H; Zou, L; Zhu, J; Yang, Y

    2011-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process essential for the development of placenta. Netrin-1 was first discovered in nervous system and was later found to play roles in angiogenesis. In order to better understand the functional relevance of netrin-1 in placental angiogenesis, we investigated the effect of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat placenta by employing up-regulation and down-regulation strategies. HUVECs and rat placenta were treated with recombinant netrin-1, and netrin-1 expression in the cells and placenta was reduced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition efficiency was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The expression of netrin-1 was immunohistochemically located. The results demonstrated that netrin-1 promoted viability, proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. A strong reduction in cell capability was observed in vitro after netrin-1 expression was inhibited with shRNA. Netrin-1 accelerated neovascularization of placenta in pregnant rats. Suppression of netrin-1 expression in placenta resulted in reduced vascular sprouting in vivo. These findings suggest that netrin-1 is essential for the proper functioning of HUVECs and angiogenesis of rat placenta, and it is involved in the development of placenta and fetus. The proangiogenic effect of netrin-1 might offer an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of vascular disease of placenta.

  19. Calcium-phospholipid enhanced protein phosphorylation in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Moore, R.; Cardaman, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation has not been studied in placenta. Human placental cytosol was subjected to an endogenous protein phosphorylation assay using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP in the presence of calcium and phosphatidylserine. Protein phosphorylation was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When compared to basal levels, calcium (10/sup -6/ M) in combination with phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml) significantly enhanced (P < 100) /sup 32/P incorporation into phosphoproteins having mol wt 47,000, 43,000, and 37,000. Half-maximal /sup 22/P incorporation was observed with 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M Ca/sup 2 +/ in the presence of phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml). The effect of phosphatidylserine was biphasic. In the presence of Ca 10/sup -6/ M, /sup 32/P incorporation increased to a maximum at 70 /sup +/g/ml of phosphatidylserine. The increase was suppressed at 150 ..mu..g/ml. Tetracaine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent enhancement of the three phosphoproteins. Calcium in the absence of phospholipid enhanced the phosphorylation of a protein of 98,000 mol wt. Phosphatidylserine suppressed this enhancement. Calmodulin (10/sup -6/ M) had no detectable effect upon phosphorylation beyond that of calcium alone, but the calmodulin inhibitor R-24571 specifically inhibited the calcium-stimulated 98,000 mol wt phosphoprotein. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent phospholipid-dependent phosphoproteins are present in human placental cytosol; whether calcium-activated, calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins also are present remains a question.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypoxic injury to the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Tracy M; Garbow, Joel R; Anderson, Jeff R; Engelbach, John A; Nelson, D Michael; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define placental hypoxic injury associated with fetal growth restriction. On embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) we utilized dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI on a 4.7-tesla small animal scanner to examine the uptake and distribution of gadolinium-based contrast agent. Quantitative DCE parameter analysis was performed for the placenta and fetal kidneys of three groups of pregnant C57BL/6 mice: 1) mice that were exposed to Fi(O(2)) = 12% between E15.5 and E18.5, 2) mice in normoxia with food restriction similar to the intake of hypoxic mice between E15.5 and E18.5, and 3) mice in normoxia that were fed ad libitum. After imaging, we assessed fetoplacental weight, placental histology, and gene expression. We found that dams exposed to hypoxia exhibited fetal growth restriction (weight reduction by 28% and 14%, respectively, P < 0.05) with an increased placental-to-fetal ratio. By using MRI-based assessment of placental contrast agent kinetics, referenced to maternal paraspinous muscle, we found decreased placental clearance of contrast media in hypoxic mice, compared with either control group (61%, P < 0.05). This was accompanied by diminished contrast accumulation in the hypoxic fetal kidneys (23%, P < 0.05), reflecting reduced transplacental gadolinium transport. These changes were associated with increased expression of placental Phlda2 and Gcm1 transcripts. Exposure to hypoxia near the end of mouse pregnancy reduces placental perfusion and clearance of contrast. MRI-based DCE imaging provides a novel tool for dynamic, in vivo assessment of placental function.

  1. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta

    PubMed Central

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R.; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D.; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  2. Full-thickness skin wound healing using human placenta-derived extracellular matrix containing bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Dong; Yoon, Hyun Soo; Cho, Yong Woo

    2013-02-01

    The human placenta, a complex organ, which facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother, contains abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components and well-preserved endogenous growth factors. In this study, we designed a new dermal substitute from human placentas for full-thickness wound healing. Highly porous, decellularized ECM sheets were fabricated from human placentas via homogenization, centrifugation, chemical and enzymatic treatments, molding, and freeze-drying. The physical structure and biological composition of human placenta-derived ECM sheets dramatically supported the regeneration of full-thickness wound in vivo. At the early stage, the ECM sheet efficiently absorbed wound exudates and tightly attached to the wound surface. Four weeks after implantation, the wound was completely closed, epidermic cells were well arranged and the bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis was restored. Moreover, hair follicles and microvessels were newly formed in the ECM sheet-implanted wounds. Overall, the ECM sheet produced a dermal substitute with similar cellular organization to that of normal skin. These results suggest that human placenta-derived ECM sheets provide a microenvironment favorable to the growth and differentiation of cells, and positive modulate the healing of full-thickness wounds.

  3. Histopathological localization of cadmium in rat placenta by LA-ICP-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Furukawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Ayano; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2016-10-01

    In order to clarify the histological localization of cadmium (Cd) in the placenta, we analyzed paraffin sections of placentas from rats with a single Cd exposure on gestation day 18 by the LA-ICP-MS imaging method compared with the histopathological changes. The placentas were sampled at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Histopathologically, the trophoblasts in the labyrinth zone of the Cd group showed swelling at 1 hour. At 2 and 3 hours, the trophoblasts showed swelling and vacuolar degeneration. At 6 and 24 hours, the syncytiotrophoblasts selectively underwent necrosis/apoptosis, resulting in a decrease in number. Remarkable metallothionein expression was observed in the trophoblastic septa, particularly cytotrophoblasts at 24 hours. The LA-ICP-MS analysis detected the localization of Cd in the fetal part of the placenta from 1 hour onwards. In particular, the intensity of Cd was prominent in the labyrinth zone and tended to increase with the progression of trophoblastic septa damages. The LA-ICP-MS analysis using the paraffin sections detected the localization of Cd in the fetal part of the placenta, and this methodology will be one of the valuable tools to detect heavy metals in toxicological pathology.

  4. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.

  5. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Saito, H.; Wakisaka, I.

    1986-10-01

    Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in placenta, maternal blood, cord blood, and milk were carried out. Trichlorobiphenyl, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyls, and hexachlorobiphenyls were identified by the mass chromatogram and the mass spectra. Some minor peaks of PCBs were identified by gas chromatography. The relationship between the PCB concentration in placenta and that in milk is different in each PCB congener. The higher the chlorine content of the PCB congener, the more significant the correlation. No significant but a low negative correlation exists between the concentration of some PCB congeners in the placenta and that in cord blood. On the other hand, a significant linear correlation exists between the concentration of hexachlorobenzene in the placenta and that in cord blood. The transplacental transport of each PCB congener varied depending upon its chemical nature. Trichlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl were more transferable than hexachlorobiphenyls. The results show that the placenta and cord blood are useful human samples to analyze the body burden of environmental pollutants and to estimate their transfer from mother to fetus.

  6. Iron overload in Plasmodium berghei-infected placenta as a pathogenesis mechanism of fetal death

    PubMed Central

    Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Gozzelino, Raffaella; de Moraes, Luciana V.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium infection during gestation may lead to severe clinical manifestations including abortion, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation, and low birth weight. Mechanisms underlying such poor pregnancy outcomes are still unclear. In the animal model of severe placental malaria (PM), in utero fetal death frequently occurs and mothers often succumb to infection before or immediately after delivery. Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes (IEs) continuously accumulate in the placenta, where they are then phagocytosed by fetal-derived placental cells, namely trophoblasts. Inside the phagosomes, disruption of IEs leads to the release of non-hemoglobin bound heme, which is subsequently catabolized by heme oxygenase-1 into carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and labile iron. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms operate to maintain iron homeostasis, preventing the deleterious effect of iron-induced oxidative stress. Our preliminary results demonstrate that iron overload in trophoblasts of P. berghei-infected placenta is associated with fetal death. Placentas which supported normally developing embryos showed no iron accumulation within the trophoblasts. Placentas from dead fetuses showed massive iron accumulation, which was associated with parasitic burden. Here we present preliminary data suggesting that disruption of iron homeostasis in trophoblasts during the course of PM is a consequence of heme accumulation after intense IE engulfment. We propose that iron overload in placenta is a pathogenic component of PM, contributing to fetal death. The mechanism through which it operates still needs to be elucidated. PMID:25071574

  7. Only humans have human placentas: molecular differences between mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Morales-Prieto, Diana M; Pastuschek, Jana; Fröhlich, Karolin; Markert, Udo R

    2015-04-01

    The placenta is one of the organs with the highest evolutionary diversity among animal species. In consequence, an animal model that reflects human placentation exactly does not exist. However, the mouse is the most frequently used animal model for placenta and pregnancy research. It possesses a hemochorial placenta, which is similar, but also different from the human placenta. The question whether the similarities are sufficient for the achievement of useful results with regard to human pregnancy was debated recently at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Reproductive Immunology (Budapest, Hungary). Here, we discuss the molecular features of the human placenta that are restricted to primates or even to humans. Many of the primate-specific genetic novelties, e.g., the large microRNA cluster on chromosome 19, have been detected during the last 10-15 years and could not be referred to in earlier discussions. Now, in the light of recent findings and a better understanding of interspecies differences, we conclude that the mouse model is often overvalued. Owing to the increasing number of known human-specific factors in human placentation we consider that many aspects of human placentation can only be understood on the basis of experiments on human cells and tissues in combination with data collections from human subject studies.

  8. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible. PMID:27579202

  9. Immunolocalization of leptin and its receptor in the placenta of cats.

    PubMed

    Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Polisca, Angela; Boiti, Cristiano; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and the distribution of leptin (Ob) and its receptor (ObR) in the feline placenta at term by means of immunohistochemical techniques. A few Ob-positive cells were observed scattered in the lamellae of the labyrinthine placenta. These cells had the morphological characteristics typical of the very abundant cells in the placenta of cats that can be considered as being decidual and, in some cases, syncytiotrophoblastic cells. A few ObR-positive cells were observed in the same placental portion and were mainly localized in the lamellae, showing morphological features typical of decidual and syncytiotrophoblastic cells. No other structure of the placenta or the uterine wall showed positive reaction to the antibodies used. Our results confirm what has already been demonstrated in humans and laboratory animals, but not in domestic animals. Together with other emerging data on the secretory activities of the feline placenta, our study underlines its relevance in the production of molecules long known to be involved in appetite control and, probably, with potential effects on the developing fetus.

  10. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; George, Elizabeth; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: MSC were generated from human placenta tissue by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation. The placenta MSC (PLC-MSC) were characterized for expression of cell surface markers, embryonic stem cell (ECS) gene expression and their differentiation ability into adipocytes and osteocytes. The immunosuppressive properties of PLC-MSC on resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated allogenic T cells were assessed by means of cell proliferation via incorporation of tritium thymidine (3H-TdR). RESULTS: The generated PLC-MSC appeared as spindle-shaped cells, expressed common MSC surface markers and ESC transcriptional factors. They also differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages when induced. However, continuous cultivation up to passage 15 caused changes in morphological appearance and cellular senescence, although the stem cell nature of their protein expression was unchanged. In terms of their immunosuppressive properties, PLC-MSC were unable to stimulate resting T cell proliferation; they inhibited the PHA stimulated T cells in a dose dependent manner through cell to cell contact. In our study, MSC generated from human placenta exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers; MSC-like gene expression pattern and MSC-like differentiation potential were comparable to other sources of MSC. CONCLUSION: We suggest that placenta tissues can serve as an alternative source of MSC for future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22993662

  11. Review: Sexual dimorphism in the formation, function and adaptation of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Kalisch-Smith, J I; Simmons, D G; Dickinson, H; Moritz, K M

    2016-12-08

    Exposure of the embryo or fetus to perturbations in utero can result in intrauterine growth restriction, a primary risk factor for the development of adult disease. However, despite similar exposures, males and females often have altered disease susceptibility or progression from different stages of life. Fetal growth is largely mediated by the placenta, which, like the fetus is genetically XX or XY. The placenta and its associated trophoblast lineages originate from the trophectoderm (TE) of the early embryo. Rodent models (rat, mouse, spiny mouse), have been used extensively to examine placenta development and these have demonstrated the growth trajectory of the placenta in females is generally slower compared to males, and also shows altered adaptive responses to stressful environments. These placental adaptations are likely to depend on the type of stressor, duration, severity and the window of exposure during development. Here we describe the divergent developmental pathways between the male and female placenta contributing to altered differentiation of the TE derived trophoblast subtypes, placental growth, and formation of the placental architecture. Our focus is primarily genetic or environmental perturbations in rodent models which show altered placental responsiveness between sexes. We suggest that perturbations during early placental development may have greater impact on viability and growth of the female fetus whilst those occurring later in gestation may preferentially affect the male fetus. This may be of great relevance to human pregnancies which result from assisted reproductive technologies or complications such as pre-eclampsia and diabetes.

  12. Proteomic Profile of Mabuya sp. (Squamata: Scincidae) Ovary and Placenta During Gestation.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, Nathaly; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-04-11

    Reptiles are one of the most diverse groups of vertebrates, providing an integrated system for comparative studies on metabolic, animal physiology, and developmental biology. However, the molecular data available are limited and only recently have started to call attention in the "omics" sciences. Mabuya sp. is a viviparous placentrotrophic skink with particular reproductive features, including microlecithal eggs, early luteolysis, prolonged gestation, and development of a highly specialized placenta. This placenta is responsible for respiratory exchange and the transference of all nutrients necessary for embryonic development. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the ovary and placenta of Mabuya sp. during early, mid, and late gestation; their possible metabolic pathways; and biological processes. We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis during gestation in both tissues by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization. Differential protein expression in both tissues (Student's t-test P < 0.05) was related to several processes such as cell structure, cell movement, and energy. Proteins found in ovary are mainly associated with follicular development and its regulation. In the placenta, particularly during mid and late gestation, protein expression is involved in nutrient metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and embryonic development. This work provides new insights about the proteins expressed and their physiological mechanisms in Mabuya sp. placenta and ovary during gestation.

  13. The Placenta as a Mediator of Stress Effects on Neurodevelopmental Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Stefanie L; Bale, Tracy L

    2016-01-01

    Adversity experienced during gestation is a predictor of lifetime neuropsychiatric disease susceptibility. Specifically, maternal stress during pregnancy predisposes offspring to sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Animal models have demonstrated disease-relevant endophenotypes in prenatally stressed offspring and have provided unique insight into potential programmatic mechanisms. The placenta has a critical role in the deleterious and sex-specific effects of maternal stress and other fetal exposures on the developing brain. Stress-induced perturbations of the maternal milieu are conveyed to the embryo via the placenta, the maternal–fetal intermediary responsible for maintaining intrauterine homeostasis. Disruption of vital placental functions can have a significant impact on fetal development, including the brain, outcomes that are largely sex-specific. Here we review the novel involvement of the placenta in the transmission of the maternal adverse environment and effects on the developing brain. PMID:26250599

  14. Learning brain aneurysm microsurgical skills in a human placenta model: predictive validity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Magaldi Ribeiro; Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo; Ramos, Taise Mosso; Malheiros, Jose Augusto; Nicolato, Arthur; Machado, Carla Jorge; Ferreira, Mauro Tostes; de Oliveira, Fellype Borges; de Sousa, Cecília Félix Penido Mendes; Costa, Pollyana Helena Vieira; Gusmao, Sebastiao; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Maestro, Rolando Del

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Surgery for brain aneurysms is technically demanding. In recent years, the process to learn the technical skills necessary for these challenging procedures has been affected by a decrease in the number of surgical cases available and progressive restrictions on resident training hours. To overcome these limitations, surgical simulators such as cadaver heads and human placenta models have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these models in improving technical skills is unknown. This study assessed concurrent and predictive validity of brain aneurysm surgery simulation in a human placenta model compared with a "live" human brain cadaveric model. METHODS Two human cadaver heads and 30 human placentas were used. Twelve neurosurgeons participated in the concurrent validity part of this study, each operating on 1 human cadaver head aneurysm model and 1 human placenta model. Simulators were evaluated regarding their ability to simulate different surgical steps encountered during real surgery. The time to complete the entire aneurysm task in each simulator was analyzed. The predictive validity component of the study involved 9 neurosurgical residents divided into 3 groups to perform simulation exercises, each lasting 6 weeks. The training for the 3 groups consisted of educational video only (3 residents), human cadaver only (3 residents), and human placenta only (3 residents). All residents had equivalent microsurgical experience with superficial brain tumor surgery. After completing their practice training, residents in each of the 3 simulation groups performed surgery for an unruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm, and their performance was assessed by an experienced vascular neurosurgeon who watched the operative videos. RESULTS All human cadaver heads and human placentas were suitable to simulate brain aneurysm surgery. In the concurrent validity portion of the experiment, the placenta model required a longer time (p < 0.001) than cadavers

  15. The Fascinating and Complex Role of the Placenta in Pregnancy and Fetal Well-being.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen; Founds, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence implicates the placenta as the origin of some common pregnancy complications. Moreover, some maternal conditions, such as inadequate nutrition, diabetes, and obesity, are known to adversely affect placental function, with subsequent negative impact on the fetus and newborn. The placenta may also contribute to fetal programming with health consequences into adulthood, such as cardiovascular, metabolic, and mental health disorders. There is evidence that altered placental development, specifically impaired trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in the first trimester, is the origin of preeclampsia. Prenatal care providers who understand the relationships between placental health and maternal-newborn health can better inform and guide women to optimize health early in pregnancy and prior to conception. This article reviews the current understanding of placental function; placental contributions to normal fetal brain development and timing of birth; and impact of maternal nutrition, obesity, and diabetes on the placenta.

  16. Structure and steroidogenesis of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale.

  17. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential interventional approaches.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2007-07-01

    Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, such as altered maternal nutrition and reduced utero-placental blood flow; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. Perturbations in the maternal environment must be transmitted across the placenta in order to affect the fetus. Here, we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the maternal environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal programming. In IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) pregnancies, the increased placental vascular resistance subjects the fetal heart to increased work load, representing a possible direct link between altered placental structure and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. A decreased activity of placental 11beta-HSD-2 (type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity can increase fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which programmes the fetus for later hypertension and metabolic disease. The placenta appears to function as a nutrient sensor regulating nutrient transport according to the ability of the maternal supply line to deliver nutrients. By directly regulating fetal nutrient supply and fetal growth, the placenta plays a central role in fetal programming. Furthermore, perturbations in the maternal compartment may affect the methylation status of placental genes and increase placental oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting in changes in placental function. Intervention strategies targeting the placenta in order to prevent or alleviate altered fetal growth and/or fetal programming include altering placental growth and nutrient transport by maternally administered IGFs (insulin

  18. Differential expression of imprinted genes in normal and IUGR human placentas.

    PubMed

    Diplas, Andreas I; Lambertini, Luca; Lee, Men-Jean; Sperling, Rhoda; Lee, Yin Leng; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia

    2009-05-16

    Genomic imprinting refers to silencing of one parental allele in the zygotes of gametes depending upon the parent of origin. Loss of imprinting (LOI) is the gain of function from the silent allele that can have a maximum effect of doubling the gene dosage. LOI may play a significant role in the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Using placental tissue from ten normal and seven IUGR pregnancies, we conducted a systematic survey of the expression of a panel of 74 "putatively" imprinted genes using quantitative RT-PCR. We found that 52/74 ( approximately 70%) of the genes were expressed in human placentas. Nine of the 52 (17%) expressed genes were significantly differentially expressed between normal and IUGR placentas; five were upregulated (PHLDA2, ILK2, NNAT, CCDC86, PEG10) and four downregulated (PLAGL1, DHCR24, ZNF331, CDKAL1). We also assessed LOI profile of 14 imprinted genes in 14 normal and 24 IUGR placentas using a functional and sensitive assay developed in our laboratory. Little LOI was observed in any placentas for five of the genes (PEG10, PHLDA2, MEG3, EPS15, CD44). With the 149 heterozygosities examined, 40 (26.8%) exhibited LOI >3%. Some genes exhibited frequent LOI in placentas regardless of the disease status (IGF2, TP73, MEST, SLC22A18, PEG3), while others exhibited LOI only in IUGR placentas (PLAGL1, DLK1, H19, SNRPN). Importantly, there was no correlation between gene expression and LOI profile. Our study suggests that genomic imprinting may play a role in IUGR pathogenesis, but mechanisms other than LOI may contribute to dysregulation of imprinted genes.

  19. Review: The placenta and developmental programming: balancing fetal nutrient demands with maternal resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Burton, G J; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    The placenta evolved to support development of the fetus, and so potentially plays a key role in the aetiology of developmental programming through its impact on nutrient transfer. Placental transport efficiency depends on a variety of parameters, including surface area for exchange, thickness of the interhaemal membrane and density of transporter proteins inserted into the trophoblast membranes. Here, we review recent studies that tested whether adaptations of placental efficiency are induced in the mouse placenta when maternal nutrient supply and fetal demand are manipulated experimentally. Naturally small placentas, and those exposed to maternal undernutrition, displayed structural changes indicative of accelerated maturation at E16, with enlargement of the labyrinth exchange zone at the expense of the endocrine junctional zone. These changes were associated with increased transport of a non-metabolisable amino acid analogue per gram of placenta, and expression of genes encoding specific System A transporters. Up-regulation of transporters was also observed when a mismatch between placental size and fetal demand was generated through genetic manipulation of the Igf2/H19 axis. Conversely, overgrowth of the placenta induced by deletion of H19 resulted in reduced transport capacity and expression of transporter genes. We conclude that under conditions when the maternal nutrient supply or placental size may be limiting for normal fetal growth, the placenta adapts so as to increase its transport capacity. Hence, it ameliorates the effects of environmental cues that would otherwise lead to more extensive developmental programming. The P0 transcript of Igf2 appears to be a strong candidate as a mediator of these adaptations in the mouse.

  20. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Masoomeh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Dehghani, Leila; Bahadoran, Hossein; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells. Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05). Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed. PMID:25587250

  1. Prominent expression of xenobiotic efflux transporters in mouse extraembryonic fetal membranes compared with placenta.

    PubMed

    Aleksunes, Lauren M; Cui, Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2008-09-01

    Fetal exposure to xenobiotics can be restricted by transporters at the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. Previous work identified transporters in the placenta; however, less is known about the presence of these transporters in the fetal membranes (i.e., yolk sac and amniotic membranes). The purpose of this study was to quantify mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic transporters in mouse placenta and fetal membranes during mid to late gestation. Concepti (placenta and fetal membranes, gestation day 11) or placenta and fetal membranes (gestation days 14 and 17) were collected from pregnant mice and analyzed for expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), multidrug resistance proteins (Mdrs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (Mates), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Maternal liver and kidneys were also collected at day 14 for mRNA and immunohistochemical analysis. mRNA expression of Mrp, Mdr, Bcrp, Mate-1, and Oatp isoforms was detected at day 11. The uptake carriers Oatp2a1, 3a1, 4a1, and 5a1 showed placenta-predominant expression. At days 14 and 17, fetal membranes expressed higher mRNA levels of the efflux transporters Mrp2 (7-fold), Mrp4 (5-fold), Mrp5 (3-fold), Mrp6 (12-fold), Bcrp (2-fold), and Mate-1 (7-fold) than placenta. Western blot analysis of Mrp2, Mrp4, Mrp6, and Bcrp confirmed higher expression in fetal membranes. Immunostaining revealed apical (Mrp2 and Bcrp) and basolateral (Mrp4, 5, and 6) cellular localization in epithelial cells of the yolk sac. In conclusion, xenobiotic transporters in the fetal membranes may provide an additional route to protect the fetus against endogenous chemicals and xenobiotics.

  2. A 30-Year-Old Female Found to Have a Couvelaire Uterus With Placenta Accreta During Planned Cesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Uwagbai, Omici N; Wittich, Arthur C

    2017-03-01

    A case of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta found during scheduled repeat low transverse Cesarean section will be discussed within this article. First described in the 1900s, Couvelaire syndrome, also known as uteroplacental apoplexy, is a rare form of nonfatal placenta abruption complication. The case involves a 30-year-old gravida 3 para 2 otherwise healthy female with an uncomplicated pregnancy and two previous cesarean deliveries without complication. She received routine prenatal care. During her pregnancy, she did not experience any symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain. After delivering a healthy female, there were several unsuccessful attempts to remove the placenta from the uterus. Upon inspection, the uterus was found have dark purple patches with ecchymosis and indurations, diagnostic of Couvelaire uterus. Furthermore, there was high clinical suspicion for placenta accreta as the 30-minute mark approached without placenta detachment. A telephonic emergency review with the wet desk radiologist of the 18-week ultrasound revealed high suspicion for placenta accreta. A Cesarean hysterectomy was performed for prevention of significant hemorrhage. This case report may be the first documented association of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta. Providers should be vigilant in monitoring for antenatal bleeding, timing of placenta separation, and postpartum hemorrhage.

  3. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or...

  4. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or...

  5. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or...

  6. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or...

  7. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of Environment... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or...

  8. Inflammatory infiltration into placentas of Neospora caninum challenged cattle correlates with clinical outcome of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Neospora caninum stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to bovine abortion. The aim of this study was to compare immune responses in the bovine placenta, following experimental infection in different stages of pregnancy. Placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry and inflammation in early gestation was generally moderate to severe, particularly in the placentas carrying non-viable foetuses, whereas it was milder in later stages, mainly characterised by the presence of CD3+, CD4+ and γδ T-cells. This distinctive cellular immune response may explain the milder clinical outcome observed when animals are infected in later gestation. PMID:24484200

  9. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

  10. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time.

  11. Survival by self-destruction: a role for autophagy in the placenta?

    PubMed

    Bildirici, I; Longtine, M S; Chen, B; Nelson, D M

    2012-08-01

    Autophagy is a burgeoning area of research from yeast to humans. Although previously described as a death pathway, autophagy is now considered an important survival phenomenon in response to environmental stressors to which most organs are exposed. Despite an ever expanding literature in non-placental cells, studies of autophagy in the placenta are lagging. We review the regulation of autophagy, summarize available placental studies of autophagy, and highlight potential areas for future research. We believe that such studies will yield novel insights into how placentas protect the survival of the species by "self-eating".

  12. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, B G; Emanuel, R L; Frim, D M; Majzoub, J A

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. We report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery. Images PMID:2839838

  13. Anticoagulants to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: Is it time to put the needles away?

    PubMed

    Skeith, Leslie; Rodger, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, birth of a small-for-gestational age infant and late pregnancy loss, are common and carry significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications is likely multifactorial and may include abnormal coagulation activation of the maternal-fetal interface. The use of antepartum low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) prophylaxis to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications has become common practice despite limited and conflicting evidence to support its use. This paper reviews the evidence, including recently published data from an individual patient level meta-analysis, which challenges the role of LMWH in preventing recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. Incorporating this recent evidence, we recommend against the use of LMWH to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in women with and without inherited thrombophilia.

  14. Profiling gene expression in human placentae of different gestational ages: an OPRU Network and UW SCOR Study.

    PubMed

    Mikheev, Andrei M; Nabekura, Tomohiro; Kaddoumi, Amal; Bammler, Theo K; Govindarajan, Rajgopal; Hebert, Mary F; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2008-11-01

    We used the whole-genome approach to identify major functional categories of genes whose expression depends on gestational age. Using microarray analysis, we compared gene expression profiles in the villous tissues of first (45-59 days) and second trimester (109-115 days) placentae with C-section term placentae. We found that in first trimester placentae, genes related to cell cycle, DNA, amino acids, and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly overrepresented, while genes related to signal transduction were underrepresented. Among genes involved in organism defense, we identified genes involved in chemical response, metabolism, and transport. Analysis of signal transduction pathways suggested, and subsequently confirmed independently, that the Wnt pathway was changed with gestational age leading to inhibition of beta-catenin protein expression. Our study will serve as a reference database to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression in the developing placentae and to compare with gene expression in placentae from complicated pregnancies.

  15. Evaluation of 5-HT7 receptor expression in the placentae of normal and pre-eclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Irge, Emine; Halici, Zekai; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Cadirci, Elif; Karakus, Emre

    2016-01-01

    In this study, by examining 5-HT7 receptor expression in placentae from pre-eclamptic and normal pregnancies, we aimed to discover a new step of pathophysiological cascade for preeclampsia. Patients whose blood pressure over the 140/90 mmHg were included when study after 20 weeks of gestation. 5-HT7 receptor expression was investigated on the placentae obtained after birth by real time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. Pre-natal-post-natal, systolic-diastolic blood pressure values, proteinuria and renal function indicators as BUN and creatinine levels of pre-eclamptic pregnant women were higher than the healthy group. Similarly, 5-HT7 receptor expression determined in healthy placentae increased 8-fold in pre-eclamptic women. This study, for the first time we showed 5-HT7 receptor expression in normal placenta and increased expression in pre-eclamptic placenta.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of heparanase mRNA in porcine placenta throughout gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The porcine placenta is classified as epitheliochorial and is composed of a folded-bilayer consisting of intact epithelium from the endometrium and trophectoderm embedded in loose stroma. As pregnancy progresses, the fold width increases and becomes more complex providing greater surface area for f...

  17. Human Oocyte-Derived Methylation Differences Persist in the Placenta Revealing Widespread Transient Imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Court, Franck; Martin-Trujillo, Alex; Tayama, Chiharu; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Poo-Llanillo, Maria Eugenia; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Simón, Carlos; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of regions in gametes have opposing methylation profiles that are largely resolved during the post-fertilization epigenetic reprogramming. However some specific sequences associated with imprinted loci survive this demethylation process. Here we present the data describing the fate of germline-derived methylation in humans. With the exception of a few known paternally methylated germline differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with known imprinted domains, we demonstrate that sperm-derived methylation is reprogrammed by the blastocyst stage of development. In contrast a large number of oocyte-derived methylation differences survive to the blastocyst stage and uniquely persist as transiently methylated DMRs only in the placenta. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is exclusive to primates, since no placenta-specific maternal methylation was observed in mouse. Utilizing single cell RNA-seq datasets from human preimplantation embryos we show that following embryonic genome activation the maternally methylated transient DMRs can orchestrate imprinted expression. However despite showing widespread imprinted expression of genes in placenta, allele-specific transcriptional profiling revealed that not all placenta-specific DMRs coordinate imprinted expression and that this maternal methylation may be absent in a minority of samples, suggestive of polymorphic imprinted methylation. PMID:27835649

  18. Prevalence of antepartum hemorrhage in women with placenta previa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Liu, Li; Xia, Qing; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Antepartum hemorrhage (APH) is an important cause of perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity in pregnant women with placenta previa in the world. However, the epidemiological characteristics are not completely understood. We performed an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of APH in pregnant women with placenta previa. It was totally performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library were searched before April 2016. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the prevalence. Stratified analyses, meta-regression method, and sensitivity analysis were utilized to analyze the heterogeneity. A total of 29 articles were included. The pooled overall prevalence of APH among pregnant women with placenta previa was 51.6% (95% CI 42.7–60.6) in a heterogeneous set of studies (I2 = 97.9). Correlation analysis found that there was a positive correlation between prevalence and percentage of multiparous (r = 0.534, P = 0.027) and a negative correlation between prevalence and survey year (r = −0.400, P = 0.031). In conclusion, the prevalence of APH was a high condition among pregnant women with placenta previa. PMID:28067303

  19. Placenta accreta in a patient with a history of uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kanter, G; Packard, L; Sit, A S

    2013-06-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is used to treat various conditions from uterine leiomyoma to uncontrollable bleeding. We describe a case of placenta accreta after a prior delivery, which required UAE to control a postpartum hemorrhage. This case highlights the importance of both antenatal evaluation of placentation and heightened precaution for delivery in subsequent pregnancies for women who have undergone this procedure.

  20. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To determine their relative contribution, these activities were compared to those of untreated adult male rat liver, using commonly accepted assays. The enzymes comprised cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), esterase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast to liver, no activities were measurable for 7-ethylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP1A), 7-pentylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B), 7-benzylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B, 2C and 3 A), UGT1, UGT2 and GST in placenta, indicating that the placental activity of these enzymes was well below their hepatic activity. Low activities in placenta were determined for FMO (4%), and esterase (8%), whereas the activity of placental ADH and ALDH accounted for 35% and 40% of the hepatic activities, respectively. In support of the negligible placental CYP activity, testosterone and six model azole fungicides, which were readily metabolized by rat hepatic microsomes, failed to exhibit any metabolic turnover with rat placental microsomes. Hence, with the possible exception of ADH and ALDH, the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta are too low to warrant consideration in PBTK modelling.

  1. How Prenatal Depression, Anxiety, and Stress May Affect Child Outcome: The Placenta and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, T. G.; O'Donnell, K.; Capron, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence that if a woman is depressed, anxious, or stressed while she is pregnant, then there is an increased risk that her child will have emotional, behavioral, or cognitive problems. Her own biology must cause these effects, but it is not known how. One important line of research suggests that the function of the placenta changes…

  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfused guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Nogimori, T.; Alex, S.; Baker, S.; Emerson, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the extraction of synthetic TRH and its metabolic conversion in the perfused guinea pig placenta. These studies were performed to obtain an estimate of fractional fetal TRH losses through the placenta and to determine if some of these losses are due to TRH metabolism. Experiments were performed in which the perfusion buffer contained 0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml or no synthetic TRH. In experiments in which TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir contents and placental effluent fractions were counted for TH, and TRH and deamido-TRH were determined by RIA. Similarly, cyclo(His-Pro) was measured when 10 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. When synthetic TRH was perfused, steady state TRH concentrations were achieved in placental effluent fractions by 20-30 min. The single pass extraction of TRH by the placenta was 11.4 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) compared to 56.9 +/- 7.0% for TH22O. No significant difference was detected regardless of whether 10, 1, or 0.01 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. A portion of the TRH that perfused the placenta was converted to deamido-TRH at all concentrations of perfused TRH. The conversion of TRH to TRH-OH was 4.2 +/- 0.7% in a single pass. When the perfusion buffer was devoid of synthetic TRH, a small but significant increase in the content of TRH immunoreactivity was noted in the placental effluent compared to that in the perfusion reservoir.

  3. Identification and localization of netrin-4 and neogenin in human first trimester and term placenta.

    PubMed

    Dakouane-Giudicelli, M; Duboucher, C; Fortemps, J; Salama, S; Brulé, A; Rozenberg, P; de Mazancourt, P

    2012-09-01

    We describe here for the first time the characterization of family member of netrins, netrin-4 and its receptor neogenin, during the development of the placenta. By using western blots and RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of netrin-4 and its receptor neogenin protein as well as their transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the distribution of netrin-4 and neogenin in both the first trimester and term placenta. We observed staining of netrin-4 in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblast, and endothelial cells whereas staining in stromal cells was faint. In decidua, we observed netrin-4 labelling in glandular epithelial cells, perivascular decidualized cells, and endothelial cells. However, neogenin was absent in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblasts and was expressed only on syncytiotrophoblast and placental stromal cells in the first trimester and at term placenta. The pattern of distribution suggests that a functional netrin-4-neogenin pathway might be restricted to syncytiotrophoblasts, mesenchymal cells, and villous endothelial cells. This pathway function might vary with its localization in the placenta. It is possibly involved in angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and differentiation.

