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Sample records for na placenta durante

  1. Evidence for active maternal-fetal transport of Na+ across the placenta of the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Stulc, J; Stulcová, B; Sibley, C P

    1993-10-01

    1. In order to investigate mechanisms of Na+ transfer, the unidirectional maternal-fetal clearance (Kmf) of 22Na+ and of 51Cr-EDTA (a marker of paracellular diffusion) was measured across the intact or umbilically or dually perfused placenta of the anaesthetized rat. 2. The Kmf of 22Na+ in the intact preparation (18.5 +/- 2.7 microliters min-1, mean +/- S.D., n = 105 placentas) exceeded that of 51Cr-EDTA in the same experiments (1.4 +/- 0.3 microliters min-1) by more than ten times, whereas the difference in their diffusion coefficients in water was only 2-fold. In the perfused preparations the difference in the Kmf values was 6-fold. 3. Assuming that a simple model of paracellular diffusion through wide pores was one component of transfer, the Kmf of 51Cr-EDTA and the diffusion coefficients were used to calculate a component of 22Na+ clearance (Kmf,residual) and of Na+ flux (Jmf,residual) across the perfused placentas which could not be accounted for by transfer through the paracellular route. 4. Kmf,residual of 22Na+ across the dually perfused placenta was significantly lower when temperature was reduced, the temperature quotient (Q10) of the transfer being about 2. Kmf,residual was also significantly lower when 0.1 mM ouabain was perfused on the fetal side. Jmf,residual exhibited saturation kinetics characterized by an apparent Michaelis constant (Km) of 90 mM. Kmf,residual was not influenced by 0.5 mM frusemide, 0.5 mM amiloride or by 0.5 mM hydrochlorothiazide administered to the maternal side. It was significantly increased by 1 mM alanine on the maternal side suggesting that the coupled transfer of Na+ and amino acids may contribute significantly to the maternal-fetal flux of Na+. 5. These observations suggest that most (80%) of the maternal-fetal flux of Na+ across the rat placenta is effected by active transcellular transport. This transport involves passive entry of Na+ into the trophoblast from the maternal side by a largely unknown saturable mechanism

  2. Mechanisms of the fetomaternal transfer of Na+ across the dually perfused placenta of the rat.

    PubMed

    Stulc, J; Stulcová, B; Sibley, C P

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate mechanisms of fetal-maternal (F-M) transfer of Na+, clearance of 22Na+ and 51Cr-EDTA was measured simultaneously across the dually perfused placenta of the rat. In eight experiments clearance was measured successively in the F-M (Kfm) and in the maternal-fetal (M-F; Kmf) directions. Clearance of 22Na+ in the two directions was approximately equal (Kmf = 11.6 +/- 2.0 microliters/min; Kfm = 11.1 +/- 1.7 microliters/min: mean +/- s.d.) while Kfm of 51Cr-EDTA (4.4 +/- 0.7 microliters/min) was nearly double Kmf (2.4 +/- 0.8 microliters/min) for this tracer. Even greater asymmetry in the transfer of 51Cr-EDTA was found when measured across intact (non-perfused) placenta. It is suggested that this asymmetry is caused by volume flow in the F-M direction. In other experiments transfer was measured in the F-M direction only. Ouabain (0.1 mM) on the maternal side and reduced concentration of Na+ (25 mM) on the fetal side had no effect on the F-M transfer of the tracers. Reducing the temperature of the preparation by 5 degrees C significantly decreased transfer of 22Na+. The transfer of 22Na was inversely related to the concentration of K+ on the fetal side. These observations suggest that the F-M transfer of Na+ has three components: diffusion through paracellular routes; convective flow by filtration through wide placental pores, and transcellular transport by a mechanism which is uncertain at present.

  3. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000901.htm Placenta abruption - definition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The placenta is the organ that supplies food and oxygen ...

  4. Activity of NA(+)/H(+) exchangers alters aquaporin-mediated water transport in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Valeria; Damiano, Alicia E

    2015-12-01

    The intracellular pH (pHi) of syncytiotrophoblasts is regulated, in part, by Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-1, NHE-2, and NHE-3. Failures in pHi homeostasis could alter critical cellular functions such as water transport and cell volume. Here, we evaluated whether alterations in syncytiotrophoblast pHi could modify water uptake mediated by aquaporins (AQPs) and the contribution of NHEs to this mechanism. We showed that changes in syncytiotrophoblast pHi did not affect water uptake in the presence of functional NHEs. However, inhibition of NHEs alters transcellular water transport mediated by AQPs in acidosis. These results suggest an interaction between placental AQPs and NHEs in the regulation of water uptake during acidotic states.

  5. Placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Abduljabbar, Hassan S.; Bahkali, Nedaa M.; Al-Basri, Samera F.; Hachim, Estabrq Al; Shoudary, Ibrahim H.; Dause, Wesam R.; Mira, Mohammed Y.; Khojah, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review cases of placenta previa in the last 13 years in a tertiary teaching hospital to identify risk factors for maternal morbidity. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all cases of placenta previa managed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2013. Results: The total number of deliveries was 55,862 deliveries, and 11,412 (20.3%) delivered by cesarean section (C/S). The charts of 230 cases diagnosed with placenta previa was reviewed, and different variables were collected and analyzed. Diagnoses were achieved in 94% of them using ultrasound. The prevalence rate of placenta previa was 4.1 per 1000 births. Cesarean section was carried out as an emergency procedure in 130 (56.5%) women and as elective in 100 (43.5%) women. Of them, 26 patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (11.3%), all of which received blood transfusion >6 units and 22 patients had a hysterectomy for uncontrollable bleeding. Conclusion: Placenta previa is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Every hospital must have a protocol, or algorithm for the management of placenta previa. Risk factors for maternal morbidity included complete previa, history of previous C/S, emergency C/S at a gestational age of <36 weeks, and estimated blood loss >2000 ml. PMID:27381536

  6. [Placenta accreta with placenta previa. Case report].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ojeda, Humberto; Torres-Hernández, Rosa María; Rivera-Hernández, Jorge Onasis

    2014-08-01

    The placenta praevia and acretism placental were concurrently and are conditions of abnormal placenta, in which the villus sampling invade the myometrium at the site of implantation and is associated with the partial or complete absence of the decidua. Clinical case: Patient's 32 years of age, with 34 weeks pregnancy. Obstetric history of previous cesarean section, transvaginal bleeding several times; the diagnosis by ultrasound showed placenta praevia occlusive. Surgical treatment was abdominal total hysterectomy.

  7. The retained placenta.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    The incidence and importance of retained placenta (RP) varies greatly around the world. In less developed countries, it affects about 0.1% of deliveries but has up to 10% case fatality rate. In more developed countries, it is more common (about 3% of vaginal deliveries) but very rarely associated with mortality. There are three main types of retained placenta following the vagina delivery: placenta adherens (when there is failed contraction of the myometrium behind the placenta), trapped placenta (a detached placenta trapped behind a closed cervix) and partial accreta (when there is a small area of accreta preventing detachment). All can be treated by manual removal of placenta, which should be carried out at 30-60 minutes postpartum. Medical management is also an option for placenta adherens and trapped placenta. The need for manual removal can be reduced by 20% by the use of intraumbilical oxytocin (30 i.u. in 30 mL saline). A trapped placenta may respond to glyceryl trinitrate (500 mcg sublingually) or gentle, persistent, controlled cord traction.

  8. What is the placenta?

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Jauniaux, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Discarded at birth, the placenta is a highly complex and fascinating organ. During the course of a pregnancy, it acts as the lungs, gut, kidneys, and liver of the fetus. The placenta also has major endocrine actions that modulate maternal physiology and metabolism and provides a safe and protective milieu in which the fetus can develop. The human placenta undergoes dramatic transformations in form and function between the first trimester, when organogenesis occurs, and the remainder of pregnancy that reflect evolutionary responses to changing oxygen concentrations in the earth's atmosphere. Recent research indicates a more interactive dialogue between the placenta and the maternal tissues than previously recognized. The endometrial glands provide histotrophic support during the first weeks of pregnancy, and the placenta appears able to stimulate its own development by up-regulating gland activity in response to endocrine signals. Extravillous trophoblast cells migrate from the placenta into the uterine wall, in which they interact with cells of the maternal innate immune system. These interactions have a physiological, rather than a classical immunological, outcome and most probably mediate remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries that supply the placenta. Furthermore, deportation of aggregates of transcriptionally active trophoblast nuclei, and the release of exosomes carrying microribonucleic acids challenge our perceptions of fetal-maternal signaling and where the placental interface actually lies. Here we reconsider definitions of the placenta in the light of these recent advances.

  9. Ultrasound, normal placenta - Braxton Hicks (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... performed at 17 weeks gestation. It shows the placenta during a normal (Braxton Hicks) contraction. Throughout the ... contracts to facilitate better blood flow through the placenta and the fetus. In this ultrasound, the placenta ...

  10. [Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2014-01-01

    Placenta accreta is a potentially life-threatening obstetric condition. Diagnosis of placenta accreta before delivery allows multidisciplinary planning in an attempt to minimize potential maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality The diagnosis is usually established by 2D, 3D Ultrasonography and Color Doppler ultrasonography and occasionally supplemented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. PMID:25510048

  11. Retained Placenta Accreta Mimicking Choriocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kohi, Maureen P.; Rizzuto, Gabrielle A.; Fidelman, Nicholas; Lucero, Jennifer; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2015-01-01

    This case demonstrates a rare event of retained invasive placenta masquerading as choriocarcinoma. The patient presented with heavy vaginal bleeding following vaginal delivery complicated by retained products of conception. Ultrasound and computed tomography demonstrated a vascular endometrial mass, invading the uterine wall and raising suspicion for choriocarcinoma. Hysterectomy revealed retained invasive placenta. PMID:26495146

  12. Placenta accreta and anesthesia: A multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, RS; Baaj, J; Khan, MU; Dammas, FA; Rashid, N

    2016-01-01

    Placenta accreta (an abnormally adherent placenta) is one of the two leading causes of peripartum hemorrhage and the most common indication for peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta accreta may be associated with significant maternal hemorrhage at delivery owing to the incomplete placental separation. When placenta accreta is diagnosed before delivery, a multidisciplinary approach may improve patient outcome. PMID:27375391

  13. Placenta accreta: adherent placenta due to Asherman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Kjer, Jens Joergen; Istre, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message It is important to be aware of the risk of abnormally invasive placenta in patients with a history of Asherman syndrome and uterine scarring. A prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is useful when planning of mode of delivery. PMID:25838908

  14. Development of the Pig Placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Placental insufficiency results in a myriad of negative consequences, including death of the fetus or low birth weight of the piglet, which increases the risk of stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and poor growth potential. Placental function is controlled by the size of the placenta, its structural...

  15. The evolution of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R Michael; Green, Jonathan A; Schulz, Laura C

    2016-11-01

    The very apt definition of a placenta is coined by Mossman, namely apposition or fusion of the fetal membranes to the uterine mucosa for physiological exchange. As such, it is a specialized organ whose purpose is to provide continuing support to the developing young. By this definition, placentas have evolved within every vertebrate class other than birds. They have evolved on multiple occasions, often within quite narrow taxonomic groups. As the placenta and the maternal system associate more intimately, such that the conceptus relies extensively on maternal support, the relationship leads to increased conflict that drives adaptive changes on both sides. The story of vertebrate placentation, therefore, is one of convergent evolution at both the macromolecular and molecular levels. In this short review, we first describe the emergence of placental-like structures in nonmammalian vertebrates and then transition to mammals themselves. We close the review by discussing the mechanisms that might have favored diversity and hence evolution of the morphology and physiology of the placentas of eutherian mammals. PMID:27486265

  16. Abnormal Placentation: Placenta Previa, Vasa Previa, and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Placental disorders such as placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are all associated with vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy. They are also important causes of serious fetal and maternal morbidity and even mortality. Moreover, the rates of previa and accreta are increasing, probably as a result of increasing rates of cesarean delivery, maternal age, and assisted reproductive technology. The routine use of obstetric ultrasonography as well as improving ultrasonographic technology allows for the antenatal diagnosis of these conditions. In turn, antenatal diagnosis facilitates optimal obstetric management. This review emphasizes an evidence-based approach to the clinical management of pregnancies with these conditions as well as highlights important knowledge gaps.

  17. Optimal transport and the placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Simon; Xia, Qinglan; Salafia, Carolym

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the expected effects of (i) placental size, (ii) placental shape and (iii) the position of insertion of the umbilical cord on the work done by the foetus heart in pumping blood across the placenta. We use optimal transport theory and modeling to quantify the expected effects of these factors . Total transport cost and the shape factor contribution to cost are given by the optimal transport model. Total placental transport cost is highly correlated with birth weight, placenta weight, FPR and the metabolic scaling factor beta. The shape factor is also highly correlated with birth weight, and after adjustment for placental weight, is highly correlated with the metabolic scaling factor beta.

  18. TPRV-1 expression in human preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Nora; Abán, Cyntia E; Leguizamón, Gustavo F; Damiano, Alicia E; Farina, Mariana G

    2016-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, characterized by abnormal placentation. Although its causes remain unclear, it is known that the expression of several transporters is altered. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1) is a nonselective cation channel, present in human placenta. Here, we evaluated the expression of TRPV-1 in preeclamptic placentas. We observed a deregulation in TRPV-1 expression in these placentas which may explain the impaired Ca(2+) homeostasis found in preeclampsia. PMID:27016779

  19. Regeneration of ascorbic acid in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.C.; Bode, A.M. )

    1990-02-26

    The free radical scavenging function of ascorbic acid (AA) results in the formation of the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydro-L-ascorbic acid (DHAA). The enzymatic reduction of DHAA may be an important means of recycling and conserving ascorbic acid in various tissues. The role of the human placenta in the enzymatic reduction of the potentially toxic oxidized form was examined in tissue homogenized in 50 mM MOPs buffer. Assay of DHAA, AA, DKG (diketogulonic acid) were made by HPLC and liquid scintillation counting. Activity of the placental factor in reducing DHAA was dependent on the presence of both NADPH and GSH. Activity was reduced 81% by incubation with 2% trypsin and was unaffected by BSA, glycerol, EtOH, or Na-AZIDE. Inhibition was observed with 10 mM EDTA and 0.2M KCI but not with 1 mM EDTA or 0.1 M KCI or less. Studies are underway to further purify and characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for the observed activity.

  20. Reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Sevinga, M; Hesselink, J W; Barkema, H W

    2002-01-15

    Because the incidence of retained placenta in Friesian mares is estimated to be high, and no reports have been published on the reproductive performance of Friesian mares after retained placenta, we studied postpartum reproductive performance in Friesian brood mares with (n = 54) and without (n = 50) retained placenta. We defined a retained placenta as the failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 h after the delivery of a foal. We subdivided the group of mares with retained placenta into mares in which the placenta had been removed manually (n = 30) and mares in which it had not (n = 24). Within each group, we compared reproductive performance after breeding in the foal heat and breeding in a subsequent heat. We also recorded the age of the mares, number of mares treated with antibiotics after insemination, and number of mares treated with prostaglandins. The interval between delivery and conception, efficacy rate (number of served cycles divided by the number of mares that had a positive pregnancy diagnosis), seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate after first insemination, pregnancy loss rate, and foaling rate did not differ between mares with and without retained placenta or between mares with and without manual removal of the retained placenta. Within each group, the pregnancy rate after first insemination did not differ between breeding for the first time in the foal heat and breeding for the first time in a subsequent heat. We concluded that reproductive performance did not differ between (1) Friesian mares with and without retained placenta and (2) Friesian mares with and without manual removal of the placenta. With regard to reproductive performance, retained placenta and manual removal of the placenta are not valid reasons to avoid foal heat breeding in Friesian mares.

  1. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  2. Intracellular and extracellular pH dynamics in the human placenta from diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Araos, Joaquín; Silva, Luis; Salsoso, Rocío; Sáez, Tamara; Barros, Eric; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sanhueza, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The placenta is a vital organ whose function in diseases of pregnancy is altered, resulting in an abnormal supply of nutrients to the foetus. The lack of placental vasculature homeostasis regulation causes endothelial dysfunction and altered vascular reactivity. The proper distribution of acid- (protons (H(+))) and base-equivalents through the placenta is essential to achieve physiological homeostasis. Several membrane transport mechanisms that control H(+) distribution between the extracellular and intracellular spaces are expressed in the human placenta vascular endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast, including sodium (Na(+))/H(+) exchangers (NHEs). One member of the NHEs family is NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), whose activity results in an alkaline intracellular pH (high intracellular pH (pHi)) and an acidic extracellular pH (pHo). Increased NHE1 expression, maximal transport activity, and turnover are reported in human syncytiotrophoblasts and lymphocytes from patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DMT1), and a positive correlation between NHEs activity and plasma factors, such as that between thrombin and platelet factor 3, has been reported in diabetes mellitus type II (DMT2). However, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) could result in a higher sensitivity of the human placenta to acidic pHo. We summarized the findings on pHi and pHo modulation in the human placenta with an emphasis on pregnancies in which the mother diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A potential role of NHEs, particularly NHE1, is proposed regarding placental dysfunction in DMT1, DMT2, and GDM.

  3. Genomic imprinting in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Monk, David

    2015-10-01

    With the launch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health Human Placenta Project, the anticipation is that this often-overlooked organ will be the subject of much intense research. Compared with somatic tissues, the cells of the placenta have a unique epigenetic profile that dictates its transcription patterns, which when disturbed may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. One major class of genes that is dependent on strict epigenetic regulation in the placenta is subject to genomic imprinting, the parent-of-origin-dependent monoallelic gene expression. This review discusses the differences in allelic expression and epigenetic profiles of imprinted genes that are identified between different species, which reflect the continuous evolutionary adaption of this form of epigenetic regulation. These observations divulge that placenta-specific imprinted gene that is reliant on repressive histone signatures in mice are unlikely to be imprinted in humans, whereas intense methylation profiling in humans has uncovered numerous maternally methylated regions that are restricted to the placenta that are not conserved in mice. Imprinting has been proposed to be a mechanism that regulates parental resource allocation and ultimately can influence fetal growth, with the placenta being the key in this process. Furthermore, I discuss the developmental dynamics of both classic and transient placenta-specific imprinting and examine the evidence for an involvement of these genes in intrauterine growth restriction and placenta-associated complications. Finally, I focus on examples of genes that are regulated aberrantly in complicated pregnancies, emphasizing their application as pregnancy-related disease biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies early in gestation.

  4. Colonization of second trimester placenta parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Hecht, Jonathan L.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Delaney, Mary L.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Leviton, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective The overtly healthy, non-pregnant uterus harbors bacteria, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. The extent of colonization remains elusive, as are relationships between isolated microorganisms, preterm labor and fetal inflammation. Study Design Biopsies of chorion parenchyma from 1083 placentas delivered before the beginning of the 28th week of gestation were cultured, and the placenta was examined histologically. The frequencies of individual microorganisms and groups of microorganisms were evaluated in strata of processes leading to preterm delivery, routes of delivery, gestational age, and placenta morphology Results Placentas delivered by cesarean section with preeclampsia had the lowest bacterial recovery rate (25%). Preterm labor had the highest rates, which decreased with increasing gestational age from 79% at 23 weeks to 43% at 27 weeks. The presence of microorganisms in placenta parenchyma was associated with the presence of neutrophils in the fetal stem vessels of the chorion and the vessels of the umbilical cord. Conclusions The high rate of colonization appears to coincide with phenomena associated with preterm delivery and gestational age. The presence of microorganisms within placenta parenchyma is biologically important. PMID:18313635

  5. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  6. Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Derek E.

    2012-01-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placenta function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage-specific birth-and-death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placenta expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placenta biology. PMID:21306776

  7. Center of excellence for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Silver, Robert M; Fox, Karin A; Barton, John R; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Simhan, Hyagriv; Huls, C Kevin; Belfort, Michael A; Wright, Jason D

    2015-05-01

    Placenta accreta spectrum is one of the most morbid conditions obstetricians will encounter. The incidence has dramatically increased in the last 20 years. The major contributing factor to this is believed to be the increase in the rate of cesarean delivery. Despite the increased incidence of placenta accreta, most obstetricians have personally managed only a small number of women with placenta accreta. The condition poses dramatic risk for massive hemorrhage and associated complication such as consumption coagulopathy, multisystem organ failure, and death. In addition, there is an increased risk for surgical complications such as injury to bladder, ureters, and bowel and the need for reoperation. Most women require blood transfusion, often in large quantities, and many require admission to an intensive care unit. As a result of indicated, often emergent preterm delivery, many babies require admission to a neonatal care intensive care unit. Outcomes are improved when delivery is accomplished in centers with multidisciplinary expertise and experience in the care of placenta accreta. Such expertise may include maternal-fetal medicine, gynecologic surgery, gynecologic oncology, vascular, trauma and urologic surgery, transfusion medicine, intensivists, neonatologists, interventional radiologists, anesthesiologists, specialized nursing staff, and ancillary personnel. This article highlights the desired features for a center of excellence in placenta accreta, and which patients should be referred for evaluation and/or delivery in such centers.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  9. Cation transport across the guinea-pig placenta perfused in situ.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, D J; Bradbury, M W; France, V M; Hedley, R; Naik, S; Parry, H

    1979-01-01

    1. The guinea-pig placenta perfused in situ via the umbilical circulation has been used to measure unidirectional fluxes of Na from mother to fetus, and in the reverse direction, with 24Na and 22Na. There was no significant difference between the two fluxes, each being 22 mumole.min-1. 2. Ouabain 10(-5) M in the perfusion fluid had no detectable effect on radioisotopic movements of Na in either direction. 3. Unidirectional fluxes of 42K in both directions were approximately equal at 1.7 mumole.min-1 mother fetus and 1.8 mumole.min-1 in the reverse direction, despite a K concentration of 3.4 mM on the maternal side and 5.0 mM on the fetal side of the placenta. 4. Extraction of 42K and 86Rb from the perfusion fluid was inhibited by 43% by 10(-5) M-ouabain in the fluid. This effect was largely due to a reduction of isotope uptake by the placental tissue. 5. The relative permeabilities of the placenta, mother to fetus, were Rb approximately K (3.2) greater than Na (1.0) greater than Li (0.55). 6. Under the experimental conditions, the electrical potential difference between perfusion fluid and maternal blood was 6 mV (fetus negative). It was shifted towards the positive by a low Na fluid. 7. The results suggest the presence of a dominant Na-K pump (active component towards mother) sited at the maternal-facing membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast together with a subsidiary pump oriented in the opposite direction and probably sited together with a subsidiary pump oriented in the opposite direction and probably sited at the fetal-facing membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. 8. A high proportion of Na movement particularly towards the fetus is probably passive, occurring through water-filled spaces, whilst K movement is more dependent on active transport. PMID:430428

  10. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options. PMID:26199801

  11. A Case Report and Literature Review of Midtrimester Termination of Pregnancy Complicated by Placenta Previa and Placenta Accreta.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Satoko; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kakuda, Mamoru; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Objective Concurrent placenta previa and placenta accreta increase the risk of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Despite extensive research on the management of placenta previa (including placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), the number and quality of previous studies are limited. We present a case of placenta accreta requiring an induced second-trimester abortion because of premature rupture of the membranes (PROM). Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Results A 41-year-old female presented at 20 weeks of gestation with placenta previa and PROM. Ultrasonography revealed placenta accreta with multiple placental lacunae. She then developed massive hemorrhaging just prior to a planned termination of pregnancy. We performed a hysterectomy with the intent of preserving life because of the failure of the placenta to detach and blood loss totaling 4,500 mL. Conclusion Previous studies suggest that second-trimester pregnancy terminations in cases of placenta previa which are not complicated with placenta accreta do not have a particularly high risk of hemorrhage. However, together with our case, the literature suggests that placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta presents a significant risk of hemorrhage both during delivery and intraoperatively. Further reports are needed to evaluate the most appropriate treatment options.

  12. Escalating placenta invasiveness: repeated placenta accreta at the limit of viability

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Shirley; Khashper, Alla; Leron, Elad; Ohana, Eric; Meirovitz, Mihai; Hershkovitz, Reli; Erez, Offer

    2016-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an obstetric condition in which the placenta invades through the myometrium. This is the most severe form of placenta accreta and may result in spontaneous uterine rupture, a rare complication that threatens the life of both mother and fetus. In this case report, we describe a 32-year-old woman in her fourth pregnancy, diagnosed with repeated placenta accreta, which was eventually complicated by spontaneous uterine rupture at 24 weeks’ gestation. This patient had a history of abnormal placentation in prior pregnancies and previous uterine injuries. This case demonstrates a pattern of escalating placental invasiveness, and raises questions regarding the process of abnormal placentation and the manifestation of uterine rupture in scarred uteri. PMID:27143953

  13. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  14. Review: Placenta, evolution and lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R M; Cleal, J K; Hanson, M A

    2012-02-01

    The intrauterine environment has an important influence on lifelong health, and babies who grew poorly in the womb are more likely to develop chronic diseases in later life. Placental function is a major determinant of fetal growth and is therefore also a key influence on lifelong health. The capacity of the placenta to transport nutrients to the fetus and regulate fetal growth is determined by both maternal and fetal signals. The way in which the placenta responds to these signals will have been subject to evolutionary selective pressures. The responses selected are those which increase Darwinian fitness, i.e. reproductive success. This review asks whether in addition to responding to short-term signals, such as a rise in maternal nutrient levels, the placenta also responds to longer-term signals representing the mother's phenotype as a measure of environmental influences across her life course. Understanding how the placenta responds to maternal signals is therefore not only important for promoting optimal fetal growth but can also give insights into how human evolution affected developmental history with long-term effects on health and disease.

  15. The effects of alcohol on rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Turan Akay, Mehmet; Arzu Koçkaya, Evrim

    2005-01-01

    In this study, daily food and water consumption and body weights, histopathology of placenta, tenascin (TN), type IV collagen and EGF and its receptor immunolocalization in the placenta of albino rats treated with two doses of alcohol (1 and 5 g kg(-1) day(-1)) were determined. Alcohol was administered in three different periods i.e. the whole 4 weeks before the pregnancy, during the pregnancy, and during the 4 weeks before the pregnancy plus pregnancy itself. The samples of placenta obtained from control and treated rats on days 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 21 of gestation were evaluated morphologically and fixed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Some differences in food and water consumption between the groups were determined. The placental weight, especially in the groups receiving 1 and 5 g kg(-1) day(-1) alcohol during the pregnancy, showed increases. The changes in placental histology such as increases in the number and the size of trophoblastic giant cells, cytoplasmic dissolution and nuclear polymorphism, degenerations in spongiotrophoblasts, hyperemia at the basal zone and labyrinth, hyperplasia at the labyrinth and irregular vascularization were seen particularly in the groups receiving alcohol during the pregnancy, and during the 4 weeks before the pregnancy plus pregnancy itself. Increases in the immunolocalization of TN and type IV collagen and decreases in the immunolocalization of EGF and EGFR in the placentas of alcohol-receiving rats were found. In conclusion, ethanol treatment during pregnancy in rats affected placentation and the immunolocalization of TN, type IV collagen, EGF and EGFR in the placentas.

  16. Review: Toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Wildman, D E

    2011-03-01

    The placenta is fundamentally important for the success of pregnancy. Disruptions outside the normal range for placental function can result in pregnancy failure and other complications. The anatomy of the placenta varies greatly across mammals, as do key parameters in pregnancy such as neonatal body mass, length of gestation and number of offspring per pregnancy. An accurate understanding of the evolution of the mammalian placenta will require at minimum the integration of anatomical, developmental, physiological, genetic, and epigenetic data. Currently available data suggest that the placenta is a dynamic organ that has evolved rapidly in a lineage specific manner. Examination of the placenta from the perspective of human evolution shows that many anatomical features of the human placenta are relatively conserved. Despite the anatomical conservation of the human placenta there are many recently evolved placenta-specific genes (e.g. CGB, LGALS13, GH2) that are important in the development and function of the human placenta. Other mammalian genomes have also evolved specific suites of placenta-expressed genes. For example, rodents have undergone expansions of the cathepsin and prolactin families, and artiodactyls have expanded their suite of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. In addition to lineage specific birth and death of gene family members, the pattern of imprinted loci varies greatly among species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a strategy reliant upon the sampling of placentally expressed and imprinted genes from a phylogenetically diverse range of species is appropriate for unraveling the conserved and derived aspects of placental biology.

  17. Efflux transporters of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Young, Amber M; Allen, Courtni E; Audus, Kenneth L

    2003-01-21

    The use of pharmaceuticals during pregnancy is often a necessity for the health of the mother. Until recently, the placenta was viewed as a passive organ through which molecules are passed indiscriminately between mother and fetus. In reality, the placenta contains a plethora of transporters, some of which appear to be specifically dedicated to removal of xenobiotics and toxic endogenous compounds. Drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), several multidrug resistant associated proteins (MRPs) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) may provide mechanisms that protect the developing fetus. Bile acid transporters may also play a role in exporting compounds back into the maternal compartment. Steroid hormones directly influence the level of expression and function in some of these transporters. Investigating the link between the hormones of pregnancy and these drug efflux transporters is one possible key in developing strategies to deliver drugs to the mother with minimal fetal risk. PMID:12535577

  18. Automated vasculature extraction from placenta images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almoussa, Nizar; Dutra, Brittany; Lampe, Bryce; Getreuer, Pascal; Wittman, Todd; Salafia, Carolyn; Vese, Luminita

    2011-03-01

    Recent research in perinatal pathology argues that analyzing properties of the placenta may reveal important information on how certain diseases progress. One important property is the structure of the placental blood vessels, which supply a fetus with all of its oxygen and nutrition. An essential step in the analysis of the vascular network pattern is the extraction of the blood vessels, which has only been done manually through a costly and time-consuming process. There is no existing method to automatically detect placental blood vessels; in addition, the large variation in the shape, color, and texture of the placenta makes it difficult to apply standard edge-detection algorithms. We describe a method to automatically detect and extract blood vessels from a given image by using image processing techniques and neural networks. We evaluate several local features for every pixel, in addition to a novel modification to an existing road detector. Pixels belonging to blood vessel regions have recognizable responses; hence, we use an artificial neural network to identify the pattern of blood vessels. A set of images where blood vessels are manually highlighted is used to train the network. We then apply the neural network to recognize blood vessels in new images. The network is effective in capturing the most prominent vascular structures of the placenta.

  19. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ.

    PubMed

    Burton, Graham J; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain.

  20. The placenta: a multifaceted, transient organ

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Graham J.; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is arguably the most important organ of the body, but paradoxically the most poorly understood. During its transient existence, it performs actions that are later taken on by diverse separate organs, including the lungs, liver, gut, kidneys and endocrine glands. Its principal function is to supply the fetus, and in particular, the fetal brain, with oxygen and nutrients. The placenta is structurally adapted to achieve this, possessing a large surface area for exchange and a thin interhaemal membrane separating the maternal and fetal circulations. In addition, it adopts other strategies that are key to facilitating transfer, including remodelling of the maternal uterine arteries that supply the placenta to ensure optimal perfusion. Furthermore, placental hormones have profound effects on maternal metabolism, initially building up her energy reserves and then releasing these to support fetal growth in later pregnancy and lactation post-natally. Bipedalism has posed unique haemodynamic challenges to the placental circulation, as pressure applied to the vena cava by the pregnant uterus may compromise venous return to the heart. These challenges, along with the immune interactions involved in maternal arterial remodelling, may explain complications of pregnancy that are almost unique to the human, including pre-eclampsia. Such complications may represent a trade-off against the provision for a large fetal brain. PMID:25602070

  1. Expression and function of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Although the expression of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta of numerous species was observed a long time ago, their physiological function during gestation was demonstrated only very recently. Expression of retroviral envelope proteins, also called syncytins, in the placenta allows generation of the multinuclear syncytiotrophoblast as an outer cellular layer of the placenta by fusion of the trophoblast cells. This fusion process is crucial for the development of the placenta and for successful pregnancy. It is still unclear whether the immunosuppressive properties of the transmembrane envelope protein of the endogenous retroviruses expressed in the placenta contribute to immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of the semiallotransplant embryo. The presence of placenta cells expressing retroviral envelope proteins surrounded by immune cells deep in the maternal tissue supports an immunosuppressive function. It is important to emphasize that during evolution different species utilized ('enslaved') different endogenous retroviruses and that two or more endogenous retroviruses are involved in placentogenesis in each species.

  2. [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETE DURING VAGINAL DELIVERY].

    PubMed

    Dimirov, A; Garnizov, T; Zlatkov, V; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A

    2016-01-01

    Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others. The smallest success with vaginal birth, is when the diagnosis of placenta accreta is not know in advance and proceed with aggressive attempts to extract the placenta, followed by profuse bleeding from the uterus. As additional methods of securing conservative management is reported use of Methotrexate, with unproven effectiveness and embolization of a. Iliaca interna and a. uterine, which require a qualified team and have a lot of complications. Complications of conservative management of placenta accreta are: febrility and genital bleeding, which are the cause of late hysterectomy in about 35% of cases. lnfestion may be not always prevent by application of broad spectrum antibiotics. Late bleeding is usually associated with an active inflammatory process. Low-grade and low grade temperature increase of leukocytes and CRP may be due to necrotic changes in the placenta without the infection process. Tracking involution of the placenta is through abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, using hysteroscopy through serial monitoring the level of hCG. From literature data the time for resorption of the placenta varies from 4 months to 1 year. It is essential to determine the time when it is safely to extract the placenta move in order to prevent late complications of conservative management. Our experience and some authors suggest that there may

  3. [CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PLACENTA ACCRETE DURING VAGINAL DELIVERY].

    PubMed

    Dimirov, A; Garnizov, T; Zlatkov, V; Frundeva, B; Masseva, A

    2016-01-01

    Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others. The smallest success with vaginal birth, is when the diagnosis of placenta accreta is not know in advance and proceed with aggressive attempts to extract the placenta, followed by profuse bleeding from the uterus. As additional methods of securing conservative management is reported use of Methotrexate, with unproven effectiveness and embolization of a. Iliaca interna and a. uterine, which require a qualified team and have a lot of complications. Complications of conservative management of placenta accreta are: febrility and genital bleeding, which are the cause of late hysterectomy in about 35% of cases. lnfestion may be not always prevent by application of broad spectrum antibiotics. Late bleeding is usually associated with an active inflammatory process. Low-grade and low grade temperature increase of leukocytes and CRP may be due to necrotic changes in the placenta without the infection process. Tracking involution of the placenta is through abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance, using hysteroscopy through serial monitoring the level of hCG. From literature data the time for resorption of the placenta varies from 4 months to 1 year. It is essential to determine the time when it is safely to extract the placenta move in order to prevent late complications of conservative management. Our experience and some authors suggest that there may

  4. Placenta changes in pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Edu, Antoine; Teodorescu, Cristina; Dobjanschi, Carmen Gabriela; Socol, ZiŢa Zsuzsana; Teodorescu, Valeriu; Matei, Alexandru; Albu, Dinu Florin; Radulian, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Placental damage may be responsible for the fetal complications in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We have analyzed the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in a population of 109 pregnant women, the risk factors and the placental changes associated with gestational diabetes. Tests carried out were oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, using the IADPSG (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups) criteria for gestational diabetes, glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound and, also, there were analyzed macro and microscopic placental fragments from pregnant women with÷without GD. It has been recorded the weight of placenta at birth and there were analyzed the possible pathological changes. The prevalence of GD was 11.9%. We have applied the direct logistic regression to determine the impact of some factors over the probability of association with gestational diabetes. The most powerful predictor was the placental maturity grade, the patients with decreased maturity grade having chances 52.6 times higher than those with an increased placental maturity grade to associate gestational diabetes. Sizes of placentas in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were significantly increased than in patients without this diagnosis (p=0.012) from week 24-28. Pathological changes were discovered in six of the 13 placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, independent of the level of glycated hemoglobin (p=0.72). The level of hyperglycemia is only partially associated with the presence of placental changes, which may be caused by other maternal factors. PMID:27516026

  5. Circadian Kisspeptin expression in human term placenta.

    PubMed

    de Pedro, M A; Morán, J; Díaz, I; Murias, L; Fernández-Plaza, C; González, C; Díaz, E

    2015-11-01

    Kisspeptin is an essential gatekeeper of reproductive function. During pregnancy high circulating levels of kisspeptin have been described, however the clear role of this neuropeptide in pregnancy remains unknown. We tested the existence of rhythmic kisspeptin expression in human full-term placenta from healthy pregnant women at six different time points during the day. The data obtained by Western blotting were fitted to a mathematical model (Fourier series), demonstrating, for the first time, the existence of a circadian rhythm in placental kisspeptin expression.

  6. ECLS for preemies: the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Bryner, Benjamin S; Mychaliska, George B

    2014-03-01

    The high mortality and morbidity associated with respiratory failure among extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) remains an unsolved problem. A logical strategy to avoid these complications would involve re-creating the intrauterine environment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) instead of mechanical ventilation. Such a device, termed an artificial placenta, was first researched over 50 years ago. AP models vary, but all incorporate ECMO involving the umbilical vessels, lack of mechanical ventilation, and low partial pressure of oxygen to preserve fetal circulation. Current research has focused on low-volume pumpless arteriovenous circuits as well as pump-driven venovenous circuits.

  7. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 ...

  8. The Programming Power of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N.; Camm, Emily J.

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  9. The Programming Power of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Camm, Emily J

    2016-01-01

    Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development. This flow of nutrients will ultimately program physiological systems at the gene, cell, tissue, organ, and system levels, and inadequacies can cause permanent structural and functional changes that lead to overt disease, particularly with increasing age. This review examines the environmental regulation of the placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the impact of maternal nutritional challenges and oxygen scarcity in mice, rats and guinea pigs. It also focuses on the effects of such conditions on fetal growth and the developmental programming of disease postnatally. A challenge for future research is to link placental structure and function with clinical phenotypes in the offspring. PMID:27014074

  10. Goat fetuses disconnected from the placenta, but reconnected to an artificial placenta, display intermittent breathing movements.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, S; Nishina, H; Unno, N; Kagawa, H; Kikuchi, A; Fujii, T; Baba, K; Okai, T; Kuwabara, Y; Taketani, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether placental factors are involved in the intermittent breathing movements in goat fetuses, we assessed electrocortical activity (ECoA) and tracheal pressure in 5 fetuses (124-135 days) separated from the placenta and connected for 48 h to an extrauterine fetal incubation system that provided umbilical arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The fetal physiological condition on this system was almost the same as that in utero for at least 48 h after the preparation. All fetuses showed intermittent low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements. The breathing movements occurred almost exclusively during periods of low- voltage ECoA. The proportions of time spent in low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements were 48-57% and 46-56%, respectively. In conclusion, breathing movements of fetuses on the extrauterine incubation system were episodic, suggesting that intermittent breathing movements are intrinsic to fetuses, independent of placenta-derived factors.

  11. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  12. D2-40/podoplanin expression in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Sun, J; Gu, Y; Zhao, S; Groome, L J; Alexander, J S

    2011-01-01

    Placental tissue expresses many lymphatic markers. The current study was undertaken to examine if D2-40/podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial marker, was expressed in the human placenta, and how it is altered developmentally and pathologically. We examined D2-40/podoplanin and VEGFR-3 expressions in placentas from normotensive pregnancies at different gestational ages and in placentas from women with clinically defined preeclampsia. D2-40 expression in systemic lymphatic vessel endothelium served as a positive control. Protein expression for D2-40, VEGFR-3, and β-actin was determined by Western blot in placentas from normotensive (n = 6) and preeclamptic (n = 5) pregnancies. Our results show that D2-40/podoplanin was strongly expressed in the placenta, mainly as a network plexus pattern in the villous stroma throughout gestation. CD31 was limited to villous core fetal vessel endothelium and VEGFR-3 was found in both villous core fetal vessel endothelium and trophoblasts. D2-40/podoplanin expression was significantly decreased, and VEGFR-3 significantly increased in preeclamptic placental tissues compared to normotensive placental controls. Placental villous stroma is a reticular-like structure, and the localization of D2-40 to the stroma suggests that a lymphatic-like conductive network may exist in the human placenta. D2-40/podoplanin is an O-linked sialoglycoprotein. Although little is known regarding biological functions of sialylated glycoproteins within the placenta, placental D2-40/podoplanin may support fetal vessel angiogenesis during placenta development and reduced D2-40/podoplanin expression in preeclamptic placenta may contribute to altered interstitial fluid homeostasis and impaired angiogenesis in this pregnancy disorder.

  13. Multidisciplinary management of invasive placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa G; Allen, Lisa; Windrim, Rory C; Kachura, John; Pollard, Lindsay; Pantazi, Sophia; Keating, Sarah; Carvalho, Jose C A; Kingdom, John C P

    2013-05-01

    Objectif : Évaluer l’efficacité d’une approche d’équipe multidisciplinaire visant l’atténuation de la morbidité maternelle grave chez les femmes qui présentent un placenta prævia invasif. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude prospective auprès de 33 femmes qui présentaient un placenta prævia et increta-percreta (diagnostiqué par échographie et/ou imagerie par résonance magnétique) et qui accouchaient au Mount Sinai Hospital de Toronto, à la suite du lancement (en janvier 2008) d’une approche d’équipe visant les femmes qui présentaient une telle placentation. Nous avons inclus les accouchements chez les femmes visées jusqu’en juin 2012. Nous avons analysé les dossiers prénataux (services externes et services hospitaliers) en vue d’y repérer l’utilisation par l’obstétricien titulaire de six composantes d’équipe prédéfinies : (1) consultation prénatale en médecine fœto-maternelle; (2) consultation en chirurgie gynécologique; (3) IRM prénatale; (4) consultation en radiologie interventionnelle et mise en place préopératoire de sondes à ballonnet dans les divisions antérieures des artères iliaques internes; (5) planification à l’avance de la date de chirurgie; et (6) chirurgie menée par des membres de l’équipe chirurgicale vouée aux cas de placenta invasif. Les détails de l’évolution prénatale, de l’accouchement et de la période postpartum ont été consignés afin d’établir un score composite de morbidité maternelle grave en cinq points fondé sur la présence ou l’absence de ce qui suit : (1) admission à l’USI à la suite de l’accouchement; (2) transfusion de plus de deux unités de sang; (3) anesthésie générale (administration ou conversion); (4) temps opératoire se situant dans le quartile le plus élevé (> 125 minutes); et (5) complications postopératoires significatives (réhospitalisation, hospitalisation postpartum prolongée et/ou embolie pulmonaire). R

  14. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi . E-mail: tkhoda.epgn@tmd.ac.jp; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-10-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones.

  15. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  16. Origin stories from a regional placenta tissue collection

    PubMed Central

    Fannin, Maria; Kent, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-three years ago when women and their children were recruited to a longitudinal genetic epidemiological study during pregnancy, placentas were collected at birth. This paper explores the history of a regional placenta biobank and contemporary understandings of its value for the constitution of a research population. We draw on interviews with some of the mothers and those responsible for the establishment and curation of the placenta collection in order to explore the significance and meaning of the collection for them. Given its capacity to stand in for the study cohort of mothers and children, we argue that the material significance of the placenta biobank as a research tool seems far less important than the work it does in constituting a population. The stories about this collection may be understood within the wider context of developments in biobanking and the bioeconomy. PMID:25745355

  17. The chemical status of cadmium ion in the placenta. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Specht, C.; Ferm, V.H.

    1982-02-01

    The chemical status of cadmium ion in the chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentas of SWV strain mice during the critical phase of embryonic organogenesis was investigated. Twenty-four hours after a single teratogenic dose of cadmium ion, both placentas contained significant amounts of a macromolecular chelator. Gel filtration data and disc electrophoresis data suggest that the cadmium-binding macromolecule of the chorioallantois (which binds 61% of the cadmium ion content of the tissues) is a metallothionein dimer.

  18. TonEBP and SMIT expression in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-A; Kwon, Hyug-Moo; Han, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hwa-Young

    2012-09-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a signal transcription factor of transporters such as sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT), aldose reductase. TonEBP has a variety of functions such as control of intracellular osmolytes and immunomodulating. It is known that TonEBP is abundant in the placenta, but location and function aren't known. The aim of this study is to describe the localization of TonEBP in the placenta. We assayed the immunohistochemistry of TonEBP and performed in situ hybridization of SMIT in normal human full term placenta. In normal human full term placenta, TonEBP was in villous trophoblasts, extravillous trophoblasts and some endothelial cells. The result of the in situ hybridization of SMIT was similar to that of immunohistochemistry of TonEBP. Neither TonEBP nor SMIT was present in TonEBP knockout mouse placenta. This shows TonEBP is a key factor in SMIT transcription. TonEBP may play an important role in transporting of inositol to fetus in placenta. PMID:23094203

  19. Case with pyoderma gangrenosum abruptly emerging around the wound of cesarean section for placenta previa with placenta accrete.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Taro; Yoshida, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Aizawa, Atsuko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Takakuwa, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    A 39-year-old woman underwent emergency cesarean section (CS) due to placenta previa totalis with massive bleeding. Two major problems emerged in this patient after CS was carried out. One was partial retention of the placenta due to placenta accreta. Another major and more serious problem was pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) widely appearing at the skin of the abdomen around the CS wound. Conservative treatment was performed for the retained placenta, and it had completely disappeared by 76 days after the CS. The diagnosis of PG was promptly made in consultation with a plastic surgeon and a dermatologist when a wide ulcer emerged around the CS wound, and high-dose prednisolone was administered as treatment. At 90 days following the CS, near-complete epithelialization was achieved. This extremely rare case reflects the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of PG.

  20. Transplacental differences in Ca, Na, K, and electropotential in the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Twardock, A.R.

    1983-07-01

    The fetal side of hemochorial placentas from guinea pigs between 58 and 62 days gestation were perfused in situ. Concurrent measurements were made of the clearances of radiocalcium and tritiated water from maternal to fetal circulation of the placenta, transplacental potential difference (TPD), maternal plasma and perfusate Ca, Na, and K concentrations, maternal blood pressure, gross permeability of albumin in the placenta, and net water movements. Movement of Ca from dam to fetus appeared to occur against an electrochemical gradient and was not associated with the movements of Na and K across the placenta. A negative correlation between perfusate Na and K concentrations, not dependent on maternal plasma Na and K concentrations and abolished by high concentrations of Ca in the fetal circulation of the placenta, strongly supports the concept of a Na-K exchange mechanism in the placenta directed so that K is moved against a concentration gradient towards the dam. There was no evidence that the TPD existed at the site of maternal-fetal exchange for Ca, Na, or K.

  1. Global DNA hypermethylation in down syndrome placenta.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shengnan; Lee, Yew Kok; Lim, Yen Ching; Zheng, Zejun; Lin, Xueqin Michelle; Ng, Desmond P Y; Holbrook, Joanna D; Law, Hai Yang; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Yeo, George S H; Ding, Chunming

    2013-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS), commonly caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 (chr21), occurs in approximately one out of 700 live births. Precisely how an extra chr21 causes over 80 clinically defined phenotypes is not yet clear. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis at single base resolution revealed DNA hypermethylation in all autosomes in DS samples. We hypothesize that such global hypermethylation may be mediated by down-regulation of TET family genes involved in DNA demethylation, and down-regulation of REST/NRSF involved in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Genes located on chr21 were up-regulated by an average of 53% in DS compared to normal villi, while genes with promoter hypermethylation were modestly down-regulated. DNA methylation perturbation was conserved in DS placenta villi and in adult DS peripheral blood leukocytes, and enriched for genes known to be causally associated with DS phenotypes. Our data suggest that global epigenetic changes may occur early in development and contribute to DS phenotypes. PMID:23754950

  2. Gene Expression in First Trimester Preeclampsia Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Founds, Sandra A.; Terhorst, Lauren A.; Conrad, Kirk P.; Hogge, W. Allen; Jeyabalan, Arun; Conley, Yvette P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to further validate eight candidate genes identified in a microarray analysis of first trimester placentas in preeclampsia. Material and method Surplus chorionic villus sampling (CVS) specimens of 4 women subsequently diagnosed with preeclampsia (PE) and 8 control women (C) without preeclampsia analyzed previously by microarray and 24 independent additional control samples (AS) were submitted for confirmatory studies by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results Downregulation was significant in FSTL3 in PE as compared to C and AS (p = .04). PAEP was downregulated, but the difference was only significant between C and AS (p = .002) rather than between PE and either of the control groups. Expression levels for CFH, EPAS1, IGFBP1, MMP12, and SEMA3C were not statistically different among groups, but trends were consistent with microarray results; there was no anti-correlation. S100A8 was not measurable in all samples, probably because different probes and primers were needed. Conclusions This study corroborates reduced FSTL3 expression in the first trimester of preeclampsia. Nonsignificant trends in the other genes may require follow-up in studies powered for medium or medium/large effect sizes. qRT-PCR verification of the prior microarray of CVS may support the placental origins of preeclampsia hypothesis. Replication is needed for the candidate genes as potential biomarkers of susceptibility, early detection, and/or individualized care of maternal–infant preeclampsia. PMID:21044967

  3. Placenta Growth Factor in Diabetic Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Brogelli, Laura; Sera, Francesco; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Pesce, Maurizio; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Failla, Cristina Maria; Napolitano, Monica; Odorisio, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Reduced microcirculation and diminished expression of growth factors contribute to wound healing impairment in diabetes. Placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic mediator promoting pathophysiological neovascularization, is expressed during cutaneous wound healing and improves wound closure by enhancing angiogenesis. By using streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, we here demonstrate that PlGF induction is strongly reduced in diabetic wounds. Diabetic transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin displayed accelerated wound closure compared with diabetic wild-type littermates. Moreover, diabetic wound treatment with an adenovirus vector expressing the human PlGF gene (AdCMV.PlGF) significantly accelerated the healing process compared with wounds treated with a control vector. The analysis of treated wounds showed that PlGF gene transfer improved granulation tissue formation, maturation, and vascularization, as well as monocytes/macrophages local recruitment. Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels were increased in AdCMV.PlGF-treated wounds, possibly enhancing PlGF-mediated effects. Finally, PlGF treatment stimulated cultured dermal fibroblast migration, pointing to a direct role of PlGF in accelerating granulation tissue maturation. In conclusion, our data indicate that reduced PlGF expression contributes to impaired wound healing in diabetes and that PlGF gene transfer to diabetic wounds exerts therapeutic activity by promoting different aspects of the repair process. PMID:17003476

  4. Three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Tanaka, H; Noguchi, J; Hata, K

    2011-02-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of the placenta during pregnancy. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes the morphology, anatomy, location, implantation, anomaly, size, and color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment of the placenta. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of the placenta, such as surface-rendered imaging and volume measurement. With the recent advances in 3D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound as well as quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis, quantitative and qualitative assessments of the vascularization and blood flow of the placenta have become feasible. These novel techniques may assist in the evaluation of the feto-placental function, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional 2D sonographic assessments. 3D ultrasound may be an important modality in future placental research, in the evaluation of feto-placental insufficiency in clinical practice, and in the prediction of fetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia, although some limitations regarding the assessment of the placenta employing 3D ultrasound still remain unresolved.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of the human placenta transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Saben, J; Zhong, Y; McKelvey, S; Dajani, N K; Andres, A; Badger, T M; Gomez-Acevedo, H; Shankar, K

    2014-02-01

    As the conduit for nutrients and growth signals, the placenta is critical to establishing an environment sufficient for fetal growth and development. To better understand the mechanisms regulating placental development and gene expression, we characterized the transcriptome of term placenta from 20 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies using RNA-seq. To identify genes that were highly expressed and unique to the placenta we compared placental RNA-seq data to data from 7 other tissues (adipose, breast, hear, kidney, liver, lung, and smooth muscle) and identified several genes novel to placental biology (QSOX1, DLG5, and SEMA7A). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the RNA-seq results and immunohistochemistry indicated these proteins were highly expressed in the placental syncytium. Additionally, we mined our RNA-seq data to map the relative expression of key developmental gene families (Fox, Sox, Gata, Tead, and Wnt) within the placenta. We identified FOXO4, GATA3, and WNT7A to be amongst the highest expressed members of these families. Overall, these findings provide a new reference for understanding of placental transcriptome and can aid in the identification of novel pathways regulating placenta physiology that may be dysregulated in placental disease.

  6. Unearthing the roles of imprinted genes in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Bressan, F F; De Bem, T H C; Perecin, F; Lopes, F L; Ambrosio, C E; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A

    2009-10-01

    Mammalian fetal survival and growth are dependent on a well-established and functional placenta. Although transient, the placenta is the first organ to be formed during pregnancy and is responsible for important functions during development, such as the control of metabolism and fetal nutrition, gas and metabolite exchange, and endocrine control. Epigenetic marks and gene expression patterns in early development play an essential role in embryo and fetal development. Specifically, the epigenetic phenomenon known as genomic imprinting, represented by the non-equivalence of the paternal and maternal genome, may be one of the most important regulatory pathways involved in the development and function of the placenta in eutherian mammals. A lack of pattern or an imprecise pattern of genomic imprinting can lead to either embryonic losses or a disruption in fetal and placental development. Genetically modified animals present a powerful approach for revealing the interplay between gene expression and placental function in vivo and allow a single gene disruption to be analyzed, particularly focusing on its role in placenta function. In this paper, we review the recent transgenic strategies that have been successfully created in order to provide a better understanding of the epigenetic patterns of the placenta, with a special focus on imprinted genes. We summarize a number of phenotypes derived from the genetic manipulation of imprinted genes and other epigenetic modulators in an attempt to demonstrate that gene-targeting studies have contributed considerably to the knowledge of placentation and conceptus development. PMID:19679348

  7. Transplacental transfer and metabolism of buprenorphine in preterm human placenta.

    PubMed

    Fokina, Valentina M; Patrikeeva, Svetlana L; Zharikova, Olga L; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Hankins, Gary V D; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2011-01-01

    We sought to determine whether gestational age affects the transplacental transfer and metabolism of buprenorphine (BUP). Transfer of BUP (10 ng/mL) and its [ (3)H]-isotope was determined across placentas of 30 to 34 weeks of gestation utilizing the technique of dual perfusion of placental lobule. Concentration of the drug in trophoblast tissue and in maternal and fetal circuits was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Microsomes prepared from placentas of 17 to 37 weeks of gestation were divided into three groups: late second, early third, and late third trimesters. Antibodies raised against human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms were utilized to identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing BUP biotransformation by preterm placental microsomes. The amount of norbuprenorphine formed was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). BUP transfer across the placentas of 30 to 34 weeks of gestation was similar to those at term. CYP19 antibodies caused 60% inhibition of BUP metabolism by microsomes of late second and early third trimesters and 85% by microsomes of late third trimester. The developmental changes occurring in human placenta between 30 weeks of gestation through term do not affect the transfer of BUP across human placenta. CYP19 is the major enzyme responsible for biotransformation of BUP beginning at 17 weeks of gestation until term. PMID:20607647

  8. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  9. Efficient production of Aschersonia placenta protoplasts for transformation using optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiuyan; Song, Xinyue; Dong, Dong; Keyhani, Nemat O; Yao, Lindan; Zang, Xiangyun; Dong, Lili; Gu, Zijian; Fu, Delai; Liu, Xingzhong; Qiu, Junzhi; Guan, Xiong

    2016-07-01

    The insect pathogenic fungus Aschersonia placenta is a highly effective pathogen of whiteflies and scale insects. However, few genetic tools are currently available for studying this organism. Here we report on the conditions for the production of transformable A. placenta protoplasts using an optimized protocol based on the response surface method (RSM). Critical parameters for protoplast production were modelled by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) involving 3 levels of 3 variables that was subsequently tested to verify its ability to predict protoplast production (R(2) = 0.9465). The optimized conditions resulted in the highest yield of protoplasts ((4.41 ± 0.02) × 10(7) cells/mL of culture, mean ± SE) when fungal cells were treated with 26.1 mg/mL of lywallzyme for 4 h of digestion, and subsequently allowed to recover for 64.6 h in 0.7 mol/L NaCl-Tris buffer. The latter was used as an osmotic stabilizer. The yield of protoplasts was approximately 10-fold higher than that of the nonoptimized conditions. Generated protoplasts were transformed with vector PbarGPE containing the bar gene as the selection marker. Transformation efficiency was 300 colonies/(μg DNA·10(7) protoplasts), and integration of the vector DNA was confirmed by PCR. The results show that rational design strategies (RSM and BBD methods) are useful to increase the production of fungal protoplasts for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27192440

  10. Artificial perfusion of the fetal circulation of the in situ mouse placenta: methodology and validation.

    PubMed

    Bond, H; Baker, B; Boyd, R D H; Cowley, E; Glazier, J D; Jones, C J P; Sibley, C P; Ward, B S; Husain, S M

    2006-04-01

    Here we present methodology and validation (including measurement of unidirectional maternofetal clearance (Kmf) of (45)Ca and (14)C-mannitol) for in situ perfusion of the mouse placenta. On day 18 of gestation (term=19 days) mice were anaesthetised and the uterus delivered into a saline bath (40 degrees C). A fetus was selected, the umbilical artery and vein catheterised and perfused with Krebs Ringer (pH 7.4) at 60 microl/min. (45)Ca/(14)C-mannitol (2 microCi/5 microCi in 50 microl saline) was injected via maternal tail vein. Perfusate samples were collected every 5 min for 45 min. Maternal carotid artery pressure was monitored throughout perfusion. A terminal maternal cardiac blood sample was taken and analysed. Placentas were immersion fixed and processed for electron microscopy. Kmf for (45)Ca and (14)C-mannitol was calculated as perfusate [(45)Ca or (14)C-mannitol] x perfusion rate/maternal plasma [(45)Ca or (14)C-mannitol]xplacental weight. Maternal cardiac blood chemistry at termination (n=8-15, mean+/-SEM) was as follows: pH 7.153+/-0.016, PCO(2) 45.48+/-2.06 mmHg, PO(2) 66.47+/-7.10 mmHg, Na(+) 151.4+/-1.2 mmol/l, K(+) 5.54+/-0.17 mmol/l, Ca(2+) 1.15+/-0.03 mmol/l, glucose 7.2+/-0.5 mmol/l, and lactate 1.76+/-0.77 mmol/l. A successful 45 min perfusion in which perfusate recovery was >95% occurred in >50% of animals. Perfusion did not alter placental morphology or carotid pressure. Kmf (microl/min/g placenta) for (45)Ca (66.0+/-8.4 (n=7)) was significantly higher than Kmf for (14)C-mannitol (20.0+/-2.4 (n=5)) (p<0.01). These data demonstrate physiological perfusion of the mouse placenta in situ and its usefulness for measurement of solute transfer.