  4. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter.

  5. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Heparanase mRNA in Porcine Placenta Throughout Gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The placenta contains a complex extracellular matrix composed of several glycosaminoglycans including heparan sulfate (HS). Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades HS. The objective of this study was to clone cDNA encoding porcine HPSE and characterize the expression lev...

  7. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E; Main, K M; Kiviranta, H; Tuomisto, J T; Tuomisto, J; Viluksela, M; Vartiainen, T; Skakkebaek, N E; Toppari, J

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case–control study has reported an association between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case–control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels of these chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish–Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997–2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56 controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases and controls were observed in either country in dioxin WHO-TEq levels (median 9.78 vs. 8.47 pg/g fat, respectively, in Finland, and 11.75 vs. 10.88 pg/g fat in Denmark) or PCB WHO-TEq levels (median 2.12 vs. 2.15 pg/g fat in Finland, 2.34 vs. 2.10 pg/g fat in Denmark) or total-TEq levels (median 11.66 vs. 10.58 pg/g fat in Finland, 13.94 vs. 13.00 pg/g fat in Denmark). Placenta WHO-TEq levels of dioxins were not associated with infant reproductive hormone levels at 3 months. In Finland, PCB WHO-TEq levels in placenta associated positively with infant LH levels. WHO-TEq levels of dioxins and PCBs and total-TEq levels were higher in Danish than Finnish samples. In conclusion, no association between placenta levels of dioxins or PCBs and congenital cryptorchidism was found

  8. Efficacy of ozone and other treatment modalities for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R; Tkalčić, S

    2013-02-01

    Retained placenta is a worldwide recognized clinical condition in puerperal cows, which can significantly affect their health and fertility. Available treatment modalities are often of questionable efficacy or associated with time constraints, practicality or monetary considerations for their wide application in a routine dairy practice. The objective of this study was to compare and assess the efficacy of different treatment options, including a novel ozone treatment, for the retained placenta. Two hundred cows diagnosed with retained placenta were divided into five treatment groups, each receiving a different treatment option. Group A (n = 40) was given a combination treatment of intrauterine ozone and parenteral cephalexin; group B (n = 40) was given intrauterine ozone; group C (n = 40) was given a combination of parenteral cephalexin and intrauterine antibiotic tablets; group D (n = 40) was given only parenteral cephalexin and group E (n = 40) was given parenteral prostaglandins in 11-day intervals. The control group (group Z, n = 200) included cows that gave birth without assistance and were not diagnosed with a retained placenta. The ozone treatment (groups A and B) was found to be the most effective modality resulting in the shortest period of days open, the smallest number of artificial inseminations until pregnancy, the smallest number of animals diagnosed with fever within 10 days post-calving, the highest percentage of animals pregnant within 200 days after calving and the smallest number of animals culled because of infertility, when compared to the other treatment groups. The intrauterine ozone flush therefore has a potential as an efficacious and cost-effective treatment option for retained placenta, with an overall positive effect on puerperal health and fertility in cows.

  9. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Woo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Sang Ho; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Moh, Ji Hong; Kondo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Background Rosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice. Methods Sixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg) was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA. Conclusions Rose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing. PMID:26618114

  10. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  11. Plac1 (placenta-specific 1) is essential for normal placental and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Suzanne M; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Fant, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    Plac1 is a recently identified, X-linked gene whose expression is restricted primarily to cells of the trophoblast lineage. It localizes to a chromosomal locus previously implicated in placental growth. We therefore sought to determine if Plac1 is necessary for placental and embryonic development by examining a mutant mouse model. Plac1 ablation resulted in placentomegaly and mild intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). At E16.5, knockout (KO) and heterozygous (Het) placentae of the Plac1-null allele inherited from the mother (X(m-) X) weighed approximately 100% more than wildtype (WT) placentae, whereas the corresponding embryos weighed 7-12% less. Histologically, Plac1 mutants exhibited an expanded spongiotrophoblast layer that invaded the labyrinth. By contrast, Het placentae that inherited the null allele from the father (XX(p-) ) exhibited normal growth and were histologically indistinguishable from WT placentae, consistent with paternal imprinting of Plac1. When examined across gestation, WT and X(m-) X placental weights peaked at E16.5 and decreased slightly thereafter. KO placentae (X(m-) X(p-) and X(m-) Y), however, continued to increase in weight after E16.5, consistent with a functional role for the paternal Plac1 allele. Subsequent analysis confirmed that the paternal allele partially escapes complete X-inactivation and thus contributes to placental growth regulation. Additionally, although male Plac1 KO mice can survive, they exhibit decreased viability as a consequence of events occurring late in gestation or shortly after birth. Thus, Plac1 is a paternally imprinted, X-linked gene essential for normal placental and embryonic development.

  12. Dietary fat impacts fetal growth and metabolism: uptake of chylomicron remnant core lipids by the placenta.

    PubMed

    Rebholz, Sandra L; Burke, Katie T; Yang, Qing; Tso, Patrick; Woollett, Laura A

    2011-08-01

    The fetus requires significant energy for growth and development. Although glucose is a major source of energy for the fetus, other maternal nutrients also appear to promote growth. Thus, the goal of these studies was to determine whether triglyceride-rich remnants are taken up by the placenta and whether maternal dietary lipids, independently of adiposity, can impact fetal growth. To accomplish our first goal, chylomicron particles were duallly labeled with cholesteryl ester and triglycerides. The placenta took up remnant particles/core lipids at rates greater than adipose tissue and skeletal muscle but less than the liver. Although the placenta expresses apoE receptors, uptake of chylomicron remnants and/or core lipids can occur independently of apoE. To determine the impact of dietary lipid on fetal growth, independent of maternal adiposity, females were fed high-fat diets (HFD) for 1 mo; there was no change in adiposity or leptin levels prior to or during pregnancy of dams fed HFD. Fetal masses were greater in dams fed HFD, and mRNA levels of proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation (CPT I, PPARα), but not glucose oxidation (pyruvate kinase) or other regulatory processes (HNF-4α, LXR), were increased with maternal dietary fat. There was also no change in mRNA levels of proteins involved in placental glucose and fatty acid transport, and GLUT1 protein levels in microvillous membranes were similar in placentas of dams fed either diet. Thus, the ability of the placenta to take up chylomicron remnant core lipids likely contributes to accelerated fetal growth in females fed high fat diets.

  13. Placenta previa and pre-eclampsia: analyses of 1645 cases at medani maternity hospital, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ishag; Haggaz, Abdelrahium D; Mirghani, Omer A; Elhassan, Elhassan M

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for pre-eclampsia - including the protective effect of placenta previa - at Medani Maternity Hospital, Sudan. Medical files of the patients during the period 2003-2010 were reviewed for age, parity, education level, prenatal care, placenta previa, and hemoglobin level. Women with pre-eclampsia were the cases, and women with normal pregnancy were the controls. There were 54,339 singleton deliveries and 1765 women with pre-eclampsia in the hospital, giving the incidence of pre-eclampsia of 3.2%. The risk factors for pre-eclampsia were; women with age >35 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8), primiparity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.7-4.0), para >5 (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4-4.0), and anemia (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.8-3.9). The risk of pre-eclampsia was inversely increased with education level and prenatal care attendance. The prevalence of placenta previa was 0 (0%) and 55 (3.3%), P < 0.001 in pre-eclamptic and control women, respectively. Placenta previa was a significant protective factor of pre-eclampsia (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7). Although, the socio-demographic risk factors for pre-eclampsia observed among women at Medani hospital were similar to those found in other settings; placenta previa was associated with decreased incidence of pre-eclampsia.

  14. Balloon-Assisted Occlusion of the Internal Iliac Arteries in Patients with Placenta Accreta/Percreta

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L. Gribbin, Christopher; Siegel, Randall L.; Beale, Stephanie; Scorza, William

    2006-06-15

    Background. Placenta accreta/percreta is a leading cause of third trimester hemorrhage and postpartum maternal death. The current treatment for third trimester hemorrhage due to placenta accreta/percreta is cesarean hysterectomy, which may be complicated by large volume blood loss. Purpose. To determine what role, if any, prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion and transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries plays in the management of patients with placenta accreta/percreta. Methods. The records of 28 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of placenta accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Six patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion, followed by cesarean section, transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries and cesarean hysterectomy (n = 5) or uterine curettage (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy without endovascular intervention. The following parameters were compared in the two groups: patient age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery, days in the intensive care unit after delivery, total hospital days, volume of transfused blood products, volume of fluid replacement intraoperatively, operating room time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Patients in the embolization group had more frequent episodes of third trimester bleeding requiring admission and bedrest prior to delivery (16.7 days vs. 2.9 days), resulting in significantly more hospitalization time in the embolization group (23 days vs. 8.8 days) and delivery at an earlier gestational age than in those in the surgical group (32.5 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean estimated blood loss, volume of replaced blood products, fluid replacement needs, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the contention that in patients with

  15. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females.

  16. Morphology and development of the placentae in Eulamprus quoyii group skinks (Squamata: Scincidae)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Bridget F; Brandley, Matthew C; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Frequent evolutionary changes in reproductive mode have produced a wide range of placental structures in viviparous squamate reptiles. Closely related species with different placental structures and resolved phylogenetic relationships are particularly useful for reconstructing how placentae might have transformed during the evolutionary process. We used light microscopy to study placental morphology in mid- to late stage embryos of four closely related species of Eulamprus, a genus of viviparous scincid lizards that we had reason to suspect may display significant interspecific variation in placental morphology. Embryos from all four species possess a chorioallantoic placenta, an omphaloplacenta and an interomphalopleuric membrane, characteristics present in other viviparous skinks. However, unlike other viviparous skinks but characteristic of oviparous skinks, the allantois expands to surround the yolk sac in each species, supplanting the omphalopleure with a larger area of chorioallantois until a chorioallantoic placenta surrounds the entire egg in one specimen that is only a few days from birth. All four Eulamprus species share the same extraembryonic membrane morphology, but the cellular morphology of the uterine epithelium in the chorioallantoic placenta and omphaloplacenta varies between species. We determined that the interomphalopleuric membrane is a shared derived character of the Eulamprus quoyii species group. New phylogenetic information indicates that variation in the chorioallantoic placenta is a result of two independent transitions, but that variation in the omphaloplacenta can be explained using a single change within the species studied. Our results indicate that E. quoyii group skinks are a valuable model for investigating the evolution of viviparity, as extraembryonic membrane development in these species shows features characteristic of both oviparous and viviparous skinks. PMID:22420511

  17. Shear wave elastography of placenta: in vivo quantitation of placental elasticity in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Kayadibi, Yasemin; Yüksel, Mehmet Aytaç; Adaletli, İbrahim; Ustabaşıoğlu, Fethi Emre; Öncül, Mahmut; Madazlı, Rıza; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit; Mihmanlı, İsmail; Kantarcı, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) for assessing the placenta in preeclampsia disease. METHODS A total of 50 pregnant women in the second or third trimester (23 preeclampsia patients and 27 healthy control subjects) were enrolled in the study. Obstetrical grayscale and Doppler ultrasonography, SWE findings of placenta, and prenatal/postnatal clinical data were analyzed and the best SWE cutoff value which represents the diagnosis of preeclampsia was determined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of preeclampsia were calculated based on SWE measurements. RESULTS Mean stiffness values were much higher in preeclamptic placentas in all regions and layers than in normal controls. The most significant difference was observed in the central placental area facing the fetus where the umbilical cord inserts, with a median of 21 kPa (range, 3–71 kPa) for preeclampsia and 4 kPa (range, 1.5–14 kPa) for the control group (P < 0.01). The SWE data showed a moderate correlation with the uterine artery resistivity and pulsatility indices. The cutoff value maximizing the accuracy of diagnosis was 7.35 kPa (area under curve, 0.895; 95% confidence interval, 0.791–0.998); sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 90%, 86%, 82%, 92%, and 88%, respectively. CONCLUSION Stiffness of the placenta is significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia. SWE appears to be an assistive diagnostic technique for placenta evaluation in preeclampsia. PMID:25858523

  18. Role of mouse Wdr13 in placental growth; a genetic evidence for lifetime body weight determination by placenta during development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Alex, Jomini Liza; Lakshmi, B Jyothi; Sailasree, S Purnima; Raj, T Avinash; Kumar, Satish

    2015-08-26

    Placental development is essential for implantation and growth of foetus in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Numerous growth factors are responsible for placental development and cell lineage differentiation. Gene knockout mice have shown role of various genes in the placenta. Here using Wdr13 knockout mice, we show that this gene is important for proper placental development. Wdr13, a X-linked gene, expresses in multiple trophoblast cell types of placenta and the mutant placenta had reduced size after 17.5 dpc due to reduction of junctional zone (JZ) and labyrinth zone (LZ). We observed reduction in levels of angiopoietin-2 and cd44 mRNA in Wdr13 mutant placenta as compared to that in the wild type. Our findings show that Wdr13 is required for normal placental development and cell differentiation. Wdr13 heterozygous female placenta when the mutant allele was of maternal origin showed similar defects as those in case of Wdr13 null placenta. Using two types of heterozygous females carrying either maternally and paternally derived mutant Wdr13 allele we provide genetic evidence that development of placenta determines body weight of mice for the entire life.

  19. Homocysteine transport by systems L, A and y+L across the microvillous plasma membrane of human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Tsitsiou, Eleni; Sibley, Colin P; D'Souza, Stephen W; Catanescu, Otilia; Jacobsen, Donald W; Glazier, Jocelyn D

    2009-01-01

    Elevated maternal plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, suggesting placental transport of Hcy may impact on fetal development. However, such transport mechanisms have not been defined. In this study we characterise Hcy transport mechanisms across the microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) of the syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of human placenta. Three candidate transport systems, systems L, A and y+L, were examined utilising competitive inhibition to investigate the effects of Hcy on the uptake of well-characterised radiolabelled substrates for each system into isolated MVM vesicles, and that of model substrates on 10 μm[35S]l–Hcy uptake. System L activity was inhibited by both l-Hcy and dl–Hcy, comparable to model substrates including 2–aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH). System L constituted the major transport mechanism, with significant BCH inhibition (∼69%) of [35S]l–Hcy uptake. System A activity was also inhibited by l–Hcy and dl-Hcy with a smaller contribution (∼21%) to [35S]l–Hcy uptake. Inhibition by l–Hcy and dl–Hcy of system y+L activity was Na+ sensitive with a significant inhibition constant (Ki) shift observed following K+ replacement; l–arginine reduced [35S]l–Hcy uptake by ∼19%. Kinetic modelling of [35S]l–Hcy uptake resolved two, Na+-independent, transport components (Km 72 μm and 9.7 mm). This study provides evidence for the involvement of systems L, A and y+L in placental Hcy transport. Such transport, by competing with endogenous amino acids for transporter activity, could have major implications for syncytiotrophoblast metabolism and function as well as fetal development. PMID:19564394

  20. Expression of eight glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in the human preterm placenta vary with fetal sex and birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Z.; Hodyl, N.A.; Stark, M.J.; Fuller, P.J.; Cole, T.; Lu, N.; Clifton, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administration of betamethasone to women at risk of preterm delivery is known to be associated with reduced fetal growth via alterations in placental function and possibly direct effects on the fetus. The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to this response and recent evidence suggests there are numerous isoforms for GR in term placentae. In this study we have questioned whether GR isoform expression varies in preterm placentae in relation to betamethasone exposure, fetal sex and birthweight. Methods Preterm (24–36 completed weeks of gestation, n = 55) and term placentae (>37 completed weeks of gestation, n = 56) were collected at delivery. Placental GR expression was examined using Western Blot and analysed in relation to gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, birthweight and beta-methasone exposure. Data was analysed using non-parametric tests. Results Eight known isoforms of the GR were detected in the preterm placenta and include GRα (94 kDa), GRβ (91 kDa), GRα C (81 kDa) GR P (74 kDa) GR A (65 kDa), GRα D1–3 (50–55 kDa). Expression varied between preterm and term placentae with a greater expression of GRα C in preterm placentae relative to term placentae. The only sex differences in preterm placentae was that GRα D2 expression was higher in males than females. There were no alterations in preterm placental GR expression in association with betamethasone exposure. Discussion GRα C is the isoform involved in glucocorticoid induced apoptosis and suggests that its predominance in preterm placentae may contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. PMID:25990415

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces the expression of interleukin-1alpha distinctly in different compartments of term and preterm human placentae.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, Mahmoud; Amash, Alaa; Sapir, Olga; Maor, Ester; Levy, Sharon; Katz, Miriam; Dukler, Doron; Myatt, Lesly; Holcberg, Gershon

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stimulatory effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-lalpha production in different compartments of term and preterm placental tissues. Homogenates from amnion, chorion, and from fetal (subchorionic placental tissues, maternal decidua, and mid-placental tissue before and after perfusion of isolated placental cotyledons of 5 term placentas and 4 placentas obtained after preterm birth (28-34 W of gestation) were examined. Isolated placental cotyledons were dually perfused LPS (100 ng/kg perfused placental tissue) was perfused into the maternal side during 10 hours. Homogenates of the samples were examined by ELISA for IL-1alpha levels, and paraffin sections of the samples were stained by immunohistochemical staining, to characterize the cellular origin of placental IL-1alpha. Paired t test and ANOVA determined statistical significance. In the homogenates, there was a tendency towards higher IL-lalpha levels in all preterm placental compartments as compared to the term compartments before perfusion. A significant increase was observed only in the chorion compartment (p = 0.035). LPS had significantly increased IL-la levels only in the decidua compartment of term placentas as compared to other placental compartments (p = 0.0004), and had decreased IL-1alpha levels in the mid-placenta (p = 0.034). In preterm placentas, addition of LPS did not affect the expression levels of IL-1alpha in either fetal or maternal compartments as determined by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining. IL-la levels in the chorion compartment of preterm placenta were significantly higher as compared to term placenta. LPS affects placental tissues of term and preterm placentas differently. Also, in the term placentas, LPS affected the different compartments differently. Thus, IL-1alpha may have a key role (as a autocrine/paracrine factor) in the regulation of normal and pathological pregnancy and parturition.

  2. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  3. Transport of calcium across the dually perfused placenta of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Stulc, J; Stulcová, B; Svihovec, J

    1990-01-01

    1. A rat placenta was dually perfused in situ with modified Krebs fluid. Perfusion was carried out through the femoral artery on the maternal side and through the umbilical artery on the fetal side. 2. Transfer of 45Ca2+ and [3H]L-glucose across the placenta was measured in the maternal-fetal direction. The transcellular component of the maternal-fetal transport of Ca2+, Jmf,tc, was estimated from transfer rates of the two tracers and from Ca2+ concentration in maternal perfusate, [Ca2+]m. 3. At [Ca2+]m of 1.1 mM (physiological concentration of Ca2+ in plasma) Jmf,tc was 92.4 +/- 13.7 nmol min-1 (mean +/- S.D.), which is about 90% of the transport expected in an intact placenta. The permeability-surface area product (PS) of the placenta to [3H]L-glucose was 13.8 +/- 3.9 microliters min-1, about 4 times higher than that expected in intact placenta. 4. Transport of 45Ca2+ changed rapidly when [Ca2+]m was varied. Kinetic constants of the transcellular transport of Ca2+ are the Michaelis constant, Km, = 0.45 mM and the maximum rate of transport, Vmax, = 116 nmol min-1. It follows from this that at physiological levels of Ca2+, transport of Ca2+ to the fetus is relatively independent of changes in [Ca2+]m. 5. Strontium and barium (SrCl2 and BaCl2, 1 mM) decreased Jmf,tc; the response was prompt and reversible. Magnesium (2 mM) had no effect. Maternal-fetal transport of 85Sr2+ and 133Ba2+ was decreased rapidly and reversibly by elevating [Ca2+]m from 0.35 to 2 mM. These observations suggest that Sr2+ and Ba2+ are transported across the placenta by the Ca2+ transport system. This means that the transport is not substrate specific. 6. Cadmium (1 mM-CdCl2) decreased Jmf,tc irreversibly with some latency. The slowness of the response suggests a non-competitive inhibition. Cadmium (0.02 mM-CdCl2) was without effect on Jmf,tc. 7. A Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (10 microM), administered to the maternal side had no effect on Jmf,tc. PMID:2324986

  4. Increased risk of placenta previa is associated with endometriosis and tubal factor infertility in assisted reproductive technology pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yuri; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Oi, Nagisa; Tsutsumi, Ryo; Koizumi, Minako; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2013-02-01

    Although assisted reproductive technology (ART) is suspected to increase the risk of placenta previa, a life-threatening complication of pregnancy, the reason is poorly understood. We recruited consecutive 318 pregnancies conceived by ART in our clinic and examined relation of ten variables, i.e. maternal age, gravidity, parity, male or female fetus, previous abortion, previous cesarean delivery, endometriosis, ovulatory disorder, tubal disease, and male infertility, to placenta previa, by logistic regression analysis. As a result, we found that endometriosis (odds ratio = 15.1; 95% CI = 7.6-500.0) and tubal disease (odds ratio = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.1-26.3) were significantly associated with placenta previa. It would be preferable to take the increased risk of placenta previa into account in treating ART pregnancy with endometriosis and tubal disease.

  5. Aberrant Expression of TIMP-2 and PBEF Genes in the Placentae of Cloned Mice Due to Epigenetic Reprogramming Error

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong Rye; Lee, Jae Eun; Oqani, Reza Kheirkhahi; Kim, So Yeon; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Li, Chong; Sa, Su Jin; Woo, Je Seok; Jin, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    Cloned mice derived from somatic or ES cells show placental overgrowth (placentomegaly) at term. We had previously analyzed cloned and normal mouse placentae by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify differential protein expression patterns. Cloned placentae showed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling, and downregulation of pre-B cell colony enhancing factor 1 (PBEF), which inhibits apoptosis and induces spontaneous labor. Here, we used Western blotting to further analyze the protein expression levels of TIMP-2 and PBEF in cloned placentae derived from cumulus cells, TSA-treated cumulus cells, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural mating (NM control). Cloned and TSA-treated cloned placentae had higher expression levels of TIMP-2 compared with NM control and ICSI-derived placentae, and there was a positive association between TIMP-2 expression and the placental weight of cloned mouse concepti. Conversely, PBEF protein expression was significantly lower in cloned and ICSI placentae compared to NM controls. To examine whether the observed differences were due to abnormal gene expression caused by faulty epigenetic reprogramming in clones, we investigated DNA methylation and histone modification in the promoter regions of the genes encoding TIMP-2 and PBEF. Sodium bisulfite sequencing did not reveal any difference in DNA methylation between cloned and NM control placentae. However, ChIP assays revealed that the level of H3-K9/K14 acetylation at the TIMP-2 locus was higher in cloned placentae than in NM controls, whereas acetylation of the PBEF promoter was lower in cloned and ICSI placenta versus NM controls. These results suggest that cloned placentae appear to suffer from failure of histone modification-based reprogramming in these (and potentially other) developmentally important genes, leading to aberrant

  6. Effects of iron polymaltose complex, ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate treatments in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Oliveri, Leda; Angerosa, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Although oral iron preparations are widely prescribed to prevent and to treat iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, comparative data on their effects to the mother, fetus and placenta are limited. In this study, the effects of oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC), ferrous fumarate (FF) and ferrous sulfate (FS) were compared in anemic pregnant rats, their fetuses and placentas. Hematological variables and oxidative stress markers in the liver, heart and kidneys of the dams and fetuses as well as the markers for oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia in placentas were assessed. Pregnancy outcome was measured by number of fetuses, and by neonate and placental weight. All therapies were comparably effective in correcting anemia. FS and FF, but not IPC, resulted in liver damage in dams and oxidative stress in dams, fetuses and placentas. FS group presented the highest catalase and GPx levels in dams, fetuses and placentas. IPC, but not FF or FS, restored normal TNF-α and IL6 expression levels in placentas whereas FS-treated animals presented the highest cytokine levels, suggesting a local inflammatory reaction. Anemia-induced high levels of HIF-1α were partially lowered by IPC and FF but further elevated by FS. Most of the negative effects associated with IDA were resolved by IPC treatment. Especially FS treatment was found to elicit hepatic damage in the dams, oxidative stress in the dams, fetuses and placenta as well as inflammation and high levels of HIF-1α in the placenta. Pregnancy outcome of FFand FS-treated animals was worse than that of IPC-treated animals.

  7. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  8. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p < .001). Among patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended. PMID:22876799

  9. Cell cycle inhibitor p57 expression in normal and diabetic rat placentas during some stages of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Acar, N; Korgun, E T; Ustunel, I

    2012-01-01

    Placentomegaly, an abnormal increase in the size of the placenta, is commonly seen in human diabetic pregnancies and diabetic animal experimental models. Proper placental development depends on the proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts. However, our knowledge about the mitotic regulators that play key roles in synchronizing these events is limited. p57 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor acting in the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. There is no data regarding p57 expression in either rat or human diabetic placentas. The purpose of this study was to investigate p57 expression in control and diabetic rat placentas at different stages of pregnancy. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin on the first day of pregnancy, and placentas were taken on days 11, 13, 17, and 21 of pregnancy. Our results showed that on day 11, p57 immunostaining intensity was stronger in control group placentas compared to the diabetic group. On day 13, p57 immunostaining intensity increased in both groups, but increased more in the diabetic group. On day 17, p57 immunostaining intensity decreased in both the control and diabetic groups compared to day 13, yet the intensity remained higher in control placentas compared to diabetic placentas. On day 21 of pregnancy, p57 immunostaining intensity increased in the control group and it decreased from the day 17 level in the diabetic group. Western blot results showed consistency with immunohistochemistry results. Our study shows different expression patterns of p57 between control and diabetic rat placentas, which indicate p57 may play a role in abnormal placental formation resulting in placentomegaly arising from diabetes.

  10. The management and outcomes of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK: a population-based descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, KE; Sellers, S; Spark, P; Kurinczuk, JJ; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the management and outcomes of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK. Design A population-based descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). Setting All 221 UK hospitals with obstetrician-led maternity units. Population All women diagnosed with placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK between May 2010 and April 2011. Methods Prospective case identification through the monthly mailing of UKOSS. Main outcome measures Median estimated blood loss, transfusion requirements. Results A cohort of 134 women were identified with placenta accreta, increta, or percreta: 50% (66/133) were suspected to have this condition antenatally. In women with a final diagnosis of placenta increta or percreta, antenatal diagnosis was associated with reduced levels of haemorrhage (median estimated blood loss 2750 versus 6100 ml, P = 0.008) and a reduced need for blood transfusion (59 versus 94%, P = 0.014), possibly because antenatally diagnosed women were more likely to have preventative therapies for haemorrhage (74 versus 52%, P = 0.007), and were less likely to have an attempt made to remove their placenta (59 versus 93%, P < 0.001). Making no attempt to remove any of the placenta, in an attempt to conserve the uterus or prior to hysterectomy, was associated with reduced levels of haemorrhage (median estimated blood loss 1750 versus 3700 ml, P = 0.001) and a reduced need for blood transfusion (57 versus 86%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Women with placenta accreta, increta, or percreta who have no attempt to remove any of their placenta, with the aim of conserving their uterus, or prior to hysterectomy, have reduced levels of haemorrhage and a reduced need for blood transfusion, supporting the recommendation of this practice. PMID:23924326

  11. The Incidence of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Pregnant Women with Placenta Previa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Wu, Shuzhen; Tian, Guo; Wang, Wen; Wu, Song; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Background The global burden of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in women with placenta previa is a major public health concern. Although there are different reports on the incidence of PPH in different countries, to date, no research has reviewed them. Objective The aim of this study was to calculate the average point incidence of PPH in women with placenta previa. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies estimating PPH in women with placenta previa was conducted through literature searches in four databases in Jul 2016. This study was totally conducted according to the MOOSE guidelines and in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standard. Results From 1148 obtained studies, 11 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 5146 unique pregnant women with placenta previa. The overall pooled incidence of PPH was 22.3% (95% CI 15.8–28.7%). In the subgroup, the prevalence was 27.4% in placenta previas, and was 14.5% in low-lying placenta previa; the highest prevalence was estimated in Northern America (26.3%, 95%CI 11.0–41.6%), followed by the Asia (20.7%, 95%CI 12.8–28.6%), Australia (19.2%, 95% CI 17.2–21.1%) and Europe (17.8%, 95% CI, 11.5%-24.0%). Conclusions The summary estimate of the incidence of PPH among women with placenta previa was considerable in this systematic review. The results will be crucial in prevention, treatment, and identification of PPH among pregnant women with placenta previa and will be contributed to the planning and implantation of relevant public health strategies. PMID:28107460

  12. [Systematic controlled placenta birth: analysis of 200 cases recruited at the general hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Ecra, A Touré; Horo, A; Fanny, M; Ouattara, H; Adjoussou, S; Koné, M

    2008-02-01

    Haemorrhage of placenta birth is one of the main reasons of maternal mortality in developing countries. The control of this third stage of delivery remains one of the means to stem the scourge. This survey shows that controlled placenta birth is a safe mean to reach this objective: 200 women who had normal vaginal deliveries at the Abobo North hospital were included in the survey. Among them, one hundred women had a controlled placenta birth whereas 100 had a normal one. The analysis of the results showed that: the haemorrhage rates during placenta birth slightly decrease in the group with controlled placenta birth and are clearly lower in the group of patients with risks factors of haemorrhage in 10% of the cases; the delay of placenta birth is twice shorter in the group having a controlled placenta birth than in the group with normal placenta birth; blood loss in the group with controlled placenta birth is three times less important than in the other group. This study speaks in favour of a systematic controlled placenta birth during the third stage of labour as it is already performed elsewhere.

  13. Vaccine and serum-mediated protection against brucella infection of mouse placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Bosseray, N.

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant mice inoculated i.p. or i.v. with virulent Brucella abortus Strain 544 displayed strong infection, evidenced by brucella enumeration in placentas and dams' spleens. Vaccination 1 month before pregnancy decreased frequency of placental colonization and number of brucella per infected placenta and per spleen. Protein-bound cell wall peptidoglycan (PG) fractions extracted from brucella protected mice as well as H38 killed and B19 attenuated living vaccines. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction was comparatively less active. Immune serum injected i.v., either 24 h before or just after i.v. challenge of 15-day pregnant mice effectively transferred resistance to placental colonization. Anti LPS, anti PG and anti killed brucella sera protected mice as well as vaccination one month before pregnancy. The immunity transferred persisted for at least 3 days. PMID:6419766

  14. Morphological evaluation of the placenta and fetal membranes during canine pregnancy from early implantation to term.

    PubMed

    Aralla, Marina; Groppetti, Debora; Caldarini, Laura; Cremonesi, Fausto; Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-08-01

    To describe the histological changes of fetal adnexa throughout the physiological pregnancy, canine samples were obtained during natural delivery and caesarean section, as well as during ovariohysterectomy performed at any stage of undesired pregnancies (N=12). The first period of pregnancy (multiple samples collected at 10, 12, 14 days) was consistent with pre- and peri-implantation events, i.e. apposition and initial invasion steps into the endometrium. The second period (multiple samples collected at 18, 38, 40, 45 days) was related to the development of extra-embryonic structures, placenta establishment and labyrinth formation. At the end of this period the maximum morphological complexity of the endotheliochorial placenta was achieved, characterized by complete erosion of the endometrial epithelium and underlying interstitium with exposure of maternal capillaries to the chorial cells. The third period of gestation (multiple samples collected at 50, 53, 57, 60, 63 days) was characterized by enhancement either of placental and extra-embryonic tissues.

  15. Vital and vulnerable functions of the primate placenta critical for infant health and brain development.

    PubMed

    Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R

    2014-10-01

    The placenta is essential to mammalian pregnancy with many roles beyond just nutrient supply, including both endocrine and immune functions. During the course of evolution, the placenta of higher primates has acquired some unique features, including the capacity to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In addition, a placental receptor for IgG enables particularly high levels of protective maternal antibody to reach the fetus before birth. This paper reviews the placental biology of primates, and discusses its involvement in adrenocortical hormone activity during pregnancy, the transfer of maternal antibody, and finally the delivery of maternal iron to the fetus, which is needed for normal brain development. An understanding of these vital functions during a full-term, healthy pregnancy provides insights into the consequences of gestational disturbances, such as maternal stress, illness, and undernutrition, which have even larger ramifications if the infant is born premature.

  16. Vanadium-mediated lipid peroxidation in microsomes from human term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Byczkowski, J.Z.; Wan, B.; Kulkarni, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    Vanadium is considered an essential element present in living organisms in trace amounts but it is toxic when introduced in excessive doses to animals and humans. Vanadium compounds are extensively used in modern industry and occupational exposure to high doses of vanadium is quite common. In pregnant mice, vanadium accumulates preferentially in the placenta and to lower extent in fetal skeleton and mammary gland during exposure to radioactive vanadium. Accumulation of vanadium in fetoplacental unit may present threat to the fetus by interacting with enzymes and ion-transporting systems in membranes. It is also possible that accumulation of vanadium with its concomitant reduction to vanadyl may lead to lipid peroxidation, followed by damage to biological membranes, lysosomal enzymes release and destruction of placental tissue. To explore some of these possibilities the authors decided to examine whether vanadate can undergo redox cycling in microsomes from human term placenta (HTP) that can lead to lipid peroxidation.

  17. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. )

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

  18. Movements of benzo(a)pyrene across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Springer, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to determine fetal exposure resulting from maternally administered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), the clearance of radiolabeled BaP from mother to fetus was measured across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig at 60 days of gestation. Using techniques previously reported for other toxic materials, the fetal circulation of the placenta was isolated. BaP injected into the maternal circulation, and the concentration of BaP determined in the perfusate. The clearance of BaP from mother to fetus was high following intravenous injection. Clearances appeared to be a function of umbilical blood flow, and ranged from 0.59 to 2.40 ml/min at an umbilical flow of 2.5 ml/min. Since clearances of BaP approximated those obtained for tritiated water, it is apparent that circulating BaP gains easy access to the fetus.

  19. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  20. Mercury accumulation in placenta and foetal membranes. A study of dental workers and their babies.

    PubMed

    Wannag, A; Skjaeråsen, J

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the hazards of exposure to levels of elemental mercury lower than the present TLV value (0.05 mg/m3) a group of dental workers and a nonexposed group were studied. The amount of mercury in blood from mothers and babies at the time of delivery was similar. The exposed group had increased mercury content in placenta and foetal membranes. Mercury accumulation in these organs might serve as a protection for the foetus against mercury exposure. Since exposure to sub-TLV concentrations of elemental mercury during pregnancy will not be reflected in blood mercury content at the time of delivery, the amount of mercury in placenta and foetal membranes might serve as a biological indicator of such exposure.