  11. The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Pregnancy The Mystery and Miracle of the Placenta Fall 2016 Table of Contents Understanding its role ... again as if it were yesterday.” Drawn to Placenta Research This experience helped lay the foundation for ...

  12. Pregnancy hemoperitoneum and placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Rich, N.E.; Montag, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation has never been described. Reported is a case of placenta percreta with hemoperitoneum associated with a second-trimester incomplete abortion in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure.

  13. Human Term Placenta as a Source of Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Serikov, Vladimir; Hounshell, Catherine; Larkin, Sandra; Green, William; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Walters, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    The main barrier to a broader clinical application of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is its limiting cellular content. Thus, the discovery of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine placental tissue led us investigate whether the human placenta contains hematopoietic cells, sites of hematopoiesis, and to develop a procedure of processing and storing placental hematopoietic cells for transplantation. Here we show that the human placenta contains large numbers of CD34-expressing hematopoietic cells, with the potential to provide a cellular yield several-fold greater than that of a typical UCB harvest. Cells from fresh or cryopreserved placental tissue generated erythroid and myeloid colonies in culture, and also produced lymphoid cells after transplantation in immunodeficient mice. These results suggest that human placenta could become an important new source of hematopoietic cells for allogeneic transplantation. PMID:19429852

  14. The placenta in the integrated physiology of fetal volume control.

    PubMed

    Faber, J Job; Anderson, Debra F

    2010-01-01

    Almost all water that enters the conceptus of the sheep enters via the placenta. The forces that drive water are hydrostatic and osmotic. The placental channels that allow water to cross into the fetus have not been identified by microanatomic means. Although an "equivalent pore" system can account for the diffusional entry of small hydrophilic solutes, it can be calculated that the filtration coefficient of this system is too small to account for the demonstrated trans-placental water flows. It is possible that a second much less numerous system of large pores permits the flow of water, but that is by no means certain. The placenta does not control the amount of water that enters the conceptus; nor does any other single fetal structure. And water entry is not dependent on the volume of water already present. However, the combined physiological properties of the fetal heart, kidneys, somatic tissues and placenta constitute a consistent explanation of fetal water volume control.

  15. Advanced MR imaging of the placenta: Exploring the in utero placenta-brain connection.

    PubMed

    Andescavage, Nickie Niforatos; du Plessis, Adre; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is a vital organ necessary for the healthy neurodevelopment of the fetus. Despite the known associations between placental dysfunction and neurologic impairment, there is a paucity of tools available to reliably assess in vivo placental health and function. Existing clinical tools for placental assessment remain insensitive in predicting and evaluating placental well-being. Advanced MRI techniques hold significant promise for the dynamic, non-invasive, real-time assessment of placental health and identification of early placental-based disorders. In this review, we summarize the available clinical tools for placental assessment, including ultrasound, Doppler, and conventional MRI. We then explore the emerging role of advanced placental MR imaging techniques for supporting the developing fetus and appraise the strengths and limitations of quantitative MRI in identifying early markers of placental dysfunction for improved pregnancy monitoring and fetal outcomes. PMID:25765905

  16. Altered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in placentas from undernourished rat gestations.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Desai, Mina; Nelson, D Michael; Ross, Michael G

    2011-12-01

    Maternal undernutrition (MUN) during pregnancy results in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses and small placentas. Although reduced fetal nutrient supply has been presumed to be etiologic in IUGR, MUN-induced placental dysfunction may occur prior to detectable fetal growth restriction. Placental growth impairment may result from apoptosis signaled by mitochondria in response to reduced energy substrate. Therefore, we sought to determine the presence of mitochondrial-induced apoptosis under MUN and ad libitum diet (AdLib) pregnancies. Pregnant rats were fed an AdLib or a 50% MUN diet from embryonic day 10 (E10) to E20. At E20, fetuses and placentas from proximal- and mid-horns (extremes of nutrient/oxygen supply) were collected. Right-horn placentas were used to quantify apoptosis. Corresponding left-horn placentas were separated into basal (hormone production) and labyrinth (feto-maternal exchange) zones, and protein expression of the mitochondrial pathway was determined. Our results show that the MUN placentas had significantly increased apoptosis, with lower expression of cytosolic and mitochondrial anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and Bcl-X(L), and significantly higher expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak especially in the labyrinth zone. This was paralleled by higher coimmunostaining with the mitochondrial marker manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), indicating transition of pro-apoptotic factors to the mitochondrial membrane. Also, cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspases-9 and -3 were significantly higher in all MUN. Conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor family with anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly downregulated in both zones and horns. Our results suggest that MUN during rat pregnancy enhances mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the placenta, probably due to the downregulation of PPARγ expression.

  17. Insulin and Leptin Signaling in Placenta from Gestational Diabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, A; Guadix, P; Maymó, J; Dueñas, J L; Varone, C; Fernández-Sánchez, M; Sánchez-Margalet, V

    2016-01-01

    Insulin and leptin receptors are known to share signaling pathways, such as JAK2/STAT-3 (Janus kinase2/signal transduction and activator of transcription3), MAPK (Mitogen activated protein kinase), and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase). Both positive and negative cross-talk have been previously found in different cellular systems. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a pathophysiological state with high circulating levels of both insulin and leptin. We have previously found that these 3 signaling pathways are activated in placenta from GDM patients to promote translation, involving the activation of leptin receptor. Now, we have tested the hypothesis that both leptin and insulin receptors might contribute to this activation in a positive way that may become negative when the system is overactivated. We studied the activation of leptin and insulin receptors in placenta from GDM and healthy pregnancies. We have also performed in vitro studies with insulin and leptin stimulation of trophoblast explants from healthy placenta. We have found that both leptin and insulin receptors are activated in placenta from GDM. In vitro stimulation of trophoblast explants with both leptin and insulin at submaximal doses (0.1 nM) potentiated the activation of signaling, whereas preincubation with maximal concentrations of insulin (10 nM) and further stimulation with leptin showed negative effect. Trophoblastic explants from GDM placenta, which presented high signaling levels, had a negative signaling effect when further incubated in vitro with leptin. In conclusion, insulin and leptin receptors have positive effects on signaling, contributing to high signaling levels in GDM placenta, but insulin and leptin have negative effects upon overstimulation.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta and umbilical cord pathologies by three-dimensional ultrasound: pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    de Castro Rezende, Guilherme; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The authors present their experience in prenatal diagnosis of placental and umbilical cord pathologies, using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) in the rendering and tomography ultrasound imaging (TUI) modes, associated with color Doppler in some cases. Cases of placenta accreta/placenta previa, circumvallate placenta, succenturiate lobe, true knot of the umbilical cord, nuchal cord, and marginal/velamentous umbilical cord insertion are presented. 3DUS can contribute to improve the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis of placenta and umbilical cord pathologies.

  19. Implantation and the placenta: Key pieces of the development puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.C.; Werb, Z.; Fisher, S.J.

    1994-12-02

    The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic functions to the embryo`s advantage. These complex activities are sensitive to disruption, as shown by the high incidence of early embryonic mortality and pregnancy diseases in humans, as well as the numerous peri-implantation lethal mutations in mice. Integration of molecular and developmental approaches has recently produced insights into the molecules that control these processes.

  20. Dielectric properties of human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyman, A.; Gabriel, C.; Benedickter, H. R.; Fröhlich, J.

    2011-04-01

    The dielectric properties of freshly delivered human placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic fluid have been acquired at 37 °C and in the frequency range of 200 MHz-10 GHz. The experimental data were fitted to a Cole-Cole expression. The results show that dielectric properties of the umbilical cord are significantly higher than placenta due to the presence of high water content Wharton's jelly. The results also demonstrate large differences in the dielectric properties of amniotic and cerebrospinal fluids. The data presented can be used in numerical simulations of the exposure of pregnant women to electromagnetic fields.

  1. IFPA Meeting 2012 Workshop Report II: epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta, growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation, role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy, infection and the placenta.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M S; Aleksunes, L M; Boeuf, P; Chung, M K; Daoud, G; Desoye, G; Díaz, P; Golos, T G; Illsley, N P; Kikuchi, K; Komatsu, R; Lao, T; Morales-Prieto, D M; Nanovskaya, T; Nobuzane, T; Roberts, C T; Saffery, R; Tamura, I; Tamura, K; Than, N G; Tomi, M; Umbers, A; Wang, B; Weedon-Fekjaer, M S; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, K; Yoshie, M; Lash, G E

    2013-03-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2012 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology: 1) epigenetics and imprinting in the placenta; 2) growth factors and villous trophoblast differentiation; 3) role of the placenta in regulating fetal exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy; 4) infection and the placenta.

  2. Nitrate Promotes Capsaicin Accumulation in Capsicum chinense Immobilized Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G.; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F.; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  3. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis. PMID:25710024

  4. In situ measurements of magnetic nanoparticles after placenta perfusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Robert; Gläser, Marcus; Göhner, Claudia; Seyfarth, Lydia; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Hofmann, Andreas; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) present promising tools for medical applications. However, the investigation of their spatial and temporal distribution is hampered by missing in-situ particle detection and quantification technologies. The placenta perfusion experiment represents an interesting model for the study of the particle distribution at a biological barrier. It allows the ex-vivo investigation of the permeability of the placenta for materials of interest. We introduce an approach based on a magnetic system for an in situ measurement of the concentration of magnetic NPs in such an experiment. A previously off-line utilized magnetic readout device (sensitivity of ≈10-8 Am2) was used for long term measurements of magnetic NP of 100-150 nm size range in a closed circuit of a placenta perfusion. It represents a semiquantitative approach. The behavior of particles in the placenta and in the measurement system was studied, as well as the influence of particle surface modifications. The results suggest a transfer of a low amount of particles from the maternal to the fetal blood circuit.

  5. Nitrate promotes capsaicin accumulation in Capsicum chinense immobilized placentas.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Iuit, Jeanny G; Sauri-Duch, Enrique; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Cuevas-Glory, Luis F; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A

    2015-01-01

    In chili pepper's pods, placental tissue is responsible for the synthesis of capsaicinoids (CAPs), the compounds behind their typical hot flavor or pungency, which are synthesized from phenylalanine and branched amino acids. Placental tissue sections from Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were immobilized in a calcium alginate matrix and cultured in vitro, either continuously for 28 days or during two 14-day subculture periods. Immobilized placental tissue remained viable and metabolically active for up to 21 days, indicating its ability to interact with media components. CAPs contents abruptly decreased during the first 7 days in culture, probably due to structural damage to the placenta as revealed by scanning electron microcopy. CAPs levels remained low throughout the entire culture period, even though a slight recovery was noted in subcultured placentas. However, doubling the medium's nitrate content (from 40 to 80 mM) resulted in an important increment, reaching values similar to those of intact pod's placentas. These data suggest that isolated pepper placentas cultured in vitro remain metabolically active and are capable of metabolizing inorganic nitrogen sources, first into amino acids and, then, channeling them to CAP synthesis.

  6. The Importance of Imprinting in the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Jennifer M.; Moore, Gudrun E.

    2010-01-01

    As a field of study, genomic imprinting has grown rapidly in the last 20 years, with a growing figure of around 100 imprinted genes known in the mouse and approximately 50 in the human. The imprinted expression of genes may be transient and highly tissue-specific, and there are potentially hundreds of other, as yet undiscovered, imprinted transcripts. The placenta is notable amongst mammalian organs for its high and prolific expression of imprinted genes. This review discusses the development of the human placenta and focuses on the function of imprinting in this organ. Imprinting is potentially a mechanism to balance parental resource allocation and it plays an important role in growth. The placenta, as the interface between mother and fetus, is central to prenatal growth control. The expression of genes subject to parental allelic expression bias has, over the years, been shown to be essential for the normal development and physiology of the placenta. In this review we also discuss the significance of genes that lack conservation of imprinting between mice and humans, genes whose imprinted expression is often placental-specific. Finally, we illustrate the importance of imprinting in the postnatal human in terms of several human imprinting disorders, with consideration of the brain as a key organ for imprinted gene expression after birth. PMID:20617174

  7. Analytical theory of oxygen transport in the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Serov, A S; Salafia, C M; Filoche, M; Grebenkov, D S

    2015-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to solving the diffusion-convection equations governing oxygen transport in the human placenta. We show that only two geometrical characteristics of a placental cross-section, villi density and the effective villi radius, are needed to predict fetal oxygen uptake. We also identify two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake in a given placenta: (i) the maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone if there were no tissue blocking the flow and (ii) the ratio of transit time of maternal blood through the intervillous space to oxygen extraction time. We derive analytical formulas for fast and simple calculation of oxygen uptake and provide two diagrams of efficiency of oxygen transport in an arbitrary placental cross-section. We finally show that artificial perfusion experiments with no-hemoglobin blood tend to give a two-orders-of-magnitude underestimation of the in vivo oxygen uptake and that the optimal geometry for such setup alters significantly. The theory allows one to adjust the results of artificial placenta perfusion experiments to account for oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation. Combined with image analysis techniques, the presented model can give an easy-to-use tool for prediction of the human placenta efficiency.

  8. Can we make the pig placenta work better?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of piglets born alive at each parity contributes to the efficiency of swine production. Moreover, piglet birth weights affect both survival to weaning and future growth rate. Litter size and birth weight are influenced by placental function. The pig placenta is classified as diffuse epith...

  9. Pervasive polymorphic imprinted methylation in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Courtney W.; Peñaherrera, Maria S.; Saadeh, Heba; Andrews, Simon; McFadden, Deborah E.; Kelsey, Gavin; Robinson, Wendy P.

    2016-01-01

    The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development, and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are monoallelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilization. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting, and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs in the human placenta and investigated the dynamics of these imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extraembryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 134 human tissue samples, publicly available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. Forty-three known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploid conceptions in addition to female and male gametes. Seventy-two novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting, and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation between placental samples. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. PMID:26769960

  10. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we f...

  11. The metallome of the human placenta in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Roverso, Marco; Berté, Chiara; Di Marco, Valerio; Lapolla, Annunziata; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo; Visentin, Silvia; Cosmi, Erich

    2015-07-01

    Obtaining the knowledge of the "omics" and therefore of the metallomics of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be a necessary task to obtain information about the molecular causes of this disease. In this study, the metallome of GDM and of other types of diabetes mellitus was first reviewed. The comparative analysis of the published data revealed that no GDM elemental markers could be identified with sufficient reliability in blood or in the other considered samples, with the partial exception of selenium. The placenta was chosen as an alternative target organ for the analysis of the GDM metallome. The full elemental average composition of 19 healthy placentas was obtained by ICP-MS. Analyses were then performed on 28 placentas from women affected by GDM. The statistical tests and the principal component analysis evidenced that cadmium was found in lower concentrations and selenium was found in higher concentrations in GDM placentas than in those of the control group. These results were interpreted in light of literature data, and they attract attention on two key elements for understanding the molecular pathways of GDM.

  12. THE PLACENTA IS THE CENTER OF THE CHRONIC DISEASE UNIVERSE

    PubMed Central

    Thornburg, Kent L.; Marshall, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter century it has become clear that adult onset chronic diseases like heart disease and type 2 diabetes have their roots in early development. The report by David Barker and colleagues showing an inverse relationship between birthweight and mortality from ischemic heart disease was the first clear-cut demonstration of fetal programming. Because fetal growth depends upon the placental capacity to transport nutrients from maternal blood, it has been a suspected causative agent since the original Barker reports. Epidemiological studies have shown that placental size and shape have powerful associations with offspring disease. More recent studies have shown that maternal phenotypic characteristics, such as body mass index and height, interact with placental size and shape to predict disease with much more precision than does birthweight alone. For example, among people in the Helsinki Birth Cohort, who were born during 1924–1944, the risk for acquiring colorectal cancer increased as the placental surface became longer and more oval. Among people in whom the difference between the length and breadth of the surface exceeded 6 cm, the hazard ratio for the cancer was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2–4.7, p=0.003) compared with those in whom there was no difference. Among Finnish men, the hazard ratio for coronary heart disease was 1.07 (1.02–1.13, P =0.01) per 1% increase in the placental weight/birthweight ratio. Thus, it appears that the ratio of birthweight to placental weight, known as placental efficiency, predicts cardiovascular risk as well. Babies born with placentas at the extremes of efficiency are more vulnerable for adult onset chronic diseases. Recent evidence suggests that placental growth patterns are sex specific. Boys’ placentas are, in general, more efficient than those made by girls. Another recent discovery is that the size, shape and efficiencies of the placenta can change over years of time with very narrow confidence limits. This suggests

  13. Pathology of twin placentas with special attention to monochorionic twin placentas.

    PubMed

    Nikkels, P G J; Hack, K E A; van Gemert, M J C

    2008-12-01

    The risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality in twins is 3-7 times higher than in singletons. In comparison to dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins are at increased risk for perinatal mortality and serious morbidity. In both type of twins growth discordance can occur. Discordant growth of dichorionic twins could be due to differences in placental mass or differences in placental parenchymal lesions, whereas birth weight discordancy in monochorionic twins is caused by placental vascular anastomoses. In this review the different types of complications (acardiac twins, acute and chronic twin-twin transfusion syndrome) due to different combinations of vascular anastomoses are discussed in relation to a computer model developed to gain more insight into the development of the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. The angioarchitecture of 395 monochorionic twin placentas was studied. Mortality was highest in the absence of an arterio-arterial anastomosis (42%) and lowest in the presence of an arterio-arterial anastomosis (15%). If mortality occurred, pregnancies with double mortality usually had an arterio-arterial anastomosis. If pregnancies were complicated by one death, a veno-venous anastomosis is more likely to be present. In conclusion, monochorionic twin pregnancies are a high risk pregnancy with a high chance of both mortality and morbidity; placental characteristics are a major contributor to adverse outcome in these pregnancies.

  14. Functional imaging of the human placenta with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Siauve, Nathalie; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Deloison, Benjamin; Alison, Marianne; Clement, Olivier; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is best able to quantify placental perfusion, permeability, and blood volume fractions. However, the transplacental passage of Gadolinium-based contrast agents represents a significant safety concern for this procedure in humans. There are alternative contrast agents that may be safer in pregnancy or that do not cross the placenta. Arterial spin labeling MRI relies on magnetically labeled water to quantify the blood flows within the placenta. A disadvantage of this technique is a poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Based on arterial spin labeling, placental perfusion in normal pregnancy is 176 ± 91 mL × min(-1) × 100 g(-1) and decreases in cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Blood oxygen level-dependent and oxygen-enhanced MRIs do not assess perfusion but measure the response of the placenta to changes in oxygen levels with the use of hemoglobin as an endogenous contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI do not require exogenous contrast agents, instead they use the movement of water molecules within tissues. The apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction are significantly lower in placentas of growth-restricted fetuses when compared with normal pregnancies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the ability to extract

  15. Functional imaging of the human placenta with magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Siauve, Nathalie; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Deloison, Benjamin; Alison, Marianne; Clement, Olivier; Ville, Yves; Salomon, Laurent J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal placentation is responsible for most failures in pregnancy; however, an understanding of placental functions remains largely concealed from noninvasive, in vivo investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe in pregnancy for magnetic fields of up to 3 Tesla and is being used increasingly to improve the accuracy of prenatal imaging. Functional MRI (fMRI) of the placenta has not yet been validated in a clinical setting, and most data are derived from animal studies. FMRI could be used to further explore placental functions that are related to vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism in human pregnancies by the use of various enhancement processes. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is best able to quantify placental perfusion, permeability, and blood volume fractions. However, the transplacental passage of Gadolinium-based contrast agents represents a significant safety concern for this procedure in humans. There are alternative contrast agents that may be safer in pregnancy or that do not cross the placenta. Arterial spin labeling MRI relies on magnetically labeled water to quantify the blood flows within the placenta. A disadvantage of this technique is a poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Based on arterial spin labeling, placental perfusion in normal pregnancy is 176 ± 91 mL × min(-1) × 100 g(-1) and decreases in cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Blood oxygen level-dependent and oxygen-enhanced MRIs do not assess perfusion but measure the response of the placenta to changes in oxygen levels with the use of hemoglobin as an endogenous contrast agent. Diffusion-weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion MRI do not require exogenous contrast agents, instead they use the movement of water molecules within tissues. The apparent diffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction are significantly lower in placentas of growth-restricted fetuses when compared with normal pregnancies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the ability to extract

  16. The evolving placenta: convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship.

    PubMed

    Enders, A C; Carter, A M

    2012-05-01

    Endotheliochorial placentas occur in orders from all four major clades of eutherian mammal. Species with this type of placenta include one of the smallest (pygmy shrew) and largest (African elephant) land mammals. The endotheliochorial placenta as a definitive form has an interhemal area consisting of maternal endothelium, interstitial lamina, trophoblast, individual or conjoint basal laminas, and fetal endothelium. We commonly think of such placentas as having hypertrophied maternal endothelium with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and as having hemophagous regions. Considering them as a whole, the trophoblast may be syncytial or cellular, fenestrated or nonfenestrated, and there may or may not be hemophagous regions. Variations also appear in the extent of hypertrophy of the maternal endothelium and in the abundance of rER in these cells. This combination of traits and a few other features produces many morphological variants. In addition to endotheliochorial as a definitive condition, a transitory endotheliochorial condition may appear in the course of forming a hemochorial placenta. In some emballonurid bats the early endotheliochorial placenta has two layers of trophoblast, but the definitive placenta lacks an outer syncytial trophoblast layer. In mollosid bats a well developed endotheliochorial placenta is present for a short time even after a definitive hemochorial placenta has developed in a different region. It is concluded that the endotheliochorial placenta is more widespread and diversified than originally thought, with the variant with cellular trophoblast in particular appearing in several species studied recently.

  17. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. PMID:26368654

  18. Extensive load of somatic CNVs in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kasak, Laura; Rull, Kristiina; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Laan, Maris

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a temporary, but indispensable organ in mammalian pregnancy. From its basic nature, it exhibits highly invasive tumour-like properties facilitating effective implantation through trophoblast cell proliferation and migration, and a critical role in pregnancy success. We hypothesized that similarly to cancer, somatic genomic rearrangements are promoted in the support of placental function. Here we present the first profiling of copy number variations (CNVs) in human placental genomes, showing an extensive load of somatic CNVs, especially duplications and suggesting that this phenomenon may be critical for normal gestation. Placental somatic CNVs were significantly enriched in genes involved in cell adhesion, immunity, embryonic development and cell cycle. Overrepresentation of imprinted genes in somatic duplications suggests that amplified gene copies may represent an alternative mechanism to support parent-of-origin specific gene expression. Placentas from pregnancy complications exhibited significantly altered CNV profile compared to normal gestations, indicative to the clinical implications of the study. PMID:25666259

  19. The placenta findings from an XYY abortus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The placenta morphology from an XYY pregnancy abortus has not been reported in the medical literature. This case report consists of the first detailed documentation. The reported case is also highly unusual because the mother had two prior pregnancies with fetuses being confirmed to have Zellweger syndrome and one prior molar pregnancy. Case presentation A 43-year-old Caucasian woman presented for induction of labor secondary to diagnosis of XYY chromosomes by chorionic villus sample. Conclusions This is the first detailed observation of placenta morphology in an XYY abortus. Although not highly specific, the observation is very unique and should prompt further investigation of karyotyping of the fetus or infant because an XYY individual may be viable and grow to adulthood. The association of an XYY abortus and prior pregnancies with Zellweger syndrome and one prior molar pregnancy is also highly notable. PMID:24083480

  20. The omniscient placenta: Metabolic and epigenetic regulation of fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Bridget M; Bale, Tracy L

    2015-10-01

    Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes. This review describes epigenetic alterations in the placenta in response to insults during pregnancy, the potential links of OGT as a nutrient sensor to placental epigenetics, and the implications of placental epigenetics in long-term neurodevelopmental programming. We describe the role of placental OGT in the sex-specific programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programming deficits by early prenatal stress as an example of how placental signaling can have long-term effects on neurodevelopment.

  1. Sir William Turner and his studies on the mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Magee, Reginald

    2003-06-01

    William Turner was appointed Professor of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in 1867, and from 1903 until his death in 1916, he was Principal and Vice-Chancellor. He was an outstanding teacher and many of those he taught went on to occupy chairs of anatomy. He published widely on anatomical subjects and one of his interests was comparative anatomy and physiology of the placenta. This paper takes a brief look at Turner's studies on the anatomical structure of the placenta, its comparative anatomy, his thoughts about its physiology and its place in the evolutionary process. At the time, these lectures constituted an anatomical and physiological classic. At the time Turner prepared his lectures, which were delivered in 1875 and 1876, little was known about the gestatory process in marsupials or monotremes. These mammals have a very brief period of intrauterine gestation and placentation and mention is made of studies that have been done in recent times on this subject.

  2. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Chiara; Lazzeroni, Pietro; Merli, Silvia; Patianna, Viviana Dora; Viaroli, Francesca; Cirillo, Francesca; Amarri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy. PMID:27746590

  3. [Placenta and preeclampsia: relationships between anatomical lesions and clinical symptoms].

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, P

    2010-03-01

    The histopathological examination of the placenta is part of the investigational workout since it is a convenient method of examining the central organ involved in the disease process. Characteristic lesions are the vascular placental lesions, and even though their discovery is neither necessary nor specific, they become all the more suggestive of the disease as they are found to be numerous. These vascular lesions are characterized by a microscopic involvement of the basal layer also termed atherosis, associated with uteroplacental artery displasia and its consequences: Infarction, retroplacental haematoma plus all other microscopic injuries of the placenta. These are mainly found in the severe forms of the disease and are usually associated with a placental underdevelopment and IUGR.

  4. Structure of the definitive placenta of the tenrec, Echinops telfairi.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Blankenship, T N; Künzle, H; Enders, A C

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, tenrecs were classified with insectivores in the order Lipotyphla, but nucleotide sequence data suggest they have closer affinities with a group of African mammals called Afrotheria. The placenta of Echinops has not been described and no studies involving electron microscopy of the placenta of any species of tenrec have been published. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine fixed placentae of embryos ranging from 25-66 mm in length. The placental disk is situated in the antimesometrial portion of the bicornuate uterus. The greater part of the disk consists of a labyrinth underlain by a spongy zone. The interhaemal barrier is unusual in that the trophoblastic component is a single layer of cytotrophoblast. These trophoblast cells have thick areas especially near the nuclei and extensive thin flanges but only occasionally have membrane-closed pore regions. The luminal surface has isolated patches of microvilli, and pinocytotic vesicles are numerous both apically and basally. In the centre of the placental disk is an elaborately folded haemophagous region. The primary folds have allantoic endoderm at one surface and columnar cytotrophoblast at the other. These trophoblast cells have numerous lipid droplets and vesicles, and often contain large yellow pigment crystalloids. The labyrinthine zone ends abruptly at the margins of the placental disk. However, the endoderm and connective tissue of the allantois and a layer of cytotrophoblast extend beyond the placental disk as a paraplacental region. Some of these distinctive features of Echinops placenta are shared with individual afrotherians, but no significant characteristic of definitive placentation is shared by all the Afrotheria.

  5. Functional MRI of the placenta--From rodents to humans.

    PubMed

    Avni, R; Neeman, M; Garbow, J R

    2015-06-01

    The placenta performs a wide range of physiological functions; insufficiencies in these functions may result in a variety of severe prenatal and postnatal syndromes with long-term negative impacts on human adult health. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of placental function, in both animal models and humans, have contributed significantly to our understanding of placental structure, blood flow, oxygenation status, and metabolic profile, and have provided important insights into pregnancy complications.

  6. The transfer of free fatty acids across the rabbit placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, M C; Hull, D

    1977-01-01

    1. The passage of fatty acids across the placenta was studied in 28 day pregnant rabbits (i) by comparing the fatty acid distribution in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) of umbilical cord artery and vein with that in maternal plasma and (ii) by infusing the doe at a constant rate with labelled palmitic, linoleic or arachidonic acids. During the infusion maternal and foetal plasma FFA specific activities were measured. 2. The mean levels of all the fatty acids studied (from twelve to twenty carbon atoms) were similar in both the umbilical vein plasma and maternal arterial plasma FFA, except for arachidonic acid, which was higher in foetal blood. The relative distribution of the fatty acids in umbilical arterial plasma similar to that in the vein, but at lower concentrations. The mean cord venous-arterial difference for each fatty acid correlated positively with the mean maternal arterial levels, with the exception of arachidonic acid. 3. During the constant infusion experiments the specific activities of the fatty acids in the maternal and foetal circulating FFA pools rose rapidly during the first 4 min then rose only slowly. Palmitic and linoleic acids were cleared from the maternal circulation in a similar manner and crossed the placenta at similar rates. 4. The average foetal specific activity in plasma FFA reached 15% of the maternal level for both palmitate and linoleate. The figure for arachidonic acid was half that for palmitic acid infused at the same time. 5. It is concluded that (i) all the major fatty acids present in foetal adipose tissue cross the placenta, (ii) the net transport of each fatty acid depends in part on maternal concentrations, (iii) the rate of metabolism of palmitic and linoleic acids is the same and both cross the placenta at the same rate. Proportionately less foetal arachidonic acid is derived from maternal FFA, and (iv) the results suggest a second placental source of arachidonic acid and possibly also of otherfatty acids. PMID:845822

  7. Artificial placenta: Recent advances and potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Metelo-Coimbra, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Lung immaturity remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation, the method of choice for respiratory support in premature infants, frequently promotes by itself lung injury and a negative impact in the circulatory function. Extracorporeal lung support has been proposed for more than 50 years as a potential alternative to mechanical ventilation in the treatment of severe respiratory failure of extremely premature infants. Recent advances in this field included the development of miniaturized centrifugal pumps and polymethylpentene oxygenators, as well as the successful use of pump-assisted veno-venous extracorporeal gas exchange systems in experimental artificial placenta models. This review, which includes studies published from 1958 to 2015, presents an update on the artificial placenta concept and its potential clinical applications. Special focus will be devoted to the milestones achieved so far and to the limitations that must be overcome before its clinical application. Notwithstanding, the artificial placenta stands as a promising alternative to mechanical ventilation in extremely premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:643-649. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Placentation in mammals: Definitive placenta, yolk sac, and paraplacenta.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-07-01

    An overview is given of variations in placentation with particular focus on yolk sac, paraplacenta, and other structures important to histotrophic nutrition. The placenta proper varies in general shape, internal structure, and the number of tissues in the interhemal barrier. Yolk sac membranes persist to term in insectivores, colugos, rodents, and lagomorphs. In the latter two orders, they are of known importance for maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies, vitamins, lipids, and proteins. The detached yolk sac of bats is also active throughout gestation. A vascular paraplacenta, or smooth chorioallantois, has known functions in ruminants and carnivores and is found in several other orders of mammal where its function has yet to be explored. In human gestation, the chorion (avascular chorioallantois) is important for hormone synthesis. The true chorion of squirrels and hedgehogs is avascular but may nevertheless allow transfer from mother to fetus through the exocelom. Hemophagous areas with columnar trophoblast are paraplacental structures in carnivores and elephants but occur also within the placenta as in hyenas and moles. In shrews, it is the yolk sac that ingests and processes red cells. Areolas and chorionic vesicles are other structures important for absorption of uterine secretions and ingestion of cellular debris. In conclusion, we find that paraplacental structures, while showing less variation than the placenta proper, contribute not just to the integrity of overall placentation, but in various ways to maternal-fetal interrelationships. PMID:27155730

  9. Comprehensive Imaging Review of Abnormalities of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Sadaf F; Moshiri, Mariam; Osman, Sherif; Robinson, Tracy J; Siebert, Joseph R; Bhargava, Puneet; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-03-01

    The placenta has a fundamental role in fetal health and functions as an important bridge to normal fetal development throughout pregnancy. A complete fetal ultrasound (US) survey should include full assessment of the placenta for any possible abnormalities. Placental diseases range from abnormal morphology, size, location, extent, and degree of placentation, to abruption and the presence of rare placental neoplasms of benign or malignant nature. Some of these conditions are associated with other diseases including aneuploidies, and their discovery should alert the radiologist to perform a very thorough fetal US examination. At times, a fetal karyotype may be needed to provide additional information. Timely detection of placental abnormalities can alert the clinician regarding the need to make important management decisions to reduce fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Familiarity with the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the placenta is therefore necessary for the radiologist. Ultrasound with Doppler is the initial imaging modality of choice for placental assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging serves as a problem-solving examination in instances where the US findings are equivocal or where additional information is needed. Computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of placental disease because of its relatively limited tissue characterization and in particular because of the resultant direct radiation exposure of the fetus. However, in specific instances, particularly after trauma, computed tomography can provide invaluable information for patient management. PMID:26938032

  10. Maternal diabetes impairs oxidative and inflammatory response in murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Saad, Mohamed I; Abdelkhalek, Taha M; Saleh, Moustafa M; Haiba, Maha M; Tawfik, Shady H; Kamel, Maher A

    2016-01-01

    Placenta is the major exchange surface between mother and fetus and plays a pivotal role in fetal development. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which diabetes alters placental function may allow better management of diabetes pregnancies. In this study, we attempt to investigate the effect of diabetic milieu with and without malformation on placental function. In order to investigate the impact of diabetic pregnancy on oxidative stress, endothelial and vascular functions of placental tissue, we mated diabetic and non-diabetic female rats with normal male rats. At gestational day 17, we terminated pregnancy, assessed fetuses for malformations and isolated placenta for measurement of various parameters of placental function. Our results show that maternal diabetes induced a state of oxidative stress in placenta, which disrupts normal signaling, activating apoptosis, as well as perturbing endothelial and vascular placental functions. The coalescence of these insults on various levels of placental function could contribute to the pleiotropic nature of diabetes-induced placental stress. PMID:27186496

  11. Stress state and strain rate dependence of the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Weed, Benjamin C; Borazjani, Ali; Patnaik, Sourav S; Prabhu, R; Horstemeyer, M F; Ryan, Peter L; Franz, Thomas; Williams, Lakiesha N; Liao, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Maternal trauma (MT) in automotive collisions is a source of injury, morbidity, and mortality for both mothers and fetuses. The primary associated pathology is placental abruption in which the placenta detaches from the uterus leading to hemorrhaging and termination of pregnancy. In this study, we focused on the differences in placental tissue response to different stress states (tension, compression, and shear) and different strain rates. Human placentas were obtained (n = 11) for mechanical testing and microstructure analysis. Specimens (n = 4+) were tested in compression, tension, and shear, each at three strain rates (nine testing protocols). Microstructure analysis included scanning electron microscopy, histology, and interrupted mechanical tests to observe tissue response to various loading states. Our data showed the greatest stiffness in tension, followed by compression, and then by shear. The study concludes that mechanical behavior of human placenta tissue (i) has a strong stress state dependence and (ii) behaves in a rate dependent manner in all three stress states, which had previously only been shown in tension. Interrupted mechanical tests revealed differences in the morphological microstructure evolution that was driven by the kinematic constraints from the different loading states. Furthermore, these structure-property data can be used to develop high fidelity constitutive models for MT simulations. PMID:22581478

  12. Purification and characterization of the human interferon-. gamma. receptor from placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, J.; Sheehan, K.C.F.; Chance, C.; Thomas, M.L.; Schreiber, R.D. )

    1988-07-01

    Purification of the human interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) receptor was facilitated by identification of human placenta as a large-scale receptor source. When analyzed in radioligand binding experiments, intact placental membranes and detergent-solubilized membrane proteins expressed 1.3 and 5.9 {times} 10{sup 12} receptors per mg of protein, respectively, values that were 13-163 times greater than that observed for U937 membranes. Two protocols were followed to purify the IFN-{gamma} receptor from octyl glucoside-solubilized membranes: (i) sequential affinity chromatography over wheat germ agglutinin- and INF-{gamma}-Sepharose and (ii) affinity chromatography over columns containing receptor-specific monoclonal antibody and wheat germ agglutinin. Both procedures resulted in fully active preparations that were 70-90% pure. Purified receptor migrated as a single molecular species of 90 kDa either when analyzed on silver-stained NaDodSO{sub 4}/polyacrylamide gels or when subjected to electrophoretic transfer blot analysis using a labeled IFN-{gamma} receptor-specific monoclonal antibody. The identity of the 90-kDa component as the receptor was confirmed by demonstrating its ability to specifically bind {sup 125}I-labeled IFN-{gamma} following NaDodSO{sub 4}/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. The ligand binding site, the epitope for the receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, and all of the N-linked carbohydrate could be localized to the 55-kDa domain of the molecule.

  13. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  14. Kappa-opioid receptor from human placenta: hydrodynamic characteristics and evidence for its association with a G protein

    SciTech Connect

    Porthe, G.; Frances, B.; Verrier, B.; Cros, J.; Meunier J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The kappa nature of opioid binding sites in a brush border membrane (BBM) fraction from human placenta has been confirmed: these sites display considerably higher apparent affinity for the kappa selective ligand U-50488 than they do for the ..mu.. and delta selective ligands enkephalin and enkephalyl-Thr, respectively. Two lines of evidence indicated that the placental kappa opioid receptor is capable of interacting with a guanine nucleotide regulatory (G) protein: (i) equilibrium binding of the angonist /sup 3/H-etorphine in the BBM fraction was clearly inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p), especially in the presence of Na/sup +/ ions while binding of the antagonist /sup 3/H-diprenorphine was significantly less so and (ii) the sedimentation velocity of the kappa opioid receptor was decreased down to about 10 S when the BBM fraction was prelabeled with radioligand in the presence of Gpp(NH)p prior to its solubilization with digitonin. The G protein that mediates the effect of Gpp(NH)p might be neither G/sub s/ nor G/sub i/ since no adenylate cyclase activity could be demonstrated in the BBM fraction from human placenta.

  15. Landscape of Transcriptional Deregulations in the Preeclamptic Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaiman, Daniel; Calicchio, Rosamaria; Miralles, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disease affecting 5 to 8% of pregnant women and a leading cause of both maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Because of a default in the process of implantation, the placenta of preeclamptic women undergoes insufficient vascularization. This results in placental ischemia, inflammation and subsequent release of placental debris and vasoactive factors in the maternal circulation causing a systemic endothelial activation. Several microarray studies have analyzed the transcriptome of the preeclamptic placentas to identify genes which could be involved in placental dysfunction. In this study, we compared the data from publicly available microarray analyses to obtain a consensus list of modified genes. This allowed to identify consistently modified genes in the preeclamptic placenta. Of these, 67 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. Assuming that changes in the transcription level of co-expressed genes may result from the coordinated action of a limited number of transcription factors, we looked for over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoters of these genes. Indeed, we found that the promoters of up-regulated genes are enriched in putative binding sites for NFkB, CREB, ANRT, REEB1, SP1, and AP-2. In the promoters of down-regulated genes, the most prevalent putative binding sites are those of MZF-1, NFYA, E2F1 and MEF2A. These transcriptions factors are known to regulate specific biological pathways such as cell responses to inflammation, hypoxia, DNA damage and proliferation. We discuss here the molecular mechanisms of action of these transcription factors and how they can be related to the placental dysfunction in the context of preeclampsia. PMID:23785430

  16. Gestational protein restriction alters cell proliferation in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; de Sousa Righi, Eloá Fernanda; Catisti, Rosana

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that gestational protein restriction (GPR) alters the structure of the rat placenta on day 19 of gestation (dG). The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal immunolocalization of proliferating cell antigen Ki67 in normal and GPR placental development. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal (NP, 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 6 % casein). Placentas and fetus were collected and weighed at 15, 17, 19 and 21 dG. Morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were performed. Immunoperoxidase was used to identify nuclear antigen Ki67 in placental sections. We observed a significant reduction in the number of trophoblast giant cells and glycogen cells in the LP group. Placental weight was significantly reduced only at 17 dG in the LP group, in parallel to a decrease in glycogen cells. From 15 to 21 dG, the thickness of the junctional zone (JZ) decreased in NP and LP animals, while that of the labyrinth zone (LZ) increased in parallel to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in this LZ zone. GPR significantly inhibits cell proliferation in the JZ, especially at 15 and 17 dG. The ultrastructural appearance of the cytoplasm of giant and cytotrophoblastic cells indicates degeneration from 15 to 21 dG and this effect is enhanced in LP animals suggesting early aging. Offspring of NP dams were significantly heavier than offspring of LP dams at 21 dG. GPR causes modifications in specific regions of the placenta, cell proliferation inhibition and fetal growth restriction. PMID:26779652

  17. Androgen Receptor and Histone Lysine Demethylases in Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Cleys, Ellane R.; Halleran, Jennifer L.; Enriquez, Vanessa A.; da Silveira, Juliano C.; West, Rachel C.; Winger, Quinton A.; Anthony, Russell V.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Clay, Colin M.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  18. Gestational protein restriction alters cell proliferation in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; de Sousa Righi, Eloá Fernanda; Catisti, Rosana

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that gestational protein restriction (GPR) alters the structure of the rat placenta on day 19 of gestation (dG). The aim of the study was to investigate the spatial and temporal immunolocalization of proliferating cell antigen Ki67 in normal and GPR placental development. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal (NP, 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 6 % casein). Placentas and fetus were collected and weighed at 15, 17, 19 and 21 dG. Morphological, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were performed. Immunoperoxidase was used to identify nuclear antigen Ki67 in placental sections. We observed a significant reduction in the number of trophoblast giant cells and glycogen cells in the LP group. Placental weight was significantly reduced only at 17 dG in the LP group, in parallel to a decrease in glycogen cells. From 15 to 21 dG, the thickness of the junctional zone (JZ) decreased in NP and LP animals, while that of the labyrinth zone (LZ) increased in parallel to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in this LZ zone. GPR significantly inhibits cell proliferation in the JZ, especially at 15 and 17 dG. The ultrastructural appearance of the cytoplasm of giant and cytotrophoblastic cells indicates degeneration from 15 to 21 dG and this effect is enhanced in LP animals suggesting early aging. Offspring of NP dams were significantly heavier than offspring of LP dams at 21 dG. GPR causes modifications in specific regions of the placenta, cell proliferation inhibition and fetal growth restriction.

  19. Transport of persistent organic pollutants across the human placenta.

    PubMed

    Vizcaino, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal life is the most sensitive stage of human development to environmental pollutants. Early exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may increase the risk of adverse health effects during childhood. The mechanisms of transference of POPs during pregnancy are still not well understood. The present study is aimed to investigate the transfer of POPs between mother and fetus. The concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides, 7 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 14 polybromodiphenyl ether (PBDEs) congeners have been measured in 308 maternal serum samples, their respective umbilical cords and 50 placental tissues from a mother-infant cohort representative of Spanish general population. In general, the adjusted lipid-basis concentrations were higher in maternal serum than in cord serum and placenta. The concentrations of most pollutants between maternal serum and cord serum and between maternal serum and placenta were significantly correlated. These distributions were consistent with a predominant maternal source that transfers the pollutants into the placenta and the fetus. However, this distribution did not correspond to passive diffusion of these compounds between these tissues according to lipid content. The compounds more readily metabolized were higher in newborns, which suggest that differences in metabolic capabilities may be responsible of the observed variations in POP distributions between mother and newborns. Prenatal exposure to 4,4'-DDT and some PBDEs such as BDE 99 and BDE 209 is much higher than it could be anticipated from the composition of maternal serum. POP exposure assessment studies of newborns may overlook the effects of some of these pollutants if they only consider maternal determinations.

  20. Effects of cadmium of the human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Human placental lobules (25 g) were maintained in vitro for 12 hours by dual perfusion of the fetal vessels and intervillous space (maternal circulation). A synthetic tissue culture medium was used for the perfusates. Maternal perfusate was gassed with 95% O/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/; fetal perfusate was gassed with 95% N/sub 2//5% CO/sub 2/. Both perfusates were recirculated (maternal 15-25 ml/min, fetal 3 ml/min) and exchanged for fresh perfusates every 4 hours. The integrity of the fetal vasculature was demonstrated by the stabilities of fetal arterial pressure (30-36 mm Hg) and circulatory volume (volume loss <2 ml/h). The metabolic viability of the placenta was documented by measurements of oxygen consumption (100-137 umole/min.kg), glucose consumption (133-163 umole/min.kg), and lactate production (163-229 umole/min.kg). Exposure of placenta to 10 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate led to accumulation of cadmium (45 nmole Cd/g), yet there was limited movement of cadmium from maternal to fetal circulations. This exposure did not result in significant changes in fetal capillary permeability of resistance, oxygen or glucose consumptions, lactate production, nCg release, transport of AlB by placental slices, or ultrastructure. Transfer of zinc from maternal to fetal circulations did not appear to be reduced. Exposure of perfused placenta to 100 nmole Cd/ml maternal perfusate resulted in a cadmium burden of 150 nmole Cd/g. This exposure induced syncytiotrophoblast necrosis, increased fetal capillary permeability, and reduced hCG release.

  1. Interprofessional simulation of a retained placenta and postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Buxton, Margaret; Overstreet, Maria

    2015-07-01

    To improve quality and safety in healthcare, national and international organizations have called for students to receive dedicated training in interprofessional communication and collaboration. We developed a simulation for nurse-midwifery and nurse-anesthesia students, using the Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice framework. The simulation, involving a postpartum women with a retained placenta and acute blood loss, allowed students to collaboratively manage a high-risk situation. We present the details of the simulation and evaluation to assist educators. PMID:25707310

  2. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  3. [Pharmacotherapeutic aspects of drug transporters in the placenta].

    PubMed

    Motyl, Olga; Droździk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Drug treatment during pregnancy is often inevitable. The number of pregnant women in need of pharmacotherapy continues to grow, partly due to advanced diagnostic tests and partly due to advanced maternal age. Obviously, knowledge about the function of drug transporters in the placenta allows for a more accurate analysis of drug penetration (and other xenobiotics) through the placental barrier, and therefore safer pharmacotherapy. The paper provides information on the role of drug transporters in the pharmacotherapy of pregnancy-associated pathologies which require long-term treatment, e.g. cardiac arrhythmias, gestational diabetes, epilepsy, HIV infection, preeclampsia, and conditions which require the use of glucocorticoids. PMID:27321104

  4. The placenta: a main role in congenital toxoplasmosis?

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    Systemic infections, such as toxoplasmosis, acquired during pregnancy can lead to placental infection and have profound effects on the mother-to-child relationship and the success of pregnancy. Placental permeability to Toxoplasma gondii is a main parameter that determines parasite transmission to the foetus, and the use of antibiotics to decrease placental parasite load and prevent congenital toxoplasmosis has been suggested for decades. Although parasitological examination of the placenta at birth is commonly used to diagnose neonatal congenital toxoplasmosis, this approach can be controversial. Here we argue in favour of placental examination for both diagnostic and epidemiological purposes.

  5. Antenatal diagnosis of chorioangioma of the placenta: MR features

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Takao; Imai, Michiko; Isoda, Haruo

    1996-05-01

    We report a case of chorioangioma of the placenta, in which MR findings were useful in establishing the antenatal diagnosis. Polyhydramnios and a placental tumor that was 5 cm in size were visualized. The tumor had relatively high signal intensities on proton density imaging and T2-weighted imaging and showed partially high intensity signal rims on T1-weighted imaging, especially when using a breath-holding technique. Magnetic resonance imaging has an important role in detection and diagnosis of these lesions, particularly the larger tumors, so that appropriate steps can be taken to deal with the complications that may accompany this tumor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Traffics from Maternal Organs to the Placenta and Back

    PubMed Central

    Bakardjiev, Anna I; Theriot, Julie A; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    Infection with Listeria monocytogenes is a significant health problem during pregnancy. This study evaluates the role of trafficking between maternal organs and placenta in a pregnant guinea pig model of listeriosis. After intravenous inoculation of guinea pigs, the initial ratio of bacteria in maternal organs to placenta was 103–104:1. Rapid increase of bacteria in the placenta changed the ratio to 1:1 after 24 h. Utilizing two wild-type strains, differentially marked by their susceptibility to erythromycin, we found that only a single bacterium was necessary to cause placental infection, and that L. monocytogenes trafficked from maternal organs to the placenta in small numbers. Surprisingly, bacteria trafficked in large numbers from the placenta to maternal organs. Bacterial growth, clearance, and transport between organs were simulated with a mathematical model showing that the rate of bacterial clearance relative to the rate of bacterial replication in the placenta was sufficient to explain the difference in the course of listeriosis in pregnant versus nonpregnant animals. These results provide the basis for a new model where the placenta is relatively protected from infection. Once colonized, the placenta becomes a nidus of infection resulting in massive reseeding of maternal organs, where L. monocytogenes cannot be cleared until trafficking is interrupted by expulsion of the infected placental tissues. PMID:16846254

  7. More Than Clinical Waste? Placenta Rituals Among Australian Home-Birthing Women

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The discursive construction of the human placenta varies greatly between hospital and home-birthing contexts. The former, driven by medicolegal discourse, defines the placenta as clinical waste. Within this framework, the placenta is as much of an afterthought as it is considered the “afterbirth.” In home-birth practices, the placenta is constructed as a “special” and meaningful element of the childbirth experience. I demonstrate this using 51 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant and planning home births in Australia or had recently had home births in Australia. Analysis of these interviews indicates that the discursive shift taking place in home-birth practices from the medicalized model translates into a richer understanding and appreciation of the placenta as a spiritual component of the childbirth experience. The practices discussed in this article include the burial of the placenta beneath a specifically chosen plant, consuming the placenta, and having a lotus birth, which refers to not cutting the umbilical cord after the birth of the child but allowing it to dry naturally and break of its own accord. By shifting focus away from the medicalized frames of reference in relation to the third stage of labor, the home-birthing women in this study have used the placenta in various rituals and ceremonies to spiritualize an aspect of birth that is usually overlooked. PMID:24453467

  8. Expression of Notch Family Proteins in Placentas From Patients With Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei-Xiu; Huang, Tao-Tao; Jiang, Meng; Feng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study is aimed to identify the expression of Notch family proteins in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia. Study Design: The expression of Notch family proteins in placentas was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The profile of distribution of all Notch family proteins in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia is similar to that in normal placentas. All Notch family proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts. Moreover, Notch1 and Jagged1 (Jag1) are detected in placental endothelial cells. Real-time RT-PCR showed that messenger RNA levels of Notch2 and Delta-like4 (Dll4) in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia are lower than that of normal placentas. Western blotting showed a significant increase in Notch3 expression and a significant decrease in Notch2 expression in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia relative to those in normal placentas. Conclusion: The results suggest that Notch2 and Notch3 may play some roles in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:24336671

  9. Increase in the relative level of type V collagen during development and ageing of the placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Iwahashi, M; Ooshima, A; Nakano, R

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To obtain some insight into the extracellular matrix in the placenta, changes in the composition of collagens during placental development were investigated. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from placentas (group 1, 25-30 weeks, n = 21; group 2, 31-36 weeks, n = 32; and group 3, 37-41 weeks of gestation, n = 40) and the relative concentrations of various collagens were evaluated by SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The ratio of the intensity of the alpha 1 (III) band to that of alpha 1 (I) chain collagen in group 3 placentas were lower than those in group 1 placentas. In contrast, the ratio of the intensity of the alpha 1 (V) band to that of alpha 1 (I) chain collagen in group 3 placentas were higher than those in group 1 and group 2 placentas. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that type V collagen might play an important role in the function of the placenta and that an increased relative concentration of type V collagen might be closely associated with the development and ageing of the placenta. Images PMID:8944612

  10. [MRI evaluation of placenta accreta treated by embolization. Apropos of a case. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Lemercier, E; Genevois, A; Descargue, G; Clavier, E; Benozio, M

    1999-04-01

    Placenta accreta results from an abnormal attachment of the placenta to the uterine myometrium. The reported incidence in literature is variable, with an average of 1/7000 pregnancies. This condition is associated with a significant risk of bleeding at the time of delivery, usually requiring hysterectomy. Sonography associated with color Doppler is useful for diagnosis, but MRI can be used successfully to evaluate the degree of placental tissue invading into the myometrium, the serosa, and for follow-up after conservative management. To our knowledge, only two cases of placenta accreta evaluated with MR and six cases of placenta accreta treated by embolization have been reported in the literature. The authors report one case of placenta accreta treated successfully by embolization, and followed-up by MRI. PMID:10337578

  11. Bovine placenta: a review on morphology, components, and defects from terminology and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Peter, Augustine T

    2013-10-15

    The bovine placenta has been the subject of many studies. Concurrently, several specialized terms have been developed to describe its development, morphology, components, function, and pathology. Many of these terms are simple, some are difficult to understand and use, and others are antiquated and may not be scientifically accurate. Defining and adopting terminology for the bovine placenta that is clear, precise and understandable, and available in a single source is expected to facilitate exchange of clinical and research information. This review presents a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the bovine placenta and attempts to define terms. In this process, conventional terminology is presented, and contemporary and novel terms are proposed from a biological perspective. For example, use of terms such as syndesmochorial, retained placenta, and large offspring syndrome should be revisited. Furthermore, the clinical relevance of the structure and function of the bovine placenta is reviewed. Finally, terms discussed in this review are summarized (in table format).

  12. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible.

  13. Cloning of a new member of the insulin gene superfamily (INSL4) expressed in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, D.; Laurent, A.; Janneau, J.L.

    1995-09-20

    A new member of the insulin gene superfamily was identified by screening a subtracted cDNA library of first-trimester human placenta and, hence, was tentatively named early placenta insulin-like peptide (EPIL). In this paper, we report the cloning and sequencing of the EPIL cDNA and the EPIL gene (INSL4). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the early placenta insulin-like peptide revealed significant overall and structural homologies with members of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. Moreover, the organization of the early placenta insulin-like gene, which is composed of two exons and one intron, is similiar to that of insulin and relaxin. By in situ hybridization, the INSL4 gene was assigned to band p24 of the short arm of chromosome 9. RT-PCR analysis of EPIL tissue distribution revealed that its transcripts are expressed in the placenta and uterus. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Expression of two alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in human placenta: evidence from direct binding studies.

    PubMed

    Falkay, G; Kovács, L

    1994-09-01

    Adrenergic receptors may play an important role for mediating a variety of metabolic and haemodynamic effects of catecholamines including placental blood flow. The alpha-adrenergic receptors of the human placenta were characterized in vitro by the use of [3H]rauwolscine and [3H]prazosin as radioligands. Saturation experiments would suggest that the alpha-adrenoceptors in the human placenta are alpha 2. Comparative binding studies were performed, using recently synthesized compounds (Beecham Pharmaceuticals, UK) selective for alpha 2A (BRL-44408) and alpha 2B (BRL-41992) subtypes. The results indicate that human placenta contains at least two pharmacologically distinct alpha 2-adrenoceptor subtypes with approximately 60 per cent alpha 2A and 40 per cent alpha 2B receptors. In contrast with the pattern of increasing beta-adrenoceptor density, the concentration of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in term placentae is significantly lower than in placentae from the first trimester.

  15. Successful uterus-preserving surgery for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant placenta increta.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Takuhiro; Shimizu, Ayumi; Matsuura, Motoki; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Nagasawa, Kunihiko; Ezaka, Yoshiaki; Baba, Tuyoshi; Ishioka, Shinichi; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of placenta increta often entails abdominal total hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta increta in which 3-dimensional computed tomography shows very high blood flow to the placenta, even after chemotherapy with methotrexate. Nonetheless, we were able to remove the region of the uterus that had been invaded by chorionic villi. Massive bleeding during the operation was prevented by ligation of the hypogastric artery and local injection of vasopressin. The combination of chemotherapy and partial resection of the uterus is quite a unique treatment for placenta increta patients. This approach enabled preservation of the uterus and the patient's fertility. We suggest this procedure could be one of the treatments for patients who have placenta increta and wish to retain their fertility. PMID:19955809

  16. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  17. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  18. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  19. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  20. Relationships of CD163 and CD169 positive cell numbers in the endometrium and fetal placenta with type 2 PRRSV RNA concentration in fetal thymus.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Predrag; Harding, John C S; Ladinig, Andrea; Al-Dissi, Ahmad N; MacPhee, Daniel J; Detmer, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Several routes of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus PRRSV transmission across the porcine diffuse epitheliochorial placentation have been proposed, but none have been proven. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between numbers of CD163 and CD169 positive macrophages, cathepsin positive areolae, and type 2 PRRSV load at the maternal-fetal interface in order to examine important factors related to transplacental infection. On gestation day 85 ± 1, naïve pregnant gilts were inoculated with PRRSV (n = 114) or were sham inoculated (n = 19). At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), dams and their litters were humanely euthanized and necropsied. Samples of the maternal-fetal interface (uterus with fully attached placenta) and fetal thymus were collected for analysis by RT-qPCR to quantify PRRSV RNA concentration. The corresponding paraffin-embedded uterine tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry for PRRSV nucleocapsid N protein, CD163, CD169, and cathepsin. Our findings confirm significant increases in the numbers of PRRSV, CD163 and CD169 positive cells at the maternal-fetal interface during type 2 PRRSV infection in pregnant gilts. PRRSV load in fetal thymus was positively related to CD163(+) cell count in endometrium and negatively related to CD163(+) cell count in placenta, but unrelated to CD169 counts or cathepsin positive areolae. The endometrium:placenta ratio of CD163 cells, and to a lesser extent CD169 cells, was significantly associated with an increase fetal viral load in thymus. These findings suggest a more important role for CD163(+) cells following trans-placental PRRSV infection, but dichotomous responses in endometrium and placenta for both CD163 and CD169 cells. PMID:27494990

  1. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming. PMID:25028397

  2. Fetal and placenta chromosome constitution in 237 pregnancy losses.

    PubMed

    Baena, N; Guitart, M; Ferreres, J C; Gabau, E; Corona, M; Mellado, F; Egozcue, J; Caballín, M R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out cytogenetic analyses in pregnancy losses. Samples of cartilage and placenta tissue were obtained prospectively from 237 pregnancy losses of more than 16 weeks of gestation (130 stillbirths, 97 induced abortions and 10 early neonatal deaths). Cartilage culture was performed in 222 samples and placental culture was initiated in 224. The overall culture success rate was 83.5%, 72.3% in stillbirths, 97% in induced abortions and 100% in early neonatal death. An abnormal karyotype was detected in 52 cases: 6.9% in stillbirths, 43.6% in induced abortions and 20% in early neonatal deaths. The rate of discrepancy between the prenatal cytogenetic results in amniotic fluid and the post-termination karyotype was 3%. The tissue of choice for cytogenetic analysis was cartilage in induced abortions and early neonatal death, and placenta in stillbirth. The majority of cases had a chromosome abnormality: multiple congenital anomalies in 74.6%, and a single major anomaly in 9.7%.

  3. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  4. Use of the placenta as an artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Sawada, S; Reickert, C A; Bartlett, R H; Hirschl, R B

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen transfer across a single cotyledon of the human placenta was assessed by using three different perfusates in the maternal circuit: 1) M-199 culture medium, 2) human adult red blood cells (RBCs), and 3) perflubron. These maternal circuit perfusates were oxygenated with a membrane oxygenator. RBCs were perfused on the fetal side of the circuit and samples were taken preplacenta and postplacenta for each maternal perfusate. PO2 and PCO2 were measured and O2 transfer was calculated for each maternal perfusate. O2 transfer per single cotyledon (mean +/- SE) was 0.18 +/- 0.04, 0.20 +/- 0.03, and 0.15 +/- 0.05 ccO2/min when using: 1) M-199, 2) RBCs, and 3) perflubron, respectively. O2 transfer per kilogram of placental tissue was 13.08 +/- 2.78, 14.57 +/- 2.05, and 10.43 +/- 3.79 ccO2/kg per minute when using: 1) M-199, 2) RBCs, and 3) perflubron, respectively. When extrapolated to the individual weights of the entire placenta, the O2 transfer was 9.15 +/- 1.95, 10.20 +/- 1.43, and 7.30 +/- 2.65 when using: 1) M-199, 2) RBCs, and 3) perflubron, respectively. We conclude from these data that O2 transfer can be accomplished during placental perfusion. Larger studies are required to differentiate efficacy among the three maternal circuit perfusates.

  5. The placenta: the forgotten essential organ of iron transport.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Fleming, Mark D

    2016-07-01

    Optimal iron nutrition in utero is essential for development of the fetus and helps establish birth iron stores adequate to sustain growth in early infancy. In species with hemochorial placentas, such as humans and rodents, iron in the maternal circulation is transferred to the fetus by directly contacting placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Early kinetic studies provided valuable data on the initial uptake of maternal transferrin, an iron-binding protein, by the placenta. However, the remaining steps of iron trafficking across syncytiotrophoblasts and through the fetal endothelium into the fetal blood remain poorly characterized. Over the last 20 years, identification of transmembrane iron transporters and the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin has greatly expanded the knowledge of cellular iron transport and its regulation by systemic iron status. In addition, emerging human and animal data demonstrating comprised fetal iron stores in severe maternal iron deficiency challenge the classic dogma of exclusive fetal control over the transfer process and indicate that maternal and local signals may play a role in regulating this process. This review compiles current data on the kinetic, molecular, and regulatory aspects of placental iron transport and considers new questions and knowledge gaps raised by these advances. PMID:27261274

  6. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure.

    PubMed

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert

    2007-10-01

    Pregnant women are daily exposed to a wide selection of foreign substances. Sources are as different as lifestyle factors (smoking, daily care products, alcohol consumption, etc.), maternal medication or occupational/environmental exposures. The placenta provides the link between mother and foetus, and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of the foetal organs (e.g. methylmercury and thalidomide). The scope of this review is to give insight to the placental anatomy, development and function. Furthermore, the compounds physical properties and the transfer mechanism across the placental barrier are evaluated. In order to determine the actual foetal risk from exposure to a chemical many studies regarding the topic are necessary, including means of transportation, toxicological targets and effects. For this purpose several in vivo and in vitro models including the placental perfusion system are models of choice. PMID:17624715

  7. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  8. Glucose metabolism in cultured trophoblasts from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, A.J.; Farmer, D.R.; Nelson, D.M.; Smith, C.H. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of appropriate placental trophoblast isolation and culture techniques enables the study of pathways of glucose utilization by this important cell layer in vitro. Trophoblasts from normal term placentas were isolated and cultured 24 hours and 72 hours in uncoated polystyrene culture tubes or tubes previously coated with a fibrin matrix. Trophoblasts cultured on fibrin are morphologically distinct from those cultured on plastic or other matrices and generally resemble in vivo syncytium. Cells were incubated up to 3 hours with {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and reactions were stopped by addition of perchloric acid. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} production by trophoblasts increased linearly with time however the largest accumulation of label was in organic acids. Trophoblasts cultured in absence of fibrin utilized more glucose and accumulated more {sup 14}C in metabolic products compared to cells cultured on fibrin. Glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2} by the phosphogluconate (PG) pathway was estimated from specific yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose and (6-{sup 14}C)-D-glucose. Approximately 6% of glucose oxidation was by the PG pathway when cells were cultured on fibrin compared to approximately 1% by cells cultured in the absence of fibrin. The presence of a fibrin growth matrix appears to modulate the metabolism of glucose by trophoblast from human placenta in vitro.

  9. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo. PMID:26241857

  10. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Diane I; Jayashankar, Kartika; Douglas, Kory C; Thirkill, Twanda L; York, Daniel; Dickinson, Pete J; Williams, Lawrence E; Samollow, Paul B; Ross, Pablo J; Bannasch, Danika L; Douglas, Gordon C; LaSalle, Janine M

    2015-08-01

    Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs) and highly methylated domains (HMDs) with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq) analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  11. Purification of a Factor from Human Placenta That Stimulates Capillary Endothelial Cell Protease Production, DNA Synthesis, and Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatelli, David; Presta, Marco; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    1986-04-01

    A protein that stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in cultured bovine capillary endothelial cells has been purified 106-fold from term human placenta by using a combination of heparin affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel chromatography. The purified molecule has a molecular weight of 18,700 as determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. The purified molecule stimulates the production of plasminogen activator and latent collagenase in a dose-dependent manner between 0.1 and 10 ng of protein/ml. The purified protein also stimulates DNA synthesis and chemotaxis in capillary endothelial cells in the same concentration range. Thus, this molecule has all of the properties predicted for an angiogenic factor.

  12. Increased levels of cell-free human placental lactogen mRNA at 28-32 gestational weeks in plasma of pregnant women with placenta previa and invasive placenta.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Akihiro; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ventura, Walter; Koide, Keiko; Hori, Kyouko; Okai, Takashi; Masashi, Yoshida; Furuya, Kenichi; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-02-01

    We compared the levels of cell-free human placental lactogen (hPL) messenger RNA (mRNA) in maternal plasma at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation between women with diagnosis of placenta previa or invasive placenta and women with an uneventful pregnancy. Sensitivity and specificity of hPL mRNA for the prediction of invasive placenta were further explored. Plasma hPL mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in women with placenta previa (n = 13), invasive placenta (n = 5), and normal pregnancies (n = 92). Median (range) hPL mRNA was significantly higher in women with placenta previa, 782 (10-2301) copies/mL of plasma, and in those with invasive placenta, 615 (522-2102) copies/mL of plasma, when compared to normal pregnancies, 90 (4-4407) copies/mL of plasma, P < .01 and P < .05, respectively. We found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61.5% for the prediction of invasive placenta among women with placenta previa. In conclusion, expression of hPL mRNA is increased in plasma of women with placenta previa and invasive placenta at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation.

  13. Exogenous somatotropin alters IGF axis in porcine endometrium and placenta.

    PubMed

    Freese, L G; Rehfeldt, C; Fuerbass, R; Kuhn, G; Okamura, C S; Ender, K; Grant, A L; Gerrard, D E

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous somatotropin (ST) can alter the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in the porcine epitheliochorial placenta. Crossbred gilts were injected either 6 mg of recombinant porcine ST or vehicle from days 10 to 27 after artificial insemination (term day 116). Control and ST-treated gilts were euthanized on day 28 (8 control/5 treated), day 37 (4 control/6 treated), and day 62 (4 control/6 treated) of gestation. Endometrium and placental tissue samples were collected and subjected to mRNA analyses. In control gilts, somatotropin receptor (STR) and IGF-I mRNA abundance in the endometrium decreased with gestation. Conversely, the amounts of IGF-II mRNA and of IGF binding protein (BP)-2 and -3 mRNA, which were analyzed in endometrium and placental chorion, increased with gestation. The endometrium contained less IGF-II mRNA but more IGFBP-2 and-3 mRNA than the placental chorion. In response to pST treatment, the amounts of endometrial STR and IGF-I mRNA were lower at days 28 and 37, but higher at day 62 of gestation. The content of IGF-II mRNA was higher in the endometrium of pST-treated than control gilts on day 37. The amount of IGFBP-2 mRNA was increased on day 37 in endometrium and placenta of pST-treated gilts, whereas no changes in IGFBP-3 mRNA were observed. The IGF-II/IGFBP-2 ratio was higher in the placenta in response to pST on day 28 of gestation. Results show that pST treatment of pregnant gilts during early gestation alters IGF axis in maternal and fetal placental tissues and suggest pST may exert an effect on fetal growth by altering the relative amount of IGFBPs and IGFs at the fetal-maternal interface.

  14. Maternal Bias and Escape from X Chromosome Imprinting in the Midgestation Mouse Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Elizabeth H; Smith, Cheryl L; Rodriguez, Jesse; Sidow, Arend; Baker, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the epigenetic landscape at the interface between mother and fetus, we provide a comprehensive analysis of parent-of-origin bias in the mouse placenta. Using F1 interspecies hybrids between mus musculus (C57BL/6J) and mus musculus castaneus, we sequenced RNA from 23 individual midgestation placentas, five late stage placentas, and two yolk sac samples and then used SNPs to determine whether transcripts were preferentially generated from the maternal or paternal allele. In the placenta, we find 103 genes that show significant and reproducible parent-of-origin bias, of which 78 are novel candidates. Most (96%) show a strong maternal bias which we demonstrate, via multiple mathematical models, pyrosequencing, and FISH, is not due to maternal decidual contamination. Analysis of the X chromosome also reveals paternal expression of Xist and several genes that escape inactivation, most significantly Alas2, Fhl1, and Slc38a5. Finally, sequencing individual placentas allowed us to reveal notable expression similarity between littermates. In all, we observe a striking preference for maternal transcription in the midgestation mouse placenta and a dynamic imprinting landscape in extraembryonic tissues, reflecting the complex nature of epigenetic pathways in the placenta. PMID:24594094

  15. Factors Associated with Placenta Praevia in Primigravidas and Its Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Nur Azurah, Abdul Ghani; Wan Zainol, Zakaria; Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohd Nasir; Kampan, Nirmala; Mohsin, Wan Syahirah; Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd; Muhammad Yassin, Muhammad Abdul Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the factors associated with placenta praevia in primigravidas and also compare the pregnancy outcomes between primigravidas and nonprimigravidas. Method. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in women who underwent caesarean section for major placenta praevia in a tertiary university hospital from January 2007 till December 2013. Medical records were reviewed. Result. Among 243 with major placenta praevia, 56 (23.0%) were primigravidas and 187 (77.0%) were nonprimigravidas. Factors associated with placenta praevia in the primigravidas were history of assisted conception (P = 0.02) and history of endometriosis (P = 0.01). For maternal outcomes, the nonprimigravidas required earlier delivery than primigravidas (35.76 ± 2.54 weeks versus 36.52 ± 1.95 weeks, P = 0.03) and had greater blood loss (P = 0.04). A vast majority of the primigravidas had either posterior type II or type III placenta praevia. As for neonatal outcomes, the Apgar score at 1 minute was significantly lower for the nonprimigravidas (7.89 ± 1.72 versus 8.39 ± 1.288.39 ± 1.28, P = 0.02). Conclusion. This study highlighted that endometriosis and assisted conception were highly associated with placenta praevia in primigravida. Understanding the pregnancy outcomes of women with placenta praevia can assist clinicians in identifying patients who are at higher risk of mortality and morbidity. Identifying potential risk factors in primigravida may assist in counseling and management of such patients. PMID:25478587

  16. Natural killer cells and HLA-G expression in the basal decidua of human placenta adhesiva.

    PubMed

    van Beekhuizen, H J; Joosten, I; Lotgering, F K; Bulten, J; van Kempen, L C

    2010-12-01

    Retained placenta is caused by abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, leading to delayed expulsion of the placenta and causing postpartum haemorrhage. The mildest form of retained placenta is the placenta adhesiva (PA), of which the cause is unknown. The aim of our study was to explore possible differences in immune response in the basal decidua between PA and control placentas (CP). We performed a descriptive analysis of immunohistochemical differences in 17 PA and 10 CP. Our results show that in PA the amount of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells is significantly reduced (0.2 uNK cell/standardised area) as compared to CP (9.8 uNK cell/standardised area, p < 0.001) whereas the number of trophoblast cells and the expression of HLA-G by trophoblast are similar in the decidua of PA and CP. We speculate that adequate numbers of uNK cells in the basal decidua are needed for normal expulsion of the placenta.

  17. The placenta and neurologic and psychiatric outcomes in the child: study design matters.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K B; Blair, E

    2011-09-01

    Much information exists about functions of the human placenta and about potential mechanisms by which the placenta may influence human health or disease, including developmental disorders of brain. Recent studies indicate a high frequency of placental pathology in infants with developmental brain disorders, or with risk factors for such disorders. However, most clinical studies of the association of placental features with adverse neurologic or psychiatric outcome have substantial methodologic limitations. We discuss issues of study design as they relate to studies of the placenta and human brain disorders. In addition to the need for further consensus on procedures and terminology for placental evaluation, there are a number of special features that make clinical studies of the association of placental features with neurologic and psychiatric disorders especially difficult: most such disorders are not diagnosed until months or years after the majority of placentas have been discarded; these disorders are individually uncommon, so that prospective studies - needed to provide denominator data to enable estimation of risks - will require very large sample sizes; the administrative structures required to relate features of the placenta with clinical outcome will be complicated and costly. We offer some suggestions concerning study design in the face of these practical difficulties. Systematic and methodologically rigorous exploration of the role of the placenta in human developmental brain disorders has scarcely begun. A new generation of studies, difficult but potentially enormously rewarding, will be needed for clinical investigations of the placenta and fetal brain development.

  18. Spina bifida in fetus is associated with an altered pattern of DNA methylation in placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojuan; Pei, Lijun; Li, Runting; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hua; Li, Yongchao; Guo, Yu; Tan, Pingping; Han, Jingdong J; Zheng, Xiaoying; Ma, Runlin Z

    2015-10-01

    Failure in closure of neural tube leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common symptoms of human birth defects. Although epigenetic status in placenta is linked to fetal development, the mechanism behind this remains unknown. Because of the importance of DNA methylation in gene function, we set to explore whether or not DNA methylation in human placenta is also linked to fetal NTDs. Here we show for the first time that alteration of DNA methylation in placenta is closely associated with the phenotypes of fetal spina bifida (Sb). We found that patterns of DNA methylation for genes in neurological system process were differentially altered in the Sb placenta. In particular, the transcription regulatory regions of TRIM26 and GANS were kept at the hypomethylation status in Sb placenta alone. Accordingly, the protein levels of TRIM26 and GNAS were significantly elevated only in the Sb placenta but not in the Sb-affected fetuses. In cellular model of CHO cells deficient in Dihydrofolate reductase and treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, the protein levels of GNAS and TRIM26 were significantly higher than those in normal control cells. These findings suggested that epigenetic status of genes in placenta have profound impacts on the development of NTDs.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-01-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications. PMID:27053569

  20. Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: the role of the mother, placenta, and fetus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Vanessa E; Smith, Roger; Giles, Warwick B; Clifton, Vicki L

    2006-04-01

    The environment in which the fetus develops is critical for its survival and long-term health. The regulation of normal human fetal growth involves many multidirectional interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus. The mother supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus via the placenta. The fetus influences the provision of maternal nutrients via the placental production of hormones that regulate maternal metabolism. The placenta is the site of exchange between mother and fetus and regulates fetal growth via the production and metabolism of growth-regulating hormones such as IGFs and glucocorticoids. Adequate trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy and increased uteroplacental blood flow ensure sufficient growth of the uterus, placenta, and fetus. The placenta may respond to fetal endocrine signals to increase transport of maternal nutrients by growth of the placenta, by activation of transport systems, and by production of placental hormones to influence maternal physiology and even behavior. There are consequences of poor fetal growth both in the short term and long term, in the form of increased mortality and morbidity. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth involves interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus, and these effects may program long-term physiology.

  1. Placenta previa and it's relation with maternal age, gravidity and cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Hossain, G A; Islam, S M; Mahmood, S; Chakraborty, R K; Akhter, N; Sultana, S

    2004-07-01

    The placenta provides the essential connection between the mother and the developing fetus. Placental position were routinely mentioned in an ultrasound report starting from early second trimester to the end of third trimester when asked for pregnancy evaluation. The aim of this study was to see the prevalence of lower segment placenta (placenta previa) and its relations with previous cesarean section delivery, parity and maternal age. The study conducted in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound (CNMU) Mymensingh in a period from January 2001 to December 2002. About 2536 pregnant women (those included in this study) underwent ultrasound examination during pregnancy at third trimester. The prevalence of lower segment placenta was 1.34%. The highest prevalence of placenta previa (2.58%) was seen in 3rd and higher gravida group. Also the highest prevalence were seen 30 yr. and above age group in compare to below 30 yr. age group. No increased prevalence of placenta previa were seen in previous cesarean section (C / S) delivery group (0.65%) in compare to normal delivery group (1.97%). From our study it was seen that development of lower segment placenta has relation with increased number of gravidity and maternal age but no increased prevalence were seen in subjects with previously done cesarean section

  2. Safety of cesarean delivery through placental incision in patients with anterior placenta previa

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. Methods We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. Results There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique. PMID:27004200

  3. Retrospective Analysis of the Incidence of Retained Placenta in 3 Large Colonies of NHP.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Cassondra; Harrison, Tara

    2016-04-01

    During 1999 through 2014, retained placenta was the most common cause of clinical admission for reproductive complications in breeding colonies of baboons (approximate colony size, 2000 animals), cynomolgus macaques (approximately 1000), and rhesus macaques (approximately 500) at the Southwest National Primate Research Center. Retained placentas occurred in 2.7% of baboons, 3.3% of cynomolgus macaques, and 1.0% of rhesus macaques. Apparent risk factors for retained placenta included stillbirth or abortion and at least one prior cesarean section. There was a significant association between stillbirth and retained placenta in all species. Cesarean sections were performed routinely for baboons to meet research objectives but occurred only as needed for cynomolgus and rhesus macaques. Having had at least one prior cesarean section was an incidence factor for retained placenta in 37.0% of baboons and 4.7% of cynomolgus macaques; none of the rhesus macaques with retained placentas had undergone cesarean section previously. More than 90% of dams with retained placenta returned to a successful reproductive life or assignment to a nonbreeding research protocol. Advances in reproductive management will benefit from prospective studies that capture additional data from all members of a breeding group prior to reproductive complications. PMID:27053569

  4. Kinetic assessment of manganese using magnetic resonance imaging in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.K.; Mattison, D.R.; Panigel, M.; Ceckler, T.; Bryant, R.; Thomford, P.

    1987-10-01

    The transfer and distribution of paramagnetic manganese was investigated in the dually perfused human placenta in vitro (using 10, 20, 100 ..mu..M Mn with and without /sup 54/Mn) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional radiochemical techniques. The human placenta concentrated /sup 54/Mn rapidly during the first 15 min of perfusion and by 4 hr was four times greater than the concentrations of Mn in the maternal perfusate, while the concentration of Mn in the fetal perfusate was 25% of the maternal perfusate levels. Within placentae, 45% of the /sup 54/Mn was free in the 100,000g supernatant, with 45% in the 1000g pellet. The magnetic field dependence of proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time (T/sub 1/) in placental tissue supports this Mn binding. Mn primarily affected the MRI partial saturation rather than spin-echo images of the human placenta, which provided for the separation of perfusate contributions from those produced by Mn. The washout of the Mn from the placenta was slow compared with its uptake, as determined by MRI. Thus, Mn was concentrated by the human placenta, but transfer of Mn across the placenta was limited in either direction. These studies also illustrate the opportunity for studies of human placental function using magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive biomarker.

  5. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements.

  6. Postpartum Women's Perspectives on the Donation of Placentas for Scientific Research in Campinas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Rebecca Scott; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Nascimento, Simony Lira; Bento, Silvana Ferreira; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Coelho, Suelene; Cecatti, José Guilherme

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about public perspectives of scientific and therapeutic uses of placentas. Gaps in knowledge potentiate ethical and clinical problems regarding collection and applications. As such, this study sought to assess the perspectives of placenta donation of a sample of women. Postpartum women's perspectives on placental donation were assessed at the State University of Campinas in the Centro de Atençäo Integral a Saúde da Mulher (CAISM) maternity hospital using a cross-sectional survey (n = 384) and semi-structured interviews (n = 12). Surveys were analyzed quantitatively and interviews were analyzed qualitatively using grounded coding; results were compared. The average age of respondents was 27. Fifty-six percent had more than one child, 45% were Caucasian, 38% were mixed-race, 74% identified with a Christian faith, 52% had high school education or higher, 13% regarded the placenta as spiritually important, 72% felt that knowing what happens to the placenta after birth was somewhat or very important, 78% supported the use of the placenta in research and medicine, 59% reported that consent to collect the placenta was very or somewhat important, 78% preferred their doctor to invite donation, and only 7% preferred the researcher to invite donation. Interviews suggested women appreciate being part of research and that receiving information about studies was important to them. Informed by these results, we argue that women support scientific and therapeutic uses of placentas, want to be included in decision making, and desire information about the placenta. Placentas should not be viewed as "throwaway" organs that are poised for collection without the involvement and permission of women. Women want to be meaningfully included in research processes.

  7. Human placenta processed for encapsulation contains modest concentrations of 14 trace minerals and elements.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; David, Winnie B; Teng, Yuanxin; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal placentophagy has recently emerged as a rare but increasingly popular practice among women in industrialized countries who often ingest the placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement, seeking its many purported postpartum health benefits. Little scientific research, however, has evaluated these claims, and concentrations of trace micronutrients/elements in encapsulated placenta have never been examined. Because the placenta retains beneficial micronutrients and potentially harmful toxic elements at parturition, we hypothesized that dehydrated placenta would contain detectable concentrations of these elements. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation to evaluate the concentration of 14 trace minerals/elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed detectable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Based on one recommended daily intake of placenta capsules (3300 mg/d), a daily dose of placenta supplements contains approximately 0.018 ± 0.004 mg copper, 2.19 ± 0.533 mg iron, 0.005 ± 0.000 mg selenium, and 0.180 ± 0.018 mg zinc. Based on the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for lactating women, the recommended daily intake of placenta capsules would provide, on average, 24% RDA for iron, 7.1% RDA for selenium, 1.5% RDA for zinc, and 1.4% RDA for copper. The mean concentrations of potentially harmful elements (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium) were well below established toxicity thresholds. These results indicate that the recommended daily intake of encapsulated placenta may provide only a modest source of some trace micronutrients and a minimal source of toxic elements. PMID:27440542

  8. Retained placenta in Friesian mares: incidence, and potential risk factors with special emphasis on gestational length.

    PubMed

    Sevinga, M; Barkema, H W; Stryhn, H; Hesselink, J W

    2004-04-01

    During the foaling seasons of 1999 and 2000, the incidence of retained placenta in 495 normal parturitions of 436 Friesian brood mares was studied. Retained placenta was defined as a failure to expel all fetal membranes within 3 h of the delivery of the foal. Furthermore, the sex of the foal, month of breeding, sire and dam's sire, age of the mare, and time of day of foaling, were studied as factors that might be associated with retained placenta in Friesian mares after normal foalings, and with gestational length. The analysis was carried out using marginal logistic regression, and mixed linear regression, respectively. The incidence of retained placenta was 54%. Mean length of gestation was 331.6 days. Colts were carried 1.5 days longer than fillies. Mares bred in July-September had a 4-day shorter gestation period (329 days) than mares bred earlier in the year. There was a mare, sire, and dam's sire effect on gestational length, and a mare effect on the occurrence of retained placenta. Mares foaling at 4 and >17 years of age, tended to have a lower incidence of retained placenta than mares foaling at 5-17 years of age. No association was found between the occurrence of retained placenta, and gestational length, sex of the foal, month of breeding, dam's sire, and time of day of foaling. It was concluded that the observed high incidence of retained placenta indicates that the Friesian breed of horses has a higher risk for retained placenta than other breeds of horses.

  9. Efficacy of herbal tincture as treatment option for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dongan; Li, Jianxi; Wang, Xuezhi; Xie, Jiasheng; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Xurong; Zhang, Jingyan; Wang, Lei; Qin, Zhe; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Retained placenta remains therapeutic challenge in cattle. Certain traditional medicines are believed to be able to alleviate retained placenta condition and improve overall fertility in cows. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an herbal tincture for treatment of retained placenta. The herbal tincture was extracted from a combination of Herba Leonuri, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Flos Carthami, Myrrha and Rhizoma Cyperi by percolation with 70% ethanol to a concentration of 0.5g crude herb/ml. Cows diagnosed with retained placenta (n=48) were randomly divided into one of two treatment groups (A and B), with animals in group A (n=26) receiving herbal tincture orally, and cows in group B (n=22) receiving oxytetracycline infusion into the uterus. Eighty six cows with no clinically visible pathological conditions, given birth alone and with no retained placenta diagnosis were included into control group (C). Retained placenta was expelled within 72h following initial treatment in 19 cows in group A, yet no cows in group B were recorded to expel placenta in the same time. The median number of days to first service (70.0 vs. 102.5 days; P<0.05) and median number of days open (76.0 vs. 134.0 days; P<0.01) were lower in group A than in group B. Percentage of cows pregnant within 100 days postpartum was the highest for animals in group A compared to controls (61.5% vs. 39.5%, P<0.05), and for animals in group B (61.5% vs. 22.7%; P<0.01). Herbal tincture used in the present study might facilitate expulsion of retained placenta and improve subsequent fertility, thus could present effective treatment option for retained placenta in cows.

  10. Miniaturization: the clue to clinical application of the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Schoberer, Mark; Arens, Jutta; Erben, Aileen; Ophelders, Daan; Jellema, Reint K; Kramer, Boris W; Bruse, Jan L; Brouwer, Petra; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Orlikowsky, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    The artificial placenta as a fascinating treatment alternative for neonatal lung failure has been the subject of clinical research for over 50 years. Pumpless systems have been in use since 1986. However, inappropriate dimensioning of commercially available oxygenators has wasted some of the theoretical advantages of this concept. Disproportional shunt fractions can cause congestive heart failure. Blood priming of large oxygenators and circuits dilutes fetal hemoglobin (as the superior oxygen carrier), is potentially infectious, and causes inflammatory reactions. Flow demands of large extracorporeal circuits require cannula sizes that are not appropriate for use in preterm infants. NeonatOx, a tailored low-volume oxygenator for this purpose, has proven the feasibility of this principle before. We now report the advances in biological performance of a refined version of this specialized oxygenator.

  11. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Kellie Ann; Simoni, Michael K.; Tang, Zhonghua; Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Householder, Sarah; Wu, Mingjie; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth

    2016-01-01

    The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain. Understanding the susceptibility of placenta-specific cell types will aid future work around and understanding of Zika virus–associated pregnancy complications. PMID:27595140

  12. Zika virus productively infects primary human placenta-specific macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Kellie Ann; Simoni, Michael K.; Tang, Zhonghua; Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Householder, Sarah; Wu, Mingjie; Lindenbach, Brett D.; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth; Fikrig, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The strong association of Zika virus infection with congenital defects has led to questions of how a flavivirus is capable of crossing the placental barrier to reach the fetal brain. Here, we demonstrate permissive Zika virus infection of primary human placental macrophages, commonly referred to as Hofbauer cells, and placental villous fibroblasts. We also demonstrate Zika virus infection of Hofbauer cells within the context of the tissue ex vivo using term placental villous explants. In addition to amplifying infectious virus within a usually inaccessible area, the putative migratory activities of Hofbauer cells may aid in dissemination of Zika virus to the fetal brain. Understanding the susceptibility of placenta-specific cell types will aid future work around and understanding of Zika virus–associated pregnancy complications.

  13. [Placenta accreta, a growing problem. Prenatal diagnosis as successful treatment].

    PubMed

    Noguera Sánchez, Marcelo Fidias; Krivitzky, Samuel Karchmer; Rabadán Martínez, César Esli; Sánchez, Pedro Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Placenta accreta is recognized as a catastrophic disease in obstetrics. Diagnosed incidentally, it has been a rare disease in previous decades prior indiscriminate use of cesarean delivery. The World Health Organization has recently highlighted this disease as a new pandemic, which is directly related to patients who have two or more caesarean sections. Our country keeps high rates of caesarean section and therefore this problem will be increasing in diagnosis. It is necessary that medical units made ad hoc clinical guidelines, for prompt intervention in these cases. Early diagnosis should be given priority in women with these risk characteristics. With the advent of high-resolution sonography, specific images have been identified supporting the diagnosis during pregnancy; likewise, multidisciplinary treatments are especially of interest. The interventional radiology offers treatments semiconservative that have proven to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  14. [Etiologic, clinical and prognostic correlations in abruptio placentae].

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Serbănescu, L; Tica, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Placental abruption implies, still, a largely unknown causality and frequent unsatisfactory results. This study was designed to explore the possible correlations between some etiologic factors, the dependent clinical decisions and outcome. In a prospective cohort, we included 95 successive pregnant women (aged 15-42, 22-42 gestational weeks) with abruptio placentae necessitating cesarean section, during 2001-2005. Maternal blood pressure, premature rupture of membranes, infants' sex ratio, hematomas' volumes were correlated with the clinical outcome. There were 25 mortality cases (2 maternal and 23 fetal) and physicians performed 9 hysterectomies (2 with bilateral adnexectomy). Premature rupture of membranes was seen in 32% of the cases. Hypertension was an etiological and aggravating factor: it was reported in 70% of cases, in all the severe ones. The volume of placental hematomas was in direct concordance with the severity of the outcome. Interestingly, the majority of the patients were young and 63% of newborns were male.

  15. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junjie; Yang, Genling; Tian, Na; Wang, Xiaojie; Tan, Yi; Tan, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2), a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may be associated

  16. [Pathology of placenta of rats induced by fatty acid deficiency].

    PubMed

    Glocker, T M

    2000-01-01

    Lipids are important cell components, both from the structural and the functional point of view. Besides, they intervene in transporting functions, cell recognition and immunity. Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) are important for the functional and structural maintenance of animal organisms. In our laboratory, it was demonstrated that one group of pregnant rats fed on an EFA deficient diet, and other group of rats fed on the same diet but with 5% of corn oil (rich in linoleic acid) showed alterations on the development of the metrial gland. In the present work, 57 female rats of a Wistar strain were fed since weaning with one of the following diets: EFAD: deficient in essential fatty acids, COD: EFAD + 5% corn oil (linoleic acid sufficient but alpha-linoleic acid deficient); SAD: EFAD + 5% soy oil (both EFA sufficient) and CD: commercial diet. After 3 months the animals were sacrificed on the 13 th. day of gestation. Uteru's horns were dissected and the implantation sities were fixed on formol and embebbed in parafin. The observations were carried out with H/E coloured cross-sections and the corialantoidea placenta, the cities of implantations and the sitios of reabsortions were studied. The metrial gland of DAGE and DAM rats presented structural modifications compared to DC rats. The most relevant findings were: indifferentiation of the granulated metrial gland cells and an increase in the amount of connective tissue. In DAS rats, on the contrary, the aspect of the metrial gland was similar to the observed in the DC group. In the DAGE and the DAM groups Labyrinthium was enlarged with vascular septum group. Mean while DAS was similar to group DC (thin and vascular). Differences in the cities of implantations and reabsortions were not detected. The present results suggest that alpha-linolenico acid is essential for the rat placenta to reach normal development.

  17. [Perioperative management of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion in patients complicated with placenta percteta: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiang-yang

    2015-12-18

    When placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, the exposure of operative field is difficult and the routine methods are difficult to effectively control the bleeding, even causing life-threatening results. A 31-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a complete type of placenta previa and placenta percreta with bladder invasion at 34 weeks gestation. Her ultrasound results showed a complete type of placenta previa and there was a loss of the decidual interface between the placenta and the myometrium on the lower part of the uterus, suggestive of placenta increta. For further evaluation of the placenta, pelvis magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which revealed findings suspicious of a placenta percreta. She underwent elective cecarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. Firstly, two ureteral stents were placed into the bilateral ureter through the cystoscope. After the infrarenal abdominal aorta catheter was inserted via the femoral artery (9 F sheath ), subarachnoid anesthesia had been established. A healthy 2 510 g infant was delivered, with Apgar scores of 10 at 1 min and 10 at 5 min. Immediately after the baby was delivered, following which there was massive haemorrhage and general anaesthesia was induced. The balloon catheter was immediately inflated until the wave of dorsal artery disappeared. With the placenta retained within the uterus, a total hysterectomy was performed. The occluding time was 30 min. The intraoperative blood loss was 2 500 mL. The occluding balloon was deflated at the end of the operation. The patient had stable vital signs and normal laboratory findings during the recovery period and the hemoglobin was 116 g/L. She was discharged six days after delivery without intervention-related complications. This case illustrates that temporary occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta using balloon might be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta percreta, who were at high

  18. Intraoperative bleeding control during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with transient occlusion of uterine arteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Joung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soo-Jung; Kwack, Jae Young; Kwon, Yong Soon

    2015-11-01

    There are few methods to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of placenta previa. Transient occlusion of uterine arteries (TOUA) during operation has previously been reported as a quick and safe method to control intra-operative uterine bleeding. We reported 2 cases of cesarean delivery with complete placenta previa in which TOUA was performed to safely reduce intra-operative complication, especially heavy intra-operative bleeding. In the 2 cases, cesarean deliveries were safe and without any complications under the TOUA method. TOUA can be a good method to control heavy intra-operative bleeding during cesarean delivery of complete placenta previa with risk of heavy bleeding.

  19. Presence and concentration of 17 hormones in human placenta processed for encapsulation and consumption.

    PubMed

    Young, Sharon M; Gryder, Laura K; Zava, David; Kimball, David W; Benyshek, Daniel C

    2016-07-01

    Human maternal placentophagy is a rare but growing practice in several industrialized countries among postpartum mothers seeking a variety of purported health benefits attributed to the practice. These postpartum mothers typically consume their placenta as a processed, encapsulated supplement. To determine whether free (unconjugated) steroid hormones and melatonin in placenta can survive the encapsulation process (namely steaming and dehydration), we analyzed 28 placenta samples processed for encapsulation using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to evaluate the concentration of 17 hormones. The results revealed detectable concentrations for 16 of the hormones analyzed, some in concentrations that could conceivably yield physiological effects. PMID:27324105

  20. Primary cesarean delivery results in emergency hysterectomy due to placenta accreta: a case study.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Jaclyn

    2015-02-01

    Placenta accreta is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage, a situation that remains the most significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is generally recognized that a previous cesarean delivery increases the risk of placenta accreta. However, the risk also increases with previous intrauterine procedures. In 2010, The Joint Commission released a sentinel event alert regarding the prevention of maternal death, which recommended the adoption of protocols to treat postpartum hemorrhage. This case study demonstrates the success of quickly initiating protocol interventions necessary to prevent disseminated intravascular coagulation and maternal mortality, while reviewing current literature on risk identification, management, and treatment of obstetric hemorrhage resulting from placenta accreta. PMID:25842631

  1. Concise review: isolation and characterization of cells from human term placenta: outcome of the first international Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Ornella; Alviano, Francesco; Bagnara, Gian Paolo; Bilic, Grozdana; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Evangelista, Marco; Hennerbichler, Simone; Liu, Bing; Magatti, Marta; Mao, Ning; Miki, Toshio; Marongiu, Fabio; Nakajima, Hideaki; Nikaido, Toshio; Portmann-Lanz, C Bettina; Sankar, Venkatachalam; Soncini, Maddalena; Stadler, Guido; Surbek, Daniel; Takahashi, Tsuneo A; Redl, Heinz; Sakuragawa, Norio; Wolbank, Susanne; Zeisberger, Steffen; Zisch, Andreas; Strom, Stephen C

    2008-02-01

    Placental tissue draws great interest as a source of cells for regenerative medicine because of the phenotypic plasticity of many of the cell types isolated from this tissue. Furthermore, placenta, which is involved in maintaining fetal tolerance, contains cells that display immunomodulatory properties. These two features could prove useful for future cell therapy-based clinical applications. Placental tissue is readily available and easily procured without invasive procedures, and its use does not elicit ethical debate. Numerous reports describing stem cells from different parts of the placenta, using nearly as numerous isolation and characterization procedures, have been published. Considering the complexity of the placenta, an urgent need exists to define, as clearly as possible, the region of origin and methods of isolation of cells derived from this tissue. On March 23-24, 2007, the first international Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells was held in Brescia, Italy. Most of the research published in this area focuses on mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from various parts of the placenta or epithelial cells isolated from amniotic membrane. The aim of this review is to summarize and provide the state of the art of research in this field, addressing aspects such as cell isolation protocols and characteristics of these cells, as well as providing preliminary indications of the possibilities for use of these cells in future clinical applications. PMID:17975221

  2. Subperitoneal placenta accreta succenturiate in the case of a successful near-term extrauterine abdominal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Godyn, Janusz J; Hazra, Anup; Gulli, Vito M

    2005-08-01

    Placenta from an extrauterine abdominal pregnancy was examined after a 37-week healthy infant gestation. The placenta, with its fetal surface down and maternal surface up, protruded from the pelvic area to peritoneal cavity in the wall of the amniotic sac containing fetus. The placenta was implanted under the thin subperitoneal layer of maternal tissue completely covered by peritoneal serosa and was formed by several small lobes connected by intramembranous placental vessels. Insertion of the trivascular umbilical cord was velamentous. Partially remodeled arteries infiltrated by intermediate trophoblast and frequent veins directly communicating with the placental intervillous space were identified in the subperitoneal maternal tissue. The term "placenta accreta" is appropriate in this case because villi in the basal plate implanted directly in the maternal subserosal connective tissue without intervening decidua.

  3. Teratogenic effects of the Zika virus and the role of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Jennifer J; Marques, Ernesto T A; Cartus, Abigail; Beigi, Richard H

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which the Zika virus can cause fetal microcephaly is not known. Reports indicate that Zika is able to evade the normal immunoprotective responses of the placenta. Microcephaly has genetic causes, some associated with maternal exposures including radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and viruses. Two hypotheses regarding the role of the placenta are possible: one is that the placenta directly conveys the Zika virus to the early embryo or fetus. Alternatively, the placenta itself might be mounting a response to the exposure; this response might be contributing to or causing the brain defect. This distinction is crucial to the diagnosis of fetuses at risk and the design of therapeutic strategies to prevent Zika-induced teratogenesis.

  4. Evidence for the synthesis of corticosteroid-binding globulin in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Misao, R; Iwagaki, S; Sun, W S; Fujimoto, J; Saio, M; Takami, T; Tamaya, T

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrated the expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in human placenta using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot analysis and immunohistochemical and immunoblotting studies. In the RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis, only one predicted PCR product was detected without nonspecific products in all samples of human placenta and 3A (tPA-30-1) human placental cells. In Western blot analysis, polyclonal anti-CBG antibodies recognized a protein of approximately 55 kD in the protein extracts prepared from 3A (tPA-30-1) cells. Additionally, CBG mRNA expression was demonstrated by in situ hybridization in the syncytiotrophoblasts. Immunohistochemical studies performed on the placenta demonstrated the presence of specific immunoreactivity in the syncytiotrophoblast layer surrounding the chorionic villi. These findings suggest that CBG is synthesized in human placenta during pregnancy in addition to its synthesis in the liver. PMID:10474016

  5. A Lipidomic Analysis of Placenta in Preeclampsia: Evidence for Lipid Storage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Simon H. J.; Eather, Samuel R.; Freeman, Dilys J.; Meyer, Barbara J.; Mitchell, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    In preeclampsia, maternal insulin resistance leads to defective expansion of adipocytes, enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, up-regulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis, maternal hypertriglyceridaemia and the potential for ectopic fat storage. Our aim was to quantitate and compare the total amount and type of lipid in placenta from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies. Quantitative lipid analysis of lipid extracts from full thickness placental biopsies was carried out by shotgun lipidomics. Placental lipid profiles from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (n = 23) were compared to healthy pregnancies (n = 68), and placenta from intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies (n = 10) were used to control for gross differences in placental pathology. Placentae from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia had higher neutral lipid content than healthy placentae (40% higher triacyglycerol (P = 0.001) and 33% higher cholesteryl ester (P = 0.004)) that was specific to preeclampsia and independent of maternal gestation. PMID:27685997

  6. Radioactivity in breast milk and placentas during the year after Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, G.; Cama, G.; Guerresi, E.; Cocchi, G.; Dalla Casa, P.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ghini, S.; Tonelli, D.

    1988-11-01

    After the April 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, samples of human placenta and breast milk were tested for 1 year to determine the levels of radioactivity. The radionuclide iodine 131 was never beyond the detection limit of our gamma detector for both matrices. As to cesium isotopes 134 and 137, the highest levels detected in breast milk (6 Bq.L-1) and placenta (15.8 Bq.kg-1) were recorded in March 1987. Study data for breast milk and placenta are in agreement with the values calculated by means of double-compartment food-milk and food-placenta models. With regard to placental content, the cesium contribution to the average dose during the year after the Chernobyl accident was calculated to be 40 to 60 microSv.

  7. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elane C; Miles, Jeremy R; Lents, Clay A; Rempel, Lea A

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient placenta development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 days of gestation. Between day 22 and 42 the placenta consists of a central highly vascular placenta (HVP), adjacent to the fetus, a less vascular placenta (LVP), on either side of the fetus, and necrotic tips (NT). The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate uterine-placenta characteristics during early gestation in the gilt and determine time points and physiological changes. Gilts (n=25) were artificially inseminated at first detection of estrus (day 0) and 24h later, and harvested at 22, 27, 32, 37 or 42 days of gestation. Litter size, 12.1±3.4, was similar for all days of gestation. Fetal and placenta weight increased with day of gestation. The greatest increase in placenta weight occurred between 37 and 42 days of gestation. The LVP zones had no measurable fold formation until day 27. Necrotic tips became apparent after 27 days of gestation. Unoccupied areas of the uterus developed folds with changes in endometrial cell size and morphology from day 32 to 42 of gestation. Limited changes occurred in either fetal growth or placenta weight from day 27 through 32 of gestation; however, significant morphological changes occur at the maternal-fetal interface, demonstrating the dynamic architecture of the developing porcine placenta during early gestation. This work establishes fundamental time points in placenta development corresponding to fetal growth and microfold formation that may influence fetal growth and impact fetal survival.

  8. Asymptomatic "placental prolapse" with cervical funneling in a patient with complete placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Adekola, Henry; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Bronshtein, Elena; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-02-01

    We describe the transvaginal sonographic findings in a patient with complete placenta previa and increased risk of preterm birth owing to a prior history of mid-trimester pregnancy loss in whom we observed a short cervix and prolapse of the placenta and fetal membranes into the endocervical canal. We believe that this could lead to antepartum hemorrhage and mandate close observation when diagnosed. We introduced the term "placental prolapse" to describe our finding.

  9. Ultrasound-guided instrumental removal of the retained placenta after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Melissa G; Vargas, Juan E; Drey, Eleanor A

    2014-08-01

    The standard treatment for retained placenta is manual extraction, in which a hand is introduced inside the uterus to cleave a plane between the placenta and the uterine wall. For women without an epidural, the procedure is extremely uncomfortable and may require additional measures such as intravenous narcotics or regional anesthesia. Although ultrasound-guided instrumental removal of the placenta is standard practice as part of second-trimester abortion by dilation and evacuation and may be done at many institutions, especially after failed manual extraction, it has not yet been described in the literature as a technique following vaginal birth. Our experience with this technique is that it causes less discomfort to the patient than a traditional manual extraction, because the instrument entering the uterus is much narrower than a hand. With the patient in dorsal lithotomy, we locate the cervix and stabilize it either with fingers or a ring forceps on the anterior lip. We introduce Bierer ovum forceps into the uterus under direct ultrasound guidance. The Bierer forceps are preferred because of their long length, large head, and serrated teeth that allow for a firm, secure grip on the placenta. We grasp the placental tissue with the forceps and apply slow, gentle traction in short strokes, regrasping increasingly more distal areas of placenta as necessary to tease out the placenta. After 1-2 minutes, the placenta separates and can be pulled out of the uterus, usually intact. Our experience suggests that this technique is a well-tolerated option for women without an epidural who have a retained placenta. Further study is needed to quantify the amount of discomfort and anesthesia that can be avoided with this technique, as well as whether there is any change in the frequency of infectious complications or the necessity of postremoval curettage.

  10. Maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta buprenorphine, and metabolite concentrations and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Concheiro, Marta; Jones, Hendreé E; Johnson, Rolley E; Choo, Robin; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-04-01

    Buprenorphine is approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence in nonpregnant patients in multiple countries and is currently under investigation for pregnant women in the United States and Europe. This research evaluates the disposition of buprenorphine, opiates, cocaine, and metabolites in five term placentas from a US cohort. Placenta and matched meconium concentrations were compared, and relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, placenta concentrations, and neonatal outcomes after controlled administration during gestation were investigated. Buprenorphine and/or metabolites were detected in all placenta specimens and were uniformly distributed across this tissue (coefficient of variation less than 27.5%, four locations), except for buprenorphine in three placentas. In two of these, buprenorphine was not detected in some locations and in the third placenta was totally absent. Median (range) concentrations were 1.6 ng/g buprenorphine (not detected to 3.2), 14.9 ng/g norbuprenorphine (6.2-24.2), 3 ng/g buprenorphine-glucuronide (1.3-5.0), and 14.7 ng/g norbuprenorphine-glucuronide (11.4-25.8). Placenta is a potential alternative matrix for detecting in utero buprenorphine exposure, but at lower concentrations (15- to 70-fold) than in meconium. Statistically significant correlations were observed for mean maternal daily dose from enrollment to delivery and placenta buprenorphine-glucuronide concentration and for norbuprenorphine-glucuronide concentrations and time to neonatal abstinence syndrome onset and duration, for norbuprenorphine/norbuprenorphine-glucuronide ratio and maximum neonatal abstinence syndrome score, and newborn length. Analysis of buprenorphine and metabolites in this alternative matrix, an abundant waste product available at the time of delivery, may be valuable for prediction of neonatal outcomes for clinicians treating newborns of buprenorphine-exposed women. PMID:20216119

  11. Clearance of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and /sup 14/C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of /sup 14/C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of /sup 3/H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta.

  12. A Survey for Novel Imprinted Genes in the Mouse Placenta by mRNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Soloway, Paul D.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Many questions about the regulation, functional specialization, computational prediction, and evolution of genomic imprinting would be better addressed by having an exhaustive genome-wide catalog of genes that display parent-of-origin differential expression. As a first-pass scan for novel imprinted genes, we performed mRNA-seq experiments on embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5) mouse placenta cDNA samples from reciprocal cross F1 progeny of AKR and PWD mouse strains and quantified the allele-specific expression and the degree of parent-of-origin allelic imbalance. We confirmed the imprinting status of 23 known imprinted genes in the placenta and found that 12 genes reported previously to be imprinted in other tissues are also imprinted in mouse placenta. Through a well-replicated design using an orthogonal allelic-expression technology, we verified 5 novel imprinted genes that were not previously known to be imprinted in mouse (Pde10, Phf17, Phactr2, Zfp64, and Htra3). Our data suggest that most of the strongly imprinted genes have already been identified, at least in the placenta, and that evidence supports perhaps 100 additional weakly imprinted genes. Despite previous appearance that the placenta tends to display an excess of maternally expressed imprinted genes, with the addition of our validated set of placenta-imprinted genes, this maternal bias has disappeared. PMID:21705755

  13. Decreased neutrophil function as a cause of retained placenta in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kayoko; Goff, Jesse P; Kehrli, Marcus E; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2002-03-01

    It is unclear why some cows fail to expel the placenta following calving. One theory suggests the fetal placenta must be recognized as "foreign" tissue and rejected by the immune system after parturition to cause expulsion of the placenta. We hypothesized that impaired neutrophil function causes retained placenta (RP). We examined the ability of neutrophils to recognize fetal cotyledon tissue as assessed by a chemotaxis assay, which utilized a placental homogenate obtained from a spontaneously expelled placenta as the chemoattractant. Neutrophil killing ability was also estimated by determining myeloperoxidase activity in isolated neutrophils. Blood samples were obtained from 142 periparturient dairy cattle in two herds. Twenty cattle developed RP (14.1%). Neutrophils isolated from blood of cows with RP had significantly lower neutrophil function in both assays before calving, and this impaired function lasted for 1 to 2 wk after parturition. The addition of antibody directed against interleukin-8 (IL-8) to the cotyledon preparation used as a chemoattractant inhibited chemotaxis by 41%, suggesting that one of the chemoattractants present in the cotyledon at parturition is IL-8. At calving, plasma IL-8 concentration was lower in RP cows (51 +/- 12 pg/ml) than in cows expelling the placenta normally (134 +/- 11 pg/ml). From these data, we suggest that neutrophil function is a determining factor for the development of RP in dairy cattle. Also, depressed production of IL-8 may be a factor affecting neutrophil function in cows developing RP.

  14. The placentation of eulipotyphla-reconstructing a morphotype of the Mammalian placenta.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Kirsten; Siniza, Swetlana; Zeller, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    Placentation determines the developmental status of the neonate, which can be considered as the most vulnerable stage in the mammalian life cycle. In this respect, the different evolutionary and ecological adaptations of marsupial and placental mammals have most likely been associated with the different reproductive strategies of the two therian clades. The morphotypes of marsupial and placental neonates, as well as the placental stem species pattern of Marsupialia, have already been reconstructed. To contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of Placentalia, a histological and ultrastructural investigation of the placenta in three representatives of Eulipotyphla, that is, core insectivores, has been carried out in this study. We studied the Musk shrew (Suncus murinus), the four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), and the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis). As a result, a eulipotyphlan placental morphotype consisting of a compact and invasive placenta was reconstructed. This supports the widely accepted hypothesis that the stem lineage of Placentalia is characterized by an invasive, either endothelio- or hemochorial placenta. Evolutionary transformations toward a diffuse, noninvasive placenta occurred in the stem lineages of lower primates and cetartiodactyles and were associated with prolonged gestation and the production of few and highly precocial neonates. Compared to the choriovitelline placenta of Marsupialia, the chorioallantoic placenta of Placentalia allows for a more intimate contact and is associated with more advanced neonates.