  1. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with hysteroscopic resection to treat retained placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seong; Hong, Gi-Youn; Park, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Rayon

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of retained placenta accreta treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation followed by hysteroscopic resection. The patient was diagnosed as submucosal myoma based on ultrasonography in local clinic. Pathologic examination of several pieces of tumor mass from the hysteroscopic procedure revealed necrotic chorionic villi with calcification. HIFU was performed using an ultrasound-guided HIFU tumor therapeutic system. The ultrasound machine had been used for real-time monitoring of the HIFU procedure. After HIFU treatment, no additional vaginal bleeding or complications were observed. A hysteroscopic resection was performed to remove ablated placental tissue 7 days later. No abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge was seen after the procedure. The patient was stable postoperatively. We proposed HIFU and applied additional hysteroscopic resection for a safe and effective method for treating retained placenta accreta to prevent complications from the remaining placental tissue and to improve fertility options. PMID:27668209

  3. Optimal villi density for maximal oxygen uptake in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Brownbill, P; Grebenkov, D S; Filoche, M

    2015-01-07

    We present a stream-tube model of oxygen exchange inside a human placenta functional unit (a placentone). The effect of villi density on oxygen transfer efficiency is assessed by numerically solving the diffusion-convection equation in a 2D+1D geometry for a wide range of villi densities. For each set of physiological parameters, we observe the existence of an optimal villi density providing a maximal oxygen uptake as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villus surface. The predicted optimal villi density 0.47±0.06 is compatible to previous experimental measurements. Several other ways to experimentally validate the model are also proposed. The proposed stream-tube model can serve as a basis for analyzing the efficiency of human placentas, detecting possible pathologies and diagnosing placental health risks for newborns by using routine histology sections collected after birth.

  4. Placenta Percreta and Incomplete Uterine Rupture after Endometrial Ablation and Tubal Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Jaden R.; Popek, Edwina; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R.; Guan, Xiaoming; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A.; Belfort, Michael A.; Fox, Karin A.

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial ablation offers symptomatic relief for menorrhagia. Pregnancy after ablation is rare but is often complicated due to pregnancy loss, growth restriction, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm delivery, and morbidly adherent placentation, a dangerous complication that can result in hemorrhage, intensive care unit admission, and cesarean hysterectomy. We report a case of pregnancy conceived contemporaneously with endometrial ablation and tubal occlusion. Diagnosis of pregnancy was delayed due to low suspicion. Complications included cervical implantation and placenta percreta, necessitating hysterectomy with the fetus in situ. Intraoperatively, incomplete uterine rupture was noted. Abnormal neovascularization, fibrous adhesions, and anatomical distortion necessitated a complex surgical approach. Women undergoing endometrial ablation must be thoroughly counseled about the serious risks of postablation pregnancy, the need for contraception, and the risk of sterilization failure. Pregnancy should remain in the differential diagnosis for women of reproductive age, regardless of tubal occlusion. Cases of placenta percreta should be referred early to centers of excellence with multidisciplinary teams. PMID:28050333

  5. Placenta with Old, Diffuse Infarction that Was Difficult to Differentiate from a Placental Tumor.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Miyazaki-Igarashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Placental lesions, including placental infarction, are associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We present a case of fetal growth restriction associated with an old, diffuse placental infarction. Because the placenta had only a single viable cotyledon, the others being atrophic, the lesion appeared to be a placental tumor on prenatal ultrasonography. The patient did not have pregnancy-induced hypertension. At 31 weeks of gestation, a cesarean delivery was performed because of fetal growth arrest and breech presentation. A small-for-gestational age infant was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 at both 1 and 5 minutes, and the infant had cleft palate and cleft lips. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed an old, diffuse infarction without neoplastic change. In cases in which a placental tumor causing fetal growth restriction is strongly suspected, diffuse placental infarction should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, because placental tumors are associated with poor maternal prognosis.

  6. Meta-analysis of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Marc A; Carrier, Marc; Le Gal, Grégoire; Martinelli, Ida; Perna, Annalisa; Rey, Evelyne; de Vries, J I P; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2014-02-06

    A 35-year-old woman with recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in her 2 pregnancies asks: Will low-molecular-weight heparin help prevent recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications in my next pregnancy? We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) vs no LMWH for the prevention of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. We identified six RCTs that included a total of 848 pregnant women with prior placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. The primary outcome was a composite of pre-eclampsia (PE), birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn (<10th percentile), placental abruption, or pregnancy loss >20 weeks. Overall, 67 (18.7%) of 358 of women being given prophylactic LMWH had recurrent severe placenta-mediated pregnancy complications compared with 127 (42.9%) of 296 women with no LMWH (relative risk reduction, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.86; P = .01; I(2), 69%, indicating moderate heterogeneity). We identified similar relative risk reductions with LMWH for individual outcomes, including any PE, severe PE, SGA <10th percentile, SGA <5th percentile, preterm delivery <37 weeks, and preterm delivery <34 weeks with minimal heterogeneity. LMWH may be a promising therapy for recurrent, especially severe, placenta-mediated pregnancy complications, but further research is required.

  7. [Effect of homocysteine on the structure and functions of human placenta trophoblasts].

    PubMed

    Martseniuk, O P; Romanets', K L; Obolens'ka, M Iu; Huppertz, B

    2009-01-01

    Elevated level of homocysteine in blood serum of pregnant women is the risk factor for placental malfunction and fetal abnormalities. Our study has shown the activation of apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation, destruction of placental trophoblast and activation of the transsulfuration pathway under elevated homocysteine level in the incubation medium in the range of 20-80 microM. The activation of the transsulfuration pathway indicates that placenta may to some extent withstand elevated homocysteine level.

  8. The evolution of the placenta drives a shift in sexual selection in livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Pollux, B J A; Meredith, R W; Springer, M S; Garland, T; Reznick, D N

    2014-09-11

    The evolution of the placenta from a non-placental ancestor causes a shift of maternal investment from pre- to post-fertilization, creating a venue for parent-offspring conflicts during pregnancy. Theory predicts that the rise of these conflicts should drive a shift from a reliance on pre-copulatory female mate choice to polyandry in conjunction with post-zygotic mechanisms of sexual selection. This hypothesis has not yet been empirically tested. Here we apply comparative methods to test a key prediction of this hypothesis, which is that the evolution of placentation is associated with reduced pre-copulatory female mate choice. We exploit a unique quality of the livebearing fish family Poeciliidae: placentas have repeatedly evolved or been lost, creating diversity among closely related lineages in the presence or absence of placentation. We show that post-zygotic maternal provisioning by means of a placenta is associated with the absence of bright coloration, courtship behaviour and exaggerated ornamental display traits in males. Furthermore, we found that males of placental species have smaller bodies and longer genitalia, which facilitate sneak or coercive mating and, hence, circumvents female choice. Moreover, we demonstrate that post-zygotic maternal provisioning correlates with superfetation, a female reproductive adaptation that may result in polyandry through the formation of temporally overlapping, mixed-paternity litters. Our results suggest that the emergence of prenatal conflict during the evolution of the placenta correlates with a suite of phenotypic and behavioural male traits that is associated with a reduced reliance on pre-copulatory female mate choice.

  9. The multidrug-resistance transporter ABCB5 is expressed in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Volpicelli, Elgida R; Lezcano, Cecilia; Zhan, Qian; Girouard, Sasha D; Kindelberger, David W; Frank, Markus H; Frank, Natasha Y; Crum, Christopher P; Murphy, George F

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in placenta protectively transport drugs and xenobiotics. ABCB5 [subfamily B (MDR/TAP)] is a novel ABC multidrug-resistance transporter that also mediates cell fusion, stem cell function, and vasculogenic plasticity. Immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence staining for ABCB5 and ABCB5/CD200, respectively, was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental tissue from 5 first trimester, 5 second trimester, and 5 term pregnancies as well as 5 partial moles, and 5 complete moles. In addition, tumor cells from 5 choriocarcinoma and 5 placental site trophoblastic tumor cases were examined. ABCB5 staining was observed in villous trophoblasts in 100% (5/5) of first trimester placentas (with progressive decrease in term placentas); 100% of partial moles (5/5); and 100% of complete moles (5/5). Notably, reactivity was discretely restricted to the inner trophoblast layer, with no staining of overlying syncytiotrophoblast. Antibody specificity and localization was confirmed further by in situ hybridization. ABCB5 expression was retained in 20% of choriocarcinomas (1/5) and 40% of placental site trophoblastic tumors (2/5). Prior studies have localized expression of multidrug-resistance-1, also known as ABCB1, within the syncytiotrophoblast of early placentas, where it serves a protective function as an efflux transporter. Our results show that ABCB5 is preferentially expressed in the cytotrophoblast layer of placental villi. The expression of this novel biomarker at the maternal-fetal interface raises questions on its role in placental structure and function as well as on its potential contribution to the protective efflux provided by other P-glycoprotein transporters.

  10. Sonoembryological evaluations of the development of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations using ultrasound examinations during pregnancy can be used to clarify the mechanisms and pathophysiology of abnormal fetal and placental development. Such sonoembryological assessments are useful as a method for clarifying the etiology of disease. In the present review, we describe current knowledge based on our experience with applying sonoembryological methods to determine the developmental mechanisms of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion.

  11. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Emma M.; Blue, Nathan R.; Lee, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  12. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  13. Differentially expressed microRNAs and affected signaling pathways in placentae of transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Jun; Jin, Li-Jun; Ma, Xue-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Zhai, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Jun-Jie; Yang, Xue-Yi

    2014-07-15

    Placental deficiencies are related to the developmental abnormalities of transgenic cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer, but the concrete molecular mechanism is not very clear. Studies have shown that placental development can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal pregnancy. Thus, this study screened differentially expressed miRNAs by the next-generation sequencing technology to reveal the relationship between miRNAs expression and aberrant development of placentae produced by the transgenic-clone technology. Expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs in different placentae were compared, the placentae derived from one natural pregnancy counterpart (PNC), one natural pregnancy of a cloned offspring as a mother (PCM), and two transgenic (human beta-defensin-3) cloned pregnancy: one offspring was alive after birth (POL) and the other offspring was dead in 2 days after birth (POD). Further, signaling pathway analysis was conducted. The results indicated that 694 miRNAs were differentially expressed in four placental samples, such as miR-210, miR-155, miR-21, miR-128, miR-183, and miR-145. Signaling pathway analysis revealed that compared with PNC, significantly upregulated pathways in POL, POD, and PCM mainly included focal adhesion, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, endosytosis, and adherens junction, and significantly downregulated pathways mainly included malaria, nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study confirmed alterations of the expression profile of miRNAs and signaling pathways in placentae from transgenic (hBD-3) cloned cattle (PTCC), which could lead to the morphologic and histologic deficiencies of PTCC. This information would be useful for the relative research in future.

  14. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  15. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Shi, Jiachen; Jiao, Zhihao; Shao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1), steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2). Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth. PMID:27149376

  16. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. Material/Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  17. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  18. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  19. Endothelial expression of Fc gamma receptor IIb in the full-term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Mishima, T; Kurasawa, G; Ishikawa, G; Mori, M; Kawahigashi, Y; Ishikawa, T; Luo, S-S; Takizawa, T; Goto, T; Matsubara, S; Takeshita, T; Robinson, J M; Takizawa, T

    2007-01-01

    In the third trimester, human placental endothelial cells express Fc gamma receptor IIb (FcgammaRIIb). This expression is unique because FcgammaRIIb is generally expressed on immune cells and is typically undetectable in adult endothelial cells. Recently, we found a novel FcgammaRIIb-defined, IgG-containing organelle in placental endothelial cells; this organelle may be a key structure for the transcytosis of IgG across the endothelial layer. In this study, we verify the expression of FcgammaRIIb in endothelial placenta cells and use reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing analyses to define the expressed FCGR2B mRNA transcript variant. We also investigated the distribution of FCGR2B mRNA and protein within the vascular tree of the full-term human placenta by RT-PCR and quantitative microscopy. The mRNA sequence of FCGR2B expressed specifically in placental endothelial cells is that of transcript variant 2. FcgammaRIIb expression and synthesis occur throughout the placental vascular tree but do not extend into the umbilical cord. This study provides additional information on FcgammaRIIb expression in the human placenta.

  20. Cellular Localization and Regulation of Expression of the PLET1 Gene in Porcine Placenta.

    PubMed

    Teng, Liu; Hong, Linjun; Liu, Ruize; Chen, Ran; Li, Xinyun; Yu, Mei

    2016-12-07

    The placenta expressed transcript 1 (PLET1) gene, which is expressed in placentas of pigs and mice, has been found to have a potential role in trophoblast cell fate decision in mice. Results of this study showed that the porcine PLET1 mRNA and protein were expressed exclusively in trophoblast cells on Days 15, 26, 50, and 95 of gestation (gestation length in the pig is 114 days), indicating that the PLET1 could be a useful marker for porcine trophoblast cells. Additionally, PLET1 protein was found to be redistributed from cytoplasm to the apical side of trophoblast cells as gestation progresses, which suggests a role of PLET1 in the establishment of a stable trophoblast and endometrial epithelial layers. In addition, two transcripts that differ in the 3' UTR length but encode identical protein were identified to be generated by the alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), and the expression of PLET1-L transcript was significantly upregulated in porcine placentas as gestation progresses. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction between the miR-365-3p and PLET1 gene using luciferase assay system. Our findings imply an important role of PLET1 in the placental development in pigs.

  1. A review of inter- and intraspecific variation in the eutherian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gundling, William E.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is one of the most morphologically variable mammalian organs. Four major characteristics are typically discussed when comparing the placentas of different eutherian species: placental shape, maternal–fetal interdigitation, intimacy of the maternal–fetal interface and the pattern of maternal–fetal blood flow. Here, we describe the evolution of three of these features as well as other key aspects of eutherian placentation. In addition to interspecific anatomical variation, there is also variation in placental anatomy and function within a single species. Much of this intraspecific variation occurs in response to different environmental conditions such as altitude and poor maternal nutrition. Examinations of variation in the placenta from both intra- and interspecies perspectives elucidate different aspects of placental function and dysfunction at the maternal–fetal interface. Comparisons within species identify candidate mechanisms that are activated in response to environmental stressors ultimately contributing to the aetiology of obstetric syndromes such as pre-eclampsia. Comparisons above the species level identify the evolutionary lineages on which the potential for the development of obstetric syndromes emerged. PMID:25602076

  2. Oxidative Stress in Maternal Blood and Placenta From Mild Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Ana Paula Machado; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Faria, Priscila Afonso; Dallaqua, Bruna; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was at evaluating the effects of oxidative stress in blood and placenta of mild diabetic Wistar rats. At birth, Wistar rats received citrate buffer (nondiabetic group, n = 15) and another group received streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) to induce mild diabetes (diabetic, n = 15). The glycemia of these pregnant adult female rats were evaluated at days 0, 7, 14, and 21 of pregnancy, and at term pregnancy, the blood and placental samples were collected for oxidative stress measurements. The mild diabetes caused glycemia superior to 120 mg/dL during pregnancy, increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, and catalase activity in the placenta. Thus, mild diabetes increased activities of antioxidant substances aiming at defending against the exacerbated oxidative stress but were not enough. The placenta also answered to diabetic milieu and increased antioxidant defense, showing that even a mild hyperglycemia was enough to cause placental and maternal blood changes. PMID:24458484

  3. RXRα and LXR activate two promoters in placenta- and tumor-specific expression of PLAC1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaohui; Moradin, Adi; Schlessinger, David; Nagaraja, Ramaiah

    2011-01-01

    PLAC1 expression, first characterized as restricted to developing placenta among normal tissues, is also found in a wide range of tumors and transformed cell lines. To understand the basis for its unusual expression profile, we have analyzed the gene structure and its mode of transcription. We find that the gene has a hitherto unique feature, with two promoters, P1 and P2, separated by 105 kb. P2 has been described before. Here we define P1 and show that it and P2 are activated by RXRα in conjunction with LXRα or LXRβ. In placenta, P2 is the preferred promoter, whereas various tumor cell lines tend to express predominantly either one or the other promoter. Furthermore, when each promoter is fused to a luciferase reporter gene and transfected into cancer cell lines, the promoter corresponding to the more active endogenous promoter is preferentially transcribed. Joint expression of activating nuclear receptors can partially account for the restricted expression of PLAC1 in placenta, and may be co-opted for preferential P1 or P2 PLAC1 expression in various tumor cells. PMID:21937108

  4. Cytokine expression in the placenta of pregnant cattle after inoculation with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Cantón, Germán J; Katzer, Frank; Maley, Stephen W; Bartley, Paul M; Benavides-Silván, Julio; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Pang, Yvonne; Smith, Sionagh H; Rocchi, Mara; Buxton, David; Innes, Elisabeth A; Chianini, Francesca

    2014-09-15

    Neospora caninum is recognized as a major cause of reproductive losses worldwide but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Immune mediated placental pathology has been reported as being responsible for compromising pregnancy probably due to the adverse effects of exacerbated Th1 type response at the maternal-foetal interface. Different clinical outcomes are known to occur following experimental infections of cattle at different stages of gestation, with foetal death being the most common finding during early gestation, and the birth of live congenitally infected calves following infection later in gestation. The aim of the current study was to characterize the cytokine expression in the placenta of cattle experimentally challenged with tachyzoites of the Nc-1 strain during early, mid and late gestation. Moderate to severe infiltration of IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressing cells was observed in the placentas collected at early gestation and this infiltration was more pronounced in the samples collected from challenged dams carrying non-viable foetuses, compared with the mothers carrying viable foetuses. In contrast, the infiltration of Th1 cytokine expressing-cells was mild following N. caninum infection in mid gestation and scarce during infection in late gestation. Scarce expression of IL-4 was observed in the placentas from N. caninum-challenged and negative control animals throughout gestation. The milder Th1 immune response observed during later stages of gestation following Nc-1 infection could partially explain the less severe clinical outcome when compared to early pregnancy.

  5. [Age-related features of immunocompetent cells of human placenta associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Durnova, A O; Poliakova, V O; Pal'chenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    The immune-competent cells of placenta play the important role in protection of developing fetus against infectious agents; but their dysfunction can lead to development of placental insufficiency that affects health both fetus and mother. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of presence of immune competent cells in villous chorion of mature placenta, taken from women with diabetes of different age groups. In our study we found three subpopulations of immune cells in villous chorion of mature placenta: natural killer cells (NK), B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Prevailing subpopulation are macrophages, they are detected 1,8 times more often than B-lymphocytes, and 2,3 times more often than NK. The quantity of immune competent cells in groups with diabetes of various types is different. Thus, the greatest number of macrophages was detected in group with diabetes type II of middle age (29-35 years)-- 4.62 +/- 0.93%, B-lymphocytes in group of women with diabetes type I of younger age (18-28 years)--2.50 +/- 0.30%, NK-cells in group with diabetes type I of younger age--1.98 +/- 0,42%. Analysis of received data showed the differences in expression of markers of immune cells in women of different age groups, which brings about the conclusion of various reactance of immune system of women with diabetes depending on age.

  6. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  7. The characterization of fibrocyte-like cells: a novel fibroblastic cell of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M R; Winkler-Lowen, B; Chakrabarti, S; Dunk, C; Davidge, S T; Guilbert, L J

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is a highly vascularized organ thus angiogenesis is a key process in placental development. The contribution that different cells in the villous stroma play in placental angiogenesis is largely unknown. In this study we identified a novel stromal cell type in sections of term placenta which is morphologically fibroblastic and expressing the fibroblast marker TE-7 but also positive for the monocytic markers CD115 and CD14 and designated these cells as fibrocyte-like cells. Populations of fibrocyte-like cells from the placenta were isolated by two methods: culture of adherence-selected placental cells and, for higher purity, by CD45 fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fibrocyte-like cell conditioned medium increased endothelial tubule-like structure formation 2-fold versus control medium. Both pro-angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the anti-angiogenic factor soluble-Flt were found in the conditioned medium. Neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and b-FGF reduced endothelial cell tubule-like structures to control levels. These data suggests that fibrocyte-like cells, a previously unidentified cell of the villous stroma, may play an important role in the regulation of placental angiogenesis.

  8. Induction of parturition in cattle: effect of triamcinolone pretreatment on the incidence of retained placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, L F; Bo, G A; Barth, A D; Mapletoft, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine whether pretreatment with triamcinolone acetonide (TRI) prior to induction of parturition with dexamethasone (DEX) and cloprostenol (CLO) would reduce the incidence of retained placenta. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine the optimum dosage of TRI and to approximate the optimum interval from TRI to induction with DEX + CLO. All cows received TRI on day 270 of gestation. Cows in group I received 1 mg/30 kg of body weight (BW) of TRI and were induced to calve with DEX + CLO on day 276. Cows in groups II and III received 1 mg/45 kg BW and were induced on days 276 or 277, respectively. Cows in groups IV and V received 1 mg/60 kg BW and were induced on days 277 or 278, respectively. Group VI cows served as untreated controls. There was no difference in the incidence of retained placenta among the treated and control groups. Experiment 2 was conducted to more precisely determine the optimum interval from pretreatment to induction treatment with the chosen dose of TRI. All cows in groups I, II, and III were pretreated with 1 mg/60 kg BW of TRI on day 270 of gestation and received DEX + CLO on days 275, 276 or 277, respectively. Group IV cows served as untreated controls. The incidence of retained placenta was higher (p < 0.05) in groups I and II than in the control group, with group III intermediate and not different from the others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7954221

  9. Cocaine up-regulates norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Shearman, L P; Meyer, J S

    1999-12-10

    We investigated the influence of 3 days of continuous cocaine exposure on norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta. On gestational day 17, pregnant rats were implanted subcutaneously with two cocaine-containing Silastic capsules. There were two control groups, one that received capsules with vehicle only and was pair-fed to the cocaine-treated females, and a second group that was untreated and fed ad libitum. Placentas and fetal brains were harvested and frozen on gestational day 20, and subsequently subjected to saturation analyses for norepinephrine transporter binding using the selective ligand [3H]nisoxetine. There was a marked increase in the density (B(max)) of norepinephrine transporter binding sites in the placentas of the cocaine-treated animals compared to both control groups, but no change in the fetal brain. The mechanism underlying this up-regulation of the placental norepinephrine transporter is not yet known, but it could involve a beta-adrenoceptor- and cAMP-mediated induction of transporter gene expression.

  10. Artificial placenta--lung assist devices for term and preterm newborns with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rochow, Niels; Chan, Emily C; Wu, Wen-I; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam R; Fusch, Gerhard; Berry, Leslie; Brash, John; Chan, Anthony K; Fusch, Christoph

    2013-06-25

    Respiratory insufficiency is a major cause of neonatal mortality and long-term morbidity, especially in very low birth weight infants. Today, non-invasive and mechanical ventilation are commonly accepted procedures to provide respiratory support to newborns, but they can reach their limit of efficacy. To overcome this technological plateau and further reduce mortality rates, the technology of an "artificial placenta", which is a pumpless lung assist device connected to the umbilical vessels, would serve to expand the therapeutic spectrum when mechanical ventilation becomes inadequate to treat neonates with severe respiratory insufficiency.
The first attempts to create such an artificial placenta took place more than 60 years ago. However, there has been a recent renaissance of this concept, including developments of its major components like the oxygenator, vascular access via umbilical vessels, flow control, as well as methods to achieve hemocompatibility in extracorporeal circuits. This paper gives a review of past and current development, animal experiments and human case studies of artificial placenta technology.

  11. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a fast multielemental technique for human placenta sample analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marguí, E.; Ricketts, P.; Fletcher, H.; Karydas, A. G.; Migliori, A.; Leani, J. J.; Hidalgo, M.; Queralt, I.; Voutchkov, M.

    2017-04-01

    In the present contribution, benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been evaluated as a cost-effective multielemental analytical technique for human placenta analysis. An easy and rapid sample preparation consisting of suspending 50 mg of sample in 1 mL of a Triton 1% solution in deionized water showed to be the most suitable for this kind of samples. However, for comparison purposes, an acidic microwave acidic digestion procedure was also applied. For both sample treatment methodologies, limits of detection for most elements were in the low mg/kg level. Accurate and precise results were obtained using internal standardization as quantification approach and applying a correction factor to compensate for absorption effects. The correction factor was based on the proportional ratio between the slurry preparation results and those obtained for the analysis of a set of human placenta samples analysed by microwave acidic digestion and ICP-AES analysis. As a study case, the developed TXRF methodology was applied for multielemental analysis (K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of several healthy women's placenta samples from two regions in Jamaica.

  12. Using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI to Quantitatively Characterize Maternal Vascular Organization in the Primate Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Frias, A.E.; Schabel, M.C.; Roberts, V.H.J.; Tudorica, A.; Grigsby, P.L.; Oh, K.Y.; Kroenke, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The maternal microvasculature of the primate placenta is organized into 10-20 perfusion domains that are functionally optimized to facilitate nutrient exchange to support fetal growth. This study describes a dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) method for identifying vascular domains, and quantifying maternal blood flow in them. Methods A rhesus macaque on the 133rd day of pregnancy (G133, term=165 days) underwent Doppler ultrasound (US) procedures, DCE-MRI, and Cesarean-section delivery. Serial T1-weighted images acquired throughout intravenous injection of a contrast reagent (CR) bolus were analyzed to obtain CR arrival time maps of the placenta. Results Watershed segmentation of the arrival time map identified 16 perfusion domains. The number and location of these domains corresponded to anatomical cotyledonary units observed following delivery. Analysis of the CR wave front through each perfusion domain enabled determination of volumetric flow, which ranged from 9.03 to 44.9 mL/sec (25.2 ± 10.3 mL/sec). These estimates are supported by Doppler US results. Conclusions The DCE-MRI analysis described here provides quantitative estimates of the number of maternal perfusion domains in a primate placenta, and estimates flow within each domain. Anticipated extensions of this technique are to the study placental function in nonhuman primate models of obstetric complications. PMID:24753177

  13. Immunohistochemical detection of the orexin system in the placenta of cats.

    PubMed

    Dall'Aglio, C; Pascucci, L; Mercati, F; Polisca, A; Ceccarelli, P; Boiti, C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of cells containing orexin A (OXA), and orexin type 1 and 2 receptors (OX1R and OX2R, respectively) in the feline placenta by means of immunohistochemical technique. OXA was identified in several decidual and syncytiotrophoblastic cells present in the lamellar portion of the placenta. In the same placental structures, few decidual and syncytiotrophoblastic cells showed the presence of OX1R-like immunoreactivity. Characteristically, immunopositivity for OX2R, but not for OX1R, was evidenced in the cells of the glandular layer. The orexinic system was not expressed in the uterine structures that were not engaged by the chorion. Our results provide the first evidence of the presence of a placental orexinic system in a mammalian species. Orexin A and both OX1R and OX2R are unequally distributed within the cat placenta. Local OXA production and the presence of specific receptors, differentially expressed in the placental structures of the cat, suggest that the orexinic system may participate in placental growth and development as well as in the regulation of its steroidogenic capacity via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms.

  14. Cellular Localization and Regulation of Expression of the PLET1 Gene in Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Liu; Hong, Linjun; Liu, Ruize; Chen, Ran; Li, Xinyun; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    The placenta expressed transcript 1 (PLET1) gene, which is expressed in placentas of pigs and mice, has been found to have a potential role in trophoblast cell fate decision in mice. Results of this study showed that the porcine PLET1 mRNA and protein were expressed exclusively in trophoblast cells on Days 15, 26, 50, and 95 of gestation (gestation length in the pig is 114 days), indicating that the PLET1 could be a useful marker for porcine trophoblast cells. Additionally, PLET1 protein was found to be redistributed from cytoplasm to the apical side of trophoblast cells as gestation progresses, which suggests a role of PLET1 in the establishment of a stable trophoblast and endometrial epithelial layers. In addition, two transcripts that differ in the 3′ UTR length but encode identical protein were identified to be generated by the alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA), and the expression of PLET1-L transcript was significantly upregulated in porcine placentas as gestation progresses. Furthermore, we demonstrated the interaction between the miR-365-3p and PLET1 gene using luciferase assay system. Our findings imply an important role of PLET1 in the placental development in pigs. PMID:27941613

  15. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Katia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Coletti, Mauro; Capomaccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env) protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora), the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia), and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse) where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has “captured” a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower) thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated. PMID:27176223

  16. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. Materials and Methods We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Results Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was −0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >−0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04–12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79–6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85–92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Conclusion In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >−0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on

  17. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2α, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ► Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ► Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ► PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ► ROS-mediated ER

  18. Chronic inflammation of the placenta: definition, classification, pathogenesis, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory lesions of the placenta are characterized by the infiltration of the organ by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or macrophages and may result from infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic) or be of immune origin (maternal anti-fetal rejection). The 3 major lesions are villitis (when the inflammatory process affects the villous tree), chronic chorioamnionitis (which affects the chorioamniotic membranes), and chronic deciduitis (which involves the decidua basalis). Maternal cellular infiltration is a common feature of the lesions. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is a destructive villous inflammatory lesion that is characterized by the infiltration of maternal T cells (CD8+ cytotoxic T cells) into chorionic villi. Migration of maternal T cells into the villi is driven by the production of T-cell chemokines in the affected villi. Activation of macrophages in the villi has been implicated in the destruction of the villous architecture. VUE has been reported in association with preterm and term fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, fetal death, and preterm labor. Infants whose placentas have VUE are at risk for death and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years. Chronic chorioamnionitis is the most common lesion in late spontaneous preterm birth and is characterized by the infiltration of maternal CD8+ T cells into the chorioamniotic membranes. These cytotoxic T cells can induce trophoblast apoptosis and damage the fetal membranes. The lesion frequently is accompanied by VUE. Chronic deciduitis consists of the presence of lymphocytes or plasma cells in the basal plate of the placenta. This lesion is more common in pregnancies that result from egg donation and has been reported in a subset of patients with premature labor. Chronic placental inflammatory lesions can be due to maternal anti-fetal rejection, a process associated with the development of a novel form of fetal systemic inflammatory response. The syndrome is characterized

  19. In utero arsenic exposure and epigenome-wide associations in placenta, umbilical artery, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Andres; Houseman, E Andres; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C; Kile, Molly L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic early in life has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases and is believed to alter epigenetic programming in utero. In the present study, we evaluate the epigenome-wide association of arsenic exposure in utero and DNA methylation in placenta (n = 37), umbilical artery (n = 45) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) (n = 52) in a birth cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Unadjusted and cell mixture adjusted associations for each tissue were examined along with enrichment analyses relative to CpG island location and omnibus permutation tests of association among biological pathways. One CpG in artery (cg26587014) and 4 CpGs in placenta (cg12825509; cg20554753; cg23439277; cg21055948) reached a Bonferroni adjusted level of significance. Several CpGs were differentially methylated in artery and placenta when controlling the false discovery rate (q-value<0.05), but none in HUVEC. Enrichment of hypomethylated CpG islands was observed for artery while hypermethylation of open sea regions were present in placenta relative to prenatal arsenic exposure. The melanogenesis pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P < 0.001), placenta (Max F P < 0.001), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Similarly, the insulin-signaling pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P = 0.02), placenta (Max F P = 0.02), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Our results show that prenatal arsenic exposure can alter DNA methylation in artery and placenta but not in HUVEC. Further studies are needed to determine if these alterations in DNA methylation mediate the effect of prenatal arsenic exposure and health outcomes later in life.

  20. In utero arsenic exposure and epigenome-wide associations in placenta, umbilical artery, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Andres; Houseman, E Andres; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C; Kile, Molly L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic early in life has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases and is believed to alter epigenetic programming in utero. In the present study, we evaluate the epigenome-wide association of arsenic exposure in utero and DNA methylation in placenta (n = 37), umbilical artery (n = 45) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) (n = 52) in a birth cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Unadjusted and cell mixture adjusted associations for each tissue were examined along with enrichment analyses relative to CpG island location and omnibus permutation tests of association among biological pathways. One CpG in artery (cg26587014) and 4 CpGs in placenta (cg12825509; cg20554753; cg23439277; cg21055948) reached a Bonferroni adjusted level of significance. Several CpGs were differentially methylated in artery and placenta when controlling the false discovery rate (q-value<0.05), but none in HUVEC. Enrichment of hypomethylated CpG islands was observed for artery while hypermethylation of open sea regions were present in placenta relative to prenatal arsenic exposure. The melanogenesis pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P < 0.001), placenta (Max F P < 0.001), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Similarly, the insulin-signaling pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P = 0.02), placenta (Max F P = 0.02), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Our results show that prenatal arsenic exposure can alter DNA methylation in artery and placenta but not in HUVEC. Further studies are needed to determine if these alterations in DNA methylation mediate the effect of prenatal arsenic exposure and health outcomes later in life. PMID:26646901

  1. The novel inflammatory cytokine high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is expressed by human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Holmlund, Ulrika; Wähämaa, Heidi; Bachmayer, Nora; Bremme, Katarina; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva; Palmblad, Karin

    2007-01-01

    High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) was previously considered a strict nuclear protein, but lately data are accumulating on its extranuclear functions. In addition to its potent proinflammatory capacities, HMGB1 has a prominent role in a number of processes of specific interest for the placenta. Our overall aim was to investigate the expression of HMGB1 in human term placenta and elucidate a potential difference in HMGB1 expression comparing vaginal deliveries with elective Caesarean sections. In addition, placentas from normal pregnancies were compared with placentas from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia. Twenty-five placentas, 12 from normal term pregnancies and 13 from pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia were analysed with immunohistochemistry for HMGB1 and its putative receptors; receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4. We present the novel finding that in addition to a strong nuclear HMGB1 expression in almost all cells in investigated placentas, an individual variation of cytoplasmic HMGB1 expression was detected in the syncytiotrophoblast covering the peripheral chorionic villi, by cells in the decidua and in amnion. Production of HMGB1 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Although labour can be described as a controlled inflammatory-like process no differences in HMGB1 expression could be observed comparing active labour and elective Caesarean sections. However, a tendency towards a higher expression of cytoplasmic HMGB1 in the decidua from women with pre-eclampsia was demonstrated. The abundant expression of the receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4 implicates a local capability to respond to HMGB1, although the precise role in the placenta remains to be elucidated. PMID:17617154

  2. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  3. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  4. Corticotropin releasing hormone- and adreno-corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in human placenta, peripheral and uterine vein plasma.

    PubMed

    Schulte, H M; Healy, D L

    1987-01-01

    The presence of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-like immunoreactivity (IR) in human placenta and maternal peripheral blood has been reported by many investigators. However, its physiological role has not yet been defined. We investigated plasma and placental tissue from women at different times of pregnancy and performed peripheral and uterine vein sampling during caesarean section before and after removal of the placenta. Beside IR-CRH, IR-GRF and -GnRH as well as -ACTH and cortisol were measured. The highest content of CRH was found in placental extracts from end term (40 weeks) pregnancies and lower levels at an earlier stage (10 weeks). Plasma CRH from peripheral blood could be detected in some samples and was higher as pregnancy advanced. Thirty minutes after removal of the placenta CRH levels dropped in peripheral plasma and could not be detected in uterine vein samples. IR-ACTH plasma levels were within the range of normals, cortisol was elevated. Gel- and HPLC-chromatographie revealed that placental extracts coeluted with synthetic human CRH. The material from endterm placenta showed full bioactivity in the rat pituitary bio-assay. IR-GRF could only be detected in 10 weeks placental tissue and no IR-GnRH was measured. We conclude that CRH from the placenta is biologically active, however, cannot stimulate the maternal pituitary-adrenal-axis.