  15. Kiss1 mutant placentas show normal structure and function in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Herreboudt, A.M.; Kyle, V.R.L.; Lawrence, J.; Doran, J.; Colledge, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, are a set of related neuropeptides that are required for activation of the mammalian reproductive axis at puberty and to maintain fertility. In addition, kisspeptin signaling via the G-protein coupled receptor GPR54 (KISS1R) has been suggested to regulate human placental formation and correlations have been found between altered kisspeptin levels in the maternal blood and the development of pre-eclampsia. Methods We have used Kiss1 and Gpr54 mutant mice to investigate the role of kisspeptin signaling in the structure and function of the mouse placenta. Results Expression of Kiss1 and Gpr54 was confirmed in the mouse placenta but no differences in birth weight were found in mice that had been supported by a mutant placenta during fetal development. Stereological measurements found no differences between Kiss1 mutant and wild-type placentas. Measurement of amino-acid and glucose transport across the Kiss1 mutant placentas at E15.5 days did not reveal any functional defects. Discussion These data indicate that mouse placentas can develop a normal structure and function without kisspeptin signaling and can support normal fetal development and growth. PMID:25468546

  16. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas. PMID:27136536

  17. Genomic Alterations Are Enhanced in Placentas from Pregnancies with Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Biron-Shental, Tal; Sharony, Reuven; Shtorch-Asor, Atalia; Keiser, Meirav; Sadeh-Mestechkin, Dana; Laish, Ido; Amiel, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) secondary to placental insufficiency and preeclampsia (PE) are associated with substantially increased childhood and adult morbidity and mortality. The long-term outcomes are related to placental aberrations and intrauterine programming. Advances in microarray technology allow high-resolution, genome-wide evaluation for DNA copy number variations - deletions and duplications. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the usefulness of microarray testing in FGR placentas. Using Affymetrix GeneChip for chromosomal microarray (CMA), we analyzed 10 placentas from pregnancies with FGR attributed to placental insufficiency; 5 with FGR below the 5th percentile and 5 from the 5th to <10th percentiles. All fetuses had normal anomaly scans and karyotypes. We also analyzed 5 third-trimester placentas from pregnancies complicated by PE with severe features and 5 from PE without severe features, all with appropriately grown fetuses. The results were compared to 10 placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies with healthy neonates. CMA analysis identified more genomic alterations in FGR (p < 0.05) and in PE (p < 0.05) placentas than in healthy controls. There was a correlation to the severity of FGR and PE. The genomic alterations were below the resolution of normal karyotyping. The altered genes are related to adult human height, stress reactions and to cellular migration, differentiation and adhesion. Though very preliminary, our data support evaluating FGR and PE placentas using CMA. Larger data sets are needed for further evaluation of the findings and their clinical implications. PMID:27022328

  18. Leptin does not induce an inflammatory response in the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Appel, S; Turnwald, E-M; Alejandre-Alcazar, M A; Ankerne, J; Rother, E; Janoschek, R; Wohlfarth, M; Vohlen, C; Schnare, M; Meißner, U; Dötsch, J

    2014-06-01

    Leptin is described as a pro-inflammatory signal in fat tissue, which is released from adipocytes and in turn activates immune cells. Also, leptin levels are known to be increased in pregnancies complicated with enhanced inflammatory processes in the placenta. Hence, we assumed that increased leptin amounts might contribute to inducing an inflammatory response in the placenta. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were continuously infused with recombinant murine leptin s. c. from day g13 to g16, resulting in a 3-fold increase of maternal circulating serum leptin levels. Dissected placentas were examined for the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 using qPCR analysis. No changes were found except for TNF-alpha, which was slightly elevated upon leptin stimulation. However, TNF-alpha protein levels were not significantly higher in placentas from leptin treated mice. Also, leukocyte infiltration in the labyrinth section of placentas was not increased. In summary, our data demonstrate for the first time that elevated leptin levels alone do not induce an inflammatory response in the placenta.

  19. [Length and surface density of the resorption villi's blood vessels in smokers placentas].

    PubMed

    Zigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Ramić, Suada

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted with intention to reveal the quantitative values of feto-maternal nutrition exchange in smokers placentas, considering the great importance of harmful influence of smoking in pregnancy. The study was done on 90 human placentas. We have divided them into three groups: 30 placentas of moderate smokers, 30 placentas of heavy smokers and control group (non-smokers). Stereologic analysis was done with multipurpose test system M42. Pregnant smokers (both moderate and heavy) had significantly lower length density of the blood vessels compared to the control group. Significantly higher surface density of the blood vessels was found in the pregnant heavy smokers. The least absolute length density of the resorption villi's blood vessels was in the pregnant heavy smokers and it was significantly lower compared to pregnant moderate smokers and control group. In the group of the pregnant heavy smokers there was statistically higher average absolute surface of the blood vessels. The intensity of smoking effects the structural changes of the placenta. Intensity of smoking during pregnancy had a great impact on the proportion of the morphologic changes of the placentas. It leads to hypoxia, which in turn may be the cause of fetal growth and developmental retardation.

  20. Expression of the calcium-independent cytokine-inducible (iNOS) isoform of nitric oxide synthase in rat placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Casado, M; D-iaz-Guerra, M J; Rodrigo, J; Fernández, A P; Boscá, L; Martín-Sanz, P

    1997-01-01

    The presence of the calcium-independent cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been investigated in rat placenta from day 19 of gestation till delivery. iNOS has been detected at the mRNA, enzyme activity and protein levels in complete placenta. Immunocytochemical detection of iNOS was heterogeneously distributed in control placenta. Intraperitoneal injection of pregnant rats at 21 days of gestation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the iNOS immunoreactivity in the decidua basalis of the placenta, and, when the mRNA levels and enzyme activity were measured in total tissue, a moderate increase (approx. 160%) was observed. A constitutive nuclear factor kappaB activity was observed in placenta from both control and LPS-treated animals. These results indicate constitutive expression of iNOS in rat placenta. PMID:9164857

  1. Transposable element recruitments in the mammalian placenta: impacts and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Emera, Deena; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements found at high frequency in mammalian genomes. Although these elements are generally perceived as genomic parasites, they have the potential to influence host genome function in many beneficial ways. This article discusses the role TEs have played in the evolution of the placenta and pregnancy in viviparous mammals. Using examples from our own research and the literature, we argue that frequent recruitment of TEs, in particular of retroelements, has facilitated the extreme diversification of tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. We also discuss the mechanisms by which TEs have been recruited for functions during pregnancy. We argue that retroelements are pre-adapted to becoming cis-regulatory elements for host genomes because they need to utilize host regulatory signals for their own life cycle. However, although TEs contain some of the signals necessary for host functions upon insertion, they often require modification before acquiring a biological role in a host tissue. We discuss the process by which one TE was transformed into a promoter for prolactin expression in the endometrium, describing a model for TE domestication called 'epistatic capture'.

  2. Anomalies of the placenta and umbilical cord in twin gestations.

    PubMed

    Hubinont, Corinne; Lewi, Liesbeth; Bernard, Pierre; Marbaix, Etienne; Debiève, Frédéric; Jauniaux, Eric

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of twin gestations has increased over the last few decades, mainly due to maternal age at childbearing, and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twins are at higher risk of aneuploidy, structural anomalies, and placental abnormalities. Some of the placental and umbilical cord abnormalities found in twin gestations are nonspecific and can be found in singleton gestations (ie, placenta previa, placental abruption, single umbilical artery, velamentous cord insertion, vasa previa, etc). However, other anomalies are unique to twin gestations, and are mainly associated with monochorionic twins-these include intraplacental anastomosis and cord entanglement. Most of these conditions can be diagnosed with ultrasound. An accurate and early diagnosis is important in the management of twin gestations. Determination of chorionicity, amnionicity, and the identification of placental anomalies are key issues for the adequate management of twin pregnancies. Pathologic placental examination after delivery can help in assessing the presence of placental and umbilical cord abnormalities, as well as providing information about chorionicity and gaining insight into the potential mechanisms of disease affecting twin gestations.

  3. Increased levels of metallothionein in placenta of smokers.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Suazo, Myriam; Llanos, Miguel N

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate and compare metallothionein (MT), zinc and cadmium levels in human placentas of smoking and non-smoking women. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption and urine cotinine levels before delivery. Smoking pregnant women with urine cotinine levels higher than 130 ng/ml were included in the smoking group. Determination of placental MT was performed by western blot analysis after tissue homogenization and saturation with cadmium chloride (1000 ppm). Metallothionein was analyzed with a monoclonal antibody raised against MT-1 and MT-2 and with a second anti mouse antibody conjugated to alkaline phosphatase. Zinc and cadmium were determined by neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry respectively. Smokers showed higher placental MT and cadmium levels, together with decreased newborn birth weights, as compared to non-smokers. The semi-quantitative analysis of western blots by band densitometry indicated that darker bands corresponded to MT present in smokers' samples. This study confirms that cigarette smoking increases cadmium accumulation in placental tissue and suggests that this element has a stimulatory effect on placental MT production.

  4. Preeclampsia transforms membrane N-glycome in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Robajac, Dragana; Vanhooren, Valerie; Masnikosa, Romana; Miković, Željko; Mandić, Vesna; Libert, Claude; Nedić, Olgica

    2016-02-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTM) which accompany pathological conditions affect protein structure, characteristics and modulate its activity. Glycosylation is one of the most frequent PTM influencing protein folding, localisation and function. Hypertension is a common gestational complication, which can lead to foetal growth restriction (IUGR) and even to foetal or maternal death. In this work we focused on the impact of preeclampsia complicated with IUGR on placental membrane N-glycome. Results have shown that preeclampsia reduced fucosylation of placental glycans, increased the appearance of paucimannosidic and mannosidic structures with lower number of mannose residues and decreased the amount of glycans with more mannose residues. Since preeclampsia is tightly connected to IUGR, glycosylation changes were investigated also on the functional membrane receptors responsible for growth: insulin receptor and the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IR and IGF1R). It was found that IR present in the IUGR placenta contained significantly less α2,6-Sia. Therefore, glycans on placental membranes alter due to preeclampsia, but changes seen at the level of the entire N-glycome may be different from the changes detected at the level of a specific glycoprotein. The difference recorded due to pathology in one membrane molecule (IR) was not found in another homologous molecule (IGF1R). Thus, besides studying the glycosylation pattern of the entire placental membrane due to preeclampsia, it is inevitable to study directly glycoprotein of interest, as no general assumptions or extrapolations can be made. PMID:26655437

  5. Effects of netrin-1 and netrin-1 knockdown on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and angiogenesis of rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Xie, H; Zou, L; Zhu, J; Yang, Y

    2011-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important process essential for the development of placenta. Netrin-1 was first discovered in nervous system and was later found to play roles in angiogenesis. In order to better understand the functional relevance of netrin-1 in placental angiogenesis, we investigated the effect of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat placenta by employing up-regulation and down-regulation strategies. HUVECs and rat placenta were treated with recombinant netrin-1, and netrin-1 expression in the cells and placenta was reduced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibition efficiency was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The expression of netrin-1 was immunohistochemically located. The results demonstrated that netrin-1 promoted viability, proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. A strong reduction in cell capability was observed in vitro after netrin-1 expression was inhibited with shRNA. Netrin-1 accelerated neovascularization of placenta in pregnant rats. Suppression of netrin-1 expression in placenta resulted in reduced vascular sprouting in vivo. These findings suggest that netrin-1 is essential for the proper functioning of HUVECs and angiogenesis of rat placenta, and it is involved in the development of placenta and fetus. The proangiogenic effect of netrin-1 might offer an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of vascular disease of placenta.

  6. Review: A high capacity of the human placenta for genetic and epigenetic variation: implications for assessing pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Yuen, R K C; Robinson, W P

    2011-03-01

    Genetic and epigenetic studies of the human placenta can help to clarify the underlying mechanisms of placenta-associated diseases. However, such studies have also revealed a considerable degree of within- and between-placenta variability, which can be attributed to a variety of influences. We illustrate the inherent heterogeneity in the placenta using examples from two types of studies: 1) chromosomal mosaicism and 2) DNA methylation variation. We discuss the factors that may influence the distribution of variation and how, understanding the source of this variation is important for interpreting data used to investigate and predict clinical outcomes.

  7. GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS ALTERS APOPTOTIC AND INFLAMMATORY GENE EXPRESSION OF TROPHOBASTS FROM HUMAN TERM PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    MAGEE, Thomas R.; ROSS, Michael G.; WEDEKIND, Lauren; DESAI, Mina; KJOS, Siri; BELKACEMI, Louiza

    2014-01-01

    AIM Increased placental growth secondary to reduced apoptosis may contribute to the development of macrosomia in GDM pregnancies. We hypothesize that reduced apoptosis in GDM placentas is caused by dysregulation of apoptosis related genes from death receptors or mitochondrial pathway or both to enhance placental growth in GDM pregnancies. METHODS Newborn and placental weights from women with no pregnancy complications (controls; N=5), or with GDM (N=5) were recorded. Placental villi from both groups were either fixed for TUNEL assay, or snap frozen for gene expression analysis by apoptosis PCR microarrays and qPCR. RESULTS Maternal, placental and newborn weights were significantly higher in the GDM group vs. Controls. Apoptotic index of placentas from the GDM group was markedly lower than the Controls. At a significant threshold of 1.5, seven genes (BCL10, BIRC6, BIRC7, CASP5, CASP8P2, CFLAR, and FAS) were down regulated, and 13 genes (BCL2, BCL2L1, BCL2L11, CASP4, DAPK1, IκBκE, MCL1, NFκBIZ, NOD1, PEA15, TNF, TNFRSF25, and XIAP) were unregulated in the GDM placentas. qPCR confirmed the consistency of the PCR microarray. Using Western blotting we found significantly decreased placental pro-apoptotic FAS receptor and FAS ligand (FASL), and increased mitochondrial anti-apoptotic BCL2 post GDM insult. Notably, caspase-3, which plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis, and its substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly down regulated in GDM placentas, as compared to non-diabetic Control placentas. CONCLUSION . Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk for having macrosomic newborns, and larger placentas with reduced apoptosis. Decreased apoptosis subsequent to alterations in apoptotic and inflammatory genes may promote elevated weight in the GDM placentas. PMID:24768206

  8. Retained placenta continues to be fatal but frequency can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, S; Dhorey, Madhuri

    2002-11-01

    Retained placenta is potentially lift-threatening not only because of retention per se, but because of associated haemorrhage and infection as well as complications related to its removal. These risks are increased in women in poor social circumstances due to pre-existing malnutrition, anaemia and unsupervised home deliveries. The present study was undertaken to assess the situation in this rural area. A previous study at the same place suggested preventive strategies an and individualised approach. Incidence of retained placenta has been 0.23% of all births over 15 years. Of the deliveries at Kasturba Hospital, the incidence of retained placenta was 0.008% (two of 23,838 vaginal deliveries). Sixty-five women were admitted with retained placenta after home deliveries and three after delivery at other hospitals The age of most of the patients was between 20 and 29 years and most were para 2 or 3. In twenty-three (32.4%) cases, women had delivered preterm. Twelve (16.9%) women had previous uterine surgery and 10 (14.1%) had had a retained placenta in the past. Twenty-six (36.61%) women had come in a state of severe shock. Thirty-six (50.7%) women required general anaesthesia for manual removal. One woman with an adherent placenta had to undergo hysterectomy (1.40%). The maternal mortality was 5.6%. Perinatal loss was 7.04%. It is unfortunate that of the four deaths, two women had actually delivered at a near by district hospital and were referred moribund and died. A properly conducted delivery can reduce the incidence of retained placenta and if retention occurs, timely appropriate treatment can save life. PMID:12554250

  9. Structural changes in the rat placenta during the last third of gestation discovered by stereology

    PubMed Central

    Šerman, Ljiljana; Žunić, Iris; Vrsaljko, Nina; Grbeša, Đurđica; Gjurčević, Emil; Matašin, Željka; Martić, Tamara Nikuševa; Jakuš, Floriana Bulić; Gajger, Ivana Tlak; Šerman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Structural changes in the rat placenta during the last third of gestation were for the first time assessed by stereology. Fischer female rats were euthanized on the day 16 or day 19 of gestation, and 35 placentas were collected. Three randomly selected placentas from each group were stereologically analyzed for the absolute volume. The proportion of the glycogenic cells and the trophoblast giant cells (TGC) in the basal part of the placenta was calculated using volume density. The absolute volume of the rat placenta on the day 16 of gestation was determined as 0.0638 cm3. The labyrinth comprised 0.0274 cm3, the basal plate 0.0271 cm3 and the decidua 0.0093 cm3. On the day 19 of gestation, the absolute volume of the placenta was 0.1627 cm3, the labyrinth occupied 0.0922 cm3, the basal plate 0.0596 cm3 and the decidua 0.0109 cm3. The volume density of trophoblast giant cells was 0.174 cm0 on the day 16 and 0.107 cm0 on the day 19 of gestation. The glycogenic cells comprised 0.379 percentage of the basal plate on the day 16 and 0.236 on the day 19 of gestation. We conclude that the absolute volume of the whole placenta and the labyrinth has increased from day 16 to the day 19 of gestation. In contrast, the volume density of glycogenic cells and trophoblast giant cells was higher on the day 16 than on the day 19 of gestation, probably due to the intensive trophoblast invasion during that time. PMID:25725140

  10. Decreased expression and DNA methylation levels of GATAD1 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Jinping; Brost, Brian; Cheng, Wenjun; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Expression of syncytin-1, or the human endogenous retroviral family W member 1 (HERVWE1) in human placental trophoblasts is regulated by DNA methylation. Increased DNA methylation and decreased expression of syncytin-1 have been observed in preeclamptic placentas. The syncytin-1-mediated fusogenic as well as non-fusogenic activities, e.g., cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis, and immune suppression, are implicated in the pathogenic changes in preeclamptic placentas. It is noteworthy that in a close vicinity to syncytin-1 there are two genes, peroxisome biogenesis factor 1 (PEX1) and GATA zinc finger domain containing 1 (GATAD1), as well as multiple CpG islands around these genes. In this study we determined if these adjacent genes might, like syncytin-1, subject to epigenetic regulation in preeclamptic placentas. Data from quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting indicated that while PEX1 expression remained stable, GATAD1 expression was significantly decreased in the third-trimester placentas associated with preeclampsia than those associated with normal pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry detected high GATAD1 expression in trophoblast linage, and confirmed its reduced levels in preeclamptic placentas. However, COBRA and bisulfate sequencing detected decreased DNA methylation in levels in the 3 [prime] region of GATAD1 gene in preeclamptic placentas. The positive correlation between 3 [prime] methylation and GATAD1 expression was confirmed by treatment of choriocarcinoma JAR cells with DNMT inhibitor. These data pointed to a potential role of GATAD1 for the syncytium deficiency often associated with preeclamptic placentas. The sharp contrast of the methylation alterations for the closely positioned GATAD1 and HERVWE1 may provide a useful model for studying the accurate control of DNA methylation as well as their positive and negative impact on gene expression in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24462704

  11. Transplacental transfer of acrylamide and glycidamide are comparable to that of antipyrine in perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Annola, Kirsi; Karttunen, Vesa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Myllynen, Päivi; Segerbäck, Dan; Heinonen, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2008-11-10

    Most drugs can penetrate the placenta but there are only a few studies on placental transfer of environmental toxic compounds. In this study, we used dual recirculating human placental perfusion to determine the transfer rate through the placenta of a neurotoxic and carcinogenic compound found in food, acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. Putative acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide during the 4-h perfusions and acrylamide-derived DNA adducts in placental DNA after perfusions were also analyzed. Placentas were collected immediately after delivery and kept physiologically functional as confirmed by antipyrine kinetics, glucose consumption and leak from fetal to maternal circulation. Acrylamide (5 or 10 microg/ml) or glycidamide (5 microg/ml), both with antipyrine (100 microg/ml), was added to maternal circulation. Acrylamide and glycidamide were analyzed in the perfusion medium by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Acrylamide and glycidamide crossed the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation with similar kinetics to antipyrine, suggesting fetal exposure if the mother is exposed. The concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations equilibrated within 2h for both studied compounds and with both concentrations. Acrylamide metabolism into glycidamide was not detected during the 4-h perfusions. Moreover, DNA adducts were undetectable in the placentas after perfusions. However, fetuses may be exposed to glycidamide after maternal metabolism. Although not found in placental tissue after 4h of perfusion, it is possible that glycidamide adducts are formed in fetal DNA.

  12. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible. PMID:27579202

  13. Only humans have human placentas: molecular differences between mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Morales-Prieto, Diana M; Pastuschek, Jana; Fröhlich, Karolin; Markert, Udo R

    2015-04-01

    The placenta is one of the organs with the highest evolutionary diversity among animal species. In consequence, an animal model that reflects human placentation exactly does not exist. However, the mouse is the most frequently used animal model for placenta and pregnancy research. It possesses a hemochorial placenta, which is similar, but also different from the human placenta. The question whether the similarities are sufficient for the achievement of useful results with regard to human pregnancy was debated recently at the 11th Congress of the European Society for Reproductive Immunology (Budapest, Hungary). Here, we discuss the molecular features of the human placenta that are restricted to primates or even to humans. Many of the primate-specific genetic novelties, e.g., the large microRNA cluster on chromosome 19, have been detected during the last 10-15 years and could not be referred to in earlier discussions. Now, in the light of recent findings and a better understanding of interspecies differences, we conclude that the mouse model is often overvalued. Owing to the increasing number of known human-specific factors in human placentation we consider that many aspects of human placentation can only be understood on the basis of experiments on human cells and tissues in combination with data collections from human subject studies.

  14. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  15. Full-thickness skin wound healing using human placenta-derived extracellular matrix containing bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Dong; Yoon, Hyun Soo; Cho, Yong Woo

    2013-02-01

    The human placenta, a complex organ, which facilitates exchange between the fetus and the mother, contains abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) components and well-preserved endogenous growth factors. In this study, we designed a new dermal substitute from human placentas for full-thickness wound healing. Highly porous, decellularized ECM sheets were fabricated from human placentas via homogenization, centrifugation, chemical and enzymatic treatments, molding, and freeze-drying. The physical structure and biological composition of human placenta-derived ECM sheets dramatically supported the regeneration of full-thickness wound in vivo. At the early stage, the ECM sheet efficiently absorbed wound exudates and tightly attached to the wound surface. Four weeks after implantation, the wound was completely closed, epidermic cells were well arranged and the bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis was restored. Moreover, hair follicles and microvessels were newly formed in the ECM sheet-implanted wounds. Overall, the ECM sheet produced a dermal substitute with similar cellular organization to that of normal skin. These results suggest that human placenta-derived ECM sheets provide a microenvironment favorable to the growth and differentiation of cells, and positive modulate the healing of full-thickness wounds.

  16. Functional full-term placentas formed from parthenogenetic embryos using serial nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Takafusa; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Mammalian parthenogenetic embryos invariably die in mid-gestation from imprinted gene defects and placental hypoplasia. Based on chimera experiments, trophoblastic proliferation is supposed to be inhibited in the absence of a male genome. Here, we show that parthenogenetic mouse embryonic cell nuclei can be reprogrammed by serial rounds of nuclear transfer without using any genetic modification. The durations of survival in uteri of cloned foetuses derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled parthenogenetic cell nuclei were extended with repeated nuclear transfers. After five repeats, live cloned foetuses were obtained up to day 14.5 of gestation; however, they did not survive longer even when we repeated nuclear transfer up to nine times. All foetuses showed intestinal herniation and possessed well-expanded large placentas. When embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from fertilised embryos were aggregated with the cloned embryos, full-term offspring with large placentas were obtained from the chimeric embryos. Those placentas were derived from parthenogenetic cell nuclei, judging from GFP expression. The patterns of imprinted gene expression and methylation status were similar to their parthenogenetic origin, except for Peg10, which showed the same level as in the normal placenta. These results suggest that there is a limitation for foetal development in the ability to reprogramme imprinted genes by repeated rounds of nuclear transfer. However, the placentas of parthenogenetic embryos can escape epigenetic regulation when developed using nuclear transfer techniques and can support foetal development to full gestation.

  17. A Case of Vaginal Stillbirth in the Presence of Placenta Previa at 33 Weeks of Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Yukiko; Kinjo, Tadatsugu; Nitta, Hayase; Kinjo, Yui; Masamoto, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    It was demonstrated that second- and third-trimester therapeutic termination of pregnancy (TOP) is feasible in cases with placenta previa. We report a 34-year-old woman with complex fetal malformations associated with placenta previa. An ultrasound examination at 21 weeks of gestation revealed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and complex fetal malformations associated with a placenta previa. After extensive information, the parents opted for careful observation. Thereafter, FGR gradually progressed and we observed arrest of end-diastolic velocity of the umbilical artery. Finally, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) was confirmed at 33 weeks of gestation. Two days after IUFD, the patient experienced labor pain. The placenta and dead fetus weighing 961 g were vaginally delivered, and total bleeding was 270 mL. Although further studies to confirm the dynamic change of the uteroplacental blood flow are necessary to avoid the risk of maternal hemorrhage, vaginal TOP with placenta previa after feticide or IUFD would be feasible. PMID:27579202

  18. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta

    PubMed Central

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R.; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D.; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  19. Isolation and characterisation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta tissue

    PubMed Central

    Vellasamy, Shalini; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Vidyadaran, Sharmili; George, Elizabeth; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of placenta tissue as a reliable and efficient source for generating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). METHODS: MSC were generated from human placenta tissue by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation. The placenta MSC (PLC-MSC) were characterized for expression of cell surface markers, embryonic stem cell (ECS) gene expression and their differentiation ability into adipocytes and osteocytes. The immunosuppressive properties of PLC-MSC on resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated allogenic T cells were assessed by means of cell proliferation via incorporation of tritium thymidine (3H-TdR). RESULTS: The generated PLC-MSC appeared as spindle-shaped cells, expressed common MSC surface markers and ESC transcriptional factors. They also differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages when induced. However, continuous cultivation up to passage 15 caused changes in morphological appearance and cellular senescence, although the stem cell nature of their protein expression was unchanged. In terms of their immunosuppressive properties, PLC-MSC were unable to stimulate resting T cell proliferation; they inhibited the PHA stimulated T cells in a dose dependent manner through cell to cell contact. In our study, MSC generated from human placenta exhibited similar mesenchymal cell surface markers; MSC-like gene expression pattern and MSC-like differentiation potential were comparable to other sources of MSC. CONCLUSION: We suggest that placenta tissues can serve as an alternative source of MSC for future experimental and clinical studies. PMID:22993662

  20. Tumor-homing peptides as tools for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta.

    PubMed

    King, Anna; Ndifon, Cornelia; Lui, Sylvia; Widdows, Kate; Kotamraju, Venkata R; Agemy, Lilach; Teesalu, Tambet; Glazier, Jocelyn D; Cellesi, Francesco; Tirelli, Nicola; Aplin, John D; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Harris, Lynda K

    2016-05-01

    The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking mainly because of the risk of causing harm to the fetus. As enhancement of placental growth and function can alleviate maternal symptoms and improve fetal growth in animal models, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta. We show that the tumor-homing peptide sequences CGKRK and iRGD bind selectively to the placental surface of humans and mice and do not interfere with normal development. Peptide-coated nanoparticles intravenously injected into pregnant mice accumulated within the mouse placenta, whereas control nanoparticles exhibited reduced binding and/or fetal transfer. We used targeted liposomes to efficiently deliver cargoes of carboxyfluorescein and insulin-like growth factor 2 to the mouse placenta; the latter significantly increased mean placental weight when administered to healthy animals and significantly improved fetal weight distribution in a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction. These data provide proof of principle for targeted delivery of drugs to the placenta and provide a novel platform for the development of placenta-specific therapeutics. PMID:27386551

  1. Human placenta as an ex vivo vascular model for neurointerventional research

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, John Ching Kwong; Huang, Wei; Leung, Wing-Cheong; Chan, Siu-Ki; Chan, Kwong-Yau; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chu, Alberto Chi Ho; Lam, Alexander Kar Ngai

    2014-01-01

    Background Human placenta is a convenient resource for biomedical research, and has not yet been used for neurointerventional surgery research. Objective Our objective was to explore the feasibility of using human placenta to test various endovascular interventions and for training. Design 18 placentas soon after delivery were prepared for six pilot studies. (1) Study on anatomical similarity to human cerebral vessel. (2) Simulation of stent assisted coiling and flow diversion on an aneurysm model. (3) Simulation of intra-arterial thrombolysis. (4) Simulation of embolization of arteriovenous malformation with glues. (5) Simulation of mechanical thrombolysis and comparison of different devices. (6) Vascular model for training of neurointerventionalists. Results When the chorionic plate vessels were compared with the cerebral cortical vessels, similarities were found in vascular branch patterns, histological cross sections, and angiographic appearances. Due to the semitransparency of its vessel wall, performance of flow diverter and stent assisted coiling of an aneurysm could be visualized under direct microscopic observation. Similarly, timing of clot lysis and glue polymerization could be estimated. Endothelial change after thrombectomy could be assessed by histological methods. From these pilot studies, the placenta model could be adopted to simulate various clinical situations. It is also ideal for interventional radiology training. Conclusions It is feasible to adopt the human placenta as an ex vivo vascular model in neurointerventional surgery research due to the fact that its vessels resemble the brain vasculature. PMID:23904450

  2. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in human placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.; Saito, H.; Wakisaka, I.

    1986-10-01

    Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in placenta, maternal blood, cord blood, and milk were carried out. Trichlorobiphenyl, tetrachlorobiphenyl, pentachlorobiphenyls, and hexachlorobiphenyls were identified by the mass chromatogram and the mass spectra. Some minor peaks of PCBs were identified by gas chromatography. The relationship between the PCB concentration in placenta and that in milk is different in each PCB congener. The higher the chlorine content of the PCB congener, the more significant the correlation. No significant but a low negative correlation exists between the concentration of some PCB congeners in the placenta and that in cord blood. On the other hand, a significant linear correlation exists between the concentration of hexachlorobenzene in the placenta and that in cord blood. The transplacental transport of each PCB congener varied depending upon its chemical nature. Trichlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl were more transferable than hexachlorobiphenyls. The results show that the placenta and cord blood are useful human samples to analyze the body burden of environmental pollutants and to estimate their transfer from mother to fetus.

  3. Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) placentas from St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Kersh, Gilbert J; Spraker, Terry; Patyk, Kelly A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Massung, Robert F; Gelatt, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The decline in the number of northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, has led to multidisciplinary research, including investigation into issues of reproductive health and success. Given the recent identification of Coxiella burnetii in the placenta of two other marine mammal species, NFS placentas were collected from Reef rookery on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the 2010 pupping season, examined histologically, and tested for C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 146 placentas examined, gram-negative intratrophoblastic bacteria that were positive for C. burnetii on immunohistochemistry were observed in 5 (3%) placentas. Placental infection was usually devoid of associated inflammation or significant ancillary pathology. One hundred nine (75%) of the placentas were positive for C. burnetii on PCR. C. burnetii is globally distributed and persists for long periods in the environment, providing ample opportunity for exposure of many species. The significance of this finding for the declining fur seal population, potential human exposure and infection, and impact on other sympatric marine mammal or terrestrial species is unclear; further investigation into the epidemiology of Coxiella in the marine ecosystem is warranted.

  4. Apoptosis in normal and Coxiella burnetii-infected placentas from Alaskan northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Myers, E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, B; Spraker, T; Gelatt, T; Duncan, C

    2013-07-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. Although many infectious organisms cause increased cell death, C. burnetii has been shown to suppress apoptosis of the host macrophages as an intracellular survival mechanism. To determine if infection induces a similar functional change in the placenta, immunohistochemistry for antibodies to cleaved caspase-3 (activated caspase-3) and the (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique were used to compare the amount of placental apoptosis in infected and noninfected placentas. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of apoptotic cells between infected and uninfected placentas, with more apoptosis identified in the uninfected placentas. This finding suggests that the survival mechanism of C. burnetii in host macrophages to reduce apoptosis may also be utilized in trophoblasts. The significance of decreased trophoblastic apoptosis for the northern fur seal fetus requires further investigation.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced in the human placenta during labour.

    PubMed

    Veerbeek, J H W; Tissot Van Patot, M C; Burton, G J; Yung, H W

    2015-01-01

    Placental endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been postulated in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), but its activation remains elusive. Oxidative stress induced by ischaemia/hypoxia-reoxygenation activates ER stress in vitro. Here, we explored whether exposure to labour represents an in vivo model for the study of acute placental ER stress. ER stress markers, GRP78, P-eIF2α and XBP-1, were significantly higher in laboured placentas than in Caesarean-delivered controls localised mainly in the syncytiotrophoblast. The similarities to changes observed in PE/IUGR placentas suggest exposure to labour can be used to investigate induction of ER stress in pathological placentas.

  6. Isolation and Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived from Human Placenta Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Sardesai, Varda S.; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B.; Kuhn, Michael; Doran, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are promising candidates for use in cell-based therapies. In most cases, therapeutic response appears to be cell-dose dependent. Human term placenta is rich in MSC and is a physically large tissue that is generally discarded following birth. Placenta is an ideal starting material for the large-scale manufacture of multiple cell doses of allogeneic MSC. The placenta is a fetomaternal organ from which either fetal or maternal tissue can be isolated. This article describes the placental anatomy and procedure to dissect apart the decidua (maternal), chorionic villi (fetal), and chorionic plate (fetal) tissue. The protocol then outlines how to isolate MSC from each dissected tissue region, and provides representative analysis of expanded MSC derived from the respective tissue types. These methods are intended for pre-clinical MSC isolation, but have also been adapted for clinical manufacture of placental MSC for human therapeutic use. PMID:27340821

  7. Correlation between beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptor concentrations in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Falkay, G; Melis, K; Kovács, L

    1994-05-01

    alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors in human placental membranes have been investigated using the radioligands [3H]-RX 821002 and [3H]-dihydroalprenolol, respectively. The specific binding of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX 821002 confirms the presence of an alpha 2-adrenoceptor in the human placenta, which has been characterized previously with [3H]-rauwolscine. The major finding presented here is a correlation between the alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentrations (r = 0.765) in the human placenta at term. It is suggested that the alpha 2/beta adrenoceptor balance may play an important role in regulation of the vascular bed of the placenta. Determination of the alpha 2/beta ratio may help towards an understanding of the contractility of the placental vascular muscles.

  8. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  9. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  10. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  11. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  13. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Masoomeh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Dehghani, Leila; Bahadoran, Hossein; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells. Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05). Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups. Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed. PMID:25587250

  14. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05).In anemic mothers' placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group.  PMID:25172972

  15. Review: The placenta and developmental programming: balancing fetal nutrient demands with maternal resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Burton, G J; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    The placenta evolved to support development of the fetus, and so potentially plays a key role in the aetiology of developmental programming through its impact on nutrient transfer. Placental transport efficiency depends on a variety of parameters, including surface area for exchange, thickness of the interhaemal membrane and density of transporter proteins inserted into the trophoblast membranes. Here, we review recent studies that tested whether adaptations of placental efficiency are induced in the mouse placenta when maternal nutrient supply and fetal demand are manipulated experimentally. Naturally small placentas, and those exposed to maternal undernutrition, displayed structural changes indicative of accelerated maturation at E16, with enlargement of the labyrinth exchange zone at the expense of the endocrine junctional zone. These changes were associated with increased transport of a non-metabolisable amino acid analogue per gram of placenta, and expression of genes encoding specific System A transporters. Up-regulation of transporters was also observed when a mismatch between placental size and fetal demand was generated through genetic manipulation of the Igf2/H19 axis. Conversely, overgrowth of the placenta induced by deletion of H19 resulted in reduced transport capacity and expression of transporter genes. We conclude that under conditions when the maternal nutrient supply or placental size may be limiting for normal fetal growth, the placenta adapts so as to increase its transport capacity. Hence, it ameliorates the effects of environmental cues that would otherwise lead to more extensive developmental programming. The P0 transcript of Igf2 appears to be a strong candidate as a mediator of these adaptations in the mouse.

  16. Transition of LINE-1 DNA methylation status and altered expression in first and third trimester placentas.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-ming; Li, Jinping; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Brost, Brian; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic DNA stability, cell proliferation, and malignant transformation. Common cellular features including fast tissue expansion, invasive growth, and active angiogenesis, have been noticed between placental development and tumorigenesis by many investigators. While the DNA hypomethylation and transcriptional activation of LINE-1 has been found to be a feature of tumorigenesis, it is not clear if similar changes could be involved in placental development. In this study, we assessed LINE-1 methylation in human placentas from different gestational ages and observed a significant decrease of LINE-1 methylation levels in third trimester placentas compared to first trimester placentas. Accompanying with this change is the significantly increased LINE-1 mRNA levels in third trimester placentas. Since no global DNA methylation change was detected between first and third trimesters, LINE-1 methylation changes appeared to be a specific epigenetic entity contributing to placental development. Indeed, further analyses showed that LINE-1 upregulation was correlated with higher levels of PCNA, suggesting a link between LINE-1 activation and fast proliferation of certain cellular components in third trimester placentas. Measurement of the DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B expression found a significant reduction of DNMT3B between third and first trimesters, pointing to the possible involvement of this enzyme in the regulation of LINE-1 methylation. Taken together these results provided evidence for a dynamic temporal regulation of LINE-1 methylation and activation during placental development. These studies have laid a foundation for future investigation on the function of LINE-1 expression in human placenta under different patho-physiological conditions.

  17. Protein profiles of bovine placenta derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Rye; Kang, Jae Ku; Yoon, Jong Taek; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Jung, Jin Kwan; Lee, Hong Mie; Sik Park, Chang; Jin, Dong Il

    2005-11-01

    Practical application of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been hampered by an extremely low success rate. To address whether placental dysfunction in SCNT causes fetal loss during pregnancy, we have used a global proteomics approach using 2-DE and MS to analyze the differential protein patterns of three placentae from the afterbirth of cases of postnatal death, derived from SCNT of Korean Native cattle, and three normal placentae obtained from the afterbirth of fetuses derived from artificial insemination. Proteins within a pI range of 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-9.0 were analyzed separately by 2-DE in triplicate. A total of approximately 2000 spots were detected in placental 2-DE gels stained with CBB. In the comparison of normal and SCNT samples, 60 spots were identified as differentially expressed proteins, of which 33 spots were up-regulated proteins in SCNT placentae, while 27 spots were down-regulated proteins. Most of the proteins identified in this analysis appeared to be related with protein repair or protection, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, immune system, metabolism, extracellular matrix and remodeling, transcription regulation, cell structure or differentiation and ion transport. One of up-regulated proteins in SCNT was TIMP-2 protein known to be related to extracellular matrix and remodeling during pregnancy. Western blot analysis showed an increased level of TIMP-2 in SCNT placenta compared to normal. Our results revealed composite profiles of key proteins involved in abnormal placenta derived from SCNT, and suggested expression abnormality of these genes in SCNT placenta, resulting in fetal losses following SCNT.

  18. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hee Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Jung, Inkyung; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL. Results Sixty-four patients (46.7%) required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1%) had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64) for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05). The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20–1200 mL) in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5–500 mL) in the balloon success group (p<0.01). Conclusion Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance. PMID:26263014

  19. Transition of LINE-1 DNA Methylation Status and Altered Expression in First and Third Trimester Placentas

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Yi Lisa; Brost, Brian; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic DNA stability, cell proliferation, and malignant transformation. Common cellular features including fast tissue expansion, invasive growth, and active angiogenesis, have been noticed between placental development and tumorigenesis by many investigators. While the DNA hypomethylation and transcriptional activation of LINE-1 has been found to be a feature of tumorigenesis, it is not clear if similar changes could be involved in placental development. In this study, we assessed LINE-1 methylation in human placentas from different gestational ages and observed a significant decrease of LINE-1 methylation levels in third trimester placentas compared to first trimester placentas. Accompanying with this change is the significantly increased LINE-1 mRNA levels in third trimester placentas. Since no global DNA methylation change was detected between first and third trimesters, LINE-1 methylation changes appeared to be a specific epigenetic entity contributing to placental development. Indeed, further analyses showed that LINE-1 upregulation was correlated with higher levels of PCNA, suggesting a link between LINE-1 activation and fast proliferation of certain cellular components in third trimester placentas. Measurement of the DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B expression found a significant reduction of DNMT3B between third and first trimesters, pointing to the possible involvement of this enzyme in the regulation of LINE-1 methylation. Taken together these results provided evidence for a dynamic temporal regulation of LINE-1 methylation and activation during placental development. These studies have laid a foundation for future investigation on the function of LINE-1 expression in human placenta under different patho-physiological conditions. PMID:24821186

  20. Prominent Expression of Xenobiotic Efflux Transporters in Mouse Extraembryonic Fetal Membranes Compared to Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Cui, Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal exposure to xenobiotics can be restricted by transporters at the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. Previous work identified transporters in the placenta, however, less is known about the presence of these transporters in the fetal membranes (i.e., yolk sac and amniotic membranes). The purpose of this study was to quantify mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic transporters in mouse placenta and fetal membranes during mid- to late-gestation. Concepti (placenta and fetal membranes, gestation day 11) or placenta and fetal membranes (gestation days 14 and 17) were collected from pregnant mice and analyzed for expression of multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), multidrug resistance proteins (Mdr), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (Mate), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Maternal liver and kidneys were also collected at day 14 for mRNA and immunohistochemical analysis. mRNA expression of Mrp, Mdr, Bcrp, Mate-1, Oatp isoforms was detected at day 11. The uptake carriers Oatp2a1, 3a1, 4a1, and 5a1 showed placenta-predominant expression. At days 14 and 17, fetal membranes expressed higher mRNA levels of the efflux transporters Mrp2 (7-fold), Mrp4 (5-fold), Mrp5 (3-fold), Mrp6 (12-fold), Bcrp (2-fold), and Mate-1 (7-fold) compared to placenta. Western blot of Mrp2, Mrp4, Mrp6, and Bcrp confirmed higher expression in fetal membranes. Immunostaining revealed apical (Mrp2 and Bcrp) and basolateral (Mrp4, 5, and 6) cellular localization in epithelial cells of the yolk sac. In conclusion, xenobiotic transporters in the fetal membranes may provide an additional route to protect the fetus against endogenous chemicals and xenobiotics. PMID:18566041

  1. Stereological analysis of terminal villi of the placentas of pregnant woman with sideropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lelić, Melisa; Ramić, Suada; Žigić, Zlata; Bogdanović, Gordana; Marković, Sergije

    2014-08-18

    Iron deficiency, causing maternal sideropenic anemia, is one of the most frequent nutritive disorder that develops during the pregnancy. We collected 30 placentas from anemic mothers and 30 placentas from mothers belonging to the control group. Terminal villi (magnification 10x) and terminal villi capillaries (magnification 40x) were stereologically analyzed and numerically determined.In the placentas from anemic mothers we noted the values a) terminal villi: volume density 0,43 mm0, surface density 24.13 mm-1, total volume 185.57 cm3 and total surface 10.27 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.53 mm0 and total volume 224.18 cm3. In the placentas from mothers belonging to the control group we observed the following values a) terminal villi: volume density 0.44 mm0, surface density 22.27 mm-1, total volume 200.17 cm3 and total surface 10.15 m2; b) capillaries of terminal villi: volume density 0.42 mm0 and total volume 197.00 cm3. Compared with the control group anemic mothers' placentas have a significant higher values of surface density of terminal villi (p<0.05), volume density (p <0.01) and absolute volume (p<0.0001) of terminal villi capillaries, and significant lower values of absolute volume of terminal villi (p<0.05).In anemic mothers' placentas, the total volume of terminal villi changes disproportionately to the total surface of terminal villi with statistically significant increase of terminal villi capillaries compared with control group. 

  2. Placenta-derived hypo-serotonin situations in the developing forebrain cause autism.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is characterized by the behavioral traits of impaired social cognition and communication, and repetitive and/or obsessive behavior and interests. Although there are many theories and speculations about the pathogenetic causes of autism, the disruption of the serotonergic system is one of the most consistent and well-replicated findings. Recently, it has been reported that placenta-derived serotonin is the main source in embryonic day (E) 10-15 mouse forebrain, after that period, the serotonergic fibers start to supply serotonin into the forebrain. E 10-15 is the very important developing period, when cortical neurogenesis, migration and initial axon targeting are processed. Since all these events have been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism and they are highly controlled by serotonin signals, the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. I, thus, postulate a hypothesis that placenta-derived hypo-serotonin situations in the developing forebrain cause autism. The hypothesis is as follows. Various factors, such as inflammation, dysfunction of the placenta, together with genetic predispositions cause a decrease of placenta-derived serotonin levels. The decrease of placenta-derived serotonin levels leads to hypo-serotonergic situations in the forebrain of the fetus. The paucity of serotonin in the forebrain leads to mis-wiring in important regions which are responsible for the theory of mind. The paucity of serotonin in the forebrain also causes over-growth of serotonergic fibers. These disturbances result in network deficiency and aberration of the serotonergic system, leading to the autistic phenotypes.

  3. The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time.

    PubMed

    Guttmacher, A E; Maddox, Y T; Spong, C Y

    2014-05-01

    Despite its crucial role in the health of both the fetus and the pregnant woman, the placenta is the least understood human organ. Since a growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental development in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring, this lack of knowledge about placental structure and function is particularly concerning. Given modern approaches and technologies and the ability to develop new methods, we propose a coordinated "Human Placenta Project", with the ultimate goal of understanding human placental structure, development, and function in real time.

  4. Cladistic relationships among primate higher categories: evidence of the fetal membranes and placenta.

    PubMed

    Luckett, W P

    1976-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of the total ontogenetic pattern of the fetal membranes and placenta in all extant primate superfamilies provides clear evidence of a strepsirhine-haplorhine dichotomy in the order Primates. The suborder Prosimii appears to be a paraphyletic taxon, based on the retention of numerous primitive character states in tarsiers and strepsirhines. Fetal membrane evidence supports the sister group relationship of Tarsiiformes and Anthropoidea in the suborder Haplorhini, based on their possession of shared derived characters. Morphogenetic patterns of the fetal membranes and placenta in haplorhines are consistent with the concept of a monophyletic origin of Anthropoidea from an ancestral tarsilform stock.

  5. Glucocorticoid stimulates expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.G.; Emanuel, R.L.; Frim, D.M.; Majzoub, J.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Primary cultures of purified human cytotrophoblasts have been used to examine the expression of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene in placenta. The authors report here that glucocorticoids stimulate placental CRH synthesis and secretion in primary cultures of human placenta. This stimulation is in contrast to the glucocorticoid suppression of CRH expression in hypothalamus. The positive regulation of CRH by glucocorticoids suggests that the rise in CRH preceding parturition could result from the previously described rise in fetal glucocorticoids. Furthermore, this increase in placental CRH could stimulate, via adrenocorticotropic hormone, a further rise in fetal glucocorticoids, completing a positive feedback loop that would be terminated by delivery.

  6. Profiling gene expression in human placentae of different gestational ages: an OPRU Network and UW SCOR Study.

    PubMed

    Mikheev, Andrei M; Nabekura, Tomohiro; Kaddoumi, Amal; Bammler, Theo K; Govindarajan, Rajgopal; Hebert, Mary F; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2008-11-01

    We used the whole-genome approach to identify major functional categories of genes whose expression depends on gestational age. Using microarray analysis, we compared gene expression profiles in the villous tissues of first (45-59 days) and second trimester (109-115 days) placentae with C-section term placentae. We found that in first trimester placentae, genes related to cell cycle, DNA, amino acids, and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly overrepresented, while genes related to signal transduction were underrepresented. Among genes involved in organism defense, we identified genes involved in chemical response, metabolism, and transport. Analysis of signal transduction pathways suggested, and subsequently confirmed independently, that the Wnt pathway was changed with gestational age leading to inhibition of beta-catenin protein expression. Our study will serve as a reference database to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression in the developing placentae and to compare with gene expression in placentae from complicated pregnancies.

  7. Modulation of Wolframin Expression in Human Placenta during Pregnancy: Comparison among Physiological and Pathological States

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Angelica; Iannaccone, Alessandro; Cobellis, Luigi; De Luca, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The WFS1 gene, encoding a transmembrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum called wolframin, is mutated in Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and further organ abnormalities. Disruption of the WFS1 gene in mice causes progressive β-cell loss in the pancreas and impaired stimulus-secretion coupling in insulin secretion. However, little is known about the physiological functions of this protein. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of wolframin in human placenta throughout pregnancy in normal women and diabetic pregnant women. In normal placenta, there was a modulation of wolframin throughout pregnancy with a strong level of expression during the first trimester and a moderate level in the third trimester of gestation. In diabetic women, wolframin expression was strongly reduced in the third trimester of gestation. The pattern of expression of wolframin in normal placenta suggests that this protein may be required to sustain normal rates of cytotrophoblast cell proliferation during the first trimester of gestation. The decrease in wolframin expression in diabetic placenta suggests that this protein may participate in maintaining the physiologic glucose homeostasis in this organ. PMID:24588001

  8. Gestation Related Gene Expression of the Endocannabinoid Pathway in Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Vaswani, Kanchan; Chan, Hsiu-Wen; Peiris, Hassendrini N.; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Wood Bradley, Ryan J.; Armitage, James A.; Rice, Gregory E.; Mitchell, Murray D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian placentation is a vital facet of the development of a healthy and viable offspring. Throughout gestation the placenta changes to accommodate, provide for, and meet the demands of a growing fetus. Gestational gene expression is a crucial part of placenta development. The endocannabinoid pathway is activated in the placenta and decidual tissues throughout pregnancy and aberrant endocannabinoid signaling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. In this study, the gene expression of eight endocannabinoid system enzymes was investigated throughout gestation. Rat placentae were obtained at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25, and E20, RNA was extracted, and microarray was performed. Gene expression of enzymes Faah, Mgll, Plcd4, Pld1, Nat1, Daglα, and Ptgs2 was studied (cohort 1, microarray). Biological replication of the results was performed by qPCR (cohort 2). Four genes showed differential expression (Mgll, Plcd4, Ptgs2, and Pld1), from mid to late gestation. Genes positively associated with gestational age were Ptgs2, Mgll, and Pld1, while Plcd4 was downregulated. This is the first comprehensive study that has investigated endocannabinoid pathway gene expression during rat pregnancy. This study provides the framework for future studies that investigate the role of endocannabinoid system during pregnancy. PMID:26229240

  9. Identification and localization of netrin-4 and neogenin in human first trimester and term placenta.

    PubMed

    Dakouane-Giudicelli, M; Duboucher, C; Fortemps, J; Salama, S; Brulé, A; Rozenberg, P; de Mazancourt, P

    2012-09-01

    We describe here for the first time the characterization of family member of netrins, netrin-4 and its receptor neogenin, during the development of the placenta. By using western blots and RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of netrin-4 and its receptor neogenin protein as well as their transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the distribution of netrin-4 and neogenin in both the first trimester and term placenta. We observed staining of netrin-4 in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblast, and endothelial cells whereas staining in stromal cells was faint. In decidua, we observed netrin-4 labelling in glandular epithelial cells, perivascular decidualized cells, and endothelial cells. However, neogenin was absent in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblasts and was expressed only on syncytiotrophoblast and placental stromal cells in the first trimester and at term placenta. The pattern of distribution suggests that a functional netrin-4-neogenin pathway might be restricted to syncytiotrophoblasts, mesenchymal cells, and villous endothelial cells. This pathway function might vary with its localization in the placenta. It is possibly involved in angiogenesis, morphogenesis, and differentiation.

  10. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a natural prion disease of sheep in which the immediate postpartum period and, in particular, the placenta have long been known to play key roles in natural horizontal transmission. Goats, too, are a natural host of classical scrapie and are frequently raised with sheep; but the...

  11. [Massive hemorrhage during abdominal total hysterectomy in a patient with placenta percreta].

    PubMed

    Morita, Yoshihisa; Mizuno, Ju; Takada, Shinji; Yunokawa, Seki; Morita, Shigeho

    2009-08-01

    A 33-year-old pregnant woman, who had undergone three previous cesarean sections and suspected of having placenta accrete, was scheduled for artificial abortion and abdominal total hysterectomy at 15 weeks gestation because of a probable high mortality rate. The general anesthesia was induced using fentanyl, propofol, and vecuronium and maintained with sevoflurane, fentanyl, and vecuronium, in combination with epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine. During the operation, we found that the placenta had penetrated into the posterior abdominal peritoneum and bladder wall. Sudden, massive hemorrhage was encountered when attempting to separate the placenta percreta. The massive hemorrhage, up to 11,054 ml, was controlled by transfusion, infusion, and temporary clamping of the bilateral common iliac arteries. Rapid infuser LEVEL1 and autologous blood recovery systems Electa were also used. After the surgery, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit intubated and was discharged on the 16th posteroperative day without any complications. Anesthesiologists should be prepared for massive hemorrhage in cases of abdominal total hysterectomy with suspected placenta percreta.

  12. Management of Neuraxial Anaesthesia for Emergent Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Berrin; Kurdoğlu, Mertihan; Güler, İsmail; Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Büyüktaşkın, Fırat; Keleşoğlu, Mine Dağgez; İnan, Gözde

    2016-02-01

    Abnormal placental attachments, such as placenta accreta, increta or percrata, can result in increased morbidity and mortality because of the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We aimed to present the management of spinal anaesthesia and surgical approach for emergent caesarean section because of vaginal bleeding in a multiparous pregnant woman with placenta previa at 36 weeks' gestation. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg, fentanyl 10 μg and morphine 150 μg were intrathecally administered for spinal anaesthesia. Oxytocin, methyl ergonovin and tranexamic acid were administered after umbilical cord clamping. Breech delivery of the baby was provided by a vertical incision to the uterus for avoiding placental harm. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed leaving the placenta in situ. Two units of red blood cells were transfused during the operation, lasting approximately 40 min. The patient was uneventfully discharged on the postoperative fourth day. In conclusion, a single-shot spinal anaesthesia was successfully maintained without conversion to general anaesthesia until the end of the hysterectomy in the patient in whom placenta increta was observed during caesarean delivery.

  13. Ontogeny of the expression of leptin and its receptor in the murine fetus and placenta.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, N; Hunter, L; Lea, R G; Trayhurn, P; Mercer, J G

    2000-03-01

    Leptin is a 167-amino acid protein that is secreted from adipose cells and expressed in placental tissues. It is important nutritionally in the regulation of energy balance, but also has other functions such as a role in reproduction. To investigate the function of the leptin system in fetal development we examined, primarily by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the expression (both mRNA and protein) of leptin and its receptor (including the signalling splice variant) in tissues from 11.5, 13.5, 16.5 and 18.5 d postcoitus murine fetuses and associated placentas. We detected leptin mRNA (at low levels) and protein predominantly in the cytotrophoblasts of the labyrinth part of the placenta, an area of nutrient exchange between the developing fetus and the placenta, and in the trophoblast giant cells situated in the junctional zone at the maternal interface. In addition, leptin was strongly expressed in the fetal cartilage-bone and at a lower level in the hair follicles, heart, and liver of the murine fetus at differing stages of development. The leptin receptor, including the signalling splice variant, was also identified in specific fetal tissues. The physiological importance of expression of both leptin and the leptin receptor (OB-R and OB-Rb) in the placenta remains to be determined. In addition, the high levels of expression of leptin and its receptor in discrete areas of the murine fetus suggest that leptin has a critical role in fetal development.

  14. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  15. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression is decreased in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Kondoh, Eiji; Mogami, Haruta; Nishimura, Fumitomo; Ujita, Mari; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Fujita, Kohei; Tatsumi, Keiji; Konishi, Ikuo

    2013-08-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific multisystem disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Accentuated maternal hyperlipidemia, especially high serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), is one of the features of preeclampsia. We previously reported that lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) expression was decreased in preeclamptic placentas. Here, we show that decreased LOX-1 expression is associated with low expression of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the placenta. The ABCA1 mediates cellular efflux of cholesterol, and liver X receptors (LXRs) are its predominant transcriptional regulators. Both ABCA1 and LXR expressions were significantly lower in preeclamptic placentas than those in normal controls. Oxidized LDL upregulated ABCA1 expression, while LOX-1 blockade resulted in the alleviation of increasing ABCA1 messenger RNA in JAR cells. These results suggest that low LOX-1 expression may lead to insufficient oxLDL uptake, thereby contributing to reduced LXR activation and decreased ABCA1 expression in preeclamptic placentas. PMID:23275468

  16. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. PMID:25460625

  17. The human placenta is a hematopoietic organ during the embryonic and fetal periods of development

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Muench, Marcus O.; Gormley, Matthew; Scott, Marvin A.; Weier, Jingly F.; Ferlatte, Christy; Fisher, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the potential role of the human placenta as a hematopoietic organ during embryonic and fetal development. Placental samples contained two cell populations—CD34++CD45low and CD34+CD45low—that were found in chorionic villi and in the chorioamniotic membrane. CD34++CD45low cells express many cell surface antigens found on multipotent primitive hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells. CD34++CD45low cells contained colony-forming units culture (CFU-C) with myeloid and erythroid potential in clonogenic in vitro assays, and they generated CD56+ natural killer cells and CD19+CD20+sIgM+ B cells in polyclonal liquid cultures. CD34+CD45low cells mostly comprised erythroid- and myeloid-committed progenitors, while CD34− cells lacked CFU-C. The placenta-derived precursors were fetal in origin, as demonstrated by FISH using repeat-sequence chromosome-specific probes for X and Y. The number of CD34++CD45low cells increased with gestational age, but their density (cells per gram of tissue) peaked at 5–8 wk, decreasing more than sevenfold at the onset of the fetal phase (9 wk of gestation). In addition to multipotent progenitors, the placenta contained myeloid- and erythroid-committed progenitors indicative of active in situ hematopoiesis. These data suggest that the human placenta is an important hematopoietic organ, raising the possibility of banking placental hematopoietic stem cells along with cord blood for transplantation. PMID:19073167

  18. Inter- and intraspecific placentae in sheep, goats and sheep-goat chimaeras.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, L A; Anderson, G B; BonDurant, R H; Edmondson, A J

    1992-04-01

    These studies compared inter- and intraspecific placentae during implantation and at full-term in sheep, goats and interspecific sheep-goat chimaeras. Histological sections prepared from intra- and interspecific day-26, 32 and 36 placentae in ewes and does indicated an altered ability of the trophoblast to invade the maternal caruncle in interspecific pregnancies. Two sheep-in-goat pregnancies were less, and two goat-in-sheep pregnancies were more, invasive than homologous pregnancies. Caprine pregnancies in chimaeras generally terminated before timed samples could be obtained, but biopsy samples collected at laparotomy between days 42 and 48 demonstrated both normal and abnormal placentation in chimaeras after breedings to rams. In six of 11 full-term fetal placentae from ovine pregnancies in chimaeras, there was abnormal retention of maternal caruncular tissue to the extent that macroscopic lesions were visible on the surface of the fetal cotyledons. Histological observations indicated that proliferation of maternal septa and hyalinization of maternal vessels had occurred at the expense of the fetal villi. Overall, the results suggested that the physiological events that regulate implantation are different in the two species, despite anatomical similarities between the ovine and caprine placenta. The caprine conceptus is likely to be rejected in the ovine or chimaeric uterus because of its over-invasiveness in the early stages of implantation, whereas the ovine conceptus can survive in the potentially chimaeric uterus. PMID:1602061

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterisation of Heparanase mRNA in Porcine Placenta Throughout Gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The placenta contains a complex extracellular matrix composed of several glycosaminoglycans including heparan sulfate (HS). Heparanase (HPSE) is an endoglycosidase that specifically degrades HS. The objective of this study was to clone cDNA encoding porcine HPSE and characterize the expression lev...

  20. Placenta Increta Complicating Persistent Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy following Failed Excision with Subsequent Preterm Cesarean Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision. The histopathology report confirmed immature chorionic villi. The patient returned 10 weeks later and was found to be still pregnant. Obstetric ultrasound confirmed a viable fetus of 19 weeks and 4 days of gestational age with a thin endometrium and an anteroposterior and right lateral placenta with multiple placental lakes. The patient ruptured her membranes at 31 weeks of gestation and pelvic MRI revealed an anterior placenta invading the myometrium and extending to the external serosal surface consistent with placenta increta. Following obstetric interventions, a live female infant was delivered by cesarean hysterectomy (because of placenta increta) at 32 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Development of standardized guidelines for management of CSPs, as well as heightened vigilance for possible complications, is required for proper care and avoidance of potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:27375911

  1. The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Placental characters vary among Xenarthra, one of four supraordinal clades of Eutheria. Armadillos are known for villous, haemochorial placentas similar to humans. Only the nine-banded armadillo has been well studied so far. Methods Placentas of three species of armadillos were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry including proliferation marker, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results The gross anatomy differed: Euphractus sexcinctus and Chaetophractus villosus had extended, zonary placentas, whereas Chaetophractus vellerosus had a disk. All taxa had complex villous areas within the maternal blood sinuses of the endometrium. Immunohistochemistry indicated the validity of former interpretations that the endothelium of the sinuses was largely intact. Tips of the villi and the columns entering the maternal tissue possessed trophoblast cell clusters with proliferation activity. Elsewhere, the feto-maternal barrier was syncytial haemochorial with fetal vessels near the surface. Conclusions Differences among armadillos occurred in regard to the extension of the placenta, whereas the fine structure was similar. Parallels to the human suggest that armadillos are likely to be useful animal models for human placentation. PMID:22559925

  2. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire neural phenotype under the appropriate niche conditions.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maristela Maria; Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Kohler, Maria Cecília; Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with clinical interest. It has been reported that MSCs can be isolated from the human term placenta. We investigated the ability of human placenta-derived MSCs to differentiate into a neural phenotype in coculture assays with astrocytes obtained from neonatal rats. Placenta-derived MSCs were cocultured on a confluent monolayer of astrocytes obtained from the rat cerebellum to evaluate the differences in morphology. The extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by astrocytes as well as the growth factors produced by the astrocyte-conditioned medium were evaluated. The expression of the neural markers glial fibrillate acid protein (GFAP) and Nestin was studied in MSCs by immunocytochemistry. MSCs were able to respond to the astrocyte niche in coculture assays. They expressed the neural markers GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III, followed by an outgrowth of cell processes. The ECM from astrocytes was not effective in inducing the neural phenotype in MSCs, although the expression of β-Tubulin III was observed. When MSCs were cocultured with cerebellar astrocytes from newborn rats, a neural phenotype was achieved. This was determined by immunocytochemistry to GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III and by morphological changes. It was achieved without the addition of exogenous differentiation factors. This demonstrates that placenta-derived MSCs may be able to differentiate into neural cell types when in direct contact with a neural environment.

  3. Placenta Increta Complicating Persistent Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy following Failed Excision with Subsequent Preterm Cesarean Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Malik, M F; Hoyos, L R; Rodriguez-Kovacs, J; Gillum, J; Johnson, S C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs) are one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy. Given their rarity, there is lack of consensus regarding the management and natural course of CSPs. Case. A 37-year-old G10 P3063 female with a history of two prior cesarean deliveries was diagnosed with her second CSP at 6 weeks and 5 days in her tenth pregnancy. The patient underwent vertical hysterotomy, excision of a gestational sac implanted in the cesarean sac, and bilateral salpingectomy via a laparotomy incision. The histopathology report confirmed immature chorionic villi. The patient returned 10 weeks later and was found to be still pregnant. Obstetric ultrasound confirmed a viable fetus of 19 weeks and 4 days of gestational age with a thin endometrium and an anteroposterior and right lateral placenta with multiple placental lakes. The patient ruptured her membranes at 31 weeks of gestation and pelvic MRI revealed an anterior placenta invading the myometrium and extending to the external serosal surface consistent with placenta increta. Following obstetric interventions, a live female infant was delivered by cesarean hysterectomy (because of placenta increta) at 32 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. Development of standardized guidelines for management of CSPs, as well as heightened vigilance for possible complications, is required for proper care and avoidance of potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:27375911

  4. Bladder Necrosis Associated with Placenta Accreta, Embolization, and Repair of Cystotomies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wayland J.; Smith, Arthur D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bladder necrosis is an unusual and potentially devastating complication of embolization of the hypogastric arterial branches. The rich collateral blood supply makes this an extremely rare event. We present the case of a patient with bladder necrosis following placenta accreta that was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and uterine artery embolization and cystotomy repairs. PMID:27579379

  5. Management of Neuraxial Anaesthesia for Emergent Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Berrin; Kurdoğlu, Mertihan; Güler, İsmail; Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Büyüktaşkın, Fırat; Keleşoğlu, Mine Dağgez; İnan, Gözde

    2016-02-01

    Abnormal placental attachments, such as placenta accreta, increta or percrata, can result in increased morbidity and mortality because of the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. We aimed to present the management of spinal anaesthesia and surgical approach for emergent caesarean section because of vaginal bleeding in a multiparous pregnant woman with placenta previa at 36 weeks' gestation. Hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg, fentanyl 10 μg and morphine 150 μg were intrathecally administered for spinal anaesthesia. Oxytocin, methyl ergonovin and tranexamic acid were administered after umbilical cord clamping. Breech delivery of the baby was provided by a vertical incision to the uterus for avoiding placental harm. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed leaving the placenta in situ. Two units of red blood cells were transfused during the operation, lasting approximately 40 min. The patient was uneventfully discharged on the postoperative fourth day. In conclusion, a single-shot spinal anaesthesia was successfully maintained without conversion to general anaesthesia until the end of the hysterectomy in the patient in whom placenta increta was observed during caesarean delivery. PMID:27366554

  6. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone metabolism and extraction by the perfused guinea pig placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Nogimori, T.; Alex, S.; Baker, S.; Emerson, C.H.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the extraction of synthetic TRH and its metabolic conversion in the perfused guinea pig placenta. These studies were performed to obtain an estimate of fractional fetal TRH losses through the placenta and to determine if some of these losses are due to TRH metabolism. Experiments were performed in which the perfusion buffer contained 0.01, 1, and 10 micrograms/ml or no synthetic TRH. In experiments in which TRH was perfused, the perfusion reservoir contents and placental effluent fractions were counted for TH, and TRH and deamido-TRH were determined by RIA. Similarly, cyclo(His-Pro) was measured when 10 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. When synthetic TRH was perfused, steady state TRH concentrations were achieved in placental effluent fractions by 20-30 min. The single pass extraction of TRH by the placenta was 11.4 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) compared to 56.9 +/- 7.0% for TH22O. No significant difference was detected regardless of whether 10, 1, or 0.01 micrograms/ml TRH were perfused. A portion of the TRH that perfused the placenta was converted to deamido-TRH at all concentrations of perfused TRH. The conversion of TRH to TRH-OH was 4.2 +/- 0.7% in a single pass. When the perfusion buffer was devoid of synthetic TRH, a small but significant increase in the content of TRH immunoreactivity was noted in the placental effluent compared to that in the perfusion reservoir.

  7. [Isolation and biological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta decidua basalis].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Bo; Wang, You-Wei; Wang, Tao; Chi, Ying; Yang, Zhou-Xin; Ji, Yue-Ru; Meng, Lei; Yang, Ping; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2013-06-01

    Comparing to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), placenta-derived MSCs have the advantages of adequate sources, low immunogenicity, little risk of viral contamination, and no ethical controversy, and thus possess a better prospect for clinical application. Placental tissue not only includes chorionic and amniotic, but also contains decidua basalis which locate in the maternal placenta surface. The biological characteristics of MSCs isolated from decidua basalis have not been well studied. This study was aimed to investigate the biologic characteristics of placenta decidua basalis-derived MSC from placenta decidua basalis (DB) by enzymatic digestion. Short tandem repeats (STR) test was used to identify the cells derived from the maternal placenta surface. Growth rate of decidua basalis mesenchymal stem cells (DB-MSC) was measured by MTT. Cell cycle and cell phenotype were detected by flow cytometry. Inducing differentiation was used to evaluate multipotency of DB-MSC. For testing the immunosuppression of DB-MSC, they were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and then IFN-γ in the co-cultured media was quantified by ELISA. The results showed that the cells were derived from the maternal placenta by STR analysis. DB-MSC showed typical fibroblast morphology in the culture and were positive for the MSC surface markers: CD90, CD73, CD105, CD44 and negative for CD45, CD11b, and CD34. DB-MSC underwent osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in inducing medium. DB-MSC could inhibit the secretion of IFN-γ by PBMNC. It is concluded that the cells are isolated from placenta decidua basalis and possess the basic characteristics of MSC. DB-MSC can be an important maternal autologous MSC and may be a safe and effective treatment for immune system diseases, which makes the DB-MSC as an important source of autologous MSC from mother. DB-MSC can be safely for the treatment of the mother's immune

  8. Cuidados paliativos durante el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Describe la función de los cuidados paliativos, los cuales son los cuidados que se brindan a pacientes que tienen una enfermedad grave o potencialmente letal, como el cáncer, desde el momento del diagnóstico y durante todo el curso de la enfermedad.

  9. VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PIEDMONT AVENUE BETWEEN CHANNING WAY AND DURANT AVENUE. 2325 PIEDMONT (MRS. F.W. FISH HOUSE DESIGNED BY CHARLES S. KAISER, 1910. SEEN FROM WEST SIDE OF PIEDMONT LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Fredrica Drotos and Michael Kelly, July 9, 2006 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  10. Role of mouse Wdr13 in placental growth; a genetic evidence for lifetime body weight determination by placenta during development.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Alex, Jomini Liza; Lakshmi, B Jyothi; Sailasree, S Purnima; Raj, T Avinash; Kumar, Satish

    2015-08-26

    Placental development is essential for implantation and growth of foetus in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Numerous growth factors are responsible for placental development and cell lineage differentiation. Gene knockout mice have shown role of various genes in the placenta. Here using Wdr13 knockout mice, we show that this gene is important for proper placental development. Wdr13, a X-linked gene, expresses in multiple trophoblast cell types of placenta and the mutant placenta had reduced size after 17.5 dpc due to reduction of junctional zone (JZ) and labyrinth zone (LZ). We observed reduction in levels of angiopoietin-2 and cd44 mRNA in Wdr13 mutant placenta as compared to that in the wild type. Our findings show that Wdr13 is required for normal placental development and cell differentiation. Wdr13 heterozygous female placenta when the mutant allele was of maternal origin showed similar defects as those in case of Wdr13 null placenta. Using two types of heterozygous females carrying either maternally and paternally derived mutant Wdr13 allele we provide genetic evidence that development of placenta determines body weight of mice for the entire life.

  11. Morphology and development of the placentae in Eulamprus quoyii group skinks (Squamata: Scincidae)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Bridget F; Brandley, Matthew C; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Frequent evolutionary changes in reproductive mode have produced a wide range of placental structures in viviparous squamate reptiles. Closely related species with different placental structures and resolved phylogenetic relationships are particularly useful for reconstructing how placentae might have transformed during the evolutionary process. We used light microscopy to study placental morphology in mid- to late stage embryos of four closely related species of Eulamprus, a genus of viviparous scincid lizards that we had reason to suspect may display significant interspecific variation in placental morphology. Embryos from all four species possess a chorioallantoic placenta, an omphaloplacenta and an interomphalopleuric membrane, characteristics present in other viviparous skinks. However, unlike other viviparous skinks but characteristic of oviparous skinks, the allantois expands to surround the yolk sac in each species, supplanting the omphalopleure with a larger area of chorioallantois until a chorioallantoic placenta surrounds the entire egg in one specimen that is only a few days from birth. All four Eulamprus species share the same extraembryonic membrane morphology, but the cellular morphology of the uterine epithelium in the chorioallantoic placenta and omphaloplacenta varies between species. We determined that the interomphalopleuric membrane is a shared derived character of the Eulamprus quoyii species group. New phylogenetic information indicates that variation in the chorioallantoic placenta is a result of two independent transitions, but that variation in the omphaloplacenta can be explained using a single change within the species studied. Our results indicate that E. quoyii group skinks are a valuable model for investigating the evolution of viviparity, as extraembryonic membrane development in these species shows features characteristic of both oviparous and viviparous skinks. PMID:22420511

  12. Efficacy of ozone and other treatment modalities for retained placenta in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zobel, R; Tkalčić, S

    2013-02-01

    Retained placenta is a worldwide recognized clinical condition in puerperal cows, which can significantly affect their health and fertility. Available treatment modalities are often of questionable efficacy or associated with time constraints, practicality or monetary considerations for their wide application in a routine dairy practice. The objective of this study was to compare and assess the efficacy of different treatment options, including a novel ozone treatment, for the retained placenta. Two hundred cows diagnosed with retained placenta were divided into five treatment groups, each receiving a different treatment option. Group A (n = 40) was given a combination treatment of intrauterine ozone and parenteral cephalexin; group B (n = 40) was given intrauterine ozone; group C (n = 40) was given a combination of parenteral cephalexin and intrauterine antibiotic tablets; group D (n = 40) was given only parenteral cephalexin and group E (n = 40) was given parenteral prostaglandins in 11-day intervals. The control group (group Z, n = 200) included cows that gave birth without assistance and were not diagnosed with a retained placenta. The ozone treatment (groups A and B) was found to be the most effective modality resulting in the shortest period of days open, the smallest number of artificial inseminations until pregnancy, the smallest number of animals diagnosed with fever within 10 days post-calving, the highest percentage of animals pregnant within 200 days after calving and the smallest number of animals culled because of infertility, when compared to the other treatment groups. The intrauterine ozone flush therefore has a potential as an efficacious and cost-effective treatment option for retained placenta, with an overall positive effect on puerperal health and fertility in cows.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Human Herpesvirus 8 Infection of Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Cantatore, Santina; Barbierato, Massimo; Bergamo, Elisa; Kfutwah, Anfumbom Jude; Neri, Margherita; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Greco, Pantaleo; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Menu, Elisabeth; Fiore, Josè Ramòn

    2008-01-01

    Herpesvirus infection of placenta may be harmful in pregnancy leading to disorders in fetal growth, premature delivery, miscarriage, or major congenital abnormalities. Although a correlation between human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection and abortion or low birth weight in children has been suggested, and rare cases of in utero or perinatal HHV-8 transmission have been documented, no direct evidence of HHV-8 infection of placenta has yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of placental cells to HHV-8 infection. Short-term infection assays were performed on placental chorionic villi isolated from term placentae. Qualitative and quantitative HHV-8 detection were performed by PCR and real-time PCR, and HHV-8 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Term placenta samples from HHV-8-seropositive women were analyzed for the presence of HHV-8 DNA and antigens. In vitro infected histocultures showed increasing amounts of HHV-8 DNA in tissues and supernatants; cyto- and syncitiotrophoblasts, as well as endothelial cells, expressed latent and lytic viral antigens. Increased apoptotic phenomena were visualized by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine nick end-labeling method in infected histocultures. Ex vivo, HHV-8 DNA and a latent viral antigen were detected in placenta samples from HHV-8-seropositive women. These findings demonstrate that HHV-8, like other human herpesviruses, may infect placental cells in vitro and in vivo, thus providing evidence that this phenomenon might influence vertical transmission and pregnancy outcome in HHV-8-infected women. PMID:19115001

  14. Activation of the Maternal Immune System Induces Endocrine Changes in the Placenta via IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Elaine Y.; Patterson, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the maternal immune system in rodent models sets in motion a cascade of molecular pathways that ultimately result in autism- and schizophrenia-related behaviors in offspring. The finding that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a crucial mediator of these effects led us to examine the mechanism by which this cytokine influences fetal development in vivo. Here we focus on the placenta as the site of direct interaction between mother and fetus and as a principal modulator of fetal development. We find that maternal immune activation (MIA) with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded RNA (poly(I:C)), increases IL-6 mRNA as well as maternally-derived IL-6 protein in the placenta. Placentas from MIA mothers exhibit increases in CD69+ decidual macrophages, granulocytes and uterine NK cells, indicating elevated early immune activation. Maternally-derived IL-6 mediates activation of the JAK/STAT3 pathway specifically in the spongiotrophoblast layer of the placenta, which results in expression of acute phase genes. Importantly, this parallels an IL-6-dependent disruption of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis that is characterized by decreased GH, IGFI and IGFBP3 levels. In addition, we observe an IL-6-dependent induction in pro-lactin-like protein-K (PLP-K) expression as well as MIA-related alterations in other placental endocrine factors. Together, these IL-6-mediated effects of MIA on the placenta represent an indirect mechanism by which MIA can alter fetal development. PMID:21195166

  15. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  16. Discriminative imaging of maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta using ultrafast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-09-16

    Being able to map accurately placental blood flow in clinics could have major implications in the diagnosis and follow-up of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Moreover, the impact of such an imaging modality for a better diagnosis of placental dysfunction would require to solve the unsolved problem of discriminating the strongly intricated maternal and fetal vascular networks. However, no current imaging modality allows both to achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to tell these entangled flows apart. Although ultrasound imaging would be the clinical modality of choice for such a problem, conventional Doppler echography both lacks of sensibility to detect and map the placenta microvascularization and a concept to discriminate both entangled flows. In this work, we propose to use an ultrafast Doppler imaging approach both to map with an enhanced sensitivity the small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) and to assess the variation of the Doppler frequency simultaneously in all pixels of the image within a cardiac cycle. This approach is evaluated in vivo in the placenta of pregnant rabbits: By studying the local flow pulsatility pixel per pixel, it becomes possible to separate maternal and fetal blood in 2D from their pulsatile behavior. Significance Statement: The in vivo ability to image and discriminate maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta is an unsolved problem which could improve the diagnosis of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. To date, no imaging modality has both sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate these intimately entangled flows. We demonstrate that Ultrafast Doppler ultrasound method with a frame rate 100x faster than conventional imaging solves this issue. It permits the mapping of small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) in 2D with an enhanced sensitivity. By assessing pixel-per-pixel pulsatility within single cardiac cycles, it

  17. Wound Healing Effects of Rose Placenta in a Mouse Model of Full-Thickness Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Woo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Sang Ho; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Moh, Ji Hong; Kondo, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Background Rosa damascena, a type of herb, has been used for wound healing in Eastern folk medicine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of rose placenta from R. damascena in a full-thickness wound model in mice. Methods Sixty six-week-old C57BL/6N mice were used. Full-thickness wounds were made with an 8-mm diameter punch. Two wounds were made on each side of the back, and wounds were assigned randomly to the control and experimental groups. Rose placenta (250 µg) was injected in the experimental group, and normal saline was injected in the control group. Wound sizes were measured with digital photography, and specimens were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to assess the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and CD31. Vessel density was measured. Quantitative analysis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for EGF was performed. All evaluations were performed on postoperative days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results On days 4, 7, and 10, the wounds treated with rose placenta were significantly smaller. On day 2, VEGF and EGF expression increased in the experimental group. On days 7 and 10, TGF-β1 expression decreased in the experimental group. On day 10, vessel density increased in the experimental group. The increase in EGF on day 2 was confirmed with ELISA. Conclusions Rose placenta was found to be associated with improved wound healing in a mouse full-thickness wound model via increased EGF release. Rose placenta may potentially be a novel drug candidate for enhancing wound healing. PMID:26618114

  18. Discriminative imaging of maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta using ultrafast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Being able to map accurately placental blood flow in clinics could have major implications in the diagnosis and follow-up of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Moreover, the impact of such an imaging modality for a better diagnosis of placental dysfunction would require to solve the unsolved problem of discriminating the strongly intricated maternal and fetal vascular networks. However, no current imaging modality allows both to achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to tell these entangled flows apart. Although ultrasound imaging would be the clinical modality of choice for such a problem, conventional Doppler echography both lacks of sensibility to detect and map the placenta microvascularization and a concept to discriminate both entangled flows. In this work, we propose to use an ultrafast Doppler imaging approach both to map with an enhanced sensitivity the small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) and to assess the variation of the Doppler frequency simultaneously in all pixels of the image within a cardiac cycle. This approach is evaluated in vivo in the placenta of pregnant rabbits: By studying the local flow pulsatility pixel per pixel, it becomes possible to separate maternal and fetal blood in 2D from their pulsatile behavior. Significance Statement: The in vivo ability to image and discriminate maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta is an unsolved problem which could improve the diagnosis of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. To date, no imaging modality has both sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate these intimately entangled flows. We demonstrate that Ultrafast Doppler ultrasound method with a frame rate 100x faster than conventional imaging solves this issue. It permits the mapping of small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) in 2D with an enhanced sensitivity. By assessing pixel-per-pixel pulsatility within single cardiac cycles

  19. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  20. Balloon-Assisted Occlusion of the Internal Iliac Arteries in Patients with Placenta Accreta/Percreta

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L. Gribbin, Christopher; Siegel, Randall L.; Beale, Stephanie; Scorza, William

    2006-06-15

    Background. Placenta accreta/percreta is a leading cause of third trimester hemorrhage and postpartum maternal death. The current treatment for third trimester hemorrhage due to placenta accreta/percreta is cesarean hysterectomy, which may be complicated by large volume blood loss. Purpose. To determine what role, if any, prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion and transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries plays in the management of patients with placenta accreta/percreta. Methods. The records of 28 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of placenta accreta/percreta were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Six patients underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion, followed by cesarean section, transcatheter embolization of the anterior division of the internal iliac arteries and cesarean hysterectomy (n = 5) or uterine curettage (n = 1). Twenty-two patients underwent cesarean hysterectomy without endovascular intervention. The following parameters were compared in the two groups: patient age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at delivery, days in the intensive care unit after delivery, total hospital days, volume of transfused blood products, volume of fluid replacement intraoperatively, operating room time, estimated blood loss, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results. Patients in the embolization group had more frequent episodes of third trimester bleeding requiring admission and bedrest prior to delivery (16.7 days vs. 2.9 days), resulting in significantly more hospitalization time in the embolization group (23 days vs. 8.8 days) and delivery at an earlier gestational age than in those in the surgical group (32.5 weeks). There was no statistical difference in mean estimated blood loss, volume of replaced blood products, fluid replacement needs, operating room time or postoperative recovery time. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the contention that in patients with

  1. Expression of eight glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in the human preterm placenta vary with fetal sex and birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Z.; Hodyl, N.A.; Stark, M.J.; Fuller, P.J.; Cole, T.; Lu, N.; Clifton, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Administration of betamethasone to women at risk of preterm delivery is known to be associated with reduced fetal growth via alterations in placental function and possibly direct effects on the fetus. The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to this response and recent evidence suggests there are numerous isoforms for GR in term placentae. In this study we have questioned whether GR isoform expression varies in preterm placentae in relation to betamethasone exposure, fetal sex and birthweight. Methods Preterm (24–36 completed weeks of gestation, n = 55) and term placentae (>37 completed weeks of gestation, n = 56) were collected at delivery. Placental GR expression was examined using Western Blot and analysed in relation to gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, birthweight and beta-methasone exposure. Data was analysed using non-parametric tests. Results Eight known isoforms of the GR were detected in the preterm placenta and include GRα (94 kDa), GRβ (91 kDa), GRα C (81 kDa) GR P (74 kDa) GR A (65 kDa), GRα D1–3 (50–55 kDa). Expression varied between preterm and term placentae with a greater expression of GRα C in preterm placentae relative to term placentae. The only sex differences in preterm placentae was that GRα D2 expression was higher in males than females. There were no alterations in preterm placental GR expression in association with betamethasone exposure. Discussion GRα C is the isoform involved in glucocorticoid induced apoptosis and suggests that its predominance in preterm placentae may contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. PMID:25990415

  2. Adhering maternal platelets can contribute to the cytokine and chemokine cocktail released by human first trimester villous placenta.

    PubMed

    Blaschitz, A; Siwetz, M; Schlenke, P; Gauster, M

    2015-11-01

    Placental villous explant culture has been increasingly recognized as suitable model to study secretion of inflammatory and immune modulating factors by human placenta. Most of these factors likely derive from the syncytiotrophoblast, whereas extraplacental sources such as maternal peripheral blood cells are rarely considered. Due to their small size and absence of a nucleus, platelets adhering to perivillous fibrinoid of normal placenta are frequently ignored in routine immunohistochemistry. Here we demonstrate adhering maternal platelets on first trimester placental villi after explant culture and point out that platelet-derived factors must be considered when analyzing the inflammatory secretion profile of human placenta.

  3. Transport of calcium across the dually perfused placenta of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Stulc, J; Stulcová, B; Svihovec, J

    1990-01-01

    1. A rat placenta was dually perfused in situ with modified Krebs fluid. Perfusion was carried out through the femoral artery on the maternal side and through the umbilical artery on the fetal side. 2. Transfer of 45Ca2+ and [3H]L-glucose across the placenta was measured in the maternal-fetal direction. The transcellular component of the maternal-fetal transport of Ca2+, Jmf,tc, was estimated from transfer rates of the two tracers and from Ca2+ concentration in maternal perfusate, [Ca2+]m. 3. At [Ca2+]m of 1.1 mM (physiological concentration of Ca2+ in plasma) Jmf,tc was 92.4 +/- 13.7 nmol min-1 (mean +/- S.D.), which is about 90% of the transport expected in an intact placenta. The permeability-surface area product (PS) of the placenta to [3H]L-glucose was 13.8 +/- 3.9 microliters min-1, about 4 times higher than that expected in intact placenta. 4. Transport of 45Ca2+ changed rapidly when [Ca2+]m was varied. Kinetic constants of the transcellular transport of Ca2+ are the Michaelis constant, Km, = 0.45 mM and the maximum rate of transport, Vmax, = 116 nmol min-1. It follows from this that at physiological levels of Ca2+, transport of Ca2+ to the fetus is relatively independent of changes in [Ca2+]m. 5. Strontium and barium (SrCl2 and BaCl2, 1 mM) decreased Jmf,tc; the response was prompt and reversible. Magnesium (2 mM) had no effect. Maternal-fetal transport of 85Sr2+ and 133Ba2+ was decreased rapidly and reversibly by elevating [Ca2+]m from 0.35 to 2 mM. These observations suggest that Sr2+ and Ba2+ are transported across the placenta by the Ca2+ transport system. This means that the transport is not substrate specific. 6. Cadmium (1 mM-CdCl2) decreased Jmf,tc irreversibly with some latency. The slowness of the response suggests a non-competitive inhibition. Cadmium (0.02 mM-CdCl2) was without effect on Jmf,tc. 7. A Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (10 microM), administered to the maternal side had no effect on Jmf,tc. PMID:2324986

  4. Dysregulated flow-mediated vasodilatation in the human placenta in fetal growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah; Bischof, Helen; Lang, Ingrid; Desoye, Gernot; Greenwood, Sue L; Johnstone, Edward D; Wareing, Mark; Sibley, Colin P; Brownbill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular resistance and reduced fetoplacental blood flow are putative aetiologies in the pathogenesis of fetal growth restriction (FGR); however, the regulating sites and mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesised that placental vessels dictate fetoplacental resistance and in FGR exhibit endothelial dysfunction and reduced flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMVD). Resistance was measured in normal pregnancies (n = 10) and FGR (n = 10) both in vivo by umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and ex vivo by dual placental perfusion. Ex vivo FMVD is the reduction in fetal-side inflow hydrostatic pressure (FIHP) following increased flow rate. Results demonstrated a significant correlation between vascular resistance measured in vivo and ex vivo in normal pregnancy, but not in FGR. In perfused FGR placentas, vascular resistance was significantly elevated compared to normal placentas (58 ± 7.7 mmHg and 36.8 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively; 8 ml min−1; means ± SEM; P < 0.0001) and FMVD was severely reduced (3.9 ± 1.3% and 9.1 ± 1.2%, respectively). In normal pregnancies only, the highest level of ex vivo FMVD was associated with the lowest in vivo resistance. Inhibition of NO synthesis during perfusion (100 μm l-NNA) moderately elevated FIHP in the normal group, but substantially in the FGR group. Human placenta artery endothelial cells from FGR groups exhibited increased shear stress-induced NO generation, iNOS expression and eNOS expression compared with normal groups. In conclusion, fetoplacental resistance is determined by placental vessels, and is increased in FGR. The latter also exhibit reduced FMVD, but with a partial compensatory increased NO generation capacity. The data support our hypothesis, which highlights the importance of FMVD regulation in normal and dysfunctional placentation. Key points A correlation was found between in vivo umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry and resistance to fetal-side flow in the human ex vivo dually

  5. Transplantation of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell-induced neural stem cells to treat spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Jingqiao; Yang, Lifeng

    2014-12-15

    Because of their strong proliferative capacity and multi-potency, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells have gained interest as a cell source in the field of nerve damage repair. In the present study, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neural stem cells, which were then transplanted into the spinal cord after local spinal cord injury in rats. The motor functional recovery and pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were observed for 3 successive weeks. The results showed that human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into neuron-like cells and that induced neural stem cells contribute to the restoration of injured spinal cord without causing transplant rejection. Thus, these cells promote the recovery of motor and sensory functions in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Therefore, human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells may be useful as seed cells during the repair of spinal cord injury.

  6. The development of a dynamic model for microvascular research and practice using human placenta: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, N; Moss, A L; Townsend, P L

    1985-07-01

    Human placenta has been investigated in an attempt to develop a non-animal model for microvascular research and practice, with a dynamic artificial circulation. Initial work has been encouraging and further development is in progress.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in miR-210 expression and mitochondrial dysfunction in the placenta with maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Muralimanoharan, S; Guo, C; Myatt, L; Maloyan, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal obesity is a major problem in obstetrics, and the placenta is involved in obesity-related complications via its roles at the maternal–fetal interface. We have recently shown a causative role for micro(mi)RNA-210, a so called ‘hypoxamir’ regulated by HIF-1α, in mitochondrial dysfunction in placentas from women with preeclampsia. We also reported mitochondrial dysfunction in placentas with maternal obesity. Here we hypothesized that expression of miR-210 is dysregulated in the placentas with obesity. METHODS Placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies were collected at term from healthy weight or control (CTRL, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)<25), overweight (OW, BMI = 25–24.9) and obese (OB, BMI>30) women following C-section with no labor. Expression of miRNA-210 and its target genes was measured by reverse transcription–PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by Seahorse Analyzer in syncytiotrophoblast (ST) 72 h after cytotrophoblast isolation. RESULTS Expression of miR-210 was significantly increased in placentas of OB and OW women with female but not male fetuses compared with CTRL placentas of females. However, expression of HIF-1α in these placentas remained unchanged. Levels of tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were increased in OW and OB placentas of females but not males, and in silico analysis suggested that activation of miR-210 expression in these placentas might be activated by NFκB1 (p50) signaling. Indeed, chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay showed that NFkB1 binds to placental miR-210 promoter in a fetal sex-dependent manner. Female but not male STs treated with TNFα showed overexpression of miR-210, reduction of mitochondrial target genes and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Pre-treatment of these STs with small interfering RNA to NFkB1 or antagomiR-210 prevented the TNFα-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that the inflammatory

  8. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  9. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Chiyo; Sasaki, Motoki; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe(3+)) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time.

  10. Aberrant placenta gene expression pattern in bovine pregnancies established after transfer of cloned or in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hossain, Munir; Held, Eva; Rings, Franca; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Cinar, Ulas; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we used the global transcriptome profile approach to identify dysregulated genes, molecular pathways, and molecular functional alterations in bovine placentas derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) pregnancies compared with their artificial insemination (AI) counterparts at day 50 of gestation. For this, day 7 blastocysts derived from AI, IVP, or SCNT were transferred to oestrus-synchronized cows. The pregnant animals were slaughtered at day 50 of gestation, and the placentas were then recovered and used for transcriptome analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip bovine genome array. Results showed the SCNT placenta to be different from its AI counterpart in the expression of 1,196 transcripts. These genes were found to be associated with alterations in key biological processes and molecular pathways in SCNT placenta, and the dysregulation of 9% (n = 110) of these genes was due to transcriptional reprogramming error. IVP placenta also displayed alterations in the expression of 72 genes, of which 58 were common to SCNT placenta. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in organ development, blood vessel development, extracellular matrix organization, and the immune system was affected in both SCNT and IVP placentas. However, 96% of the affected genes in SCNT were not significantly altered in IVP groups. Thus, the higher transcriptome dysregulation in SCNT placenta followed by IVP would reflect the degree of placental abnormality in SCNT and IVP pregnancies at day 50 of the gestation, which may have a profound effect on subsequent fetal development and health of the offspring.

  11. A true cornual pregnancy with placenta percreta resulting in a viable fetus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is uncommon among ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis of cornual pregnancy remains challenging, and rupture of a cornual pregnancy causes catastrophic consequence due to massive bleeding. In very rare circumstances, cornual pregnancies can result in a viable fetus. We report a case of a 24-year-old primigravida who presented to us with complaints of decrease fetal movements at 37+5 weeks. Ultrasound revealed a single live intrauterine fetus with anterior low lying placenta with severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index = 1.8). Emergency cesarean section was done and intraoperatively it was diagnosed as a case of placenta percreta with pregnancy in right noncommunicating horn of uterus. Right cornual resection with right salpingectomy done. Uterus, left fallopian tube and bilateral ovary were healthy. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:26539372

  12. Vital and Vulnerable Functions of the Primate Placenta Critical for Infant Health and Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Lubach, Gabriele R.

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential to mammalian pregnancy with many roles beyond just nutrient supply, including both endocrine and immune functions. During the course of evolution, the placenta of higher primates has acquired some unique features, including the capacity to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In addition, a placental receptor for IgG enables particularly high levels of protective maternal antibody to reach the fetus before birth. This paper reviews the placental biology of primates, and discusses its involvement in adrenocortical hormone activity during pregnancy, the transfer of maternal antibody, and finally the delivery of maternal iron to the fetus, which is needed for normal brain development. An understanding of these vital functions during a full-term, healthy pregnancy provides insights into the consequences of gestational disturbances, such as maternal stress, illness, and undernutrition, which have even larger ramifications if the infant is born premature. PMID:24699357

  13. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Lager, S; Ramirez, V I; Gaccioli, F; Jansson, T; Powell, T L

    2014-07-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR120 is predominantly expressed in the microvillous membrane (MVM) of human placenta and that the expression level of this receptor in MVM is not altered by maternal body mass index (BMI).

  14. A model for gas and nutrient exchange in the chorionic vasculature system of the mouse placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirbod, Parisa; Sled, John

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical model for the oxygen and nutrient transport from the umbilical cord to the small villous capillaries. The nutrient and carbon dioxide removal from the fetal cotyledons in the mouse placental system has also been considered. This model describes the mass transfer between the fetal and the maternal red blood cells in the chorionic arterial vasculature system. The model reveals the detail fetal vasculature system and its geometry and the precise mechanisms of mass transfer through the placenta. The dimensions of the villous capillaries, the total length of the villous trees, the total villi surface area, and the total resistance to mass transport in the fetal villous trees has also been defined. This is the first effort to explain the reason why there are at least 7 lobules in the mouse placenta from the fluid dynamics point of view.

  15. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with hysteroscopic resection to treat retained placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Seong; Hong, Gi-Youn; Park, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Rayon; Kim, Tae-Eung

    2016-09-01

    We present a case of retained placenta accreta treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation followed by hysteroscopic resection. The patient was diagnosed as submucosal myoma based on ultrasonography in local clinic. Pathologic examination of several pieces of tumor mass from the hysteroscopic procedure revealed necrotic chorionic villi with calcification. HIFU was performed using an ultrasound-guided HIFU tumor therapeutic system. The ultrasound machine had been used for real-time monitoring of the HIFU procedure. After HIFU treatment, no additional vaginal bleeding or complications were observed. A hysteroscopic resection was performed to remove ablated placental tissue 7 days later. No abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge was seen after the procedure. The patient was stable postoperatively. We proposed HIFU and applied additional hysteroscopic resection for a safe and effective method for treating retained placenta accreta to prevent complications from the remaining placental tissue and to improve fertility options. PMID:27668209

  16. Disruption of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status in porcine parthenogenetic fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Chen, Xianju; Song, Yuning; Lv, Qinyan; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Zhanjun

    2014-09-01

    Parthenogenetically activated oocytes cannot develop to term in mammals due to the lack of paternal gene expression and failed X chromosome inactivation (XCI). To further characterize porcine parthenogenesis, the expression of 18 imprinted genes was compared between parthenogenetic (PA) and normally fertilized embryos (Con) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that maternally expressed genes were over-expressed, whereas paternally expressed genes were significantly reduced in PA fetuses and placentas. The results of bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) demonstrated that PRE-1 and Satellite were hypermethylated in both Con and PA fetuses and placentas, while XIST DMRs were hypomethylated only in PA samples. Taken together, these results suggest that the aberrant methylation profile of XIST DMRs and abnormal imprinted gene expression may be responsible for developmental failure and impaired growth in porcine parthenogenesis.

  17. Oxytocinase-immunohistochemical demonstration in the immature and term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Small, C W; Watkins, W B

    1975-10-27

    Oxytocinase (cystine aminopeptidase) was purified from human retroplacental serum by a combination of fractional precipitation, hydroxylapatite chromatography and gel exlusion chromatography on Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme possessed a specific activity of 980 mIU/mg using L-cystine-di-p-nitroanilide as substrate. This represented a 3200 fold concentration from the starting material in an overall yield of 12%. Antibodies against oxytocinase were raised in rabbits and the gamma-globulins fraction labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate prior to its use in the immunofluorescence histochemical localization of the enzyme in human placental tissue. Oxytocinase was confined to the syncytiotrophoblastic cells of normal term, and immature placentas as well as in placentas from patients suffering from severe toxaemia. Specific immunofluorescence was also present in the outer margins of the chorion and to a lesser extent in the amnion.

  18. Apical Maxi-chloride channel from human placenta: 12 years after the first electrophysiological recordings.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Gloria

    2006-01-01

    The Maxi-chloride channel was the first ion channel described by electrophysiological methods in placenta. Because it is difficult to access a complex epithelium such as the placenta for electrophysiological procedures, the studies of ion channels from placental membranes have been performed only very recently. It was only in 1993 that a direct demonstration of a high-conductance chloride channel in apical membranes of intact trophoblastic epithelium was mentioned, and two years later, the description of this channel was reported from purified placental apical membranes reconstituted into artificial lipid membranes suitable for patch-clamp recordings. This brief review comments on the work done with regard to the electrophysiological characterization and regulation of the large-conductance or "Maxi" chloride channel and its contribution to the development of a cellular model for syncytiotrophoblast ion transport.

  19. Analytical methodology for the profiling and characterization of androgen receptor active compounds in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Indiveri, Paolo; Horwood, Julia; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-08-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during foetal development has been proposed to cause reproductive dysfunctions in the neonate or later life. In order to support such studies, an analytical method was developed to profile the receptor mediated (anti)androgenic activities present in extracts of placenta samples. Placenta samples from women giving birth to healthy male neonates were extracted and fractionated by HPLC. Fractions containing androgen receptor (AR) activity were detected using an in vitro yeast-based human androgen receptor transcription screen. GC-MS analyses of receptor active fractions resulted in detection of chemical contaminants including antimicrobial and cosmetic compounds which exhibited AR antagonist activity in the yeast screen, and endogenously derived steroids which contributed to both the agonist and antagonistic activity in the samples. The bioassay-directed fractionation methodology developed in this study revealed the potential to identify mixtures of chemical contaminants that should be investigated for potential effects on the reproductive system.

  20. Synthesis and secretion of alkaline phosphatase in vitro from first-trimester and term human placentas.

    PubMed Central

    Galski, H; Fridovich, S E; Weinstein, D; De Groot, N; Segal, S; Folman, R; Hochberg, A A

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis and secretion of alkaline phosphatases in vitro by human placental tissue incubated in organ culture were studied. First-trimester placenta synthesizes and secretes two different alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (heat-labile and heat-stable), whereas in term placenta nearly all the alkaline phosphatase synthesized and secreted is heat-stable. The specific activities of alkaline phosphatases in first-trimester and term placental tissue remain constant throughout the time course of incubation. In the media, specific activities increase with time. Hence, alkaline phosphatase synthesis seems to be the driving force for its own secretion. The rates of synthesis de novo and of alkaline phosphatases were measured. The specific radioactivities of the secreted alkaline phosphatases were higher than the corresponding specific radioactivities in the tissue throughout the entire incubation period. The intracellular distribution of the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes was compared. PMID:7306029

  1. Placenta with Old, Diffuse Infarction that Was Difficult to Differentiate from a Placental Tumor.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Miyazaki-Igarashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Placental lesions, including placental infarction, are associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We present a case of fetal growth restriction associated with an old, diffuse placental infarction. Because the placenta had only a single viable cotyledon, the others being atrophic, the lesion appeared to be a placental tumor on prenatal ultrasonography. The patient did not have pregnancy-induced hypertension. At 31 weeks of gestation, a cesarean delivery was performed because of fetal growth arrest and breech presentation. A small-for-gestational age infant was delivered with Apgar scores of 8 at both 1 and 5 minutes, and the infant had cleft palate and cleft lips. Pathological examination of the placenta revealed an old, diffuse infarction without neoplastic change. In cases in which a placental tumor causing fetal growth restriction is strongly suspected, diffuse placental infarction should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis, because placental tumors are associated with poor maternal prognosis.

  2. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  3. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with hysteroscopic resection to treat retained placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seong; Hong, Gi-Youn; Park, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Rayon

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of retained placenta accreta treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation followed by hysteroscopic resection. The patient was diagnosed as submucosal myoma based on ultrasonography in local clinic. Pathologic examination of several pieces of tumor mass from the hysteroscopic procedure revealed necrotic chorionic villi with calcification. HIFU was performed using an ultrasound-guided HIFU tumor therapeutic system. The ultrasound machine had been used for real-time monitoring of the HIFU procedure. After HIFU treatment, no additional vaginal bleeding or complications were observed. A hysteroscopic resection was performed to remove ablated placental tissue 7 days later. No abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge was seen after the procedure. The patient was stable postoperatively. We proposed HIFU and applied additional hysteroscopic resection for a safe and effective method for treating retained placenta accreta to prevent complications from the remaining placental tissue and to improve fertility options.

  4. Multipotent stromal stem cells from human placenta demonstrate high therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Igor; Lee, Jae W; Soupene, Eric; Etemad, Sara; Knapik, Derrick; Green, William; Bashkirova, Elizaveta; Fang, Xiaohui; Matthay, Michael A; Kuypers, Frans A; Serikov, Vladimir B

    2012-05-01

    We describe human chorionic mesenchymal stem cell (hCMSC) lines obtained from the chorion of human term placenta with high therapeutic potential in human organ pathology. hCMSCs propagated for more than 100 doublings without a decrease in telomere length and with no telomerase activity. Cells were highly positive for the embryonic stem cell markers OCT-4, NANOG, SSEA-3, and TRA-1-60. In vitro, cells could be differentiated into neuron-like cells (ectoderm), adipocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial-like cells (mesoderm), and hepatocytes (endoderm)-derivatives of all three germ layers. hCMSCs effectively facilitated repair of injured epithelium as demonstrated in an ex vivo-perfused human lung preparation injured by Escherichia coli endotoxin and in in vitro human lung epithelial cultures. We conclude that the chorion of human term placenta is an abundant source of multipotent stem cells that are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. PMID:23197815

  5. Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells from Human Placenta Demonstrate High Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Nazarov, Igor; Lee, Jae W.; Soupene, Eric; Etemad, Sara; Knapik, Derrick; Green, William; Bashkirova, Elizaveta; Fang, Xiaohui; Matthay, Michael A.; Kuypers, Frans A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe human chorionic mesenchymal stem cell (hCMSC) lines obtained from the chorion of human term placenta with high therapeutic potential in human organ pathology. hCMSCs propagated for more than 100 doublings without a decrease in telomere length and with no telomerase activity. Cells were highly positive for the embryonic stem cell markers OCT-4, NANOG, SSEA-3, and TRA-1–60. In vitro, cells could be differentiated into neuron-like cells (ectoderm), adipocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial-like cells (mesoderm), and hepatocytes (endoderm)—derivatives of all three germ layers. hCMSCs effectively facilitated repair of injured epithelium as demonstrated in an ex vivo-perfused human lung preparation injured by Escherichia coli endotoxin and in in vitro human lung epithelial cultures. We conclude that the chorion of human term placenta is an abundant source of multipotent stem cells that are promising candidates for cell-based therapies. PMID:23197815

  6. Vital and vulnerable functions of the primate placenta critical for infant health and brain development.

    PubMed

    Coe, Christopher L; Lubach, Gabriele R

    2014-10-01

    The placenta is essential to mammalian pregnancy with many roles beyond just nutrient supply, including both endocrine and immune functions. During the course of evolution, the placenta of higher primates has acquired some unique features, including the capacity to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In addition, a placental receptor for IgG enables particularly high levels of protective maternal antibody to reach the fetus before birth. This paper reviews the placental biology of primates, and discusses its involvement in adrenocortical hormone activity during pregnancy, the transfer of maternal antibody, and finally the delivery of maternal iron to the fetus, which is needed for normal brain development. An understanding of these vital functions during a full-term, healthy pregnancy provides insights into the consequences of gestational disturbances, such as maternal stress, illness, and undernutrition, which have even larger ramifications if the infant is born premature.

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with hysteroscopic resection to treat retained placenta accreta

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seong; Hong, Gi-Youn; Park, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Rayon

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of retained placenta accreta treated by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation followed by hysteroscopic resection. The patient was diagnosed as submucosal myoma based on ultrasonography in local clinic. Pathologic examination of several pieces of tumor mass from the hysteroscopic procedure revealed necrotic chorionic villi with calcification. HIFU was performed using an ultrasound-guided HIFU tumor therapeutic system. The ultrasound machine had been used for real-time monitoring of the HIFU procedure. After HIFU treatment, no additional vaginal bleeding or complications were observed. A hysteroscopic resection was performed to remove ablated placental tissue 7 days later. No abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge was seen after the procedure. The patient was stable postoperatively. We proposed HIFU and applied additional hysteroscopic resection for a safe and effective method for treating retained placenta accreta to prevent complications from the remaining placental tissue and to improve fertility options. PMID:27668209

  8. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. )

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

  9. Vanadium-mediated lipid peroxidation in microsomes from human term placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Byczkowski, J.Z.; Wan, B.; Kulkarni, A.P.

    1988-11-01

    Vanadium is considered an essential element present in living organisms in trace amounts but it is toxic when introduced in excessive doses to animals and humans. Vanadium compounds are extensively used in modern industry and occupational exposure to high doses of vanadium is quite common. In pregnant mice, vanadium accumulates preferentially in the placenta and to lower extent in fetal skeleton and mammary gland during exposure to radioactive vanadium. Accumulation of vanadium in fetoplacental unit may present threat to the fetus by interacting with enzymes and ion-transporting systems in membranes. It is also possible that accumulation of vanadium with its concomitant reduction to vanadyl may lead to lipid peroxidation, followed by damage to biological membranes, lysosomal enzymes release and destruction of placental tissue. To explore some of these possibilities the authors decided to examine whether vanadate can undergo redox cycling in microsomes from human term placenta (HTP) that can lead to lipid peroxidation.

  10. Movements of benzo(a)pyrene across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Kelman, B.J.; Springer, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In an effort to determine fetal exposure resulting from maternally administered benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), the clearance of radiolabeled BaP from mother to fetus was measured across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig at 60 days of gestation. Using techniques previously reported for other toxic materials, the fetal circulation of the placenta was isolated. BaP injected into the maternal circulation, and the concentration of BaP determined in the perfusate. The clearance of BaP from mother to fetus was high following intravenous injection. Clearances appeared to be a function of umbilical blood flow, and ranged from 0.59 to 2.40 ml/min at an umbilical flow of 2.5 ml/min. Since clearances of BaP approximated those obtained for tritiated water, it is apparent that circulating BaP gains easy access to the fetus.

  11. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Montelongo, Emma M.; Blue, Nathan R.; Lee, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  12. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaobin; Shi, Jiachen; Jiao, Zhihao; Shao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1), steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2). Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth. PMID:27149376

  13. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. RESULTS Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. CONCLUSIONS PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  14. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the early placentas of arsenate-dosed hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, D.P.; Ferm, V.H.

    1987-04-01

    The authors determined the concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the placentas of hamsters following continuous exposure via the osmotic minipump to minimally and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate. Close to 70% of the placental arsenic is bound to macromolecules, two-thirds of which is dialyzable. The remaining 30% of arsenic consists of low molecular weight species, predominantly inorganic arsenic. This mix is the same for minimally teratogenic and frankly teratogenic doses of arsenate.

  15. Abnormal expression of the imprinted gene Phlda2 in cloned bovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Guillomot, M; Taghouti, G; Constant, F; Degrelle, S; Hue, I; Chavatte-Palmer, P; Jammes, H

    2010-06-01

    Cloning in mammals suffers from high rates of pregnancy losses associated with abnormal placentation, mainly placentomegaly, leading to fetal death. Placental growth is dependent on the regulated expression of many genes of which imprinted genes play a fundamental role. Among them, the Phlda2 gene is expressed from the maternal allele and acts to limit placental growth in mouse and human. Here we used Northern blots, quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization to analyze the expression patterns of bovine PHLDA2 and to compare its expression levels in normal and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) placentas over a range of gestational stages. PHLDA2 is not expressed in extra-embryonic tissues before d32 of gestation but the level of expression increases throughout pregnancy until term in the placental villi collected from pregnancy obtained by artificial insemination (AI). At all stages of pregnancy, PHLDA2 mRNA are specifically localized in the trophoblast mononucleated cells contrasting with lack of expression in the binucleated cells and uterine tissues. In SCNT placentas, a similar pattern of expression was observed during early pregnancy. In contrast the level of expression is significantly reduced around d200 of gestation in the placental villi from pathological clones. The reduced expression of PHLDA2 was obvious particularly in the placental villi anchored within the uterine crypts with expression confined to the trophoblast of the chorionic plate. Altogether, these results highlight a similarity in expression patterns for PHLDA2 bovine and human where expression is localized to the trophoblast throughout pregnancy and parallels the continuous growth of the placenta. Moreover, the lack of expression in the fetal villi from oversized bovine cloned placenta is consistent with the function of PHLDA2 in restraining placental growth and underlines an aberrant expression of this gene after somatic cloning.

  16. Sonoembryological evaluations of the development of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations using ultrasound examinations during pregnancy can be used to clarify the mechanisms and pathophysiology of abnormal fetal and placental development. Such sonoembryological assessments are useful as a method for clarifying the etiology of disease. In the present review, we describe current knowledge based on our experience with applying sonoembryological methods to determine the developmental mechanisms of placenta previa and velamentous cord insertion.

  17. Selenium levels in related biological samples: human placenta, maternal and umbilical cord blood, hair and nails.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Alonso, Maria José; Bermejo Barrera, Adela; Cocho de Juan, José Angel; Fraga Bermúdez, José María; Bermejo Barrera, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    A study on selenium levels has been carried out in human placenta, maternal and umbilical cord blood, hair and nails of a group of 50 mothers and in the hair of the newborns. The determinations were perfomed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium concentration obtained for each sample type was as follows: For the human placenta the values obtained were between 0.56 and 1.06 microg/g (mean +/- standard deviation: 0.81 +/- 0.02 microg/g). The levels for the umbilical cord blood were 51.1-104.2 microg/l (76.3 +/- 6.5 microg/l). For the maternal blood the values measured were between 57.3 and 117.9 microg/l (90.0 +/- 15.2 microg/l), and for hair and nails were 0.22-1.5 microg/g (0.60 +/- 0.37 microg/g) and 0.46-1.57 microg/g (0.90 +/- 0.27 microg/g), respectively. For the hair of the newborns the values obtained were between 0.40 and 2.53 microg/g (1.04 +/- 0.48 microg/g). The effect of different variables as age, habitat, nutritional index or gestation age of the mothers on the selenium concentration in the samples was studied. The influence of the habitat is significant with a confidence level of 95% for the selenium concentration in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples. The influence of the mothers' age is significant with a confidence level of 95% for the selenium concentration in the umbilical cord blood samples. For the placenta samples, the effect of the nutritional index is significant with a confidence level of 95%. There is a positive correlation between samples of umbilical cord blood and the newborns' hair, between placenta and umbilical cord, and between cord blood and maternal blood.

  18. Premature sexual development in children following the use of estrogen- or placenta-containing hair products.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, C M

    1998-12-01

    Four African-American girls aged 14 months to 93 months developed breast or pubic hair 2 to 24 months after starting the use of estrogen or placenta-containing hair products. Discontinuing the use of the hair products resulted in regression of the breast or pubic hair. Serum gonadotropins and estradiol levels were variable. No other cause for early sexual development was noted in these girls.