  5. Changes of MAO-A and MAO-B Expressions in the Placenta of MPTP or MPP+ Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sai, Takafumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the influence of intraperitoneal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on the placenta. There was no increase in apoptotic cells in the placentas of C57BL/6 mice treated with 25.0 mg/kg MPTP or 17.1 mg/kg MPP+, indicating that a single injection of the chemicals may induce very slight cytotoxicity in the placenta at 12 hr after administration. The decrease in the expression of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A in the labyrinth zone and that of MAO-B in the basal zone may be due to the decrease in cell activity, whereas the increase of MAO-B expression in the labyrinth zone after MPTP treatment may be due to a responsive reaction caused by MPTP, one of the substrates of MAO-B. The results represent histological evidence that MAO-B may be involved in the metabolism of MPTP to MPP+ in the labyrinth zone of the mouse placenta. In the present study, no increase in apoptotic cells indicates that MPTP and MPP+ are hardly toxic to the placenta, and the histological change in MAO-B expression may indicate the possibility of involvement of placental MAO-B in MPTP metabolism. PMID:23723572

  6. The Placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: Insights into Placental Evolution in Liverworts

    PubMed Central

    CARAFA, A.; DUCKETT, J. G.; LIGRONE, R.

    2003-01-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron‐opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter‐relationships and possible phylogeny. PMID:12876192

  7. Down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters in the placenta of rats exposed to cadmium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lili; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Shuiwang; Zhou, Shanyu; Deng, Yingyu; Dong, Ming; Huang, Jianxun; Zeng, Yuli; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Na; Li, Hongling; Ding, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    As a maternal and developmental toxicant, cadmium (Cd) possesses weak penetrability through the placental barrier. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To gain insight into the protein molecules associated with Cd toxicity in placenta and explore their roles in Cd transportation, a reproductive animal experiment was carried out using Sprague-Dawley rats. We performed proteomic analysis of the placenta by Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The DIGE assay identified 15 protein spots that were differentially expressed with a greater than 1.5-fold change in placenta of Cd-treated rats compared to the control rats. Based on the expression patterns and biological functions of the proteins, we selected the ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporter proteins for further analysis. Western blot analysis showed that Cd exposure could down-regulate the expression of ABCG2 and ABCB4 in the placenta. There was a negative dose-response relationship between Cd exposure and the expression of ABCG2 or ABCB4 protein. These results indicated that down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters may regulate Cd across through placenta and thus affect the in vivo toxic effect of Cd to fetus. PMID:27203216

  8. Antenatal diagnostic aspects of placenta percreta and its influence on the perinatal outcome: a clinical case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jelena, Volochovič; Diana, Ramašauskaitė; Ramunė, Šimkevičiūtė

    2016-01-01

    Background. Placenta percreta is a very rare, but extremely life-threatening obstetrical pathology for the mother and the child, especially in the cases when it is not diagnosed before the birth and when it results in massive bleeding and a dramatic deterioration of condition. It is extremely important to diagnose this pathology as early as possible and plan further optimal care of patients in order to minimize life-threatening complications. Case report. The paper presents an illustrated clinical case of placenta percreta determined before the birth. Features of visual diagnostics are discussed. A 32-year-old pregnant woman with a history of two caesarean deliveries arrived at the tertiary level hospital at 22 weeks of gestation due to abdomen pain. Placenta previa was diagnosed and ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging suggesting placenta percreta were seen. On the 32nd week, the planned caesarean hysterectomy was performed. The balloon catheters to occlude the internal iliac arteries and minimize bleeding during the surgery were used. Conclusions. Antenatal diagnosis of placenta percreta is especially important. Methods of visual diagnostics are complementary. The optimal surgical approach during caesarean hysterectomy remains controversial. In the case of the slow oozing without a clearly identified source of bleeding after hysterectomy and internal iliac arteries balloons deflation, ligation of one of the internal iliac arteriescan be reasonable to avoid residual haemorrhage and relaparotomy. PMID:28356812

  9. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development.

  10. Effects of Concentration and Reaction Time of Trypsin, Pepsin, and Chymotrypsin on the Hydrolysis Efficiency of Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung-Hun; Choi, Ye-Chul; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three proteases (trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin) on the hydrolysis efficiency of porcine placenta and the molecular weight (Mw) distributions of the placental hydrolysates. Because placenta was made up of insoluble collagen, the placenta was gelatinized by applying thermal treatment at 90 ℃ for 1 h and used as the sample. The placental hydrolyzing activities of the enzymes at varying concentrations and incubation times were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Based on the SDS-PAGE, the best placental hydrolysis efficiency was observed in trypsin treatments where all peptide bands disappeared after 1 h of incubation as compared to 6 h of chymotrypsin. Pepsin hardly hydrolyzed the placenta as compared to the other two enzymes. The Mw distribution revealed that the trypsin produced placental peptides with Mw of 106 and 500 Da. Peptides produced by chymotrypsin exhibited broad ranges of Mw distribution (1-20 kDa), while the pepsin treatment showed Mw greater than 7 kDa. For comparisons of pre-treatments, the subcritical water processing (37.5 MPa and 200 ℃ of raw placenta improved the efficiency of tryptic digestions to a greater level than that of a preheating treatment (90 ℃ for 1 h). Consequently, subcritical water processing followed by enzymatic digestions has the potential of an advanced collagen hydrolysis technique. PMID:26760932

  11. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvraa, Steen; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to"DNA binding" and "transcription factor binding" coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments.

  12. The placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: insights into placental evolution in liverworts.

    PubMed

    Carafa, A; Duckett, J G; Ligrone, R

    2003-08-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron-opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter-relationships and possible phylogeny.

  13. Some preliminary matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging experiments on maternal and fetal sides of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Roverso, Marco; Lapolla, Annunziata; Cosma, Chiara; Seraglia, Roberta; Galvan, Elisa; Visentin, Silvia; Cosmi, Eric; Desoye, Gernot; Traldi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on placenta proteins has been carried out by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) ion imaging (II) experiments. This was performed by laser irradiation of the maternal and fetal sides of placenta tissue. To investigate the possible changes in protein profile due to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), five placenta samples from GDM patients and five placenta samples from healthy pregnant women were analyzed. An extensive optimization of the tissue slice treatment and of the matrix deposition method was performed. As already observed in MALDI spectra of placenta homogenates, and also in the MALDI-II condition, the most abundant peaks are due to hemoglobin α chain, hemoglobin β chain and hemoglobin γ chain. However, higher molecular weight protein species were detected in the m/z range 20,000-47,000. The species at m/z 30335, m/z 31235 and m/z 32000 show some differences in their abundance in the maternal and fetal sides of the tissue in both classes of subjects under investigation. Comparison with the literature data suggest that they can result from the presence of mitochondrial proteins at tissue level.

  14. Phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta: an experimental and modeling investigation.

    PubMed

    Lofthouse, E M; Perazzolo, S; Brooks, S; Crocker, I P; Glazier, J D; Johnstone, E D; Panitchob, N; Sibley, C P; Widdows, K L; Sengers, B G; Lewis, R M

    2016-02-01

    Membrane transporters are considered essential for placental amino acid transfer, but the contribution of other factors, such as blood flow and metabolism, is poorly defined. In this study we combine experimental and modeling approaches to understand the determinants of [(14)C]phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta. Transfer of [(14)C]phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set at 10, 14, and 18 ml/min for 1 h each. At each maternal flow rate, fetal flow rates were set at 3, 6, and 9 ml/min for 20 min each. Appearance of [(14)C]phenylalanine was measured in the maternal and fetal venous exudates. Computational modeling of phenylalanine transfer was undertaken to allow comparison of the experimental data with predicted phenylalanine uptake and transfer under different initial assumptions. Placental uptake (mol/min) of [(14)C]phenylalanine increased with maternal, but not fetal, flow. Delivery (mol/min) of [(14)C]phenylalanine to the fetal circulation was not associated with fetal or maternal flow. The absence of a relationship between placental phenylalanine uptake and net flux of phenylalanine to the fetal circulation suggests that factors other than flow or transporter-mediated uptake are important determinants of phenylalanine transfer. These observations could be explained by tight regulation of free amino acid levels within the placenta or properties of the facilitated transporters mediating phenylalanine transport. We suggest that amino acid metabolism, primarily incorporation into protein, is controlling free amino acid levels and, thus, placental transfer.

  15. Effect of strain rate on the tensile material properties of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; McNally, Craig; Kemper, Andrew R; Santago, Anthony C; Duma, Stefan M

    2009-09-01

    Automobile crashes are the largest cause of injury death for pregnant females and the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States. Computational models, useful tools to evaluate the risk of fetal loss in motor vehicle crashes, are based on a limited number of quasistatic material tests of the placenta. This study presents a total of 64 uniaxial tensile tests on coupon specimens from six human placentas at three strain rates. Material properties of the placental tissue were evaluated at strain rates of 0.07/s, 0.70/s, and 7.00/s. The test data have average failure strains of 0.34, 0.36, and 0.37, respectively. Failure stresses of 10.8 kPa, 11.4 kPa, and 18.6 kPa correspond to an increase in strain rate from 0.07/s to 7.0/s. The results indicate rate dependence only when comparing the highest strain rate of 7.0/s to either of the lower rates. There is no significant rate dependence between 0.07/s and 0.70/s. When compared with previous testing of placental tissue, the current study addresses the material response to more strain rates as well as provides a much larger set of available data. In summary, tensile material properties for the placenta have been determined for use in computational modeling of pregnant occupant kinematics in events ranging from low impact activities to severe impacts such as in motor vehicle crashes.

  16. Novel expression and regulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels in placentas from women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Hiten D; McCallum, Laura A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Greenwood, Iain A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Tribe, Rachel M

    2011-09-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with structural/functional alterations in placental and maternal vasculature. Voltage-dependant potassium channels encoded by KCNQ1-5 genes have been detected in several types of blood vessels where they promote vascular relaxation. Voltage-dependant potassium channel function can be modulated by KCNE1-5-encoded accessory proteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether KCNQ and KCNE genes are differentially expressed in placentas from women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls and to examine any differences in those who delivered preterm (<37 weeks) or term. Placental biopsies (from midway between the cord and periphery) were obtained, with consent, from white European control (n=24; term) and preeclamptic (n=22; of whom 8 delivered before 37 weeks' gestation) women. KCNQ/KCNE and GAPDH mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression/localization was assessed using immunohistochemistry. KCNQ3 and KCNE5 mRNA expressions were significantly upregulated in preeclampsia (median [interquartile range]: 1.942 [0.905 to 3.379]) versus controls (0.159 [0.088 to 0.288]; P=0.001) and exhibited a strong positive correlation with each other (P<0.001), suggesting a novel heterodimer. Enhanced protein expression of KCNQ3 and KCNE5 in preeclampsia was confirmed with localization mainly restricted to the syncytiotrophoblast. KCNQ4 and KCNE1 isoforms were suppressed in placentas from term preeclamptic women versus controls (P≤0.05). KCNQ1 mRNA expression was increased and KCNQ5 decreased in the preterm preeclamptic group versus controls (P<0.05). In summary, voltage-dependant potassium channels are expressed and markedly modulated in placentas from preeclamptic women. Differential expression of isoforms may lead to altered cell proliferation. The correlation between KCNQ3 and KCNE5 expression is indicative of a novel channel complex and warrants further investigation.

  17. Expression and clinical significance of LXRα and SREBP-1c in placentas of preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Jianhua, Li; Xueqin, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the expression and correlations of liver X receptor alpha (LXRa) and its target gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in placentas of preeclampsia (PE) and their significance in PE. Methods Pregnancies were divided into two groups, 60 cases (29 cases of mild and 31 cases of severe) of PE group and 56 cases of normal group. The level of mRNA and protein of LXRa and SREBP-1c were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the placentas. Results RT-PCR and IHC results showed that the mRNA and protein expression of both LXRa and SREBP-1c increased gradually with the extent of PE among normal pregnancy, mild PE and severe PE groups, and the differences were of statistically significance (P<0.01 or P<0.05). There were positive correlations between the expression of LXRa mRNA and SREBP-1c mRNA, also between LXRa mRNA and LXRa protein (r=0.521, P<0.01; r=0.422, P<0.01). The expression of SREBP-1c mRNA positively correlated with its protein level (r=0.598, P<0.01). There were positive correlations between the expression of LXRa protein and SREBP-1c protein (r=0.612, P<0.01). Conclusion The expression of LXRa is elevated significantly in placentas of PE patients, and might contribute for promoting the transcription and translation of its target gene SREBP1-c, which is related to the occurrence and development of PE. PMID:28352810

  18. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    PubMed

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae, Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae(9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  19. A comparative stereological study of the term placenta in the donkey, pony and Thoroughbred.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Villani, M; Wilsher, S; Contri, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare horse and donkey placentae using stereological techniques. Term placentae were collected at spontaneous foaling from seven Thoroughbred mares, seven pony mares, and six jenny donkeys. Maternal and foal weights were recorded and the mass, volume, and gross area of each allantochorion was also recorded. Ten random biopsies were recovered and processed for light microscopy from which the surface density of the microcotyledons (S(v)) and the total microscopic area of fetomaternal contact were calculated stereologically. Gestation length was longer in the donkeys than the other two groups (median values: 371 vs. 327 and 341 days, P < 0.05). There were significant correlations between foal birthweight and gross area (rho = 0.89; n = 20; P < 0.05), mass (rho = 0.84; n = 20; P < 0.05) and volume (rho = 0.89; n = 20; P < 0.05) of the allantochorion. S(v) was higher in the donkey placenta than the other groups (median values: 0.05 vs. 0.03 and 0.04 microm(-1), P < 0.05) although placental efficiency was lower in the donkeys (median values: 0.87 vs. 1.33 and 1.32 kg/m2, P < 0.01). The results of the study confirmed that, although strong morphological similarities exist between the allantochorion of the horse and donkey, that of the donkey develops more complex microcotyledons, as judged stereologically, and exhibits a lower placental efficiency. These differences may be related to maternal genotype and/or the longer gestation length shown by the donkey compared to the horse, but a negative correlation (rho = -0.92, P < 0.01) was also found between age and placental efficiency in donkeys.

  20. MOTHER’S LIFETIME NUTRITION AND THE SIZE, SHAPE AND EFFICIENCY OF THE PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Nicola R.; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V.; Veena, Sargoor R.; Hill, Jacqueline C.; Karat, Chitra L.S.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Barker, David J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that the shape and size of the placenta at birth predict blood pressure in later life. The influences that determine placental morphology are largely unknown. We have examined the role of mother’s body size. Methods We studied 522 neonates who were born in a maternity hospital in Mysore, South India. The weight of the placenta and the length and breadth of its surface, were measured after delivery. Results Higher maternal fat mass predicted a larger placental surface (p=0.02), while larger maternal head circumference predicted a more oval placental surface (p=0.03). Higher maternal fat mass and larger maternal head circumference were associated with greater placental efficiency, indicated by lower ratios of the length (p=0.0003 and p=0.0001 respectively) and breadth (p=0.0002 and p<0.0001) of the surface to birthweight. In a sub-sample of 51 mothers whose own birthweight was available, higher maternal birthweight was related to lower ratios of the length and breadth of the surface to birthweight (p=0.01 and 0.002). Maternal height was unrelated to placental size or shape. Conclusions Higher maternal fat mass, reflecting the mother’s current nutritional state, and larger maternal head circumference, reflecting the mother’s fetal/infant growth, are associated with changes in the shape and size of the placental surface and greater placental efficiency. We suggest that these associations reflect effects of the mother’s nutrition at different stages of her lifecourse on the development of the placenta and on materno-placento-fetal transfer of nutrients. PMID:21924491

  1. Smoking during pregnancy causes double-strand DNA break damage to the placenta.

    PubMed

    Slatter, Tania L; Park, Lydia; Anderson, Karyn; Lailai-Tasmania, Viwa; Herbison, Peter; Clow, William; Royds, Janice A; Devenish, Celia; Hung, Noelyn A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the adverse effects of smoking, many pregnancies are exposed to tobacco smoke. Recent studies have investigated whether smoking damages placental DNA by measuring DNA adducts. This study investigated whether a more severe lesion, double-strand DNA breaks, was also present in the tobacco smoking-exposed placenta. Term placentae from women who smoked during their entire pregnancies (n = 52), from those who had ceased smoking for at least 4 weeks before delivery (previous smokers, n = 34), and from nonsmoking women (n = 150) were examined using the DNA double-strand break marker phosphorylated γ H2AX. The extent of DNA damage was assessed according to cell type and additional markers were applied for cell fate (apoptosis and DNA repair), and function (human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, and glucose transporter 1), to characterize the effect of the DNA damage on placental integrity. Marked phosphorylated γ H2AX-positive cells occurred in the villous syncytiotrophoblast and syncytial knot nuclei in placentae from smokers (P < .001). Phosphorylated γ H2AX foci did not colocalize with the DNA repair protein 53BP1, and damaged nuclei had a marked reduction in expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, and glucose transporter 1. Minimal DNA damage, similar to nonsmokers, was present in previous smokers including those that had ceased smoking for just over 4 weeks before delivery. In summary, smoking during pregnancy was associated with marked double-strand DNA break damage to the syncytiotrophoblast. We suggest that smoking cessation is important to prevent additional DNA damage and to facilitate DNA repair.

  2. Gene expression and epigenetic aberrations in F1-placentas fathered by obese males.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Megan; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Dittrich, Ralf; McPherson, Nicole O; Lane, Michelle; Pliushch, Galyna; Potabattula, Ramya; Haaf, Thomas; El Hajj, Nady

    2017-02-10

    Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analyzed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing. Our aim was to determine if paternal obesity deregulated placental gene expression and DNA methylation when compared to normal-weight males. Gene methylation of sperm DNA was analyzed and compared to placentas to address epigenetic transmission. Of the 10 paternally expressed genes (Pegs), 11 genes important for development and transport of nutrients, and the long-terminal repeat Intracisternal A particle (IAP) elements, derived from a member of the class II endogenous retroviral gene family, we observed a significant effect of paternal diet-induced obesity on deregulated expression of Peg3, Peg9, Peg10, and the nutrient transporter gene Slc38a2, and aberrant DNA methylation of the Peg9 promoter in F1 placental tissue. Epigenetic changes in Peg9 were also found in sperm from obese fathers. We therefore propose that paternal obesity renders changes in gene expression and/or methylation throughout the placental genome, which could contribute to the reproductive problems related to fertility and to the metabolic, long-term health impact on offspring.

  3. Increasing CACNA1C expression in placenta containing high Cd level: an implication of Cd toxicity.

    PubMed

    Phuapittayalert, Laorrat; Saenganantakarn, Phisid; Supanpaiboon, Wisa; Cheunchoojit, Supaporn; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Sakulsak, Natthiya

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has known to produce many adverse effects on organs including placenta. Many essential transporters are involved in Cd transport pathways such as DMT-1, ZIP as well as L-VDCC. Fourteen pregnant women participated and were divided into two groups: high and low Cd-exposed (H-Cd, L-Cd) groups on the basis of their residential areas, Cd concentrations in the blood (B-Cd), urine (U-Cd), and placenta (P-Cd). The results showed that the B-Cd and U-Cd were significantly increased in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the P-Cd in H-Cd group was elevated (p < 0.05) and positively related to their B-Cd and U-Cd values (p < 0.05). However, the mean cord blood Cd (C-Cd) concentration in H-Cd group was not significantly increased about 2.5-fold when comparing to L-Cd group. To determine the Cd accumulation in placental tissues, metallothionein-1A (MT-1A) and metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) expressions were used as biomarkers. The results revealed that mean MT-1A and MT-2A mRNAs and MT-1/2 proteins were up-regulated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). In addition, the Ca channel alpha 1C (CACNA1C) mRNA and protein expressions were noticeably elevated in H-Cd group (p < 0.05). From these findings, we suggested that CACNA1C might be implicated in Cd transport in human placenta.

  4. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. Methods We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Results Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (P<0.05, each). Moreover, patients with severe preeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (P<0.05, each). The LXRα sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 66.00%, 80.00%, 89.19% and 48.48%, respectively, while those of endoglin levels were 62.00%, 85.00%, 91.18% and 47.22%, respectively. LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta from patients with preeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, P<0.01; placenta: r = 0.569, P<0.01). Conclusions Elevated LXRα and endoglin levels may be associated with preeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder. PMID:27736929

  5. RelB/NF-κB2 regulates corticotropin-releasing hormone in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingbing; Parobchak, Nataliya; Rosen, Todd

    2012-08-01

    Placental CRH may be part of a clock that governs the length of human gestation. The mechanism underlying differential regulation of CRH in the human placenta is poorly understood. We report here that constitutively activated RelB/nuclear factor-κB2 (NF-κB)-2 (p100/p52) acts as an endogenous stimulatory signal to regulate CRH by binding to an NF-κB enhancer of CRH gene promoter in the human placenta. Nuclear staining of NF-κB2 and RelB in villous syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts was coupled with cytoplasmic CRH in syncytial knots of cytotrophoblasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified that CRH gene associated with both RelB and NF-κB2 (p52). Dexamethasone increased synthesis and nuclear translocation of RelB and NF-κB2 (p52) and their association with the CRH gene. In contrast, progesterone, a down-regulator of placental CRH, repressed NF-κB2 (p100) processing, nuclear translocation of RelB and NF-κB2 (p52), and their association with the CRH gene. Luciferase reporter assay determined that the NF-κB enhancer of CRH was sufficient to regulate transcriptional activity of a heterologous promoter in primary cytotrophoblasts. RNA interference-mediated repression of RelB or NF-κB2 resulted in significant inhibition of CRH at both transcriptional and translational levels and prevented the dexamethasone-mediated up-regulation of CRH transcription and translation. These results suggest that the noncanonical NF-κB pathway regulates CRH production in the human placenta and is responsible for the positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids.

  6. Errors in development of fetuses and placentas from in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Farin, Peter W; Piedrahita, Jorge A; Farin, Charlotte E

    2006-01-07

    In vitro systems for oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo culture [in vitro production (IVP)] have the potential for more wide-spread use in creative breeding programs for dairy and beef cattle. However, one negative consequence of both IVP and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in cattle and other species is that embryos, fetuses, placentas, and offspring can differ significantly in morphology and developmental competence compared with those from embryos produced in vivo. Fetuses and placentas derived from IVP and SCNT embryos may fall within the normal range of development, may have obvious abnormalities such as increased fetal and placental weights, or may have subtle abnormalities such as aberrant development of fetal skeletal muscle, placental blood vessels, and altered metabolism. Failures in physiologic and/or genetic mechanisms essential for proper fetal growth and survival outside of the uterus contribute significantly to pregnancy and neonatal losses. Oversized fetuses are at increased risk of death during parturition and the adverse consequences of severe dystocia may compromise the dam. Collectively, these abnormalities have been referred to as 'large offspring syndrome' or 'large calf syndrome'. Abnormal phenotypes resulting from IVP and SCNT embryos are stochastic in occurrence and they have not been consistently linked to aberrant expression of single genes or specific pathophysiology. Thus, reliable methods of early diagnosis of the condition are not yet available. The objective of this paper is to examine abnormal development of fetuses and placentas resulting from embryos produced using in vitro systems. The term 'abnormal offspring syndrome (AOS)' is introduced and a classification system of developmental outcomes is proposed to facilitate research efforts on the mechanisms of the various abnormal phenotypes. We also discuss potential genetic and physiologic mechanisms that may contribute to abnormal phenotypes following transfer of IVP

  7. The effects of pravastatin on the normal human placenta: Lessons from ex-vivo models

    PubMed Central

    Swissa, Shani S.; Feinshtein, Valeria; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Holcberg, Gershon; Dukler, Doron

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Research in animal models and preliminary clinical studies in humans support the use of pravastatin for the prevention of preeclampsia. However, its use during pregnancy is still controversial due to limited data about its effect on the human placenta and fetus. Methods In the present study, human placental cotyledons were perfused in the absence or presence of pravastatin in the maternal reservoir (PraM). In addition, placental explants were treated with pravastatin for 5, 24 and 72 h under normoxia and hypoxia. We monitored the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II. Results The concentrations of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sEng were not significantly altered by pravastatin in PraM cotyledons and in placental explants compared to control. Under hypoxic conditions, pravastatin decreased sFlt-1 concentrations. eNOS expression was significantly increased in PraM cotyledons but not in pravastatin-treated placental explants cultured under normoxia or hypoxia. eNOS phosphorylation was not significantly affected by pravastatin. The feto-placental vascular tone and the fetal vasoconstriction response to angiotensin-II, did not change following exposure of the maternal circulation to pravastatin. Conclusion We found that pravastatin does not alter the essential physiological functions of the placenta investigated in the study. The relevance of the study lays in the fact that it expands the current knowledge obtained thus far regarding the effect of the drug on the normal human placenta. This data is reassuring and important for clinicians that consider the treatment of high-risk patients with pravastatin, a treatment that exposes some normal pregnancies to the drug. PMID:28199380

  8. Transcriptomic signatures of villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Guesnon, Mickael; Henegar, Corneliu; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Degrelle, Séverine A; Fournier, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta ensures multiple functions, which are directly involved in the initiation, fetal growth and outcome of gestation. The placental tissue involved in maternal-fetal exchanges and in synthesis of pregnancy hormones is the mononucleated villous cytotrophoblast (VCT) which aggregates and fuses to form and renew the syncytiotrophoblast (ST). Knowledge of the gene expression pattern specific to this endocrine and exchanges tissue of human placenta is of major importance to understand functions of this heterogeneous and complex tissue. Therefore, we undertook a global analysis of the gene expression profiles of primary cultured-VCT (n = 6) and in vitro-differentiated-ST (n = 5) in comparison with whole term placental tissue from which mononucleated VCT were isolated. A total of 880 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were observed between VCT/ST compared to whole placenta, and a total of 37 and 137 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in VCT compared to ST. The 37 VCT-genes were involved in cellular processes (assembly, organization, and maintenance), whereas the 137 ST-genes were associated with lipid metabolism and cell morphology. In silico, all networks were linked to 3 transcriptional regulators (PPARγ, RARα and NR2F1) which are known to be essential for trophoblast differentiation. A subset of six DEG was validated by RT-qPCR and four by immunohistochemistry. To conclude, recognition of these pathways is fundamental to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of human trophoblast differentiation. The present study provides for the first time a gene expression signature of the VCT and ST compared to their originated term human placental tissue.

  9. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  10. Schistosome egg antigens elicit a proinflammatory response by trophoblast cells of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Emily A; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Acosta, Luz; Gundogan, Fusun; Sharma, Surendra; Pond-Tor, Sunthorn; Wu, Hai-Wei; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2013-03-01

    Schistosomiasis affects nearly 40 million women of reproductive age. Many of these women are infected while pregnant and lactating. Several studies have demonstrated transplacental trafficking of schistosome antigens; however, little is known regarding how these antigens affect the developing fetus and placenta. To evaluate the impact of schistosomiasis on trophoblasts of the human placenta, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from healthy placentas delivered at term. These trophoblasts were placed in culture and treated with Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigens (SEA) or plasma from S. japonicum-infected pregnant women. Outcomes measured included cytokine production and activation of signal transduction pathways. Treatment of primary human trophoblast cells with SEA resulted in upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 and the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α). Cytokine production in response to SEA was dose dependent and reminiscent of production in response to other proinflammatory stimuli, such as Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 agonists. In addition, the signaling pathways extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and NF-κB were all activated by SEA in primary trophoblasts. These effects appeared to be mediated through both carbohydrate and protein epitopes of SEA. Finally, primary trophoblasts cocultured with plasma from S. japonicum-infected pregnant women produced increased levels of IL-8 compared to trophoblasts cocultured with plasma from uninfected pregnant women. We report here a direct impact of SEA on primary human trophoblast cells, which are critical for many aspects of a healthy pregnancy. Our data indicate that schistosome antigens can activate proinflammatory responses in trophoblasts, which might compromise maternal-fetal health in pregnancies complicated by schistosomiasis.

  11. Realdo Colombo's "De Re Anatomica": the renaissance origin of the term "placenta" and its historical background.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, M; Fassan, M; Cimino, M; Zanardo, V; Chiarelli, S

    2012-08-01

    Over the centuries, great interest has been devoted to the placenta and to its highly symbolic significance. The Renaissance represented the age of historical and cultural transition between classical and modern scientific paradigms. In the medical setting, Realdo Colombo represents one of the protagonists of this revolution. In his masterpiece, "De Re Anatomica", he revolutionized the former medical perspective. We present a passage from this book, which carries invaluable information on the Renaissance viewpoint on pregnancy and placental biology. The connections between Colombo's theories and the previous medical tradition are also analysed.

  12. Permeability of the human placenta in vivo to four non-metabolized hydrophilic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M D; Copas, D K; Taylor, A; Landon, M J; Stacey, T E

    1990-01-01

    1. Permeability of the human placenta to four permeants of different molecular size was measured at Caesarean section in seven normal full-term pregnancies. 2. Placental clearance for mannitol was 8.7 +/- 1.1 ml min-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.), lactulose 6.3 +/- 0.8, chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CrEDTA) 3.7 +/- 0.5, and inulin 0.98 +/- 0.1. 3. The permeability data were analysed in terms of restricted diffusion through 'notional' water-filled pores and found to be incompatible with a single population of uniform pores. PMID:2129229

  13. Laboratory and in situ flotation rates of lecithotrophic eggs from the bathyal echinoid Phormosoma placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Craig M.; Cameron, J. Lane

    1987-09-01

    The large, lecithotrophic eggs of the bathyal echinothuriid echinoid Phormosoma placenta are positively buoyant both in vitro and in situ to depths of at least 608 m. Eggs attain terminal velocity in less than 5 cm. At constant salinity, flotation rate is related linearly to temperature; eggs move more slowly at lower temperatures. This effect is attributed to increased water viscosity at lower temperatures, not differential changes in egg and water density. Based on an average flotation velocity of 0.42 cm s -1, it is predicted that eggs produced at bathyal depths will reach the surface in approximately 2 days.

  14. Placental miR-106a∼363 cluster is dysregulated in preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Li, Q; Ren, N; Li, C; Wang, X; Xie, M; Gao, Z; Pan, Z; Zhao, C; Ren, C; Yang, W

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. MicroRNAs are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In current study, we performed a microarray assay to explore miRNA expression profile in the placenta, and found 11 upregulated and 7 downregulated miRNAs in preeclampsia. miR-363, plus other 5 member of miR-106a∼363 cluster was further examined and validated. These findings would facilitate further investigation of aberrant expression of miRNAs in the pathology of preeclampsia.

  15. [Iliac artery occlusion balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Burgos Frías, N; Gredilla, E; Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2014-02-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage still remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. The risk factors associated with this pathology must be identified in order to schedule the appropriate delivery with the necessary resources. A case is presented of an iliac artery occlusion with intravascular balloons for suspected placenta accreta during cesarean section. The perioperative treatment, as well as an analysis of the treatment options is described, along with their advantages and disadvantages, from the use of postpartum hemorrhage protocols, blood transfusion and procoagulant factors, and other maneuvers to control bleeding, until the hysterectomy.

  16. Human maternal placentophagy: a survey of self-reported motivations and experiences associated with placenta consumption.

    PubMed

    Selander, Jodi; Cantor, Allison; Young, Sharon M; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Maternal placentophagy, although widespread among mammals, is conspicuously absent among humans cross-culturally. Recently, however, advocates for the practice have claimed it provides human postpartum benefits. Despite increasing awareness about placentophagy, no systematic research has investigated the motivations or perceived effects of practitioners. We surveyed 189 females who had ingested their placenta and found the majority of these women reported perceived positive benefits and indicated they would engage in placentophagy again after subsequent births. Further research is necessary to determine if the described benefits extend beyond those of placebo effects, or are skewed by the nature of the studied sample.

  17. Maternal obesity modulates intracellular lipid turnover in the human term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmugl, B; Desoye, G; Catalano, P; Klymiuk, I; Scharnagl, H; Payr, S; Kitzinger, E; Schliefsteiner, C; Lang, U; Wadsack, C; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity before pregnancy is associated with impaired metabolic status of the mother and the offspring later in life. These adverse effects have been attributed to epigenetic changes in utero, but little is known about the role of placental metabolism and its contribution to fetal development. Objectives: We examined the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on the expression of genes involved in placental lipid metabolism in lean and obese women. Subjects/Methods: Seventy-three lean and obese women with healthy pregnancy were recruited at term elective cesarean delivery. Metabolic parameters were measured on maternal venous blood samples. Expression of 88 genes involved in lipid metabolism was measured in whole placenta tissue. Proteins of genes differently expressed in response to maternal obesity were quantified, correlated with maternal parameters and immunolocalized in placenta sections. Isolated primary trophoblasts were used for in vitro assays. Results: Triglyceride (TG) content was increased in placental tissue of obese (1.10, CI 1.04–1.24 mg g−1, P<0.05) vs lean (0.84, CI 0.72–1.02 mg g−1) women. Among target genes examined, six showed positive correlation (P<0.05) with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, namely ATGL (PNPLA2), FATP1 (SLC27A1), FATP3 (SLC27A3), PLIN2, PPARG and CGI-58 (ABHD5). CGI-58 protein abundance was twofold higher (P<0.001) in placentas of obese vs lean women. CGI-58 protein levels correlated positively with maternal insulin levels and pre-pregnancy body mass index (R=0.63, P<0.001 and R=0.64, P<0.001, respectively). CGI-58 and PLIN2 were primarily located in the syncytiotrophoblast and, were upregulated (1.38- and 500-fold, respectively) upon oleic acid and insulin treatment of cultured trophoblast cells. Conclusion: Pre-gravid obesity significantly modifies the expression of placental genes related to transport and storage of neutral lipids. We propose that the upregulation of CGI-58, a master regulator of TG

  18. A Case of Type 2 Youssef's Syndrome following Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Obuz, Funda

    2016-01-01

    Vesicouterine fistula is a rare type of urogenital fistulas. It is most commonly observed after cesarean section (C/S) due to iatrogenic reasons. In this article, a case of a vesicouterine fistula which developed after C/S operation is presented. This was the patient's second C/S and this time placenta previa totalis was the primary pathology. Since it is a rare complication, we found it interesting, and, in this article, this clinical problem was discussed with details about diagnosis and treatment in light of the literature. PMID:27803827

  19. Chorionic plate expression patterns of the maspin tumor suppressor protein in preeclamptic and egg donor placentas.

    PubMed

    Taglauer, E S; Gundogan, F; Johnson, K L; Scherjon, S A; Bianchi, D W

    2013-04-01

    Maspin is a serine protease inhibitor involved in regulating human placental trophoblast cell migration. Maspin has not been studied in preeclampsia (PE) or relative to the maternal-fetal immunological relationship, both of which may involve altered trophoblast migration. We examined maspin expression in placentas from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and egg donor (ED) pregnancies with and without PE. Exclusive to the chorionic plate, the number of maspin-positive extravillous trophoblasts was significantly decreased in IVF-PE vs. IVF (p = 0.005) and ED vs. IVF (p = 0.013). These data suggest maspin expression may be influenced by PE and/or the immunological dynamics of pregnancy.

  20. Discrepancy in Insulin Regulation between Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Platelets and Placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Yicong; Cooper, Anthonya; Odibo, Imelda N; Ahmed, Asli; Murphy, Pamela; Koonce, Ruston; Dajani, Nafisa K; Lowery, Curtis L; Roberts, Drucilla J; Maroteaux, Luc; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-04-29

    Earlier findings have identified the requirement of insulin signaling on maturation and the translocation of serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SERT to the plasma membrane of the trophoblast in placenta. Because of the defect on insulin receptor (IR) in the trophoblast of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated placenta, SERT is found entrapped in the cytoplasm of the GDM-trophoblast. SERT is encoded by the same gene expressed in trophoblast and platelets. Additionally, alteration in plasma 5-HT levels and the 5-HT uptake rates are associated with the aggregation rates of platelets. Therefore, here, we investigated a novel hypothesis that GDM-associated defects in platelet IR should change their 5-HT uptake rates, and this should be a leading factor for thrombosis in GDM maternal blood. The maternal blood and the placentas were obtained at the time of cesarean section from the GDM and non-diabetic subjects (n = 6 for each group), and the platelets and trophoblasts were isolated to determine the IR activity, surface level of SERT, and their 5-HT uptake rates.Interestingly, no significant differences were evident in IR tyrosine phosphorylation or the downstream elements, AKT and S6K in platelets and their aggregation rates in both groups. Furthermore, insulin stimulation up-regulated 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-platelets as it does in the control group. However, the phosphorylation of IR and the downstream elements were significantly lower in GDM-trophoblast and showed no response to the insulin stimulation while they showed 4-fold increase to insulin stimulation in control group. Similarly, the 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-trophoblast and the SERT expression on their surface were severalfold lower compared with control subjects. IR is expressed in all tissues, but it is not known if diabetes affects IR in all tissues equally. Here, for the first time, our findings with clinical samples show that in GDM-associated defect on IR is tissue type-dependent. While IR is

  1. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  2. Viral infection of the placenta leads to fetal inflammation and sensitization to bacterial products predisposing to preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Ingrid; Means, Robert E; Aldo, Paulomi; Koga, Kaori; Lang, Sabine M; Booth, Carmen J; Booth, Carmen; Manzur, Alejandro; Oyarzun, Enrique; Romero, Roberto; Mor, Gil

    2010-07-15

    Pandemics pose a more significant threat to pregnant women than to the nonpregnant population and may have a detrimental effect on the well being of the fetus. We have developed an animal model to evaluate the consequences of a viral infection characterized by lack of fetal transmission. The experiments described in this work show that viral infection of the placenta can elicit a fetal inflammatory response that, in turn, can cause organ damage and potentially downstream developmental deficiencies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that viral infection of the placenta may sensitize the pregnant mother to bacterial products and promote preterm labor. It is critical to take into consideration the fact that during pregnancy it is not only the maternal immune system responding, but also the fetal/placental unit. Our results further support the immunological role of the placenta and the fetus affecting the global response of the mother to microbial infections. This is relevant for making decisions associated with treatment and prevention during pandemics.

  3. Successful treatment of Placenta Percreta through a combinatorial treatment involving a Bakri Balloon and Methotrexate--a case report.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Nermin; Cevrioğlu, Arif Serhan; Özden, Selçuk; Gündüz, Yasemin; Ilhan, Göken

    2015-08-01

    Placental percreta is a complication involving an abnormally deep placental attachment to the myometrium, resulting in obstetric hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy A 38-year-old pregnant woman, with a history of 2 Cesarean births, myomectomy 9 pregnancies, and 6 spontaneous abortions, was admitted after experiencing intrauterine fetal death, which occurred at 19 weeks gestation. The patient was referred to our institution after 8 days of unsuccessful medical treatment. Doppler ultrasonography and vacuum curettage revealed possible signs of abnormal placentation. Because of the unsuccessful separation of the placenta and massive bleeding, we used a Bakri Balloon to treat excessive bleeding during the acute phase, followed by the conservative administration of parenteral methotrexate to treat the spontaneous involution of the placenta at 7 weeks of conservative therapy Bakri Balloon and methotrexate application to treat bleeding after curettage is a useful choice in placenta percreta and hemorrhage after abortion.

  4. Folate Transporters in Placentas from Preterm Newborns and Their Relation to Cord Blood Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Castaño, Erika; Caviedes, Lorena; Hirsch, Sandra; Llanos, Miguel; Iñiguez, Germán; Ronco, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Folate deficiency during pregnancy has been related to low birth weight, preterm (PT) birth and other health risks in the offspring; however, it is unknown whether prematurity is related to low folate transport through the placenta due to altered expression of specific folate transporters. We determined placental expression (mRNA and protein concentrations by RT-qPCR and WB respectively) of specific folate transporters: RFC, PCFT/HCP1 and FOLR1 in chorionic (fetal) and basal (maternal) plates of placentas of PT pregnancies (PT, 32–36 weeks, n = 51). Term placentas were used as controls (T, 37–41 weeks, n = 47). Folates and vitamin B12 levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence in umbilical cord blood of newborns. FOLR1 mRNA expression was lower and protein concentration higher in PT placentas (both plates) relative to the control group (p <0.05). In addition, gestational age was positively correlated with mRNA expression (Rho = 0.7), and negatively with protein concentration (Rho = -0.7 for chorionic and -0.43 for basal plate). PCFT/HCP1 mRNA was lower in PT placentas, without changes in protein levels. RFC did not differ in PT placentas compared to controls. PT newborns presented higher cord blood folate level (p = 0.049) along with lower vitamin B12 concentration compared to controls (p = 0.037).In conclusion, placental FOLR1 mRNA was positively associated with gestational age. Conversely, FOLR1 protein concentrations along with folate/vitamin B12 ratio in cord blood were negatively associated with gestational age. Placental FOLR1 is likely the main placental folate transporter to the fetus in newborns. PMID:28103309

  5. [Immunochemical determination of placenta-specific and interorganic antigens in placental extract and blood serum in pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Kan, M F; Krivonosov, S K; Tatarinova, Iu S

    1985-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that placenta extract of rats contains up to 14 antigens. Moreover, 11 of them are interorgan proteins of wide and limited specificity, two antigens (alpha 1- and alpha 2-globulins) are attributed to acute-phase proteins typical for pregnancy. beta 1-Globulin is a specific protein of rat placenta. The content of these antigens in blood serum increases with pregnancy and reaches a maximum toward the delivery; 3-4 days after delivery beta 1-globulin disappears completely from maternal blood, whereas the concentration of acute-phase proteins drops to the initial level.

  6. Frequency, Risk Factors, and Adverse Fetomaternal Outcomes of Placenta Previa in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Senkoro, Elizabeth Eliet; Mwanamsangu, Amasha H.; Chuwa, Fransisca Seraphin; Msuya, Sia Emmanuel; Mnali, Oresta Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective. Placenta previa (PP) is a potential risk factor for obstetric hemorrhage, which is a major cause of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This study aimed to determine frequency, risk factors, and adverse fetomaternal outcomes of placenta previa in Northern Tanzania. Methodology. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using maternally-linked data from Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre birth registry spanning 2000 to 2015. All women who gave birth to singleton infants were studied. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals for risk factors and adverse fetomaternal outcomes associated with PP were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Result. A total of 47,686 singleton deliveries were analyzed. Of these, the frequency of PP was 0.6%. Notable significant risk factors for PP included gynecological diseases, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, malpresentation, and gravidity ≥5. Adverse maternal outcomes were postpartum haemorrhage, antepartum haemorrhage, and Caesarean delivery. PP increased odds of fetal Malpresentation and early neonatal death. Conclusion. The prevalence of PP was comparable to that found in past research. Multiple independent risk factors were identified. PP was found to have associations with several adverse fetomaternal outcomes. Early identification of women at risk of PP may help clinicians prevent such complications. PMID:28321338

  7. Prenatal exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens and repetitive element DNA methylation changes in human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vilahur, Nadia; Bustamante, Mariona; Byun, Hyang-Min; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Marina, Loreto Santa; Basterrechea, Mikel; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estivill, Xavier; Olea, Nicolas; Sunyer, Jordi; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has previously shown to alter epigenetic marks. Objectives In this work we explore whether prenatal exposure to mixtures of xenoestrogens has the potential to alter the placenta epigenome, by studying DNA methylation in retrotransposons as a surrogate of global DNA methylation. Methods The biomarker Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden (TEXB) was measured in 192 placentas from participants in the longitudinal INMA Project. DNA methylation was quantitatively assessed by bisulfite pyrosequencing on 10 different retrotransposons including 3 different long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), 4 short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) and 3 human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs). Associations were tested using linear mixed-effects regression models and sex interaction was evaluated. Results A significant sex interaction was observed for AluYb8 (p value for interaction <0.001, significant at Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold of 0.0025). Boys with the highest TEXB-alpha levels of exposure (third tertile) presented on average a decrease of 0.84% in methylation compared to those in the first tertile (p value<0.001), while no significant effects were found in girls (p value= 0.134). Conclusions Our findings suggest that boys may be more susceptible to the effect of exposure to xenoestrogens during prenatal development, producing shifts in DNA methylation of certain sensitive genomic repetitive sequences in a tissue important for fetal growth and development. PMID:24980756

  8. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  10. [Production and reception of growth factors in the placenta during physiological and gestosis complicated pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Krukier, I I; Pogorelova, T N; Orlov, V I

    2007-01-01

    30 women with physiological pregnancy and 28 women with gestosis were examined. In the early chorion obtained after abortion and on the full-term placenta the content of the epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their receptors were studied by means of the ELISA method. In the process of normal gestation the increase of the placental production both of the EGF and VEGF was found. During the pregnancy complicated with gestosis and miscarriage in the first trimester the content of EGF and its receptor was lower compared to the physiological values. For VEGF and its receptor opposite changes were found: the increase of quantity of the growth factor and the decrease of its receptor. In the case of gestosis and term pregnancy the content of the both growth factors and their receptors was lower than in controls. The revealed changes in production of the angiogenic growth factors and their receptors in the placenta may have the pathogenic importance in the development of gestosis.

  11. Areolae of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we examined the existence and structure of areolae and the steroidogenesis of areolar trophoblast cells in the Antarctic minke whale placenta morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. The opening and cavity of fetal areolae formed by taller columnar trophoblast cells (areolar trophoblast cells) with long microvilli and a bright cytoplasm, as compared with the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi interdigitating with the endometrial crypts, were recognized in observations of serial sections. The opening of the areolar cavity was hidden by chorionic villi with areolar trophoblast cells. Furthermore, a closed pouch-like structure lined by tall columnar cells similar to areolar trophoblast cells within the stroma of chorionic villi was noticed and continued to the areolar cavity, with the opening seen on serial sections. In a surface investigation of the chorion and endometrium by SEM, maternal (endometrial) areolae irregularly surrounded by endometrial folds were obvious. Moreover, we distinguished areolar trophoblast cells with long microvilli attached with many blebs from trophoblast cells. In our immunohistochemical observations, a steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), was detected with strong immunoreactivity in trophoblast cells. However, areolar trophoblast cells showed weak or no immunoreactivity for P450scc.

  12. Histomorphological comparison of rat placentas by different timing of chlorpromazine-administration.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Satoshi; Tsuji, Naho; Hayashi, Seigo; Abe, Masayoshi; Hagio, Souichiro; Yamagishi, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Yusuke; Sugiyama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine-treatment timing on the development of the placenta in pregnant rats were examined. Chlorpromazine was administered intraperitoneally at 100mg/kg on gestation day (GD) 11 (GD11-treated group), GD 13 (GD13-treated group) or GD 15 (GD15-treated group) into pregnant rats. All treated dams exhibited decreased body weight, prone position, hypothermia, loss or decrease of locomotor activity, etc. The fetal mortality rates were increased up to 42.9% in the GD11- and GD13-treated groups and up to 16.7% in the GD15-treated group. The embryo/fetal weight was on a declining trend from GD 16 onward, and the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rates on GD 21 were increased in all treated groups. The placental weight showed a declining trend from GD 15 onward in all treated groups. Histopathologically, apoptosis was detected 1 or 2 days after treatment, and led to hypoplasia in the labyrinth zone and metrial gland, and cystic degeneration in the basal zone on GD 21 in all treated groups. There was no difference in the histopathological lesions on GD 21 among the treated groups. Thus, it is considered that chlorpromazine-induced placental toxicity is characterized in that there is no obvious specific sensitive period from GD 11 to GD 15. Chlorpromazine induced a non-specific transient development retardation of the placenta by apoptosis independently of the cell proliferation period in each part/zone.

  13. Characterization of Natural Killer Cells and Cytokines in Maternal Placenta and Fetus of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Cristiane de Castro Pernet; França, Eduardo Luzía; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; de Queiroz, Adriele Ataides; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized natural killer cells and cytokines in diabetic mothers, their placenta, and fetus. In the maternal blood from the hyperglycemic groups, the CD16+CD56− NK cells increased, whereas that of CD16+CD56+ decreased in gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] group. Cord blood from type 2 diabetes [DM-2] showed a higher proportion of CD16+CD56− and CD16−CD56+. The placental extravillous layer of GDM and DM-2 showed an increase of CD16+CD56− cells and, irrespective of region, the proportion of CD16−CD56+ cells was higher in mild gestational hyperglycemia [MGH] and GDM and lower in DM-2. IL-2 was lower in maternal blood and IFN-γ higher in maternal and cord blood from the GDM group. IL-17 was higher in maternal and cord blood from the DM-2 group. The placental extravillous layer of the MGH showed high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ and low levels of IL-1β and IL-8, whereas the placental villous layer contained high levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ. The GDM group, irrespective of region, showed higher levels of IL-8. The DM-2 group, irrespective of region, placenta showed high levels of TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ. The hyperglycemia produces an inflammatory environment with a high content of inflammatory cytokines and cells expressing CD16+. PMID:27294162

  14. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion.

  15. Modulation of cholesterol transport by maternal hypercholesterolemia in human full-term placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-wei; Cai, Xue-ping; Le, Zhi-yin; Xiao, Rong; Zhou, Qi; Yu, Huan-ling

    2017-01-01

    The significance of maternal cholesterol transporting to the fetus under normal as well as pathological circumstances is less understood. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of maternal hypercholesterolemia on placental cholesterol transportation. Human full-time placenta, maternal and venous cord blood were sampled at delivery from the pregnant women with serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations at third trimester higher than 7.25 mM (n = 19) and the pregnant women with normal TC concentrations (n = 19). Serum lipids and expression of genes related to cholesterol transportation were measured by western blot or real-time PCR. The results indicated that serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly increased, in pregnancies, but decreased in cord blood in hypercholesterolemic group compared to the matched control group. All the subjects were no-drinking, non-smoker, and gestational disease free. The mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors, including LDLR and VLDLR were significantly increased, while the protein expression of PCSK9 was significantly increased in hypercholesterolemic placenta. In conclusion, maternal hypercholesterolemia might decrease the transportation of cholesterol from mother to fetus because of the high levels of PCSK9 protein expression. PMID:28199412

  16. Hydroxymethylation is uniquely distributed within term placenta, and is associated with gene expression.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin B; Houseman, E Andres; Johnson, Kevin C; Guerin, Dylan J; Armstrong, David A; Christensen, Brock C; Marsit, Carmen J

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of cytosine to 5-methylcystosine (5mC) is an important regulator of gene expression. 5mC may be enzymatically converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), with a potentially distinct regulatory function. We sought to investigate these cytosine modifications and their effect on gene expression by parallel processing of genomic DNA using bisulfite and oxidative bisulfite conversion in conjunction with RNA sequencing. Although values of 5hmC across the placental genome were generally low, we identified ∼21,000 loci with consistently elevated levels of 5-hydroxymethycytosine. Absence of 5hmC was observed in CpG islands and, to a greater extent, in non-CpG island-associated regions. 5hmC was enriched within poised enhancers, and depleted within active enhancers, as defined by H3K27ac and H3K4me1 measurements. 5hmC and 5mC were significantly elevated in transcriptionally silent genes when compared with actively transcribed genes. 5hmC was positively associated with transcription in actively transcribed genes only. Our data suggest that dynamic cytosine regulation, associated with transcription, provides the most complete epigenomic landscape of the human placenta, and will be useful for future studies of the placental epigenome.-Green, B. B., Houseman, E. A., Johnson, K. C., Guerin, D. J., Armstrong, D. A., Christensen, B. C., Marsit, C. J. Hydroxymethylation is uniquely distributed within term placenta, and is associated with gene expression.

  17. Review: The evolving placenta: different developmental paths to a hemochorial relationship.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-02-01

    The way in which maternal blood is associated with trophoblast prior to the formation of the different types of hemochorial placenta may be conveniently grouped into four main patterns: a transitory endotheliochorial condition; maternal blood released into a mass of trophoblast; maternal blood confined to lacunae; and fetal villi entering preexisting maternal blood sinuses. Although it might be considered logical that developing placentas would pass through an endotheliochorial stage to become hemochorial, this developmental pattern is seen only as a transient stage in several species of bats and sciuromorph rodents. More commonly a mass of trophoblast at the junction with the endometrium serves as a meshwork through which maternal blood passes, with subsequent organization of a labyrinth when the fetal vascular component is organized. The initial trophoblast meshwork may be cellular or syncytial, often leading to a similar relationship in the spongy zone and labyrinth. Old World monkeys, apes and humans have a lacunar stage prior to establishing a villous hemochorial condition. New World monkeys lack a true lacunar stage, retaining portions of maternal vessels for some time and initially forming a trabecular arrangement similar to though differently arrived at than that in the tarsier. In armadillos, preexisting maternal venous sinuses are converted into an intervillous blood space by intruding fetal villi. Variations from the major patterns of development also occur. The way in which the definitive placental form is achieved developmentally should be considered when using placental structure to extrapolate evolution of placentation.

  18. Characterization of the placenta specific bovine mammalian achaete scute-like homologue 2 (Mash2) gene.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D R; Lefebvre, R; Smith, L C

    2006-01-01

    Mash2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, stimulates mononucleate trophoblast cell proliferation and inhibits giant/binucleate cell formation. In mice, Mash2 is a maternally expressed imprinted gene. Regulation of bovine Mash2 is unclear due to limited genetic knowledge. Our objectives were to clone and characterize bovine Mash2 and evaluate its imprinting status by utilizing Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus interspecies crossing. Bovine Mash2 mRNA shares 78% and 70% homology with human and mouse Mash2, with the DNA binding domain (88%) and bHLH region (95%) being highly conserved. Expression of Mash2 mRNA was seen exclusively in cotyledonary areas of the placenta. The greatest abundance of Mash2 mRNA was in day 17 filamentous embryos, during the time of rapid trophoblast proliferation. Reduction in Mash2 mRNA abundance was detected in day 8 parthenogenetic blastocysts suggesting paternal regulation of gene expression. Prior to implantation (days 8 and 17), Mash2 mRNA appears to have biallelic expression, but is paternally silenced after implantation (days 40 and 60). In conclusion, the Mash2 is highly conserved across species and is specifically expressed in the bovine placenta. Bovine Mash2 appears to be maternally expressed after implantation, but the paternal genome plays a role in regulating expression.

  19. Immunohistochemical distribution of early pregnancy factor in ovary, oviduct and placenta of pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Grosso, M C; Bellingeri, R V; Motta, C E; Alustiza, F E; Picco, N Y; Vivas, A B

    2015-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is an immunosuppressant that promotes maternal immune system tolerance of the allogenic fetus. Little is known about localization of this factor in different tissues and nothing has been reported about localization in swine reproductive and placental tissues. We determined the concentration of EPF in serum of gilts and porcine placenta conditioned medium (PPCM). We also analyzed the expression of EPF in different reproductive tissues of pregnant gilts at 10, 30, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. EPF concentration in serum and PPCM was determined by western blot and densitometry. EPF expression in reproductive tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The highest concentration of EPF was observed at 30 days in serum and PPCM; the concentration was higher in PPCM than in serum at the stages we evaluated. All reproductive tissues from the gestational stages analyzed showed specific labeling of EPF, but this labeling did not appear in non-pregnant gilts. At 30 days pregnancy, the EPF expression in the ovary was predominantly in follicular lutein cells, probably owing to its function as a luteotrophic factor. In the oviduct, EPF was expressed in unciliated secretory epithelial cells and in the cilia of ciliated cells. In the placenta, EPF was expressed in the fetal portion (mesoderm chorioallantois and epithelium of endoderm). EPF acts as an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for the trophoblast during the peri-implantation period.

  20. Immunological studies of human placentae: the distribution and character of immunoglobulins in chorionic villi.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, P M; Natvig, J B; Ystehede, U A; Faulk, W P

    1977-01-01

    All four human IgG subclasses, and both kappa and lambda light chains, were detected by immunofluorescence in similar distributions in chorionic villi of human placentae. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant subclasses. No evidence was obtained for local enzymatic digestion of IgG during placental transfer. Most of the IgG on the trophoblastic basement membrane (TBM) was loosely bound and could be removed by prolonged washing, although some appeared to be more tightly bound to small segments of the TBM. IgM, but not IgA, was present in small amounts in placental villous structures. Immunoglobulin was never observed within the syncytiotrophoblast. Antisera to IgG genetic (Gm) markers were used to locate IgG thought to be of foetal or maternal origin. The presence of paternal Gm markers not carried by the mother was taken as evidence for foetal IgG. Foetal (paternal) Gm markers were observed in placentae, although maternal IgG was the major immunoglobulin present in placental villi. Both maternal and foetal IgG were demonstrated in fibrinoid deposits, vessel walls and the cytoplasm of some stromal cells. Only foetal IgG was definitively observed in the immunoglobulin that is tightly bound to the TBM. PMID:342151

  1. Characterization of Natural Killer Cells and Cytokines in Maternal Placenta and Fetus of Diabetic Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hara, Cristiane de Castro Pernet; França, Eduardo Luzía; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; de Queiroz, Adriele Ataides; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized natural killer cells and cytokines in diabetic mothers, their placenta, and fetus. In the maternal blood from the hyperglycemic groups, the CD16(+)CD56(-) NK cells increased, whereas that of CD16(+)CD56(+) decreased in gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] group. Cord blood from type 2 diabetes [DM-2] showed a higher proportion of CD16(+)CD56(-) and CD16(-)CD56(+). The placental extravillous layer of GDM and DM-2 showed an increase of CD16(+)CD56(-) cells and, irrespective of region, the proportion of CD16(-)CD56(+) cells was higher in mild gestational hyperglycemia [MGH] and GDM and lower in DM-2. IL-2 was lower in maternal blood and IFN-γ higher in maternal and cord blood from the GDM group. IL-17 was higher in maternal and cord blood from the DM-2 group. The placental extravillous layer of the MGH showed high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ and low levels of IL-1β and IL-8, whereas the placental villous layer contained high levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ. The GDM group, irrespective of region, showed higher levels of IL-8. The DM-2 group, irrespective of region, placenta showed high levels of TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ. The hyperglycemia produces an inflammatory environment with a high content of inflammatory cytokines and cells expressing CD16(+).

  2. Quantitation of human MAO A and B in liver, intestine and placenta: Reassessment of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) oxidize a variety of exogenous and endogenous amines including neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the potent dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The two forms of MAO (A and B) differ in molecular weight and inhibitor selectivity, and are differentially expressed in the nervous system and many other tissues. Although some substrates are preferentially oxidized by one form of MAO, substrates that can be oxidized by only one MAO form have not been reported. How well each MAO oxidizes various substrates has not been thoroughly characterized because of difficulties in separating and quantitating MAO A and B active sites. By immunoblotting SDS-polyacrylamide gels of mitochondrial extracts with monoclonal antibodies specific for each form of MAO, MAO B protein was detected in intestine and placenta, tissues that have been reported to contain MAO A activity. An improved procedure was developed for quantitating the ratio and amounts of MAO A and B active sites, using the ligand ({sup 3}H)-pargyline to label MAO and specific monoclonal antibodies to separate MAO A from B. Data from liver, placenta and platelets were used to re-evaluate the molecular activity of both MAO A and B for six commonly studied substrates.

  3. Meeting report of the first conference of the International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, O.; Alviano, F.; Betz, A.G.; Bianchi, D.W.; Götherström, C.; Manuelpillai, U.; Mellor, A.L.; Ofir, R.; Ponsaerts, P.; Scherjon, S.A.; Weiss, M.L.; Wolbank, S.; Wood, K.J.; Borlongan, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    The International Placenta Stem Cell Society (IPLASS) was founded in June 2010. Its goal is to serve as a network for advancing research and clinical applications of stem/progenitor cells isolated from human term placental tissues, including the amnio-chorionic fetal membranes and Wharton's jelly. The commitment of the Society to champion placenta as a stem cell source was realized with the inaugural meeting of IPLASS held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2010. Officially designated as an EMBO-endorsed scientific activity, international experts in the field gathered for a 3-day meeting, which commenced with “Meet with the experts” sessions, IPLASS member and board meetings, and welcome remarks by Dr. Ornella Parolini, President of IPLASS. The evening's highlight was a keynote plenary lecture by Dr. Diana Bianchi. The subsequent scientific program consisted of morning and afternoon oral and poster presentations, followed by social events. Both provided many opportunities for intellectual exchange among the 120 multi-national participants. This allowed a methodical and deliberate evaluation of the status of placental cells in research in regenerative and reparative medicine. The meeting concluded with Dr. Parolini summarizing the meeting's highlights. This further prepared the fertile ground on which to build the promising potential of placental cell research. The second IPLASS meeting will take place in September 2012 in Vienna, Austria. This meeting report summarizes the thought-provoking lectures delivered at the first meeting of IPLASS. PMID:21575989

  4. DNA methylation divergence and tissue specialization in the developing mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Decato, Benjamin E; Lopez-Tello, Jorge; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2017-04-04

    The placental epigenome plays a vital role in regulating mammalian growth and development. Aberrations in placental DNA methylation are linked to several disease states, including intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. Studying the evolution and development of the placental epigenome is critical to understanding the origin and progression of such diseases. Although high resolution studies have found substantial variation between placental methylomes of different species, the nature of methylome variation has yet to be characterized within any individual species. We conducted a study of placental DNA methylation at high resolution in multiple strains and closely related species of house mice (Mus musculus musculus, Mus m. domesticus, and M. spretus), across developmental timepoints (embryonic days 15 to 18), and between two distinct layers (labyrinthine transport and junctional endocrine).We observed substantial genome-wide methylation heterogeneity in mouse placenta compared to other differentiated tissues. Species-specific methylation profiles were concentrated in retrotransposon subfamilies, specifically RLTR10 and RLTR20 subfamilies. Regulatory regions such as gene promoters and CpG islands displayed cross-species conservation, but showed strong differences between layers and developmental timepoints. Partially methylated domains exist in the mouse placenta and widen during development. Taken together, our results characterize the mouse placental methylome as a highly heterogeneous and deregulated landscape globally, intermixed with actively regulated promoter and retrotransposon sequences.

  5. Trophoblasts express Fas ligand: a proposed mechanism for immune privilege in placenta and maternal invasion.

    PubMed

    Uckan, D; Steele, A; Cherry; Wang, B Y; Chamizo, W; Koutsonikolis, A; Gilbert-Barness, E; Good, R A

    1997-08-01

    Cross-linking of Fas (CD95, APO-1) and Fas ligand (FasL; CD95L) induces apoptosis of Fas-bearing cells. Recent evidence suggests that FasL. expression plays an important role in maintenance of immune privilege in murine testis and eye and in tumour escape from immune rejection in colon cancer, melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Bcl-2 is a membrane protein that suppresses apoptosis in response to a variety of stimuli. In this paper we describe abundant expression of FasL protein and mRNA transcripts within the immune privileged environment of the placenta by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription in-situ polymerase chain reaction methods. The syncytiotrophoblast layer, the main site of feto-maternal interface, and extravillous trophoblasts, demonstrated consistent immunoreactivity for FasL in term placentae. Co-occurrence of Fas and Bcl-2 were detected with a similar pattern of distribution with FasL. The TUNEL method revealed evidence of apoptosis in the placental tissues. We speculate that abundant presence of FasL in the trophoblast contributes to immune privilege in this unique environment, perhaps by fostering apoptosis of activated Fas-expressing lymphocytes of maternal origin. An apoptotic process mediated by FasL may also play a role in placental invasion during implantation and underscores similarities between the trophoblast and neoplastic cells.

  6. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  7. Conservative and timely treatment in retained products of conception: a case report of placenta accreta ritention

    PubMed Central

    Antonella, Guarino; Luisa, Di Benedetto; Chiara, Assorgi; Alessandra, Rocca; Caserta, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The term retained products of conception (RPOC) refers to intrauterine tissue that develops after conception and persists after medical and surgical pregnancy termination, miscarriage, and vaginal or cesarean delivery. One of the most important factor risk for RPOC is placenta accreta, defined as “the abnormal adherence, either in whole or in part, of the afterbirth to the underlying uterine wall”. We report a case of a 37 years old woman referred to our gynecologic department with irregular vaginal bleeding. On her medical history, she had a cesarean occurred 3 months before. Ultrasonography revealed in the uterine cavity hyperechoic mass, treated with curettage. Two weeks later the curettage, patient complained still vaginal bleeding. On the transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity was occupied again by a hyperechoic mass. She underwent to hysteroscopic resection and histological diagnosis was compatible with placenta accreta residual. In the follow up she had not complications. Early diagnosis, prompt evaluation of bleeding is important for timely treatment and for preventing immediate complications and demolitive approach. A careful follow up is necessary to prevent late consequences. The purpose of this study is to report our experience in timely diagnosis and conservative management. PMID:26722586

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of terminal complement complex and S protein in normal and pre-eclamptic placentae.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F; Radillo, O; Candussi, G; Nazzaro, A; Mollnes, T E; Pecorari, D

    1990-05-01

    Terminal complement complex and S protein were searched for in term placentae obtained from 13 women with normal pregnancy and 15 patients with moderate or severe form of pre-eclampsia. Terminal complement complex was found to localize in the fibrinoid material of the decidua of the basal plate, in the stroma of the chorionic villi and in the vessel walls, as subendothelial deposits. S protein had a quite different distribution, being detected in the syncytiotrophoblast located both in the chorionic villi and in the decidua of the basal plate (DBP) and also on the endothelial cells of fetal stem vessels. Mild deposits of C3 were found in the decidua of the basal plate and also in the stroma and on the basal membranes of the villi. Reactivity for C9 neoantigen was also observed in the cytoplasm of some cells, which were recognized to be macrophages by the presence in their cytoplasm of acid phosphatase and by their reaction with a monoclonal antibody specific for macrophages. Differences in complement deposition in normal and pre-eclamptic placentae were essentially quantitative. Possible mechanisms of complement activation are discussed.

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of terminal complement complex and S protein in normal and pre-eclamptic placentae.

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, F; Radillo, O; Candussi, G; Nazzaro, A; Mollnes, T E; Pecorari, D

    1990-01-01

    Terminal complement complex and S protein were searched for in term placentae obtained from 13 women with normal pregnancy and 15 patients with moderate or severe form of pre-eclampsia. Terminal complement complex was found to localize in the fibrinoid material of the decidua of the basal plate, in the stroma of the chorionic villi and in the vessel walls, as subendothelial deposits. S protein had a quite different distribution, being detected in the syncytiotrophoblast located both in the chorionic villi and in the decidua of the basal plate (DBP) and also on the endothelial cells of fetal stem vessels. Mild deposits of C3 were found in the decidua of the basal plate and also in the stroma and on the basal membranes of the villi. Reactivity for C9 neoantigen was also observed in the cytoplasm of some cells, which were recognized to be macrophages by the presence in their cytoplasm of acid phosphatase and by their reaction with a monoclonal antibody specific for macrophages. Differences in complement deposition in normal and pre-eclamptic placentae were essentially quantitative. Possible mechanisms of complement activation are discussed. Images p238-a PMID:2357851

  10. Estradiol and progesterone synthesis in human placenta is stimulated by calcitriol.

    PubMed

    Barrera, David; Avila, Euclides; Hernández, Guillermo; Halhali, Ali; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2007-03-01

    Calcitriol exerts a diverse range of biological actions including the control of growth and cell differentiation, modulation of hormone secretion, and regulation of reproductive function. The placenta synthesizes calcitriol through the expression of CYP27B1, but little is known about local actions of this hormone in the fetoplacental unit. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of calcitriol upon progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol (E(2)) secretion in trophoblasts cultured from term human placenta. Cells were incubated in the presence of calcitriol for 18 h and pregnenolone or androstenedione were subsequently added as substrates for the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) or P450-aromatase (CYP19), respectively. Calcitriol stimulated in a dose-dependent manner E(2) and P(4) secretion. The use of a selective inhibitor of PKA prevented the effects of calcitriol upon E(2) secretion, but not on P(4). These results show that calcitriol is a physiological regulator of placental E(2) and P(4) production and suggest a novel role for calcitriol upon placental steroidogenesis.

  11. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Apoptosis and Proliferation in the Placenta: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Wietrak, Ewa; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. Materials and Methods. We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group). The control group consisted of 50 women who did not receive such supplementation (control group). We determined the expression of Ki-67 and p21 as markers of proliferation and caspase 3 activity as a marker of apoptosis and DHA levels in umbilical cord blood. Results. Caspase 3 activity was significantly lower in the DHA group in comparison to the control group. Umbilical cord blood DHA concentration was higher in the DHA group. The expression of the proteins p21 and Ki-67 did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions. We observed an association between DHA supplementation and inhibition of placental apoptosis. We did not find an association between DHA and proliferation process in the placenta. PMID:26339616

  12. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  13. Expression and biological function of programmed death ligands in human placenta mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoyan; Zhang, Siying; Wang, Feifei; Li, Guangyun; Zhang, Lixia; Luan, Xiying

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play important roles in tissue regeneration due to their self-renewal, multilineage differentiation and immunosuppression abilities. MSCs can be isolated from various kinds of tissue, such as umbilical cord, cord blood and placenta. Human placenta mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) possess stronger immunosuppressive properties, such as the ability to inhibit T-cell activation and proliferation, than human bone marrow MSCs. We have investigated that the roles of the programmed death ligands 1 and 2 (PDL1 and PDL2) in hPMSC adhesion, migration and immunosuppression were investigated. PDL1 and PDL2 were highly expressed by hPMSCs. Knockdown of PDL1 and/or PDL2 by siRNA increased hPMSC adhesion, but greatly decreasing migration. PDL1 and PDL2 expressed on hPMSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle. Knockdown of PDL1 and/or PDL2 in hPMSCs, however, had no effect on the expression of CD69, a T-cell early activation marker found on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell subsets. In summary, the roles of the negative co-stimulators PDL1 and PDL2 is on the adhesion, migration and immunosuppression of hPMSCs. These findings may be useful regarding the potential use of hPMSCs in clinical cell.

  14. The role of the placenta in fetal programming-a review.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Keith M

    2002-04-01

    The fetal origins hypothesis proposes that adult cardiovascular and metabolic disease originate through developmental plasticity and fetal adaptations arising from failure of the materno-placental supply of nutrients to match fetal requirements. The hypothesis is supported by experimental data in animals indicating that maternal nutrition can programme long term effects on the offspring without necessarily affecting size at birth. There is now evidence linking body composition in pregnant women and the balance of nutrient intake during pregnancy with raised levels of cardiovascular risk factors in the offspring. Maternal body composition and diet are thought to affect fetal development and programming as a result of both direct effects on substrate availability to the fetus and indirectly through changes in placental function and structure. Alterations in placental growth and vascular resistance, altered nutrient and hormone metabolism in the placenta, and changes in nutrient transfer and partitioning between mother, placenta and fetus all have important effects on the fetal adaptations thought to be central to programming. Future interventions to improve placental function are likely to have lifelong health benefits for the offspring.

  15. Expression of imprinted genes in placenta is associated with infant neurobehavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin B; Kappil, Maya; Lambertini, Luca; Armstrong, David A; Guerin, Dylan J; Sharp, Andrew J; Lester, Barry M; Chen, Jia; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting disorders often exhibit delayed neurobehavioral development, suggesting this unique mechanism of epigenetic regulation plays a role in mental and neurological health. While major errors in imprinting have been linked to adverse health outcomes, there has been little research conducted on how moderate variability in imprinted gene expression within a population contributes to differences in neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly at birth. Here, we profiled the expression of 108 known and putative imprinted genes in human placenta samples from 615 infants assessed by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS). Data reduction identified 10 genes (DLX5, DHCR24, VTRNA2-1, PHLDA2, NPAP1, FAM50B, GNAS-AS1, PAX8-AS1, SHANK2, and COPG2IT1) whose expression could distinguish between newborn neurobehavioral profiles derived from the NNNS. Clustering infants based on the expression pattern of these genes identified 2 groups of infants characterized by reduced quality of movement, increased signs of asymmetrical and non-optimal reflexes, and increased odds of demonstrating increased signs of physiologic stress and abstinence. Overall, these results suggest that common variation in placental imprinted gene expression is linked to suboptimal performance on scales of neurological functioning as well as with increased signs of physiologic stress, highlighting the central importance of the control of expression of these genes in the placenta for neurobehavioral development. PMID:26198301

  16. Localization of a molecule immunochemically similar to eosinophil major basic protein in human placenta

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    We have recently reported that human pregnancy is characterized by a 10- to 20-fold elevation of eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) immunoreactivity in maternal blood. Here we show, by immunofluorescence, that placental tissue specifically binds antibody to MBP in and around the placental X cells and placental-site giant cells and, using thin plastic sections, that placenta has no infiltrating eosinophils. The X cells line the inner aspects of placental septal cysts, and the cyst fluid, obtained by aspiration, contains immunoreactive MBP at concentrations of 100 micrograms/ml, a sixfold greater concentration than the highest levels measured in maternal blood. The soluble MBP immunoreactivities in placental homogenates and in maternal serum chromatograph identically on Sephadex G-50, and both these gestational MBP molecules migrate as though substantially larger than the MBP found in serum from patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome or purified from the eosinophil granule. Our inability to demonstrate eosinophils in maternal blood or placental tissue, coupled with the large quantities of immunoreactive MBP highly localized in placental cysts and the chromatographic behavior of this molecule, suggest that the MBP detected in human gestation is produced by placenta. PMID:6376683

  17. Proteomic identification of abnormally expressed proteins in early-stage placenta derived from cloned cat embryos.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jae-Il; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Deb, Gautam Kumar; Ha, A-Na; Kwon, Young-Sang; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Byeong-Woo; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kong, Il-Keun

    2013-01-15

    It is unknown whether gene expression in cloned placenta during pre- and postimplantation is associated with early pregnancy failure in the cat. In this study, protein expression patterns were examined in early-stage (21-day-old) domestic cat placentas of fetuses derived from AI (CP; N = 4) and cloned embryo transfer (CEP; N = 2). Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 21 proteins were aberrantly expressed (P < 0.05) by >1.5-fold in CEP compared with CP. Compared with CP, 12 proteins were upregulated in CEP (peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, annexin A2, protein DJ-1, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, actin cytoplasmic 1, serum albumin, protein disulfide-isomerase A6, and triosephosphate isomerase), and nine proteins were downregulated (triosephosphate isomerase; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H; tropomyosin alpha-4; triosephosphate isomerase 1; 60 kDa heat shock protein, mitochondrial; serum albumin; calumenin; keratin type 1; and prohibitin). The identities of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The abnormally expressed proteins identified in this study might be associated with impaired development and dysfunction of CEP during early pregnancy. Abnormal protein expression might also induce fetal loss and contribute to failure to maintain pregnancy to term.

  18. Circulating levels of maternal plasma cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs are associated with placental weight.

    PubMed

    Miura, K; Morisaki, S; Abe, S; Higashijima, A; Hasegawa, Y; Miura, S; Tateishi, S; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K; Masuzaki, H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs and clinical variables (placental weight, maternal body mass index, and neonatal birth weight). Circulating levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs (miR-515-3p, miR-517a, miR-517c and miR-518b) in maternal plasma were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sixty-two pregnant women. The levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs were significantly associated with placental weight, but not associated with body mass index or birth weight. Therefore, the measurement of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific miRNAs levels in maternal plasma may reflect the pregnancy status related to placenta volume.

  19. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    Premature placental separation; Placental separation; Placental abruption; Vaginal bleeding - abruption; Pregnancy - abruption ... not have bleeding from your vagina. If the separation is slight, you may have only light bleeding. ...

  20. [Abruptio placentae].

    PubMed

    Bohec, C; Collet, M

    2010-05-01

    Retroplacental haematoma (RPH) is a complication affecting 0.25 to 0.4% of all pregnancies and 4% of severe PEs. It is of acute onset, usually unpredictable and its symptoms are not specific: Isolated metrorrhagia, foetal distress, uterine hypertonicity. Clinical, biological and sonographic features suggesting a RPH can be early or late. Haemoconcentration and the forming of notches on Doppler examination of the uterus can appear weeks before the event, whereas raised D-Dimers and foetal tachycardia are identified within days of the event. Although Caesarian section reduces the perinatal death rate by 20 to 50% in a setting of RPH with a live foetus, vaginal delivery is indicated in cases of RPH with fetal demise, following the control of haemorrhagic shock, clotting disorders and uterine hypotonicity.

  1. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha promotes the proliferation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengxing; Yu, Jiong; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2016-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) reside in a physiologically low-oxygen microenvironment. Hypoxia influences a variety of stem cell cellular activities, frequently involving hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α). This research showed that hPMSCs cultured in hypoxic conditions (5% O2) exhibited a more naïve morphology and had a higher proliferative capability and higher HIF-2α expression than hPMSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (21% O2). Similar to the hypoxic cultures, hPMSCs over-expressing HIF-2α showed higher proliferative potential and higher expression of CCND1 (CyclinD1), MYC (c-Myc), POU5F1 (Oct4) and the components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In contrast, these genes were down-regulated in the HIF-2α-silenced hPMSCs. After adding the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD0325901, cell growth and the expression of CCND1 and MYC were inhibited. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that HIF-2α bound to the MAPK3 (ERK1) promoter, indicative of its direct regulation of MAPK/ERK components at the transcriptional level during hPMSC expansion. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-2α facilitated the preservation of hPMSC stemness and promoted their proliferation by regulating CCND1 and MYC through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27765951

  3. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig, a litter bearing animal, has an epitheliochorial placenta that forms a noninvasive attachment with the uterine endometrium. Insufficient placental development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 d of gestation. Necrotic tips develop at the distal en...

  4. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3–4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  5. FcRn Expression on Placenta and Fetal Jejunum during Early, Mid-, and Late Gestation in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Björn; Hill, Marilyn; Reynaud, Lucie; Hey, Adam; Barrow, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Developmental toxicity testing of therapeutic antibodies is most often conducted in nonhuman primates owing to lack of cross-reactivity in other species. Minipigs may show cross-reactivity for some humanized antibodies but have not been used for developmental toxicity testing due to an assumed lack of embryo-fetal exposure. Unlike in humans, maternal IgGs do not cross the porcine placenta to reach the fetus. Some humanized IgGs, however, have a higher affinity for the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and are more likely than endogenous antibodies to cross the placenta of animals. The major site of prenatal IgG transfer is the placenta, though FcRn in fetal intestine could also uptake maternal IgGs from swallowed amniotic fluid. Using immunohistochemistry andin situhybridization in this experiment, FcRn was found in minipig placenta and fetal intestine during early, mid-, and late gestation. To date, however, fetal exposure to maternally administered IgGs has never been demonstrated in the minipig.

  6. Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are involved in diabetes mellitus-induced defects in the development of mouse placenta

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sha-sha; Jin, Ya; Li, He; Wu, Xia; Ma, Zheng-lai; cheng, Xin; Tang, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27383629

  7. Prospective surface marker-based isolation and expansion of fetal endothelial colony-forming cells from human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Seppanen, Elke; Chong, Mark S K; Yeo, Julie S L; Teo, Erin Y L; Chan, Jerry K Y; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2013-11-01

    The term placenta is a highly vascularized tissue and is usually discarded upon birth. Our objective was to isolate clinically relevant quantities of fetal endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from human term placenta and to compare them to the well-established donor-matched umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived ECFCs. A sorting strategy was devised to enrich for CD45-CD34+CD31Lo cells prior to primary plating to obtain pure placental ECFCs (PL-ECFCs) upon culture. UCB-ECFCs were derived using a well-described assay. PL-ECFCs were fetal in origin and expressed the same cell surface markers as UCB-ECFCs. Most importantly, a single term placenta could yield as many ECFCs as 27 UCB donors. PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs had similar in vitro and in vivo vessel forming capacities and restored mouse hind limb ischemia in similar proportions. Gene expression profiles were only minimally divergent between PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs, probably reflecting a vascular source versus a circulating source. Finally, PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs displayed similar hierarchies between high and low proliferative colonies. We report a robust strategy to isolate ECFCs from human term placentas based on their cell surface expression. This yielded much larger quantities of ECFCs than UCB, but the cells were comparable in immunophenotype, gene expression, and in vivo functional ability. We conclude that PL-ECFCs have significant bio-banking and clinical translatability potential.

  8. Energy Balance Regulating Neuropeptides Are Expressed through Pregnancy and Regulated by Interleukin-6 Deficiency in Mouse Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Pazos, Patricia; Lima, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; García, María C.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta produces a number of signaling molecules including metabolic and reproductive hormones as well as several inflammatory mediators. Among them, Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-known immune and metabolic regulator, acts peripherally modulating metabolic function and centrally increasing energy expenditure and reducing body fat. IL-6 interacts with key hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems controlling energy homeostasis such as those producing the orexigenic/anabolic: neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorectic/catabolic neuropeptides: proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). Human and rat placenta have been identified as source of these neuropeptides, but their expression and regulation in murine placental tissues remain unknown. Therefore, placental mRNA levels of IL-6, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART at different pregnancy stages (gestational days 13, 15, and 18) were analyzed by real time PCR, as were the effect of IL-6 deficiency (IL-6 knockout mice) on their placental expression. Our results showed that placenta-derived neuropeptides were regulated by gestational age and IL-6 throughout the second half of mouse pregnancy. These data suggest that IL-6 may participate in the fine tune control of energy balance during pregnancy by extending its action as a metabolic signal to the main organ at the fetomaternal interface: the placenta. PMID:24744782

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, H. C.; Chandel, B. S.; Patel, Kirit B.; Patel, A. C.; Shrimali, M. D.; Patel, S. S.; Bhagat, A. G.; Rajgor, Manish; Patel, Mitul A.; Patel, Maulik; Kala, Jitendra; Patel, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains. PMID:27789633

  10. Comparison of fetal and maternal inflammatory responses in the ovine placenta after experimental infection with Chlamydophila abortus.

    PubMed

    Sammin, D J; Markey, B K; Quinn, P J; McElroy, M C; Bassett, H F

    2006-01-01

    Placentae from 13 pregnant ewes infected intravenously with Chlamydophila abortus, together with placentae from nine uninfected control ewes, were examined at 14, 21 or 28 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Chlamydial inclusions were present in the trophoblast at 14 days p.i. and were widespread by 21 days p.i. Chorioallantoic lesions (oedema, arteritis and thrombosis) were severe at 28 days p.i., the changes being particularly marked in the membrane surrounding placentomes. Lymphocytes constituted only a small proportion of the cellular infiltrate in the chorioallantois; neutrophil infiltration of the chorionic surface was evident where the trophoblast layer had sloughed, whereas macrophages represented the predominant cell type in the deeper stroma. In contrast, on the maternal side of the placenta, chlamydial inclusions were sparse at all timepoints, and even at 28 days p.i., lesions were restricted to focal endometritis at the placentomal limbus and occasional foci of septal necrosis. T lymphocytes were numerous within endometrial and septal lesions, the infiltrate consistently containing more CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells. The fetal response to chlamydial invasion of the placenta was innate in character, whereas the maternal response appeared to represent an acquired, chlamydia-specific immune response.

  11. Alteration of calcium homeostasis in primary preeclamptic syncytiotrophoblasts: effect on calcium exchange in placenta

    PubMed Central

    Haché, S; Takser, L; LeBellego, F; Weiler, H; Leduc, L; Forest, J C; Giguère, Y; Masse, A; Barbeau, B; Lafond, J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by maternal hypertension, proteinuria, oedema and, in 30% of cases, by intrauterine growth retardation. Causes are still unknown; however, epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested alterations in maternal calcium metabolism. We suggested that in PE, calcium transport by the syncytiotrophoblast (ST) is disturbed. From total placental tissues, we studied the expression of: calcium channels (TRPV5, TRPV6 [transient receptor potential vanilloid]), calcium binding proteins (CaBP-9K, CaBP-28K), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA)1,2,3,4 pumps, ATP synthase, genes implicated in Ca2+ release [inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)1,2,3; Ryanodine receptor (RyR)1,2,3] and replenishment (SERCA1,2,3 [sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases]) from endoplasmic reticulum, channels implicated in mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation (VDAC1,2,3 [voltage-dependent anion channels]) and a marker of oxidative stress (hOGG1 [Human 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1]), as well as the influence of these variations on calcium transport in primary ST cultures. The mRNA and protein levels were thereby examined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in two different groups of pregnant women with similar gestational age: a normal group (n= 16) and a PE group (n= 8), diagnosed by a clinician. Our study showed a significant decrease in calcium transport by the ST cultured from preeclamptic placentas. We found a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in mRNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, CaBP-9K, CaBP-28K, PMCA1, PMCA4, ATP synthase, IP3R1, IP3R2, RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3 in PE group compared to normal one. We also noted a significant decrease in protein levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, CaBP-9K, CaBP-28K and PMCA1/4 in PE group. In contrast, SERCA1, SERCA2, SERCA3, VDAC3 and hOGG1 mRNA expressions were significantly increased in PE placentas. Calcium homeostasis and transport through placenta is compromised in preeclamptic pregnancies and it appears to

  12. TNF-α alters the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta.

    PubMed

    Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; El-Heliebi, Amin; Hiden, Ursula; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Implantation and subsequent placental development depend on a well-orchestrated interaction between fetal and maternal tissues, involving a fine balanced synergistic cross-talk of inflammatory and immune-modulating factors. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been increasingly recognized as pivotal factor for successful pregnancy, although high maternal TNF-α levels are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy conditions including gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. This study describes effects of exogenously applied TNF-α, mimicking increased maternal TNF-α levels, on the secretion profile of inflammation associated factors in human first trimester villous placenta. Conditioned culture media from first trimester villous placental explants were analyzed by inflammation antibody arrays and ELISA after 48 h culture in the presence or absence of TNF-α. Inflammation antibody arrays identified interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the most abundantly secreted inflammation-associated factors under basal culture conditions. In the presence of TNF-α, secretion of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-4 and macrophage CSF levels decreased compared with controls. ELISA analysis verified antibody arrays by showing significantly increased synthesis and release of GM-CSF and CCL5 by placental explants in response to TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry localized GM-CSF in the villous trophoblast compartment, whereas CCL5 was detected in maternal platelets adhering to perivillous fibrin deposits on the villous surface. mRNA-based in situ padlock probe approach localized GM-CSF and CCL5 transcripts in the villous trophoblast layer and the villous stroma. Results from this study suggest that the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta shifts towards increased levels of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL10 in response to elevated maternal

  13. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits.

    PubMed

    van Rens, Birgitte T T M; van der Lende, Tette

    2004-07-01

    Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n = 57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval in relation to birth weight, birth order and placental traits. Independently from each other, litter size, gestation length and offspring directed aggression significantly (P 0.05) affected duration of farrowing. An increase in litter size was associated with an increase of duration of farrowing and an increase in gestation length was associated with a decrease of duration of farrowing. Aggressive gilts took longer to farrow, compared to non-aggressive ones. After taking into account litter size, gestation length and offspring directed aggression, placental thickness (i.e., placental weight corrected for placental surface area) was significantly (P < 0.05) related to duration of farrowing, i.e., litters with on average thicker placentae took longer to farrow. The latter effect is the result of the fact that individual placental thickness significantly (P < 0.01) affected individual birth interval, independent of birth weight. The piglet has to break its own membranes to be able to start its journey through the uterus towards the birth channel. Apparently, a thicker placenta offers more resistance and thus prolongs the process of birth. Independent of placental thickness, birth interval significantly (P < 0.01) decreased with an increase in birth order (first born to last born). The high variation of birth intervals for the last born piglets, caused a slight increase in average birth interval for the latter piglets. Litters with on average more areolae per placenta took significantly (P < 0.001) less time to be born than litters with on average less areolae per placenta (independent of total number of piglets born and other placental traits), while birth intervals

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP-receptor type 1 expression in rat and human placenta.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, M L; Modesti, A; Palumbo, C; Ulisse, S; Fabbri, A; Piccione, E; Frajese, G; Moretti, C

    2000-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), the new hypophysiotropic factor member of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon/GHRH family of neuropeptides, exerts its biological action by interacting with both PACAP-selective type I receptors (PAC1) and type II receptors (VPAC1), which bind both PACAP and VIP. The placenta is a site of production of hypophysiotropic factors that participate in the control of local hormone production, as well as the respective hypothalamic-pituitary neurohormones. In the present study, we show the expression of PACAP gene and irPACAP distribution within rat and human placental tissues, by means of RT-PCR and immunohystochemical experiments. In both rat and human placenta, we evaluated the expression of PAC1 gene by Northern hybridization analysis performed with a 32P-labeled 706 nt complementary DNA probe, derived from the full-length coding region of the rPAC1 complementary DNA. The results of these experiments demonstrate the presence, in both human and rat placenta, of a 7.5-kb transcript similar in size to those detected in the ovary, brain, and hypothalamus. Alternative splicing of two exons occurs in human and rat PAC1 gene generating splice variants with variable tissue-specific expression. To ascertain which of the splice variants were expressed in placental tissue we performed RT-nested PCR using primers flanking the insertion sequence termed hip/hop cassette in rat or SV1/SV2 box in human gene. Electrophoretic analysis of the PCR products showed a different pattern of expression of messenger RNA splicing variants in human and rat placenta. In particular, the rat placenta expresses the short PAC1 receptor (PAC1short), the rPAC1-hip or hop (which are indistinguishable with the primers used), and the rPAC1-hip-hop, whereas the human placenta expresses only the PAC1SV1 (or SV2) variant, structurally homologous to the rat PAC1 hip (or hop). Sequence analysis of the human PCR-amplified PAC1

  15. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M.; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E.; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy–specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to”DNA binding” and “transcription factor binding” coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments. PMID:27490343

  16. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-05-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these 'programmed effects'. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNFα, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life.

  17. Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Grafmüller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Krug, Harald F.; Wick, Peter; von Mandach, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ 1. Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 2 and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 3, can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data. PMID:23851364

  18. Determination of the transport rate of xenobiotics and nanomaterials across the placenta using the ex vivo human placental perfusion model.

    PubMed

    Grafmüller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Krug, Harald F; Wick, Peter; von Mandach, Ursula

    2013-06-18

    Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ (1). Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 (2) and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 (3), can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data.

  19. The genome-defence gene Tex19.1 suppresses LINE-1 retrotransposons in the placenta and prevents intra-uterine growth retardation in mice.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Judith; Reddington, James P; Best, Diana; Read, David; Ollinger, Rupert; Meehan, Richard R; Adams, Ian R

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in suppressing retrotransposon activity in mammalian genomes, yet there are stages of mammalian development where global hypomethylation puts the genome at risk of retrotransposition-mediated genetic instability. Hypomethylated primordial germ cells appear to limit this risk by expressing a cohort of retrotransposon-suppressing genome-defence genes whose silencing depends on promoter DNA methylation. Here, we investigate whether similar mechanisms operate in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived components of the mammalian placenta to couple expression of genome-defence genes to the potential for retrotransposon activity. We show that the hypomethylated state of the mouse placenta results in activation of only one of the hypomethylation-sensitive germline genome-defence genes: Tex19.1. Tex19.1 appears to play an important role in placenta function as Tex19.1(-/-) mouse embryos exhibit intra-uterine growth retardation and have small placentas due to a reduction in the number of spongiotrophoblast, glycogen trophoblast and sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we show that retrotransposon mRNAs are derepressed in Tex19.1(-/-) placentas and that protein encoded by the LINE-1 retrotransposon is upregulated in hypomethylated trophectoderm-derived cells that normally express Tex19.1. This study suggests that post-transcriptional genome-defence mechanisms are operating in the placenta to protect the hypomethylated cells in this tissue from retrotransposons and suggests that imbalances between retrotransposon activity and genome-defence mechanisms could contribute to placenta dysfunction and disease.

  20. Transrectal combined thickness of the uterus and placenta in normal pregnant Egyptian buffalo-cows.

    PubMed

    Zaher, H; Abdalla, H; Labib, F; Eidaroos, A

    2012-04-15

    The combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) is one of the characteristics that can be used to assess fetal development and/or placental function in bovine. The current study was designed to establish reference values for the CTUP throughout pregnancy in normal pregnant buffalo-cows. The CTUP at the intracotyledonary space was measured monthly from the second month until full term using electronic calipers of the ultrasound machine. The CTUP increased monthly from 2.5 mm at the second month to 12 mm at the full term. During the last trimester, the monthly increase in the CTUP was higher than that recorded during the first and second trimesters. The result of the current study can be used as normal values for future studies of CTUP in pathologically pregnant buffalo-cows.

  1. The Long Path of Human Placenta, and Its Derivatives, in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Silini, Antonietta R.; Cargnoni, Anna; Magatti, Marta; Pianta, Stefano; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    In the 1800s, a baby born with a caul, a remnant of the amniotic sack or fetal membranes, was thought to be lucky, special, or protected. Over time, fetal membranes lost their legendary power and were soon considered nothing more than biological waste after birth. However, placenta tissues have reclaimed their potential and since the early 1900s an increasing body of evidence has shown that these tissues have clinical benefits in a wide range of wound repair and surgical applications. Nowadays, there is a concerted effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of placental tissues, and, more recently, cells derived thereof. This review will summarize the historical and current clinical applications of human placental tissues, and cells isolated from these tissues, and discuss some mechanisms thought to be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed after tissue and/or cell transplantation. PMID:26539433

  2. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  3. Two ultrastructural distribution patterns of immunoglobulin G in human placenta and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Korteweg, Christine; Qiu, Yamei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Zhengshan; Huang, Guowei; Li, Weiqiu; Gu, Jiang

    2014-11-01

    The placenta is known to protect the fetus from infection and maternal rejection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that placental trophoblasts can synthesize immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this study, we investigated the distribution of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA), IgG receptors (FcRn and FcgammaRIII), and complement proteins in placental trophoblasts at the ultrastructural level. In addition, we studied the mRNA expression of IgG1 heavy chain (IGHG1), recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1), RAG2, and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with nested RT-PCR in primary cultured trophoblasts. The mRNA transcripts of IGHG1, RAG1, RAG2, and AID were all identified in primary trophoblasts, further establishing the IgG-producing capacity of trophoblasts. At the ultrastructural level with colloidal gold-labeled antibodies, IgG was found to be distributed in two distinct locations in syncytiotrophoblasts. For one, it was colocalized with FcRn in endosome displaying low electron density, and for the other it was colocalized with complement C1q in medium-electron density irregular structures that have not been reported previously. This characteristic distribution suggests that IgG is likely processed through two molecular mechanisms in syncytiotrophoblasts: receptor-bound transportation across the syncytiotrophoblast and formation of immune complexes with locally produced IgG. The latter mechanism is probably aimed at neutralizing detrimental maternal anti-paternal major histocompatibility complex antibodies. Our findings support the hypothesis that placenta-produced IgG can selectively react with maternal anti-fetus antibodies and provide a mechanism of fetomaternal tolerance to protect the fetus from maternal immune rejection.

  4. Cytotrophoblast, Not Syncytiotrophoblast, Dominates Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Human Term Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Kevin S.; Valent, Amy M.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2017-01-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast (SCT) at the maternal-fetal interface has been presumed to be the primary driver of placental metabolism, and the underlying progenitor cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) an insignificant contributor to placental metabolic activity. However, we now show that the metabolic rate of CTB is much greater than the SCT. The oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate, a measure of glycolysis, are both greater in CTB than in SCT in vitro (CTB: 96 ± 16 vs SCT: 46 ± 14 pmol O2 × min−1 × 100 ng DNA−1, p < 0.001) and (CTB: 43 ± 6.7 vs SCT 1.4 ± 1.0 ∆mpH × min−1 × 100 ng DNA−1, p < 0.0001). Mitochondrial activity, as determined by using the mitochondrial activity-dependent dye Mitotracker CM-H2TMRosa, is higher in CTB than in SCT in culture and living explants. These data cast doubt on the previous supposition that the metabolic rate of the placenta is dominated by the SCT contribution. Moreover, differentiation into SCT leads to metabolic suppression. The normal suppression of metabolic activity during CTB differentiation to SCT is prevented with a p38 MAPK signaling inhibitor and epidermal growth factor co-treatment. We conclude that the undifferentiated CTB, in contrast to the SCT, is highly metabolically active, has a high level of fuel flexibility, and contributes substantially to global metabolism in the late gestation human placenta. PMID:28230167

  5. STAT3 and SOCS3 Expression Patterns During Murine Placenta Development

    PubMed Central

    San Martin, S.; Fitzgerald, J.S.; Weber, M.; Párraga, M.; Sáez, T.; Zorn, T.M.; Markert, U.R.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as an important signal transducer in the invasive phenotype of the trophoblasts cells in in vitro studies. However, the in situ distribution and patterns of expression of this molecule in trophoblast cells during the development of the placenta are still under-elucidated. Mice uteri of gestational ages between 7 and 14 days of pregnancy (dop) were fixed in methacarn and processed with immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of STAT3 and its phosphorylation at serine (p-ser727) residues, as well as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. STAT3 was observed at 7 through 9 dop in both the antimesometrial and mesometrial deciduas, while continued immunoreactivity between 10 and 13 dop was seen only in the mesometrial decidua. In the placenta, STAT3 was detected in the cytotrophoblast cells of labyrinth and giant trophoblast cells between 10 and 14 dop. Immunoreactivity for STAT3 was also seen in trophoblast cells surrounding the maternal blood vessels. On days 10 and 11 of pregnancy, p-ser727 was detectable in the mesometrial decidua and in giant trophoblasts, while during 12-14 dop in the spongiotrophoblast region. In addition, SOCS3 was immunodetected in maternal and placental tissues, principally in the giant trophoblast cells during the whole period of the study. The present in situ study shows the distribution of STAT3, its serine activation and SOCS3 in different maternal and fetal compartments during murine placental development, thus further supporting the idea that they play a role during physiological placentation in mice. PMID:23807298

  6. Increased oxidative stress in the placenta tissue and cell culture of tumour-bearing pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M T; Ventrucci, G; Gomes-Marcondes, M C C

    2011-11-01

    Placental dysfunction leads to foetal damage, which jeopardises the exchange between the maternal and foetal systems. We evaluated the effects of tumour growth on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in placental tissue and cell culture from tumour-bearing pregnant rats compared to non-tumour-bearing pregnant rats that were ascitic fluid injected. Ascitic fluid is obtained from Walker tumour-bearing rats and contains a cytokine called Walker factor (WF), which is a molecule similar to proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), and induces changes in protein metabolism and oxidative stress. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into control (C), tumour-bearing (W) and ascitic fluid injected (A) groups and were sacrificed on days 16, 19 and 21 of pregnancy to analyse the profile of enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in placental tissue. Meanwhile, placenta samples from all groups were obtained on day 21, placed in primary culture and treated with WF for 72 h. The presence of tumour or ascitic fluid reduced the protein content of the placental tissue. On day 16 there was a significant reduction in AP activity in W rats, and on day 19, CAT activity and MDA content significantly increased. These results indicate that the presence of cancer decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity in the placenta, increasing the amount of oxidation in these cells, which may contribute to irreversible placental damage and compromisefoetal development. WF treatment induces similar changes in placental cells in primary culture, resulting in less cell viability and increased oxidative stress. These results indicate that WF, provided by the tumour or inoculation of ascitic fluid, has negative effects on placental homeostasis, which impairs foetal health.

  7. Maternal di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate exposure influences essential fatty acid homeostasis in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Agrawal, S; Cook, T J; Knipp, G T

    2008-11-01

    Maintaining essential fatty acid (EFA) homeostasis during pregnancy is critical for fetal development. As the organ that controls the maternal-to-fetal supply of nutrients, the placenta plays a significant role in guiding EFA transfer to the fetus. Many EFA homeostasis proteins are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, might influence EFA homeostasis via trans-activation of PPARs with subsequent downstream effects on EFA transporters and enzymes. To investigate DEHP's effect on placental/fetal EFA homeostasis, female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with either vehicle or DEHP at 750 or 1500 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD 19. Changes in the expression of several EFA homeostasis regulating proteins were determined in the junctional (JXN) and labyrinthine (LAB) zones of the placenta, including PPAR isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), heart cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A1, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. Additionally, effects of DEHP maternal exposure on the placental transfer and fetal distribution of representative EFAs, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the placental production of prostaglandins (PGs) were investigated. Expression of PPARalpha, PPARgamma, FAT/CD36, FATP1, HFABP and CYP4A1 was up-regulated in JXN and/or LAB while COX-2 was down-regulated in JXN. PPARbeta, FABPpm, and COX-1 demonstrated variable expression. Reduced directional maternal-to-fetal placental transfer and altered fetal distribution of AA and DHA were observed in concordance with a decreased total placental PG production. These results correlate with previous in vitro data, suggesting that DEHP could influence placental EFA homeostasis with potential

  8. Immunomodulatory molecules are released from the first trimester and term placenta via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, S K; Alam, S M; Jasti, S; Hodes, H; Nauser, T; Gilliam, M; Billstrand, C; Hunt, J S; Petroff, M G

    2012-12-01

    The semiallogenic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system through control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Trophoblast cells secrete nanometer scale membranous particles called exosomes, which have been implicated in modulation of the local and systemic maternal immune system. Here we investigate the possibility that exosomes secreted from the first trimester and term placenta carry HLA-G and B7 family immunomodulators. Confocal microscopy of placental sections revealed intracellular co-localization of B7-H1 with CD63, suggesting that B7-H1 associates with subcellular vesicles that give rise to exosomes. First trimester and term placental explants were then cultured for 24 h. B7H-1 (CD274), B7-H3 (CD276) and HLA-G5 were abundant in pelleted supernatants of these cultures that contained microparticles and exosomes; the latter, however, was observed only in first trimester pellets and was nearly undetectable in term explant-derived pellets. Further purification of exosomes by sucrose density fractionation confirmed the association of these proteins specifically with exosomes. Finally, culture of purified trophoblast cells in the presence or absence of EGF suggested that despite the absence of HLA-G5 association with term explant-derived exosomes, it is present in exosomes secreted from mononuclear cytotrophoblast cells. Further, differentiation of cytotrophoblast cells reduced the presence of HLA-G5 in secreted exosomes. Together, the results suggest that the immunomodulatory proteins HLA-G5, B7-H1 and B7-H3, are secreted from early and term placenta, and have important implications in the mechanisms by which trophoblast immunomodulators modify the maternal immunological environment.

  9. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 in preeclamptic Placenta and its relevance to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuying; Peng, Huilian; Wang, Peng; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in the placenta from women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy, and to delineate the regulatory effects on thophoblast cell by FABP4. We determined the expression of FABP4 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) or enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting for protein. Small interference of ribonucleic acid (siRNA) and specific FABP4 inhibitor were used to inhibit FABP4. The proliferation, migration and invasion of trophoblastic cells (Swan-71 and Jar) were evaluated with cell counting kit-8, wound-healing test and transwell analysis respectively. We found the expression of FABP4 was significantly higher in the placenta of preeclamptic women than that of women with normal pregnancy (t = 4.244, P < 0.001 for mRNA; t = 4.536, P < 0.001 for protein). FABP4 siRNA significantly reduced the proliferation of trophoblasts (P < 0.001). The specific inhibition of FABP4 inhibited the proliferation of trophoblasts in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001) and the inhibitory effect increased as the concentration of inhibitor increased. FABP4 siRNA and specific inhibitor significantly decreased the migration (P < 0.001) and invasion (P < 0.001) of trophoblasts. We concluded the increase in placental FABP4 expression in preeclampsia may affect the function of trophoblast, and this increase may have a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  10. Distress During Pregnancy: Epigenetic Regulation of Placenta Glucocorticoid-Related Genes and Fetal Neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Feng, Tianshu; Lee, Seonjoo; Krupska, Izabela; Champagne, Frances A.; Tycko, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased risk of psychopathology is observed in children exposed to maternal prenatal distress, and elevated maternal cortisol and epigenetic regulation of placental glucocorticoid-pathway genes are potential mechanisms. The authors examined maternal distress and salivary cortisol in relation to fetal movement and heart rate (“coupling”) and DNA methylation of three glucocorticoid pathway genes—HSD11B2, NR3C1, and FKBP5—in term placentas. Method Mood questionnaires and salivary cortisol were collected from 61 women between 24–27 gestational weeks, and fetal assessment was conducted at 34–37 weeks. Placental CpG methylation in the three genes was analyzed using 450K Beadchips and bisulfite sequencing; correlations between maternal and fetal variables and DNA methylation were tested; and maternal distress effects on fetal behavior via DNA methylation were investigated. Results Perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), but not cortisol, was associated with altered CpG methylation in placentas. In the highest tertile of the Perceived Stress Scale, the Beadchip data revealed modestly elevated methylation of HSD11B2, associated with lower fetal coupling (β=−0.51), and modestly elevated methylation of FKBP5, also with lower fetal coupling (β=−0.47). These increases in methylation were validated by bisulfite sequencing, where they occurred in a minority of clones. Conclusions This is the first study to link the effects of pregnant women’s distress on the fetus and epigenetic changes in placental genes. Since increased DNA methylation in HSD11B2 and FKBP5 are seen in a minority of bisulfite sequencing clones, these epigenetic changes, and functional consequences, may affect subpopulations of placental cells. PMID:27013342

  11. Increased TLR4 expression in murine placentas after oral infection with periodontal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arce, R.M.; Barros, S.P.; Wacker, B.; Peters, B.; Moss, K.; Offenbacher, S.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal periodontitis has emerged as a putative risk factor for preterm births in humans. The periodontitis-associated dental biofilm is thought to serve as an important source of oral bacteria and related virulence factors that hematogenously disseminate and affect the fetoplacental unit; however the underlying biological mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. This study hypothesized that an oral infection with the human periodontal pathogens Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas gingivalis is able to induce fetal growth restriction, placental inflammation and enhance Toll-like receptors type 4 (TLR4) expression in a murine pregnancy model. Female Balb/C mice (n=40) were orally infected with C. rectus and/or P. gingivalis over a 16-week period and mated once per week. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at embryonic day (E) 16.5 and placentas were collected and analyzed for TLR4 mRNA levels and qualitative protein expression by real time PCR and immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA expression was found to be increased in C. rectus-infected group (1.98±0.886 fold difference, P<0.01, ANOVA) compared to controls. Microscopic analysis of murine placentas showed enhanced immunofluorescence of TLR4 in trophoblasts, mainly in the placental labyrinth layer. Also, combined oral infection with C. rectus and P. gingivalis significantly reduced the overall fecundity compared to controls (16.7% vs. 75%, infected vs. non-infected mice respectively, P=0.03, Kaplan-Meier). The results supported an enhanced placental TLR4 expression after oral infection with periodontal pathogens. The TLR4 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm births; therefore the abnormal regulation of placental TLR4 may give new insights into how maternal periodontitis and periodontal pathogens might be linked to placental inflammation and preterm birth pathogenesis. PMID:19101032

  12. Immunological Studies of the Human Placenta CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS ON TROPHOBLASTIC BASEMENT MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Faulk, W. Page; Jeannet, M.; Creighton, W. D.; Carbonara, A.

    1974-01-01

    Immunohistological and elution studies of the human placenta revealed the presence of IgG on the trophoblastic basement membrane (TBM) which demonstrated specificity for placental but not lung, thyroid, or kidney basement membranes, suggesting the presence of a placenta-specific antigen in TBM. IgG comprised the bulk of immunoglobulin in eluates, and small amounts of IgA, trace amounts of IgM, but no IgE or IgD were identified in eluates. The distribution of IgG subclasses in eluate was not unusual as compared to maternal and neonatal sera, and Gm and Inv typing of eluates indicated that it was of maternal origin. Small amounts of eluate-IgG effectively inhibited the blastogenic response of unrelated lymphocytes to old tuberculin, phytohemagglutinin, and in one- or two-way mixed lymphocyte culture reactions. The inhibition was distinct from nonspecific inhibitors, and dose-response analysis indicated that eluate was very much more potent as an inhibitor than were the nonspecific inhibitors. Inhibition was shown to not be due to anti-HL-A activity, and was probably not due to aggregated IgG or immune complexes. Binding of eluate to lymphocytes was very loose as shown by washing experiments, and no binding could be shown by immunofluorescence. The capacity of eluate IgG to inhibit MLC was retained after pepsin digestion to F(ab′)2, suggesting that the inhibition reactions were immunological. It is suggested that eluate-IgG is maternal blocking antibody to a hitherto uncharacterized trophoblast antigen, and it is speculated that either abnormal antigen or aberrant responses to antigen could result in fetal wastage. Images PMID:4278853

  13. Using RNA sequencing for identifying gene imprinting and random monoallelic expression in human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Metsalu, Tauno; Viltrop, Triin; Tiirats, Airi; Rajashekar, Balaji; Reimann, Ene; Kõks, Sulev; Rull, Kristiina; Milani, Lili; Acharya, Ganesh; Basnet, Purusotam; Vilo, Jaak; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Peters, Maire; Haller-Kikkatalo, Kadri; Salumets, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Given the possible critical importance of placental gene imprinting and random monoallelic expression on fetal and infant health, most of those genes must be identified, in order to understand the risks that the baby might meet during pregnancy and after birth. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to introduce a workflow and tools for analyzing imprinted and random monoallelic gene expression in human placenta, by applying whole-transcriptome (WT) RNA sequencing of placental tissue and genotyping of coding DNA variants in family trios. Ten family trios, each with a healthy spontaneous single-term pregnancy, were recruited. Total RNA was extracted for WT analysis, providing the full sequence information for the placental transcriptome. Parental and child blood DNA genotypes were analyzed by exome SNP genotyping microarrays, mapping the inheritance and estimating the abundance of parental expressed alleles. Imprinted genes showed consistent expression from either parental allele, as demonstrated by the SNP content of sequenced transcripts, while monoallelically expressed genes had random activity of parental alleles. We revealed 4 novel possible imprinted genes (LGALS8, LGALS14, PAPPA2 and SPTLC3) and confirmed the imprinting of 4 genes (AIM1, PEG10, RHOBTB3 and ZFAT-AS1) in human placenta. The major finding was the identification of 4 genes (ABP1, BCLAF1, IFI30 and ZFAT) with random allelic bias, expressing one of the parental alleles preferentially. The main functions of the imprinted and monoallelically expressed genes included: i) mediating cellular apoptosis and tissue development; ii) regulating inflammation and immune system; iii) facilitating metabolic processes; and iv) regulating cell cycle. PMID:25437054

  14. Notch1 controls development of the extravillous trophoblast lineage in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Sandra; Meinhardt, Gudrun; Saleh, Leila; Fiala, Christian; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Knöfler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Development of the human placenta and its different epithelial trophoblasts is crucial for a successful pregnancy. Besides fusing into a multinuclear syncytium, the exchange surface between mother and fetus, progenitors develop into extravillous trophoblasts invading the maternal uterus and its spiral arteries. Migration into these vessels promotes remodelling and, as a consequence, adaption of blood flow to the fetal–placental unit. Defects in remodelling and trophoblast differentiation are associated with severe gestational diseases, such as preeclampsia. However, mechanisms controlling human trophoblast development are largely unknown. Herein, we show that Notch1 is one such critical regulator, programming primary trophoblasts into progenitors of the invasive differentiation pathway. At the 12th wk of gestation, Notch1 is exclusively detected in precursors of the extravillous trophoblast lineage, forming cell columns anchored to the uterine stroma. At the 6th wk, Notch1 is additionally expressed in clusters of villous trophoblasts underlying the syncytium, suggesting that the receptor initiates the invasive differentiation program in distal regions of the developing placental epithelium. Manipulation of Notch1 in primary trophoblast models demonstrated that the receptor promotes proliferation and survival of extravillous trophoblast progenitors. Notch1 intracellular domain induced genes associated with stemness of cell columns, myc and VE-cadherin, in Notch1− fusogenic precursors, and bound to the myc promoter and enhancer region at RBPJκ cognate sequences. In contrast, Notch1 repressed syncytialization and expression of TEAD4 and p63, two regulators controlling self-renewal of villous cytotrophoblasts. Our results revealed Notch1 as a key factor promoting development of progenitors of the extravillous trophoblast lineage in the human placenta. PMID:27849611

  15. [Morphometrical parameters of placenta and condition of NO-dependent mechanisms in fetuses during normal pregnancy and with damages of uteroplacental blood circulation at white rats].

    PubMed

    Nazorov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of paper is an estimation of morphometric parameters and status of NO-dependent mechanisms of embryos placenta of white rats in normal conditions, experimental disturbance of the utero-placental circulation and after the nitric oxide donator "Deponit-10" using. The volume density of blood vessels in the placenta and placental vascular exchange area significantly increases under chronic intrauterine hypoxia. The donator of nitric oxide has a positive effect on morphometric parameters of the placenta, provides effective adaptation of feto-placental blood flow to hypoxia and could be useful for clinical practice.

  16. The expression of proprotein convertase PACE4 is highly regulated by Hash-2 in placenta: possible role of placenta-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, human achaete-scute homologue-2.

    PubMed

    Koide, Shizuyo; Yoshida, Ichiro; Tsuji, Akihiko; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2003-09-01

    PACE4 is a member of the mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, which contribute to the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta family proteins. We previously reported that PACE4 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts of human placenta [Tsuji et al. (2003) BIOCHIM: Biophys. Acta 1645, 95-104]. In this study, the regulatory mechanism for PACE4 expression in placenta was analyzed using a human placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. Promoter analysis indicated that an E-box cluster (E4-E9) in the 5'-flanking region of the PACE4 gene acts as a negative regulatory element. The binding of human achaete-scute homologue 2 (Hash-2) to the E-box cluster was shown by gel mobility-shift assay. The overexpression of Hash-2 caused a marked decrease in PACE4 gene expression. When BeWo cells were grown under low oxygen (2%) conditions, the expression of Hash-2 decreased, while that of PACE4 increased. In both cases, other SPCs, such as furin, PC5/6, and PC7/8, were not affected. Further, PACE4 expression was found to be developmentally regulated in rat placenta. By in situ hybridization, Mash-2 (mammalian achaete-scute homologue 2) mRNA was found to be expressed in the spongiotrophoblast layer where PACE4 was not expressed. In contrast, the PACE4 mRNA was expressed mainly in the labyrinthine layer where Mash-2 was not detected. These results suggest that PACE4 expression is down-regulated by Hash-2/Mash-2 in both human and rat placenta and that many bioactive proteins might be regulated by PACE4 activity.

  17. Human placenta as a 'dual' biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements. Part 1: physiology, function and sampling of placenta for elemental characterisation.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Rapp, A

    2001-12-03

    Choice of specimen from human subjects for monitoring pollutants proven to be detrimental to human health depends on the criteria chosen, namely real-time monitoring (RTM) or long-term monitoring (LTM). Specimens such as whole blood, urine, saliva and breast milk are commonly used from living subjects for RTM of toxic metals. However, sampling blood requires an invasive procedure. On the other hand, hair (with some limitations), bone (especially for the assessment of bone seeking elements), adipose tissue (mainly for organic pollutants) and liver (for both organic and inorganic toxicants) are used as specimens for LTM. With the exception of hair, generally these specimens are obtained at post-mortem. In context of health-related biomonitoring, placenta as a specimen has not received as much attention as it deserves. It is a unique sample requiring no invasive procedure, and offers possibilities for RTM, in particular as a dual purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. Obtaining representative samples of placenta for elemental composition studies is a difficult task, because of heterogeneous mix of placental cells and decidual matter tainted with maternal and fetal blood. Therefore, the present sampling practices for placental tissue, and guidelines to safeguard the validity of the sampled material have been reviewed in part 1 with the following conclusions: medico-legal and ethical matters should be properly addressed before collecting the placenta; it is advisable to collect the entire placenta even if it includes the umbilical cord; further preparatory work is to be carried out in a clean laboratory and depends upon the purpose of the investigation; homogenising the entire sample may prove to be technically challenging but this step is crucial to obtain representative samples, handling the entire sample may be unavoidable; and an alternative method of procuring representative samples would require random

  18. IFPA meeting 2016 workshop report II: Placental imaging, placenta and development of other organs, sexual dimorphism in placental function and trophoblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Jennifer; Burton, Graham J; Clifton, Vicki; Collins, Sally; Frias, Antonio E; Gierman, Lobke; Grigsby, Peta; Jones, Helen; Lee, Cheryl; Maloyan, Alina; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M; Murthi, Padma; Myatt, Leslie; Pollheimer, Jurgen; Roberts, Victoria; Robinson, Wendy; Salafia, Carolyn; Schabel, Matthias; Shah, Dinesh; Sled, John; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Weber, Maja; O'Tierney-Ginn, Perrie F

    2017-03-06

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2016 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops addressed challenges, strengths and limitations of techniques and model systems for studying the placenta, as well as future directions for the following areas of placental research: 1) placental imaging; 2) sexual dimorphism; 3) placenta and development of other organs; 4) trophoblast cell lines.

  19. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  20. Transfer studies of polystyrene nanoparticles in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model: key sources of artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Maurizi, Lionel; Diener, Pierre-André; Hofmann, Heinrich; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula; Wick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding and highly promising new technology with many different fields of application. Consequently, the investigation of engineered nanoparticles in biological systems is steadily increasing. Questions about the safety of such engineered nanoparticles are very important and the most critical subject with regard to the penetration of biological barriers allowing particle distribution throughout the human body. Such translocation studies are technically challenging and many issues have to be considered to obtain meaningful and comparable results. Here we report on the transfer of polystyrene nanoparticles across the human placenta using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model. We provide an overview of several challenges that can potentially occur in any translocation study in relation to particle size distribution, functionalization and stability of labels. In conclusion, a careful assessment of nanoparticle properties in a physiologically relevant milieu is as challenging and important as the actual study of nanoparticle-cell interactions itself.

  1. Detection of dengue NS1 and NS3 proteins in placenta and umbilical cord in fetal and maternal death.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Paes, Marciano Viana; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basilio; Soares, Ana Carla Gomes; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; de Barcelos Alves, Ada Maria; da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Amorim; de Oliveira Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, dengue is a public health problem with the occurrence of explosive epidemics. This study reports maternal and fetal deaths due to dengue and which tissues of placenta and umbilical cord were analyzed by molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. The dengue NS3 and NS1 detection revealed the viral presence in different cells from placenta and umbilical cord. In the latter, DENV-2 was detected at a viral titer of 1,02 × 10(4) amounts of viral RNA. It was shown that the DENV markers analyzed here may be an alternative approach for dengue fatal cases investigation, especially involving maternal and fetal death. J. Med. Virol. 88:1448-1452, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ex vivo perfusion of mid-to-late-gestation mouse placenta for maternal-fetal interaction studies during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Goeden, Nick; Bonnin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Ex vivo perfusion systems offer a reliable, reproducible method for studying acute physiological responses of an organ to various environmental manipulations. unlike in vitro culture systems, the cellular organization, compartmentalization and three-dimensional structure of ex vivo–perfused organs are maintained. these particular parameters are crucial for the normal physiological function of the placenta, which supports fetal growth through transplacental exchange, nutritional synthesis and metabolism, growth factor promotion and regulation of both maternally and fetally derived molecules. the perfusion system described here, which can be completed in 4–5 h, allows for integrated, physiological studies of de novo synthesis and metabolism and transport of materials across the live mouse placenta, not only throughout a normal gestation period but also following a variety of individual or combined genetic and environmental perturbations compromising placental function. PMID:23237830

  3. Transfer studies of polystyrene nanoparticles in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model: key sources of artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Maurizi, Lionel; Diener, Pierre-André; Hofmann, Heinrich; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding and highly promising new technology with many different fields of application. Consequently, the investigation of engineered nanoparticles in biological systems is steadily increasing. Questions about the safety of such engineered nanoparticles are very important and the most critical subject with regard to the penetration of biological barriers allowing particle distribution throughout the human body. Such translocation studies are technically challenging and many issues have to be considered to obtain meaningful and comparable results. Here we report on the transfer of polystyrene nanoparticles across the human placenta using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model. We provide an overview of several challenges that can potentially occur in any translocation study in relation to particle size distribution, functionalization and stability of labels. In conclusion, a careful assessment of nanoparticle properties in a physiologically relevant milieu is as challenging and important as the actual study of nanoparticle–cell interactions itself. PMID:27877820

  4. Transfer studies of polystyrene nanoparticles in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model: key sources of artifacts.

    PubMed

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Maurizi, Lionel; Diener, Pierre-André; Hofmann, Heinrich; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula; Wick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding and highly promising new technology with many different fields of application. Consequently, the investigation of engineered nanoparticles in biological systems is steadily increasing. Questions about the safety of such engineered nanoparticles are very important and the most critical subject with regard to the penetration of biological barriers allowing particle distribution throughout the human body. Such translocation studies are technically challenging and many issues have to be considered to obtain meaningful and comparable results. Here we report on the transfer of polystyrene nanoparticles across the human placenta using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model. We provide an overview of several challenges that can potentially occur in any translocation study in relation to particle size distribution, functionalization and stability of labels. In conclusion, a careful assessment of nanoparticle properties in a physiologically relevant milieu is as challenging and important as the actual study of nanoparticle-cell interactions itself.

  5. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2014-10-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach.

  6. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-won

    2014-01-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25368788

  7. Antenatal dexamethasone treatment leads to changes in gene expression in a murine late placenta

    PubMed Central

    Baisden, Beth; Sonne, Srinivas; Joshi, Ratan Mani; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Shekhawat, Prem S

    2007-01-01

    Antenatal steroids like dexamethasone (DEX) are used to augment foetal lung maturity and there is a major concern that they impair foetal growth. If delivery is delayed after using antenatal DEX, placental function and hence foetal growth may be compromised even further. To investigate the effects of DEX on placental function, we treated 9 pregnant C57/BL6 mice with DEX and 9 pregnant mice were injected with saline to serve as controls. Placental gene expression was studied using microarrays in 3 pairs and other 6 pairs were used to confirm microarray results by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, western blot analysis and Oligo ApopTaq assay. DEX-treated placentas were hydropic, friable, pale, and weighed less (80.0±15.1 mg compared to 85.6.8±7.6 mg, p=0.05) (n=62 placentas). Foetal weight was significantly reduced after DEX use (940±32 mg compared to 1162±79 mg, p=0.001) (n=62 foetuses). There was > 99% similarity within and between the three gene chip data sets. DEX led to down-regulation of 1212 genes and up-regulation of 1382 genes. RT-PCR studies showed that DEX caused a decrease in expression of genes involved in cell division such as cyclins A2, B1, D2, cdk 2, cdk 4 and M-phase protein kinase along with growth-promoting genes such as EGF-R, BMP4 and IGFBP3. Oligo ApopTaq assay and western blot studies showed that DEX-treatment increased apoptosis of trophoblast cells. DEX-treatment led to up-regulation of aquaporin 5 and tryptophan hydroxylase genes as confirmed by real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization studies. Thus antenatal DEX treatment led to a reduction in placental and foetal weight, and this effect was associated with a decreased expression of several growth-promoting genes and increased apoptosis of trophoblast cells. PMID:17559929

  8. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of calmodulin by the insulin receptor kinase purified from human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, D B; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y; Gale, R D; McDonald, J M

    1989-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that calmodulin can be phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by both tyrosine-specific and serine/threonine protein kinase. We demonstrate here that the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase purified from human placenta phosphorylates calmodulin. The highly purified receptors (prepared by insulin-Sepharose chromatography) were 5-10 times more effective in catalysing the phosphorylation of calmodulin than an equal number of partially purified receptors (prepared by wheat-germ agglutinin-Sepharose chromatography). Phosphorylation occurred exclusively on tyrosine residues, up to a maximum of 1 mol [0.90 +/- 0.14 (n = 5)] of phosphate incorporated/mol of calmodulin. Phosphorylation of calmodulin was dependent on the presence of certain basic proteins and divalent cations. Some of these basic proteins, i.e. polylysine, polyarginine, polyornithine, protamine sulphate and histones H1 and H2B, were also able to stimulate the phosphorylation of calmodulin via an insulin-independent activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase. Addition of insulin further increased incorporation of 32P into calmodulin. The magnitude of the effect of insulin was dependent on the concentration and type of basic protein used, ranging from 0.5- to 9.0-fold stimulation. Maximal phosphorylation of calmodulin was obtained at an insulin concentration of 10(-10) M, with half-maximal effect at 10(-11) M. Either Mg2+ or Mn2+ was necessary to obtain phosphorylation, but Mg2+ was far more effective than Mn2+. In contrast, maximal phosphorylation of calmodulin was observed in the absence of Ca2+. Inhibition of phosphorylation was observed as free Ca2+ concentration exceeded 0.1 microM, with almost complete inhibition at 30 microM free Ca2+. The Km for calmodulin was approx. 0.1 microM. To gain further insight into the effects of basic proteins in this system, we examined the binding of calmodulin to the insulin receptor and the polylysine. Calmodulin binds to the insulin

  9. Arsenic speciation transported through the placenta from mother mice to their newborn pups.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yaping; Xi, Shuhua; Li, Xin; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Qu, Chunqing; Niu, Yuhong; Sun, Guifan

    2006-07-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to confirm the arsenic species that can be transferred from the mother to the bodies of newborn pups through the placenta and the speciated arsenic distribution in the liver and brain of newborn mice after gestational maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs). Mother mice were exposed to iAsIII and iAsV in drinking water during gestation. The livers and brains of the mother mice and their newborn pups were taken. Contents of iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and trimethylarsenic (TMA) compound were detected using the HG-AAS method. Contents of iAs, MMA, and DMA in the liver of mother mice increased with the concentration of arsenite or arsenate in their drinking water. However, only DMA increased with the concentration of arsenate or arsenite in the drinking water in the brain of mother mice. On the other hand, contents of both iAs and DMA in the liver and brain of newborn mice increased with the concentration of arsenate or arsenite administered to their mother orally. Contents of arsenic species in the liver and brain of both mother mice and their newborn pups were significantly lower in the 10 ppm iAsV group than in the 10 ppm iAsIII group. Ratios of iAs or DMA levels between the brain and the liver of newborn mice were larger than 1, whereas those in mother mice were much smaller than 1. iAs taken from drinking water was distributed and metabolized mainly in the liver of mother mice. iAsIII in low levels may be taken up and metabolized easily in the liver compared to iAsV. Both iAs and DMA are transferred from the mother through the placenta and cross the immature blood-brain barrier (BBB) easily. Compared to that in the liver of newborn mice, DMA as an organic metabolite is prevalent in brain, a lipidic organ, if the BBB is not matured enough to prevent it from entering the brain.

  10. Effect of Exercise Training on Enos Expression, NO Production and Oxygen Metabolism in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Bustamante, Juanita; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Aguilar de Plata, Ana C.; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. Methods The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16–20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10) took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55–75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each) using barbells (1–3 kg/exercise) and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10) undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. Results Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05). Conclusion Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of

  11. Differential Expression of Collectins in Human Placenta and Role in Inflammation during Spontaneous Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Chaudhari, Hemangi; Warke, Himangi; Shah, Premanand Keshavlal; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kishore, Uday; Madan, Taruna

    2014-01-01

    Collectins, collagen-containing Ca2+ dependent C-type lectins and a class of secretory proteins including SP-A, SP-D and MBL, are integral to immunomodulation and innate immune defense. In the present study, we aimed to investigate their placental transcript synthesis, labor associated differential expression and localization at feto-maternal interface, and their functional implication in spontaneous labor. The study involved using feto-maternal interface (placental/decidual tissues) from two groups of healthy pregnant women at term (≥37 weeks of gestation), undergoing either elective C-section with no labor (‘NLc’ group, n = 5), or normal vaginal delivery with spontaneous labor (‘SLv’ group, n = 5). The immune function of SP-D, on term placental explants, was analyzed for cytokine profile using multiplexed cytokine array. SP-A, SP-D and MBL transcripts were observed in the term placenta. The ‘SLv’ group showed significant up-regulation of SP-D (p = 0.001), and down-regulation of SP-A (p = 0.005), transcripts and protein compared to the ‘NLc’ group. Significant increase in 43 kDa and 50 kDa SP-D forms in placental and decidual tissues was associated with the spontaneous labor (p<0.05). In addition, the MMP-9-cleaved form of SP-D (25 kDa) was significantly higher in the placentae of ‘SLv’ group compared to the ‘NLc’ group (p = 0.002). Labor associated cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and MCP-1 showed significant increase (p<0.05) in a dose dependent manner in the placental explants treated with nSP-D and rhSP-D. In conclusion, the study emphasizes that SP-A and SP-D proteins associate with the spontaneous labor and SP-D plausibly contributes to the pro-inflammatory immune milieu of feto-maternal tissues. PMID:25303045

  12. In Utero Bisphenol A Concentration, Metabolism, and Global DNA Methylation Across Matched Placenta, Kidney, and Liver in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Muna S.; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Harris, Craig; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    While urine has been an easily accessible and feasible matrix for human biomonitoring, analytical measurements in internal tissues and organs can provide more accurate exposure assessments to understand disease etiology. This is especially important for the endocrine active compound, bisphenol A (BPA), where studies investigating internal doses at sensitive periods of human development are currently lacking. Herein, BPA concentrations, BPA-specific metabolizing enzyme gene expression, and global DNA methylation were characterized across three matched tissues from elective pregnancy terminations of 2nd trimester human fetuses: the placenta, liver, and kidney (N=12 each; N=36 total). Compared to liver (free: 0.54-50.5 ng/g), BPA concentrations were lower in matched placenta (<0.05-25.4 ng/g) and kidney (0.08-11.1 ng/g) specimens. BPA-specific metabolism gene expression of GUSB, UGT2B15, STS, and SULT1A1 differed across each tissue type; however, conjugation and deconjugation expression patterns were similar across the fetus. Average LINE1 and CCGG global methylation were 58.3 and 59.2% in placenta, 79.5 and 66.4% in fetal liver, and 77.9 and 77.0% in fetal kidney, with significant tissue-specific DNA methylation differences in both LINE1 (p-value <0.001) and CCGG content (p-value <0.001). Total BPA concentrations were positively associated with global methylation for the placenta only using the LINE1 assay (p-value: 0.002), suggesting organ-specific biological effects after fetal exposure. Utilizing sensitive human clinical specimens, results are informative for BPA toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics assessment in the developing human fetus. PMID:25434263

  13. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St. John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these—two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12—have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component. PMID:21948841

  14. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  15. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean F; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Brettin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Kenneth E; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabati, Grzegorz; Bondurant, Sandra S; Larrondo, Luis F; Canessa, Paulo; Vicunna, Rafael; Yadavk, Jagiit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Lavin, Jose L; Oguiza, Jose A; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K; Baker, Scott; Bruno, Kenneth; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik J; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiva, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tuh, Hank; Chee, Christine L; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Dan; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  16. The effect of antenatal depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on nerve growth factor signaling in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Kaihola, Helena; Olivier, Jocelien; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Åkerud, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are common and may have impact on the developing child. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment, but unfortunately, these treatments can also negatively affect the behavioral development and health of a child during pregnancy. In addition, serotonin (5-HT) exerts neurotrophic actions with thus far not fully known effects in the offspring. The neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) is involved in neuronal cell survival and differentiation, and altered placenta levels have been found to increase the risk for pregnancy complications, similar to those found in women treated with SSRIs. We therefore investigated whether the NGF signaling pathway was altered in the placenta from women treated with SSRIs (n = 12) and compared them with placenta from depressed (n = 12) and healthy mothers (n = 12). Results from immunohistochemical stainings revealed that placental NGF protein levels of SSRI-treated women were increased in both trophoblasts and endothelial cells compared with depressed and control women. In addition, downstream of the NGF receptor TrkA, increased levels of the signaling proteins ROCK2 and phosphorylated Raf-1 were found in stromal cells and a tendency towards increased levels of ROCK2 in trophoblasts and endothelial cells in SSRI-treated women when compared to healthy controls. SSRI-treated women also displayed increased levels of phosphorylated ROCK2 in all placental cell types studied in comparison with depressed and control women. Interestingly, in placental endothelial cells from depressed women, NGF levels were significantly lower compared to control women, but ROCK2 levels were increased compared with control and SSRI-treated women. Taken together, these results show that the NGF signaling and downstream pathways in the placenta are affected by SSRI treatment and/or antenatal depression. This might lead to an altered placental function, although the clinical

  17. eNOS/iNOS and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the placentas of patients with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Du, L; He, F; Kuang, L; Tang, W; Li, Y; Chen, D

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of nitric oxide pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress had been observed in preeclampsia (PE). However, the correlation and overall detailed expression profiles of ER stress-related markers and endothelial nitric oxide synthase/inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/iNOS) in patients with PE were poorly understood. In this study, placental protein expression of ER stress-related markers as well as eNOS/iNOS in normotensive control (n=32) and PE pregnancies (n=32) was examined by western blot. In addition, apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining in placentas. Compared with control, we found elevated ER stress response was agreeable with iNOS upregulation in placenta tissue of PE patients. Placental protein expression of ER stress-related markers, including GRP78, GRP94, p-PERK, eIF2a, p-eIF2a, XBP1, CHOP, Ire1, p-Ire1 and iNOS, was higher, and eNOS expression was lower in PE (P<0.05 for all); however, the expression of ATF6 and PERK was similar in the PE and control groups. Upregulation of CHOP and iNOS was consistent of apoptosis increasing indicated by TUNEL staining and caspase 4 expression upregulation in PE placenta. Our datas suggest that the exaggerated ER stress response and upregulated iNOS are probably associated with increased apoptosis in placenta of PE patients and may contribute to the pathophysiology of PE. PMID:27030287

  18. Significant Alteration of Gene Expression in Wood Decay Fungi Postia placenta and Phanerochaete chrysosporium by Plant Species ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Mozuch, Michael; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Sabat, Grzegorz; Ralph, John; Skyba, Oleksandr; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kersten, Philip J.; Cullen, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. The basidiomycetous wood decay fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta are promising in this regard because they are able to utilize a wide range of simple and complex carbon compounds. However, systematic comparative studies with different woody substrates have not been reported. To address this issue, we examined gene expression of these fungi colonizing aspen (Populus grandidentata) and pine (Pinus strobus). Transcript levels of genes encoding extracellular glycoside hydrolases, thought to be important for hydrolytic cleavage of hemicelluloses and cellulose, showed little difference for P. placenta colonizing pine versus aspen as the sole carbon source. However, 164 genes exhibited significant differences in transcript accumulation for these substrates. Among these, 15 cytochrome P450s were upregulated in pine relative to aspen. Of 72 P. placenta extracellular proteins identified unambiguously by mass spectrometry, 52 were detected while colonizing both substrates and 10 were identified in pine but not aspen cultures. Most of the 178 P. chrysosporium glycoside hydrolase genes showed similar transcript levels on both substrates, but 13 accumulated >2-fold higher levels on aspen than on pine. Of 118 confidently identified proteins, 31 were identified in both substrates and 57 were identified in pine but not aspen cultures. Thus, P. placenta and P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are influenced substantially by wood species. Such adaptations to the carbon source may also reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms by which these fungi attack plant cell walls. PMID:21551287

  19. Fetal growth restriction in hypothyroidism is associated with changes in proliferative activity, apoptosis and vascularisation of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo F; Vidigal, Paula N; Galvão, Daniele D; Boeloni, Jankerle N; Nunes, Philipe Pimenta; Ocarino, Natália M; Nascimento, Ernane F; Serakides, Rogéria

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fetal weight, histomorphometric changes and proliferative activity, apoptosis and angiogenesis of the placenta in rats with hypothyroidism. Thirty-six adult female rats were divided into two groups with 18 animals each: control and hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil (1 mg/animal). The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at 14 or 19 days of gestation. The control group received a placebo. The number and weight of fetuses and the rate of fetal death was determined, as well as the morphometric characteristics, the immunohistochemical expression of cell division control protein 47 (CDC)-47 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the number of apoptotic cells in the placental disk. The data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U test. Hypothyroidism reduced the weight of fetuses and of the uterus and placenta (P<0.05), altered the thickness of the placental labyrinth and spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), increased the population of glycogen cells in the spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), interfered with the vascular development of the placental labyrinth and decreased VEGF expression (P<0.05), reduced the expression of CDC-47 and cellularity and increased the apoptotic rate in the placental disk (P<0.05). We conclude that hypothyroidism affects fetal weight by altering the proliferative activity, apoptosis and vascularisation of the placenta.

  20. Immunohistochemical distribution of heat shock protein 70 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in mouse placenta at different gestational stages.

    PubMed

    Ozaydin, Tugba; Sur, Emrah; Oznurlu, Yasemin; Celik, Ilhami; Uluisik, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemical distribution of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the mouse placenta at different gestational stages. For this purpose a total of 18 Swiss albino female mice at 12-14 weeks of age were used. Females were sacrificed on days 3 (early), 10 (mid-), and 17 (late) of pregnancy and the implantation sites of the pregnant uterus were sampled. The sections were made transversely through the central region of the implantation site and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examination. PCNA and Hsp70 was stained immunohistochemically. Since the definitive placenta was not still formed on day 3 of pregnancy, Hsp70 and PCNA positivity were evaluated in only luminal epithelium and decidual-stromal cells. On days 10 and 17 of pregnancy, Hsp70 and PCNA positivity were evaluated in labyrinth zone, junctional zone and decidual layer of placenta. Hsp70 expression was observed trophoblast cells and decidual cells and was relatively constant throughout the pregnancy. This protein was strongly labeled in the trophoblast cells; while decidual cells were displayed moderate staining. In early pregnant mouse uteri, PCNA was mainly localized in decidual-stromal cells. The trophoblast cells and decidual cells displayed highly proliferative activity at the midgestational period. However there was a significant decrease in the percentage of PCNA positive cells in late gestation.

  1. A multimodal imaging workflow to visualize metal mixtures in the human placenta and explore colocalization with biological response markers.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Austin, Christine; Remark, Romain; Merad, Miriam; Gnjatic, Sacha; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Borboa-Olivares, Hector; Guzman-Huerta, Mario; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Fetal exposure to essential and toxic metals can influence life-long health trajectories. The placenta regulates chemical transmission from maternal circulation to the fetus and itself exhibits a complex response to environmental stressors. The placenta can thus be a useful matrix to monitor metal exposures and stress responses in utero, but strategies to explore the biologic effects of metal mixtures in this organ are not well-developed. In this proof-of-concept study, we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure the distributions of multiple metals in placental tissue from a low-birth-weight pregnancy, and we developed an approach to identify the components of metal mixtures that colocalized with biological response markers. Our novel workflow, which includes custom-developed software tools and algorithms for spatial outlier identification and background subtraction in multidimensional elemental image stacks, enables rapid image processing and seamless integration of data from elemental imaging and immunohistochemistry. Using quantitative spatial statistics, we identified distinct patterns of metal accumulation at sites of inflammation. Broadly, our multiplexed approach can be used to explore the mechanisms mediating complex metal exposures and biologic responses within placentae and other tissue types. Our LA-ICP-MS image processing workflow can be accessed through our interactive R Shiny application 'shinyImaging', which is available at or through our laboratory's website, .

  2. Viral Infection of the Placenta Leads to Fetal Inflammation and Sensitization to Bacterial Products Predisposing to Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Ingrid; Means, Robert E.; Aldo, Paulomi; Koga, Kaori; Lang, Sabine M.; Booth, Carmen; Manzur, Alejandro; Oyarzun, Enrique; Romero, Roberto; Mor, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Pandemics pose a more significant threat to pregnant women than to the nonpregnant population and may have a detrimental effect on the well being of the fetus. We have developed an animal model to evaluate the consequences of a viral infection characterized by lack of fetal transmission. The experiments described in this work show that viral infection of the placenta can elicit a fetal inflammatory response that, in turn, can cause organ damage and potentially downstream developmental deficiencies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that viral infection of the placenta may sensitize the pregnant mother to bacterial products and promote preterm labor. It is critical to take into consideration the fact that during pregnancy it is not only the maternal immune system responding, but also the fetal/placental unit. Our results further support the immunological role of the placenta and the fetus affecting the global response of the mother to microbial infections. This is relevant for making decisions associated with treatment and prevention during pandemics. PMID:20554966

  3. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  4. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles. PMID:26554706

  5. Singleton pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization with fresh or frozen-thawed embryo transfer and incidence of placenta praevia.

    PubMed

    Korosec, Sara; Ban Frangez, Helena; Verdenik, Ivan; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards "large for gestation" (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results.

  6. Development of the haemophagous region and labyrinth of the placenta of the tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Blankenship, T N; Künzle, H; Enders, A C

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine how the central haemophagous region and cellular haemomonochorial labyrinth of the tenrec placenta are formed. The haemophagous region is preceded by a region of invasion of the endometrium by trophoblast comprising a cytotrophoblast layer covered by syncytial trophoblast and contiguous with numerous masses of multinucleate trophoblast. The trophoblast intrudes into the endometrium, eliminating the stroma, although small vessels and clumps of glandular epithelium persist. This extensive central region is connected to the forming disk by a ring of chorioallantois covered by a single layer of columnar trophoblast. Later the multinucleate masses and syncytial trophoblast degenerate. The unilaminar cytotrophoblast remains, is elaborated into folds, and phagocytoses glandular secretion, cell debris and erythrocytes. As the central area is transforming, fetal capillaries move into the cytotrophoblast pads surrounding the central zone. Prior to this, the cytotrophoblast has formed a multilayered structure and interrupted maternal vessels to create an anastomotic network of blood spaces lined by cytotrophoblast. The invasion of fetal capillaries transforms this preplacental pad into a cellular haemomonochorial labyrinth with the uninvaded portion forming an underlying spongy zone. Thus interaction of the trophoblast with the endometrium is substantially different in the central zone compared to the area of the preplacental pad.

  7. Endogenous retroviruses function as species-specific enhancer elements in the placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Edward B.; Rumi, M. A. Karim; Soares, Michael J.; Baker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian placenta is remarkably distinct between species, suggesting a history of rapid evolutionary diversification1. To gain insight into the molecular drivers of placental evolution, we compared biochemically predicted enhancers between mouse and rat trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and find that species-specific enhancers are highly enriched for endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) on a genome-wide level. One of these ERV families, RLTR13D5, contributes hundreds of mouse-specific H3K4me1/H3K27ac-defined enhancers that functionally bind Cdx2, Eomes, and Elf5 - core factors that define the TSC regulatory network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RLTR13D5 is capable of driving gene expression in rat placental cells. Comparison with other tissues revealed that species-specific ERV enhancer activity is generally restricted to hypomethylated tissues, suggesting that tissues permissive to ERV activity gain access to an otherwise silenced source of regulatory variation. Overall, our results implicate ERV enhancer cooption as a mechanism underlying the striking evolutionary diversification of placental development. PMID:23396136

  8. The basement membrane of the persisting maternal blood vessels in the placenta of Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Merker, H J; Bremer, D; Barrach, H J; Gossrau, R

    1987-01-01

    Formation and morphology of the thickened basement membrane-like layer around the persisting maternal vessels of the Callithrix jacchus placenta were investigated from day 45 until term (day 142) using light, electron and immunofluorescence microscopy. Thickening occurs with the establishment of contacts between the vessels and the syncytiotrophoblast (day 48). Final thickness is reached at about day 100. The course of the vessels shows wide gaps where the maternal blood flows freely into the intertrabecular spaces. As revealed by electron microscopy, the extracellular sheath around the maternal vessels consists of an inner subendothelial basement membrane (3-6 microns) and an outer fibril-containing layer (2-4 microns). Cell debris is seen between the two layers and in the basement membrane. Plaques of granular and fine-filamentous material are incorporated into the fibril-containing layer. The synthesis of the basement membrane material is localized in the endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals collagen types IV and V, laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (BM-1) in the sheath around the persisting vessels. Fibronectin occurs only in certain areas or in the form of dots. Collagen types I and III are not seen in the region of the vascular wall. It can, therefore, be assumed that the subendothelial layer represents a genuine basement membrane; the fibrils consist of collagen type V and the plaques contain fibronectin. The existence of the thick perivascular sheath is attributed to the persistence and stability of the maternal vessels.

  9. Bacterial Peptidoglycan Transverses the Placenta to Induce Fetal Neuroproliferation and Aberrant Postnatal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Humann, Jessica; Mann, Beth; Gao, Geli; Moresco, Philip; Ramahi, Joseph; Loh, Lip Nam; Farr, Arden; Hu, Yunming; Durick-Eder, Kelly; Fillon, Sophie A.; Smeyne, Richard J.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the fetus, including postnatal cognitive disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are obscure. We find that bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (CW), a universal PAMP for TLR2, traverses across the murine placenta into the developing fetal brain. In contrast to adults, CW-exposed fetal brains did not show any signs of inflammation or neuronal death. Instead, the neuronal transcription factor FoxG1 was induced and neuroproliferation leading to a 50% greater density of neurons in the cortical plate was observed. Bacterial infection of pregnant dams followed by antibiotic treatment, which releases CW, yielded the same result. Neuroproliferation required TLR2 and was recapitulated in vitro with fetal neuronal precursor cells and TLR2/6, but not TLR2/1 ligands. The fetal neuroproliferative response correlated with abnormal cognitive behavior in CW-exposed pups following birth. Thus, the bacterial CW-TLR2 signaling axis affects fetal neurodevelopment and may underlie postnatal cognitive disorders. PMID:26962947

  10. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: origin, evolution and future of placenta miRNAs.

    PubMed

    Morales-Prieto, D M; Ospina-Prieto, S; Schmidt, A; Chaiwangyen, W; Markert, U R

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of a large number of genes in plants and animals. Placental miRNAs appeared late in evolution and can be found only in mammals. Nevertheless, these miRNAs are constantly under evolutionary pressure. As a consequence, miRNA sequences and their mRNA targets may differ between species, and some miRNAs can only be found in humans. Their expression can be tissue- or cell-specific and can vary time-dependently. Human placenta tissue exhibits a specific miRNA expression pattern that dynamically changes during pregnancy and is reflected in the maternal plasma. Some placental miRNAs are involved in or associated with major pregnancy disorders, such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery and, therefore, have a strong potential for usage as sensitive and specific biomarkers. In this review we summarize current knowledge on the origin of placental miRNAs, their expression in humans with special regard to trophoblast cells, interspecies differences, and their future as biomarkers. It can be concluded that animal models for human reproduction have a different panel of miRNAs and targets, and can only partly reflect or predict the situation in humans.

  11. Live-bearing manta ray: how the embryo acquires oxygen without placenta and umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Toda, Minoru; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Senzo; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2012-10-23

    We conducted an ultrasonographic experiment on a pregnant manta ray, Manta alfredi (Chondrichthyes, Batoidea). This study showed how the embryo of the live-bearing elasmobranchs respires in the body of the female. In the embryonic stage, the manta ray embryo takes in uterine fluid by buccal-pumping. After birth, the manta ray shifts its respiratory mode from buccal-pumping to ram-ventilation. The rapid reduction of the spiracle size in the young manta ray may reflect this shift of respiratory mode. Unlike mammals or some carcharhinid sharks that acquire oxygen through a placenta and umbilical cord, the manta ray embryo does not have a direct connection with the mother. Thus, the manta ray embryo obtains oxygen by buccal-pumping of the uterine fluid, in the same way that the embryos of egg-laying species obtain oxygen from the water in the egg case. This finding extends our understanding of the diversity of embryonic respiratory systems in live-bearing vertebrates.

  12. Effect of Porcine Placenta Extract from Subcritical Water Extraction on Photodamage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bok Kyung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluated the photoprotective effects of porcine placenta extract (PPE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) to evaluate its functional activities as a skin food ingredient. PPE prepared by subcritical water extraction was termed SPE, and subsequently digested by enzymes to prepare E-SPE. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels (192.0%) induced by UVB were decreased by SPE and E-SPE. SPE had more effective ROS scavenging activity than E-SPE treatment. UVB treatment increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and this elevated expression was decreased by E-SPE treatment. High-dose treatment with E-SPE (50 and 100 µg/mL) reduced TIMP-1 expression levels of UVB-C (control) to 33.5 and 34.6%, respectively. In contrast, at low SPE doses (1 and 10 µg/mL), the treatment slightly decreased TIMP-1 expression levels to 73.3% and 71.3% of UVB-C, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the protective effect of SPE and E-SPE against UVB damage in keratinocytes via ROS scavenging, down-regulating MMP-2 expression and up-regulating TIMP-1 expression. This highlights the potential for SPE as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food against photoaging. PMID:26761824

  13. Bisphenol A and other phenols in human placenta from children with cryptorchidism or hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana F; Arrebola, Juan P; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Sáenz, José María; Molina-Molina, José Manuel; Ballesteros, Oscar; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Olea, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Embryo-foetal exposure to low doses of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been related to reproductive tract diseases in experimental animals but not convincingly in human populations. The aim of this case-control study was to explore the relationship between exposure to non-persistent EDCs during pregnancy and male genital development. Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA), benzophenones (BPs) [BP-1, BP-2, BP-3, BP-6, BP-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP),] and parabens (PBs) [methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-PB] was analyzed by means of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in placenta samples from a subsample of 28 cases and 51 healthy controls nested in a cohort of newborns recruited between 2000 and 2002. The multivariable regression analyses indicated a statistically significant association between exposure to BPA and propyl-PB and the risk of malformations [adjusted odd ratio (95% CIs) in the third tertile of exposure: 7.2 (1.5-35.5) and 6.4 (1.2-35.5) for BPA and propyl-PB, respectively].

  14. cDNA sequences of variant forms of human placenta diamine oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Kim, J.; McIntire, S.

    1995-08-01

    Genes for two forms of human placenta diamine oxidase (dao) were cloned from a cDNA library and sequenced. One gene, pdao1, is identical in length to human kidney dao but differs from it by two bases in the coding region and differs slightly in the 3{prime} - and 5{prime}-noncoding regions. The second gene, pdao2, is nearly identical to these genes in the coding region, except that it has an extra 57-nucleotide coding segment near the 3{prime} end of this region. This segment corresponds to the contiguous sequence of the 3{prime} end of intron 3 of human kidney dao. pdao2 also differs significantly from pdao1 and human kidney dao in a 13-base sequence in the t{prime}-noncoding region. It is proposed that pdao1 and human kidney dao are polymorphic forms of the same allele. Whether pdao2 is a polymorph of these two is not certain, because of the significant differences in the coding and noncoding regions. pdao2 may represent a different allele. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A Parallelized Pumpless Artificial Placenta System Significantly Prolonged Survival Time in a Preterm Lamb Model.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Tadashi; Usuda, Haruo; Watanabe, Shimpei; Kitanishi, Ryuta; Saito, Masatoshi; Hanita, Takushi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2016-05-01

    An artificial placenta (AP) is an arterio-venous extracorporeal life support system that is connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical vasculature. Previously, we published an article describing a pumpless AP system with a small priming volume. We subsequently developed a parallelized system, hypothesizing that the reduced circuit resistance conveyed by this modification would enable healthy fetal survival time to be prolonged. We conducted experiments using a premature lamb model to test this hypothesis. As a result, the fetal survival period was significantly prolonged (60.4 ± 3.8 vs. 18.2 ± 3.2 h, P < 0.01), and circuit resistance and minimal blood lactate levels were significantly lower in the parallel circuit group, compared with our previous single circuit group. Fetal physiological parameters remained stable until the conclusion of the experiments. In summary, parallelization of the AP system was associated with reduced circuit resistance and lactate levels and allowed preterm lamb fetuses to survive for a significantly longer period when compared with previous studies.

  16. Homocysteine is transported by the microvillous plasma membrane of human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Tsitsiou, Eleni; Sibley, Colin P.; D’Souza, Stephen W.; Catanescu, Otilia; Jacobsen, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated maternal plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes. The postulate that we wish to advance here is that placental transport of Hcy, by competing with endogenous amino acids for transporter activity, may account for some of the damaging impacts of Hcy on placental metabolism and function as well as fetal development. In this article, we provide an overview of some recent studies characterising the transport mechanisms for Hcy across the microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) of the syncytiotrophoblast, the transporting epithelium of human placenta. Three Hcy transport systems have been identified, systems L, A and y+L. This was accomplished using a strategy of competitive inhibition to investigate the effects of Hcy on the uptake of well-characterised radiolabelled substrates for each transport system into isolated MVM vesicles. The reverse experiments were also performed, examining the effects of model substrates on [35S]L-Hcy uptake. This article describes the evidence for systems L, A and y+L involvement in placental Hcy transport and discusses the physiological implications of these findings with respect to placental function and fetal development. PMID:20567909

  17. Prenatal regression of the trophotaenial placenta in a viviparous fish, Xenotoca eiseni.

    PubMed

    Iida, Atsuo; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2015-01-19

    The trophotaenial placenta is a branching, ribbon-like structure that extends from the perianal region of the embryo in viviparous teleost fishes belonging to the family Goodeidae. It is a hindgut-derived pseudoplacenta, which contributes to absorbing maternal nutrients during the prenatal stage. The trophotaeniae are known to reduce at birth; however, no previous study has evaluated the removal mechanisms. We report here the analysis of the trophotaeniae using the goodeid fish species Xenotoca eiseni. The X. eiseni trophotaenia consists of an epidermal cell layer, mesenchyme, vasculature, and circulating erythrocytes. The trophotaeniae had preliminary regressed when the embryo was born. Immunohistochemistry indicated that caspase3-activated cells with fragmented nuclei are present in the regressed processes of the fry immediately after birth, but not in the vasculature and blood cells. This finding suggests that the trophotaenia is rapidly resorbed by apoptosis in the last phase of the pregnancy and that its circulatory pathway is maintained. Such prenatal regression of pseudoplacentae has not been reported in other viviparous vertebrates. On the other hand, similar apoptotic remodeling in the gut has been reported in amphibians, which is regulated by thyroid hormone. Thus, apoptotic regression of the trophotaeniae might occur in a manner similar to amphibian metamorphosis.

  18. STOX1 Overexpression in Choriocarcinoma Cells Mimics Transcriptional Alterations Observed in Preeclamptic Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Rigourd, Virginie; Chauvet, Caroline; Chelbi, Sonia T.; Rebourcet, Régis; Mondon, Françoise; Letourneur, Franck; Mignot, Thérèse-Marie; Barbaux, Sandrine; Vaiman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Background Mutations in STOX1 were proposed to be causal for predisposing to preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder originating from placental defects, affecting up to 10% of human pregnancies. However, after the first study published in 2005 three other groups have dismissed the polymorphism described in the first paper as a causal mutation. Methodology and Principal Findings In the present study, we have produced a choriocarcinoma cell line overexpressing STOX1. This overexpression results in transcriptional modification of 12.5% of the genes, some of them being direct targets as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. STOX1 overexpression correlates strongly and specifically with transcriptomic alterations in preeclamptic placentas (r = 0.30, p = 9.10−7). Numerous known key modulators of preeclampsia (such as Endoglin, Syncytin, human chorionic gonadotrophin -hCG-, and Glial Cell Missing Homolog -GCM1-) were modified in these transformed choriocarcinoma cells. Conclusions Our results contribute to reconcile contradictory data concerning the involvement of STOX1 in preeclampsia. In addition, they strongly suggest that anomalies in STOX1 expression are associated with the onset of preeclampsia, thus indicating that this gene should be the target of future studies. Our cellular model could constitute an invaluable resource for studying specific aspects of this human disease. PMID:19079545

  19. Human Tumour Necrosis Factor: Physiological and Pathological Roles in Placenta and Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S.; Knöfler, M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytokine tumour necrosis factor α (TNF) is a well known member of the TNF superfamily consisting of at least 18 ligands and 29 different receptors involved in numerous cellular processes. TNF signals through two distinct receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 thereby controlling expression of cytokines, immune receptors, proteases, growth factors and cell cycle genes which in turn regulate inflammation, survival, apoptosis, cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. Since expression of TNF was discovered in amnion and placenta many studies demonstrated the presence of the cytokine and its receptors in the diverse human reproductive tissues. Whereas TNF has been implicated in ovulation, corpus luteum formation and luteolysis, this review focuses on the functions of TNF in human placental, endometrial and decidual cell types of normal tissues and also discusses its role in endometrial and gestational diseases. Physiological levels of the cytokine could be important for balancing cell fusion and apoptotic shedding of villous trophoblasts and to limit trophoblast invasion into maternal decidua. Regulation of the TNF/TNFR system by steroid hormones also suggests a role in uterine function including menstrual cycle-dependent destruction and regeneration of endometrial tissue. Aberrant levels of TNF, however, are associated with diverse reproductive diseases such as amniotic infections, recurrent spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, preterm labour or endometriosis. Hence, concentrations, receptor distribution and length of stimulation determine whether TNF has beneficial or adverse effects on female reproduction and pregnancy. PMID:19027157

  20. Opioid binding properties of the purified kappa receptor from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, M.S.; Zhou, D.; Cavinato, A.G.; Maulik, D.

    1989-01-01

    A glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,000 has been purified, in an active form, from human placental villus tissue membranes. The binding properties of this glycoprotein to opioid alkaloids and peptides indicates that it is the kappa opiate receptor of human placenta. The receptor binds the tritiated ligands etorphine, bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine and naloxone specifically and reversibly with Kd values of 3.3, 4.4, 5.1 and 7.0nM, respectively. The binding of /sup 3/H-Bremazocine to the purified receptor is inhibited by the following compounds with the corresponding Ki values EKC, 1.3 x 10/sup -8/M; Dynorphin 1-8, 3.03 x 10/sup -7/; U50,488H, 4.48 x 10/sup -9/; U69-593,2.28 x 10/sup -8/, morphine, 4.05 x 10/sup -6/ DADLE, 6.47 x 10/sup -6/ and naloxone, 2.64 x 10/sup -8/. The purified receptor binds 8 nmole of /sup 3/H-Etorphine and 1.7 nmole /sup 3/H-BZC per mg protein. The theoretical binding capacity of a protein of this molecular weight is 15.8. Although the iodinated purified receptor appears by autoradiography as one band on SDS-PAGE, yet homogeneity of the preparation is not claimed.

  1. A Paradigm Shift in the Treatment of Extreme Prematurity: The Artificial Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan P.; Benjamin, Bryner

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs), born at <28 weeks estimated gestational age, suffer the greatest consequences of prematurity. There have been significant advances in their care over the last several decades, but the prospects for major advances within traditional treatment modalities appear limited. An artificial placenta (AP) using extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been investigated in the laboratory as a new advance in the treatment of ELGANs. We review the concept of an AP, the purported benefits, and the most recent research efforts in this area. Recent Findings For fifty years, researchers have attempted to develop an AP based on ECLS. Traditional AP strategies have been based on arteriovenous ECLS (AV-ECLS) using the umbilical vessels with moderate success. Recently, the use of venovenous ECLS (VV-ECLS) and miniaturization of ECLS components have shown potential for creating a next-generation AP. Summary ELGANs suffer the greatest morbidity and mortality of prematurity, and are poised to benefit from a paradigm shift in treatment. While challenges remain, the AP is feasible. An AP would not only protect ELGANs from the complications of mechanical ventilation, but support their development until a stage of greater maturity, preparing them for a life free of the sequelae of prematurity. PMID:24786370

  2. An Extracorporeal Artificial Placenta Supports Extremely Premature Lambs for One Week

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Benjamin; Gray, Brian; Perkins, Elena; Davis, Ryan; Hoffman, Hayley; Barks, John; Owens, Gabe; Bocks, Martin; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Hirschl, Ronald; Bartlett, Robert; Mychaliska, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The treatment of extreme prematurity remains an unsolved problem. We developed an artificial placenta (AP) based on extracorporeal life support (ECLS) that simulates the intrauterine environment and provides gas exchange without mechanical ventilation (MV), and compared it to the current standard of neonatal care. Methods Extremely premature lambs (110-120d; term=145d) were used. AP lambs (n=9) were cannulated (jugular drainage, umbilical vein reinfusion) for ECLS .Control lambs (n=7) were intubated, ventilated, given surfactant, and transitioned to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. All lambs received parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, and steroids. Hemodynamics, blood gases, hemoglobin, and circuit flows were measured. Results Four premature lambs survived for 1 week on the AP; one survived 6 days. Adequate oxygenation and ventilation were provided by the AP. The MV lambs survived 2-8 hours. Each of these lambs experienced a transient improvement with surfactant, but developed progressive hypercapnea and hypoxia despite high airway pressures and HFOV. Conclusions Extremely premature lambs were supported for 1 week with the AP with hemodynamic stability and adequate gas exchange; mechanically ventilated lambs succumbed within 8 hours. Further studies will assess control of fetal circulation and organ maturation on the AP. PMID:25598091

  3. Wnt-Signaling-Mediated Antiosteoporotic Activity of Porcine Placenta Hydrolysates in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Lee, Na Ra; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-osteoporotic effects of two types of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) were evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats orally administered PPH without (WPPH) or with (NPPH) ovarian hormones (1 g/kg bw/day). PPH groups were compared with OVX rats with estrogen replacement (0.1 mg/kg bw conjugated estrogen; EST), or dextrose (placebo; OVX-control) All rats received high-fat/calcium-deficient diets for 12 weeks. NPPH contained less estrogen and progesterone, but more essential amino acids, whereas the opposite was true for WPPH. NPPH decreased body weight and peri-uterine fat pads, and maintained uterus weight. NPPH rats had higher femur and lumbar spine bone mass density compared to controls; but less than those of EST rats. Serum phosphorus and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were reduced in NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone turnover marker levels were reduced NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. WPPH produced results similar to those of NPPH, but less significant. Both NPPH and estrogen upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, while the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1 was suppressed. In conclusion, NPPH exerted anti-osteoporotic effects by activating osteogenesis and stimulating Wnt signaling, possibly mediated by the various amino acids and not ovarian hormones. PMID:23258987

  4. Studies on the equine placenta II. Ultrastructure of the placental barrier.

    PubMed

    Samuel, C A; Allen, W R; Steven, D H

    1976-11-01

    In early pregnancy the equine placenta consists of a simple apposition of fetal and maternal epithelia, but it becomes more complex with the formation of microcotyledons between 75 and 100 days of gestation. Although the placental barrier maintains an epitheliochorial arrangement throughout the course of pregnancy, a thinning of the maternal epithelium and a progressive indentation of the chorionic epithelium by fetal capillaries shortens the length of the diffusion pathway and reduces the amount of placental tissue between fetal and maternal bloodstreams. These structural modifications may reflect the changing requirements of the fetus for O2 and other metabolites as gestation proceeds. During the first 200 days of pregnancy there is evidence of intense pinocytotic activity by the cells of the trophoblast. From the 100th day of pregnancy there is a pronounced development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, while rough endoplasmic reticulum and irregular, dense, membrane-bound bodies are a prominent feature of the paranuclear cytoplasm from Day 200. These changes suggest that the cells of the trophoblast become more highly involved in synthetic processes with increasing gestational age.

  5. Effects of Maternal Dexamethasone Treatment Early in Pregnancy on Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Shang, H.; Meng, W.; Sloboda, D. M.; Li, S.; Ehrlich, L.; Plagemann, A.; Dudenhausen, J. W.; Henrich, W.; Newnham, J. P.; Challis, J. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous cortisol on binucleate cells (BNCs), which promote fetal growth, may be mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and exposure to dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy stages of placental development might modify this response. In this article, we have investigated the expression of GR as a determinant of these responses. Pregnant ewes carrying singleton fetuses (n = 119) were randomized to control (2 mL saline/ewe) or DEX-treated groups (intramuscular injections of 0.14 mg/kg ewe weight per 12 hours) at 40 to 41 days of gestation (dG). Placental tissue was collected at 50, 100, 125, and 140 dG. Total glucocorticoid receptor protein (GRt) was increased significantly by DEX at 50 and 125 dG in females only, but decreased in males at 125 dG as compared to controls. Glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) protein was not changed after DEX treatment. Three BNC phenotypes were detected regarding GRα expression (++, +−, −−), DEX increased the proportion of (++) and decreased (−−) BNC at 140 dG. Effects were sex- and cell type dependent, modifying the responsiveness of the placenta to endogenous cortisol. We speculate that 3 maturational stages of BNCs exist and that the overall activity of BNCs is determined by the distribution of these 3 cell types, which may become altered through early pregnancy exposure to elevated glucocorticoids. PMID:25332218

  6. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Su, Rina; Song, Yilin; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM.

  7. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM. PMID:27340831

  8. The effect of gestational age on expression of genes involved in uptake, trafficking and synthesis of fatty acids in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; González, Raúl Sánchez; Maldonado, Jorge; López-Alarcón, Mardia; Bernabe-García, Mariela

    2016-10-15

    Gestation triggers a tight coordination among maternal tissues to provide fatty acids (FA) to the fetus through placental transport; however, there is insufficient evidence regarding regulation of proteins involved in placental transport of FA according to gestational age. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gestational age on the expression of genes involved in FA uptake, trafficking and synthesis in the rat placenta to support fetal demands. Gene expression of encoding proteins for placental transport and synthesis of FA was measured in placenta. Also, FA composition was measured in placenta, fetuses and newborns. mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase (lpl) and fatp-1 (for uptake) was 4.4- and 1.43-fold higher, respectively, during late gestation than at P14, but expression of p-fabp-pm decreased 0.37-fold at late pregnancy in comparison with P14. Only mRNA fabp-4 member for trafficking of FA was 2.95-fold higher at late gestation than at P14. mRNA of fasn and elovl-6 participating in saturated FA and enzymes for the polyunsaturated FA synthesis were downregulated during late gestation and their regulator srebf-1c increased at P16. This study suggests that gestational age has an effect on expression of some genes involved in uptake, trafficking and synthesis of FA in the rat placenta; mRNA expression of lpl and, fatp-1 for uptake and fabp-4 implicated in trafficking was expressed at high levels at late gestation. In addition, placenta expresses the mRNAs involved in FA synthesis; these genes were expressed at low levels at late gestation. Additionally, mRNAs of Srebf-1c transcriptional regulator of desaturases and elongases was highly expressed during late gestation. Finally, these changes in the rat placenta allowed the placenta to partially supply saturated and monounsaturated FA to the fetus.

  9. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N.; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R.; Figueroa, Melania; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation (LOX) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and nonselective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate. We examined an alternative: that LOX components involved in ROS production are differentially expressed by brown rot fungi ahead of GH components. We used spatial mapping to resolve a temporal sequence in Postia placenta, sectioning thin wood wafers colonized directionally. Among sections, we measured gene expression by whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) and assayed relevant enzyme activities. We found a marked pattern of LOX up-regulation in a narrow (5-mm, 48-h) zone at the hyphal front, which included many genes likely involved in ROS generation. Up-regulation of GH5 endoglucanases and many other GHs clearly occurred later, behind the hyphal front, with the notable exceptions of two likely expansins and a GH28 pectinase. Our results support a staggered mechanism for brown rot that is controlled by differential expression rather than microenvironmental gradients. This mechanism likely results in an oxidative pretreatment of lignocellulose, possibly facilitated by expansin- and pectinase-assisted cell wall swelling, before cellulases and hemicellulases are deployed for polysaccharide depolymerization. PMID:27621450

  10. Elastase induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis and emphysema through placenta growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Hou, H-H; Cheng, S-L; Liu, H-T; Yang, F-Z; Wang, H-C; Yu, C-J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, however, the pathogenic factors and mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary emphysema is one of the major components of COPD and is thought to result from oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, protease–antiprotease imbalance and lung epithelial (LE) cell apoptosis. In our previous studies, COPD patients were noted to have higher levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid than controls. In addition, transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF developed pulmonary emphysema and exposure to PlGF in LE cells induced apoptosis. Furthermore, intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) on to PlGF wild type mice induced emphysema, but not in PlGF knockout mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPE generates pulmonary emphysema through the upregulation of PlGF expression in LE cells. The elevation of PlGF then leads to LE cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated whether PPE induces PlGF expression, whether PlGF induces apoptosis and whether the downstream mechanisms of PlGF are related to LE cell apoptosis. We found that PPE increased PlGF secretion and expression both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, PlGF-induced LE cell apoptosis and PPE-induced emphysema in the mice were mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathways. Given these findings, we suggest that the increase in PlGF and PlGF-induced JNK and p38 MAPK pathways contribute to PPE-induced LE cell apoptosis and emphysema. Regulatory control of PlGF and agents against its downstream signals may be potential therapeutic targets for COPD. PMID:24008737

  11. Human glutathione S-transferases. Characterization of the anionic forms from lung and placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Dao, D D; Partridge, C A; Kurosky, A; Awasthi, Y C

    1984-01-01

    Anionic glutathione S-transferases were purified from human lung and placenta. Chemical and immunochemical characterization, including polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, gave strong evidence that the anionic lung and placental enzymes are chemically similar, if not identical, proteins. The electrophoretic mobilities of both proteins were identical in conventional alkaline gels as well as in gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Gel filtration of the intact active enzyme established an Mr value of 45000; however, with sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under dissociating conditions a subunit Mr of 22500 was obtained. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminal region of the placental enzyme revealed a single polypeptide sequence identical with that of lung. Results obtained from immunoelectrophoresis, immunotitration, double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis also indicated the anionic lung and placental enzymes to be closely similar. The chemical similarity of these two proteins was further supported by protein compositional analysis and fragment analysis after chemical hydrolysis. Immunochemical comparison of the anionic lung and placental enzymes with human liver glutathione S-transferases revealed cross-reactivity with the anionic omega enzyme, but no cross-reactivity was detectable with the cationic enzymes. Comparison of the N-terminal region of the human anionic enzyme with reported sequences of rat liver glutathione S-transferases gave strong evidence of chemical similarity, indicating that these enzymes are evolutionarily related. However, computer analysis of the 30-residue N-terminal sequence did not show any significant chemical similarity to any other reported protein sequence, pointing to the fact that the glutathione S-transferases represent a unique class of proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6466318

  12. Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes and the infected placenta: a two-way pathway.

    PubMed

    Costa, F T M; Avril, M; Nogueira, P A; Gysin, J

    2006-12-01

    Malaria is undoubtedly the world's most devastating parasitic disease, affecting 300 to 500 million people every year. Some cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection progress to the deadly forms of the disease responsible for 1 to 3 million deaths annually. P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes adhere to host receptors in the deep microvasculature of several organs. The cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to placental syncytiotrophoblast receptors leads to pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). This specific maternal-fetal syndrome causes maternal anemia, low birth weight and the death of 62,000 to 363,000 infants per year in sub-Saharan Africa, and thus has a poor outcome for both mother and fetus. However, PAM and non-PAM parasites have been shown to differ antigenically and genetically. After multiple pregnancies, women from different geographical areas develop adhesion-blocking antibodies that protect against placental parasitemia and clinical symptoms of PAM. The recent description of a new parasite ligand encoded by the var2CSA gene as the only gene up-regulated in PAM parasites renders the development of an anti-PAM vaccine more feasible. The search for a vaccine to prevent P. falciparum sequestration in the placenta by eliciting adhesion-blocking antibodies and a cellular immune response, and the development of new methods for evaluating such antibodies should be key priorities in mother-child health programs in areas of endemic malaria. This review summarizes the main molecular, immunological and physiopathological aspects of PAM, including findings related to new targets in the P. falciparum var gene family. Finally, we focus on a new methodology for mimicking cytoadhesion under blood flow conditions in human placental tissue.

  13. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the placenta.

    PubMed

    Peltier, M R; Klimova, N G; Arita, Y; Gurzenda, E M; Murthy, A; Chawala, K; Lerner, V; Richardson, J; Hanna, N

    2012-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether(s) (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that bind and cross the placenta but their effects on pregnancy outcome are unclear. It is possible that environmental contaminants increase the risk of inflammation-mediated pregnancy complications such as preterm birth by promoting a proinflammatory environment at the maternal-fetal interface. We hypothesized that PBDE would reduce IL-10 production and enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines associated with preterm labor/birth by placental explants. Second-trimester placental explants were cultured in either vehicle (control) or 2 μM PBDE mixture of congers 47, 99 and 100 for 72 h. Cultures were then stimulated with 10(6) CFU/ml heat-killed Escherichia coli for a final 24 h incubation and conditioned medium was harvested for quantification of cytokines and PGE(2). COX-2 content and viability of the treated tissues were then quantified by tissue ELISA and MTT reduction activity, respectively. PBDE pre-treatment reduced E. coli-stimulated IL-10 production and significantly increased E. coli-stimulated IL-1β secretion. PBDE exposure also increased basal and bacteria-stimulated COX-2 expression. Basal, but not bacteria-stimulated PGE(2), was also enhanced by PBDE exposure. No effect of PBDE on viability of the explants cultures was detected. In summary, pre-exposure of placental explants to congers 47, 99, and 100 enhanced the placental proinflammatory response to infection. This may increase the risk of infection-mediated preterm birth by lowering the threshold for bacteria to stimulate a proinflammatory response(s).

  15. Isolation of cellular lipid droplets: two purification techniques starting from yeast cells and human placentas.

    PubMed

    Mannik, Jaana; Meyers, Alex; Dalhaimer, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that can be found in most eukaryotic and certain prokaryotic cells. Structurally, the droplets consist of a core of neutral lipids surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. One of the most useful techniques in determining the cellular roles of droplets has been proteomic identification of bound proteins, which can be isolated along with the droplets. Here, two methods are described to isolate lipid droplets and their bound proteins from two wide-ranging eukaryotes: fission yeast and human placental villous cells. Although both techniques have differences, the main method-- density gradient centrifugation--is shared by both preparations. This shows the wide applicability of the presented droplet isolation techniques. In the first protocol, yeast cells are converted into spheroplasts by enzymatic digestion of their cell walls. The resulting spheroplasts are then gently lysed in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Ficoll is added to the lysate to provide a density gradient, and the mixture is centrifuged three times. After the first spin, the lipid droplets are localized to the white-colored floating layer of the centrifuge tubes along with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the plasma membrane, and vacuoles. Two subsequent spins are used to remove these other three organelles. The result is a layer that has only droplets and bound proteins. In the second protocol, placental villous cells are isolated from human term placentas by enzymatic digestion with trypsin and DNase I. The cells are homogenized in a loose-fitting homogenizer. Low-speed and medium-speed centrifugation steps are used to remove unbroken cells, cellular debris, nuclei, and mitochondria. Sucrose is added to the homogenate to provide a density gradient and the mixture is centrifuged to separate the lipid droplets from the other cellular fractions. The purity of the lipid droplets in both protocols is confirmed by Western Blot analysis. The droplet fractions from both preps

  16. Effects of Porcine Placenta Extract Ingestion on Ultraviolet B-induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential benefits of an oral supplement containing porcine placenta extract (PPE) on skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging. PPEs were administered orally to hairless mice for 12 wk. The effects of oral PPE administration on skin water-holding capacity and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were similar to those of oral collagen (HYCPU2) administered as a positive control. Magnified photographs and replica images showed a reduction in UVB-induced wrinkle formation after collagen and PPE treatments. PPE treatments ameliorated the thicker skin surface that results from UVB exposure, based on a histological examination of skin tissue. The groups that were orally administered PPE (0.05%, OL; 0.1%, OH group) showed significantly reduced Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression levels compared with the UVB control (Con), by 33.5% and 35.2%, respectively. The mRNA expression of another collagen-degrading protein, MMP-9, was also significantly lower in the groups that received oral administration of PPE (especially in the OH group) than in the control group. Additionally, oral administration of PPE significantly upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 mRNA expression levels compared with expression levels in the control group (p<0.05). This indicates that orally administered PPE activated the expression of Timp-1 and -2, inhibitors of MMP, which is responsible for collagen degradation in skin. Taken together, we propose that long-term oral administration of PPE might have a beneficial effect with respect to skin photo-aging. PMID:26761856

  17. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N; Hammel, Kenneth E; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R; Figueroa, Melania; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2016-09-27

    Wood-degrading brown rot fungi are essential recyclers of plant biomass in forest ecosystems. Their efficient cellulolytic systems, which have potential biotechnological applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: lignocellulose oxidation (LOX) by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polysaccharide hydrolysis by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Given that ROS are strongly oxidizing and nonselective, these two steps are likely segregated. A common hypothesis has been that brown rot fungi use a concentration gradient of chelated metal ions to confine ROS generation inside wood cell walls before enzymes can infiltrate. We examined an alternative: that LOX components involved in ROS production are differentially expressed by brown rot fungi ahead of GH components. We used spatial mapping to resolve a temporal sequence in Postia placenta, sectioning thin wood wafers colonized directionally. Among sections, we measured gene expression by whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) and assayed relevant enzyme activities. We found a marked pattern of LOX up-regulation in a narrow (5-mm, 48-h) zone at the hyphal front, which included many genes likely involved in ROS generation. Up-regulation of GH5 endoglucanases and many other GHs clearly occurred later, behind the hyphal front, with the notable exceptions of two likely expansins and a GH28 pectinase. Our results support a staggered mechanism for brown rot that is controlled by differential expression rather than microenvironmental gradients. This mechanism likely results in an oxidative pretreatment of lignocellulose, possibly facilitated by expansin- and pectinase-assisted cell wall swelling, before cellulases and hemicellulases are deployed for polysaccharide depolymerization.