  19. Accuracy of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta

    PubMed Central

    Riteau, Anne-Sophie; Tassin, Mikael; Chambon, Guillemette; Le Vaillant, Claudine; de Laveaucoupet, Jocelyne; Quéré, Marie-Pierre; Joubert, Madeleine; Prevot, Sophie; Philippe, Henri-Jean; Benachi, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of placenta accreta and to define the most relevant specific ultrasound and MRI features that may predict placental invasion. Material and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients referred for suspected placenta accreta to two university hospitals from 01/2001 to 05/2012. Our study population included 42 pregnant women who had been investigated by both ultrasonography and MRI. Ultrasound images and MRI were blindly reassessed for each case by 2 raters in order to score features that predict abnormal placental invasion. Results Sensitivity in the diagnosis of placenta accreta was 100% with ultrasound and 76.9% for MRI (P = 0.03). Specificity was 37.5% with ultrasonography and 50% for MRI (P = 0.6). The features of greatest sensitivity on ultrasonography were intraplacental lacunae and loss of the normal retroplacental clear space. Increased vascularization in the uterine serosa-bladder wall interface and vascularization perpendicular to the uterine wall had the best positive predictive value (92%). At MRI, uterine bulging had the best positive predictive value (85%) and its combination with the presence of dark intraplacental bands on T2-weighted images improved the predictive value to 90%. Conclusion Ultrasound imaging is the mainstay of screening for placenta accreta. MRI appears to be complementary to ultrasonography, especially when there are few ultrasound signs. PMID:24733409

  20. Glutamate-glutamine cycle and exchange in the placenta-fetus unit during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin; Xie, Chunyan; Zhang, Yuzhe; Fan, Zhiyong; Yin, Yulong; Blachier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The present review focuses on the physiological functions of glutamate-glutamine exchange involving placental amino acid transport and umbilical amino acid uptake in mammals (particularly in sows), with special emphasis on the associated regulating mechanisms. Glutamate plus glutamine are among the most abundant and the most utilized amino acids in fetus during late gestation. During pregnancy, amino acids, notably as precursors of macromolecules including proteins and nucleotides are involved in fetal development and growth. Amino acid concentrations in fetus are generally higher than in the mother. Among amino acids, the transport and metabolism of glutamate and glutamine during fetal development exhibit characteristics that clearly emphasize the importance of the interaction between the placenta and the fetal liver. Glutamate is quite remarkable among amino acids, which originate from the placenta, and is cleared from fetal plasma. In addition, the flux of glutamate through the placenta from the fetal plasma is highly correlated with the umbilical glutamate delivery rate. Glutamine plays a central role in fetal carbon and nitrogen metabolism and exhibits one of the highest fetal/maternal plasma ratio among all amino acids in human and other mammals. Glutamate is taken up by placenta from the fetal circulation and then converted to glutamine before being released back into the fetal circulation. Works are required on the glutamate-glutamine metabolism during late pregnancy in physiological and pathophysiological situations since such works may help to improve fetal growth and development both in humans and other mammals. Indeed, glutamine supplementation appears to ameliorate fetal growth retardation in sows and reduces preweaning mortality of piglets.

  1. Anthroposophic lifestyle influences the concentration of metals in placenta and cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Fagerstedt, Sara; Kippler, Maria; Scheynius, Annika; Gutzeit, Cindy; Mie, Axel; Alm, Johan; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-15

    Allergic diseases develop in genetically susceptible individuals in a complex interplay with the environment, usually early in life. We have previously shown that the anthroposophic lifestyle is associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in children, but details on the influencing environmental factors are largely unknown. This study aims to elucidate if anthroposophic lifestyle influences fetal exposure to selected toxic and essential elements. Randomly selected non-smoking mothers with (n=40) and without (n=40) anthroposophic lifestyle from the prospective birth cohort ALADDIN were included. Concentrations of 12 toxic and essential elements were analyzed in full term placentas and in the erythrocyte fractions of maternal peripheral blood and of umbilical cord blood, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cadmium concentrations in maternal blood and placenta were significantly higher in mothers with an anthroposophic lifestyle (p<0.001), while concentrations in cord blood were generally low, irrespective of lifestyle. Cobalt concentrations were higher in both maternal blood, placenta and cord blood in the anthroposophic group. Lead concentrations were higher in maternal blood and cord blood, but not placenta, of mothers with anthroposophic lifestyle. Analysis of covariance, including lifestyle, parity, maternal age, gestational age, vegetarian diet, use of herbal medicine and occupation in the model, showed that mainly the anthroposophic lifestyle was significantly associated with cadmium concentrations. In conclusion, women with an anthroposophic lifestyle had higher concentrations of cadmium, cobalt and lead concentrations. Cadmium concentrations might have been influenced by a diet rich in vegetables and/or low iron status of the mothers. - Highlights: • Toxic elements in mother–newborn pairs in relation to anthroposophic lifestyle. • Anthroposophic lifestyle was associated with higher levels of cadmium, cobalt and lead. • A diet rich

  2. Smoking specifically induces metallothionein-2 isoform in human placenta at term.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Garrido, Fernando; Llanos, Miguel N

    2006-06-01

    Recently, we reported the presence of higher levels of metallothionein (MT) in placentas of smokers compared to non-smokers. In the present study, we designed experiments to separate and evaluate two isoforms of MT (MT-1 and MT-2) in placentas of smokers and non-smokers. Metallothionein was extracted and separated by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), previous saturation with cadmium chloride. Two peaks eluting at 6 and 12.5 min, corresponding to MT-1 and MT-2, respectively, were obtained. Metallothionein present in both peaks was identified by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody directed against MT-1 and MT-2. Each isoform concentration was calculated after measuring its cadmium content by atomic absorption spectrometry with inductively coupled-plasma. In placentas of smokers, MT-2 levels increased by seven-fold compared to non-smokers, whereas MT-1 was not changed. Total placental cadmium and zinc concentrations, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and neutron activation analysis, respectively, were higher in smokers. Metallothioneins levels were clearly in excess to bind all cadmium ions present in placentas. However, most of placental zinc remains unbound to MTs, although as much as twice zinc ions could be bound to MT in smokers. In conclusion, MT-2 is the main isoform induced by smoking, suggesting that this isoform could be involved in placental cadmium and zinc retention. This fact, which could contribute to reduce the transference of zinc to the fetus, may be associated to detrimental effects on fetal growth and development.

  3. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yixing; Zhang, Pin; Zhang, Zhaobin; Shi, Jiachen; Jiao, Zhihao; Shao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and prolactin (PRL) were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1), steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2). Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth. PMID:27149376

  4. Mercury, Cadmium, and Lead Levels in Human Placenta: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Vasallo, María D.; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollan, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Placental tissue may furnish information on the exposure of both mother and fetus. Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) are toxicants of interest in pregnancy because they are associated with alterations in child development. Objectives: The aim of this study was to summarize the available information regarding total Hg, Cd, and Pb levels in human placenta and possible related factors. Methods: We performed a systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs, OSH, and Web of Science for original papers on total Hg, Cd, or Pb levels in human placenta that were published in English or Spanish (1976–2011). Data on study design, population characteristics, collection and analysis of placenta specimens, and main results were extracted using a standardized form. Results: We found a total of 79 papers (73 different studies). Hg, Cd, and Pb levels were reported in 24, 46, and 46 studies, respectively. Most studies included small convenience samples of healthy pregnant women. Studies were heterogeneous regarding populations selected, processing of specimens, and presentation of results. Hg concentrations > 50 ng/g were found in China (Shanghai), Japan, and the Faroe Islands. Cd levels ranged from 1.2 ng/g to 53 ng/g and were highest in the United States, Japan, and Eastern Europe. Pb showed the greatest variability, with levels ranging from 1.18 ng/g in China (Shanghai) to 500 ng/g in a polluted area of Poland. Conclusion: The use of the placenta as a biomarker to assess heavy metals exposure is not properly developed because of heterogeneity among the studies. International standardized protocols are needed to enhance comparability and increase the usefulness of this promising tissue in biomonitoring studies. PMID:22591711

  5. Placenta Accreta in a Woman with Escherichia coli Chorioamnionitis with Intact Membranes.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Emma M; Blue, Nathan R; Lee, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated intrauterine infections with intact membranes are extremely rare. Case. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at 26 weeks' gestation with clinical signs of chorioamnionitis but physical examination suggested intact membranes. Her dietary history was concerned with Listeriosis. An amniocentesis was performed. Shortly thereafter, the mother developed septic shock and an urgent Cesarean delivery was performed. The patient required a peripartum hysterectomy for placenta accreta. Amniotic fluid cultures grew E. coli. PMID:26819787

  6. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. Material/Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  7. Purification and characterization of DNase VII, a 3'. -->. 5'-directed exonuclease from human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, G.F.; Grossman, L.

    1981-01-01

    An exonuclease, DNase VII, has been purified 6000-fold from human placenta. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000, requires Mg/sup 2 +/ for activity, and has a pH optimum of 7.8. The enzyme hydrolyzes single-stranded and nicked duplex DNA at the same rate proceeding in a 3' ..-->.. 5' direction liberating 5'-mononucleotides. It does not measurably hydrolyze polyribonucleotides.

  8. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta: a microvascular cast study [corrected] in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-07-01

    The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level.

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Dantzer, V; Jones, C J P; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. Two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified: the interareolar and the areolar regions. The uterine epithelium has eosinophilic cytoplasm with dispersed, basophilic and electron-dense granules. Trophoblast cells are irregularly cuboidal on top of the fetal ridges and columnar on troughs, where cells have cytoplasmic vesicles and large basal vacuoles, surrounded by whorls of smooth membranes. Capillaries indent the trophoblast cells forming a placental barrier 3 microm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussian blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular vacuoles and cisternae. The placenta can therefore be classified as non-deciduate. The ultrastructural aspects of this study reveal features that have not previously been described and extend our knowledge of functions relating to materno-fetal transport in these species.

  10. Effect of Embryo Vitrification on Rabbit Foetal Placenta Proteome during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Juano, Maria Desemparats; Vicente, José Salvador; Hollung, Kristin; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information on the post-implantatory effects of vitrification has been published till now. We observed in a previous study that the vitrification procedure for the cryopreservation of embryos introduced transcriptomic and proteomic modifications in the rabbit foetal placenta at the middle of gestation. Now, we have conducted a proteomic study to determine whether protein alterations in the foetal placenta induced by the vitrification procedure remain during pregnancy. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC-MS/MS analysis) to identify the protein changes during middle and late stages of gestation (Day 14 and Day 24, respectively) in rabbit foetal placenta. We identified 11 differentially expressed proteins at Day 14 and 13 proteins at Day 24. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001840 and PXD001836. In addition, we demonstrate the presence of three proteins, serum albumin, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 [NADP+], and phosphoglycerate mutase 1, which were altered during pregnancy. We demonstrate the existence of changes in foetal placental protein during pregnancy induced by the vitrification procedure, which brings into question whether vitrification effects observed during foetal development could lead to physiological and metabolic disorders in adulthood. This effect, taken together with other effects reported in the literature, suggests that embryo cryopreservation is not neutral. PMID:25915775

  11. Maternal–Fetal Nutrient Transport in Pregnancy Pathologies: The Role of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Kendra Elizabeth; Ferraro, Zachary Michael; Yockell-Lelievre, Julien; Gruslin, Andrée; Adamo, Kristi Bree

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate in utero growth is essential for offspring development and is a critical contributor to long-term health. Fetal growth is largely dictated by the availability of nutrients in maternal circulation and the ability of these nutrients to be transported into fetal circulation via the placenta. Substrate flux across placental gradients is dependent on the accessibility and activity of nutrient-specific transporters. Changes in the expression and activity of these transporters is implicated in cases of restricted and excessive fetal growth, and may represent a control mechanism by which fetal growth rate attempts to match availability of nutrients in maternal circulation. This review provides an overview of placenta nutrient transport with an emphasis on macro-nutrient transporters. It highlights the changes in expression and activity of these transporters associated with common pregnancy pathologies, including intrauterine growth restriction, macrosomia, diabetes and obesity, as well as the potential impact of maternal diet. Molecular signaling pathways linking maternal nutrient availability and placenta nutrient transport are discussed. How sexual dimorphism affects fetal growth strategies and the placenta’s response to an altered intrauterine environment is considered. Further knowledge in this area may be the first step in the development of targeted interventions to help optimize fetal growth. PMID:25222554

  12. The characterization of fibrocyte-like cells: a novel fibroblastic cell of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M R; Winkler-Lowen, B; Chakrabarti, S; Dunk, C; Davidge, S T; Guilbert, L J

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is a highly vascularized organ thus angiogenesis is a key process in placental development. The contribution that different cells in the villous stroma play in placental angiogenesis is largely unknown. In this study we identified a novel stromal cell type in sections of term placenta which is morphologically fibroblastic and expressing the fibroblast marker TE-7 but also positive for the monocytic markers CD115 and CD14 and designated these cells as fibrocyte-like cells. Populations of fibrocyte-like cells from the placenta were isolated by two methods: culture of adherence-selected placental cells and, for higher purity, by CD45 fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Fibrocyte-like cell conditioned medium increased endothelial tubule-like structure formation 2-fold versus control medium. Both pro-angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and the anti-angiogenic factor soluble-Flt were found in the conditioned medium. Neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and b-FGF reduced endothelial cell tubule-like structures to control levels. These data suggests that fibrocyte-like cells, a previously unidentified cell of the villous stroma, may play an important role in the regulation of placental angiogenesis.

  13. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery.

  14. Artificial placenta--lung assist devices for term and preterm newborns with respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rochow, Niels; Chan, Emily C; Wu, Wen-I; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam R; Fusch, Gerhard; Berry, Leslie; Brash, John; Chan, Anthony K; Fusch, Christoph

    2013-06-25

    Respiratory insufficiency is a major cause of neonatal mortality and long-term morbidity, especially in very low birth weight infants. Today, non-invasive and mechanical ventilation are commonly accepted procedures to provide respiratory support to newborns, but they can reach their limit of efficacy. To overcome this technological plateau and further reduce mortality rates, the technology of an "artificial placenta", which is a pumpless lung assist device connected to the umbilical vessels, would serve to expand the therapeutic spectrum when mechanical ventilation becomes inadequate to treat neonates with severe respiratory insufficiency.
The first attempts to create such an artificial placenta took place more than 60 years ago. However, there has been a recent renaissance of this concept, including developments of its major components like the oxygenator, vascular access via umbilical vessels, flow control, as well as methods to achieve hemocompatibility in extracorporeal circuits. This paper gives a review of past and current development, animal experiments and human case studies of artificial placenta technology.

  15. A review of inter- and intraspecific variation in the eutherian placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gundling, William E.; Wildman, Derek E.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is one of the most morphologically variable mammalian organs. Four major characteristics are typically discussed when comparing the placentas of different eutherian species: placental shape, maternal–fetal interdigitation, intimacy of the maternal–fetal interface and the pattern of maternal–fetal blood flow. Here, we describe the evolution of three of these features as well as other key aspects of eutherian placentation. In addition to interspecific anatomical variation, there is also variation in placental anatomy and function within a single species. Much of this intraspecific variation occurs in response to different environmental conditions such as altitude and poor maternal nutrition. Examinations of variation in the placenta from both intra- and interspecies perspectives elucidate different aspects of placental function and dysfunction at the maternal–fetal interface. Comparisons within species identify candidate mechanisms that are activated in response to environmental stressors ultimately contributing to the aetiology of obstetric syndromes such as pre-eclampsia. Comparisons above the species level identify the evolutionary lineages on which the potential for the development of obstetric syndromes emerged. PMID:25602076

  16. A review of inter- and intraspecific variation in the eutherian placenta.

    PubMed

    Gundling, William E; Wildman, Derek E

    2015-03-01

    The placenta is one of the most morphologically variable mammalian organs. Four major characteristics are typically discussed when comparing the placentas of different eutherian species: placental shape, maternal-fetal interdigitation, intimacy of the maternal-fetal interface and the pattern of maternal-fetal blood flow. Here, we describe the evolution of three of these features as well as other key aspects of eutherian placentation. In addition to interspecific anatomical variation, there is also variation in placental anatomy and function within a single species. Much of this intraspecific variation occurs in response to different environmental conditions such as altitude and poor maternal nutrition. Examinations of variation in the placenta from both intra- and interspecies perspectives elucidate different aspects of placental function and dysfunction at the maternal-fetal interface. Comparisons within species identify candidate mechanisms that are activated in response to environmental stressors ultimately contributing to the aetiology of obstetric syndromes such as pre-eclampsia. Comparisons above the species level identify the evolutionary lineages on which the potential for the development of obstetric syndromes emerged. PMID:25602076

  17. Organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers in human placenta in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinjian; Xu, Zemin; Huang, Wei; Feng, Limin; Yang, Fangxing

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been widely used in various products as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. Although widespread OPE exposure is expected in humans, the accumulation of OPEs has seldom been studied in the human body. In this study, 12 OPE analogs were analyzed in 50 human placentas collected in Eastern China. The concentrations of the 9 most frequently detected OPEs (Σ9OPEs) ranged from 34.4 to 862ng/g lipid weight (lw), with a median of 301ng/g lw. Tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was identified as the most abundant analog, with a median concentration of 142ng/g lw, followed by tributoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP). Statistical analysis showed no analog of OPEs or Σ9OPEs was positively correlated with the lipid content of the placentas. There were no correlations observed between the OPE concentrations and maternal characteristics. Food consumption habits exhibited weak effects on OPE levels in the placentas. Further investigation is required to determine the effects of OPEs on fetuses due to the expected increase in maternal exposure to these esters. PMID:26950635

  18. Evidence for clock genes circadian rhythms in human full-term placenta.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Silvia; Murias, Lucía; Fernández-Plaza, Catalina; Díaz, Irene; González, Celestino; Otero, Jesús; Díaz, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Biological rhythms are driven by endogenous biological clocks; in mammals, the master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. This master pacemaker can synchronize other peripheral oscillators in several tissues such as some involved in endocrine or reproductive functions. The presence of an endogenous placental clock has received little attention. In fact, there are no studies in human full-term placentas. To test the existence of an endogenous pacemaker in this tissue we have studied the expression of circadian locomoter output cycles kaput (Clock), brain and muscle arnt-like (Bmal)1, period (Per)2, and cryptochrome (Cry)1 mRNAs at 00, 04, 08, 12, 16, and 20 hours by qPCR. The four clock genes studied are expressed in full-term human placenta. The results obtained allow us to suggest that a peripheral oscillator exists in human placenta. Data were analyzed using Fourier series where only the Clock and Bmal1 expression shows a circadian rhythm.

  19. Explaining Fetal Death--What Are the Contributions of Fetal Autopsy and Placenta Examination?

    PubMed

    Opsjøn, Bente Ediassen; Vogt, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to categorize fetal deaths by different diagnostic groups and see to what extent an autopsy of a presumably normal fetus contributes to the final diagnosis and how many unexplained fetal deaths remain unexplained after examination of the placenta. We reviewed autopsy reports of 351 fetuses with a gestational age of 12 or more weeks at the Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at St Olavs Hospital during the years 2001 through 2010. In our records, 38.5% (135 of 351) of the deaths were due to noninfectious placenta causes, 31.6% (111 of 351) were caused by infections, and 29.9% (105 of 351) of the fetal deaths remained unexplained after autopsy. We also found that an inconclusive report was more common early in pregnancy. The incidence of fetal loss due to circulatory disturbances in the placenta increased toward term. Infections were evenly distributed in intrauterine fetal deaths, although in spontaneous abortions, they were more frequent during the second trimester. For both explained and unexplained deaths, we observed a bimodal distribution, with peaks in the early second trimester and late third trimester toward term.

  20. Sox15 enhances trophoblast giant cell differentiation induced by Hand1 in mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Kanda, Hiromi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Ito, Michihiko

    2006-06-01

    Some members of the Sry-type HMG box (Sox) protein family play important roles in embryogenesis as transcription factors. Here, we report that Sox15 transcripts were much more abundant in mouse placenta than in the fetus, the yolk sac, or several adult tissues. In situ hybridization analysis of the mouse E8.0 conceptus indicated that Sox15 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the trophoblast giant cells of the placenta. We also observed that the amount of Sox15 mRNA dramatically increased during the differentiation of mouse trophoblast stem cells. Ectopic expression of Sox15 in Rat choriocarcinoma cells enhanced the giant cell differentiation induced by a bHLH transcription factor, Hand1. Binding experiments in cotransfected 293 T cells and in vitro revealed that Sox15 interacted with Hand1. We next examined the effects of this interaction on the transcriptional activity of Hand1 and Sox15 using the luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of Hand1 repressed the Sox15-driven reporter expression, but Sox15 enhanced the Hand1-driven transcription. This enhancement required both the Hand1-binding region and the transactivation domain of Sox15. These results may suggest that the increased transcriptional activity of Hand1 caused by Sox15 might promote the transcription of the target gene resulting in the trophoblast giant cell differentiation in the mouse placenta.

  1. Alternating nitroglycerin and syntocinon to facilitate uterine exploration and removal of an adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    Chan, A S; Ananthanarayan, C; Rolbin, S H

    1995-04-01

    Nitroglycerin (NTG) has been demonstrated to provide uterine relaxation in the management of various obstetric complications. A 32-yr-old woman presented 40 min postpartum for manual removal of a retained placenta. Repeated, alternating doses of NTG 250 micrograms and syntocinon (SYN) 10U iv were used over 15 min to produce periods of uterine relaxation and contraction respectively for uterine exploration. Multiple attempts to extract the placenta failed and a diagnosis of placenta accreta was made. There were no major side effects from this combination of drugs apart from a transient 20% decrease in blood pressure after NTG, which responded to ephedrine 10-15 mg iv. The rapid change in uterine tone was believed to be due not only to the short duration of action of NTG and SYN, but also to the possible physiological antagonism between the two drugs. The mechanism of interaction may involve calcium mobilization and myosin light chain phosphorylation. We conclude that NTG and SYN can be used to produce alternating periods of uterine relaxation and contraction rapidly and consistently with little sustained effects from either agents.

  2. Validation of a Metallomics Analysis of Placenta Tissue by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Fry, Rebecca C.; Weber, Frank X.; Sumner, Susan S.; Levine, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Trace elements can play an important role in maternal health and fetal development, and deficiencies in some essential minerals including zinc and copper have been correlated in some individuals to the development of birth defects and adverse health outcomes later in life. The exact etiology of conditions like preeclampsia and the effects of fetal exposure to toxic metals has not been determined, making the assessment of trace element levels crucial to the elucidation of the causes of conditions like preeclampsia. Previous studies analyzing serum and placenta tissue have produced conflicting findings, suggesting the need for a robust, validated sample preparation and analysis method for the determination of trace elements in placenta. In this report, an acid digestion method and analysis by ICP-MS for a broad metallomics/mineralomics panel of trace elements is developed and validated over three experimental days for inter- and intraday precision and accuracy, linear range, matrix impact, and dilution verification. Spike recovery experiments were performed for the essential elements chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), and the toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) at levels equal to and in excess of native concentrations in control placenta tissue. The validated method will be essential for the development of scientific studies of maternal health and toxic metal exposure effects in childhood. PMID:26155965

  3. Validation of a Metallomics Analysis of Placenta Tissue by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Young, Daniel J; Fry, Rebecca C; Weber, Frank X; Sumner, Susan S; Levine, Keith E

    2016-02-01

    Trace elements can play an important role in maternal health and fetal development, and deficiencies in some essential minerals including zinc and copper have been correlated in some individuals to the development of birth defects and adverse health outcomes later in life. The exact etiology of conditions like preeclampsia and the effects of fetal exposure to toxic metals has not been determined, making the assessment of trace element levels crucial to the elucidation of the causes of conditions like preeclampsia. Previous studies analyzing serum and placenta tissue have produced conflicting findings, suggesting the need for a robust, validated sample preparation and analysis method for the determination of trace elements in placenta. In this report, an acid digestion method and analysis by ICP-MS for a broad metallomics/mineralomics panel of trace elements is developed and validated over three experimental days for inter- and intraday precision and accuracy, linear range, matrix impact, and dilution verification. Spike recovery experiments were performed for the essential elements chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), and the toxic elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) at levels equal to and in excess of native concentrations in control placenta tissue. The validated method will be essential for the development of scientific studies of maternal health and toxic metal exposure effects in childhood.

  4. [Age-related features of immunocompetent cells of human placenta associated with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Durnova, A O; Poliakova, V O; Pal'chenko, N A

    2010-01-01

    The immune-competent cells of placenta play the important role in protection of developing fetus against infectious agents; but their dysfunction can lead to development of placental insufficiency that affects health both fetus and mother. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of presence of immune competent cells in villous chorion of mature placenta, taken from women with diabetes of different age groups. In our study we found three subpopulations of immune cells in villous chorion of mature placenta: natural killer cells (NK), B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Prevailing subpopulation are macrophages, they are detected 1,8 times more often than B-lymphocytes, and 2,3 times more often than NK. The quantity of immune competent cells in groups with diabetes of various types is different. Thus, the greatest number of macrophages was detected in group with diabetes type II of middle age (29-35 years)-- 4.62 +/- 0.93%, B-lymphocytes in group of women with diabetes type I of younger age (18-28 years)--2.50 +/- 0.30%, NK-cells in group with diabetes type I of younger age--1.98 +/- 0,42%. Analysis of received data showed the differences in expression of markers of immune cells in women of different age groups, which brings about the conclusion of various reactance of immune system of women with diabetes depending on age. PMID:21033374

  5. Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Oriol, Guy; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Ruel, Karine; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Mallet, François

    2009-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5′LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5′LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs. PMID:19561344

  6. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and nanobacterial-like infection.

    PubMed

    Agababov, R M; Abashina, T N; Suzina, N E; Vainshtein, M B; Schwartsburd, P M

    2007-09-01

    The placenta is a vitally important organ in the regulation of embryonic development. That is why extensive calcium deposition [also named as pathological placental calcification (PPC)] could have serious negative consequences for the adequate growth of embryos. The nature and mechanism of PPC development has not been defined as yet. In the present investigation, we have tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of PPC development consists of nanobacteria-induced calcification in infected female placenta. Electron microscopy findings support this hypothesis. The initial stage of micro-calcification may originate from the external surface of individual nanobacteria-like particles found mainly in placental extracellular matrix, where initial calcium deposition occurs as a needle surface deposition or as an amorphous-like surface precipitate. Further calcific propagation in placenta takes place in the newly formed macro-cavities, which are characterized by low electron density, possibly reflecting its liquid content around calcium deposition. The micro-cavities contain free nanobacterial-like particles, which may relate to atypical Gram-negative bacteria but not to apoptotic bodies by morphological characters and DNA/RNA distribution. We hypothesize that the increased placental calcification might be caused, at least in part, by nanobacterial infection. PMID:17954977

  7. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Katia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Coletti, Mauro; Capomaccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env) protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora), the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia), and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse) where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has "captured" a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower) thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated. PMID:27176223

  8. Chronic inflammation of the placenta: definition, classification, pathogenesis, and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammatory lesions of the placenta are characterized by the infiltration of the organ by lymphocytes, plasma cells, and/or macrophages and may result from infections (viral, bacterial, parasitic) or be of immune origin (maternal anti-fetal rejection). The 3 major lesions are villitis (when the inflammatory process affects the villous tree), chronic chorioamnionitis (which affects the chorioamniotic membranes), and chronic deciduitis (which involves the decidua basalis). Maternal cellular infiltration is a common feature of the lesions. Villitis of unknown etiology (VUE) is a destructive villous inflammatory lesion that is characterized by the infiltration of maternal T cells (CD8+ cytotoxic T cells) into chorionic villi. Migration of maternal T cells into the villi is driven by the production of T-cell chemokines in the affected villi. Activation of macrophages in the villi has been implicated in the destruction of the villous architecture. VUE has been reported in association with preterm and term fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, fetal death, and preterm labor. Infants whose placentas have VUE are at risk for death and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years. Chronic chorioamnionitis is the most common lesion in late spontaneous preterm birth and is characterized by the infiltration of maternal CD8+ T cells into the chorioamniotic membranes. These cytotoxic T cells can induce trophoblast apoptosis and damage the fetal membranes. The lesion frequently is accompanied by VUE. Chronic deciduitis consists of the presence of lymphocytes or plasma cells in the basal plate of the placenta. This lesion is more common in pregnancies that result from egg donation and has been reported in a subset of patients with premature labor. Chronic placental inflammatory lesions can be due to maternal anti-fetal rejection, a process associated with the development of a novel form of fetal systemic inflammatory response. The syndrome is characterized

  9. Cadmium-induced teratogenicity: Association with ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhong Mei; Ji, Yan-Li; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Mei; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-03-01

    The placenta is essential for sustaining the growth of the fetus. An increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with the impaired placental and fetal development. Cadmium (Cd) is a potent teratogen that caused fetal malformation and growth restriction. The present study investigated the effects of maternal Cd exposure on placental and fetal development. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl{sub 2} (4.5 mg/kg) on gestational day 9. As expected, maternal Cd exposure during early limb development significantly increased the incidences of forelimb ectrodactyly in fetuses. An obvious impairment in the labyrinth, a highly developed tissue of blood vessels, was observed in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. In addition, maternal Cd exposure markedly repressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in placenta. An additional experiment showed that maternal Cd exposure significantly upregulated the expression of GRP78, an ER chaperone. Moreover, maternal Cd exposure induced the phosphorylation of placental eIF2α, a downstream molecule of PERK signaling. In addition, maternal Cd exposure significantly increased the level of placental CHOP, another target of PERK signaling, indicating that the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling was activated in placenta of mice treated with CdCl{sub 2}. Interestingly, alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone, a free radical spin-trapping agent, significantly alleviated Cd-induced placental ER stress and UPR. Taken together, these results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress might be involved in Cd-induced impairment on placental and fetal development. Antioxidants may be used as pharmacological agents to protect against Cd-induced fetal malformation and growth restriction. -- Highlights: ► Cd induces fetal malformation and growth restriction. ► Cd induced placental ER stress and UPR. ► PBN alleviates Cd-induced ER stress and UPR in placenta. ► ROS-mediated ER

  10. Mid-Gestational Gene Expression Profile in Placenta and Link to Pregnancy Complications

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, Liis; Männik, Jaana; Rull, Kristiina; Minajeva, Ave; Kõks, Sulev; Vaas, Pille; Teesalu, Pille; Reimand, Jüri; Laan, Maris

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of placenta in mediating rapid physiological changes in pregnancy, data on temporal dynamics of placental gene expression are limited. We completed the first transcriptome profiling of human placental gene expression dynamics (GeneChips, Affymetrix®; ∼47,000 transcripts) from early to mid-gestation (n = 10; gestational weeks 5–18) and report 154 genes with significant transcriptional changes (ANOVA, FDR P<0.1). TaqMan RT-qPCR analysis (n = 43; gestational weeks 5–41) confirmed a significant (ANOVA and t-test, FDR P<0.05) mid-gestational peak of placental gene expression for BMP5, CCNG2, CDH11, FST, GATM, GPR183, ITGBL1, PLAGL1, SLC16A10 and STC1, followed by sharp decrease in mRNA levels at term (t-test, FDR P<0.05). We hypothesized that normal course of late pregnancy may be affected when genes characteristic to mid-gestation placenta remain highly expressed until term, and analyzed their expression in term placentas from normal and complicated pregnancies [preeclampsia (PE), n = 12; gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), n = 12; small- and large-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA, LGA), n = 12+12]. STC1 (stanniocalcin 1) exhibited increased mRNA levels in all studied complications, with the most significant effect in PE- and SGA-groups (t-test, FDR P<0.05). In post-partum maternal plasma, the highest STC1 hormone levels (ELISA, n = 129) were found in women who had developed PE and delivered a SGA newborn (median 731 vs 418 pg/ml in controls; ANCOVA, P = 0.00048). Significantly higher expression (t-test, FDR P<0.05) of CCNG2 and LYPD6 accompanied with enhanced immunostaining of the protein was detected in placental sections of PE and GDM cases (n = 15). Our study demonstrates the importance of temporal dynamics of placental transcriptional regulation across three trimesters of gestation. Interestingly, many genes with high expression in mid-gestation placenta have also been implicated in adult complex

  11. Early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear-derived cloned embryo.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Masahito; Gohma, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Taniguchi, Yukio; Yasue, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seiya; Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Successful somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning has been reported in cattle; however, the cloned embryo is highly susceptible to death around day 60 of gestation leading to early embryonic loss. The early embryonic death is postulated to possibly arise in part from an atypical placentation. We have performed cDNA macroarray analysis using 3,353 of the previously cataloged 4,165 genes, in order to characterize the early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. A more marked difference in the expression profiles was observed between the fetal placentas of the cows with the cloned immotile embryo (CD) and with the cloned motile embryo (CL) or artificial insemination-derived motile embryo (AI), as compared to between the CL and AI placentas, suggesting an aberration of the expression profile in the CD placenta among the three placentas. Further, 291 and 77 genes showed more than twofold elevation and less than 50% reduction, respectively, in either or both of two CD (CD1 and CD2) placentas in comparison with the CL placenta, but no differential expression between the CL and AI placentas. The expression patterns of six genes in the AI, CL, and CD placentas were confirmed in an experiment with an additional sample for each of the three placentas. Among the placental genes showing the early embryonic death-associated changes of expression in the cow with the cloned embryo, IGF2 (elevated gene), and HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1 genes (reduced gene) are intriguing in that the changes of expression in these genes were observed in an additional sample of CD placenta as well as the CD1 and CD2 placentas, and in that overexpression (for IGF2) and dysfunction or deficiency (for HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1) result in embryonic lethality.

  12. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  13. In utero arsenic exposure and epigenome-wide associations in placenta, umbilical artery, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Andres; Houseman, E Andres; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C; Kile, Molly L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic early in life has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases and is believed to alter epigenetic programming in utero. In the present study, we evaluate the epigenome-wide association of arsenic exposure in utero and DNA methylation in placenta (n = 37), umbilical artery (n = 45) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) (n = 52) in a birth cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Unadjusted and cell mixture adjusted associations for each tissue were examined along with enrichment analyses relative to CpG island location and omnibus permutation tests of association among biological pathways. One CpG in artery (cg26587014) and 4 CpGs in placenta (cg12825509; cg20554753; cg23439277; cg21055948) reached a Bonferroni adjusted level of significance. Several CpGs were differentially methylated in artery and placenta when controlling the false discovery rate (q-value<0.05), but none in HUVEC. Enrichment of hypomethylated CpG islands was observed for artery while hypermethylation of open sea regions were present in placenta relative to prenatal arsenic exposure. The melanogenesis pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P < 0.001), placenta (Max F P < 0.001), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Similarly, the insulin-signaling pathway was differentially methylated in artery (Max F P = 0.02), placenta (Max F P = 0.02), and HUVEC (Max F P = 0.02). Our results show that prenatal arsenic exposure can alter DNA methylation in artery and placenta but not in HUVEC. Further studies are needed to determine if these alterations in DNA methylation mediate the effect of prenatal arsenic exposure and health outcomes later in life.

  14. The Placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: Insights into Placental Evolution in Liverworts

    PubMed Central

    CARAFA, A.; DUCKETT, J. G.; LIGRONE, R.

    2003-01-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron‐opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter‐relationships and possible phylogeny. PMID:12876192

  15. Effects of Gestational Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Methylation Status of Leptin Promoter in the Placenta and Cord Blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Feng-Shan; Lian, Jian-Min; Dou, She-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for diagnosis in gestational women. Though it has several advantages, animal and human studies on the safety of MRI for the fetus remain inconclusive. Epigenetic modifications, which are crucial for cellular functioning, are prone to being affected by environmental changes. Therefore, we hypothesized that MRI during gestation may cause epigenetic modification alterations. Here, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of leptin promoter in the placenta and cord blood of women exposed to MRI during gestation. Results showed that average methylation levels of leptin in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by MRI. We also found that the methylation levels in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by different magnetic fields (1.5T and 3.0T MRI). However, if pregnant women were exposed to MRI at 15 to 20 weeks of gestation, the methylation level of leptin in cord blood was visibly lower than that of pregnant women exposed to MRI after 20-weeks of gestation (P = 0.037). mRNA expression level of leptin in cord blood was also altered, though mRNA expression of leptin in the placenta was not significantly affected. Therefore, we concluded that gestational MRI may not have major effects on the methylation level of leptin in cord blood and the placenta except for MRI applied before 20 weeks of gestation.

  16. Reorganization of extracellular matrix in placentas from women with asymptomatic chagas disease: mechanism of parasite invasion or local placental defense?

    PubMed

    Duaso, Juan; Yanez, Erika; Castillo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Corral, Gabriela; Maya, Juan Diego; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi.

  17. Reorganization of Extracellular Matrix in Placentas from Women with Asymptomatic Chagas Disease: Mechanism of Parasite Invasion or Local Placental Defense?

    PubMed Central

    Duaso, Juan; Yanez, Erika; Castillo, Christian; Galanti, Norbel; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Corral, Gabriela; Maya, Juan Diego; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease, produced by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is one of the most frequent endemic diseases in Latin America. In spite the fact that in the past few years T. cruzi congenital transmission has become of epidemiological importance, studies about this mechanism of infection are scarce. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we analyzed placentas from T. cruzi-infected mothers by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection in mothers, newborns, and placentas was confirmed by PCR and by immunofluorescence in the placenta. T. cruzi-infected placentas present destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast and villous stroma, selective disorganization of the basal lamina, and disorganization of collagen I in villous stroma. Our results suggest that the parasite induces reorganization of this tissue component and in this way may regulate both inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Changes in the ECM of placental tissues, together with the immunological status of mother and fetus, and parasite load may determine the probability of congenital transmission of T. cruzi. PMID:22007243

  18. Effects of Gestational Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Methylation Status of Leptin Promoter in the Placenta and Cord Blood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Feng-Shan; Lian, Jian-Min; Dou, She-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used for diagnosis in gestational women. Though it has several advantages, animal and human studies on the safety of MRI for the fetus remain inconclusive. Epigenetic modifications, which are crucial for cellular functioning, are prone to being affected by environmental changes. Therefore, we hypothesized that MRI during gestation may cause epigenetic modification alterations. Here, we investigated DNA methylation patterns of leptin promoter in the placenta and cord blood of women exposed to MRI during gestation. Results showed that average methylation levels of leptin in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by MRI. We also found that the methylation levels in the placenta and cord blood were not affected by different magnetic fields (1.5T and 3.0T MRI). However, if pregnant women were exposed to MRI at 15 to 20 weeks of gestation, the methylation level of leptin in cord blood was visibly lower than that of pregnant women exposed to MRI after 20-weeks of gestation (P = 0.037). mRNA expression level of leptin in cord blood was also altered, though mRNA expression of leptin in the placenta was not significantly affected. Therefore, we concluded that gestational MRI may not have major effects on the methylation level of leptin in cord blood and the placenta except for MRI applied before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:26789724

  19. Effects of Concentration and Reaction Time of Trypsin, Pepsin, and Chymotrypsin on the Hydrolysis Efficiency of Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung-Hun; Choi, Ye-Chul; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three proteases (trypsin, pepsin and chymotrypsin) on the hydrolysis efficiency of porcine placenta and the molecular weight (Mw) distributions of the placental hydrolysates. Because placenta was made up of insoluble collagen, the placenta was gelatinized by applying thermal treatment at 90 ℃ for 1 h and used as the sample. The placental hydrolyzing activities of the enzymes at varying concentrations and incubation times were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Based on the SDS-PAGE, the best placental hydrolysis efficiency was observed in trypsin treatments where all peptide bands disappeared after 1 h of incubation as compared to 6 h of chymotrypsin. Pepsin hardly hydrolyzed the placenta as compared to the other two enzymes. The Mw distribution revealed that the trypsin produced placental peptides with Mw of 106 and 500 Da. Peptides produced by chymotrypsin exhibited broad ranges of Mw distribution (1-20 kDa), while the pepsin treatment showed Mw greater than 7 kDa. For comparisons of pre-treatments, the subcritical water processing (37.5 MPa and 200 ℃ of raw placenta improved the efficiency of tryptic digestions to a greater level than that of a preheating treatment (90 ℃ for 1 h). Consequently, subcritical water processing followed by enzymatic digestions has the potential of an advanced collagen hydrolysis technique. PMID:26760932

  20. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  1. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development.

  2. The placenta in Monoclea forsteri Hook. and Treubia lacunosa (Col.) Prosk: insights into placental evolution in liverworts.

    PubMed

    Carafa, A; Duckett, J G; Ligrone, R

    2003-08-01

    Placental morphology is remarkably diverse between major bryophyte groups, especially with regard to the presence and distribution of transfer cells in the sporophyte and gametophyte. In contrast, with the exception of metzgerialean liverworts, placental morphology is highly conserved within major bryophyte groups. Here we examine the ultrastructure of the placenta in Monoclea forsteri and Treubia lacunosa, basal members of the marchantialean and metzgerialean liverwort lineages, respectively. In both species several layers of transfer cells are found on both sides of the placenta, with sporophytic transfer cells exhibiting prominent wall labyrinths. Consistent with previous reports of a similar placenta in other putatively basal and isolated liverwort genera such as Fossombronia, Haplomitrium, Blasia and Sphaerocarpos, this finding suggests that this type of placenta represents the plesiomorphic (primitive) condition in liverworts. Distinctive ultrastructural features of placental cells in Monoclea include branched plasmodesmata in the sporophyte and prominent arrays of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, seemingly active in secretion in the gametophyte. These arrays contain a core of narrow tubules interconnected by electron-opaque rods, structures with no precedent in plants. Analysis of the distribution of different types of placenta in major bryophyte groups provides valuable insights into their inter-relationships and possible phylogeny.

  3. 'Working' cardiomyocytes exhibiting plateau action potentials from human placenta-derived extraembryonic mesodermal cells.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Toyoda, Masashi; Hida, Naoko; Ikegami, Yukinori; Makino, Hatsune; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroko; Cui, Chang-Hao; Segawa, Kaoru; Uyama, Taro; Kami, Daisuke; Miyado, Kenji; Asada, Hironori; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Ogawa, Satoshi; Aeba, Ryo; Yozu, Ryohei; Umezawa, Akihiro

    2007-07-15

    The clinical application of cell transplantation for severe heart failure is a promising strategy to improve impaired cardiac function. Recently, an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, have become important candidates for cell sources for cardiac repair. In the present study, we focused on the placenta as a cell source. Cells from the chorionic plate in the fetal portion of the human placenta were obtained after delivery by the primary culture method, and the cells generated in this study had the Y sex chromosome, indicating that the cells were derived from the fetus. The cells potentially expressed 'working' cardiomyocyte-specific genes such as cardiac myosin heavy chain 7beta, atrial myosin light chain, cardiac alpha-actin by gene chip analysis, and Csx/Nkx2.5, GATA4 by RT-PCR, cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 by immunohistochemistry. These cells were able to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac troponin-I and connexin 43 displayed a discontinuous pattern of localization at intercellular contact sites after cardiomyogenic differentiation, suggesting that the chorionic mesoderm contained a large number of cells with cardiomyogenic potential. The cells began spontaneously beating 3 days after co-cultivation with murine fetal cardiomyocytes and the frequency of beating cells reached a maximum on day 10. The contraction of the cardiomyocytes was rhythmical and synchronous, suggesting the presence of electrical communication between the cells. Placenta-derived human fetal cells may be useful for patients who cannot supply bone marrow cells but want to receive stem cell-based cardiac therapy.

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Litter Size in Berkshire Pig Placenta.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kang, Deok Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Hee; Kim, Il-Suk; Park, Hwa Chun; Na, Chong-Sam; Ha, Jeongim; Kim, Chul Wook

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups. In total 588 DEGs were identified (p < 0.05, > 1.5-fold change), of which 98 were upregulated, while 490 were downregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was also performed. We concluded that 129 of the 588 DEGs were closely related to litter size according to reproduction related genes selected based on previous reports, as 110 genes were downregulated and 19 upregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. RT-qPCR utilizing specific primers targeting the early growth response 2 (EGR2), pheromaxein c subunit (PHEROC) and endothelial lipase (LIPG) genes showed high accordance with RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, we investigated the upstream regulators of these three genes in the placenta. We found that WNT9B, a Wnt signaling pathway molecule, and IL-6, known inducers of EGR2 and LIPG, respectively, were significantly increased in LLG compared with SLG. We believe that the induction of IL-6 and LIPG may play an important role in increasing nutrition supply through the placenta from the sow to the piglet during gestation. These results provide novel molecular insights into pig reproduction.

  5. Transcriptomic signatures of villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in term human placenta.

    PubMed

    Rouault, Christine; Clément, Karine; Guesnon, Mickael; Henegar, Corneliu; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Degrelle, Séverine A; Fournier, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    During pregnancy, the placenta ensures multiple functions, which are directly involved in the initiation, fetal growth and outcome of gestation. The placental tissue involved in maternal-fetal exchanges and in synthesis of pregnancy hormones is the mononucleated villous cytotrophoblast (VCT) which aggregates and fuses to form and renew the syncytiotrophoblast (ST). Knowledge of the gene expression pattern specific to this endocrine and exchanges tissue of human placenta is of major importance to understand functions of this heterogeneous and complex tissue. Therefore, we undertook a global analysis of the gene expression profiles of primary cultured-VCT (n = 6) and in vitro-differentiated-ST (n = 5) in comparison with whole term placental tissue from which mononucleated VCT were isolated. A total of 880 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were observed between VCT/ST compared to whole placenta, and a total of 37 and 137 genes were significantly up and down-regulated, respectively, in VCT compared to ST. The 37 VCT-genes were involved in cellular processes (assembly, organization, and maintenance), whereas the 137 ST-genes were associated with lipid metabolism and cell morphology. In silico, all networks were linked to 3 transcriptional regulators (PPARγ, RARα and NR2F1) which are known to be essential for trophoblast differentiation. A subset of six DEG was validated by RT-qPCR and four by immunohistochemistry. To conclude, recognition of these pathways is fundamental to increase our understanding of the molecular basis of human trophoblast differentiation. The present study provides for the first time a gene expression signature of the VCT and ST compared to their originated term human placental tissue. PMID:27452442

  6. Effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone on reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K E; Doig, P A; Bosu, W T; Curtis, R A; Martin, S W

    1984-01-01

    The effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows with retained placenta were studied. Three hundred and seventy-eight cows diagnosed as having retained placenta received intramuscular injections of either 2 mL sterile water or 200 micrograms of GnRH in 2 mL sterile water between day 8 and day 14 postpartum. Rectal palpation was performed at the time of treatment and ten to 20 days after treatment in order to determine the rate of uterine involution. Thereafter, monthly rectal examinations were carried out until insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was made by rectal palpation at 40 days or more after breeding. Using the entire experimental population, there were no significant differences between GnRH-treated and control cows for the rate of uterine involution, the occurrence of reproductive problems, the interval from parturition to first observed estrus, the interval from parturition to first insemination, the interval from parturition to conception, the number of services per conception, the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and the incidence of culling for infertility. When the data for herds in which breeding began earlier in the postpartum period (herds having a mean less than or equal to 80 days from parturition to first service for retained placenta cows) were considered, the GnRH treatment resulted in a significantly shorter (p less than or equal to 0.01) calving to conception interval as compared to control cows. Also, there was a significant reduction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the total number of services per cow regardless of conception and a significant reduction in the interval from parturition to first service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6391640

  7. Diffusive transfer of water and glucose across the chorionic plate of the isolated human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H J; Dehne, K; Andreas, T; Rägo, S; Rybakowski, C

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated systematically the diffusive transfer of water and glucose across the chorionic plate of the human placenta. Isolated sections of human term placentae were perfused at the fetal side (open loop) with modified Ringer's solution (n=31). An artificial amniotic compartment was created on top of the chorionic plate. 3H- and 14C-labelled tracer pairs were added (donor side) to the fetal perfusion fluid or to the 'amniotic' fluid. Transfer fractions (TF, ratio of acceptor side to donor side radioactivity) were calculated as percentages. TF of water and L-glucose from perfusion fluid into the 'amniotic' fluid were 3.9+/-0.5 per cent (mean+/-SEM) and 1.2+/-0.3 per cent after 60 min and significantly different (n=6). In each sample of the following experiments the transfer fraction of the D-hexose was larger than that of the L-isomer. At 60 min, the TF were 1.6+/-0.2 and 1.1+/-0.2 per cent (D-glucose/L-glucose; fetal to amniotic compartment, n=8), from amniotic compartment to fetal perfusate 0.6+/-0.1 and 0.4+/-0.1 per cent (D-glucose/L-glucose, n=11), and 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.6+/-0.1 per cent (3-O-methyl-D-glucose/L-glucose, n=6). The difference between the latter TF lost its significance after cytochalasin B (0.1-0.2 mmol/l) had been added to the amniotic compartment. It is concluded that a limited diffusive pathway across the chorionic plate of the human placenta exists and that the transfer of D-glucose depends in part on facilitated diffusion.

  8. Relationship of Liver X Receptors α and Endoglin Levels in Serum and Placenta with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Xing; Wu, Hong-yan; Wu, Nan; Zhang, Xue-jun; Wang, Xin; Shang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and endoglin have been postulated to play roles in trophoblast invasion and lipid metabolic disturbances. However, the relationship between LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta of patients with preeclampsia remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify correlations between LXRα, endoglin and preeclampsia and provide new feasible methods of clinical prediction and treatment for preeclampsia. Methods We enrolled 45 patients with preeclampsia (24 with moderate preeclampsia and 21 with severe preeclampsia) and 15 normal pregnant women (control group) who were admitted to the Department of Obstetrics of the General Hospital of Beijing Command between October 2012 and July 2013 in this study. Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative PCR, tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Results Serum and placental LXRα and endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than those in control group (P<0.05, each). Moreover, patients with severe preeclampsia displayed significantly higher LXRα and endoglin levels than those with moderate preeclampsia (P<0.05, each). The LXRα sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 66.00%, 80.00%, 89.19% and 48.48%, respectively, while those of endoglin levels were 62.00%, 85.00%, 91.18% and 47.22%, respectively. LXRα and endoglin levels in serum and placenta from patients with preeclampsia were positively correlated (serum: r = 0.486, P<0.01; placenta: r = 0.569, P<0.01). Conclusions Elevated LXRα and endoglin levels may be associated with preeclampsia pathogenesis and development and could be used as potential predictors for this disorder. PMID:27736929

  9. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Litter Size in Berkshire Pig Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kang, Deok Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Hee; Kim, Il-Suk; Park, Hwa Chun; Na, Chong-Sam; Ha, Jeongim; Kim, Chul Wook

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups. In total 588 DEGs were identified (p < 0.05, > 1.5-fold change), of which 98 were upregulated, while 490 were downregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was also performed. We concluded that 129 of the 588 DEGs were closely related to litter size according to reproduction related genes selected based on previous reports, as 110 genes were downregulated and 19 upregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. RT-qPCR utilizing specific primers targeting the early growth response 2 (EGR2), pheromaxein c subunit (PHEROC) and endothelial lipase (LIPG) genes showed high accordance with RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, we investigated the upstream regulators of these three genes in the placenta. We found that WNT9B, a Wnt signaling pathway molecule, and IL-6, known inducers of EGR2 and LIPG, respectively, were significantly increased in LLG compared with SLG. We believe that the induction of IL-6 and LIPG may play an important role in increasing nutrition supply through the placenta from the sow to the piglet during gestation. These results provide novel molecular insights into pig reproduction. PMID:27078025

  10. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver–Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  11. Lipidomic Assessment of Plasma and Placenta of Women with Early-Onset Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Korkes, Henri Augusto; Sass, Nelson; Moron, Antonio F.; Câmara, Niels Olsen S.; Bonetti, Tatiana; Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; De Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adipose tissue is responsible for triggering chronic systemic inflammatory response and these changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Objective To characterize the lipid profile in the placenta and plasma of patients with preeclampsia. Methodology Samples were collected from placenta and plasma of 10 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 10 controls. Lipids were extracted using the Bligh–Dyer protocol and were analysed by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. Results Approximately 200 lipid signals were quantified. The most prevalent lipid present in plasma of patients with preeclampsia was the main class Glycerophosphoserines-GP03 (PS) representing 52.30% of the total lipid composition, followed by the main classes Glycerophosphoethanolamines-GP02 (PEt), Glycerophosphocholines-GP01 (PC) and Flavanoids-PK12 (FLV), with 24.03%, 9.47% and 8.39% respectively. When compared to the control group, plasma samples of patients with preeclampsia showed an increase of PS (p<0.0001), PC (p<0.0001) and FLV (p<0.0001). Placental analysis of patients with preeclampsia, revealed the PS as the most prevalent lipid representing 56.28%, followed by the main class Macrolides/polyketides-PK04 with 32.77%, both with increased levels when compared with patients control group, PS (p<0.0001) and PK04 (p<0.0001). Conclusion Lipids found in placenta and plasma from patients with preeclampsia differ from those of pregnant women in the control group. Further studies are needed to clarify if these changes are specific and a cause or consequence of preeclampsia. PMID:25329382

  12. Epigenetic Characterization of CDKN1C in Placenta Samples from Non-syndromic Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    López-Abad, Miriam; Iglesias-Platas, Isabel; Monk, David

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C) gene is expressed from the maternal allele and is located within the centromeric imprinted domain at chromosome 11p15. It is a negative regulator of proliferation, with loss-of-function mutations associated with the overgrowth disorder Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Recently, gain-of-function mutations within the PCNA domain have been described in two disorders characterized by growth failure, namely IMAGe (intra-uterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital abnormalities) syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Over-expression of CDKN1C by maternally inherited microduplications also results in SRS, suggesting that in addition to activating mutations this gene may regulate growth by changes in dosage. To determine if CDKN1C is involved in non-syndromic IUGR we compared the expression and DNA methylation levels in a large cohort of placental biopsies from IUGR and uneventful pregnancies. We observe higher levels of expression of CDKN1C in IUGR placentas compared to those of controls. All placenta biopsies heterozygous for the PAPA repeat sequence in exon 2 showed appropriate monoallelic expression and no mutations in the PCNA domain were observed. The expression profile was independent of both genetic or methylation variation in the minimal CDKN1C promoter interval and of methylation of the cis-acting maternally methylated region associated with the neighboring KCNQ1OT1 non-coding RNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed binding sites for CTCF within the unmethylated CDKN1C gene body CpG island and putative enhancer regions, associated with the canonical enhancer histone signature, H3K4me1 and H3K27ac, located ∼58 and 360 kb away. Using 3C-PCR we identify constitutive higher-order chromatin loops that occur between one of these putative enhancer regions and CDKN1C in human placenta tissues, which we propose facilitates expression. PMID:27200075

  13. Phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta: an experimental and modeling investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lofthouse, E. M.; Perazzolo, S.; Brooks, S.; Crocker, I. P.; Glazier, J. D.; Johnstone, E. D.; Panitchob, N.; Sibley, C. P.; Widdows, K. L.; Sengers, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transporters are considered essential for placental amino acid transfer, but the contribution of other factors, such as blood flow and metabolism, is poorly defined. In this study we combine experimental and modeling approaches to understand the determinants of [14C]phenylalanine transfer across the isolated perfused human placenta. Transfer of [14C]phenylalanine across the isolated perfused human placenta was determined at different maternal and fetal flow rates. Maternal flow rate was set at 10, 14, and 18 ml/min for 1 h each. At each maternal flow rate, fetal flow rates were set at 3, 6, and 9 ml/min for 20 min each. Appearance of [14C]phenylalanine was measured in the maternal and fetal venous exudates. Computational modeling of phenylalanine transfer was undertaken to allow comparison of the experimental data with predicted phenylalanine uptake and transfer under different initial assumptions. Placental uptake (mol/min) of [14C]phenylalanine increased with maternal, but not fetal, flow. Delivery (mol/min) of [14C]phenylalanine to the fetal circulation was not associated with fetal or maternal flow. The absence of a relationship between placental phenylalanine uptake and net flux of phenylalanine to the fetal circulation suggests that factors other than flow or transporter-mediated uptake are important determinants of phenylalanine transfer. These observations could be explained by tight regulation of free amino acid levels within the placenta or properties of the facilitated transporters mediating phenylalanine transport. We suggest that amino acid metabolism, primarily incorporation into protein, is controlling free amino acid levels and, thus, placental transfer. PMID:26676251

  14. A genome-wide approach reveals novel imprinted genes expressed in the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Barbaux, Sandrine; Gascoin-Lachambre, Géraldine; Buffat, Christophe; Monnier, Paul; Mondon, Françoise; Tonanny, Marie-Béatrice; Pinard, Amélie; Auer, Jana; Bessières, Bettina; Barlier, Anne; Jacques, Sébastien; Simeoni, Umberto; Dandolo, Luisa; Letourneur, Franck; Jammes, Hélène; Vaiman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting characterizes genes with a monoallelic expression, which is dependent on the parental origin of each allele. Approximately 150 imprinted genes are known to date, in humans and mice but, though computational searches have tried to extract intrinsic characteristics of these genes to identify new ones, the existing list is probably far from being comprehensive. We used a high-throughput strategy by diverting the classical use of genotyping microarrays to compare the genotypes of mRNA/cDNA vs. genomic DNA to identify new genes presenting monoallelic expression, starting from human placental material. After filtering of data, we obtained a list of 1,082 putative candidate monoallelic SNPs located in more than one hundred candidate genes. Among these, we found known imprinted genes, such as IPW, GRB10, INPP5F and ZNF597, which contribute to validate the approach. We also explored some likely candidates of our list and identified seven new imprinted genes, including ZFAT, ZFAT-AS1, GLIS3, NTM, MAGI2, ZC3H12Cand LIN28B, four of which encode zinc finger transcription factors. They are, however, not imprinted in the mouse placenta, except for Magi2. We analyzed in more details the ZFAT gene, which is paternally expressed in the placenta (as ZFAT-AS1, a non-coding antisense RNA) but biallelic in other tissues. The ZFAT protein is expressed in endothelial cells, as well as in syncytiotrophoblasts. The expression of this gene is, moreover, downregulated in placentas from complicated pregnancies. With this work we increase by about 10% the number of known imprinted genes in humans. PMID:22894909

  15. Regions of variable DNA methylation in human placenta associated with newborn neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Alison G; Houseman, E Andres; Green, Benjamin B; Lesseur, Corina; Armstrong, David A; Lester, Barry; Marsit, Carmen J

    2016-08-01

    The placenta regulates the in utero environment and functionally impacts fetal development. Candidate gene studies identified variation in placental DNA methylation is associated with newborn neurologic and behavioral outcomes including movement quality, lethargic behavior, attention, and arousal. We sought to identify novel regions of variable DNA methylation associated with newborn attention, lethargy, quality of movement, and arousal by performing an epigenome-wide association study in 335 infants from a US birth cohort. Methylation status was quantified using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and associations to newborn outcomes assessed by the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) were identified while incorporating established bioinformatics algorithms to control for confounding by cell type composition. Methylation of CpGs within FHIT (cg15970800) and ANKRD11 (cg16710656) demonstrated genome-wide significance (P < 1.8 × 10(-7)) in specific associations with infant attention. CpGs whose differential methylation was associated with all 4 neurobehavioral outcomes were common to 50 genes involved in biological processes relating to cellular adhesion and nervous system development. Comprehensive methylation profiling identified relationships between methylation of FHIT and ANKRD11, which have been previously linked to neurodevelopment and behavioral outcomes in genetic association studies. Subtle changes in DNA methylation of these genes within the placenta may impact normal variation of a newborn's ability to alter and track visual and auditory stimuli. Gene ontology analysis suggested that those genes with variable methylation related to these outcomes are over-represented in biological pathways involved in brain development and placental physiology, supportive of our hypothesis for a key role of the placenta in neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:27366929

  16. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Litter Size in Berkshire Pig Placenta.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kang, Deok Gyeong; Kang, Kyung Hee; Kim, Il-Suk; Park, Hwa Chun; Na, Chong-Sam; Ha, Jeongim; Kim, Chul Wook

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in litter size has become of great interest in the pig industry because fecundity is directly related to sow reproductive life. Improved reproduction has thus been achieved by elucidating the molecular functions of genes associated with fecundity. In the present study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) in Berkshire pig placentas from larger (LLG, mean litter size >12) and smaller (SLG, mean litter size < 6.5) litter size groups. In total 588 DEGs were identified (p < 0.05, > 1.5-fold change), of which 98 were upregulated, while 490 were downregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment was also performed. We concluded that 129 of the 588 DEGs were closely related to litter size according to reproduction related genes selected based on previous reports, as 110 genes were downregulated and 19 upregulated in the LLG compared with the SLG. RT-qPCR utilizing specific primers targeting the early growth response 2 (EGR2), pheromaxein c subunit (PHEROC) and endothelial lipase (LIPG) genes showed high accordance with RNA-Seq results. Furthermore, we investigated the upstream regulators of these three genes in the placenta. We found that WNT9B, a Wnt signaling pathway molecule, and IL-6, known inducers of EGR2 and LIPG, respectively, were significantly increased in LLG compared with SLG. We believe that the induction of IL-6 and LIPG may play an important role in increasing nutrition supply through the placenta from the sow to the piglet during gestation. These results provide novel molecular insights into pig reproduction. PMID:27078025

  17. Steroidogenic capacity of the placenta as a supplemental source of progesterone during pregnancy in domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Until recently, the corpus luteum (CL) was considered to be the main source of progesterone (P4) during pregnancy in the domestic cat (Felis catus). However, other possible sources of P4 have not been ruled out. Although feline placental homogenates were found to be capable of synthesizing P4, expression of the respective steroidogenic enzymes has not been investigated at the molecular level. Therefore, in the present study, expression of the two major factors involved in the synthesis of P4 - 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) - was investigated in the feline CL and placenta during the course of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy. Methods The mRNA levels of StAR and 3betaHSD were determined using Real Time PCR and their localizations were determined by immunohistochemistry. Placental P4 concentrations, after ethyl extraction, were measured by EIA. Results Luteal 3betaHSD and StAR mRNA levels were strongly time-dependent, peaking during mid-pregnancy. The placental 3betaHSD mRNA level was significantly upregulated towards the end of pregnancy. In the CL, 3betaHSD and StAR protein were localized in the luteal cells whereas in the placenta they were localized to the maternal decidual cells. Placental P4 concentrations were low in early pregnant queens, but increased along with gestational age. Conclusions These results confirm that the placenta is an additional source of P4 in pregnant queens and can thereby be considered as an important endocrine organ supporting feline pregnancy. PMID:23110691

  18. A Case of Type 2 Youssef's Syndrome following Caesarean Section for Placenta Previa Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Obuz, Funda

    2016-01-01

    Vesicouterine fistula is a rare type of urogenital fistulas. It is most commonly observed after cesarean section (C/S) due to iatrogenic reasons. In this article, a case of a vesicouterine fistula which developed after C/S operation is presented. This was the patient's second C/S and this time placenta previa totalis was the primary pathology. Since it is a rare complication, we found it interesting, and, in this article, this clinical problem was discussed with details about diagnosis and treatment in light of the literature. PMID:27803827

  19. Laboratory and in situ flotation rates of lecithotrophic eggs from the bathyal echinoid Phormosoma placenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Craig M.; Cameron, J. Lane

    1987-09-01

    The large, lecithotrophic eggs of the bathyal echinothuriid echinoid Phormosoma placenta are positively buoyant both in vitro and in situ to depths of at least 608 m. Eggs attain terminal velocity in less than 5 cm. At constant salinity, flotation rate is related linearly to temperature; eggs move more slowly at lower temperatures. This effect is attributed to increased water viscosity at lower temperatures, not differential changes in egg and water density. Based on an average flotation velocity of 0.42 cm s -1, it is predicted that eggs produced at bathyal depths will reach the surface in approximately 2 days.

  20. Placental miR-106a∼363 cluster is dysregulated in preeclamptic placenta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Li, Q; Ren, N; Li, C; Wang, X; Xie, M; Gao, Z; Pan, Z; Zhao, C; Ren, C; Yang, W

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. MicroRNAs are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. In current study, we performed a microarray assay to explore miRNA expression profile in the placenta, and found 11 upregulated and 7 downregulated miRNAs in preeclampsia. miR-363, plus other 5 member of miR-106a∼363 cluster was further examined and validated. These findings would facilitate further investigation of aberrant expression of miRNAs in the pathology of preeclampsia.

  1. Advances in neonatal extracorporeal support: the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the artificial placenta.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; Shaffer, Andrew W; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-06-01

    This review addresses the history and evolution of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), with a discussion of the indications, contraindications, modalities, outcomes, and impact of ECMO. Controversies surrounding novel uses of ECMO in neonates, namely ECMO for premature infants and ex utero intrapartum therapy with transition to ECMO, are discussed. The development of an extracorporeal artificial placenta for support of premature infants is presented, including the rationale, research, and challenges. ECMO has had a dramatic effect on the care of critically ill neonates over the past 4 decades, and there is great potential to expand these benefits in the future.

  2. Realdo Colombo's "De Re Anatomica": the renaissance origin of the term "placenta" and its historical background.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, M; Fassan, M; Cimino, M; Zanardo, V; Chiarelli, S

    2012-08-01

    Over the centuries, great interest has been devoted to the placenta and to its highly symbolic significance. The Renaissance represented the age of historical and cultural transition between classical and modern scientific paradigms. In the medical setting, Realdo Colombo represents one of the protagonists of this revolution. In his masterpiece, "De Re Anatomica", he revolutionized the former medical perspective. We present a passage from this book, which carries invaluable information on the Renaissance viewpoint on pregnancy and placental biology. The connections between Colombo's theories and the previous medical tradition are also analysed.

  3. Maternal placenta-like endometrial hyperplasia in a beagle dog (Canine deciduoma).

    PubMed

    Koguchi, A; Nomura, K; Fujiwara, T; Kawai, Y; Okaniwa, A

    1995-07-01

    Three thumb-sized segmental swellings were found in both uterine horns of a 15 month-old, non-pregnant and non-pseudopregnant female beagle dog. Histopathological examination of the uterus revealed a marked proliferation of the endometrium that was characterized by two distinct parts, an inner tightly-folded banded layer and an outer dilated spongy layer, quite similar to the maternal placenta except for the fetus and chorion in the lumen. Because the plasma level of progesterone was unusually high at autopsy, this hormonal disorder might be related to the pathogenesis of the endometrial hyperplasia in the present case.

  4. [Abdominal pregnancy: hormon concentrations during the postpartal period with placenta remaining intra-abdominal (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gethmann, U; Mönkemeier, D

    1977-07-01

    It is reported of an abdominal pregnancy at term. The placenta was left in situ because of the high risk of intraabdominal bleedings. Thereby it was possible to measure hormon concentrations of the fetoplacental unit without the fetal compartment. Within 10 days after delivery we determined the plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta, estriol, progesterone, HCS, alpha1fetoprotein, and the excretion of the total estrogens in the urines. There was near the same decrease of hormon concentrations in the post partal time comparable with that of a normal pregnancy. Only the HCS concentrations didn't change in the first 9 days after delivery.

  5. Discrepancy in Insulin Regulation between Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Platelets and Placenta.

    PubMed

    Li, Yicong; Cooper, Anthonya; Odibo, Imelda N; Ahmed, Asli; Murphy, Pamela; Koonce, Ruston; Dajani, Nafisa K; Lowery, Curtis L; Roberts, Drucilla J; Maroteaux, Luc; Kilic, Fusun

    2016-04-29

    Earlier findings have identified the requirement of insulin signaling on maturation and the translocation of serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SERT to the plasma membrane of the trophoblast in placenta. Because of the defect on insulin receptor (IR) in the trophoblast of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated placenta, SERT is found entrapped in the cytoplasm of the GDM-trophoblast. SERT is encoded by the same gene expressed in trophoblast and platelets. Additionally, alteration in plasma 5-HT levels and the 5-HT uptake rates are associated with the aggregation rates of platelets. Therefore, here, we investigated a novel hypothesis that GDM-associated defects in platelet IR should change their 5-HT uptake rates, and this should be a leading factor for thrombosis in GDM maternal blood. The maternal blood and the placentas were obtained at the time of cesarean section from the GDM and non-diabetic subjects (n = 6 for each group), and the platelets and trophoblasts were isolated to determine the IR activity, surface level of SERT, and their 5-HT uptake rates.Interestingly, no significant differences were evident in IR tyrosine phosphorylation or the downstream elements, AKT and S6K in platelets and their aggregation rates in both groups. Furthermore, insulin stimulation up-regulated 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-platelets as it does in the control group. However, the phosphorylation of IR and the downstream elements were significantly lower in GDM-trophoblast and showed no response to the insulin stimulation while they showed 4-fold increase to insulin stimulation in control group. Similarly, the 5-HT uptake rates of GDM-trophoblast and the SERT expression on their surface were severalfold lower compared with control subjects. IR is expressed in all tissues, but it is not known if diabetes affects IR in all tissues equally. Here, for the first time, our findings with clinical samples show that in GDM-associated defect on IR is tissue type-dependent. While IR is

  6. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi induces tissue disorganization and destruction of chorionic villi in an ex vivo infection model of human placenta.

    PubMed

    Duaso, J; Rojo, G; Cabrera, G; Galanti, N; Bosco, C; Maya, J D; Morello, A; Kemmerling, U

    2010-08-01

    Congenital Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America and also present with lower frequency in other countries, is associated with premature labor, miscarriage, and placentitis. The mechanism of tissue invasion and infection of human placenta by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) remains unclear. In order to explore some morphological aspects of this infection in the placenta, we incubated chorionic villous explants from normal human placentae ex vivo with the parasite and studied the resulting effects by immunohistochemical and histochemical methods. Infection of the chorionic villi with the parasite was confirmed by immunofluoresence and PCR. T. cruzi induces syncytiotrophoblast destruction and detachment, selective disorganization of basal lamina and disorganization of collagen I in the connective tissue of villous stroma. These effects are a function of the number of parasites used for the infection. Our results suggest a participation of the proteolytic activity of the parasite on the placental basal lamina and connective tissue in the mechanism of infection of the fetus by T. cruzi.

  8. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  9. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  10. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups.

  11. The imprinted Phlda2 gene modulates a major endocrine compartment of the placenta to regulate placental demands for maternal resources

    PubMed Central

    Tunster, S.J.; Creeth, H.D.J.; John, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Imprinted genes, which are expressed from a single parental allele in response to epigenetic marks first established in the germline, function in a myriad of processes to regulate mammalian development. Recent work suggests that imprinted genes may regulate the signalling function of the placenta by modulating the size of the endocrine compartment. Here we provide in vivo evidence that this hypothesis is well founded. Elevated expression of the imprinted Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family a, member 2 (Phlda2) gene drives a reduction of the spongiotrophoblast endocrine compartment, diminished placental glycogen and asymmetric foetal growth restriction. Using both loss-of-function and gain-in-expression mouse models, here we further show that Phlda2 exclusively modulates the spongiotrophoblast compartment of the placenta without significantly altering the composition of the trophoblast giant cell endocrine lineages that share a common progenitor with this lineage. Additionally, we show that Phlda2 loss-of-function placentae contain nearly three times more placental glycogen than non-transgenic placentae. Remarkably, relative to a fully wild type scenario, wild type placentae also accumulate excessive glycogen. While loss-of-function of Phlda2 increased both placental weight and placental glycogen, the weight of both mutant and non-transgenic fetuses was lower than that found in a fully wild type scenario indicating that excessive glycogen accumulation comes at the cost of foetal growth. This work firstly highlights a novel signalling function for the spongiotrophoblast in stimulating the global accumulation of placental glycogen. Furthermore, this work suggests that Phlda2 manipulates the placenta's demands for maternal resources, a process that must be tightly regulated by epigenetic marks to ensure optimal foetal growth. PMID:26476147

  12. The presence of kinesin superfamily motor proteins KIFC1 and KIF17 in normal and pathological human placenta.

    PubMed

    Sati, L; Seval-Celik, Y; Unek, G; Korgun, E T; Demir, R

    2009-10-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are motor proteins that participate in chromosomal and spindle movements during mitosis and meiosis, and transport membranous organelles and macromolecules fundamental for cellular functions. Although the roles of KIFs in axonal and dendritic transports have been studied extensively, their role in intracellular transport in general is less well known. The diversity of kinesins suggests that each kinesin may have a specific function. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the presence and cellular localization of KIFC1 and KIF17 in normal and pathological human placentas. First-trimester (22-56 days) and normal, preeclamptic (PE), and diabetic-term placental tissues were obtained and further studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot methods. KIFC1 was mainly localized to the syncytiotrophoblast both in early and term placental samples. However, a stronger immunoreactivity was observed both in PE and diabetic placentas compared to normal-term placentas. KIF17 was most intensively localized in developing vascular endothelium in early pregnancy. Even though KIF17 was moderately stained in the endothelium of villi from normal human-term placentas, stronger immunoreactivity was observed in all types of villi of both PE and diabetic placentas. Western blotting of tissue extracts confirmed the IHC results. Here, we demonstrate the presence of KIFC1 and KIF17 in human placenta for the first time. The intense expression of KIFC1 in syncytiotrophoblast and KIF17 in vascular endothelium suggests that both the proteins might be important in a cargo-transport system. An increased expression pattern of both KIFC1 and KIF17 in PE and diabetes might suggest that these proteins may be involved in complex trophoblast functions and placental pathologies. Further studies will clarify the physiological role of KIFs in human placental transport and development. PMID:19679349

  13. Structure-function correlation in the human placenta: the morphometric diffusing capacity for oxygen at full term.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, T M; Joy, C F; Haas, J D

    1984-01-01

    A combination of stereology and physiology is used to estimate the morphometric diffusing capacity for oxygen of the normal human placenta at term. The morphometric diffusing capacity is found to be higher than published values determined by physiological methods. The most likely explanation for this discrepancy is that physiological values are too low because of the effects of shunts, placental oxygen consumption and uneven diffusion:perfusion ratios. Despite the discrepancy, morphometry of histological sections offers a valuable and practicable alternative for comparing the functional potential of the placenta in different species, during normal gestation, disease, experimental treatment and environmental hypoxic stress. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6526720

  14. Study on the Expressions of PHD and HIF in Placentas from Normal Pregnant Women and Patients with Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Shu-Jun; Lin, Qi-De

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between oxygen sensitivity of trophoblast and hypoxia in preeclamptic placenta by the study on the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl 4-hydroxylase (PHD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in placentas from normal pregnant women and patients with pre-eclampsia. Methods: Subjects were chosen from the in-patients or the out-patients from May 2003 to May 2004. They were divided into 5 groups: early pregnancy group (EP), 13 cases; middle pregnancy group (MP), 9 cases; late pregnancy group (LP, or control group), 12 cases; preeclampsia (PE) group, 20 cases; gestational hypertension group (GH), 10 cases. The mRNA expressions of PHD-1 and -2 and -3 in placentas from all the subjects were assessed by in situ hybridization and Real-time PCR. The expressions of HIF-1α and -2α in placentas from different groups were assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results: PHD-1,-2 and -3 mRNA were mainly expressed in cytoplasm of trophoblast, especially strongly expressed in extravillous trophoblast. During the progress of pregnancy, the expression of PHD-1 increased significantly (R=0.616, P<0.001). The PHD-1mRNA expression in placentas from PE group decreased significantly compared with that from control group, P<0.05. A significant direct correlation between the PHD-1 mRNA expression in placentas from PE group and their placenta weight was found (R=0.457, P<0.05). The HIF-2α, not the HIF-1α expression, from PE group was significantly higher than that from control group, P<0.01; The HIF-2α expression in trophoblast from PE was inversely correlated to the date of the onset of the disease (R=-0.730, P<0.01). Conclusions: PHD-1 played an important role in hypoxic response pathway of trophoblast through modulating the level of HIF-2α. The overly activated hypoxic response pathway of trophoblast in preeclamptic placenta, which is manifested as the result of HIF-2α over-expression, is the key point to hypoxic

  15. Circulating levels of maternal plasma cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs are associated with placental weight.

    PubMed

    Miura, K; Morisaki, S; Abe, S; Higashijima, A; Hasegawa, Y; Miura, S; Tateishi, S; Mishima, H; Yoshiura, K; Masuzaki, H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma concentration of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs and clinical variables (placental weight, maternal body mass index, and neonatal birth weight). Circulating levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs (miR-515-3p, miR-517a, miR-517c and miR-518b) in maternal plasma were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sixty-two pregnant women. The levels of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific microRNAs were significantly associated with placental weight, but not associated with body mass index or birth weight. Therefore, the measurement of cell-free pregnancy-associated placenta-specific miRNAs levels in maternal plasma may reflect the pregnancy status related to placenta volume.

  16. Expression of imprinted genes in placenta is associated with infant neurobehavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benjamin B; Kappil, Maya; Lambertini, Luca; Armstrong, David A; Guerin, Dylan J; Sharp, Andrew J; Lester, Barry M; Chen, Jia; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting disorders often exhibit delayed neurobehavioral development, suggesting this unique mechanism of epigenetic regulation plays a role in mental and neurological health. While major errors in imprinting have been linked to adverse health outcomes, there has been little research conducted on how moderate variability in imprinted gene expression within a population contributes to differences in neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly at birth. Here, we profiled the expression of 108 known and putative imprinted genes in human placenta samples from 615 infants assessed by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS). Data reduction identified 10 genes (DLX5, DHCR24, VTRNA2-1, PHLDA2, NPAP1, FAM50B, GNAS-AS1, PAX8-AS1, SHANK2, and COPG2IT1) whose expression could distinguish between newborn neurobehavioral profiles derived from the NNNS. Clustering infants based on the expression pattern of these genes identified 2 groups of infants characterized by reduced quality of movement, increased signs of asymmetrical and non-optimal reflexes, and increased odds of demonstrating increased signs of physiologic stress and abstinence. Overall, these results suggest that common variation in placental imprinted gene expression is linked to suboptimal performance on scales of neurological functioning as well as with increased signs of physiologic stress, highlighting the central importance of the control of expression of these genes in the placenta for neurobehavioral development. PMID:26198301

  17. Glyceryl Trinitrate Inhibits Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis in the Syncytiotrophoblast of the Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Dickinson, Michelle A.; Smith, Graeme N.; Graham, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    Damage of the placenta resulting from ischemia-reperfusion is important to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Here we investigated whether low concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a nitric oxide mimetic with anti-apoptotic properties, inhibit hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in the syncytiotrophoblast of chorionic villous explants from human placentas. Compared with villi analyzed immediately after delivery or maintained under normoxic conditions, villi exposed to a 6-hour cycle of hypoxia/reoxygenation exhibited greater numbers of syncytiotrophoblasts with terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei in the syncytiotrophoblast. This increased number of TUNEL-positive nuclei was paralleled by higher levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (marker of lipid peroxidation), nitrotyrosine residues, and active caspase-3 and polyADP-ribose polymerase expression. Morphological analysis of explants exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation revealed apoptotic and aponecrotic features similar to those of chorionic villi from preeclamptic pregnancies. Treatment with GTN during the hy-poxia/reoxygenation cycle blocked the increases in the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei and in the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal, nitrotyrosine, and active caspase-3. Incubation with GTN also attenuated the hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced polyADP-ribose polymerase expression and the apoptotic and aponecrotic morphological alterations. These results suggest that small concentrations of nitric oxide protect chorionic villi from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced damage and provide a rationale for the use of low doses of nitric oxide mimetics in the treatment and/or prevention of preeclampsia. PMID:17322376

  18. Metals content in placentas from moderate cigarette consumers: correlation with newborn birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Arguello, Graciela; Muñoz, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Llanos, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette consumption during pregnancy produces deleterious effects in both, mother and fetus, some of them due to the presence of toxic elements in cigarette smoke, such as cadmium. Placenta constitutes a dual-purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. The main objective of this study was to establish a correlation between placental concentration and distribution of some metal elements and birth weight of neonates delivered by mothers, who were either moderate smokers or nonsmokers. Forty nonsmoking and moderate smoking pregnant women paired per age, parity, weight, height and body mass index were selected. Smoking was assessed by self-reported cigarette consumption during pregnancy and urine cotinine concentration before delivery. Placental metal concentrations were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry (copper and cadmium) and neutron activation analysis (zinc and iron). Newborns from smokers had lower birth weights compared to infants from nonsmokers. Birth weights were correlated with placental cadmium concentrations in both, smokers and nonsmokers. Placental zinc and cadmium of smokers were mainly located at the maternal side and their levels were higher than those found in nonsmoker's placentas. In addition, all metal nutrient/pollutant ratios were decreased in the smoker group. In this first study performed in our region, we found that moderate smoking mothers deliver neonates with decreased birth weight and highly correlated to placental cadmium concentration. Decreased metal nutrient/pollutant ratios, a condition here found in smokers, may indicate a placental dysfunction, contributing to impair birth weight.

  19. Characterization of Natural Killer Cells and Cytokines in Maternal Placenta and Fetus of Diabetic Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Cristiane de Castro Pernet; França, Eduardo Luzía; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; de Queiroz, Adriele Ataides; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized natural killer cells and cytokines in diabetic mothers, their placenta, and fetus. In the maternal blood from the hyperglycemic groups, the CD16+CD56− NK cells increased, whereas that of CD16+CD56+ decreased in gestational diabetes mellitus [GDM] group. Cord blood from type 2 diabetes [DM-2] showed a higher proportion of CD16+CD56− and CD16−CD56+. The placental extravillous layer of GDM and DM-2 showed an increase of CD16+CD56− cells and, irrespective of region, the proportion of CD16−CD56+ cells was higher in mild gestational hyperglycemia [MGH] and GDM and lower in DM-2. IL-2 was lower in maternal blood and IFN-γ higher in maternal and cord blood from the GDM group. IL-17 was higher in maternal and cord blood from the DM-2 group. The placental extravillous layer of the MGH showed high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ and low levels of IL-1β and IL-8, whereas the placental villous layer contained high levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ. The GDM group, irrespective of region, showed higher levels of IL-8. The DM-2 group, irrespective of region, placenta showed high levels of TNF-α, IL-17, and IFN-γ. The hyperglycemia produces an inflammatory environment with a high content of inflammatory cytokines and cells expressing CD16+. PMID:27294162

  20. Characterization of a novel rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infecting placenta-uterus of Rattus rattus diardii.

    PubMed

    Loh, H S; Mohd-Azmi, M L; Lai, K Y; Sheikh-Omar, A R; Zamri-Saad, M

    2003-12-01

    A new rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) isolated from the placenta/uterus of a house rat (Rattus rattus diardii) was found to productively infect rat embryo fibroblast (REF) cells. The virus produced typical herpesvirus-like cytopathic effects characterized by a lytic infection. The well-known herpesvirus morphology was confirmed by electron microscopy. Its slow growth in cell culture indicated that the virus is belonging to subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. Electron microscopy techniques and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of herpesviral inclusion bodies and virus related particles in the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected cells. Hyperimmune serum against the Maastricht strain of RCMV revealed the virus identity in neutralization test, immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence techniques. Despite typical characteristics of CMV, the viral genome is significantly different from that of Maastricht, English, UPM/Sg and UPM/Kn strains. The dissimilarities, which have not been reported before, had been confirmed by mean of restriction endonuclease analysis. The new RCMV strain, a virus that infects placenta and uterus of rats, has been named as ALL-03.

  1. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  2. Viral validation of the manufacturing process of high purity albumin from placentas.

    PubMed

    Grandgeorge, M; Véron, J L

    1993-01-01

    We report on the viral validation of an industrial purification process which is used to manufacture high purity human albumin from frozen placentas. This process has been used without any modification since 1980 except for a progressive increase in production scale to reach a capacity of 19 tons of placentas per day. The extraction purification process includes five alcohol manufacturing steps, some with strict conditions of alcohol concentration, acid pH, temperature and one including chloroform. These steps are followed by three chromatographies. Albumin is finally submitted to pasteurization both in bulk and in the final container. Selected steps of this process have been tested for their ability to remove or inactivate viruses. Viruses used were HBV, HIV-1, HIV-2 and model viruses poliovirus, avian reovirus, MuLV, Sindbis, SV40 and Aujeszky's. In vitro infectivity titration assays were used for all viruses except for HBV where DNA and antigen titrations were performed. Reduction factors obtained were from 10 to 29 log10 depending on the viral marker. Moreover, testing done on regular production batches demonstrated the absence of HBV, HIV-1 and HCV genomic sequence in the final lots. Viral risk calculation for HBV, HIV-1 and HCV was made considering the maximal theoretically possible contamination of the starting material. This calculation showed the very large safety margin the manufacturing process with respect to virus transmission for these viruses or possibly other unknown ones.

  3. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista; Laivuori, Hannele; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  4. Leptin and leptin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the murine fetus and placenta.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, N; Hunter, L; Duncan, J S; Williams, L M; Trayhurn, P; Mercer, J G

    1997-09-30

    Leptin is a 167-aa protein that is secreted from adipose tissue and is important in the regulation of energy balance. It also functions in hematopoiesis and reproduction. To assess whether leptin is involved in fetal growth and development we have examined the distribution of mRNAs encoding leptin and the leptin receptor (which has at least six splice variants) in the 14.5-day postcoitus mouse fetus and in the placenta using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. High levels of gene expression for leptin, the leptin receptor, and the long splice variant of the leptin receptor with an intracellular signaling domain were observed in the placenta, fetal cartilage/bone, and hair follicles. Receptor expression also was detected in the lung, as well as the leptomeninges and choroid plexus of the fetal brain. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, using specific antibodies, demonstrated the presence of leptin and leptin receptor protein in these tissues. These results suggest that leptin may play a role in the growth and development of the fetus, both through placental and fetal expression of the leptin and leptin receptor genes. In the fetus, leptin may be multifunctional and have both paracrine and endocrine effects.

  5. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  6. Isolation of Hofbauer Cells from Human Term Placentas with High Yield and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhonghua; Tadesse, Serkalem; Norwitz, Errol; Mor, Gil; Abrahams, Vikki M.; Guller, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Problem Placental villus macrophages (i.e. Hofbauer cells, HBCs) were identified more than 100 years ago. Alterations in their numbers and characteristics are associated with several complications of pregnancy. Although HBCs have previously been isolated and cultured, there is no consensus methodology to obtain these cells with high yield and purity for in vitro studies. Method of Study HBCs were isolated from human term placentas using protocols in which cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and fibroblasts (FIBs), other major villous cell types, were isolated in parallel. Enzymatic digestion, Percoll gradients, and immunoselection were used to isolate the three cell types. Purity was assessed by morphology, flow cytometry, and in phagocytosis assays. Results HBCs were isolated with 98–99% purity and a yield of 130–200 ×106 cells/80 to 100 g of tissue. HBCs exhibited a pleiomorphic and vacuolated appearance for at least 5 days in culture medium with and without serum. High levels of phagocytosis in HBCs, but not in CTs, or FIBs, confirmed macrophage function in HBCs. Phagocytotic activity was maintained across several days in culture. Conclusion HBCs were isolated from term placenta with high yield and purity using protocols in which CTs and FIBs were also obtained. This methodology will foster future studies which examine the role of HBCs in regulating villus function. PMID:21545365

  7. Gene expression profiling of pre-eclamptic placentae by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kaartokallio, Tea; Cervera, Alejandra; Kyllönen, Anjuska; Laivuori, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a common and complex pregnancy disorder that often involves impaired placental development. In order to identify altered gene expression in pre-eclamptic placenta, we sequenced placental transcriptomes of nine pre-eclamptic and nine healthy pregnant women in pools of three. The differential gene expression was tested both by including all the pools in the analysis and by excluding some of the pools based on phenotypic characteristics. From these analyses, we identified altogether 53 differently expressed genes, a subset of which was validated by qPCR in 20 cases and 19 controls. Furthermore, we conducted pathway and functional analyses which revealed disturbed vascular function and immunological balance in pre-eclamptic placenta. Some of the genes identified in our study have been reported by numerous microarray studies (BHLHE40, FSTL3, HK2, HTRA4, LEP, PVRL4, SASH1, SIGLEC6), but many have been implicated in only few studies or have not previously been linked to pre-eclampsia (ARMS2, BTNL9, CCSAP, DIO2, FER1L4, HPSE, LOC100129345, LYN, MYO7B, NCMAP, NDRG1, NRIP1, PLIN2, SBSPON, SERPINB9, SH3BP5, TET3, TPBG, ZNF175). Several of the molecules produced by these genes may have a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, and some could qualify as biomarkers for prediction or detection of this pregnancy complication. PMID:26388242

  8. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  9. Comparison of syncytiotrophoblast generated from human embryonic stem cells and from term placentas

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shinichiro; Alexenko, Andrei P.; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Yang, Ying; Schust, Danny J.; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) readily commit to the trophoblast lineage after exposure to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and two small compounds, an activin A signaling inhibitor and a FGF2 signaling inhibitor (BMP4/A83-01/PD173074; BAP treatment). During differentiation, areas emerge within the colonies with the biochemical and morphological features of syncytiotrophoblast (STB). Relatively pure fractions of mononucleated cytotrophoblast (CTB) and larger syncytial sheets displaying the expected markers of STB can be obtained by differential filtration of dispersed colonies through nylon strainers. RNA-seq analysis of these fractions has allowed them to be compared with cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentas before and after such cells had formed syncytia. Although it is clear from extensive gene marker analysis that both ESC- and placenta-derived syncytial cells are trophoblast, each with the potential to transport a wide range of solutes and synthesize placental hormones, their transcriptome profiles are sufficiently dissimilar to suggest that the two cell types have distinct pedigrees and represent functionally different kinds of STB. We propose that the STB generated from human ESCs represents the primitive syncytium encountered in early pregnancy soon after the human trophoblast invades into the uterine wall. PMID:27051068

  10. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26195324

  11. Comparison of syncytiotrophoblast generated from human embryonic stem cells and from term placentas.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shinichiro; Alexenko, Andrei P; Amita, Mitsuyoshi; Yang, Ying; Schust, Danny J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2016-05-10

    Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) readily commit to the trophoblast lineage after exposure to bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and two small compounds, an activin A signaling inhibitor and a FGF2 signaling inhibitor (BMP4/A83-01/PD173074; BAP treatment). During differentiation, areas emerge within the colonies with the biochemical and morphological features of syncytiotrophoblast (STB). Relatively pure fractions of mononucleated cytotrophoblast (CTB) and larger syncytial sheets displaying the expected markers of STB can be obtained by differential filtration of dispersed colonies through nylon strainers. RNA-seq analysis of these fractions has allowed them to be compared with cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentas before and after such cells had formed syncytia. Although it is clear from extensive gene marker analysis that both ESC- and placenta-derived syncytial cells are trophoblast, each with the potential to transport a wide range of solutes and synthesize placental hormones, their transcriptome profiles are sufficiently dissimilar to suggest that the two cell types have distinct pedigrees and represent functionally different kinds of STB. We propose that the STB generated from human ESCs represents the primitive syncytium encountered in early pregnancy soon after the human trophoblast invades into the uterine wall. PMID:27051068

  12. A Role for the Placenta in Programming Maternal Mood and Childhood Behavioural Disorders.

    PubMed

    Janssen, A B; Kertes, D A; McNamara, G I; Braithwaite, E C; Creeth, H D J; Glover, V I; John, R M

    2016-08-01

    Substantial data demonstrate that the early-life environment, including in utero, plays a key role in later life disease. In particular, maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to adverse behavioural and emotional outcomes in children. Data from human cohort studies and experimental animal models suggest that modulation of the developing epigenome in the foetus by maternal stress may contribute to the foetal programming of disease. Here, we summarise insights gained from recent studies that may advance our understanding of the role of the placenta in mediating the association between maternal mood disorders and offspring outcomes. First, the placenta provides a record of exposures during pregnancy, as indicated by changes in the placental trancriptome and epigenome. Second, prenatal maternal mood may alter placental function to adversely impact foetal and child development. Finally, we discuss the less well established but interesting possibility that altered placental function, more specifically changes in placental hormones, may adversely affect maternal mood and later maternal behaviour, which can also have consequence for offspring well-being.

  13. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Apoptosis and Proliferation in the Placenta: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Wietrak, Ewa; Kamiński, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska-Gorzelak, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Observational studies confirm a higher incidence of preeclampsia in patients with low erythrocyte concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. Observations point to an association of disorders of pregnancy, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia, with excessive apoptosis. One potential mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) promoting a reduction in the risk of pathological pregnancy may be by influencing these processes in the placenta. Materials and Methods. We investigated 28 pregnant women supplemented with a fish oil product containing 300 mg DHA starting from pregnancy week 20 until delivery (DHA group). The control group consisted of 50 women who did not receive such supplementation (control group). We determined the expression of Ki-67 and p21 as markers of proliferation and caspase 3 activity as a marker of apoptosis and DHA levels in umbilical cord blood. Results. Caspase 3 activity was significantly lower in the DHA group in comparison to the control group. Umbilical cord blood DHA concentration was higher in the DHA group. The expression of the proteins p21 and Ki-67 did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions. We observed an association between DHA supplementation and inhibition of placental apoptosis. We did not find an association between DHA and proliferation process in the placenta. PMID:26339616

  14. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion.

  16. Quantitation of human MAO A and B in liver, intestine and placenta: Reassessment of activity

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAO) oxidize a variety of exogenous and endogenous amines including neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the potent dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The two forms of MAO (A and B) differ in molecular weight and inhibitor selectivity, and are differentially expressed in the nervous system and many other tissues. Although some substrates are preferentially oxidized by one form of MAO, substrates that can be oxidized by only one MAO form have not been reported. How well each MAO oxidizes various substrates has not been thoroughly characterized because of difficulties in separating and quantitating MAO A and B active sites. By immunoblotting SDS-polyacrylamide gels of mitochondrial extracts with monoclonal antibodies specific for each form of MAO, MAO B protein was detected in intestine and placenta, tissues that have been reported to contain MAO A activity. An improved procedure was developed for quantitating the ratio and amounts of MAO A and B active sites, using the ligand ({sup 3}H)-pargyline to label MAO and specific monoclonal antibodies to separate MAO A from B. Data from liver, placenta and platelets were used to re-evaluate the molecular activity of both MAO A and B for six commonly studied substrates.

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha promotes the proliferation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengxing; Yu, Jiong; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2016-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) reside in a physiologically low-oxygen microenvironment. Hypoxia influences a variety of stem cell cellular activities, frequently involving hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2α). This research showed that hPMSCs cultured in hypoxic conditions (5% O2) exhibited a more naïve morphology and had a higher proliferative capability and higher HIF-2α expression than hPMSCs cultured in normoxic conditions (21% O2). Similar to the hypoxic cultures, hPMSCs over-expressing HIF-2α showed higher proliferative potential and higher expression of CCND1 (CyclinD1), MYC (c-Myc), POU5F1 (Oct4) and the components of the MAPK/ERK pathway. In contrast, these genes were down-regulated in the HIF-2α-silenced hPMSCs. After adding the MAPK/ERK inhibitor PD0325901, cell growth and the expression of CCND1 and MYC were inhibited. Furthermore, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that HIF-2α bound to the MAPK3 (ERK1) promoter, indicative of its direct regulation of MAPK/ERK components at the transcriptional level during hPMSC expansion. Taken together, our results suggest that HIF-2α facilitated the preservation of hPMSC stemness and promoted their proliferation by regulating CCND1 and MYC through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27765951

  18. Placenta abruptio

    MedlinePlus

    ... the past Heart disease Diabetes Smoking Alcohol or cocaine use Placental abruption in an earlier pregnancy An ... and diabetes under control Not using tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, or amphetamines Following your provider's recommendations about ways ...

  19. Placenta previa

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leveno KL, Bloom SL, et al, eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010: ... SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  20. Maternal gestational diabetes is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation variation in placenta and cord blood of exposed offspring.

    PubMed

    Finer, Sarah; Mathews, Chris; Lowe, Rob; Smart, Melissa; Hillman, Sara; Foo, Lin; Sinha, Ajay; Williams, David; Rakyan, Vardhman K; Hitman, Graham A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure of a developing foetus to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM) has been shown to programme future risk of diabetes and obesity. Epigenetic variation in foetal tissue may have a mechanistic role in metabolic disease programming through interaction of the pregnancy environment with gene function. We aimed to identify genome-wide DNA methylation variation in cord blood and placenta from offspring born to mothers with and without GDM. Pregnant women of South Asian origin were studied and foetal tissues sampled at term delivery. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assay genome-wide DNA methylation in placenta and cord blood from 27 GDM exposed and 21 unexposed offspring. We identified 1485 cord blood and 1708 placenta methylation variable positions (MVPs) achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P-value <0.05) with methylation differences of >5%. MVPs were disproportionately located within first exons. A bioinformatic co-methylation algorithm was used to detect consistent directionality of methylation in 1000 bp window around each MVP was observed at 74% of placenta and 59% of cord blood MVPs. KEGG pathway analysis showed enrichment of pathways involved in endocytosis, MAPK signalling and extracellular triggers to intracellular metabolic processes. Replication studies should integrate genomics and transcriptomics with longitudinal sampling to elucidate stability, determine causality for translation into biomarker and prevention studies. PMID:25634562

  1. Hidden Plasmodium falciparum parasites in human infections: different genotype distribution in the peripheral circulation and in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Schleiermacher, Dietlind; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves; Ndiaye, Jean-Louis; Perraut, Ronald; Gaye, Alioune; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2002-12-01

    Sequestration of the mature Plasmodium falciparum forms complicates detection, quantification and molecular analysis of human infections. Whether the circulating parasites represent all or only a subset of co-infecting genotypes is unclear. We have investigated this issue and compared placenta and peripheral blood msp1 and msp2 genotypes in 58 women delivering with an ICT-positive placenta in Guediawaye, Senegal. Most placenta (91%) and blood samples (98%) were multiply infected. Multiplicity of infection was positively correlated in both tissues. However, the placental and circulating genotype profiles differed markedly. Only 10% of matched peripheral blood/placenta samples had identical genotypes, whereas 74% had only partially concordant genotypes, with some alleles detected in both tissues, together with additional allele(s) detected in one tissue only. Eight women (14%) had totally discordant placental and peripheral blood genotypes. Thus, in the vast majority of cases, some sequestered genotypes remain hidden, undetected in the peripheral circulation, indicating that analysis of peripheral parasites generates a partial picture of a P. falciparum infection.

  2. Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are involved in diabetes mellitus-induced defects in the development of mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    He, Mei-Yao; Wang, Guang; Han, Sha-Sha; Jin, Ya; Li, He; Wu, Xia; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Cheng, Xin; Tang, Xiuwen; Yang, Xuesong; Liu, Guo-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27383629

  3. Nicotine Inhibits Cytokine Production by Placenta Cells via NFκB: Potential Role in Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Oonagh; Rochelson, Burton; Way, Kathleen; Al-Abed, Yousef; Metz, Christine N

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), also known as preeclampsia, is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal death. While the precise cause of PIH is not known, aberrant cytokine production and placenta participation are considered to be important factors. Gestational cigarette smoking, which is widely accepted to be harmful to both the mother and fetus, is protective against PIH. Based on the antiinflammatory activity of nicotine, the major component of cigarettes, we examined the effect of nicotine and other cholinergic agonists on placental inflammatory responses ex vivo. We observed that nicotine and other cholinergic agonists significantly suppress placenta cytokine production following stimulation. Placenta cells express the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), and using cholinergic antagonists, we demonstrated that the antiinflammatory effect of nicotine and other cholinergic agonists is, in part, mediated through the nAChR pathway. By contrast, cholinergic stimulation had no effect on the expression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt), an antiangiogenic substance implicated in maternal vascular dysfunction during PIH. Mechanistic studies reveal that cholinergic agonists exert their antiinflammatory effects through the NFκB pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that cholinergic agonists, including nicotine, may reduce cytokine production by placenta cells via NFκB to protect against PIH. PMID:17878927

  4. Uterine and placenta characteristics during early vascular development in the pig from day 22 to 42 of gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pig, a litter bearing animal, has an epitheliochorial placenta that forms a noninvasive attachment with the uterine endometrium. Insufficient placental development is one of the primary causes of fetal death and reduced fetal growth after 35 d of gestation. Necrotic tips develop at the distal en...

  5. IgE is expressed on, but not produced by, fetal cells in the human placenta irrespective of maternal atopy

    PubMed Central

    EKSTRÖM, E SVERREMARK; NILSSON, C; HOLMLUND, U; PLOEG, I VAN DER; SANDSTEDT, B; LILJA, G; SCHEYNIUS, A

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of atopic diseases in children has increased during the last decades. Atopic symptoms usually appear early in life. This implies an early priming for atopic disease, possibly even at the fetal level. We therefore compared the presence and production of IgE in the local in utero environment during pregnancy in atopic and non-atopic women. Eighty-six women were included in the study. Fifty women were demonstrated to be atopics, based on clinical symptoms of atopic disease together with a positive Phadiatop and/or skin prick test. Placentas from these term pregnancies were obtained. Slices covering the full thickness of the placenta were cut clockwise around the umbilical cord and were analysed with immunohistochemistry. Surprisingly, numerous IgE+ cells, located primarily in the fetal villous stroma, were detected in a majority of the investigated placentas irrespective of the atopy of the mother or maternal or fetal total serum IgE levels. The placental IgE could not be demonstrated to be bound to IgE receptors, but was shown to be bound to fetal macrophages, possibly via FcγRI. No evidence was found for local fetal IgE production, although cells producing epsilon transcripts were occasionally detected in the decidua. We describe here the novel finding of numerous IgE+ cells in the human placenta, suggesting an hitherto unknown role for IgE in a successful pregnancy outcome, irrespective of whether or not the mother is atopic. PMID:11876750

  6. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    PubMed

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. PMID:27338325

  7. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant...

  8. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-22

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3-4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk.

  9. Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are involved in diabetes mellitus-induced defects in the development of mouse placenta

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sha-sha; Jin, Ya; Li, He; Wu, Xia; Ma, Zheng-lai; cheng, Xin; Tang, Xiuwen

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that diabetes mellitus impairs placental development, but the mechanism by which the disease operates to impair development remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated that pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-induced defects in placental development in mice are mainly characterized by the changes of morphological structure of placenta. The alteration of differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells rather than cell proliferation/apoptosis is responsible for the phenotypes found in mouse placenta. Meanwhile, excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling were observed in the placenta of mice suffering from PGDM. Using BeWo cells, we also demonstrated that excess ROS was produced and Nrf2 signalling molecules were activated in settings characterized by a high concentration of glucose. More interestingly, differentiation-related gene expressions in trophoblast cells were altered when endogenous Nrf2 expression is manipulated by transfecting Nrf2-wt or Nrf2-shRNA. In addition, PGDM interferes with autophagy in both mouse placenta and BeWo cells, implying that autophagy is also involved, directly or indirectly, in PGDM-induced placental phenotypes. Therefore, we revealed that dysfunctional oxidative stress-activated Nrf2 signalling and autophagy are probably responsible for PGDM-induced defects in the placental development of mice. The mechanism was through the interference with differentiation-related gene expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27383629

  10. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3-4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  11. Human gut colonisation may be initiated in utero by distinct microbial communities in the placenta and amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Rautava, Samuli; Aakko, Juhani; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Interaction with intestinal microbes in infancy has a profound impact on health and disease in later life through programming of immune and metabolic pathways. We collected maternal faeces, placenta, amniotic fluid, colostrum, meconium and infant faeces samples from 15 mother-infant pairs in an effort to rigorously investigate prenatal and neonatal microbial transfer and gut colonisation. To ensure sterile sampling, only deliveries at full term by elective caesarean section were studied. Microbiota composition and activity assessment by conventional bacterial culture, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, quantitative PCR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the placenta and amniotic fluid harbour a distinct microbiota characterised by low richness, low diversity and the predominance of Proteobacteria. Shared features between the microbiota detected in the placenta and amniotic fluid and in infant meconium suggest microbial transfer at the foeto-maternal interface. At the age of 3–4 days, the infant gut microbiota composition begins to resemble that detected in colostrum. Based on these data, we propose that the stepwise microbial gut colonisation process may be initiated already prenatally by a distinct microbiota in the placenta and amniotic fluid. The link between the mother and the offspring is continued after birth by microbes present in breast milk. PMID:27001291

  12. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    PubMed

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  13. Identification of Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Placentas from Preeclamptic Pregnancies Versus Normal Pregnancies by DNA Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiying; Sun, Manni; Wang, He; Zhao, Ge; Wang, Xiaoshuang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles in placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies versus normal placentas. Placental tissues were obtained immediately after delivery from women with normal pregnancies (n=6) and patients with preeclampsia (n=6). The gene expression profile was assessed by oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Functional relationships and canonical pathways/networks of differentially-expressed genes were evaluated by GeneSpring™ GX 11.0 software, and ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA). A total of 939 genes were identified that differed significantly in expression: 483 genes were upregulated and 456 genes were downregulated in preeclamptic placentas compared with normal placentas (fold change ≥2 and p<0.05 by unpaired t-test corrected with Bonferroni multiple testing). The IPA revealed that the primary molecular functions of these genes are involved in cellular function and maintenance, cellular development, cell signaling, and lipid metabolism. Pathway analysis provided evidence that a number of biological pathways, including Notch, Wnt, NF-κB, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, were aberrantly regulated in preeclampsia. In conclusion, our microarray analysis represents a comprehensive list of placental gene expression profiles and various dysregulated signaling pathways that are altered in preeclampsia. These observations may provide the basis for developing novel predictive, diagnostic, and prognostic biomarkers of preeclampsia to improve reproductive outcomes and reduce the risk for subsequent cardiovascular disease. PMID:22702245

  14. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats.

    PubMed

    Melnik, E A; Buzulukov, Yu P; Demin, V F; Demin, V A; Gmoshinski, I V; Tyshko, N V; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the (110m)Ag radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20(th) day of gestation) or lactating (14-16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69-2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother's breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother's milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085-0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  15. MicroRNA-141 is upregulated in preeclamptic placentae and regulates trophoblast invasion and intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Prieto, Stephanie; Chaiwangyen, Wittaya; Herrmann, Jörg; Groten, Tanja; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Morales-Prieto, Diana M

    2016-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) occurs in several pregnancy diseases including PE. Placental trophoblast cells express a specific set of miRNAs which changes during pregnancy. These miRNAs can be released within extracellular vesicles (EVs) and mediate intercellular communication. miR-141 is a pregnancy-related miRNA which is expressed by trophoblast cells at increased levels in maternal plasma in the third trimester. We hypothesize that miR-141 is abnormally expressed in PE placentae, controls trophoblast, and immune cell functions and is involved in the intercellular communication between fetal trophoblast and maternal immune cells. Expression of miR-141 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in normal and preeclamptic placentae and in 2 different trophoblastic cell lines, JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo. Changes in JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell proliferation and invasion were investigated after miR-141 inhibition and overexpression by MTS-, BrdU-, and Matrigel assays. EVs from miR-141 transfected cells were isolated from supernatants and characterized by NanoSight analysis and qPCR. Proliferation of Jurkat T cells and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were investigated after treatment with EVs containing different miR-141 levels. miR-141 expression was higher in placentae from PE patients compared with those from normal pregnancies. miR-141 inhibition in trophoblastic cells resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced invasion capability. After transfection with miR-141-mimic, trophoblastic cells secreted EVs with increased miR-141 content. These vesicles did not exert effects on trophoblastic cell invasion but reduced Jurkat T cell proliferation. In conclusion, miR-141 regulates major functions of trophoblastic and immune cells. Trophoblast cells release EVs whose miRNA content can be modified by transfection of origin cells. Furthermore

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease agent) reduces HIV-1 replication in human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Dolcini, Guillermina Laura; Solana, María Elisa; Andreani, Guadalupe; Celentano, Ana María; Parodi, Laura María; Donato, Ana María; Elissondo, Natalia; Cappa, Stella Maris González; Giavedoni, Luis David; Peralta, Liliana Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Background Several factors determine the risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), such as coinfections in placentas from HIV-1 positive mothers with other pathogens. Chagas' disease is one of the most endemic zoonoses in Latin America, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The purpose of the study was to determine whether T. cruzi modifies HIV infection of the placenta at the tissue or cellular level. Results Simple and double infections were carried out on a placental histoculture system (chorionic villi isolated from term placentas from HIV and Chagas negative mothers) and on the choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line. Trypomastigotes of T. cruzi (VD lethal strain), either purified from mouse blood or from Vero cell cultures, 24 h-supernatants of blood and cellular trypomastigotes, and the VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 reporter virus were used for the coinfections. Viral transduction was evaluated by quantification of luciferase activity. Coinfection with whole trypomastigotes, either from mouse blood or from cell cultures, decreased viral pseudotype luciferase activity in placental histocultures. Similar results were obtained from BeWo cells. Supernatants of stimulated histocultures were used for the simultaneous determination of 29 cytokines and chemokines with the Luminex technology. In histocultures infected with trypomastigotes, as well as in coinfected tissues, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and MCP-1 production was significantly lower than in controls or HIV-1 transducted tissue. A similar decrease was observed in histocultures treated with 24 h-supernatants of blood trypomastigotes, but not in coinfected tissues. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the presence of an intracellular pathogen, such as T. cruzi, is able to impair HIV-1 transduction in an in vitro system of human placental histoculture. Direct effects of the parasite on cellular structures as well as on cellular/viral proteins essential for HIV-1 replication might influence viral transduction in this

  17. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, E. A.; Buzulukov, Yu. P.; Demin, V. F.; Demin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Tyshko, N. V.; Tutelyan, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the 110mAg radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [110mAg]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20th day of gestation) or lactating (14–16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69–2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother’s breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [110mAg]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother’s milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085–0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [110mAg]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  18. TNF-α alters the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta.

    PubMed

    Siwetz, Monika; Blaschitz, Astrid; El-Heliebi, Amin; Hiden, Ursula; Desoye, Gernot; Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Implantation and subsequent placental development depend on a well-orchestrated interaction between fetal and maternal tissues, involving a fine balanced synergistic cross-talk of inflammatory and immune-modulating factors. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been increasingly recognized as pivotal factor for successful pregnancy, although high maternal TNF-α levels are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy conditions including gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus. This study describes effects of exogenously applied TNF-α, mimicking increased maternal TNF-α levels, on the secretion profile of inflammation associated factors in human first trimester villous placenta. Conditioned culture media from first trimester villous placental explants were analyzed by inflammation antibody arrays and ELISA after 48 h culture in the presence or absence of TNF-α. Inflammation antibody arrays identified interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL4, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the most abundantly secreted inflammation-associated factors under basal culture conditions. In the presence of TNF-α, secretion of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-4 and macrophage CSF levels decreased compared with controls. ELISA analysis verified antibody arrays by showing significantly increased synthesis and release of GM-CSF and CCL5 by placental explants in response to TNF-α. Immunohistochemistry localized GM-CSF in the villous trophoblast compartment, whereas CCL5 was detected in maternal platelets adhering to perivillous fibrin deposits on the villous surface. mRNA-based in situ padlock probe approach localized GM-CSF and CCL5 transcripts in the villous trophoblast layer and the villous stroma. Results from this study suggest that the inflammatory secretion profile of human first trimester placenta shifts towards increased levels of GM-CSF, CCL5, and IL10 in response to elevated maternal

  19. Arsenic-Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Immune Disruption in Human Placenta and Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sultan; Khoda, Sultana Mahabbat-e; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Gardner, Renee M.; Ameer, Syeda Shegufta; Moore, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Vahter, Marie; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-01-01

    Background Arsenic (As) exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and increases the risk of fetal loss and low birth weight. Objectives In this study we aimed to elucidate the effects of As exposure on immune markers in the placenta and cord blood, and the involvement of oxidative stress. Methods Pregnant women were enrolled around gestational week (GW) 8 in our longitudinal, population-based, mother–child cohort in Matlab, an area in rural Bangladesh with large variations in As concentrations in well water. Women (n = 130) delivering at local clinics were included in the present study. We collected maternal urine twice during pregnancy (GW8 and GW30) for measurements of As, and placenta and cord blood at delivery for assessment of immune and inflammatory markers. Placental markers were measured by immunohistochemistry, and cord blood cytokines by multiplex cytokine assay. Results In multivariable adjusted models, maternal urinary As (U-As) exposure both at GW8 and at GW30 was significantly positively associated with placental markers of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β); U-As at GW8, with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interferon-γ (IFNγ); and U-As at GW30, with leptin; U-As at GW8 was inversely associated with CD3+ T cells in the placenta. Cord blood cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFNγ, TNFα) showed a U-shaped association with U-As at GW30. Placental 8-oxoG was significantly positively associated with placental proinflammatory cytokines. Multivariable adjusted analyses suggested that enhanced placental cytokine expression (TNFα and IFNγ) was primarily influenced by oxidative stress, whereas leptin expression appeared to be mostly mediated by As, and IL-1β appeared to be influenced by both oxidative stress and As. Conclusion As exposure during pregnancy appeared to enhance placental inflammatory responses (in part by increasing oxidative stress), reduce placental T cells, and alter cord blood cytokines. These findings suggest

  20. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits.

    PubMed

    van Rens, Birgitte T T M; van der Lende, Tette

    2004-07-01

    Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n = 57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval in relation to birth weight, birth order and placental traits. Independently from each other, litter size, gestation length and offspring directed aggression significantly (P 0.05) affected duration of farrowing. An increase in litter size was associated with an increase of duration of farrowing and an increase in gestation length was associated with a decrease of duration of farrowing. Aggressive gilts took longer to farrow, compared to non-aggressive ones. After taking into account litter size, gestation length and offspring directed aggression, placental thickness (i.e., placental weight corrected for placental surface area) was significantly (P < 0.05) related to duration of farrowing, i.e., litters with on average thicker placentae took longer to farrow. The latter effect is the result of the fact that individual placental thickness significantly (P < 0.01) affected individual birth interval, independent of birth weight. The piglet has to break its own membranes to be able to start its journey through the uterus towards the birth channel. Apparently, a thicker placenta offers more resistance and thus prolongs the process of birth. Independent of placental thickness, birth interval significantly (P < 0.01) decreased with an increase in birth order (first born to last born). The high variation of birth intervals for the last born piglets, caused a slight increase in average birth interval for the latter piglets. Litters with on average more areolae per placenta took significantly (P < 0.001) less time to be born than litters with on average less areolae per placenta (independent of total number of piglets born and other placental traits), while birth intervals

  1. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M.; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E.; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy–specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to”DNA binding” and “transcription factor binding” coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments. PMID:27490343

  2. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco; Martinez, Angel T.; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Ken; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabat, Gregorz; Splinter Bondurant, Sandra; Larrondo, Luis F.; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuna, Rafael; Yadev, Jagjit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Chee, Christine L.; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Brettin, T.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2009-02-10

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome, and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in media containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative β-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Also upregulated under cellulolytic culture conditions were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H2O2. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. In particular, comparisons between P. placenta and the closely related white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  3. Change of genes in calcium transport channels caused by hypoxic stress in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney of pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; An, Beum-Soo; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by concurrent development of hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. In this study, we induced hypoxic stress in rats during pregnancy to reproduce physiological conditions associated with preeclampsia. The maternal weight of hypoxic pregnant rats was lower than that of normoxic animals. The level of calcium ions were also increased in urine collected from the hypoxic animals. In contrast, urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, and potassium ions declined in hypoxic rats, and developed to proteinuria. The expression of genes known as two biomarkers, sFLT1 (for preeclampsia) and HIF-1alpha (for hypoxia), were highly induced in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney by hypoxic stress. The overexpression of sFLT1 and HIF-1alpha demonstrated that our experimental conditions closely mimicked ones that are associated with preeclampsia. In the present study, we measured the expression of calcium transporters (TRPV5, TRPV6, PMCA1, NCKX3, NCX1, and CaBP-9k) in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney under hypoxic conditions on Gestational Day 19.5 in rats. Placental TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 expression was up-regulated in the hypoxic rats, whereas the levels of NCX1 and CaBP-9k were unchanged. In addition, NCKX3 expression was increased in the placenta of hypoxic rats. Duodenal expression of CaBP-9k, TRPV5, TRPV 6, and PMCA1 was decreased in the hypoxic rats, whereas levels of NCXs were not altered. Renal expression of NCKX3 and TRPV6 was increased, whereas NCX1 was decreased in the hypoxic rats compared to the normoxic controls. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological changes observed in the hypoxic rats were similar to ones associated with preeclampsia. Expression of calcium transport genes in the placenta, duodenum, and kidney perturbed by hypoxic stress during pregnancy may cause calcium loss in the urine, and thereby induce calcium-deficient characteristics of preeclampsia.

  4. Microarray-Based Analysis of Methylation of 1st Trimester Trisomic Placentas from Down Syndrome, Edwards Syndrome and Patau Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Lotte; Aagaard, Mads M; Bach, Cathrine; Graakjaer, Jesper; Sommer, Steffen; Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvraa, Steen; Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Methylation-based non-invasive prenatal testing of fetal aneuploidies is an alternative method that could possibly improve fetal aneuploidy diagnosis, especially for trisomy 13(T13) and trisomy 18(T18). Our aim was to study the methylation landscape in placenta DNA from trisomy 13, 18 and 21 pregnancies in an attempt to find trisomy-specific methylation differences better suited for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have conducted high-resolution methylation specific bead chip microarray analyses assessing more than 450,000 CpGs analyzing placentas from 12 T21 pregnancies, 12 T18 pregnancies and 6 T13 pregnancies. We have compared the methylation landscape of the trisomic placentas to the methylation landscape from normal placental DNA and to maternal blood cell DNA. Comparing trisomic placentas to normal placentas we identified 217 and 219 differentially methylated CpGs for CVS T18 and CVS T13, respectively (delta β>0.2, FDR<0.05), but only three differentially methylated CpGs for T21. However, the methylation differences was only modest (delta β<0.4), making them less suitable as diagnostic markers. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the gene set connected to theT18 differentially methylated CpGs was highly enriched for GO terms related to"DNA binding" and "transcription factor binding" coupled to the RNA polymerase II transcription. In the gene set connected to the T13 differentially methylated CpGs we found no significant enrichments. PMID:27490343

  5. Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Grafmüller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Krug, Harald F.; Wick, Peter; von Mandach, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Decades ago the human placenta was thought to be an impenetrable barrier between mother and unborn child. However, the discovery of thalidomide-induced birth defects and many later studies afterwards proved the opposite. Today several harmful xenobiotics like nicotine, heroin, methadone or drugs as well as environmental pollutants were described to overcome this barrier. With the growing use of nanotechnology, the placenta is likely to come into contact with novel nanoparticles either accidentally through exposure or intentionally in the case of potential nanomedical applications. Data from animal experiments cannot be extrapolated to humans because the placenta is the most species-specific mammalian organ 1. Therefore, the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion, developed by Panigel et al. in 1967 2 and continuously modified by Schneider et al. in 1972 3, can serve as an excellent model to study the transfer of xenobiotics or particles. Here, we focus on the ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion protocol and its further development to acquire reproducible results. The placentae were obtained after informed consent of the mothers from uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing caesarean delivery. The fetal and maternal vessels of an intact cotyledon were cannulated and perfused at least for five hours. As a model particle fluorescently labelled polystyrene particles with sizes of 80 and 500 nm in diameter were added to the maternal circuit. The 80 nm particles were able to cross the placental barrier and provide a perfect example for a substance which is transferred across the placenta to the fetus while the 500 nm particles were retained in the placental tissue or maternal circuit. The ex vivo human placental perfusion model is one of few models providing reliable information about the transport behavior of xenobiotics at an important tissue barrier which delivers predictive and clinical relevant data. PMID:23851364

  6. Assessment of ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides across the rabbit placenta barrier using a novel MDCKII in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Schäfer, Ingo; Kneuer, Carsten; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2016-08-15

    In humans, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 contributes to the fetoprotective barrier function of the placenta, potentially limiting the toxicity of transporter substrates to the fetus. During testing of chemicals including pesticides, developmental toxicity studies are performed in rabbit. Despite its toxicological relevance, ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides in rabbit placenta has not been yet elucidated. We therefore generated polarized MDCK II cells expressing the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta (rbABCG2) and evaluated interaction of the efflux transporter with selected insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The Hoechst H33342 accumulation assay indicated that 13 widely used pesticidal active substances including azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, chlormequat, diflufenican, dimethoate, dimethomorph, dithianon, ioxynil, methiocarb, propamocarb, rimsulfuron and toclofos-methyl may be rbABCG2 inhibitors and/or substrates. No such evidence was obtained for chlorpyrifos-methyl, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, imazalil and thiacloprid. Moreover, chlorpyrifos (CPF), dimethomorph, tolclofos-methyl and rimsulfuron showed concentration-dependent inhibition of H33342 excretion in rbABCG2-transduced MDCKII cells. To further evaluate the role of rbABCG2 in pesticide transport across the placenta barrier, we generated polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers. Confocal microscopy confirmed correct localization of rbABCG2 protein in the apical plasma membrane. In transepithelial flux studies, we showed the time-dependent preferential basolateral to apical (B>A) directed transport of [(14)C] CPF across polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers which was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC). Using this novel in vitro cell culture model, we altogether showed functional secretory activity of the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta and identified several pesticides like the insecticide CPF as potential rbABCG2 substrates

  7. Major Placenta Previa: Rate, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Experience at a Tertiary Maternity Hospital, Sohag, Egypt: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salah Roshdy; Aitallah, Abdusaeed; Abdelghafar, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major degree placenta is a serious health issue and is associated with high fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality. Literature from developing countries is scant. Aim To determine the prevalence and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women with major placenta previa (PP). Materials and Methods A prospective descriptive study of 52 singleton pregnancies with PP was evaluated in this study. The study was conducted at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt from January through June 2014. Outcome measures, including the prevalence of PP, maternal and neonatal outcomes, and case-fatality rate. Results The total number of deliveries performed during the study period was 3841, of them, 52 cases were placenta previa. Thus, the prevalence of PP was 1.3%. The mean of previous cesarean scars was 2.2±1.4. Of women with PP, 26.4% (n=14) had placenta accreta. In total, 15.1% (n=8) of women underwent an obstetric hysterectomy. From the total no. of babies, 13.2% (n=7) were delivered fresh stillborn babies. Of the surviving babies (n=45), 20% (n=9) required admission to NICU. The frequencies of bowel and bladder injuries were 3.8% (n=2) and 13.2% (n=7) respectively. There was no maternal death in this study. Conclusion The rate of PP is comparable to previous studies, however, the rate of placenta accreta is high. Also, there are high rates of neonatal mortality and intraoperative complications which can be explained by accreta. The study highlights the need to revise maternity and child health services. PMID:26674539

  8. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  9. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy regulates the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Machaalani, R.; Ghazavi, E.; Hinton, T.; Waters, K.A.; Hennessy, A.

    2014-05-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, premature delivery, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nicotine, a major pathogenic compound of cigarette smoke, binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A total of 16 nAChR subunits have been identified in mammals (9 α, 4 β, and 1 δ, γ and ε subunits). The effect of cigarette smoking on the expression of these subunits in the placenta has not yet been determined, thus constituting the aim of this study. Using RT-qPCR and western blotting, this study investigated all 16 mammalian nAChR subunits in the normal healthy human placenta, and compared mRNA and protein expressions in the placentas from smokers (n = 8) to controls (n = 8). Our data show that all 16 subunit mRNAs are expressed in the normal, non-diseased human placenta and that the expression of α2, α3, α4, α9, β2 and β4 subunits is greater than the other subunits. For mRNA, cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased expression of the α9 subunit, and decreased expression of the δ subunit. At the protein level, expression of both α9 and δ was increased. Thus, cigarette smoking in pregnancy is sufficient to regulate nAChR subunits in the placenta, specifically α9 and δ subunits, and could contribute to the adverse effects of vasoconstriction and decreased re-epithelialisation (α9), and increased calcification and apoptosis (δ), seen in the placentas of smoking women. - Highlights: • All 16 mammalian nAChR subunits are expressed in the human placenta. • Cigarette smoking increases α9 mRNA and protein in the placenta. • Cigarette smoking decreases δ mRNA but increases δ protein in the placenta.

  10. The Long Path of Human Placenta, and Its Derivatives, in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Silini, Antonietta R.; Cargnoni, Anna; Magatti, Marta; Pianta, Stefano; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    In the 1800s, a baby born with a caul, a remnant of the amniotic sack or fetal membranes, was thought to be lucky, special, or protected. Over time, fetal membranes lost their legendary power and were soon considered nothing more than biological waste after birth. However, placenta tissues have reclaimed their potential and since the early 1900s an increasing body of evidence has shown that these tissues have clinical benefits in a wide range of wound repair and surgical applications. Nowadays, there is a concerted effort to understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of placental tissues, and, more recently, cells derived thereof. This review will summarize the historical and current clinical applications of human placental tissues, and cells isolated from these tissues, and discuss some mechanisms thought to be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed after tissue and/or cell transplantation. PMID:26539433

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) modulates bovine placenta steroidogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sousa, L M M C; Campos, D B; Fonseca, V U; Viau, P; Kfoury, J R; Oliveira, C A; Binelli, M; Buratini, J; Papa, P C

    2012-10-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the possible role of VEGFA in bovine placenta steroid synthesis and to determine whether cloned derived placental cells present similar responses as non-cloned ones. Placental cells from cloned (term) and non-cloned (days 90, 150, 210 and term) pregnancies were isolated and treated with VEGFA (50 ng/ml) for 24, 48 or 96 h. Progesterone (P(4)) and estrone sulfate (E(1)S) were assessed by RIA, while aromatase P450-positive cells were quantified using the point counting test. The percentages of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic populations were determined by flow cytometry. VEGFA augmented or decreased P(4) and E(1)S concentrations as well as aromatase P450-positive cell density, depending on gestational age and time in culture. The percentage of steroidogenic cells was lower than that of non-steroidogenic ones for each culture time (P < 0.05). VEGFA treatment did not change the proportion of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cells. Placental cells derived from cloned pregnancies presented higher concentrations of E(1)S and P4 than the non-cloned group. However, aromatase P450-positive cells were similar between groups (P > 0.05). VEGFA treatment altered P(4) and E(1)S levels in placental cells depending on type of gestation. These results suggest that VEGFA acts locally in the bovine placenta to modulate steroidogenesis during gestation, but in a different pattern between cloned and non-cloned derived placental cells at term. Therefore, this factor can be considered an important regulator of placental development and function.

  12. Immunomodulatory molecules are released from the first trimester and term placenta via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, S K; Alam, S M; Jasti, S; Hodes, H; Nauser, T; Gilliam, M; Billstrand, C; Hunt, J S; Petroff, M G

    2012-12-01

    The semiallogenic fetus is tolerated by the maternal immune system through control of innate and adaptive immune responses. Trophoblast cells secrete nanometer scale membranous particles called exosomes, which have been implicated in modulation of the local and systemic maternal immune system. Here we investigate the possibility that exosomes secreted from the first trimester and term placenta carry HLA-G and B7 family immunomodulators. Confocal microscopy of placental sections revealed intracellular co-localization of B7-H1 with CD63, suggesting that B7-H1 associates with subcellular vesicles that give rise to exosomes. First trimester and term placental explants were then cultured for 24 h. B7H-1 (CD274), B7-H3 (CD276) and HLA-G5 were abundant in pelleted supernatants of these cultures that contained microparticles and exosomes; the latter, however, was observed only in first trimester pellets and was nearly undetectable in term explant-derived pellets. Further purification of exosomes by sucrose density fractionation confirmed the association of these proteins specifically with exosomes. Finally, culture of purified trophoblast cells in the presence or absence of EGF suggested that despite the absence of HLA-G5 association with term explant-derived exosomes, it is present in exosomes secreted from mononuclear cytotrophoblast cells. Further, differentiation of cytotrophoblast cells reduced the presence of HLA-G5 in secreted exosomes. Together, the results suggest that the immunomodulatory proteins HLA-G5, B7-H1 and B7-H3, are secreted from early and term placenta, and have important implications in the mechanisms by which trophoblast immunomodulators modify the maternal immunological environment.

  13. Microanatomy of the placenta of Lycopodium obscurum: novel design in an underground embryo

    PubMed Central

    Renzaglia, Karen S.; Whittier, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Long-lived underground populations of mycoheterotrophic gametophytes and attached sporophytes at various developmental stages occur in lycophytes. Young underground sporophytes obtain carbon solely from the gametophyte and establish nutritional independence only after reaching the soil surface, which may take several years. This prolonged period of matrotrophy exceeds that of bryophytes. The foot is massive and provides the lifeline for sporophyte establishment, yet the fine structure of the placental region is unexplored in lycophytes with underground gametophytes. Methods Gametophytes with attached embryos/young sporophytes of Lycopodium obscurum were collected in nature, processed and examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Key Results Three ultrastructurally distinct regions were identified within a single foot of a sporophyte emerging from the soil. Young foot regions actively divide, and have direct contact with and show little differentiation from gametophyte cells. In unlobed foot areas, cells in both generations exhibit polarity in content and indicate unidirectional transport of carbon reserves into the foot toward the developing shoot and root. The foot has inconspicuous wall ingrowths. Highly lobed foot regions contain peripheral transfer cells with prominent wall ingrowths that absorb nutrients from degenerating gametophyte cells. Conclusions Variability within a single placenta is consistent with an invasive and long-lived foot. The late appearance of wall ingrowths in transfer cells reflects this dynamic ever-growing embryo. Placental features in lycophytes are related to the unique reorientation of all embryonic regions during development. Small placentas with wall ingrowths in both generations characterize ephemeral embryos in green gametophytes, while short-lived and repositioning embryos of heterosporous taxa are devoid of transfer cells. Transfer cell evolution across embryophytes is riddled with homoplasy and

  14. Development of an artificial placenta IV: 24 hour venovenous extracorporeal life support in premature lambs.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian W; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Kim, Anne C; Gadepali, Samir; Koch, Kely L; Capizzani, Tony R; Bartlet, Robert H; Mychaliska, George B

    2012-01-01

    An extracorporeal artificial placenta would change the paradigm of treating extremely premature infants. We hypothesized that a venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) artificial placenta would maintain fetal circulation, hemodynamic stability, and adequate gas exchange for 24 hours. A near-term neonatal lamb model (130 days; term = 145 days) was used (n = 9). The right jugular vein was cannulated for VV-ECLS outflow, and an umbilical vein was used for inflow. The circuit included a peristaltic roller pump and a 0.5 m(2) hollow fiber oxygenator. Lambs were maintained on VV-ECLS in an "amniotic bath" for up to 24 hours. Five of nine fetuses survived for 24 hours. In the survivors, average mean arterial pressure was 69 ± 10 mm Hg for the first 4 hours and 36 ± 8 mm Hg for the remaining 20 hours. The mean fetal heart rate was 202 ± 30. Mean VV-ECLS flow was 94 ± 20 ml/kg/min. Using a gas mixture of 50% O(2)/3% CO(2) and sweep flow of 1-2 L/min, the mean pH was 7.27 ± 0.09, with Po(2) of 35 ± 12 mm Hg and Pco(2) of 48 ± 12 mm Hg. Necropsy revealed a patent ductus arteriosus in all cases, and there was no gross or microscopic intracranial hemorrhage. Complications in failed attempts included technically difficult cannulation and multisystem organ failure. Future studies will enhance stability and address the factors necessary for long-term support.

  15. Delayed villous maturation of the placenta: quantitative assessment in different cohorts.

    PubMed

    Treacy, Ann; Higgins, Mary; Kearney, John M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Mooney, Eoghan E

    2013-01-01

    Placental villous maturation is maximal in the 3rd trimester, with an abundance of terminal villi. Delayed villous maturation (DVM) of the placenta is associated with chromosomal abnormalities, gestational diabetes, and an adverse outcome. This study compares quantitative assessment of vasculo-syncytial membranes (VSM) in cases of liveborn infants, perinatal deaths, and controls. Cases were selected as follows: (1) liveborn infants with a qualitative diagnosis of DVM (n  =  15); (2) controls matched for gestational age whose placentas did not have DVM (n  =  15); (3) stillbirths (SB)/neonatal deaths (NND) showing DVM (n  =  13); and (4) SB from autopsies in which DVM was felt to be the cause of death (COD) (n  =  12). Vasculo-syncytial membranes were counted in 10 terminal villi in each of 10 consecutive high-power fields on 3 slides. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Liveborn cases with DVM showed statistically significantly less VSM than controls (mean 1.01 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001). The SB/NND group also showed significantly less VSM than the control group (mean 0.46 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001) and less than the liveborn DVM group (mean 0.46 vs 1.01, P  =  0.001). The COD group was significantly different from the control group (mean 0.42 vs 2.42, P < 0.0001) and the liveborn DVM group (mean 0.42 vs 1.01, P < 0.0001) but not significantly different from the SB/NND group. There is a quantitative reduction in VSM in cases of DVM compared to controls.

  16. Expression dynamics of bovine MX genes in the endometrium and placenta during early to mid pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SHIROZU, Takahiro; SASAKI, Keisuke; KAWAHARA, Manabu; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; NAGANO, Masashi; YAMAUCHI, Nobuhiko; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    MX belongs to a family of type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes, and the MX protein has antiviral activity. MX has at least two isoforms, known as MX1 and MX2, in mammals. Moreover, bovine MX1 has been found to have alternative splice variants—namely, MX1-a and MX1B. In ruminants, IFN-τ—a type I IFN—is temporarily produced from the conceptus before implantation and induces MX expression in the endometrium. However, the expression dynamics of MX after implantation are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MX1-a, MX1B and MX2 in the endometrium and placenta before and after implantation along with the expression of IFN-α, type I receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and interferon regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF9). Pregnant uterine samples were divided into five groups according to pregnancy days 14–18, 25–40, 50–70, 80–100, and 130–150. Tissue samples were collected from the intercaruncular endometrium (IC), caruncular endometrium (C) and fetal placenta (P). Although all the MX expressions were significantly higher in the IC and C at days 14–18, presumably caused by embryo-secreted IFN-τ stimulation, their expressions were also detectable in the IC, C and P after implantation. Furthermore, IFN-α expression was significantly higher in the IC. RT-PCR indicated IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IRF3 and IRF9 mRNA in all the tissues during pregnancy. These results suggest that all the MX genes are affected by the type I IFN pathway during pregnancy and are involved in an immune response to protect the mother and fetus. PMID:26498202

  17. Mst1 and Mst2 Are Essential Regulators of Trophoblast Differentiation and Placenta Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xingrong; Dong, Yongli; Shi, Hao; Li, Jiang; Kong, Shanshan; Shi, Donghua; Sun, Ling V.; Xu, Tian; Deng, Kejing; Tao, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential for survival and growth of the fetus because it promotes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen from the maternal circulation as well as fetal waste disposal. Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2), key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases and play important roles in the prevention of tumorigenesis and autoimmunity, control of T cell development and trafficking, and embryonic development. However, their functions in placental development are not fully understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functions of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development using both conventional and conditional (endothelial) Mst1/2 double knockout mice. We found that the number of trophoblast giant cells dramatically increased while spongiotrophoblast cells almost completely disappeared in Mst1/2 deficient placentas. We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial-specific deletion of Mst1/2 led to impaired placental labyrinthine vasculature and embryonic lethality at E11.5, but neither affected vasculature in yolk sac and embryo proper nor endocardium development. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mst1/2 regulate placental development by control of trophoblast cell differentiation and labyrinthine vasculature at midgestation and Mst1/2 control labyrinth morphogenesis in trophoblast- and fetal endothelial-dependent manners. Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. PMID:24595170

  18. Vascular actions of purines in the foetal circulation of the human placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Read, M. A.; Boura, A. L.; Walters, W. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The vasoactive effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine and other purines in the foetal circulation of the human placenta were examined. Single lobules of the placenta were bilaterally perfused in vitro with Krebs buffer (maternal and foetal sides 5 ml min-1 each, 95% O2:5% CO2, 37 degrees C). Changes in foetal vascular tone were assessed by recording perfusion pressure during constant infusion of each purine. To allow recording of the vasodilator effects, submaximal vasoconstriction was induced by concomitant infusion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (0.7-2.0 mumol l-1). 2. ATP (1.0-100 mumol l-1) usually caused concentration-dependent reductions in perfusion pressure. However, biphasic with initial transient increases, or only increases in pressure were sometimes observed. Falls in pressure caused by ATP were significantly reduced by addition to the perfusate of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) (100 mumol l-1) but not NG-nitro-D-arginine (D-NOARG) (100 mumol l-1). They were not influenced by addition of indomethacin (10 mumol l-1) or L-arginine (100 mumol l-1). 3. Adenosine (0.01-1.0 mmol l-1) consistently caused concentration-dependent reductions in perfusion pressure, this effect not being influenced by indomethacin. L-NOARG, but not D-NOARG, reduced the potency of adenosine approximately three fold. L-Arginine, but not D-arginine enhanced its potency by a similar amount. 4. 2-Methylthio-ATP, a selective P2 gamma agonist was approximately 50 times more potent than ATP as a vasodilator agent, always causing decreases in perfusion pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220907

  19. Control of binucleate cell migration in the placenta of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Wooding, F B; Flint, A P; Heap, R B; Morgan, G; Buttle, H L; Young, I R

    1986-03-01

    In the ruminant placenta 15-20% of the trophectodermal epithelium consists of granulated binucleate cells (BNC). In the sheep the granules contain ovine placental lactogen (oPL). These cells migrate from the trophectoderm to form fetomaternal hybrid tissue from implantation to term. The number of BNC, their percentage migration and the potential secretory activity of the syncytium they form were estimated by semiquantitative transmission electron-microscopical techniques after several surgical techniques and hormone or drug infusions. BNC numbers decrease normally just before parturition, and this fall could be eliminated by fetal hypophysectomy or induced early by administration of tetracosactrin to intact or hypophysectomized fetuses. If only one twin was treated with tetracosactrin the placenta of the untreated twin did not show the fall in BNC numbers found in the other unless it died in utero some time before sampling. This indicates fetal control of BNC number and migration. However, fetal catheterization, hypophysectomy, stalk section, adrenalectomy, infusion of mouse epidermal growth factor or bromocriptine had little or no effect on binucleate cell numbers or migration percentages. Maternal carunclectomy, ovariectomy, or epostane or bromocriptine administration also had no consistent significant effect. Previous reports of degeneration of BNC structure plus a decrease in their number (with bromocriptine) or an increase in migration frequency (after adrenalectomy or stalk section) have not been confirmed by this study. The BNC migration delivers the oPL-containing BNC granules close to the maternal circulation but the variation in migration seems only loosely correlated with the reported maternal oPL concentrations. The results indicate that BNC migration is independent of the hormonal milieu, but that BNC production is greatly modified by the hormonal changes just before parturition, with cortisol production by the fetus a possible primary cause. PMID

  20. Serum Amyloid A in the Placenta and Its Role in Trophoblast Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Silvana; Urban Borbely, Alexandre; Fernandes, Isabella; Mendes de Oliveira, Edson; Knebel, Franciele Hinterholz; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabiola; Bevilacqua, Estela; Campa, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The serum amyloid A (SAA) protein is known to function in the acute phase response and immunoregulation. Recently, SAA has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migratory behavior in different cell types. Here, we evaluated whether exogenous SAA could influence trophoblast invasion and differentiation using both the trophoblast-like BeWo cell line and fully differentiated human extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT) isolated from term placentae. SAA stimulated BeWo cell invasion, as measured in Matrigel invasion assays, and induced metalloprotease mRNA expression and activity. Given that BeWo cells express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a known receptor for SAA, we examined the role of TLR4 in SAA-induced invasion using a TLR4 neutralizing antibody. We also tested whether SAA could affect markers of trophoblast syncytialization in BeWo cells. We observed that SAA decreased βhCG secretion and did not influence trophoblast syncytialization. Using EVT cells isolated from human term basal plates, we confirmed that SAA at 1 and 10 µg/mL doubled EVT invasion in a TLR4-dependent manner, but at 20 µg/mL inhibited EVT cells invasiveness. In addition, we observed that SAA was expressed in both BeWo cells and human term placentae, specifically in the syncytiotrophoblast, decidual cells and EVT. In conclusion, SAA was identified as a molecule that functions in the placental microenvironment to regulate metalloprotease activity and trophoblast invasion, which are key processes in placentation and placental homeostasis. PMID:24614130

  1. Bacterial isolates associated with dystocia and retained placenta in iraqi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Rahawy, M A; Hadad, J J

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted on 50 recently calved Iraqi Buffalo cows. Depending on the kind of parturition, buffalo cows were divided into two main groups, the first group had normal unassisted parturition (NP) (26 animals) and the second group with certain periparturent complications (PPC) (24 animals). After 24 h of parturition, these two groups were further subdivided into two groups as cows expel their foetal membranes in <24 h postpartum and referred as non-retained placenta (NRP) while cows that did not expel their foetal membrane after 24 h referred as retained placenta (RP). Sampling for bacteriology, uterine discharge for polymorphonuclear cells per cent and blood samples for polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and the enzyme creatine kinase activity were performed at 6, 24 and 48 h postpartum. In PPC group, the most prevalent bacteria after 6 h of calving were Escherichia coli, beta-haemolytic Streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Total bacterial isolates in the uterus of buffaloes with RP in PPC group after 24 and 48 h were 129 and 183 respectively. Among the isolates, Archanobacterium pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella melaninogenicus and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prevalent isolates after 48 h of RP buffaloes in PPC group. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil were significantly (p < 0.01) increased in the uterine discharge than in blood in buffaloes with RP in both PPC and NP groups. In conclusion, uterine contamination occurs as a result of postpartum ascending contamination by non-specific environmental organisms. The presence of Lactobacillus sp. in the uterus indicated a healthy uterus. Peripartum complications followed by retention of foetal membranes with the dominance of E. coli in the uterine lumen might favour the colonization of other bacteria including facultative anaerobic and strictly anaerobic in the uterine wall of buffaloes.

  2. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis.

  3. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis. PMID:26395631

  4. Intracellular Na+ regulates epithelial Na+ channel maturation.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Elisa; Carattino, Marcelo D; Hughey, Rebecca P; Pilewski, Joseph M; Kleyman, Thomas R; Myerburg, Mike M

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function is regulated by the intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]i) through a process known as Na(+) feedback inhibition. Although this process is known to decrease the expression of proteolytically processed active channels on the cell surface, it is unknown how [Na(+)]i alters ENaC cleavage. We show here that [Na(+)]i regulates the posttranslational processing of ENaC subunits during channel biogenesis. At times when [Na(+)]i is low, ENaC subunits develop mature N-glycans and are processed by proteases. Conversely, glycan maturation and sensitivity to proteolysis are reduced when [Na(+)]i is relatively high. Surface channels with immature N-glycans were not processed by endogenous channel activating proteases, nor were they sensitive to cleavage by exogenous trypsin. Biotin chase experiments revealed that the immature surface channels were not converted into mature cleaved channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. The hypothesis that [Na(+)]i regulates ENaC maturation within the biosynthetic pathways is further supported by the finding that Brefeldin A prevented the accumulation of processed surface channels following a reduction in [Na(+)]i. Therefore, increased [Na(+)]i interferes with ENaC N-glycan maturation and prevents the channel from entering a state that allows proteolytic processing. PMID:25767115

  5. Expression and regulation of the pituitary- and placenta-specific human glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene is restricted to the pituitary in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, N; Solter, D

    1988-01-01

    Expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit occurs in both the pituitary and placenta in humans. However, this study found that expression of this subunit is restricted to the pituitary in mice. An interspecies analysis of human alpha-subunit gene regulation was undertaken, using the transgenic-mouse approach. In mice transgenic for a genomic clone containing the complete human alpha-subunit gene and several kilobases of 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences, cell-type-specific expression and hormonal regulation of the human alpha-subunit transgene occurred in the mouse pituitary, whereas no expression of the transgene was detectable in the mouse placenta. These findings provide strong evidence that a common trans-acting factor(s) regulates glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene expression in the human and mouse pituitaries; however, this factor(s) or a unique factor(s), though functional in the human placenta, is either nonfunctional or absent in the mouse placenta. Images PMID:2468998

  6. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  7. Human placenta as a 'dual' biomarker for monitoring fetal and maternal environment with special reference to potentially toxic trace elements. Part 1: physiology, function and sampling of placenta for elemental characterisation.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Rapp, A

    2001-12-01

    Choice of specimen from human subjects for monitoring pollutants proven to be detrimental to human health depends on the criteria chosen, namely real-time monitoring (RTM) or long-term monitoring (LTM). Specimens such as whole blood, urine, saliva and breast milk are commonly used from living subjects for RTM of toxic metals. However, sampling blood requires an invasive procedure. On the other hand, hair (with some limitations), bone (especially for the assessment of bone seeking elements), adipose tissue (mainly for organic pollutants) and liver (for both organic and inorganic toxicants) are used as specimens for LTM. With the exception of hair, generally these specimens are obtained at post-mortem. In context of health-related biomonitoring, placenta as a specimen has not received as much attention as it deserves. It is a unique sample requiring no invasive procedure, and offers possibilities for RTM, in particular as a dual purpose specimen for evaluating the pollutant burden exerted on the mother as well as on the fetus. Obtaining representative samples of placenta for elemental composition studies is a difficult task, because of heterogeneous mix of placental cells and decidual matter tainted with maternal and fetal blood. Therefore, the present sampling practices for placental tissue, and guidelines to safeguard the validity of the sampled material have been reviewed in part 1 with the following conclusions: medico-legal and ethical matters should be properly addressed before collecting the placenta; it is advisable to collect the entire placenta even if it includes the umbilical cord; further preparatory work is to be carried out in a clean laboratory and depends upon the purpose of the investigation; homogenising the entire sample may prove to be technically challenging but this step is crucial to obtain representative samples, handling the entire sample may be unavoidable; and an alternative method of procuring representative samples would require random

  8. Structure and functions of the placenta in common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales

    PubMed Central

    KITAYAMA, Chiyo; SASAKI, Motoki; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KONDOH, Daisuke; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure and functions of placentas were examined in 3 species of rorqual whales, common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde’s (B. brydei) and sei (B. borealis) whales, with the aim of confirming the structural characteristics of the chorion, including the presence of the areolar part, and clarifying steroidogenic activities and fetomaternal interactions in the placentas of these whales. Placentas were collected from the second phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the North Pacific (JARPN II). Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed that these whale placentas were epitheliochorial placentas with the interdigitation of chorionic villi lined by monolayer uninucleate cells (trophoblast cells) and endometrial crypts as well as folded placentation by fold-like chorionic villi. Moreover, well-developed pouch-like areolae were observed in the placentas, and active absorption was suggested in the chorionic epithelial cells of the areolar part (areolar trophoblast cells). Berlin blue staining showed the presence of ferric ions (Fe3+) in the uterine glandular epithelial cells and within the stroma of chorionic villi in the areolar part. An immunohistochemical examination revealed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; known as uteroferrin in uteri) in the cytoplasm of glandular cells and areolar trophoblast cells. This result suggested that, in cetaceans, uteroferrin is used to supply iron to the fetus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for P450scc and P450arom was detected in trophoblast cells, but not in areolar trophoblast cells, suggesting that trophoblast cells synthesize estrogen in whale placentas. Therefore, we herein immunohistochemically revealed the localization of aromatase and uteroferrin in cetacean placentas during pregnancy for the first time. PMID:26096685

  9. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2014-10-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach.

  10. Anesthetic management of a parturient with placenta previa totalis undergoing preventive uterine artery embolization before placental expulsion during cesarean delivery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2014-10-01

    Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anesthetic management is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25368788

  11. Transfer studies of polystyrene nanoparticles in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion model: key sources of artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafmueller, Stefanie; Manser, Pius; Diener, Liliane; Maurizi, Lionel; Diener, Pierre-André; Hofmann, Heinrich; Jochum, Wolfram; Krug, Harald F.; Buerki-Thurnherr, Tina; von Mandach, Ursula; Wick, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding and highly promising new technology with many different fields of application. Consequently, the investigation of engineered nanoparticles in biological systems is steadily increasing. Questions about the safety of such engineered nanoparticles are very important and the most critical subject with regard to the penetration of biological barriers allowing particle distribution throughout the human body. Such translocation studies are technically challenging and many issues have to be considered to obtain meaningful and comparable results. Here we report on the transfer of polystyrene nanoparticles across the human placenta using an ex vivo human placenta perfusion model. We provide an overview of several challenges that can potentially occur in any translocation study in relation to particle size distribution, functionalization and stability of labels. In conclusion, a careful assessment of nanoparticle properties in a physiologically relevant milieu is as challenging and important as the actual study of nanoparticle-cell interactions itself.

  12. Effect of afobazole on genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke in the placenta and embryonic tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Durnev, A D; Solomina, A S; Zhanataev, A K; Zhukov, V N; Seredenin, S B

    2010-09-01

    The DNA comet assay was used to evaluate the severity of genotoxic changes in embryonic tissues and placenta of rats daily exposed to tobacco smoke per se or in combination with an anxiolytic agent afobazole. The exposure to tobacco smoke (4 cigarettes containing 13 mg tar and 1 mg nicotine per 72 dm(3)) for 20 min on days 1-13 of pregnancy increased the degree of DNA damage and elevation of apoptotic DNA comets in cells of the placenta and embryo from pregnant rats. Afobazole (1 and 10 mg/kg orally) reduced the genotoxic effect of tobacco smoke and decreased the amount of apoptotic DNA comets in placental tissue and embryonic tissue from rats. PMID:21246089

  13. Detection of dengue NS1 and NS3 proteins in placenta and umbilical cord in fetal and maternal death.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Priscila Conrado Guerra; Paes, Marciano Viana; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Basilio; Soares, Ana Carla Gomes; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Lima, Monique da Rocha Queiroz; de Barcelos Alves, Ada Maria; da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Amorim; de Oliveira Coelho, Janice Mery Chicarino; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Flávia Barreto

    2016-08-01

    In Brazil, dengue is a public health problem with the occurrence of explosive epidemics. This study reports maternal and fetal deaths due to dengue and which tissues of placenta and umbilical cord were analyzed by molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. The dengue NS3 and NS1 detection revealed the viral presence in different cells from placenta and umbilical cord. In the latter, DENV-2 was detected at a viral titer of 1,02 × 10(4) amounts of viral RNA. It was shown that the DENV markers analyzed here may be an alternative approach for dengue fatal cases investigation, especially involving maternal and fetal death. J. Med. Virol. 88:1448-1452, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of orexin A and orexin type 2 receptor-positive cells in the placenta of dogs.

    PubMed

    Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Polisca, Angela; Troisi, Alessandro; Zelli, Riccardo; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the presence and distribution of cells that express immunopositivity for orexin A (OXA) and its type 2 receptor (OX2R) in the dog placenta toward the end of pregnancy using immunohistochemical techniques. In the placental fetal portion, a few OXA and OX2R-positive cells were seen scattered in the outermost coating layer of chorionic villi and in the trophoblastic protrusions. Closer to the maternal portion, immunopositive labeling for both peptides was visible in the glandular epithelia and that for OXA also in the endothelium of the capillaries. These observations allow us to hypothesize that the canine placenta may be not only a source of orexin A, but also its target, and that orexin A may play an important role in controlling the function of this important organ for normal fetal development. PMID:24745756

  15. The novel C24D synthetic polypeptide inhibits binding of placenta immunosuppressive ferritin to human T cells and elicits anti-breast cancer immunity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Solodeev, Inna; Zahalka, Muayad A; Moroz, Chaya

    2014-09-01

    Immune tolerance mechanisms supporting normal human pregnancy are exploited by breast cancer and other malignancies. We cloned from human placenta and breast cancer cells the novel human immunomodulator named placenta immunosuppressive ferritin (PLIF). PLIF is composed of a ferritin heavy chain-like domain and a novel cytokine-like domain, named C48. Both intact PLIF and C48 inhibit T cell proliferation. Blocking PLIF by specific antibodies in a tolerant breast cancer model in nude mice resulted in tumor cell apoptosis and rejection. This prompted us to study active immune preventive strategies targeting PLIF activity. Currently, we report on the design and synthesis of the novel C24D polypeptide, which inhibits the binding of PLIF to T cells and therefore inhibits the immune suppressive effect of PLIF. The effect of C24D on the generation of anti-breast cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was studied in vitro in cultures of MCF-7 (HLA-A2(+)) or T47D (HLA-A2(-)) breast cancer cells incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. We found that C24D treatment exclusively induced development of CTLs. On reactivation by their specific target cells, the CTLs secreted interferon-γ and induced target apoptosis. Anti-MCF-7 CTLs were cross-cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 (HLA-A2(+)) triple-negative breast cancer but not to T47D. Moreover, C24D treatment in vivo inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumors engrafted in immune-compromised nude mice transfused with naïve allogeneic human PBMCs. Our results demonstrate that C24D treatment breakdown breast cancer induced tolerance enabling the initiation of effective anti-tumor immune response. PMID:25246274

  16. The novel C24D synthetic polypeptide inhibits binding of placenta immunosuppressive ferritin to human T cells and elicits anti-breast cancer immunity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Solodeev, Inna; Zahalka, Muayad A; Moroz, Chaya

    2014-09-01

    Immune tolerance mechanisms supporting normal human pregnancy are exploited by breast cancer and other malignancies. We cloned from human placenta and breast cancer cells the novel human immunomodulator named placenta immunosuppressive ferritin (PLIF). PLIF is composed of a ferritin heavy chain-like domain and a novel cytokine-like domain, named C48. Both intact PLIF and C48 inhibit T cell proliferation. Blocking PLIF by specific antibodies in a tolerant breast cancer model in nude mice resulted in tumor cell apoptosis and rejection. This prompted us to study active immune preventive strategies targeting PLIF activity. Currently, we report on the design and synthesis of the novel C24D polypeptide, which inhibits the binding of PLIF to T cells and therefore inhibits the immune suppressive effect of PLIF. The effect of C24D on the generation of anti-breast cancer cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was studied in vitro in cultures of MCF-7 (HLA-A2(+)) or T47D (HLA-A2(-)) breast cancer cells incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy blood donors. We found that C24D treatment exclusively induced development of CTLs. On reactivation by their specific target cells, the CTLs secreted interferon-γ and induced target apoptosis. Anti-MCF-7 CTLs were cross-cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 (HLA-A2(+)) triple-negative breast cancer but not to T47D. Moreover, C24D treatment in vivo inhibited the growth of MCF-7 tumors engrafted in immune-compromised nude mice transfused with naïve allogeneic human PBMCs. Our results demonstrate that C24D treatment breakdown breast cancer induced tolerance enabling the initiation of effective anti-tumor immune response.

  17. The Effect of Antenatal Depression and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment on Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kaihola, Helena; Olivier, Jocelien; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Åkerud, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are common and may have impact on the developing child. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment, but unfortunately, these treatments can also negatively affect the behavioral development and health of a child during pregnancy. In addition, serotonin (5-HT) exerts neurotrophic actions with thus far not fully known effects in the offspring. The neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) is involved in neuronal cell survival and differentiation, and altered placenta levels have been found to increase the risk for pregnancy complications, similar to those found in women treated with SSRIs. We therefore investigated whether the NGF signaling pathway was altered in the placenta from women treated with SSRIs (n = 12) and compared them with placenta from depressed (n = 12) and healthy mothers (n = 12). Results from immunohistochemical stainings revealed that placental NGF protein levels of SSRI-treated women were increased in both trophoblasts and endothelial cells compared with depressed and control women. In addition, downstream of the NGF receptor TrkA, increased levels of the signaling proteins ROCK2 and phosphorylated Raf-1 were found in stromal cells and a tendency towards increased levels of ROCK2 in trophoblasts and endothelial cells in SSRI-treated women when compared to healthy controls. SSRI-treated women also displayed increased levels of phosphorylated ROCK2 in all placental cell types studied in comparison with depressed and control women. Interestingly, in placental endothelial cells from depressed women, NGF levels were significantly lower compared to control women, but ROCK2 levels were increased compared with control and SSRI-treated women. Taken together, these results show that the NGF signaling and downstream pathways in the placenta are affected by SSRI treatment and/or antenatal depression. This might lead to an altered placental function, although the clinical

  18. Copper distribution in fetus and placenta of the macular mutant mouse as a model of Menkes kinky hair disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, G Q; Yamano, T; Shimada, M

    1994-01-01

    Menkes kinky hair disease (MKHD) in humans is caused by a disturbance in copper homeostasis. A mutant mouse shows clinical and biochemical features very close to MKHD. In an attempt to elucidate the defect in copper transport, the copper distribution in various organs of 18-gestational-day-old macular mouse embryos, following administration by a single injection of saline (control) or 50 micrograms of CuCl2 on day 16 of gestation or by two injections on days 15 and 17 of gestation to the dams, was examined both biochemically and histochemically. The copper content in the hemizygous fetus (Ml/y) born to the homozygous mother, who had no copper injection during gestation, was lower in the brain and liver but higher in the placenta than in the respective organs of the normal fetus. When 50 micrograms of CuCl2 was injected into heterozygous dams (Ml/+) on day 16 of gestation, their hemizygous fetuses showed a slight increase in the copper content in the brain and liver, but the amount of copper in these organs was still less than that of the normal fetus. Conversely, the copper content in the placenta of the hemizygous fetus was far higher than that of the normal fetus. In the copper staining of the fetuses harvested from heterozygous dams, some fetuses showed copper deposition in the placenta, but not in the liver. The others showed no copper deposit in both the placenta and liver, thus indicating that the former were hemizygous for the mutation and the latter were normal littermates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Differential expression of calcium transport genes caused by COMT inhibition in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Ahn, Changhwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by concurrent development of hypertension, proteinuria, and oxidative stress in the placenta. Preeclampsia-like genetic models were also developed by modification of preeclampsia-related genes, such as catechol-O-methyltranferase (COMT). In this study, we induced COMT inhibition in mice during pregnancy in order to reproduce physiological conditions associated with preeclampsia. Expression of the gene known as hypoxia biomarker, HIF-1α, was highly induced in the placenta of this model. The over-expression of HIF-1α demonstrates that our experimental conditions were similar to those of preeclampsia. We measured the expression of several calcium transport genes (CTGs; TRPV5, TRPV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k) in the placenta, duodenum and kidney after COMT inhibition on gestation day 17.5 (GD 17.5). In addition, we evaluated the calcium transporters in the kidney, duodenum of non-pregnant female mice. Placental TRPV5, TRPV6 and PMCA1 expressions were down-regulated by COMT inhibitor (ro41-0960). In addition, the reduced PMCA1 expression in the placenta was reversed by calcium supplementation. Duodenal expressions of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 were decreased in COMT-inhibited mice, and recovered slightly after calcium supplementation. Renal expression of TRPV5, TRPV6, and PMCA1 was also decreased by COMT inhibition, while it was reversed by calcium supplementation to the level of control. Duodenal- and renal calcium transporting genes, TRPV5, TPRV6, PMCA1 and CaBP-9k, were down-regulated by COMT treatment in female mice. Taken together, these results indicate that physiological changes observed in COMT inhibition were similar to symptoms of preeclampsia, which may be related to disturbance of calcium metabolism during pregnancy.

  20. Doppler ultrasound of the placenta and maternal and fetal vessels during normal gestation in captive agoutis (Dasyprocta prymnolopha, Wagler, 1831).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco C A; Pessoa, Gerson T; Moura, Laecio S; Rodrigues, Renan P S; Diniz, Anaemilia N; Souza, André B; Silva, Elzivânia G; Sanches, Marina P; Silva-Filho, Osmar F; Guerra, Porfirio C; Sousa, João M; Neves, Willams C; Alves, Flávio R

    2016-11-01

    The use of ultrasound for pregnancy monitoring is critical for the evaluation of hemodynamic parameters essential to fetal viability. In the present study, using B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, we characterized the placenta, subplacenta, maternal, and fetal vessels during normal gestation of healthy agoutis raised in captivity. In total, 30 agoutis were obtained from the Center for the Study and Preservation of Wild Animals, Center of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Piauí (Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres-NEPAS, Centro de Ciências Agrárias-CCA, Universidade Federal do Piauí-UFPI). These animals were subjected to B-mode and Doppler ultrasound examinations to evaluate their maternal and fetal hemodynamic profiles. The placenta was located in the mesometrial region and had a discoid, ellipsoid, or globular aspect. With spectral Doppler, characteristic systolic and diastolic flow was observed in the umbilical artery. This flow increased during pregnancy. A cross-sectional view revealed a goblet-shaped placenta. The uteroplacental blood flow was characterized by a marked increase in systolic peak velocity during pregnancy, the presence of a rapid deceleration ramp, and a relatively high diastolic speed. The fetal aortic vascular flow was predominantly systolic and diastolic. The caudal vena cava blood flow was characterized by a systolic peak followed by a decreased diastolic wave throughout pregnancy. In the present study, we characterized the morphologic and hemodynamic interactions of the placenta/subplacenta with maternal and fetal vessels in agoutis at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days gestation using B-mode and Doppler ultrasound. We determined the approximation and separation of the blood flow values of the umbilical artery, subplacental flow, uteroplacental artery, fetal aorta, and fetal vena cava. We believe these values may contribute to an understanding of the gestational biology and aid delivery prediction in this species

  1. In Utero Bisphenol A Concentration, Metabolism, and Global DNA Methylation Across Matched Placenta, Kidney, and Liver in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Muna S.; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Harris, Craig; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    While urine has been an easily accessible and feasible matrix for human biomonitoring, analytical measurements in internal tissues and organs can provide more accurate exposure assessments to understand disease etiology. This is especially important for the endocrine active compound, bisphenol A (BPA), where studies investigating internal doses at sensitive periods of human development are currently lacking. Herein, BPA concentrations, BPA-specific metabolizing enzyme gene expression, and global DNA methylation were characterized across three matched tissues from elective pregnancy terminations of 2nd trimester human fetuses: the placenta, liver, and kidney (N=12 each; N=36 total). Compared to liver (free: 0.54-50.5 ng/g), BPA concentrations were lower in matched placenta (<0.05-25.4 ng/g) and kidney (0.08-11.1 ng/g) specimens. BPA-specific metabolism gene expression of GUSB, UGT2B15, STS, and SULT1A1 differed across each tissue type; however, conjugation and deconjugation expression patterns were similar across the fetus. Average LINE1 and CCGG global methylation were 58.3 and 59.2% in placenta, 79.5 and 66.4% in fetal liver, and 77.9 and 77.0% in fetal kidney, with significant tissue-specific DNA methylation differences in both LINE1 (p-value <0.001) and CCGG content (p-value <0.001). Total BPA concentrations were positively associated with global methylation for the placenta only using the LINE1 assay (p-value: 0.002), suggesting organ-specific biological effects after fetal exposure. Utilizing sensitive human clinical specimens, results are informative for BPA toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics assessment in the developing human fetus. PMID:25434263

  2. Stereological comparison of 3D spatial relationships involving villi and intervillous pores in human placentas from control and diabetic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    MAYHEW, TERRY M.; JAIRAM, INDIRA C.

    2000-01-01

    In human placenta, 3D spatial relationships between villi and the maternal vascular bed determine intervillous porosity and this, in turn, influences haemodynamics and transport. Recently-developed stereological methods were applied in order to examine and quantify these relationships. Placentas were collected after 37 wk from control pregnancies and those associated with maternal diabetes mellitus classified according to duration and severity (White classification scheme). Two principal questions were addressed: (1) are normal spatial arrangements maintained in well-controlled diabetes mellitus? and (2) do arrangements vary between diabetic groups? To answer these questions, tissue sections cut at random positions and orientations were generated by systematic sampling procedures. Volume densities of villi (terminal+intermediate), intervillous spaces and perivillous fibrin-type fibrinoid deposits were estimated by test point counting and converted to global volumes after multiplying by placental volumes. Design-based estimates of the sizes (volume- and surface-weighted volumes) of intervillous ‘pores’ were obtained by measuring the lengths of point- and intersection-sampled intercepts. From these, theoretical numbers of pores were calculated. Model-based estimates (cylinder model) of the hydraulic diameters and lengths of pores were also made. Second-order stereology was used to examine spatial relationships within and between villi and pores and to test whether pair correlation functions deviated from the value expected for ‘random’ arrangements. Estimated quantities did not differ significantly between diabetic groups but did display some departures from control values in non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetic placentas. These findings support earlier studies which indicate that essentially normal microscopical morphology is preserved in placentas from diabetic subjects with good glycaemic control. Therefore, it is likely that fetal hypoxia associated

  3. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood▿†

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St. John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these—two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12—have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component. PMID:21948841

  4. Saturated fat-rich diet increases fetal lipids and modulates LPL and leptin receptor expression in rat placentas.

    PubMed

    Mazzucco, M B; Higa, R; Capobianco, E; Kurtz, M; Jawerbaum, A; White, V

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic alterations in obese and overweight mothers impact the placenta and the fetus, leading to anomalies in fetal growth and lipid accretion. The primary aim of the study was to examine the effect of a saturated fat-rich diet (FD) on growth, lipid accretion, and lipases, leptin and leptin receptor (ObR) expression in the placenta and fetal liver. We also aimed to find a role for fetal leptin in the modulation of placental and fetal liver lipase and ObR expression. Six-week-old rats were fed with a standard rat chow (control) or a 25% FD for 7 weeks until mating and during pregnancy. Also, in a group of control rats, fetuses were injected with leptin on days 19, 20, and 21 of pregnancy. On day 21, we assessed lipidemia, insulinemia, and leptinemia in mothers and fetuses. In the placenta and fetal liver, lipid concentration was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the gene expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), endothelial lipase, insulin receptor (Insr), leptin, and ObR by RT-PCR. The FD induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperleptinemia (P<0.01) in mothers and fetuses, an increase in maternal (P<0.05) and fetal weight (P<0.01), overaccumulation of lipids in fetal liver (P<0.01), and enhanced leptin expression in the placenta and fetal liver (P<0.05). Placental expression of IR and LPL was increased (P<0.05), and ObR decreased (P<0.05) in the FD group. Fetal administration of leptin induced the placental and fetal liver downregulation of ObR (P<0.05) and upregulation of LPL expression (P<0.05). The FD led to increased fetal lipid levels, which may result from high maternal lipid availability and fetal leptin effects. PMID:23482704

  5. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean F; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Brettin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Kenneth E; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabati, Grzegorz; Bondurant, Sandra S; Larrondo, Luis F; Canessa, Paulo; Vicunna, Rafael; Yadavk, Jagiit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Lavin, Jose L; Oguiza, Jose A; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K; Baker, Scott; Bruno, Kenneth; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik J; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiva, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tuh, Hank; Chee, Christine L; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Dan; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  6. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  7. Effect of Exercise Training on Enos Expression, NO Production and Oxygen Metabolism in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Bustamante, Juanita; Czerniczyniec, Analia; Aguilar de Plata, Ana C.; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS), nitric oxide (NO) production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. Methods The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16–20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10) took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55–75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each) using barbells (1–3 kg/exercise) and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10) undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. Results Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05). Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05). Conclusion Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of

  8. Two molecular species of oxytocinase (L-cystine aminopeptidase) in human placenta: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Itoh, C; Watanabe, M; Nagamatsu, A; Soeda, S; Kawarabayashi, T; Shimeno, H

    1997-01-01

    Two different forms of oxytocinase (L-cystine aminopeptidase, CAP; EC 3.4.11.3) were purified from the 9000 g and 105000 g precipitate fractions of human placenta homogenate by sequential chromatography on columns of hydroxyapatite, DE-32, nickel ion affinity, and Sephadex G-200. One species (CAP-I) purifed from the mitochondrial/lysosomal fraction migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 61 kDa; the other (CAP-II) from the microsomal fraction was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 56 and 40 kDa. The molecular masses of CAP-I and CAP-II estimated by gel filtration were 64 and 97 kDa, respectively. The specific activities of the two species for S-benzyl-L-cysteine p-nitroanilide increased by 357- (for CAP-I) and 139-fold (for CAP-II) compared with the starting preparations. The optimal pH values toward the artificial substrate were approx. 7.4-8.0 for CAP-I and 6.8-8.0 for CAP-II. The Km and Vmax values toward oxytocin were 5.6 microM and 23.4 micromol/h/mg protein for CAP-I, and 38 microM and 15.6 micromol/h/mg protein for CAP-II. Both enzymes were inhibited by the metal-chelating agents, EDTA and o-phenanthroline, whereas they were specifically activated by addition of Co2+: CAP-I was more sensitive to these reagents than CAP-II. L-Methionine strongly inhibited CAP-I, while CAP-II activity was only slightly affected. CAP-II was more sensitive to amastatin than CAP-I. Thus, the two enzymes are quite distinct in their molecular nature and biochemical properties. They may play a regulatory role in the metabolism of oxytocin and other biologically active peptides in intact placenta.

  9. Genetic and epigenetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) in placenta and infant neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Bromer, Cailey; Marsit, Carmen J; Armstrong, David A; Padbury, James F; Lester, Barry

    2013-11-01

    The intrauterine environment can impact the developing infant by altering the function of the placenta through changes to the epigenetic regulatory features of this tissue. Genetic variation, too, may impact infant development or may modify the relationship between epigenetic alterations and infant outcomes. To examine the associations of these variations with early life infant neurodevelopment, we examined the extent of DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter and a common single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region in a series of 186 placentas from healthy newborn infants. We associated these molecular features with specific summary measures from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales. After controlling for genotype and confounders, we identified significant associations of NR3C1 methylation with infant quality of movement (p = .05) and with infant attention (p = .05), and a potential interaction between methylation and genotype on infant attention score. These results suggest that epigenetic alteration of the NR3C1 gene in the placentas of genetically susceptible infants can have impacts on neurodevelopment which may have lifelong impact on neurobehavioral and mental health outcomes. Further research is needed to more precisely define these relationships and the interaction between epigenetic alterations and genetic variations on infant health.

  10. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot F