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Sample records for na zona norte

  1. Immunocontraception with zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Paterson, M; Jennings, Z A; van Duin, M; Aitken, R J

    2000-01-01

    The prospect of an immunological approach to contraception that would disrupt the process of fertilisation itself has resulted in a considerable interest into research in this area. It has been known for some time that antibodies raised against the zona pellucida (ZP) can suppress fertility very effectively. However, the initial optimism of this approach has been marred by the appearance of an ovarian pathology characterised by disruption of folliculogenesis and depletion of the primordial follicle pool. Adverse auto-immune reactions have been observed in the ovaries of mice after the induction of immunity with mouse ZP3 epitopes. However, this was associated with lymphocytic infiltration of the ovarian stroma, which could be circumvented by careful selection of B-cell epitopes to induce reversible infertility. In order to identify similar epitopes on primate ZP3, epitope-mapping studies were performed and incorporated into chimeric vaccines that included a promiscuous T-helper cell epitope. Both single and triple peptide vaccines have been evaluated in vivo and no detrimental effects on ovarian function were observed. The resulting high titre antibodies bound exclusively to the ZP of marmoset and human ovarian sections and could suppress in vitro human sperm-egg binding by approximately 60%, but did not prevent pregnancy in actively immunised female marmosets. Thus, considerable research is still required to identify a combination of ZP3 epitopes that will induce infertility free of any unwanted side effects.

  2. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte"…

  3. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte"…

  4. Cortical Control of Zona Incerta

    PubMed Central

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Varga, Viktor; Bokor, Hajnalka; Pinault, Didier; Buzsáki, György; Acsády, László

    2009-01-01

    The zona incerta (ZI) is at the crossroad of almost all major ascending and descending fiber tracts and targets numerous brain centers from the thalamus to the spinal cord. Effective ascending drive of ZI cells has been described, but the role of descending cortical signals in patterning ZI activity is unknown. Cortical control over ZI function was examined during slow cortical waves (1-3 Hz), paroxysmal high-voltage spindles (HVSs), and 5-9 Hz oscillations in anesthetized rats. In all conditions, rhythmic cortical activity significantly altered the firing pattern of ZI neurons recorded extracellularly and labeled with the juxtacellular method. During slow oscillations, the majority of ZI neurons became synchronized to the depth-negative phase (“up state”) of the cortical waves to a degree comparable to thalamocortical neurons. During HVSs, ZI cells displayed highly rhythmic activity in tight synchrony with the cortical oscillations. ZI neurons responded to short epochs of cortical 5-9 Hz oscillations, with a change in the interspike interval distribution and with an increase in spectral density in the 5-9 Hz band as measured by wavelet analysis. Morphological reconstruction revealed that most ZI cells have mediolaterally extensive dendritic trees and very long dendritic segments. Cortical terminals established asymmetrical synapses on ZI cells with very long active zones. These data suggest efficient integration of widespread cortical signals by single ZI neurons and strong cortical drive. We propose that the efferent GABAergic signal of ZI neurons patterned by the cortical activity can play a critical role in synchronizing thalamocortical and brainstem rhythms. PMID:17301175

  5. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  6. Integrated surveillance of pulmonary tuberculosis and paragonimiasis in Zamboanga del Norte, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Belizario, Vicente; Totanes, Francis Isidore; Asuncion, Camille Ann; Leon, Winifreda De; Jorge, Manuel; Ang, Concepcion; Naig, June Rose

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and paragonimiasis remain as health problems in certain areas in the Philippines. Both share similar clinical manifestations, which include chronic productive cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, fever, weight loss, and night sweats. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of PTB, paragonimiasis, and co-infections in Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. Methods This study was conducted in selected villages in two municipalities in Zamboanga del Norte. Patients with chronic cough were interviewed, examined, and requested to submit two sputum samples which were processed using Ziehl–Neelsen method to detect acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and NaOH concentration technique for the detection of Paragonimus ova. Results A total of 836 patients submitted sputum samples for examination. Prevalence was 6.7% (2.5–12.7%) for paragonimiasis and 1.9% (0.9–6.3%) for PTB. Co-infection rate was 0.3%, with two identified cases. Positivity rates for males and females were 9.6 and 5.8% for paragonimiasis and 3.4 and 1.2% for PTB. Conclusion Pulmonary tuberculosis and paragonimiasis are co-endemic in Zamboanga del Norte, suggesting the need to integrate surveillance and control efforts. Strengthening local health systems through collaboration between different sectors is recommended for effective disease control. Development of more sensitive diagnostic tests is important for more accurate disease surveillance. PMID:24601907

  7. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  8. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  9. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  10. Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Differentially Expressed Transcripts Between the Human Adrenal Zona Fasciculata and Zona Reticularis

    PubMed Central

    Rege, Juilee; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Tao; Merchen, Todd D.; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Context: The human adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) are responsible for the production of cortisol and 19-carbon steroids (often called adrenal androgens), respectively. However, the gene profiles and exact molecular mechanisms leading to the functional phenotype of the ZF and ZR are still not clearly defined. In the present study, we identified the transcripts that are differentially expressed in the ZF and ZR. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the transcriptome profiles of ZF and ZR. Design and Methods: ZF and ZR were microdissected from 10 human adrenals. Total RNA was extracted from 10 ZF/ZR pairs and hybridized to Illumina microarray chips. The 10 most differentially expressed transcripts were studied with quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry was also performed on four zone-specific genes. Results: Microarray results demonstrated that only 347 transcripts of the 47 231 were significantly different by 2-fold or greater in the ZF and ZR. ZF had 195 transcripts with 2-fold or greater increase compared with its paired ZR, whereas ZR was found to have 152 transcripts with 2-fold or greater higher expression than in ZF. Microarray and qPCR analysis of transcripts encoding steroidogenic enzymes (n = 10) demonstrated that only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, steroid sulfotransferase, type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome b5 were significantly different. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR studies confirmed that the ZF had an increased expression of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and nephroblastoma overexpressed, whereas ZR showed an increased expression of solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter) (SLC27A2), member 2 and TSPAN12 (tetraspanin 12) Conclusion: Microarray revealed several novel candidate genes for elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing the ZF and ZR, thereby increasing our understanding of the functional zonation of these two adrenocortical zones. PMID:24423296

  11. Le zona ophtalmique: une dermatose rare chez l'enfant

    PubMed Central

    Zakia, Douhi; Meziane, Marieme; Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Le zona est dû a une réactivation du virus varicelle-zona (VZV) qui reste quiescent dans les ganglions sensitifs dorsaux après la varicelle. Le zona de l'enfant est rare et particulièrement la forme ophtalmique, qui peut être responsable de complications oculaires graves nécessitant une prise en charge adéquate et précoce. Il est parfois associé à des douleurs post-zostériennes dont le traitement est difficile. L'aciclovir per os administré dans les 72 heures après l’éruption a prouvé son efficacité dans la prévention des complications oculaires. Nous en rapportant un nouveaux cas chez un garçon immunocompétent de 9 ans, sans notion de varicelle antérieure. PMID:26955408

  12. Laser zona dissection using short-pulse ultraviolet lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neev, Joseph; Tadir, Yona; Ho, Peter D.; Whalen, William E.; Asch, Richardo H.; Ord, Teri; Berns, Michael W.

    1992-06-01

    The interaction of pulsed ultraviolet radiation with the zona pellucida of human oocytes which had failed to fertilize in standard IVF cycles, was investigated. Two lasers were studied: a 100 ps pulsed Nd:YAG with a nonlinear crystal emitting light at 266 nm, and a 15 ns XeCl excimer laser with 308 nm radiation. Incisions in the zona were made by aiming the beam tangentially to the oocyte. The results indicate superior, high precision performance by the excimer laser creating trenches as narrow as 1 micrometers and as shallow as 1 micrometers . The incision size was found to be sensitive to the laser's energy and to the position of the microscope's objective focal plane, but relatively insensitive to the laser pulse repetition rate. Once the minimum spot size was defined by the system parameters, the laser beam was used to curve out any desired zona shape. This laser microsurgery technique as applied to partial zone dissection or zona drilling could prove very useful as a high-precision, non-contact method for treatments of low fertilization rate and for enhancing embryo implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatments.

  13. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  14. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  15. Prognostic value of various spermatological attributes as predictors of zona binding and zona penetration of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Ghosh, J; Ravindra, J P

    2009-02-01

    Twenty-four ejaculates from six (four ejaculates each) Surti buffalo bulls aged 4-8 years were used to assess various attributes of spermatozoa influencing the zona-binding and zona-penetration tests. Ejaculates from each bulls were subjected to in vitro sperm--zona binding and sperm--zona penetration tests (four replicates per bull) using immature buffalo oocytes. The average number of spermatozoa bound per oocyte was 27.79 +/- 5.90. The average number of spermatozoa penetrated per oocyte was 3.35 +/- 0.64. The average number of zona-bound and -penetrated spermatozoa differed significantly between animals. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the plasmalemma integrity as assessed by eosin--nigrosin stain and hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test. Furthermore, the percentage of cells positive for the HOS test, i.e. functional membrane integrity (51.25 +/- 2.32) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than hypo-osmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, i.e. the subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (42.87 +/- 4.56). The HOS test had significant correlations with plasmalemma integrity as measured by the vital stain, eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.85, p < 0.05). The HOS-G test also had significant correlation with plasmalemma integrity measured by vital stains such as eosin--nigrosin (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) and fluorogenic stains [carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodide (PI); r = 0.92, p < 0.01] and HOS test (r = 0.93), acrosomal integrity (r = 0.86, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial membrane potential (r = 0.99, p < 0.01). The plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic stain), functional membrane integrity (HOS test), subpopulation of spermatozoa positive for functional membrane and acrosomal integrities (HOS-G test) and mitochondrial membrane potential had significant (p < 0.05) correlation with sperm zona binding and penetration. The present study indicates that these parameters could represent important determinants

  16. Application of a zona pellucida binding assay (ZBA) in the domestic cat benefits from the use of in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Ulrika; Axnér, Eva; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2007-10-01

    Zona pellucida binding assays (ZBAs) have proven useful in determining the fertilising ability of spermatozoa in several species. Most ZBAs use fresh or salt-stored oocytes collected from fresh ovaries but because ovaries are not easy to obtain on a regular basis, chilled and frozen-thawed ovaries have been tested, with varying results. The present study tested the hypothesis that cat spermatozoa, either fresh or frozen-thawed, can bind to homologous zona pellucida of oocytes retrieved from frozen-thawed queen ovaries to a similar extent as they can bind to the zona pellucida of fresh, in vitro matured oocytes. Ovaries were collected from queens after routine ovario-hysterectomy and either stored in NaCl at -20 degrees C until use (treatment animals), or used fresh (controls). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were retrieved by ovarian slicing from either source and used directly (immature oocytes from frozen-thawed ovaries; treatment animals) or after in vitro maturation (IVM) (fresh ovaries; controls) for 24 hours in TCM 199, supplemented with 1 IU hCG/mL and 0.5 IU eCG/mL and 0.5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). The oocytes were incubated for 4 hours in 5% CO2 in air at 38 degrees C and 100% humidity in the presence of 5 x 106 fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa/mL. Representative samples of oocytes were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa bound to the in vitro matured zona pellucida but significantly fewer, or no, spermatozoa bound to frozen-thawed, immature zona pellucida (P < 0.001). Also, more fresh spermatozoa than frozen-thawed spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida (P < 0.001). The zona pellucida surface differed in morphology (SEM), with in vitro matured oocytes showing a dense surface with few fenestrations in contrast to their frozen-thawed, immature counterparts, where fenestrations were conspicuously larger. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, immature oocytes recovered from

  17. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Rowan, A; Lamberski, N; Wallace, R; Frank, K; Lyda, R

    2009-12-01

    With shrinking habitat, the humane control of certain wildlife populations is relevant. The contraceptive vaccine based on native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) has been applied to various wildlife populations for 20 years. Prominent efforts include wild horses, urban deer, zoo animals and African elephants, among others. This approach has been successful in managing entire populations and to date, no significant debilitating short- or long-term health effects have been documented.

  18. Frequently used medicinal plants in Baja California Norte.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, M

    1986-11-01

    Herbalists in Baja California Norte, Mexico, were interviewed to determine the ailments and diseases most frequently treated with 22 commonly used medicinal plants. Those diseases which were most frequently mentioned by the herbalists provided the focus for initial assessments. The phytochemistry of the medicinal plants was determined from published research, and the likelihood of successful treatment of diseases was assessed by determining the known pharmacological actions of the plant constituents. Most of the plants contained substances which had recognized pharmacological effects in the treatment of the diseases being treated by the herbalists.

  19. 61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #452 NORTHERLY THROUGH KLAMATH FROM STA. 325+50, 6/22/51, M.C. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  20. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  1. Classification of Nortes in the Gulf of Mexico derived from wave energy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendini, C. M.; Hernández-Lasheras, J.

    2016-02-01

    Extreme wave climate in the Gulf of Mexico is determined by tropical cyclones and winds from the Central American Cold Surges, locally referred to as Nortes. While hurricanes can have catastrophic effects, extreme waves and storm surge from Nortes occur several times a year, and thus have greater impacts on human activities along the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the constant impacts from Nortes, there is no available classification that relates their characteristics (e.g. pressure gradients, wind speed), to the associated coastal impacts. This work presents a first approximation to characterize and classify Nortes, which is based on the assumption that the derived wave energy synthetizes information (i.e. wind intensity, direction and duration) of individual Norte events as they pass through the Gulf of Mexico. First, we developed an index to identify Nortes based on surface pressure differences of two locations. To validate the methodology we compared the events identified with other studies and available Nortes logs. Afterwards, we detected Nortes from the 1986/1987, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons and used their corresponding wind fields to derive the wave energy maps using a numerical wave model. We used the energy maps to classify the events into groups using manual (visual) and automatic classifications (principal component analysis and k-means). The manual classification identified 3 types of Nortes and the automatic classification identified 5, although 3 of them had a high degree of similarity. The principal component analysis indicated that all events have similar characteristics, as few components are necessary to explain almost all of the variance. The classification from the k-means indicated that 81% of analyzed Nortes affect the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, while a smaller percentage affects the northern Gulf of Mexico and even less affect the western Caribbean.

  2. Ethnobotanical treatments of diabetes in Baja California Norte.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, M

    1989-06-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the current biomedical knowledge on some of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Baja California Norte. In general there is very little biochemical knowledge of the specific modes of action in the treatment of diabetes, but most of the plants have been found to contain substances (e.g., glucosides, alkaloids) frequently implicated as having anti-diabetic effects. Furthermore, clinical studies with animals indicate that most of these plants do have hypoglycemic properties. This paper calls attention to the need for further biochemical investigations into the plant constituents and invites collaboration in the development of clinical field studies to assess the efficacy of herbalists' use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes in Baja California Norte or other U.S.-Mexico border areas. Such research can make an important contribution to the World Health Organization's plan of "Health for All by the Year 2000" through establishing a scientific basis for traditional medicine.

  3. Weathering profiles in granites, Sierra Norte (Córdoba, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Alicia; Martínez, Estela; Pettinari, Gisela; Herrero, Silvana

    2005-09-01

    Two weathering profiles evolved on peneplain-related granites in Sierra Norte, Córdoba province, were examined. Several weathering levels, of no more than 2 m thickness, were studied in these profiles. They had developed from similar parent rock, which had been exposed to hydrothermal processes of varying intensity. Fracturing is the most notable feature produced by weathering; iron oxides and silica subsequently filled these fractures, conferring a breccia-like character to the rock. The clay minerals are predominantly illitic, reflecting the mineral composition of the protolith. Smaller amounts of interstratified I/S RO type are also present, as well as scarce caolinite+chlorite that originated from the weathering of feldspar and biotite, respectively. The geochemical parameters define the weathering as incipient, in contrast to the geomorphological characteristics of Sierra Norte, which point to a long weathering history. This apparent incompatibility could be due to the probable erosion of the more weathered levels of the ancient peneplains, of which only a few relicts remain. Similar processes have been described at different sites in the Sierras Pampeanas. Reconstruction and dating of the paleosurfaces will make it possible to set time boundaries on the weathering processes studied and adjust the paleographic and paleoclimatic interpretations of this great South American region.

  4. Viscous forces are predominant in the zona pellucida mechanical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papi, Massimiliano; Maiorana, Alessandro; Douet, Cécile; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Parasassi, Tiziana; Brunelli, Roberto; Goudet, Ghylène; De Spirito, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a multilayer glycoprotein spherical shell surrounding mammalian eggs. The ZP's mechanical response plays a crucial role in mammalian fertilization and is a parameter commonly adopted in "in vitro fertilization" to characterize the oocytes quality. While it is assumed that ZP mechanical response is purely elastic, here we prove that dissipative forces cannot be neglected. Physiologically, this evidence implies that an increase in the spermatozoa motility can induce dramatic changes on the ZP reaction force turning ZP shell in an impenetrable barrier leading to fertility impairments.

  5. New method for culture of zona-included or zona-free embryos: the Well of the Well (WOW) system.

    PubMed

    Vajta, G; Peura, T T; Holm, P; Páldi, A; Greve, T; Trounson, A O; Callesen, H

    2000-03-01

    Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well (WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured from day 1 to day 7 (day 0: day of insemination) using three modules (single embryos, embryo groups of five, or single zona-digested embryos) and three different culture systems (400 microl medium, 200 microl drops, or WOWs). An additional control group consisted of 40 to 50 embryos cultured in 400 microl medium. The WOW system resulted in higher blastocyst/oocyte rates for all three modules (single: 59%; group of five: 61%; single zona-digested: 53%) than the culture in drops or in wells (P < 0.05 for all). The developmental rate was independent of the number of WOWs per well. The cell number of blastocysts cultured in the WOW system did not differ from that of the controls. Apart from its theoretical value in revealing the role of different factors influencing embryo development in vitro, the WOW system may have immediate practical consequences in certain areas of mammalian embryo production.

  6. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  7. Four zona pellucida glycoproteins are expressed in the human.

    PubMed

    Lefièvre, L; Conner, S J; Salpekar, A; Olufowobi, O; Ashton, P; Pavlovic, B; Lenton, W; Afnan, M; Brewis, I A; Monk, M; Hughes, D C; Barratt, C L R

    2004-07-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular glycoprotein matrix which surrounds all mammalian oocytes. Recent data have shown the presence of four human zona genes (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZPB). The aim of the study was to determine if all four ZP proteins are expressed and present in the human. cDNA derived from human oocytes were used to amplify by PCR the four ZP genes. In addition, isolated native human ZP were heat-solubilized, trypsin-digested and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). All four genes were expressed and the respective proteins present in the human ZP. Moreover, a bioinformatics approach showed that the mouse ZPB gene, although present, is likely to encode a non-functional protein. Four ZP genes are expressed in human oocytes (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZPB) and preliminary data show that the four corresponding ZP proteins are present in the human ZP. Therefore, this is a fundamental difference with the mouse model

  8. 90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St.,east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St.,east facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  9. Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2017-03-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures.

  10. Structure of zona reticularis of adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats.

    PubMed

    Buzueva, I I; Filjushina, E E; Shmerling, M D; Markel, A L; Jakobson, G S

    2008-11-01

    The structure of zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats was studied during the early, middle, and late periods of postnatal ontogeny. The detected morphological signs suggest that hypotrophic changes in zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in hypertensive rats appeared before the onset of high blood pressure and accompanied the development of arterial hypertension in these animals.

  11. Sperm-Egg Interaction: Evidence for Boar Sperm Plasma Membrane Receptors for Porcine Zona Pellucida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Rudolph N.; Russell, Lonnie; Bundman, Donna; Freund, Matthew

    1980-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated, noncapacitated boar sperm bind rapidly and in large numbers to pig egg zona pellucida in vitro. In the present study, the number of sperm bound decreased sharply when sperm motility was lowered by energy poisons or by reducing the temperature. Highly motile sperm from humans, guinea pigs, and rats, added at concentrations ten times higher than control sperm, did not bind to the porcine zona. At the same high concentration, a small number of hamster and bull sperm bound to the zona. Binding of boar sperm to the zona pellucida was blocked almost completely by diluted whole antiserum to sperm plasma membranes and by univalent (Fab) antibody to these membranes. When antibody to sperm plasma membrane was first absorbed with plasma membrane vesicles, sperm binding was not inhibited. These results provide direct evidence for the existence of sperm plasma membrane receptors for the zona pellucida of the pig.

  12. Nanoscale characterization of the biomechanical hardening of bovine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Frassanito, Maria Cristina; Lamberti, Luciano; Brunelli, Roberto; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Monaci, Maurizio; Papi, Massimiliano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Parasassi, Tiziana; Sylla, Lakamy; Ursini, Fulvio; De Spirito, Marco

    2012-11-07

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular membrane surrounding mammalian oocytes. The so-called zona hardening plays a key role in fertilization process, as it blocks polyspermy, which may also be caused by an increase in the mechanical stiffness of the ZP membrane. However, structural reorganization mechanisms leading to ZP's biomechanical hardening are not fully understood yet. Furthermore, a correct estimate of the elastic properties of the ZP is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of ZP membranes extracted from mature and fertilized bovine oocytes to better understand the mechanisms involved in the structural reorganization of the ZP that may lead to the biomechanical hardening of the ZP. For that purpose, a hybrid procedure is developed by combining atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements, nonlinear finite element analysis and nonlinear optimization. The proposed approach allows us to determine the biomechanical properties of the ZP more realistically than the classical analysis based on Hertz's contact theory, as it accounts for the nonlinearity of finite indentation process, hyperelastic behaviour and material heterogeneity. Experimental results show the presence of significant biomechanical hardening induced by the fertilization process. By comparing various hyperelastic constitutive models, it is found that the Arruda-Boyce eight-chain model best describes the biomechanical response of the ZP. Fertilization leads to an increase in the degree of heterogeneity of membrane elastic properties. The Young modulus changes sharply within a superficial layer whose thickness is related to the characteristic distance between cross-links in the ZP filamentous network. These findings support the hypothesis that biomechanical hardening of bovine ZP is caused by an increase in the number of inter-filaments cross-links whose density should be higher in the ZP inner side.

  13. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  14. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  15. Extreme waves from Nortes and climate change in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Hernández-Lasheras, Jaime; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian; Meza-Padilla, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Gulf of Mexico are a result from the incidence of tropical cyclones and anticyclone systems known as Nortes. While the waves derived from tropical cyclones have devastating consequences but a low probability of occurrence, Nortes are a frequent phenomenon producing disruptions of maritime activities during autumn/winter months. In this study we present an assessment of the waves generated by Nortes and the effects of a warming climate. To do so, we first developed a methodology to identify Norte events and classify them according to their effect over the sea state. A new index is proposed to identify events, which was used to identify events in the present and future climates. A third generation wave model was run for each of the events identified in the CFSR reanalysis and the CMIP5 model CNRM-M5 under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Nortes were classified into 5 types, using both principal component analysis and a cluster analysis by k-means over the computed wave power of the individual events. An assessment of the effect of climate change was performed over the different Norte types, which indicated that climate change will result in less frequent events of higher intensity and more frequent mild events. This may provide a relief for coastal and marine operations, in relation to downtimes due to extreme wave conditions, so that the operational design of maritime structures could consider a lower occurrence of extreme events as a result of Nortes. While the results are not conclusive due to the uncertainty imposed by Global Circulation Models, this study provides the methodology to perform the assessment on other models to reduce uncertainty.

  16. Influence of zona pellucida thickness on fertilization, embryo implantation and birth.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Naturil-Alfonso, C; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Lavara, R; Vicente, J S

    2012-05-01

    Defective sperm-zona pellucida binding and penetration are the main causes of IVF failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of zona pellucida thickness in fertilization failure and test the influence of zona pellucida thickness on implantation and birth in rabbits. Embryos and oocytes were collected from 72 females on Day 2 post-insemination. A total of 559 normal embryos were recovered; 402 embryos were transferred by laparoscopy and 157 embryos were used to measure the zona pellucida thickness using the ImageJ program. Laparoscopies were also performed on all does at Day 12 of gestation to record the number of implanted embryos. Litter size at birth was recorded. The mean zona pellucida thickness of the 157 embryos and of the 64 control group oocytes (18.3 ± 0.2 and 18.5 ± 0.3 μm, respectively) was significantly less than the zona pellucida thickness of the 74 failed fertilization oocytes (19.2 ± 0.3 μm). The probabilities of the regression coefficient being positive were 0.72 and 0.74 for implantation and birth, respectively, and the subsequent means of the coefficient were 2.92 and 0.03 for implantation and birth, respectively. In conclusion, the zona pellucida thickness has an important influence on in vivo fertilization and implantation processes, but not on birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The C-terminal region of OVGP1 remodels the zona pellucida and modifies fertility parameters

    PubMed Central

    Algarra, B.; Han, L.; Soriano-Úbeda, C.; Avilés, M.; Coy, P.; Jovine, L.; Jiménez-Movilla, M.

    2016-01-01

    OVGP1 is the major non-serum glycoprotein in the oviduct fluid at the time of fertilization and early embryo development. Its activity differs among species. Here, we show that the C-terminal region of recombinant OVGP1 regulates its binding to the extracellular zona pellucida and affects its activity during fertilization. While porcine OVGP1 penetrates two-thirds of the thickness of the zona pellucida, shorter OVGP1 glycoproteins, including rabbit OVGP1, are restricted to the outer one-third of the zona matrix. Deletion of the C-terminal region reduces the ability of the glycoprotein to penetrate through the zona pellucida and prevents OVGP1 endocytosis. This affects the structure of the zona matrix and increases its resistance to protease digestion. However, only full-length porcine OVGP1 is able to increase the efficiency rate of in vitro fertilization. Thus, our findings document that the presence or absence of conserved regions in the C-terminus of OVGP1 modify its association with the zona pellucida that affects matrix structure and renders the zona matrix permissive to sperm penetration and OVGP1 endocytosis into the egg. PMID:27601270

  18. Does the zona pellucida select spermatozoa from the medium with higher fertilizing potential?

    PubMed

    Tarín, J J; Trounson, A O

    1993-11-01

    The present study was carried out to test whether the zona pellucida selects spermatozoa with higher fertilization potential. Fertilization rates of mouse oocytes after sperm microinjection under the zona pellucida (SMUZ) of zona-bound spermatozoa and of spermatozoa incubated in the absence of oocytes and treated (acid-treated group) or not (control group) with acid Tyrode's solution were compared. SMUZ was performed at 15, 30, 60, and 90 min after the insemination of fresh oocytes required for selecting spermatozoa bound to the zona pellucida. At these times, the percentages of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa (PARS) were evaluated using the chlortetracycline fluorescence method. Fertilization rate in the three groups analysed increased from 25.9% to 47.3% in the control group, from 29.3% to 44.0% in the acid-treated group, and from 19.5% to 40.0% in the zona-bound group from 15 to 90 min after insemination, respectively. The global fertilization potential was significantly lower in the zona-bound group compared to the other two groups. The PARS in the zona-bound group at 15 (11.48 +/- 3.02), 30 (16.74 +/- 3.71), and 90 (19.68 +/- 3.68) min after insemination were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those found in the acid-treated group (39.26 +/- 6.69, 38.20 +/- 6.24, and 42.83 +/- 5.39, respectively). At 90 min after insemination, the PARS in the zona-bound group was also significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the control group (36.72 +/- 4.51). No significant correlation between either time and PARS or PARS and fertilization rate was observed. It appears that the zona pellucida does not select from the medium spermatozoa with higher fertilization potential.

  19. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  20. Quaternary deformation around the Palo Negro area, Pampa Norte, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, E.; Iriondo, M.; Zamboni, L.; Gottardi, G.

    2010-04-01

    The Pampa Norte region is a great plain characterized by low slopes and accumulation of hundreds of meters of thick loose sediments. A high morphostructure denominated San Guillermo block stands out in the central plain, the Tostado-Selva scarp forming its western boundary. It is located in an intraplate setting characterized by low tectonic activity. However recent uplift can be inferred by means of terrain analysis and the sedimentology of the Palo Negro Fm. Pond deposits (Palo Negro Fm.) observed in the scarp suggest topographic inversion during the Late Quaternary in the Palo Negro area. The morphology indicates that the deformation was widely distributed, forming a gentle (ca. 5 m amplitude and 13 km wavelength) asymmetric fold. Low sinuosity lineaments located in the base of the scarp, coincident with knick points in the topographic profile, can be interpreted as the projection of tip-lines by high-angle fault-propagation. This geometry is compatible with reverse kinematics on blind faults. A deformation style with reactivation of pre-existing faults is consistent with structural observations. Seismic reflectors suggest the presence of Cretaceous high-angle normal faults, and the orientation of lineaments is similar to the orientation of the graben systems and transverse accommodation zones originated during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. One OSL dating of 67.4 ± 5.1 kyr B.P (from Palo Negro Fm. supposed as deposited on a flat plain floor) and a height difference of 9.5 m measured in the Tostado-Selva scarp account for an averaged uplift rate of 0.14 mm/year.

  1. Four glycoproteins are expressed in the cat zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Stetson, I; Avilés, M; Moros, C; García-Vázquez, F A; Gimeno, L; Torrecillas, A; Aliaga, C; Bernardo-Pisa, M V; Ballesta, J; Izquierdo-Rico, M J

    2015-04-15

    The mammalian oocyte is surrounded by a matrix called the zona pellucida (ZP). This envelope participates in processes such as acrosome reaction induction, sperm binding and may be involved in speciation. In cat (Felis catus), this matrix is composed of at least three glycoproteins called ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4. However, recent studies have pointed to the presence of a fourth protein in several mammals (rat, human, hamster or rabbit), meaning that a reevaluation of cat ZP is needed. For this reason, the objective of this research was to analyze the protein composition of cat ZP by means of proteomic analysis. Using ZP from ovaries and oocytes, several peptides corresponding to four proteins were detected, yielding a coverage of 33.17%, 71.50%, 50.23%, and 49.64% for ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, and ZP4, respectively. Moreover, the expression of four genes was confirmed by molecular analysis. Using total RNA isolated from cat ovaries, the complementary deoxyribonucleic acids encoding cat ZP were partially amplified by reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, ZP1 was totally amplified for the first time in this species. As far as we are aware, this is the first study that confirms the presence of four proteins in cat ZP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting the zona pellucida for immunocontraception: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Tesarik, J

    1995-12-01

    This minireview summarizes the main data relevant to the development of contraceptive vaccines based on zona pellucida (ZP) antigens, as well as the pros and the cons of this immunocontraceptive strategy. Even though the antifertility efficacy of anti-ZP antibodies in humans is not corroborated by a clear relationship between spontaneous autoimmunization against the ZP and infertility, passive and active immunization studies in laboratory animals have provided convincing results. The contraceptive action of anti-ZP antibodies, targeting events situated upstream of gamete fusion, is devoid of potential ethical concerns related to the destruction of early embryos. The high protein content of the mammalian ZP, knowledge of the complete amino acid sequence of the major ZP proteins, and the high degree of sequence homology between individual species all favour the rapid advancement of anti-ZP vaccine projects. However, certain sequences of ZP proteins, when incorporated into the vaccine construct, activate CD4+ T cells of the recipient organism to direct a cellular immune attack (autoimmune oophoritis) to other functionally relevant ovarian components (primordial follicles, steroidogenic cells). The search for the optimal combination of B cell and T cell epitopes in the vaccine construct will hopefully overcome this problem.

  3. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  4. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros de; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-08-07

    This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year.

  5. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Kaliany Adja Medeiros; Tavares, Aluska Vieira; Marques, Michael Radan de Vasconcelos; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This communication is a retrospective epidemiological study of the scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2014 in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeastern Brazil. The data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Rio Grande do Norte State. A total of 20,555 cases were studied. The cases were distributed over all months of the period studied and occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 year-old women. Most victims were stung on the foot and received medical care within 1-3 h after being stung. The cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion stings in Rio Grande do Norte State are an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:28793026

  6. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  7. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  8. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-02-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients.

  9. The anatomy of the caudal zona incerta in rodents and primates

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Charles; Lind, Christopher R P; Thomas, Meghan G

    2014-01-01

    The caudal zona incerta is the target of a recent modification of established procedures for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease and tremor. The caudal zona incerta contains a number of neuronal populations that are distinct in terms of their cytoarchitecture, connections, and pattern of immunomarkers and is located at a position where a number of major tracts converge before turning toward their final destination in the forebrain. However, it is not clear which of the anatomical features of the region are related to its value as a target for DBS. This paper has tried to identify features that distinguish the caudal zona incerta of rodents (mouse and rat) and primates (marmoset, rhesus monkey, and human) from the remainder of the zona incerta. We studied cytoarchitecture, anatomical relationships, the pattern of immunomarkers, and gene expression in both of these areas. We found that the caudal zona incerta has a number of histological and gene expression characteristics that distinguish it from the other subdivisions of the zona incerta. Of particular note are the sparse population of GABA neurons and the small but distinctive population of calbindin neurons. We hope that a clearer appreciation of the anatomy of the region will in the end assist the interpretation of cases in which DBS is used in human patients. PMID:24138151

  10. Nuclear DNA fragmentation negatively affects zona binding competence of Y bearing mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Upadhya, Dinesh; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Salian, Sujit Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the influence of sperm DNA integrity on the zona binding ability of mouse spermatozoa in relation to their sex chromosomal constitution. In this prospective experimental study, the sperm DNA fragmentation was induced by exposing testicular area of Swiss Albino mice (Mus musculus) to different doses of γ-radiation (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 Gy). Sperm DNA fragmentation was quantified by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). In vitro sperm zona binding assay was performed and the numbers of zona bound X and Y bearing spermatozoa were determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The assessment of zona pellucida bound X and Y-bearing spermatozoa using fluorescence in situ hybridization has revealed a unique binding pattern. The number of zona bound Y-spermatozoa declined significantly (P < 0.01 to 0.0001) with increase in the DNA damage. The skewed binding pattern of X and Y-bearing sperm was strongly correlated with the extent of sperm DNA damage. The zona pellucida may have a role in preventing DNA damaged mouse sperm binding especially towards Y-bearing sperm. However, the exact mechanism behind this observation needs to be elucidated further.

  11. Sodium deficiency regulates rat adrenal zona glomerulosa gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Harris, Ruth B S; Rainey, William E; Seki, Tsugio

    2014-04-01

    Aldosterone is the primary adrenocortical hormone regulating sodium retention, and its production is under the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In vitro, angiotensin II can induce aldosterone production in adrenocortical cells without causing cell proliferation. In vivo, a low-sodium diet activates the RAAS and aldosterone production, at least in part, through an expansion of the adrenal zona glomerulosa (zG) layer. Although these mechanisms have been investigated, RAAS effects on zG gene expression have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we took an unbiased approach to define the complete list of zG transcripts involved in RAAS activation. Adrenal glands were collected from 11-week old Sprague-Dawley rats fed either sodium-deficient (SDef), normal sodium (NS), or high-sodium (HS) diet for 72 hours, and laser-captured zG RNA was analyzed on microarrays containing 27 342 probe sets. When the SDef transcriptome was compared with NS transcriptome (SDef/NS comparison), only 79 and 10 probe sets were found to be up- and down-regulated more than two-fold in SDef, respectively. In SDef/HS comparison, 201 and 68 probe sets were up- and down-regulated in SDef, respectively. Upon gene ontology (GO) analysis of these gene sets, we identified three groups of functionally related GO terms: cell proliferation-associated (group 1), response to stimulus-associated (group 2), and cholesterol/steroid metabolism-associated (group 3) GO terms. Although genes in group 1 may play a critical role in zG layer expansion, those in groups 2 and 3 may have important functions in aldosterone production, and further investigations on these genes are warranted.

  12. Sodium Deficiency Regulates Rat Adrenal Zona Glomerulosa Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Rainey, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is the primary adrenocortical hormone regulating sodium retention, and its production is under the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In vitro, angiotensin II can induce aldosterone production in adrenocortical cells without causing cell proliferation. In vivo, a low-sodium diet activates the RAAS and aldosterone production, at least in part, through an expansion of the adrenal zona glomerulosa (zG) layer. Although these mechanisms have been investigated, RAAS effects on zG gene expression have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we took an unbiased approach to define the complete list of zG transcripts involved in RAAS activation. Adrenal glands were collected from 11-week old Sprague-Dawley rats fed either sodium-deficient (SDef), normal sodium (NS), or high-sodium (HS) diet for 72 hours, and laser-captured zG RNA was analyzed on microarrays containing 27 342 probe sets. When the SDef transcriptome was compared with NS transcriptome (SDef/NS comparison), only 79 and 10 probe sets were found to be up- and down-regulated more than two-fold in SDef, respectively. In SDef/HS comparison, 201 and 68 probe sets were up- and down-regulated in SDef, respectively. Upon gene ontology (GO) analysis of these gene sets, we identified three groups of functionally related GO terms: cell proliferation-associated (group 1), response to stimulus-associated (group 2), and cholesterol/steroid metabolism-associated (group 3) GO terms. Although genes in group 1 may play a critical role in zG layer expansion, those in groups 2 and 3 may have important functions in aldosterone production, and further investigations on these genes are warranted. PMID:24422541

  13. Effects of porcine zona pellucida immunocontraceptives in zoo felids.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Munson, Linda; Chassy, Lisa M; Liu, Irwin K M; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2004-09-01

    Methods of contraception are necessary for management of zoo felids; however, the most commonly used contraceptive (melengestrol acetate implant) is associated with serious adverse reactions with long-term use. Porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccines are promising as contraceptives, but their safety in zoo felids has not been tested. pZP vaccine was administered to 27 female felids representing 10 species, including African lion (Panthera leo), Asian leopard (P. pardus), jaguar (P. onca), tiger (P. tigris), snow leopard (P. uncia), cougar (Felis concolor), Siberian lynx (F. lynx), Canada lynx (F. canadensis), serval (F. serval), and bobcat (F. rufus), in 15 facilities. Over 6 wk, each animal received three i.m. injections of 65 microg pZP with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant, or carbopol as the adjuvant. Behavioral signs of estrus were seen in 14 of the vaccinated felids. An unacceptably high incidence of adverse reactions was seen including injection site swelling, lameness, limb swelling, or abscessation (or all) in five felids after injection with FCA as the initial adjuvant. Adverse behavioral signs, including increased irritability and aggression, were seen in four felids. Six of the felids were assayed for antibodies against pZP during the 12 mo after vaccination; all showed antibody production. Antibody levels appeared to peak 1-4 mo after vaccination began, although elevated antibody levels persisted in two animals for > 12 mo after the first injection. All vaccinated felids were ovariohysterectomized 3-13 mo after vaccination. Folliculogenesis was present in all treated animals, and there was no histopathologic evidence of inflammatory damage to ovaries. Contraceptive efficacy was not specifically evaluated in this study; however, two of the three felids housed with an intact male became pregnant during the study, one of which gave birth to healthy cubs.

  14. Enhancing zona penetration by spermatozoa from a teratospermic species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Swanson, W F; Blumer, E; Wildt, D E

    1995-03-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) produce poor quality ejaculates that can limit the efficiency of standard assisted reproduction including artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). The purpose of this study was to: (1) further study sperm-oocyte interaction in this teratospermic species by examining the ability of malformed sperm to interact with various oocyte barriers; and (2) assess the potential of zona piercing for assisting IVF in a teratospermic felid. Zonae of salt-stored (SS), domestic cat oocytes were mechanically pierced (ZnPd) three times each. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from six male cheetahs and ejaculates were processed for IVF. Sperm aliquots from each ejaculate were assessed for a sperm motility index (SMI) over time. Zona-intact (ZnIn-SS) oocytes (n = 78) and ZnPd-SS oocytes (n = 74) were coincubated with spermatozoa in vitro for 6 h. The proportion of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa per ejaculate was high for all males (range 81.5% to 95.9%). SMI values at 0 and 6 h were variable, ranging from 50 to 75 and 0 to 40, respectively. Spermatozoa from all ejaculates bound to and penetrated the outer zona pellucida of ZnIn-SS and ZnPd-SS oocytes similarly (P > 0.05). The proportion of oocytes containing spermatozoa within the inner zona layer and the average number of spermatozoa per oocyte in this region were greater (P < 0.05) for the ZnPd-SS than ZnIn-SS oocytes (39.2% and 1.0 versus 12.8% and 0.2, respectively). Although zona piercing enhanced sperm penetration, there was no increase (P > 0.05) in pleiomorphic spermatozoa penetrating the inner zona pellucida or PVS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  16. Determining sex and life stage of Del Norte salamanders from external cues

    Treesearch

    Lisa Ollivier; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr

    2003-01-01

    Life stage determination for many western plethodontids often requires dissection of the specimen. Availability of reliable external measures that could be applied under field conditions would enhance future studies of the genus Plethodon. We examined preserved specimens of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, taken from...

  17. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…

  18. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  19. ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING THE 1996 PASO DEL NORTE OZONE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juarez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five...

  20. Diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus): Differences by age, gender, and season.

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Nancy E. Karraker; Hartwell H. Welsh; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2007-01-01

    Terrestrial salamanders are integral components of forest ecosystems and the examination of their feeding habits may provide useful information regarding various ecosystem processes. We studied the diet of the Del Norte Salamander (Plethodon elongatus) and assessed diet differences between age classes, genders, and seasons. The stomachs of 309...

  1. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  2. Connections between the zona incerta and superior colliculus in the monkey and squirrel.

    PubMed

    May, Paul J; Basso, Michele A

    2017-08-29

    The zona incerta contains GABAergic neurons that project to the superior colliculus in the cat and rat, suggesting that it plays a role in gaze changes. However, whether this incertal connection represents a general mammalian pattern remains to be determined. We used neuronal tracers to examine the zona incerta connections with the midbrain tectum in the gray squirrel and macaque monkey. Collicular injections in both species revealed that most incertotectal neurons lay in the ventral layer, but anterogradely labeled tectoincertal terminals were found in both the dorsal and ventral layers. In the monkey, injections of the pretectum also produced retrograde labeling, but mainly in the dorsal layer. The dendritic fields of incertotectal and incertopretectal cells were generally contained within the layer inhabited by their somata. The macaque, but not the squirrel, zona incerta extended dorsolaterally, within the external medullary lamina. Zona incerta injections produced retrogradely labeled neurons in the superior colliculus of both species. In the squirrel, most cells inhabited the lower sublamina of the intermediate gray layer, but in the monkey, they were scattered throughout the deeper layers. Labeled cells were present among the pretectal nuclei in both species. Labeled terminals were concentrated in the lower sublamina of the intermediate gray layer of both species, but were dispersed among the pretectal nuclei. In summary, an incertal projection that is concentrated on the collicular motor output layers and that originates in the ventral layer of the ipsilateral zona incerta is a common mammalian feature, suggesting an important role in collicular function.

  3. Differences between antigenic determinants of pig and cat zona pellucida proteins.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Rohleder, M; Wegner, I

    2000-05-01

    Despite many efforts, the control of reproduction in feral cat populations is still a problem in urban regions around the world. Immunocontraception is a promising approach; thus the present study examined the suitability of the widely used pig zona pellucida proteins (pZP) for contraception in feral domestic cats. Purified zona pellucida proteins obtained from pig and cat ovaries were used to produce highly specific antisera in rabbits. Antibodies against pZP raised in rabbits or lions were not effective inhibitors of either in vitro sperm binding (cat spermatozoa to cat oocytes) or in vitro fertilization in cats, whereas antibodies against feline zona pellucida proteins (fZP) raised in rabbits showed a dose-dependent inhibition of in vitro fertilization. Immunoelectrophoresis, ELISA and immunohistology of ovaries confirmed these results, showing crossreactivity of anti-fZP sera to fZP and to a lesser extent to pZP, but no interaction of anti-pZP sera with fZP. It is concluded that cat and pig zonae pellucidae express a very small number of shared antigenic determinants, making the use of pZP vaccine in cats questionable. A contraceptive vaccine based on feline zona pellucida determinants will be a better choice for the control of reproduction in feral cats if immunogenity can be achieved.

  4. A Rare Clinical Entity in the Differential Diagnosis of Mastalgia: Thoracic Zona

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Zeynep; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Gönen, Ayşe Nur; Kanat, Zekiye; Buğra, Bozan Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mastalgia is the most common complaint of patients who are admitted for breast examination. Breast pain may originate breast tissue pathologies or non-breast pathologies adjacent organs. One of the causes of mastalgia is the varicella-zoster infection of the thoracic nerve ganglions. The zona zoster infection is painful, and vesicular lesions in the infected dermatomal regions can be observed because of the reactivation of the latent varicella (Herpes)-zoster virus (VZV) in the dorsal radix of medulla spinalis. There are no reviews of the zona cases of mastalgia patients in the literature. We aimed to investigate and represent the characteristics of these patients Materials and Methods Patients complaining of mastalgia and who were diagnosed with zona zoster infection after physical examination and clinical evaluation in the outpatients department of General Surgery were investigated retrospectively between January 2010 and January 2015. Results The study included 12 patients. All of them were female, and the mean age of patients was 51.66 (36–72) years. Eight of the zona cases were seen in the right breast (66.6%), and four of them were seen in the left breast (33.4%). Complaints of patients were pain (100%), eruption (70%), and burning sensation (60%). Underlying pathology was seen in one of the cases. Physical examination at admission revealed that four of the patients did not have any physical abnormality (33.3%). On the contrary of vesicular lesions, typical physical findings of zona, were seen in eight patients (66.7%). Conclusion Detailed history analysis and physical examination of the breast should be performed, particularly in older patients with unilateral severe mastalgia, and zona should be considered.

  5. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding by a combinatorially derived peptide from a synthetic target.

    PubMed

    Pieczenik, George; Garrisi, John; Cohen, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    Intact zona-free human oocytes were screened using a combinatorial peptide library selection protocol. Pieczenik Peptide Sequence 1 (PPS1) HEHRKRG binds human spermatozoa. A complementary and unique binding sequence HNSSLSPLATPA (PPS2) was developed from the first PPS1 ligand that binds to the human zona pellucida or oolemma. Cytoplasm-free zonae from unfertilized eggs were obtained and used as an assay system to test the effects of exposure to these two ligands. Spermatozoa were inserted into evacuated zonae and their behaviour and binding activity were assessed at regular intervals. The behaviour of spermatozoa exposed to PPS1 and unlabelled spermatozoa injected into unexposed zonae was similar as far as binding was concerned (50 and 54% binding), but PPS1 exposed spermatozoa had higher motility and displacement, marked by their escape from the zona pellucida. Zonae exposed to PPS2 inhibited the interaction between injected spermatozoa and the inside of the zona when compared with controls (8.3 and 53.8% attached respectively, P < 0.001). The sperm-zona pellucida interaction described in this paper is applied as a functional assay for molecular interactions of sperm binding and can be used to assess function for potential surface markers on gametes. It is shown here that a unique binding ligand (PPS2) can be synthesized from another complimentary ligand (PPS1) without the need for a known intermediate substrate. PPS1 and PPS2 may have properties that can be used to target processes involved in conception and assisted reproduction. A movie sequence taken approximately 30 min after injection of spermatozoa into empty human zonae pellucidae shows behaviour of non-manipulated spermatozoa into zonae not exposed or exposed to ligand. This may be purchased for viewing on the Internet at www.rbmonline.com/Article/2159 (free to web subscribers).

  7. 3 CFR 8946 - Proclamation 8946 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the Río Grande del Norte National Monument

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of rare Gunnison's prairie dogs. The Río Grande del Norte also provides habitat for many species of predators, including the ringtail, black bear, coyote, red fox, cougar, and bobcat. While diverse...

  8. Hydrogen peroxide induces premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm and reduces their penetration of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, P C; Hsu, C C; Guo, Y L

    1999-11-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian sperm are capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that this activity is significantly accelerated in subfertile subjects. The observed decrease in penetration of zona-intact oocyte might be explained by chemical-induced ROS-related early onset of capacitation and premature acrosome reaction, but the mechanism is not clear. We determine whether zona-intact oocyte penetration capability in rat epididymal sperm was affected by premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ionophore A23187 or H2O2 and lysophosphatidyl choline. Chlortetracycline fluorescence assay was used to study the status of acrosome reaction on epididymal sperm. The sperm-oocyte binding and penetration assay was used to evaluate the capability for zona pellucida penetration. There was a positive linear correlation between the frequency of acrosome-reacted sperm and capability of sperm-oocyte binding and penetration in zona-free oocytes. In the zona-intact oocytes, the sperm-oocyte penetration rate was suppressed as the proportions of acrosome-reacted sperm increased. In summary, this study showed that premature acrosome reaction reduced rat sperm's capability of penetrating zona-intact oocytes. However, this reduction is not seen in zona-free oocytes. These findings may provide a basis for understanding the effects of sperm ROS generation on zona pellucida penetration in male reproductive toxicology.

  9. [Relationship between the characteristics of the human sperm movement and their attachment to the zona pellucida].

    PubMed

    Ben Ali, H

    2013-02-01

    Our objective was to study the relationships between the characteristics of the movement of sperm and their attachment to the zona pellucida. Study related to 47 patients candidates with an IVF protocol. The puncture of the ovocytes was carried out under general anesthesia under echography control after stimulated cycles using association is the citrate of clomifene and the HMG or the busereline and the HMG. Study of the mobility of the spermatozoa was carried out thanks to a videomicrography computer-assisted before and after treatment of sperm in Percoll. The setting in contact of the spermatozoa with the ovocytes having given failures of in vitro fertilization and beforehand preserved in a saline solution was carried out during 90 minutes with 37 °C, air-CO2 with 5%. After incubation, the spermatozoa fixed at the zona pellucida, are counted thanks to a meter with hand. The study of the test of fixing of the spermatozoa at the zona pellucida showed that the interaction spermatozoa/ovocytes is correlated positively with the parameters of the mobility analyzed by videomicrography computer-assisted: Vcl, Vsl and the ALH. The performance of the test requires a preliminary epididymal maturation of the spermatozoa in particular the ontogenesis of the spermatic sites of recognition for the zona pellucida. A deterioration of this stage of maturation led to failures of recognition and fixing at the zona pellucida. The test can predict the outcome of IVF and towards the good technique of medical assistance to procreation (AMP). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Laser assisted zona hatching does not lead to immediate impairment in human embryo quality and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Uppangala, Shubhashree; D'Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand; Atreya, Hanudatta S; Raval, Keyur; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Laser assisted zona hatching (LAH) is a routinely used therapeutic intervention in assisted reproductive technology for patients with poor prognosis. However, results are not conclusive in demonstrating the benefits of zona hatching in improving the pregnancy rate. Recent observations on LAH induced genetic instability in animal embryos prompted us to look into the effects of laser assisted zona hatching on the human preimplantation embryo quality and metabolic uptake using high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. This experimental prospective study included fifty embryos from twenty-five patients undergoing intra cytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo quality assessment followed by profiling of spent media for the non-invasive evaluation of metabolites was performed using NMR spectroscopy 24 hours after laser treatment and compared with that of non-treated sibling embryos. Both cell number and embryo quality on day 3 of development did not vary significantly between the two groups at 24 hours post laser treatment interval. Time lapse monitoring of the embryos for 24 hours did not reveal blastomere fragmentation adjacent to the point of laser treatment. Similarly, principal component analysis of metabolites did not demonstrate any variation across the groups. These results suggest that laser assisted zona hatching does not affect human preimplantation embryo morphology and metabolism at least until 24 hours post laser assisted zona hatching. However, studies are required to elucidate laser induced metabolic and developmental changes at extended time periods. AH: assisted hatching; ART: assisted reproductive technology; DNA: deoxy-ribo nucleic acid; LAH: laser assisted hatching; MHz: megahertz; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; PCA: principal component analysis; PGD: preimplantation genetic diagnosis; TLM: time lapse monitoring.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of zona pellucida proteins ZPA, ZPB and ZPC in human, cynomolgus monkey and mouse ovaries.

    PubMed

    Eberspaecher, U; Becker, A; Bringmann, P; van der Merwe, L; Donner, P

    2001-02-01

    The zona pellucida of mammalian oocytes plays an important role in binding and activation of sperm cells during the molecular events leading to fertilization. The genes coding for the three zona pellucida glycoproteins ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC of various species including mouse, dog, and human have been cloned and sequenced by several groups. However, it has remained a matter of debate as to whether the oocytes alone or in conjunction with the surrounding granulosa cells express and deposit these proteins to form the zona pellucida matrix. Addressing this unresolved issue, we assessed the expression and localization of all three zona pellucida proteins in ovaries of human, cynomolgus monkey and mice using immunohistochemical methods. In addition, oocyte-specific expression of ZPC from the primordial stage onward was confirmed by in situ hybridization. In sections of human ovaries, ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC proteins were immunohistochemically detected in the cytoplasms of primordial oocytes and during later stages of folliculogenesis in the zona pellucida matrices of oocytes. In sections fixed with formalin, a clear homogeneous ring was visible around the oocyte and no staining of granulosa cells was observed. In contrast, staining of ZP proteins was also observed between granulosa cells when Bouin's reagent had been used for tissue fixation. Thus, the original zona pellucida architecture was better preserved by formalin fixation. We further demonstrated that dissolution of the zona pellucida of isolated bovine oocytes occurred after they were exposed to Bouin's reagent. In summary, these results demonstrate that in mice, monkeys and humans, zona proteins are expressed and assembled exclusively by the oocyte and not by the granulosa cells. Previously observed results of ZP expression by an involvement of granulosa cells might therefore be the result of an improper fixation of the tissues leading to the disruption of the zona pellucida. Additionally this study highlights the

  12. Multi-Pulse laser ablation modeling with applications to automated zona removal.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K

    2015-01-01

    Laser zona drilling (LZD), the ablation of a portion of the zona pellucida (ZP) in embryos with the use of a laser, is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures such as assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The objective of LZD is to remove specific locations of the ZP while minimizing potential harmful thermal effects to important structures of the embryo, namely the blastomeres. Current thermal analyzes of lasers used in LZD only encompass the use of a single pulse, whereas LZD is typically performed using multiple pulses. In this paper we analyze the effect of multipulse LZD and introduce a linear approximation method for multi-pulse LZD. Furthermore, we describe a novel method of measuring the thermal effect of a single laser pulse using the thermosensitive fluorescent dye Rhodamine B and a high speed camera.

  13. Effect of thyroparathyroidectomy (TPX) on the zona reticularis: a quantitative ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Conran, R M; Nickerson, P A

    1979-07-01

    Atrophy of zona reticularis cells was observed two weeks after surgical thyroparathyroidectomy (TPX). Quantitative morphological techniques for electron microscopy showed significant decreases in the volume of cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets in the zona reticularis of TPX rats. In addition, many mitochnodria contained lipid droplets, some of which occupied virtually the entire matrix of mitochondria. The volume per cell of mitochondria with these inclusions increased significantly after TPX. The lipid droplets may well arise from cytoplasmic droplets by increased transport or reduced metabolism of cholesterol, or by direct incorporation of droplets into the mitochondrial matrix. The serum corticosterone level of TPX rats sacrificed under quiescent conditions did not differ significantly from that of controls. Hypothyroidism induced a significant increase in the volume of peroxisomes per cell in TPX animals which may be related to changes in lipid metabolism or transport.

  14. Early Contact Interactions between Mammalian Gametes In Vitro: Evidence That the Vitellus Influences Adherence between Sperm and Zona Pellucida

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, John F.; Gwatkin, Ralph B. L.; Hutchison, Cameron F.

    1972-01-01

    A study in vitro of interactions between gametes of the golden hamster showed that the spermatozoon associates with the zona pellucida, or outer coat of the ovum, by two successive steps termed attachment and binding. Attachment, apparently the first step in fertilization, is not species-specific; it is insensitive to temperature (2°) and is reversible. Binding, on the other hand, is species-specific, temperature-sensitive, and irreversible. Experiments with isolated zonae pellucidae indicated that the vitellus (cellular portion of the ovum) influences the interaction between the sperm and the zona pellucida by increasing the time required for the sperm to bind. This effect is exerted on the sperm while they are attached to the zona pellucida. Images PMID:4507601

  15. Zinc sparks induce physiochemical changes in the egg zona pellucida that prevent polyspermy

    DOE PAGES

    Que, Emily L.; Duncan, Francesca E.; Bayer, Amanda R.; ...

    2017-01-19

    During fertilization or chemically-induced egg activation, the mouse egg releases billions of zinc atoms in brief bursts known as ‘zinc sparks.’ The zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein matrix surrounding the egg, is the first structure zinc ions encounter as they diffuse away from the plasma membrane. Following fertilization, the ZP undergoes changes described as ‘hardening’, which prevent multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg and thereby establish a block to polyspermy. A major event in zona hardening is cleavage of ZP2 proteins by ovastacin; however, the overall physiochemical changes contributing to zona hardening are not well understood. Using x-ray fluorescence microscopy,more » transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and biological function assays, we tested the hypothesis that zinc release contributes to ZP hardening. We found that the zinc content in the ZP increases by 300% following activation and that zinc exposure modulates the architecture of the ZP matrix. Importantly, zinc-induced structural changes of the ZP have a direct biological consequence; namely, they reduce the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP. These results provide a paradigm-shifting model in which fertilization-induced zinc sparks contribute to the polyspermy block by altering conformations of the ZP matrix. Finally, this adds a previously unrecognized factor, namely zinc, to the process of ZP hardening.« less

  16. The zona pellucida of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): its morphogenesis and thickness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jamie A; Leigh, Christopher M; Breed, William G

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ultrastructural organization of the koala oocyte and the thickness of the surrounding extracellular coat, the zona pellucida, has been determined to ascertain whether there is coevolution of the morphology of the female gamete with that of the highly divergent male gamete that is found in this marsupial species. Ovaries from several adult koalas were obtained and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Oocytes in large tertiary follicles were somewhat smaller than those of most other marsupials, although their ultrastructural organization appeared similar and included many yolk vesicles. The zona pellucida surrounding the oocytes in tertiary follicles was approximately 8 µm thick and thus is of similar thickness to that of some eutherian mammals but at least twice as thick as that of most marsupial species so far studied. The results indicate that the koala oocyte is unusually small for a marsupial species whereas the zona pellucida is, by contrast, much thicker. How this relates to sperm–egg interaction at the time of fertilization has yet to be determined. PMID:16928207

  17. Analysis of B cell epitopes of a glycoprotein porcine zona pellucida (pZP1).

    PubMed

    Shigeta, M; Hasegawa, A; Hamada, Y; Koyama, K

    2000-07-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) of mammalian oocytes forms an extracellular matrix composed of three major glycoproteins and plays an important role in sperm-zona interactions. As ZP had a strong organ-specific but species-cross-reactive antigenicity and passive or active immunization with ZP antigens could impair fertilization, the possibility of developing a immunocontraceptive vaccine has been extensively studied. Studies on active immunization with porcine ZP (pZP) that contain B cell epitopes and T cell epitopes demonstrated that a temporary infertility could be induced along with the elevation of antibody titers, but it was always associated with ovarian failure. This could be due to the oophoritis by activation of pathogenic T cell immunity. It is the general consideration that any adverse effects by vaccination should be avoided for an immunocontraception. From this point of view, the analysis of B cell epitopes of pZP protein would be helpful for construction of a safe immunocontraceptive vaccine with zona antigens. We determined the amino acid sequence of the B epitope in the pZP1 protein by using a monoclonal antibody (MAb-5H4) that possesses a fertilization blocking ability. In addition, antiserum raised to the epitope sequence was revealed to block in vitro fertilization of homologous animal species.

  18. Thermal effects in laser-assisted pre-embryo zona drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, Diarmaid H.; Conia, Jerome D.

    2001-04-01

    Diode lasers ((lambda) equals 1480 nm) are used with in vitro fertilization to dissect the zone pellucida (shell) of pre- embryos. A focused laser beam is applied in vitro to form a channel or trench in the zona pellucida. The procedure is used to facilitate biopsy or as a promoter of embryo hatching. We present examples and measurements of zona pellucida ablation using animal models. In using the laser it is vital not to damage pre-embryo cells, e.g., by overheating. In order to define safe regimes we have derived some thermal side effects of zona pellucida removal. The temperature profile in the beam and vicinity is predicted as function of laser pulse duration and power. In a crossed- beam experiment a HeNe laser probe is used to detect the temperature-induced change in the refractive index of an aqueous solution, and estimate local thermal gradient. We find that the diode laser beam produces superheated water approaching 200 degree(s)C on the beam axis. Thermal histories during and following the laser pulse are given for regions in the neighborhood of the beam. We conclude that an optimum regime exists with pulse duration

  19. In the zone: understanding zona reticularis function and its transformation by adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Bird, Ian M

    2012-08-01

    The human adrenal cortex comprises three distinct zones with unique steroid products, namely the zona glomerulosa, which secretes the mineralocorticoids, the zona fasciculate, which secretes the glucocorticoids and the zona reticularis (ZR), which at adrenarche, begins to produce the so-called adrenal androgens. Of all the adrenal zones, we still understand control of ZR emergence the least, and yet the consequences of such dysregulation can be devastating. Premature adrenarche is a growing problem and the correspondingly inappropriate emergence of ZR function can negatively influence puberty and lead to adult infertility. Our understanding is limited and more needs to be done. The purpose of these three reviews is to provide a survey of where we are in our current understanding of what adrenarche is, and indeed if it is unique to humans at all. Furthermore, these reviews describe what is also known of how the functional ZR emerges during adrenarche and what steroids of physiologic relevance result beyond the widely known DHEA and DHEAS elevated at this time. Such advances in human, primate and indeed stem-cell biology are clearly laying the foundation for new directions in the hunt for the factors involved in the regulation and functional emergence of a ZR at the appropriate time, as well as insight into how they may fail. Given support for these new directions, considerable progress can clearly be made.

  20. Pre-freezing sperm preparation does not impair thawed spermatozoa binding to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Yogev, L; Gamzu, R; Paz, G; Kleiman, S; Botchan, A; Hauser, R; Yavetz, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the fertilizing potential of frozen-thawed spermatozoa, which were cryopreserved after separation on a Percoll gradient, or washed out of seminal plasma. For this purpose, binding to the zona pellucida and other characteristics of the treated sperm cells were compared with those of cryopreserved spermatozoa from the same original sample which were not manipulated before freezing. Semen specimens were obtained from 80 candidates for sperm donation. Percoll-treated sperm samples compared with the sibling, unprocessed controls had significantly higher values of sperm motility characteristics and per cent of cells with normal morphology after freezing and thawing. Sperm binding ability to the zona pellucida was not statistically different (109 +/- 8.1% and 94 +/- 6.7% in unprocessed and Percoll-treated samples respectively). Sperm specimens processed by washing had significantly higher values for motility characteristics than untreated sibling samples, but no differences were found between the treated and untreated samples for morphology and binding to the zona pellucida (hemizona index of 75 +/- 7.0% and 76 +/- 6.7% in unprocessed and washed samples respectively). These findings suggest that, judged by the binding assay, the aforementioned pre-freezing separation processes have no adverse effect upon the fertilizing potential of the thawed sperm cells. These procedures make it possible to optimize the progressive motile sperm cell concentration of the frozen specimen, which facilitates the storage of samples with good quality, even when the features of the original semen are sub-optimal.

  1. Elevation and mass change of the Echaurren Norte Glacier (Central Andes, Chile) from 1955 to 2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, David; Vivero, Sebastián; Casassa, Gino; Seehaus, Thorsten; Braun, Matthias H.

    2017-04-01

    The Echaurren Norte Glacier (33°34'S 70°07'W) is a small mountain glacier located at the upper Maipo basin, approximately 80 km to Santiago de Chile. The glacier has the longest surface mass balance record in South America (1975 to 2016). The measurements are carried out by DGA (water directory of Chile) using the direct glaciological method. The surface mass balance show continuous negative values, but exceptional positive mass balances were identified during ENSO periods. The aim of our study is complement the in-situ observations on Echaurren Norte Glacier with the geodetic mass balance measurements for the period 1955 to 2015. Our database comprises digital elevation models (DEM) from historical cartography based on aerial photographs (1955), SRTM (2000) and Lidar data. In addition, we mapped changes in glacier extent using aerial photography and multi-mission satellite data. TanDEM-X (2012-2015) and SRTM data will be used to investigate surrounding glaciers that have not such extensive and detailed coverage as Echaurren Norte Glacier. The aerial photographs from 1955 were scanned from the original negative using a photogrammetric scanner and processed on a digital photogrammetric workstation (DPW) and georeferenced with the aid of GCPs derived from the Lidar dataset. The TanDEM-X data was processed using differential interferometry using SRTM C-band DEM as reference. Differences resulting from X- and C-band penetration are considered comparing X- and C-band SRTM data. All DEMs were laterally and vertically co-registered to each other. Error assessment was done over stable ground. Our preliminary results indicate an elevation change of -42.2 m ± 4 m (1955-2015) for Echaurren Norte Glacier. The estimated averaged annual mass balance is -0.59 m water equivalent for the period 1955-2015 using a density of 0.85 kg/cm3 for volume to mass conversion. Significant changes of the surface cover were identified, with a considerable increase of the debris cover, in

  2. Participation in prenatal care in the Paso del Norte border region: the influence of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Judith T; Bader, Julia; Nelson, Carlene; Shannon, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    Women who resided on the El Paso, Texas/Juarez, Mexico border (the Paso del Norte region) were surveyed to determine the barriers and facilitators to receiving early and adequate prenatal care. Postpartum interviews and medical chart abstractions were conducted among 493 Hispanic women. Primary facilitators were all factors that made prenatal care services more accessible to women and a priority among other issues competing for time and resources. The factors reported by these women as barriers to timely entry and sustaining enrollment in prenatal care were related to the availability of social support networks and affiliation with the Mexican/Hispanic culture (acculturation).

  3. Evaluation of bovine zona pellucida characteristics in polarized light as a prognostic marker for embryonic developmental potential.

    PubMed

    Koester, M; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; Montag, M; Rings, F; Schimming, T; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Hoelker, M

    2011-06-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that zona pellucida imaging of human oocytes using polarized light microscopy is a clinically applicable method for the noninvasive assessment of oocyte quality. This study was designed to investigate whether zona pellucida characteristics of bovine oocytes and zygotes in polarized light may similarly serve as a useful marker for developmental competence in bovine reproductive biotechnologies. Zona birefringence intensity parameters of 2862 oocytes/zygotes were objectively evaluated with an automatic analysis system and correlated with oocyte/zygote quality. In detail, immature oocytes of good quality assessed with brilliant cresyl blue staining showed significantly lower zona birefringence than poor-quality counterparts (P<0.001). After in vitro maturation and classification according to maturational status, the birefringence intensity parameters were significantly different in those oocytes that reached metaphase II compared with arrested stages (P<0.001). Following either parthenogenetic activation or IVF with subsequent in vitro culture in a well-of-the-well system until day 9, superior development as determined by cleavage, blastocyst formation, and hatching ability was associated with lower zona birefringence intensity parameters. When early zygote-stage embryos were selected and assorted in groups based on zona birefringence (high/medium/low), the group of embryos derived from high-birefringence zygotes displayed a significantly compromised developmental potential compared with low-birefringence zygotes. These results clearly show that developmentally competent bovine oocytes/zygotes exhibit lower zona birefringence intensity parameters. Therefore, birefringence imaging of zona pellucida is a suitable technique to predict bovine preimplantation embryo development.

  4. Mutation of a conserved hydrophobic patch prevents incorporation of ZP3 into the zona pellucida surrounding mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Gold, Lyn; Dorward, Heidi; Liang, Li-fang; Hoodbhoy, Tanya; Boja, Emily; Fales, Henry M; Dean, Jurrien

    2003-12-01

    Three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3) are synthesized in growing mouse oocytes and secreted to form an extracellular zona pellucida that mediates sperm binding and fertilization. Each has a signal peptide to direct it into a secretory pathway, a "zona" domain implicated in matrix polymerization and a transmembrane domain from which the ectodomain must be released. Using confocal microscopy and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), the intracellular trafficking of ZP3 was observed in growing mouse oocytes. Replacement of the zona domain with EGFP did not prevent secretion of ZP3, suggesting the presence of trafficking signals and a cleavage site in the carboxyl terminus. Analysis of linker-scanning mutations of a ZP3-EGFP fusion protein in transient assays and in transgenic mice identified an eight-amino-acid hydrophobic region required for secretion and incorporation into the zona pellucida. The hydrophobic patch is conserved among mouse zona proteins and lies between a potential proprotein convertase (furin) cleavage site and the transmembrane domain. The cleavage site that releases the ectodomain from the transmembrane domain was defined by mass spectrometry of native zonae pellucidae and lies N-terminal to a proprotein convertase site that is distinct from the hydrophobic patch.

  5. p-Aminobenzamidine, an acrosin inhibitor, inhibits mouse sperm penetration of the zona pellucida but not the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L R

    1982-05-01

    The effect of p-aminobenzamidine (pAB), an inhibitor of mouse sperm acrosin, on mouse sperm capacitation, motility, acrosome loss and fertility in vitro was examined using zona-intact and zona-free eggs. With intact eggs, concentrations of pAB ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mM in the sperm preincubation medium effectively inhibited fertilization (13-0%, respectively), but these same suspensions (10(6) cells/ml) showed high rates of fertilization with zona-free eggs (100-95.3%); with the lower concentration of 10(5) cells/ml, fertilization rates of zona-free eggs decreased with increasing concentrations of pAB (100-55%). Washing of treated samples gave fertilization rates similar to control samples (87.1 and 84.6%, respectively), indicating that inhibition was reversible and that there had been no interference with the capacitation process. Whiplash motility was also observed in all samples, suggesting that the apparent inability to penetrate the zona might be due to an acrosomal defect. This was confirmed by electron microscopic examination of treated sperm samples. In high concentrations of pAB, many cells had undergone the acrosome reaction, i.e. membrane vesiculation, but acrosomal matrix dispersal was inhibited. These results are consistent, therefore, with a role for the acrosomal enzyme acrosin in matrix dispersal, but not the acrosome reaction itself, and in penetration of the zona pellucida.

  6. Sperm proteasomes degrade sperm receptor on the egg zona pellucida during mammalian fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Shawn W; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Yi, Young-Joo; Gupta, Satish K; Sutovsky, Miriam; Odhiambo, John F; Powell, Michael D; Miller, David J; Sutovsky, Peter

    2011-02-23

    Despite decades of research, the mechanism by which the fertilizing spermatozoon penetrates the mammalian vitelline membrane, the zona pellucida (ZP) remains one of the unexplained fundamental events of human/mammalian development. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the 26S proteasome as a candidate for echinoderm, ascidian and mammalian egg coat lysin. Monitoring ZP protein degradation by sperm during fertilization is nearly impossible because those few spermatozoa that penetrate the ZP leave behind a virtually untraceable residue of degraded proteins. We have overcome this hurdle by designing an experimentally consistent in vitro system in which live boar spermatozoa are co-incubated with ZP-proteins (ZPP) solubilized from porcine oocytes. Using this assay, mimicking sperm-egg interactions, we demonstrate that the sperm-borne proteasomes can degrade the sperm receptor protein ZPC. Upon coincubation with motile spermatozoa, the solubilized ZPP, which appear to be ubiquitinated, adhered to sperm acrosomal caps and induced acrosomal exocytosis/formation of the acrosomal shroud. The degradation of the sperm receptor protein ZPC was assessed by Western blotting band-densitometry and proteomics. A nearly identical pattern of sperm receptor degradation, evident already within the first 5 min of coincubation, was observed when the spermatozoa were replaced with the isolated, enzymatically active, sperm-derived proteasomes. ZPC degradation was blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and accelerated by ubiquitin-aldehyde(UBAL), a modified ubiquitin protein that stimulates proteasomal proteolysis. Such a degradation pattern of ZPC is consistent with in vitro fertilization studies, in which proteasomal inhibitors completely blocked fertilization, and UBAL increased fertilization and polyspermy rates. Preincubation of intact zona-enclosed ova with isolated active sperm proteasomes caused digestion, abrasions and loosening of the exposed zonae, and significantly reduced

  7. Phenomena that influence high ozone concentrations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Yarbrough, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results of analyses of meteorological and air quality data for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. This analysis has shown that the high ozone concentrations are a result of slow convective boundary layer growth, reduced convective boundary layer depth, light surface winds, and high morning surface ozone precursor concentrations. Overlying meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes include an upstream aloft high pressure system, aloft warming, and weak surface pressure gradients. The analysis has also shown that aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors does not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, show that the system is most often NO{sub x} rather than VOC limited.

  8. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; Freitas De Souza, Márcia Célia; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2015-12-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease.

  9. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  10. Attic dust analysis approach for evaluation of heavy metal deposition in the El Paso Del Norte Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 90 years from 1887 to 1977, a large smelter in the El Paso Del Norte region of North America smelted many ores including copper, lead, and zinc. In order to identify the patterns of heavy metal dispersion from the smelter, we sampled attic dust and dust from undisturbed surfaces in 15 bu...

  11. Health assessment for Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area, Cresent City, Del Norte County, California, Region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD000626176. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-18

    The Del Norte County Pesticide Storage Area is located northwest of Cresent City, California. The site soils and ground water were contaminated with a myriad of pesticides and herbicides. The data also indicated an elevated concentration of chromium was present on-site and off-site; however, it does not appear to be related to the activities involving the use of the site as a pesticide storage area. The site was included on the National Priorities List in 1983. The storage area operated from 1970 until 1981, accepting containers from local agricultural and forestry-related industries. The intended use of the site was as an interim or emergency storage area for pesticide containers which had been triple rinsed and punctured prior to coming to the site. There were 9 private wells monitored within 0.50 miles of the site and the results indicated these wells were not contaminated by site contaminants. This site is of public health concern because of the potential for exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and chromium at concentrations of health concern.

  12. Differential binding of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing human spermatozoa to zona pellucida in vitro.

    PubMed

    Van Dyk, Q; Mahony, M C; Hodgen, G D

    2001-07-01

    The sex of human offspring has been associated with the day in the mother's menstrual cycle on which insemination occurs, with male zygotes being formed earlier in the fertile period than female zygotes. Using an in vitro environment designed to mimic the in vivo milieu, we tested the hypothesis that Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa survive functionally longer than X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa, and that this differential functional survival is a contributing factor to the in vivo phenomenon. Donor semen was processed by swim-up and incubated at 37 degrees C in culture medium for 0, 24 and 48 h, with human zona pellucida (hemizona, HZ) being used to select functional spermatozoa. A second set of in vitro storage conditions, 4 degrees C in test-yolk refrigeration buffer, was used to determine whether changing the incubation conditions alters the process. The sex chromosome of the spermatozoa was determined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). For spermatozoa incubated at 37 degrees C, the percentage of functional (HZ bound) Y-bearing spermatozoa was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 48 h (55.4 + 2.9%) but not at 0 h (50.5 + 0.7%) or 24 h (52.8 + 3.1%) compared to swim-up spermatozoa (50.6 + 0.3%). No difference in the percentage of functional Y-spermatozoa was observed at any time-point with storage at 4 degrees C in refrigeration buffer. Thus, we demonstrated that significantly more Y-bearing spermatozoa were capable of zona binding than X-bearing spermatozoa at 48 h at 37 degrees C incubation, with an observed Y : X ratio of 1.15 for these zona-bound spermatozoa compared to 1.02 for post-swim-up spermatozoa. We conclude that a differential functional survival appears to exist between X-bearing and Y-bearing spermatozoa, with the latter exhibiting a longer functional survival under in vitro conditions.

  13. Pentoxifylline increases sperm penetration into zona-free hamster oocytes without increasing the acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Llanos, M; Yovich, J L; Cummins, J M; Vigil, P

    1993-01-01

    Several drugs have been used to stimulate human sperm motility, including 3-deoxy-adenosine, caffeine, and pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline is an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase and may stimulate sperm motility by increasing the intracellular levels of cAMP. In this study we have evaluated the effect of pentoxifylline in the outcome of the sperm penetration assay into zona-free hamster oocytes. Twenty-seven semen samples, obtained for diagnostic purposes, were used. After the motile sperm were selected by the swim-up technique, the samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was incubated with 1 mg ml-1 of pentoxifylline at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2 for 30 min. The control aliquot was incubated with culture medium. The samples were then washed and resuspended in fresh, pentoxifylline-free medium, at a sperm concentration of 10 x 10(6) cells ml-1. One hundred microlitres of each sperm suspension was then deposited under oil and 30-40 zona-free hamster oocytes were added. After 6 h of gamete coincubation, the percentage of penetrated oocytes and the number of decondensed sperm heads were evaluated. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm was evaluated using the Pisum sativum lectin. The percentage of zona-free hamster oocytes penetrated was increased after pentoxifylline-treatment. The percentage of acrosome reacted sperm and the number of decondensed sperm heads per egg were not different between the control and the pentoxifylline-treated groups. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline upon the sperm cells is not mediated by stimulation of the acrosome reaction.

  14. Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of Macronodular Adrenocortical Hyperplasia of the Zona Reticularis: A New Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghayee, Hans K.; Rege, Juilee; Watumull, Lori M.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Carrick, Kelley S.; Rainey, William E.; Miller, Walter L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia classically presents with progressive hypercortisolemia and Cushing syndrome. We describe a 29-yr-old man with massive macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia without hypercortisolemia but rather markedly elevated and nonsuppressible production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). Objective: To characterize the clinical and molecular features of this case and to determine whether the tissue biochemically resembles the zona reticularis or fetal adrenal. Setting: University clinic, hospital, and laboratories. Design: Static and dynamic blood and urine testing were performed preoperatively. Tissue was studied by light microscopy, immunoblot, RNA microarray, and enzyme assay. Participant: A 29-yr-old man with incidentally discovered bilateral adrenal enlargement. Intervention: Bilateral adrenalectomy. Main Outcome Measures: Molecular studies compared with control samples. Results: Hypercortisolism and 21-hydroxylase deficiency were excluded. DHEA, DHEAS, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone were markedly elevated and did not suppress with dexamethasone 2 mg/d for 4 d. Homogenates of the adrenals demonstrated high 17-hydroxylase, good 17,20-lyase, and low or absent 21-hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Immunoblots confirmed robust expression of cytochrome P450c17 and AKR1C3 but not P450c21. Microarray analysis demonstrated high CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 expression but low or absent HSD3B1, HSD3B2, and CYP21A2 expression. Expression of mRNA for cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) and AKR1C3, markers of the zona reticularis, were markedly elevated. Conclusion: This is the first case of macronodular hyperplasia of the adrenal zona reticularis confirmed with studies of enzyme activity, mRNA expression, and protein identification. We speculate that this condition can be clinically silent in men but might cause severe hyperandrogenemia in women. PMID:21084398

  15. Willingness to Pay for Dog Rabies Vaccine and Registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines (2012)

    PubMed Central

    Birhane, Meseret G.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Dyer, Jessie L.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Recuenco, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Background The Philippines is one of the developing countries highly affected by rabies. Dog vaccination campaigns implemented through collaborative effort between the government and NGOs have played an important role in successfully reducing the burden of disease within the country. Nevertheless, rabies vaccination of the domestic animal population requires continuous commitment not only from governments and NGOs, but also from local communities that are directly affected by such efforts. To create such long-term sustained programs, the introduction of affordable dog vaccination and registration fees is essential and has been shown to be an important strategy in Bohol, Philippines. The aim of this study, therefore, was to estimate the average amount of money that individuals were willing to pay for dog vaccination and registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. This study also investigated some of the determinants of individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP). Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 300 households in 17 municipalities (out of a total of 21) selected through a multi-stage cluster survey technique. At the time of the survey, Ilocos Norte had a population of approximately 568,017 and was predominantly rural. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to elicit WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. A ‘bidding game’ elicitation strategy that aims to find the maximum amount of money individuals were willing to pay was also employed. Data were collected using paper-based questionnaires. Linear regression was used to examine factors influencing participants’ WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. Key Results On average, Ilocos Norte residents were willing to pay 69.65 Philippine Pesos (PHP) (equivalent to 1.67 USD in 2012) for dog vaccination and 29.13PHP (0.70 USD) for dog registration. Eighty-six per cent of respondents were willing to pay the stated amount to vaccinate each of their dogs, annually. This study

  16. Willingness to Pay for Dog Rabies Vaccine and Registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines (2012).

    PubMed

    Birhane, Meseret G; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Dyer, Jessie L; Blanton, Jesse D; Recuenco, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The Philippines is one of the developing countries highly affected by rabies. Dog vaccination campaigns implemented through collaborative effort between the government and NGOs have played an important role in successfully reducing the burden of disease within the country. Nevertheless, rabies vaccination of the domestic animal population requires continuous commitment not only from governments and NGOs, but also from local communities that are directly affected by such efforts. To create such long-term sustained programs, the introduction of affordable dog vaccination and registration fees is essential and has been shown to be an important strategy in Bohol, Philippines. The aim of this study, therefore, was to estimate the average amount of money that individuals were willing to pay for dog vaccination and registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. This study also investigated some of the determinants of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP). A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 300 households in 17 municipalities (out of a total of 21) selected through a multi-stage cluster survey technique. At the time of the survey, Ilocos Norte had a population of approximately 568,017 and was predominantly rural. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to elicit WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. A 'bidding game' elicitation strategy that aims to find the maximum amount of money individuals were willing to pay was also employed. Data were collected using paper-based questionnaires. Linear regression was used to examine factors influencing participants' WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. On average, Ilocos Norte residents were willing to pay 69.65 Philippine Pesos (PHP) (equivalent to 1.67 USD in 2012) for dog vaccination and 29.13PHP (0.70 USD) for dog registration. Eighty-six per cent of respondents were willing to pay the stated amount to vaccinate each of their dogs, annually. This study also found that WTP was influenced by

  17. Application of GIS and remote sensing methods to the paleohydrography of the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, John F.

    The purpose of this project is to use geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing methods to investigate the paleohydrology of the Paso del Norte region during the latest pluvial event. During the research I gathered the best available geologic and hydrographic data sets and integrated these data within a GIS in order to create a digital paleohydrologic database for the region. In particular, I used the GIS to reconstruct the hydrography (i.e. streams, lakes, and watershed boundaries) that existed as a results of increased precipitation and a decrease in temperature in the recent geologic past. The existence of the pluvial lakes had an impact on ground-water and surface-water flow systems in this region. The results of my research are presented as two papers ready for peer-review publication submission and a third paper that is a previously published work. (1) Using GIS and Remote Sensing to Reconstruct Late Quaternary and Early Holocene Paleo-Hydrography Using Climate Data and Modern Topography---an Example from the Southwestern US. This paper describes the methods used to create a paleo-hydrography system for the Paso del Norte region, and the development of a water-balance equation that estimates the inputs and outputs of this system. (2) Estimating Water-Balance Equation for Playas in the Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico. This paper describes the calibration and testing of the GIS model presented in the first paper. Before it can be applied to paleohydrologic systems, it must be shown to reasonably approximate playa systems in the region under current conditions. Water balances were calculated for several playas and their associated drainages. (3) The Hydrogeologic Framework of Basin-Fill Aquifers and Associated Ground-water flow Systems in Southwestern New Mexico---An Overview. The paper is an overview of work done by many hydrogeologists in the Paso del Norte region; however, the primary source of most of our current knowledge is based on the

  18. alpha1H T-type Ca2+ channel is the predominant subtype expressed in bovine and rat zona glomerulosa.

    PubMed

    Schrier, A D; Wang, H; Talley, E M; Perez-Reyes, E; Barrett, P Q

    2001-02-01

    The low voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channel has been implicated in the regulation of aldosterone secretion from the adrenal zona glomerulosa by extracellular K+ levels, angiotensin II, and ACTH. However, the identity of the specific subtype mediating this regulation has not been determined. We utilized in situ hybridization to examine the distribution of three newly cloned members of the T-type Ca2+ channel family, alpha1G, alpha1H, and alpha1I, in the rat and bovine adrenal gland. Substantial expression of only the mRNA transcript for the alpha1H-subunit was detected in the zona glomerulosa of both rat and bovine. A much weaker expression signal was detected for the alpha1H transcript in the zona fasciculata of bovine. Whole cell recordings of isolated bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa cells showed the native low voltage-activated current to be inhibited by NiCl2 with an IC50 of 6.4 +/- 0.2 microM. Because the alpha1H subtype exhibits similar NiCl2 sensitivity, we propose that the alpha1H subtype is the predominant T-type Ca2+ channel present in the adrenal zona glomerulosa.

  19. The effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers.

    PubMed

    Sanmee, Usanee; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn; Vutyavanich, Teraporn

    2016-09-01

    We studied the effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and the cell numbers of the completely hatched blastocysts. Mouse blastocysts were randomly allocated to the inner cell mass (ICM) group (zona opening performed at the site of the ICM, n=125), the trophectoderm (TE) group (zona opening performed opposite to the ICM, n=125) and the control group (no zona opening, n=125). The rate of complete hatching of the blastocysts was not significantly different in the ICM and the TE group (84.8% vs 80.8%, respectively; p=0.402), but was significantly lower in the control group (51.2%, p<0.001). The cell numbers in the completely hatched blastocysts were comparable in the control group, the ICM group, and the TE group (69±19.3, 74±15.7, and 71±16.8, respectively; p=0.680). These findings indicate that the site of laser zona opening did not influence the rate of complete hatching of mouse blastocysts or their cell numbers.

  20. The effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and their cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sanmee, Usanee; Piromlertamorn, Waraporn

    2016-01-01

    Objective We studied the effect of the site of laser zona opening on the complete hatching of mouse blastocysts and the cell numbers of the completely hatched blastocysts. Methods Mouse blastocysts were randomly allocated to the inner cell mass (ICM) group (zona opening performed at the site of the ICM, n=125), the trophectoderm (TE) group (zona opening performed opposite to the ICM, n=125) and the control group (no zona opening, n=125). Results The rate of complete hatching of the blastocysts was not significantly different in the ICM and the TE group (84.8% vs 80.8%, respectively; p=0.402), but was significantly lower in the control group (51.2%, p<0.001). The cell numbers in the completely hatched blastocysts were comparable in the control group, the ICM group, and the TE group (69±19.3, 74±15.7, and 71±16.8, respectively; p=0.680). Conclusion These findings indicate that the site of laser zona opening did not influence the rate of complete hatching of mouse blastocysts or their cell numbers. PMID:27689037

  1. Utilization of LANDSAT orbital imagery in the soil survey processes at Rio Grande do Norte state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formaggio, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Pedologic photointerpretative criteria adapted to LANDSAT orbital imagery were used: drainage (pattern, integration degree, density and uniformity degree); relief (pattern, dissection degree and crest lines); photographic texture, photographic tonnality, and the land use (type, glebas size and intensity of use). The performance of the imagery as an auxiliar tool in the soil survey processes, at Rio Grande do Norte State was evaluated. The drainage and relief elements were easily extracted from the imagery and also ones that provided the greatest deductive possibility about pedologic boundaries. Other analyzed criteria were considered only auxiliaries, corroborating some soil limits in the evidences convergence phase. The principal pedologic dominions of the 30,000 sq km are covered by the same LANDSAT image (WRS 359/16) were delimited with good precision: (1) fluvial plains, beaches, dunes and coastal mangroves; (2) North Coast line Plateau; (3) Acu Sandstone Zone; (4) residual plateaus of the Tertiary; and (6) plains of the embasement.

  2. [Fragments of history in psychiatric care Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes; Santos, Raionara Cristina de Araújo; de Azevedo, Dulcian Medeiros; Fernandes, Rafaella Leite; Costa, Tarciana Sampaio

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to rescue aspects of the performing therapeutic of the Day Hospital (HD) Dr Elger Nunes, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, during its term, and analyze the results regarding to the number of patients assisted from 1996 to 2004. This is an empirical, descriptive and exploratory study, ex post facto with a quantitative approach, carried out through the analysis of the records of 910 people attended in the hospital. The data was submitted to the informational resource software Microsoft Excel and converted into diagrams. The results show a greater accessibility to this treatment modality, decreasing in hospitalization-time length and improving hospital discharge conditions for users, with reduction in number of patients who interrupted treatment. It focus on the importance of the Day Hospital in the process of psychiatric reform, with care grounded on the use of the humanized therapeutic practices, and still not losing the bond with family and society.

  3. Geology and depositional environments of the Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains, West Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudine, S.F.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.; Grant, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Guadalupian rocks of the northern Del Norte Mountains were deposited in a foreland basin between land of the Marathon orogen and a carbonate shoal established on the geanticline separating the foreland basin from the Delaware basin. Deposition was alternately influenced by coarse clastic input from the orogen and carbonate shoal, which interrupted shallow basinal siltstone depletion. Relatively deeper-water deposition is characterized by carbonate input from the shoal, and relatively shallow-water deposition is characterized by sandstone input from the orogen. Deposition was in five general transgressive-regressive packages that include (1) the Road Canyon Formation and the first siltstone member and first sandstone member of the Word Formation, (2) the second siltstone member, Appel Ranch Member, and limy sandy siltstone member of the Word Formation, (3) the Vidrio Formation, (4) the lower and part of the middle members of the Altuda Formation, and (5) part of the middle and upper members of the Altuda Formation.

  4. Ovastacin, a cortical granule protease, cleaves ZP2 in the zona pellucida to prevent polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Anna D; Xiong, Bo; Baibakov, Boris; Jiménez-Movilla, Maria; Dean, Jurrien

    2012-04-02

    The mouse zona pellucida is composed of three glycoproteins (ZP1, ZP2, and ZP3), of which ZP2 is proteolytically cleaved after gamete fusion to prevent polyspermy. This cleavage is associated with exocytosis of cortical granules that are peripherally located subcellular organelles unique to ovulated eggs. Based on the cleavage site of ZP2, ovastacin was selected as a candidate protease. Encoded by the single-copy Astl gene, ovastacin is an oocyte-specific member of the astacin family of metalloendoproteases. Using specific antiserum, ovastacin was detected in cortical granules before, but not after, fertilization. Recombinant ovastacin cleaved ZP2 in native zonae pellucidae, documenting that ZP2 was a direct substrate of this metalloendoprotease. Female mice lacking ovastacin did not cleave ZP2 after fertilization, and mouse sperm bound as well to Astl-null two-cell embryos as they did to normal eggs. Ovastacin is a pioneer component of mouse cortical granules and plays a definitive role in the postfertilization block to sperm binding that ensures monospermic fertilization and successful development.

  5. Dynamic regulation of sperm interactions with the zona pellucida prior to and after fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have refined our thinking on sperm interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) and our understanding of how, at the molecular level, the sperm cell fertilises the oocyte. Proteomic analyses has identified a capacitation-dependent sperm surface reordering that leads to the formation of functional multiprotein complexes involved in zona-cumulus interactions in several mammalian species. During this process, multiple docking of the acrosomal membrane to the plasma membrane takes place. In contrast with the dogma that the acrosome reaction is initiated when spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida (ZP), it has been established recently that, in mice, the fertilising spermatozoon initiates its acrosome reaction during its voyage through the cumulus before it reaches the ZP. In fact, even acrosome-reacted mouse spermatozoa collected from the perivitelline space can fertilise another ZP-intact oocyte. The oviduct appears to influence the extracellular matrix properties of the spermatozoa as well as the COC. This may influence sperm binding and penetration of the cumulus and ZP, and, in doing so, increase monospermic while decreasing polyspermic fertilisation rates. Structural analysis of the ZP has shed new light on how spermatozoa bind and penetrate this structure and how the cortical reaction blocks sperm-ZP interactions. The current understanding of sperm interactions with the cumulus and ZP layers surrounding the oocyte is reviewed with a special emphasis on the lack of comparative knowledge on this topic in humans, as well as in most farm mammals.

  6. Comparison of human sperm morphometry assessment models based on zona pellucida selectivity.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; Baker, H W G

    2007-01-01

    Computer image analysis improves the objectivity and reproducibility of conventional assessments of sperm morphology. We have extended this objectivity by using the physiological process of sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding to classify 'normal' sperm morphometry. Linear regression analysis of the morphometric differences between sperm in semen, swim-up and ZP bound samples (n=53) was used to establish 12 "zona preferred" morphometric parameters from which two different morphometric evaluations of an individual sperm's potential for motility and ability to bind to the ZP of human oocytes were calculated. The two models, %Z and %ZB, were then tested, together with conventional morphometry assessments of percent "normal" and other semen variables, against experimental sperm-ZP binding rates (n=64) and natural pregnancy rates in sub-fertile couples (n= 1191). Although %ZB was the most significantly related semen variable to sperm-ZP binding rate, the simpler %Z was more significant in the Cox regression model for natural pregnancy rates in sub-fertile couples. In multivariate analysis, the only additional significant covariates were sperm straight line velocity and female age. %Z is therefore the most appropriate and also easiest of our morphometry assessments to be applied to commercial CASA systems which offer a morphometry module with stain density analysis.

  7. Automatic segmentation of zona pellucida and its application in cleavage-stage embryo biopsy position selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zenan; Ang, Wei Tech; Tan, Steven Yih Min; Latt, Win Tun

    2015-01-01

    A very important step of Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is embryo biopsy, in which process the zona pellucida (ZP) is cut open partially and a part of cellular material is extracted from the embryo. Recognition of the ZP is necessary not only for embryo biopsy, but also for other applications such as zona pellucida thickness variation (ZPTV), embryo dissection, etc. The ZP opening position is closely related to the cell survival rate after the biopsy. Selection of an unsuitable position may cause blastomere lysis after the ZP opening. Normal procedures of ZP recognition and biopsy position selection involve a skilled human embryologist. In order to make the process automatic, we introduce an automatic segmentation method for ZP recognition by using edge detection and ellipse fitting with a value adjustment algorithm in this paper. An application of ZP recognition in embryo biopsy position selection is also introduced. Our ZP recognition algorithm was able to correctly segment 43 out of 45 sample embryo images, achieving a success rate of 96%. Its application in embryo biopsy position selection achieved a success rate of 93%.

  8. Structural changes of the zona pellucida during fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Sathananthan, Henry

    2008-05-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is a unique extracellular coat surrounding the maturing oocyte, during ovulation, fertilization, and early embryo development. It is formed by three/four glycoproteins. Ultrastructural data obtained with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were compared with molecular data on the glycoproteins network from ovulation to blastocyst formation. Molecular models are quite different to the morphology obtained with TEM, which shows a microfibrillar architecture, or with SEM, which shows a spongy or smooth surface. The saponin-ruthenium red-osmium tetroxide-thiocarbohydrazide technique allows to show the ZP real microfilamentous structure and the related functional changes. These results support an ultrastructural supramolecular model, more similar and comparable to molecular models related with the glycoprotein network. A detailed mapping of single mammalian ZP proteins and their relationship within the supramolecular architecture of the zona matrix would clearly supply insights into the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition. Differences in ZP glycoproteins among mammals do not affect structural morphology; further studies are needed to clarify the relationships between ultrastructural and molecular organizations.

  9. Checklist of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil-Contribution of Entomological Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lázaro Silva Inácio, Cássio; Hilário Tavares da Silva, José; César de Melo Freire, Renato; Antonaci Gama, Renata; Brisola Marcondes, Carlos; de Fátima Freire de Melo Ximenes, Maria

    2017-05-01

    The distribution of mosquito species in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, was compiled from published data mid-2016 and a review of specimens deposited in the entomological collection of the Entomology Laboratory of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. The existing records exist for 40 of the 167 municipalities in the state. The specimens in the Entomology Laboratory were collected using Shannon traps and by active search for immature individuals and from aquatic habitats using standard methods, in preserved Atlantic Forest and Caatinga remnants, located in urban and rural areas of the state. In total were recorded 76 species distributed into 25 subgenera, 15 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies, in addition to 15 new species records for the state. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Determination of β haplotypes in patients with sickle-cell anemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Cynthia Hatsue Kitayama; Serafim, Edvis Santos Soares; de Medeiros, Waleska Rayane Dantas Bezerra; de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Rebecchi, Ivanise Marina Moretti; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2011-07-01

    β(S) haplotypes were studied in 47 non-related patients with sickle-cell anemia from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Molecular analysis was conducted by PCR/RFLP using restriction endonucleases XmnI, HindIII, HincII and HinfI to analyze six polymorphic sites from the beta cluster. Twenty-seven patients (57.5%) were identified with genotype CAR/CAR, 9 (19.1%) CAR/BEN, 6 (12.8%) CAR/CAM, 1 (2.1%) BEN/BEN, 2 (4.3%) CAR/Atp, 1 (2.1%) BEN/Atp and 1 (2.1%) with genotype Atp/Atp. The greater frequency of Cameroon haplotypes compared to other Brazilian states suggests the existence of a peculiarity of African origin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte.

  11. Zona pellucida gene mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer retardance and fertilization competence.

    PubMed

    Canosa, S; Adriaenssens, T; Coucke, W; Dalmasso, P; Revelli, A; Benedetto, C; Smitz, J

    2017-05-01

    Do the mRNA expression levels of zona pellucida (ZP) genes, ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in oocyte and cumulus cells (CC) reveal relevant information on the oocyte? The ZP mRNA expression in human oocytes is related to oocyte maturity, zona inner layer (IL) retardance and fertilization capacity. ZP structure and birefringence provide useful information on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, developmental competence for embryonic growth, blastocyst formation and pregnancy. In order to understand the molecular basis of morphological changes in the ZP, in the current study, the polarized light microscopy (PLM) approach was combined with analysis of the expression of the genes encoding ZP1, 2, 3 and 4, both in the oocytes and in the surrounding CC. This is a retrospective study comprising 98 supernumerary human cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) [80 Metaphase II (MII), 10 Metaphase I (MI) and 8 germinal vesicle (GV)] obtained from 39 patients (median age 33.4 years, range 22-42) after controlled ovarian stimulation. Single oocytes and their corresponding CC were analysed. Oocytes were examined using PLM, and quantitative RT-PCR was performed for ZP1, 2, 3 and 4 in these individual oocytes and their CC. Ephrin-B2 (EFNB2) mRNA was measured in CC as a control. Presence of ZP3 protein in CC and oocytes was investigated using immunocytochemistry. Data were analysed using one-parametric and multivariate analysis and were corrected for the potential impact of patient and cycle characteristics. Oocytes contained ZP1/2/3 and 4 mRNA while in CC only ZP3 was quantifiable. Also ZP3 protein was detected in human CC. When comparing mature (MII) and immature oocytes (MI/GV) or their corresponding CC, ZP1/2 and 4 expression was lower in mature oocytes compared to the expression in immature oocytes (all P < 0.05) and ZP3 expression was lower in the CC of mature oocytes compared to the expression in CC of immature oocytes (P < 0.05). This coincided with a significantly smaller IL-ZP area and thickness in

  12. Specific antibodies to porcine zona pellucida detected by quantitative radioimmunoassay in both fertile and infertile women

    SciTech Connect

    Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.

    1984-02-01

    The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using /sup 125/I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women.

  13. Mutations in TJP2, encoding zona occludens 2, and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sambrotta, Melissa; Thompson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis is a clinical description of a phenotype, which we now realize has several different genetic aetiologies. The identification of the underlying genetic defects has helped to elucidate important aspects of liver physiology. The latest addition to this family of diseases is tight junction protein 2 (TJP2) deficiency. This protein is also known as zona occludens 2 (ZO-2). The patients, so far presented, all have homozygous, protein-truncating mutations. A complete absence of this protein was demonstrated. These children presented with severe liver disease, some manifesting extrahepatic features. By contrast, embryonic-lethality was seen in ZO-2 knockout mice. This discovery highlights important differences, not just between species, but also between different epithelia in humans. This commentary discusses the recently presented findings, and some of the issues that arise. PMID:26451340

  14. Expression of claudins, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 in canine organs

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Changhwan; Shin, Da-Hye; Lee, Dongoh; Kang, Su-Myung; Seok, Ju-Hyung; Kang, Hee Young; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are classified as transmembrane proteins. These factors form selective permeability barriers between cells, act as paracellular transporters and regulate structural and functional polarity of cells. Although tight junctions have been previously studied, comparison of the transcriptional-translational levels of these molecules in canine organs remains to be investigated. In the present study, organ-specific expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin, occludin, junction adhesion molecule A and zona occludens 1 was examined in the canine duodenum, lung, liver and kidney. Results of immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that the tight junctions were localized in intestinal villi and glands of the duodenum, bronchiolar epithelia and alveolar walls of the lung, endometrium and myometrium of the hepatocytes, and the distal tubules and glomeruli of the kidney. These results suggest that tight junctions are differently expressed in organs, and therefore may be involved in organ-specific functions to maintain physiological homeostasis. PMID:27600198

  15. Tiger, Bengal and Domestic Cat Embryos Produced by Homospecific and Interspecific Zona-Free Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Ram seminal plasma proteins contribute to sperm capacitation and modulate sperm-zona pellucida interaction.

    PubMed

    Luna, C; Colás, C; Casao, A; Serrano, E; Domingo, J; Pérez-Pé, R; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T

    2015-03-01

    Incubation of ram spermatozoa in capacitating conditions with cAMP-elevating agents promotes a progressive time-dependent increase in the capacitated sperm subpopulation. In this study, the fertilizing capacity of ram spermatozoa (ability to bind to the zona pellucida, ZBA rate) capacitated in these conditions was determined. The results showed an increase (P < 0.001) in ZBA rate related to control samples in basal medium that contained BSA, calcium, and bicarbonate (1.97 ± 0.19 vs. 1.31 ± 0.09 sperm bound/oocyte, respectively). A significant correlation between protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ZBA rate (P < 0.05, r = 0.501) corroborated that incubation in a "high-cAMP" environment improves the fertilizing ability of ram spermatozoa. Likewise, the presence of two seminal plasma (SP) proteins able to protect sperm against cold shock (RSVP14 and RSVP20) was evidenced in both SP and the ram sperm surface, and their influence in the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa capacitated in basal medium or with cAMP-elevating agents was determined. The results verified that RSVP14 and RSVP20 act as decapacitating factors given that their addition to SP-free sperm samples previously to capacitation maintained high proportions of the noncapacitated sperm pattern with no increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the obtained ZBA rate in the high-cAMP-containing samples was increased in the presence of RSVP20 (P < 0.05). These findings would indicate that the stimulating effect exerted by this protein on the sperm-oocyte binding occurs downstream from the cAMP generation and that the mechanisms by which RSVP20 promotes the zona pellucida binding might be independent of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  17. Is the zona pellucida thickness of human embryos influenced by women's age and hormonal levels?

    PubMed

    Balakier, Hanna; Sojecki, Agata; Motamedi, Gelareh; Bashar, Siamak; Mandel, Rodica; Librach, Clifford

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether zona pellucida thickness (ZPT) of human embryos is correlated with maternal age, patient's hormonal status, embryo quality, and IVF outcomes. Prospective study. University-affiliated IVF clinic. Couples undergoing IVF-ET cycles. Zona measurements, clinical data collection. Correlation between the ZPT and maternal age, basal FSH and E(2) levels, stimulation protocols, cause of infertility, embryo quality, and implantation/pregnancy rates. The measurements of ZPT were collected from 5,184 day 3 human embryos originated from 744 IVF patients. The overall mean ZPT was 16.18 ± 2.00 μm. No significant correlation was observed between the ZPT and the patient's age, E(2) values on the day of hCG administration, basal concentration of serum FSH, stimulation protocol, infertility diagnosis, and implantation/pregnancy rates. The ZPT was strongly influenced only by the embryo quality: Embryos with good morphology exhibited considerably thinner ZP compared with those of less favorable morphology (mean 15.87 ± 2.48 μm vs. 16.36 ± 2.57 μm, respectively). The ZPT had no significant impact on the implantation and pregnancy rates. The thickness of the human ZP of day 3 embryos is not influenced by women's age and hormonal levels. The strong correlation between ZPT and embryo quality suggests that thickness of ZP depends on inherent embryo properties. The overall ZPT is not a good predictive indicator for IVF clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos: use of a mouse model to investigate effects upon zona hardness and formulate treatment strategies in an in-vitro fertilization programme.

    PubMed

    Matson, P L; Graefling, J; Junk, S M; Yovich, J L; Edirisinghe, W R

    1997-07-01

    Mouse oocytes and embryos were obtained following ovulation induction of (C57B16 x CBA) F1 animals. Zonae pellucidae were exposed to alpha-chymotrypsin in phosphate-buffered medium (PB1) supplemented with 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin upon a heated stage (37 degrees C) and were observed constantly through an inverted microscope. The endpoint of the bioassay was the limits of the zona no longer being seen clearly at x 200 magnification, and the time taken for each zona to dissolve was recorded. A dose-dependent response in dissolution time was clearly seen, with 1% alpha-chymotrypsin being chosen as the routine working solution. Cryopreservation of 2-cell mouse embryos using propanediol did not cause zona hardening but induced a small and significant softening, as gauged by the time taken for zona dissolution (2181 +/- 167 versus 1864 +/- 82 s). Zona hardening was not suspected to occur after the freezing of human embryos as there was no difference in implantation rates per embryo for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles between fresh [IVF: 63/644 (9.7%); ICSI: 51/330 (15.5%)] and frozen embryos [IVF: 36/458 (7.9%); ICSI: 18/112 (16.1%)]. Conversely, significant hardening of the zonae of mature oocytes was seen following cryopreservation (747 +/- 393 s) compared with freshly ovulated oocytes (151 +/- 68 s). It is concluded that (i) the freezing of murine oocytes with propanediol results in zona hardening, implying a possible benefit of ICSI after the cryopreservation of human oocytes, and (ii) the cryopreservation of embryos is not associated with zona hardening or reduced implantation, making microdissection of the zona in such cases generally unwarranted.

  19. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection allows fertilization and development of a chromosomally balanced embryo from a binovular zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Safran, A; Reubinoff, B E; Porat-Katz, A; Werner, M; Friedler, S; Lewin, A

    1998-09-01

    A binovular zona pellucida was found in two in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. In both cases, two oocytes of slightly unequal size were enclosed within a single zona pellucida, the larger oocyte appearing as a metaphase II oocyte while the smaller one as an immature oocyte with a germinal vesicle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed in the mature oocyte of each pair led to normal fertilization and embryonic development in both cases. Results of genetic analysis performed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization in one of the two treatment cycles were consistent with a diploid chromosomal status of both the non-injected immature oocyte as well as the embryo which developed following the microinjection. These results indicate that, in this case, the binovular zona pellucida was most probably created when granulosa cells failed to separate two distinct oocytes during follicular formation. It may also imply that selective fertilization of a single mature oocyte in a binovular zona pellucida by intracytoplasmic sperm injection can lead to the development of a chromosomally balanced embryo and can prevent the undesired consequences that may result if the two oocytes are fertilized in the course of standard IVF.

  20. The Pattern of Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Human Sperm in Response to Binding to Zona Pellucida or Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441

  1. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  2. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  3. Pitch Variability in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…

  4. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  5. The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study: analysis of meteorological and air quality data that influence local ozone concentrations.

    PubMed

    MacDonal, C P; Roberts, P T; Main, H H; Dye, T S; Coe, D L; Yarbrough, J

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and subsequent data analyses were implemented to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical processes which lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study area which includes El Paso County, Texas, Sunland Park, New Mexico, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. Both the data and data analysis results are being used to support photochemical grid modeling. El Paso County and Sunland Park fail to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, and neighboring Ciudad Juárez fails to meet the Mexican ambient standard for ozone. This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. Data analyses showed that high ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including high surface temperatures, strong sunlight with few clouds, light surface winds and high concentrations of ozone precursors at ground level in the morning, and slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an aloft high-pressure system and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to high concentrations of ozone at the surface.

  6. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure Elimination Project in the Philippines: Epidemiological and Economic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Loida M; Jayme, Sarah I; Amparo, Anna Charinna B; Taylor, Louise H; Dela Cruz, Maria Pinky Z; Licuan, Dianne A; Gamal-Bitao, Rosebelle; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    As canine rabies control in Africa and Asia transitions from research-led proof-of-concept studies to government-led programs for elimination, experience and evidence of their impact and costs must be shared for the benefit of future programs. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure project was implemented in April 2012 by the provincial veterinary and health offices and supported by many other partners. It delivered a comprehensive dog vaccination program and increased awareness of the need for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), aiming to eliminate human and animal rabies cases from Ilocos Norte by 2015. Prior to the intervention, confirmed rabies cases in dogs were between 19 and 50 per year (2008-2011). The primary outcome of the project was a reduction in rabies cases in both dogs and humans to 0 in 2014 and 2015, which has subsequently been maintained. Animal bite consultations increased significantly during the project. Economic data for the dog vaccination and PEP components of the project were collated for two sites: Laoag City (an urban setting) and Dingras Municipality (a rural setting) between 2012 and 2014. The average programmatic cost of vaccinating each dog was $4.54 in Laoag City and $8.65 in Dingras, and costs fell as the project reached more dogs. The average costs of providing PEP were $69.72 per patient and $49.02 per patient for the two sites, respectively, again falling as the project reached more people. External donor contributions contributed less than 20% of dog vaccination costs and less than 1% of PEP costs. The project demonstrated that rabies elimination can be achieved in a short period of time, with concerted effort across multiple sectors. A lack of clear dog population estimates hampered interpretation of some aspects of the programme. From 2016, the provincial government has assumed complete responsibility for the programme and must now continue the vaccination and surveillance efforts. Although safeguards are in place

  7. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure Elimination Project in the Philippines: Epidemiological and Economic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Loida M.; Jayme, Sarah I.; Amparo, Anna Charinna B.; Taylor, Louise H.; Dela Cruz, Maria Pinky Z.; Licuan, Dianne A.; Gamal-Bitao, Rosebelle; Nel, Louis H.

    2017-01-01

    As canine rabies control in Africa and Asia transitions from research-led proof-of-concept studies to government-led programs for elimination, experience and evidence of their impact and costs must be shared for the benefit of future programs. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure project was implemented in April 2012 by the provincial veterinary and health offices and supported by many other partners. It delivered a comprehensive dog vaccination program and increased awareness of the need for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), aiming to eliminate human and animal rabies cases from Ilocos Norte by 2015. Prior to the intervention, confirmed rabies cases in dogs were between 19 and 50 per year (2008–2011). The primary outcome of the project was a reduction in rabies cases in both dogs and humans to 0 in 2014 and 2015, which has subsequently been maintained. Animal bite consultations increased significantly during the project. Economic data for the dog vaccination and PEP components of the project were collated for two sites: Laoag City (an urban setting) and Dingras Municipality (a rural setting) between 2012 and 2014. The average programmatic cost of vaccinating each dog was $4.54 in Laoag City and $8.65 in Dingras, and costs fell as the project reached more dogs. The average costs of providing PEP were $69.72 per patient and $49.02 per patient for the two sites, respectively, again falling as the project reached more people. External donor contributions contributed less than 20% of dog vaccination costs and less than 1% of PEP costs. The project demonstrated that rabies elimination can be achieved in a short period of time, with concerted effort across multiple sectors. A lack of clear dog population estimates hampered interpretation of some aspects of the programme. From 2016, the provincial government has assumed complete responsibility for the programme and must now continue the vaccination and surveillance efforts. Although safeguards are in place

  8. Monitoring and Modelling Glacier Melt and Runoff on Juncal Norte Glacier, Aconcagua River Basin, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Helbing, J. F.; Araos, J.; Favier, V.; Rivera, A.; Corripio, J.; Sicart, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Results from a recent glacio-meteorological experiment on the Juncal Norte glacier, in central Chile, are presented. Melt water is a crucial resource in the Central Andes, as it provides drinking water, water for agriculture and for industrial uses. There is also increasing competition for water use and allocation, as water demands from mining and industry are rising. Assessing water availability in this region and its relation with climatic variations is therefore crucial. The Dry Central Andes are characterised by a climatic setting different from that of the Alps and the subtropical Andes of Bolivia and Peru. Summers are very dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero and low relative humidity. Solar radiation is very intense, and plays a key role in the energy balance of snow covers and glaciers. The main aim of this study is to investigate the glacier-climate interaction in this area, with particular attention devoted to advanced modelling techniques for the spatial redistribution of meteorological variables, in order to gain an accurate picture of the ablation processes typical of these latitudes. During the ablation season 2005/2006, an extensive field campaign was conducted on the Juncal Norte glacier, aimed at monitoring the melt and runoff generation processes on this remote glacier in the dry Andes. Melt rates, runoff at the snout, meteorological variables over and near the glacier, GPS data and glacier topography were recorded over the entire ablation season. Using this extensive and accurate data set, the spatial and temporal variability of the meteorological variables that drive the melt process on the glacier is investigated, together with the process of runoff generation. An energy balance model is used to simulate melt across the glacier, and special attention is devoted to the modelling of the solar radiation energy flux. The components of the energy balance are compared with those of Alpine basins. The validity of parameterisations of the

  9. [Family health program as a strategy of primary attention: a reality at Juazeiro do Norte].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Francisco Maglionio; Silva, Marcelo Gurgel Carlos da

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the practices and organization of Family Health Program, in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte according to the discussion of elements that feature the primary attention, as proposed by Starfield. The theoretical context chosen understands the primary attention as a level of attention organized by the features: First contact, longitude, integrality, coordination. This is a qualitative research, using focus group techniques, semi-structured interview and non-participant observation in eight family health units in the municipality. There are difficulties in accessing the primary care in the units, caused by structural barriers imposed to the organization of attention, represented by an excess of clients for each team and reduced availability of medical professional. Considering that there are a compulsory enrollment of the population to the Family Health Care program health units, this level of attention in the city presents itself as a traditional doctor-hegemonic model of healing practices associated with the prioritization of vertical programs of the Ministry of Health.

  10. Study of NO2 photolysis rate coefficients for the Paso Del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangchuk, Pema

    The photolysis of NO2 is one of the most influential chemical processes in the formation of photochemical air pollution. In this study, we compared simulated and measured nitrogen dioxide photolysis rate coefficients (JNO2) for the Paso Del Norte (PdN) region. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation transfer model was used to calculate J(NO2) values. The measurements of hemi-spherically integrated, spectrally resolved solar photon flux between the wavelengths 400 and 700 nm were used to obtain the photolysis rate coefficients for NO2. Results are presented for a selected episode on July, 2015. The work investigated the use of measured actinic flux to improve the NO2 photolysis rate coefficients used by air quality models in order to predict more accurately nitrogen dioxide concentrations for the PdN Region. Complimentary to this work, simulated irradiances at visible wavelengths for the PdN region were inter-compared with Multi-filter Rotating ShadowBand radiometer irradiances data. TUV program was successfully enhanced to tailor it for the PdN region which results in an improved methodology in optimizing the photolysis rate coefficients to increase the accuracy of air quality and forecasting capability.

  11. The Influence of Photolysis Rate Constants in Ozone Production for the Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Fernando; Fitzgerald, Rosa

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we are focusing on understanding the relationship between photolysis rates and the photochemical ozone changes observed in the Paso del Norte region. The city of El Paso, Texas together with Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, forms the largest contiguous bi-national metropolitan area. This region suffers year-round ozone pollution events, and a better understanding is needed to mitigate them. Previous studies have found that ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends rather than on weekdays, this phenomenon being referred to, as the ``weekend effect.'' If the ozone standard is exceeded more frequently on weekends, then this phenomenon must be considered in the design of ozone control strategies. In this work we investigate some of the most representative weekend ozone episodes at El Paso, TX, during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 using the ozone photolysis rates. In this research the TUV radiative-transfer model is used to calculate the local photolysis rates and a UV MFRSR instrument is used to obtain experimental parameters. Seasonal variations and the weekday-weekend effect is studied. The results of this research will help to understand the underlying behavior of the photolysis rate constants when different atmospheric conditions are present.

  12. Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Ruiz, Alvaro

    2004-12-23

    The Norte Chico region on the coast of Peru north of Lima consists of four adjacent river valleys--Huaura, Supe, Pativilca and Fortaleza--in which archaeologists have been aware of a number of apparently early sites for more than 40 years (refs 1- 3). To clarify the early chronology in this region, we undertook fieldwork in 2002 and 2003 to determine the dates of occupation of sites in the Fortaleza and Pativilca valleys. Here we present 95 new radiocarbon dates from a sample of 13 of more than 20 large, early sites. These sites share certain basic characteristics, including large-scale monumental architecture, extensive residential architecture and a lack of ceramics. The 95 new dates confirm the emergence and development of a major cultural complex in this region during the Late Archaic period between 3000 and 1800 calibrated calendar years bc. The results help to redefine a broader understanding of the respective roles of agricultural and fishing economies in the beginnings of civilization in South America.

  13. Paleomagnetic study of the monogenetic volcanism in San Borja and Jaraguay, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Amador, B. I.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Canon-Tapia, E.

    2012-12-01

    The volcanic fields of San Borja and Jaraguay, Baja California Norte; include monogenetic, composite and ignimbrite volcanism, distributed between 30° and 28° north latitude, product of the stages of tecto-magmatic activity of the last 23 Ma. This study reports the results of 230 cores from 27 sites, mainly in lava flows of magnesium andesite composition and all with radiometric ages known. The results of rock magnetic experiments as susceptibility vs. temperature, hysteresis and demagnetization processes, suggest the presence of only one mineralogical phase (reversibility) present with slight changes, PSD magnetic domain type and just one component of magnetization (univectorial diagram). This makes paleointensity experiments have a high probability of success, which we will present at the meeting. The temporal distribution of sites sampled was divided into two main periods: 2.6 - 6.3 Ma (19 sites) and 8.12 - 14.64 Ma (8 sites), which will be used for the analysis of paleosecular variation of the geomagnetic field.

  14. Albedo estimation using near infrared photography at Glaciar Norte of Citlaltepetl Volcano (Mexico).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontiveros, Guillermo; Delgado-Granados, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this work we show preliminary results of the application of the methodology proposed by Corripio (2004) for albedo estimation of a glacial surface using oblique photography. This analysis was performed for the Glaciar Norte of Citlaltepetl volcano (Mexico), using images obtained with a modified digital camera for capturing the portion of the near infrared spectrum starting at 950 nm and a digital elevation model with a grid of 2 m. The main goal was to obtain a picture of the spatial distribution of albedo on the glacier, in order to find out if there was any morphological evidence of the influence of the glacier energy balance. Some of the obtained results show a certain spatial distribution with comparatively higher albedo values at the lower parts of the glacier as compared with higher parts. The higher values may correspond to different metamorphism of snow/ice at different heights due to the effects of lower slope. Corripio, J. G. (2004). Snow surface albedo estimation using terrestrial photography. International journal of remote sensing, 25(24), 5705-5729.

  15. Sensitivity modeling study for an ozone occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R; Williams, Quinton L; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2008-12-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution.

  16. Meteorological simulations of boundary-layer structure during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Muller, C; Wang, G; Costigan, K

    2001-08-10

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on August 13, 1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were performed using the HOTMAC boundary-layer meteorological model using a 1, 2, 4 and 8-km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the August 12-14 time period is emphasized in this paper due to its suspected importance in precipitating the ozone episode [Sci Total Environ (2001)]. This period was characterized by a slowly-evolving high pressure system over the region, a persistent upper-level jet at 2500-3500 m above ground level (agl), deep daytime mixed layer heights of 3500 m depth and unusually deep nighttime stable layers extending up to 2500 m above the ground. The fact that the boundary-layer growth stalled on the morning of August 13 relative to that on August 12 has been suggested as a possible reason for the ozone episode on the 13th. In addition, relatively weak surface-level winds were measured on August 13. Using both model results and experimental data we hypothesize explanations for the slower mixed-layer growth on the morning of the 13th and the stronger surface-level winds found on the 12th and 14th.

  17. Meteorological Simulations of Ozone Episode Case Days during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Costigan, K.; Muller, C.; Wang, G.

    1999-02-01

    Meteorological simulations centered around the border cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez have been performed during an ozone episode that occurred on Aug. 13,1996 during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study field campaign. Simulations were petiormed using the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model using a 1,2,4, and 8 km horizontal grid size nested mesh system. Investigation of the vertical structure and evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer for the Aug. 11-13 time period is emphasized in this paper. Comparison of model-produced wind speed profiles to rawirisonde and radar profiler measurements shows reasonable agreement. A persistent upper-level jet was captured in the model simulations through data assimilation. In the evening hours, the model was not able to produce the strong wind direction shear seen in the radar wind profiles. Based on virtual potential temperature profile comparisons, the model appears to correctly simulate the daytime growth of the convective mixed layer. However, the model underestimates the cooling of the surface layer at night. We found that the upper-level jet significantly impacted the turbulence structure of the boundary layer, leading to relatively high turbulent kinetic energy (tke) values aloft at night. The model indicates that these high tke values aloft enhance the mid-morning growth of the boundary layer. No upper-level turbulence measurements were available to verify this finding, however. Radar profiler-derived mixing heights do indicate relatively rapid morning growth of the mixed layer.

  18. Sensitivity Modeling Study for an Ozone Occurrence during the 1996 Paso Del Norte Ozone Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Duanjun; Reddy, Remata S.; Fitzgerald, Rosa; Stockwell, William R.; Williams, Quinton L.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    Surface ozone pollution has been a persistent environmental problem in the US and Europe as well as the developing countries. A key prerequisite to find effective alternatives to meeting an ozone air quality standard is to understand the importance of local anthropogenic emissions, the significance of biogenic emissions, and the contribution of long-range transport. In this study, an air quality modeling system that includes chemistry and transport, CMAQ, an emission processing model, SMOKE, and a mesoscale numerical meteorological model, WRF, has been applied to investigate an ozone event occurring during the period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Campaign. The results show that the modeling system exhibits the capability to simulate this high ozone occurrence by providing a comparable temporal variation of surface ozone concentration at one station and to capture the spatial evolution of the event. Several sensitivity tests were also conducted to identify the contributions to high surface ozone concentration from eight VOC subspecies, biogenic VOCs, anthropogenic VOCs and long-range transportation of ozone and its precursors. It is found that the reductions of ETH, ISOP, PAR, OLE and FORM help to mitigate the surface ozone concentration, and like anthropogenic VOCs, biogenic VOC plays a nonnegligible role in ozone formation. But for this case, long-range transport of ozone and its precursors appears to produce an insignificant contribution. PMID:19190351

  19. Intracellular activation of ovastacin mediates pre-fertilization hardening of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Körschgen, Hagen; Kuske, Michael; Karmilin, Konstantin; Yiallouros, Irene; Balbach, Melanie; Floehr, Julia; Wachten, Dagmar; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Stöcker, Walter

    2017-09-01

    How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH. Female mice deficient in the extracellular circulating ovastacin-inhibitor fetuin-B are infertile due to pre-mature ZPH. We isolated oocytes from wild-type and ovastacin-deficient (Astlnull) FVB mice before and after fertilization (in vitro and in vivo) and quantified ovastacin activity and cleavage of ZP2 by immunoblot. We assessed ZPH by measuring ZP digestion time using α-chymotrypsin and by determining ZP2 cleavage. We determined cellular distribution of ovastacin by immunofluorescence using domain-specific ovastacin antibodies. Experiments were performed at least in triplicate with a minimum of 20 oocytes. Data were pre-analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of normal distribution, significance was determined via two-sided Student's t-test, whereas in case of non-normal distribution via Mann-Whitney U-test. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes contained both inactive pro-ovastacin and activated ovastacin. Immunoblot and ZP digestion assays revealed a partial cleavage of ZP2 even before fertilization in wild-type mice. Partial cleavage coincided with germinal-vesicle breakdown and MII, despite the presence of fetuin-B protein, an endogenous ovastacin inhibitor, in the follicular and oviductal fluid. Upon exocytosis, part of the C-terminal domain of ovastacin remained attached to the plasmalemma, while the N-terminal active ovastacin domain was secreted. This finding may resolve previously conflicting data showing that ovastacin acts both as an oolemmal receptor termed SAS1B (sperm acrosomal SLLP1 binding protein; SLLP, sperm lysozyme like

  20. The origin of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibbins, M.; Castillo, P.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Canon-Tapia, E.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Garcia-Amador, B. I.

    2014-12-01

    Baja California is a peninsula in western Mexico that was formed through a dynamic tectonic history of convergence, rifting and strike slip motion. At approximately 13 Ma, subduction along the northwestern coast of Mexico stopped, subsequently the Gulf of California opened and strike slip faults formed parallel to the ancient trench. After subduction ended, arc-related magmatism continued as the Baja peninsula was forming until about 2 Ma. The lavas erupting in the peninsula have variable compositions including calc-alkalic and tholeiitic arc basalts and bajaites. The term bajaite is a collective term for the high magnesian andesites and basaltic andesites in Baja California that have adakitic characteristics. Adakites, on the other hand, are arc lavas characterized by high silica content and Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios; these are generally believed to have formed through melting of subducted basaltic crust. The origin of bajaite is controversial. It has been proposed as product of melting of either subducted basaltic crust primarily because of its adakitic characteristics (Saunders et al, 1987) or metasomatized mantle wedge because of its arc lava-like geochemical features (Castillo, 2008); it has also been proposed as a mixture of differentiated and mafic arc lavas (Streck et al, 2007). The composition of bajaite is similar to that of the bulk continental crust and, thus, its true origin can shed light on the mechanism for continental growth. In this study, we use geochemical techniques to resolve some of the controversies surrounding the origin of bajaite. We analyze the petrographic, major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of bajaites from the San Borja Volcanic Field in Baja California Norte, Mexico to better constrain their petrogenetic history and origin.

  1. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Modeling the Crust and Upper Mantle in Northern Beata Ridge (CARIBE NORTE Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.

  3. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, E M

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juárez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  4. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos-López, Richard; Bolaños, Rafael; Contreras-Gutierrez, MarIa; Carrero-Sarmiento, Diego

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of communities of arthropods with medical importance in natural systems constitutes an important step in the prediction of possible epidemic events and/or emergence of infectious diseases in the human population. This is due to anthropogenic impact in natural areas and landscape modification, which changes the dynamics of pathogenic agents, reservoirs, and vector insects. In this study, an inventory was compiled of species of the genus Lutzomyia present in sub-Andean forest from the confluence of the Pamplonita River basin. CDC-light and Shannon traps were used for collecting adult phlebotomine sandflies during the month of October 2013 in a sub-Andean forest from river basin Pamplonita. All specimens were identified using morphological keys. The epidemiological relevance of each species was reported using a literature review about natural infection or vector incrimination with Leishmania species or other pathogens microorganism. A total of 2755 specimens belonging to eight species of the genus Lutzomyia were collected. Out of the eight species, seven belonged to the group verrucarum (Lutzomyia sp--townsendi series, L. ovallesi, L. spinicrassa, L. serrana, L. townsendi, L. nuneztovari and L. pia), while one belonged to the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia (L. hartmanni). A new registry of L. townsendi was observed for the Norte de Santander department. The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns.

  5. Atmospheric volatile organic compound measurements during the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    PubMed

    Seila, R L; Main, H H; Arriaga, J L; Martínez, G; Ramadan, A B

    2001-08-10

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US (El Paso) and Mexican (Ciudad Juárez) side of the border during a six-week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. Samples were collected at five sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side, during nine intensive operation days when high ozone levels were forecast for the area. Six other sites were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emission sources. Samples for determining source profiles were collected for rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuels, and industrial manufacturing in Cd. Juárez and a refinery in El Paso. Most samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters for determination of C2 to C(10+) hydrocarbons by GC-FID. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites during aircraft flights and analyzed by HPLC. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface, total non-methane hydrocarbon values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning and evening at five vehicle-dominated sites, three in Cd. Juárez and two in El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cd. Juárez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde, acetone and formaldehyde.

  6. Characterization of ambient particulate matter in the Paso del Norte region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.W.; Currey, R.M.; Valenzuela, V.H.; Meuzelaar, H.L.C.; Sheya, S.A.; Anderson, J.R.; Banerjee, S.; Griffin, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Air pollution in the Paso del Norte region, where West Texas abuts the southern boundary of New Mexico and the northern boundary of Chihuahua, Mexico is a common concern to the residents on both sides of the border. Parts of the region fail to meet the US and Mexican Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The regional air pollution problem is complicated due to arid climate, complex terrain topography, frequently occurring temperature inversions, extensive unpaved urban areas, an aging and poorly maintained vehicle fleet, and a number of other uncontrolled anthropogenic emission sources. The issue is further complicated by concerns arising from recent scientific evidence of the health effects associated with exposures to fine particulate matter. A study designed to address particulate matter (PM) air pollution problems in the region is currently undertaken by researchers from member universities of the Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy and several governmental agencies. The study attempts to (1) characterize the fine fraction of PM; (2) identify and characterize the major regional emission sources; (3) apportion the fine fraction of PM to the source emissions; and (4) establish a regional technological information clearinghouse. The short-term goal of this research is to initiate a research program to characterize, identify, and quantify the sources and nature of the PM in the region. The long-term goal of this study is to establish regional research capabilities to continue air quality monitoring, evaluation, modeling, and control after the implementation of the study. A scoping study to collect regional PM was conducted in December 1998.

  7. Glycoprotein from the liver constitutes the inner layer of the egg envelope (zona pellucida interna) of the fish, Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamazaki, T.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Iuchi, I.; Yamagami, K.

    1989-05-01

    A glycoprotein from the liver, which shares epitopes with chorion (egg envelope or zona pellucida) glycoproteins, is present only in the spawning female fish, Oryzias latipes, under natural conditions. This spawning female-specific (SF) substance is distinct from vitellogenin but closely resembles a major glycoprotein component, ZI-3, of the inner layer (zona radiata interna) of the ovarian egg envelope with respect to some biochemical and immunochemical characteristics. Here we report that the (/sup 125/I)SF substance, injected into the abdominal cavity of the spawning female fish, was rapidly transported by the blood circulation into the ovary and incorporated into the inner layer of egg envelope of the growing oocytes. The result strongly suggests that the SF substance from the liver is a precursor substance of the major component, ZI-3, of the inner layer of egg envelope in the fish.

  8. Are zona pellucida laser drilling and polar body biopsy safe for in vitro matured oocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ibrahim; Molina-Gomes, Denise; Albert, Martine; Bergere, Marianne; Bailly, Marc; Wainer, Robert; Selva, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preconception diagnosis requires first polar body biopsy. When the hole in the zona pellucida is made with a laser beam, heat propagation could, like the biopsy itself, be deleterious. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of this technique on human in vitro matured oocyte and embryo development. Methods One hunded fifty five retrieved immature oocytes from 75 women, matured in vitro, were distributed in 3 groups: 50 oocytes in a control group, without laser drilling and first polar body biopsy, 52 oocytes in a group with only laser drilling, and 53 oocytes in a group with both laser drilling and first polar body biopsy. Safety was evaluated using four criteria: [1] oocyte lysis rate, [2] oocyte activation rate, [3] oocyte development after calcium ionophore treatment, [4] and embryo chromosome breakage incidence after Tarkowski preparation. Results No difference in the four criteria was observed between the 3 oocyte groups. Conclusions We did not find evidence of deleterious effect of laser drilling and first polar body biopsy on in vitro matured oocytes, according to our criteria. PMID:20495883

  9. Neofunctionalization of zona pellucida proteins enhances freeze-prevention in the eggs of Antarctic notothenioids.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lixue; Huang, Qiao; Wu, Zhichao; Cao, Dong-Dong; Ma, Zhanling; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Fu, Yanxia; Shen, Yu; Chan, Jiulin; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Zhai, Wanying; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-10-04

    The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0.26 to 0.65 °C at a moderate concentration. Eggs of zebrafishes expressing an AnnotoZP transgene show improved melting point depression and enhanced survival in freezing conditions. Mutational analyses in a representative AnnotoZP indicate the ZP domain and patches of acidic residues are essential structures for the IMP activity. AnnotoZPs, therefore, represent a group of macromolecules that prevent freezing by a unique ZP-ice interaction mechanism distinct from the known antifreeze proteins.

  10. Induction of acrosome reactions of canine sperm by homologous zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, E; Vandevoort, C A; Mahi-Brown, C A; Overstreet, J W

    1993-04-01

    In this study the induction of the acrosome reaction of canine sperm by homologous zona pellucida (ZP) was examined. Twelve semen samples obtained from 6 normal beagle dogs were evaluated after sperm incubation in vitro with canine capacitation medium (CCM). Washed sperm were preincubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 in air for 4 and 7 h prior to experimental treatment. Sperm were co-incubated for 1 min with intact oocytes collected from canine ovaries. Half of the oocytes were then fixed, and the bound sperm were assessed for acrosome reactions through use of a polyclonal antisperm antiserum and indirect immunofluorescence. The remaining oocytes were incubated in sperm-free medium for an additional 1-h period, and the acrosomal status of sperm bound to the ZP was evaluated similarly. The percentage of acrosome-reacted sperm on the ZP increased significantly during the 1-h incubation period. In other experiments, capacitated canine sperm were incubated with heat-solubilized ZP for 1 h and their acrosomal status was determined using fluoresceinated Pisum sativum lectin. The percentages of acrosome-reacted sperm increased significantly in ZP solution compared with controls. These data demonstrate that intact and solubilized canine ZP are capable of inducing acrosome reactions of canine sperm.

  11. The Crucial Role of Zona Pellucida in Cryopreservation of Oocytes by Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification. PMID:26297946

  12. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  13. Fucosyl neoglycoprotein binds to mouse epididymal spermatozoa and inhibits sperm binding to the egg zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Oh, Y S; Ahn, H S; Gye, M C

    2013-12-01

    Glycan epitopes of cellular glycoconjugates act as versatile biochemical signals, and this sugar coding plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition processes. In this study, our aims were to determine the distribution of sperm receptors with activity for fucosyl- and galactosyl glycans and to address whether monosugar neoglycoproteins functionally mimic the binding between zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins and spermatozoa. In mouse epididymal spermatozoa with intact acrosomes, fucopyranosyl bovine serum albumin (BSA-Fuc) bound to the segment of the acrosome, the equatorial segment, and the postacrosome region of the sperm head. Galactosyl BSA (BSA-Gal) binding activity was similar to that of BSA-Fuc, but was weaker. In acrosome-reacted spermatozoa treated with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, BSA-zuc binding was lost in the apical segment of the acrosome but remained in the equatorial segment and postacrosome regions. BSA-Gal binding to the equatorial region was increased. In the presence of 2.5 μg ml(-1) BSA-Fuc, in vitro sperm-ZP binding was significantly decreased, indicating that fucosyl BSA functionally mimics ZP glycoproteins during sperm-egg ZP interactions. At the same concentration, BSA-Gal was not effective. Fucosyl BSA that efficiently inhibited the sperm-ZP binding can mimic the ZP glycoconjugate and has potential for use as a sperm fertility control agent in mouse.

  14. The crucial role of zona pellucida in cryopreservation of oocytes by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Kyu; Yue, Tao; Huang, Haishui; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Mingjun; He, Xiaoming

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian oocytes have a proteinaceous hydrogel-like outer shell known as the zona pellucida (ZP) that semi-encloses their plasma membrane and cytoplasm. In this study, we cryopreserved mouse oocytes either with or without ZP by vitrification. Our results show that the presence of an intact ZP could significantly improve the post-vitrification survival of oocytes to 92.1% from 13.3% for oocytes without ZP. Moreover, there was no significant difference in embryonic development between fresh and cryopreserved oocytes with ZP after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Further atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the intact oocytes with ZP have an elastic modulus that is more than 85 times higher than that of oocytes without ZP. This may partially explain the important role of ZP in protecting the oocytes by resisting the mechanical stress due to possible ice formation during cryopreservation by vitrification. Collectively, this study reveals a new biophysical role of ZP during vitrification of oocytes and suggests microencapsulation of the many mammalian cells without a ZP in ZP-like hydrogel is an effective strategy to improve their survival post cryopreservation by vitrification.

  15. Identification of potential oviductal factors responsible for zona pellucida hardening and monospermy during fertilization in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar, Irene; Martínez-Martínez, Irene; Avilés, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Oviduct fluid increases the time required for digestion of the zona pellucida (ZP) by proteolytic enzymes (ZP hardening). This effect has been associated with levels of monospermy after in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the pig and cow, but the possible existence of a directly proportional relationship between hardening and monospermy remains unknown. To investigate whether variations in hardening of different oviductal fluids (OFs) are correlated with variations in levels of monospermy after IVF, porcine oocytes were incubated with three batches of OFs known to produce different ZP hardening effects (3, 7, and 25 min); after IVF, monospermy levels were 0%, 14.58% ± 5.14%, and 35.14% ± 7.95%, respectively. These results could partially explain the lack of polyspermy found during in vivo fertilization in pigs (with a hardened oviductal ZP) compared with levels found during IVF (with no hardened ZP). Using the bovine model, OF was fractionated by heparin affinity chromatography, and the hardening effect on the ZP was tested for each fraction obtained from a linear gradient of sodium chloride concentration. The highest effect was obtained with the fraction eluted with 0.4 M sodium chloride. Fractions with high-level or low-level effects were processed by on-chip electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of potential proteins responsible for this effect includes OVGP1 and members of the HSP and PDI families.

  16. Evidence for extracellular, but not intracellular, generation of angiotensin II in the rat adrenal zona glomerulosa

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, H.; Khosla, M.C.; Bumpus, M.; Husain, A. )

    1988-11-01

    Based on the observation that high levels of renin and angiotensin II (Ang II) are found in the adrenal zona glomerulosa (ZG), it has been postulated that Ang II is formed intracellularly by the renin-converting enzyme cascade in this tissue. To test this hypothesis, the authors examined renin-angiotensin system components in subcellular fractions of the rat adrenal ZG. Renin activity and immunoreactive-Ang II (IR-Ang II) were observed in vesicular fractions but were not colocalized. In addition, angiotensinogen, angiotensin I, and converting enzyme were not observed in the renin or IR-Ang II-containing vesicular fractions. These data do not support the hypothesis that Ang II is formed intracellularly within the renin-containing vesicles of the ZG. Rather, since modulatable renin release from adrenal ZG slices was observed and renin activity was found in dense vesicular fractions (33-39% sucrose), it is likely that Ang II formation in the ZG is extracellular and initiated by the release of vesicular renin. In ZG lysomal fractions {sup 125}I-labeled Ang II was degraded to {sup 125}I-labeled des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II. Since Ang II antibodies do not recognize des-(Phe{sup 8})Ang II, these finding explain why IR-Ang II in the ZG is due predominantly to Ang II and not to its C-terminal immunoreactive fragments.

  17. Dicalcin, a zona pellucida protein that regulates fertilization competence of the egg coat in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-11-01

    Fertilization is a highly coordinated process whereby sperm interact with the egg-coating envelope (called the zona pellucida, ZP) in a taxon-restricted manner, Fertilization triggers the resumption of the cell cycle of the egg, ultimately leading to generation of a new organism that contains hereditary information of the parents. The complete sperm-ZP interaction comprises sperm recognition of the ZP, the acrosome reaction, penetration of the ZP, and fusion with the egg. Recent evidence suggests that these processes involve oligosaccharides associated with a ZP constituent (termed ZP protein), the polypeptide backbone of a ZP protein, and/or the proper three-dimensional filamentous structure of the ZP. However, a detailed description of the molecular mechanisms involved in sperm-ZP interaction remains elusive. Recently, I found that dicalcin, a novel ZP protein-associated protein, suppresses fertilization through its association with gp41, the frog counterpart of the mammalian ZPC protein. This review focuses on molecular aspects of sperm-ZP interaction and describes the fertilization-suppressive function of dicalcin and associated molecular mechanisms. The amount of dicalcin in the ZP significantly correlates with alteration of the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP and the orientation pattern of ZP filaments, which may assist in elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie sperm-ZP interaction.

  18. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum

    PubMed Central

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties. PMID:19828504

  19. Mapping the potential beverage quality of coffee produced in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Samuel de Assis; de Queiroz, Daniel Marçal; Ferreira, Williams Pinto Marques; Corrêa, Paulo Cesar; Rufino, José Luis Dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of coffee production systems enables optimization of crop management, harvesting and post-harvest techniques. In this study, coffee quality is mapped as a function of coffee variety, altitude and terrain aspect attributes. The work was performed in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A large range of coffee quality grades was observed for the Red Catuai variety. For the Yellow Catuai variety, no quality grades lower than 70 were observed. Regarding the terrain aspect, samples from the southeast-facing slope (SEFS) and the northwest-facing slope (NWFS) exhibited distinct behaviors. The SEFS samples had a greater range of quality grades than did the NWFS samples. The highest grade was obtained from an NWFS point. The lowest quality values and the largest range of grades were observed at lower altitudes. The extracts from the highest-altitude samples did not produce any low-quality coffee. The production site's position and altitude are the primary variables that influenced the coffee quality. The study area has micro-regions with grades ranging from 80 to 94. These areas have the potential for producing specialty coffees. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Neofunctionalization of zona pellucida proteins enhances freeze-prevention in the eggs of Antarctic notothenioids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lixue; Huang, Qiao; Wu, Zhichao; Cao, Dong-Dong; Ma, Zhanling; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Fu, Yanxia; Shen, Yu; Chan, Jiulin; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Zhai, Wanying; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0.26 to 0.65 °C at a moderate concentration. Eggs of zebrafishes expressing an AnnotoZP transgene show improved melting point depression and enhanced survival in freezing conditions. Mutational analyses in a representative AnnotoZP indicate the ZP domain and patches of acidic residues are essential structures for the IMP activity. AnnotoZPs, therefore, represent a group of macromolecules that prevent freezing by a unique ZP-ice interaction mechanism distinct from the known antifreeze proteins.

  1. Chromatin Fractal Organization, Textural Patterns, and Circularity of Nuclear Envelope in Adrenal Zona Fasciculata Cells.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor; Nesic, Dejan; Basailovic, Milos; Cetkovic, Mila; Mazic, Sanja; Suzic-Lazic, Jelena; Popevic, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Despite previous research efforts in the fields of histology and cell physiology, the relationship between chromatin structural organization and nuclear shape remains unclear. The aim of this research was to test the existence and strength of correlations between mathematical parameters of chromatin microarchitecture and roundness of the nuclear envelope. On a sample of 240 nuclei of adrenal zona fasciculata cells stained using the DNA-specific Feulgen method, we quantified fractal parameters such as fractal dimension and lacunarity, as well as textural parameters such as angular second moment (ASM), entropy, inverse difference moment, contrast, and variance. Circularity of the nuclear envelope was determined from the nuclear area and perimeter. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant negative correlation between chromatin ASM and circularity. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between chromatin fractal dimension and envelope circularity. This is the first study to demonstrate these relationships in adrenal tissue, and also one of the first studies to test the connection between circularity and fractal and gray-level co-occurrence matrix parameters in DNA-specific Feulgen stain. The results could be useful both as an addition to the current knowledge on chromatin/nuclear envelope interactions, and for design of future computer-assisted research software for evaluation of nuclear morphology.

  2. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  3. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception of wild horses (Equus caballus) in Nevada: a 10 year study.

    PubMed

    Turner, J W; Liu, I K M; Flanagan, D R; Bynum, K S; Rutberg, A T

    2002-01-01

    Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception was investigated for possible use in free-roaming wild horses in the western USA. A protocol of two injections (3-4 weeks apart) of vaccine lasting 1 year was first used and a single-injection controlled-release vaccine of 1 year duration was developed and tested in the field. Studies of a presumptive vaccine of 2 year duration were initiated. The parameters of anti-PZP antibody titre response, pregnancy testing and offspring production were used, and PZP vaccine was found to provide up to 94% infertility in free-roaming wild mares. In addition, a single-injection PZP vaccine of 1 year duration and containing a controlled-release component of PZP in a polymer matrix can provide infertility equivalent to the two-injection PZP vaccine. All the PZP vaccine preparations tested were associated with a return to normal fertility within 1 year. During the course of these studies, attention was given to practical aspects of management application of PZP contraception. Preparation of the controlled-release portion of the vaccine in pellets, which fit into the needle of a dart or syringe, has simplified vaccine handling and permitted long-term storage of the controlled-release component. Vaccine delivery is now performed using a jabstick on captured mares restrained in a field stock chute during routine horse gathers. Provision of a vaccine-training programme has maximized personnel safety during vaccine preparation and use.

  4. Vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Begoña; Mori, Gabriele; Concejero, Miguel A; Merino, Rubén; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, María Cristina

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a specific method for the detection of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (Zrp) in plasma from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) as specific biomarkers for the evaluation of the effects of endocrine disruptors. The method was assayed with different peregrine falcon individuals (including mature and immature birds of both sexes) from a Spanish population being studied in terms of their contamination with organochlorine compounds with endocrine disrupting properties. This study shows that mouse anti bird Vtg monoclonal antibody ND3C3 (Biosense) seems to be the most specific antibody in binding plasmatic lipoproteins in peregrine falcon when compared to other anti Vtg antibodies. Rabbit anti salmon Zrp polyclonal antibodies O146 (Biosense) show cross-reactivity with Zrp in the samples studied. These preliminary results confirm the applicability of both of these diagnostic tools assayed (induction of Vtg and Zrp) in detecting exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in this species. The increase of Vtg and Zrp detected in male specimens suggest a potential hazard to EDCs in the peregrine falcon which represents a species still affected by organochlorine compounds, and in particular those with estrogenic activity.

  5. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop.

  6. The serine protease hepsin mediates urinary secretion and polymerisation of Zona Pellucida domain protein uromodulin

    PubMed Central

    Brunati, Martina; Perucca, Simone; Han, Ling; Cattaneo, Angela; Consolato, Francesco; Andolfo, Annapaola; Schaeffer, Céline; Olinger, Eric; Peng, Jianhao; Santambrogio, Sara; Perrier, Romain; Li, Shuo; Bokhove, Marcel; Bachi, Angela; Hummler, Edith; Devuyst, Olivier; Wu, Qingyu; Jovine, Luca; Rampoldi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Uromodulin is the most abundant protein in the urine. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Uromodulin mainly exerts its function as an extracellular matrix whose assembly depends on a conserved, specific proteolytic cleavage leading to conformational activation of a Zona Pellucida (ZP) polymerisation domain. Through a comprehensive approach, including extensive characterisation of uromodulin processing in cellular models and in specific knock-out mice, we demonstrate that the membrane-bound serine protease hepsin is the enzyme responsible for the physiological cleavage of uromodulin. Our findings define a key aspect of uromodulin biology and identify the first in vivo substrate of hepsin. The identification of hepsin as the first protease involved in the release of a ZP domain protein is likely relevant for other members of this protein family, including several extracellular proteins, as egg coat proteins and inner ear tectorins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08887.001 PMID:26673890

  7. Investigating the mechanical properties of zona pellucida of whole human oocytes by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Laura; Masiero, Elena; Giolo, Elena; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Dal Zilio, Simone; Delfino, Ines; Bortul, Roberta; Zweyer, Marina; Ricci, Giuseppe; Lazzarino, Marco

    2016-08-08

    The role of mechanics in numerous biological processes is nowadays recognized, while in others, such as the fertilization process, it is still neglected. In the case of oocytes the description of their mechanical properties could improve the comprehension of the oocyte-spermatozoon interaction and be helpful for application in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Herein the mechanical properties of whole human oocytes (HOs) immediately after retrieval are investigated by indentation measurements with atomic force spectroscopy under physiological conditions. Measurements are performed on immature (metaphase I - MI) and mature (metaphase II - MII) HOs. According to their morphological characteristics MII-HOs are classified as "suitable" and "rejected"; these latter would be usually rejected for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For all maturation stages we observe that the elastic response of the zona pellucida (ZP) outer layer was different and distinguishable from the rest of the ZP-HO. The elasticity of this ZP outer layer varies with maturation and quality: stiffness decreases from immature MI to good quality MII, up to poor-quality rejected MII. An indirect analysis with IVF outcome indicates that the ZP outer layer of analysed HOs donated by women who achieved pregnancy is stiffer than that of HOs from women with negative outcome. Our findings suggest that mechanical properties can represent important oocyte quality indicators that may be exploited for the design of innovative ICSI dedicated cell sorters.

  8. Arx is required for specification of the zona incerta and reticular nucleus of the thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Sunnen, C. Nicole; Simonet, Jacqueline C.; Marsh, Eric D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene result in a spectrum of structural and functional nervous system disorders including lissencephaly, movement disorders, intellectual disabilities, and epilepsy. Some patients also have symptoms indicative of hypothalamic dysfunction, however, little is known about the role of ARX in diencephalic development. To begin evaluating diencephalic defects we examined the expression of a panel of known genes and gene products that label specific diencephalic nuclei in two different Arx mutant mouse lines. Male mice engineered to have a polyalanine expansion mutation (Arx(GCG)7/Y) revealed no expression differences in any diencephalic nucleus when compared to wildtype littermates. In contrast, mice null for Arx (Arx−/Y) lost expression of specific markers of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and zona incerta (ZI), while retaining expression in other thalamic nuclei and in the hypothalamus. Tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of the ZI’s dopaminergic A13 sub-nucleus, was among those lost, suggesting a requirement for Arx in normal TRN and ZI development, and for A13 dopaminergic fate, specifically. Since the ZI and A13 regions make connections to several hypothalamic nuclei, such mis-specification may contribute to the “hypothalamic dysfunction” observed in some patients. PMID:24487799

  9. Zonadhesin is essential for species specificity of sperm adhesion to the egg zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Steve; Wilson, Michael D; Wagner, Rebecca; Hunt, Peter; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Andras; Lobe, Corrinne; Koop, Ben F; Hardy, Daniel M

    2010-08-06

    Interaction of rapidly evolving molecules imparts species specificity to sperm-egg recognition in marine invertebrates, but it is unclear whether comparable interactions occur during fertilization in any vertebrate species. In mammals, the sperm acrosomal protein zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving molecule with species-specific binding activity for the egg zona pellucida (ZP). Here we show using null mice produced by targeted disruption of Zan that zonadhesin confers species specificity to sperm-ZP adhesion. Sperm capacitation selectively exposed a partial von Willebrand D domain of mouse zonadhesin on the surface of living, motile cells. Antibodies to the exposed domain inhibited adhesion of wild-type spermatozoa to the mouse ZP but did not inhibit adhesion of spermatozoa lacking zonadhesin. Zan(-/-) males were fertile, and their spermatozoa readily fertilized mouse eggs in vitro. Remarkably, however, loss of zonadhesin increased adhesion of mouse spermatozoa to pig, cow, and rabbit ZP but not mouse ZP. We conclude that zonadhesin mediates species-specific ZP adhesion, and Zan(-/-) males are fertile because their spermatozoa retain adhesion capability that is not species-specific. Mammalian sperm-ZP adhesion is therefore molecularly robust, and species-specific egg recognition by a protein in the sperm acrosome is conserved between invertebrates and vertebrates, even though the adhesion molecules themselves are unrelated.

  10. Estimating Young's modulus of zona pellucida by micropipette aspiration in combination with theoretical models of ovum.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Morteza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Valojerdi, Mojtaba Rezazadeh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Yazdi, Poopak Eftekhari

    2010-04-06

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is the spherical layer that surrounds the mammalian oocyte. The physical hardness of this layer plays a crucial role in fertilization and is largely unknown because of the lack of appropriate measuring and modelling methods. The aim of this study is to measure the biomechanical properties of the ZP of human/mouse ovum and to test the hypothesis that Young's modulus of the ZP varies with fertilization. Young's moduli of ZP are determined before and after fertilization by using the micropipette aspiration technique, coupled with theoretical models of the oocyte as an elastic incompressible half-space (half-space model), an elastic compressible bilayer (layered model) or an elastic compressible shell (shell model). Comparison of the models shows that incorporation of the layered geometry of the ovum and the compressibility of the ZP in the layered and shell models may provide a means of more accurately characterizing ZP elasticity. Evaluation of results shows that although the results of the models are different, all confirm that the hardening of ZP will increase following fertilization. As can be seen, different choices of models and experimental parameters can affect the interpretation of experimental data and lead to differing mechanical properties.

  11. Neofunctionalization of zona pellucida proteins enhances freeze-prevention in the eggs of Antarctic notothenioids

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lixue; Huang, Qiao; Wu, Zhichao; Cao, Dong-dong; Ma, Zhanling; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Fu, Yanxia; Shen, Yu; Chan, Jiulin; Zhou, Cong-zhao; Zhai, Wanying; Chen, Liangbiao

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the eggs of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes avoid freezing are not fully understood. Zona pellucida proteins (ZPs) are constituents of the chorion which forms a protective matrix surrounding the egg. Here we report occurrence of freezing temperature-related gene expansion and acquisition of unusual ice melting-promoting (IMP) activity in a family of Antarctic notothenioid ZPs (AnnotoZPs). Members of AnnotoZPs are shown to bind with ice and non-colligatively depress the melting point of a solution in a range of 0.26 to 0.65 °C at a moderate concentration. Eggs of zebrafishes expressing an AnnotoZP transgene show improved melting point depression and enhanced survival in freezing conditions. Mutational analyses in a representative AnnotoZP indicate the ZP domain and patches of acidic residues are essential structures for the IMP activity. AnnotoZPs, therefore, represent a group of macromolecules that prevent freezing by a unique ZP–ice interaction mechanism distinct from the known antifreeze proteins. PMID:27698404

  12. Antibodies to two ZP3 B cell epitopes affect zona pellucida assembly.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Jason; Coonrod, Scott A; Wu, Jean; Zhou, Cindy; Lou, Yahuan

    2008-07-01

    Mouse zona pellucida (ZP) proteins are synthesized in developing oocytes and assembled into ZP after their secretion. This study has investigated whether anti-ZP3 antibodies affect ZP assembly. Peptides CP2 and CP3 were used to elicit antibodies to two ZP3 B cell epitopes, ZP3 (335-342) and ZP3 (171-180). Ovulated eggs from mice immunized with a mixture of CP2/CP3 showed an abnormal ZP; importantly, the ZP completely dissolved both in vitro and in vivo 12h after ovulation. Although CP3 immunization resulted also in abnormal ZP, the ZP did not dissociate. Binding of antibodies to the ZP prior to oocyte maturation was requisite, as in vitro incubation of ovulated eggs in combination with the two antibodies failed to induce ZP dissolution. Electron microscopic observation further demonstrated a significant abnormality in ZP structure in CP2/CP3-immunized mice, especially in mature follicles, suggesting that B cell epitopes may be involved in ZP assembly. Though antibody elicited by CP2 has been shown to inhibit fertilization, we now show that antibody induced by CP3 had no effect on fertility. However, immunization with CP3/CP2 resulted in a significantly lower fertility rate than CP2 alone. This suggests that infertility in these mice may be due to an unstable ZP structure. Our model provides a useful tool to study ZP assembly and its structure beyond molecular biology method.

  13. Characterization of cell surface polypeptides of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, J.; Gunter, L.E.; Howe, A.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The polypeptide composition of unfertilized, fertilized, and protease-treated zona-free mouse eggs was evaluated in this study. Zona-free eggs were radioiodinated by an Iodogen-catalyzed reaction. Light microscopic autoradiography of egg sections revealed that labeling was restricted to the cell surface. Labeled eggs were solubilized, and cell surface polypeptides were identified by one-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The unfertilized egg demonstrated 8-10 peptides that incorporated {sup 125}I, with major bands observed at approximately 145-150, 94, and 23 kilodaltons (kD). Zona-free eggs fertilized in vitro and then radiolabeled demonstrated several new bands in comparison to unfertilized eggs, with a major band appearing at approximately 36 kD. Treatment of radiolabeled unfertilized eggs with either trypsin or chymotrypsin (1 mg/ml for 5-20 min) caused enzyme-specific modifications in labeled polypeptides. Trypsin (T) treatment resulted in time-dependant modification of the three major peptides at 145-150, 94, and 23 kD. Chymotrypsin (CT) treatment, in contrast, was associated with loss or modification of the 94 kD band, with no apparent effect on either the 145-150 or 23 kD band. Taken together with previous data indicating that T or CT egg treatment interferes with sperm-egg attachment and fusion, these results suggest a possible role for the 94 kD protein in sperm-egg interaction.

  14. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  15. Oocyte proteomics: localisation of mouse zona pellucida protein 3 to the plasma membrane of ovulated mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Coonrod, S A; Calvert, M E; Reddi, P P; Kasper, E N; Digilio, L C; Herr, J C

    2004-01-01

    In order to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings of sperm-egg interaction and early development, we have used two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, avidin blotting and tandem mass spectrometry to identify, clone and characterise abundant molecules from the mouse egg proteome. Two-dimensional avidin blots of biotinylated zona-free eggs revealed an abundant approximately 75-kDa surface-labelled heterogeneous protein possessing a staining pattern similar to that of the zona pellucida glycoprotein, mouse ZP3 (mZP3). In light of this observation, we investigated whether mZP3 specifically localises to the plasma membrane of mature eggs. Zona pellucidae of immature mouse oocytes and mature eggs were removed using acid Tyrode's solution, chymotrypsin or mechanical shearing. Indirect immunofluorescence using the mZP3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) IE-10 demonstrated strong continuous staining over the entire surface of immature oocytes and weak microvillar staining on ovulated eggs, regardless of the method of zona removal. Interestingly, in mature eggs, increased fluorescence intensity was observed following artificial activation and fertilisation, whereas little to no fluorescence was observed in degenerated eggs. The surface localisation of ZP3 on mature eggs was supported by the finding that the IE-10 mAb immunoprecipitated an approximate 75-kDa protein from lysates of biotinylated zona-free eggs. To further investigate the specificity of the localisation of mZP3 to the oolemma, indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the IE-10 mAb on both CV-1 and CHO cells transfected with full-length recombinant mZP3 (re-mZP3). Plasma membrane targeting of the expressed re-mZP3 protein was observed in both cell lines. The membrane association of re-mZP3 was confirmed by the finding that biotinylated re-mZP3 (approximately 75 kDa) is immunoprecipitated from the hydrophobic phase of Triton X-114 extracts of transfected cells following phase partitioning

  16. Efficient biofunctionalization of polysilicon barcodes for adhesion to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Penon, Oriol; Novo, Sergi; Durán, Sara; Ibañez, Elena; Nogués, Carme; Samitier, Josep; Duch, Marta; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Lluïsa

    2012-12-19

    Cell tracking is an emergent area in nanobiotechnology, promising the study of individual cells or the identification of populations of cultured cells. In our approach, microtools designed for extracellular tagging are prepared, because using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to tag cell membranes externally avoids the inconveniences of cell internalization. The crucial covalent biofunctionalization process determining the ultimate functionality was studied in order to find the optimum conditions to link a biomolecule to a polysilicon barcode surface using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as the connector. Specifically, a lectin (wheat germ agglutinin, WGA) was used because of its capacity to recognize some specific carbohydrates present on the surface of most mammalian cells. Self-assembled monolayers were prepared on polysilicon surfaces including aldehyde groups as terminal functions to study the suitability of their covalent chemical bonding to WGA. Some parameters, such as the polysilicon surface roughness or the concentration of WGA, proved to be crucial for successful biofunctionalization and bioactivity. The SAMs were characterized by contact angle measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOF MS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The biofunctionalization step was also characterized by fluorescence microscopy and, in the case of barcodes, by adhesion experiments to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos. These experiments showed high barcode retention rates after 96 h of culture as well as high embryo viability to the blastocyst stage, indicating the robustness of the biofunctionalization and, therefore, the potential of these new microtools to be used for cell tagging.

  17. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Roelle, J.E.; Cade, B.S.; Coates-Markle, L.; Kane, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Locally abundant feral horses (Equus caballus) can rapidly deplete available resources. Fertility control agents present promising nonlethal tools for reducing their population growth rates. We tested the effect of 2 forms of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on foaling rates in 3 populations of feral horses in the western United States. A liquid form requiring annual boosters was administered at Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range, Mesa County (CO), and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Bighorn County (WY) and Carbon County (MT), and a time-release pellet form designed to produce 2 yr of infertility was administered at McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area, Park County (WY). Average foaling rates (foals born/mare-yr) from direct observation of untreated and treated female horses (mares), 2004-2008, were 60.1% (n = 153 mare-yr) versus 6.6% (n = 91 mare-yr) at Little Book Cliffs, and 62.8% (n = 129 mare-yr) versus 17.7% (n = 79 mare-yr) at Pryor Mountain, respectively. At McCullough Peaks, mean annual foaling rates from 2006 to 2008 were 75.0% (n = 48 mare-yr) for untreated mares and 31.7% (n = 101 mare-yr) for treated mares. Controlling for age of mares and pretreatment differences in fertility, PZP reduced foaling rates in all 3 herds. The pellets used at McCullough Peaks (produced by cold evaporation) were less effective than pellets used in a previous trial and produced by heat extrusion. Immunocontraception with PZP may be a useful tool in reducing fertility rates in some western United States feral horse herds, but population growth reduction will depend on timely access to mares for inoculation and the proportion of mares that can be successfully treated. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song Alfred; Ho, L Low-Tone; Wang, Paulus S

    2003-12-01

    The decline of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and maintenance of glucocorticoid levels with increasing age contribute to excess body fat accumulation, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and cancer. Although opposing actions of DHEA and corticosterone have been proposed in a rat model, the effects and action mechanisms of DHEA on rat adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells are still unclear. This study addressed the effects of DHEA on corticosterone release, cellular cAMP production, the functions of steroidogenic enzymes and the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). ZFR cells were incubated with DHEA in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, 25-OH-cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone or deoxycorticosterone at 37 degrees C for 30 min, 1 h or 5 h and the concentration of corticosterone or pregnenolone measured subsequently in the media by RIA. The cells were used to measure the content of cAMP by RIA and to extract protein for Western blot or mRNA for RT-PCR analysis. The data demonstrated that (1) DHEA inhibited ACTH-, 8-Br-cAMP-, 25-OH-cholesterol-, pregnenolone-, progesterone- or deoxycorticosterone-stimulated corticosterone release; (2) DHEA increased 25-OH-cholesterol-stimulated pregnenolone release but not when 25-OH-cholesterol was combined with trilostane; (3) DHEA increased the K(m) of 11beta-hydroxylase but not P450scc; (4) DHEA affected the expression levels of StAR protein but not of P450scc. These results suggest that DHEA acts directly on rat ZFR cells to diminish corticosterone secretion by inhibition within the post-cAMP pathway, by inhibiting steroidogenic enzymes downstream from P450scc and by inhibiting StAR expression.

  19. Zona pellucida birefringence and meiotic spindle visualisation of human oocytes are not influenced by IVM technology.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Marjan; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ashourzadeh, Sareh; Rahimipour, Marzieh

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of the meiotic spindle and zona pellucida (ZP) birefringence with morphology of in vivo- and in vitro-matured human oocytes. Germinal vesicles (n=47) and MI (n=38) oocytes obtained from stimulated ovaries of patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) underwent IVM. Using a PolScope (OCTAX PolarAID; Octax, Herbon, Germany), the presence of spindles and ZP birefringence was assessed in both in vivo-matured (n=56) and IVM (n=56) oocytes. In addition, the morphology of each matured oocyte was evaluated microscopically. There were insignificant differences for ZP birefringence and meiotic spindle between the in vivo-matured and IVM MII oocytes. Subanalysis revealed that the rates of morphologically abnormal oocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups, except in the case of irregular shape (P=0.001), refractile body (P=0.001) and fragmented polar body (P=0.03), which were higher in IVM oocytes. In the case of in vivo-matured oocytes, a significantly higher percentage of oocytes with intracytoplasmic and both intra- and extracytoplasmic abnormalities have a low birefringent ZP (P=0.007 and P=0.02, respectively). There was no relationship between morphological abnormalities and spindle detection. The findings suggest that clinical IVM is a safe technology that maintains the high maturation rate and integrity of oocytes. In addition, the use of the non-invasive PolScope is recommended for the detection of oocytes most suitable for ICSI.

  20. Contraceptive efficacy of recombinant fusion protein comprising zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 fragment and gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Arukha, Ananta Prasad; Minhas, Vidisha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Contraceptive vaccines have been used for the management of wildlife population. In the present study, we have examined the contraceptive potential of Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein comprising of 'promiscuous' T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker (KK), dog ZP3 fragment (aa residues 307-346), triglycine spacer (GGG), T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase; aa residues 94-104), GnRH, T cell epitope of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (CSP; aa residues 362-383), and GnRH. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified refolded protein revealed a dominant ∼12 kDa band, which in Western blot reacted with mouse polyclonal antibodies against dog ZP3 fragment and mouse monoclonal antibodies against GnRH. Immunization of female FvB/J mice following two booster schedule with the above recombinant protein supplemented with alum led to high antibody titres against the immunogen as well as ZP3 and GnRH as determined by ELISA. The immune sera reacted with zona pellucida of mouse oocyte and also inhibited in-vitro fertilization. The qRT-PCR studies showed decrease in the ovarian GnRH receptor in mice immunized with the recombinant fusion protein. Mating studies revealed high contraceptive efficacy of the recombinant protein as in two independent experiments, 90% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. Following one booster immunization schedule, 50% of the immunized female mice failed to conceive. However, in adjuvanted controls, all the female mice became pregnant. To conclude, the recombinant protein described herein has a good potential to be developed as candidate contraceptive vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Zona Pellucida Function for Sperm Penetration During In Vitro Fertilization in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    TANIHARA, Fuminori; NAKAI, Michiko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; NOGUCHI, Junko; OTOI, Takeshige; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In porcine oocytes, the function of the zona pellucida (ZP) with regard to sperm penetration or prevention of polyspermy is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm penetration during in vitro fertilization (IVF). We collected in vitro-matured oocytes with a first polar body (ZP+ oocytes). Some of them were freed from the ZP (ZP− oocytes) by two treatments (pronase and mechanical pipetting), and the effects of these treatments on sperm penetration parameters (sperm penetration rate and numbers of penetrated sperm per oocyte) were evaluated. There was no evident difference in the parameters between the two groups. Secondly, we compared the sperm penetration parameters of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes using frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from four boars. Sperm penetration into ZP+ oocytes was found to be accelerated relative to ZP− oocytes. Thirdly, we evaluated the sperm penetration of ZP+ and ZP− oocytes at 1−10 h after IVF (3 h gamete co-incubation). The proportions of oocytes penetrated by sperm increased significantly with time in both groups; however, the number of penetrated sperm per oocyte did not increase in ZP− oocytes. Finally, we performed IVF using ZP− oocytes divided into control (3 h) and prolonged gamete co-incubation (5 h) groups. Greater numbers of sperm penetrated in the 5 h group than in the control group. These results suggest that the ZP and oolemma are not competent factors for prevention of polyspermy in our present porcine IVF system. However, it appears that ZP removal is one of the possibilities for reducing polyspermic penetration in vitro in pigs. PMID:23666494

  2. Zona pellucida filtration of structurally abnormal spermatozoa and reduced fertilization in teratospermic cats.

    PubMed

    Howard, J G; Donoghue, A M; Johnston, L A; Wildt, D E

    1993-07-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) penetration, in vitro fertilization, embryo development, and the morphology of fertilizing sperm were examined through use of normospermic (> 60% structurally normal sperm/ejaculate) versus teratospermic (< 40% structurally normal sperm/ejaculate) ejaculates from domestic cats. In addition, the effect of swim-up processing on sperm-oocyte interaction was compared with that of simple sperm washing. Normospermic and teratospermic ejaculates were evaluated for sperm motility and morphology. Sperm were preincubated for 1 h, then coincubated with in vivo-matured follicular cat oocytes (n = 401) for 20 h and with ZP-intact, salt-stored oocytes (n = 202) for 6 h. In vivo-matured oocytes were assessed for percent cleavage and stage of embryo development over time. Salt-stored oocytes were assessed for percent ZP penetration (proportion of oocytes containing sperm within or through the inner ZP), mean (+/- SEM) number of inner ZP-penetrated sperm, and the morphology of all bound and penetrated sperm. The incidence of pleiomorphic sperm in raw ejaculates averaged 29% in normospermic versus 67% in teratospermic males, but all ejaculates contained high sperm motility ratings (> 60%). Swim-up processing increased (p < 0.05) the number of normal sperm recovered/teratospermic inseminate (66.5 +/- 2.3%) compared to recovery after simple washing (28.6 +/- 2.2%). Percent sperm motility also increased (p < 0.05) in teratospermic males after swim-up (90.0 +/- 1.3%) as compared to sperm washing (64.2 +/- 3.7%). Cleavage rate in vitro was higher (p < 0.05) using sperm from normospermic (86.3%) compared to teratospermic (50.3%) males, but rates of embryo development to the morula/blastocyst stage were similar (p > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Modelling distributed ablation on Juncal Norte Glacier, dry Andes of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenzo, Marco; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Helbing, Jakob; Dadic, Ruzica; Burlando, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    In the Aconcagua River Basin, in the dry Andes of central Chile, water resources in summer originate mostly from snow and ice glacier melt. Summer seasons are dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero, low relative humidity and very intense solar radiation. The region's economic activities are dependent on these water resources, but their assessment is still incomplete and an effort is needed to evaluate present and future changes in water from glacier and seasonal snow covers in this area. The main aim of this paper is to simulate glacier melt and runoff from Juncal Norte Glacier, in the upper Aconcagua Basin, using models of various complexity and data requirement. We simulate distributed glacier ablation for two seasons using an energy-balance model (EB) and an enhanced temperature-index model (ETI). Meteorological variables measured at Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) located on and off-glacier are extrapolated from point observations to the glacier-wide scale. Shortwave radiation is modelled with a parametric model taking into account shading, reflection from slopes and atmospheric transmittance. In the energy-balance model, the longwave radiation flux is computed from Stefan-Boltzmann relationships and turbulent fluxes are calculated using the bulk aerodynamic method. The EB model includes subsurface heat conduction and gravitational redistribution of snow. Glacier runoff is modelled using a linear reservoir approach accounting for the temporal evolution of the system. Hourly simulations of glacier melt are validated against ablation observations (ultrasonic depth gauge and ablation stakes) and runoff measured at the glacier snout is compared to a runoff record obtained from a combination of radar water level measurements and tracer experiments. Results show that extrapolation of meteorological input data, and of temperature in particular, is the largest source of model uncertainty, together with snow water equivalent initial conditions. We explore

  4. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains from a Paso del Norte dairy.

    PubMed

    Matyi, S A; Dupre, J M; Johnson, W L; Hoyt, P R; White, D G; Brody, T; Odenwald, W F; Gustafson, J E

    2013-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains could be identified in the milk of dairy cattle in a Paso del Norte region dairy of the United States. Using physiological and PCR-based identification schemes, a total of 40 Staph. aureus strains were isolated from 29 raw milk samples of 133 total samples analyzed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after digestion with the SmaI enzyme revealed that the 40 confirmed strains were represented by 5 pulsed-field types, which each contained 3 or more strains. Of 7 hospital strains isolated from cows undergoing antibiotic therapy, 3 demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antimicrobial classes and displayed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. A secondary purpose of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of strains isolated in this study to genomically characterized Staph. aureus strains. Therefore, Roche 454 GS (Roche Diagnostics Corp., Dallas, TX) pyrosequencing was used to produce draft genome sequences of an MRSA raw milk isolate (H29) and a methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (PB32). Analysis using the BLASTn database (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) demonstrated that the H29 draft genome was highly homologous to the human MRSA strain JH1, yet the β-lactamase plasmid carried by H29 was different from that carried by JH1. Genomic analysis of H29 also clearly explained the multidrug resistance phenotype of this raw milk isolate. Analysis of the PB32 draft genome (using BLASTn) demonstrated that this raw milk isolate was most related to human MRSA strain 04-02981. Although PB32 is not a MRSA, the PB32 draft genome did reveal the presence of a unique staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) remnant. In addition, the PB32 draft genome revealed the presence of a novel bovine staphylococcal pathogenicity island, SaPIbovPB32. This study demonstrates the presence of clones closely related to human and (or) bovine Staph. aureus strains

  5. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Alk Suite has only one dated body, aged 598 ± 3 Ma (Serra da Garganta pluton). The EHKCalcAlk suite U-Pb dating is younger than the aforementioned suites, ranging from 582 ± 5 Ma (dykes in Dona Inês pluton) and 527 ± 8 (Cerro Corá pluton). The Alk suite was dated at 578 ± 14 Ma (Caxexa pluton, Sm-Nd internal isochron) and at 597 ± 4 Ma (Japi pluton, U-Pb zircon), while ChAlc U-Pb zircon ages of 601 ± 10 Ma and 593 ± 5 Ma (Umarizal pluton). The magmatism of Cambrian age in the Rio Grande do Norte Domain is represented by pegmatite dykes with U-Pb dating between 515 and 510 Ma. xml:lang="pt" Petrograficamente, a Suíte Shos possui composição entre gabros/dioritos e quartzo monzonitos. Na CalcAlcAKP predomina monzogranitos (com granodioritos e quartzo monzonitos, subordinados), semelhante a CalcAlcAKE. A CalcAlc é formada por granodioritos a tonalitos. A Alc é formada por álcali-feldspato granitos (com quartzo álcali-feldspato sienitos e sienogranitos, subordinados), enquanto que a AlcCh tem quartzo mangeritos e charnoquitos. As suítes foram alojadas entre o Ediacarano (635-541 Ma) e o Cambriano (541-485 Ma), predominando no Ediacarano, com base em 34 idades U-Pb (zircão, titanita, monazita e columbita-tantalita), 17 Rb-Sr (rocha total) e 1 isócrona interna Sm-Nd (rocha total e mineral). A Suíte Shos tem idades U-Pb variando de 599 ± 16 (Plúton Poço Verde) a 579 ± 7 (plútons Acari e São João do Sabugi). Esses valores são um pouco mais velhos do que as idades da Suíte CalcAlcAKP que possui valores entre 591 ± 4 Ma (Plúton Totoró) e 544 ± 7 Ma (Plúton São José de Espinharas). A Suíte CalcAlc possui apenas um corpo datado, com idade de 598 ± 3 Ma (Plúton Serra da Garganta). A Suíte CalcAlcAKE possui idades U-Pb mais jovens que as suítes anteriores, com valores entre 582 ± 5 Ma (diques no Plúton Dona Inês) e 527 ± 8 (Plúton Cerro Corá). A Suíte Alc foi datada em 578 ± 14 Ma (Plúton Caxexa, isócrona interna Sm-Nd) e 597 ± 4 Ma (Pl

  6. The 1996 and 1997 Paso del Norte ozone studies: An overview of the field studies and data analyses

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.P.; Roberts, P.T.; Main, H.H.; Dye, T.S.; Coe, D.L.; Yarbrough, J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes the measurement campaigns of the 1996 and 1997 Paso del Norte Ozone Studies, the resultant data sets, and the findings and conclusions that arose from subsequent data analyses. The purpose of these data analyses was to develop an understanding of the significant chemical and physical processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in the Paso del Norte study region which includes El Paso, TX; Sunland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico. High ozone concentrations resulted from a combination of conditions, including slow convective boundary layer (CBL) growth, reduced CBL depth, light surface winds, and high concentrations of ozone precursor at ground level in the morning. Synoptic-scale meteorological conditions observed during high ozone episodes included an upstream aloft high-pressure system, and aloft warming. Aloft carryover of ozone and ozone precursors did not significantly contribute to the surface ozone concentration. Furthermore, hydrocarbon and NO{sub x} data, although spatially limited, showed that the system is more often NO{sub x}-limited rather than VOC-limited.

  7. Prevalence of α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion in the adult population of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros Alcoforado, Gustavo Henrique; Bezerra, Christiane Medeiros; Araújo Moura Lemos, Telma Maria; de Oliveira, Denise Madureira; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Ferreira Costa, Fernando; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2012-01-01

    α-Thalassemia, arising from a defect in α-globin chain synthesis, is often caused by deletions involving one or both of the α-genes on the same allele. With the aim of investigating the prevalence of α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion in the adult population of Rio Grande do Norte, 713 unrelated individuals, between 18 and 59 years-of-age, were analyzed. Red blood cell indices were electronically determined, and A2 and F hemoglobins evaluated by HPLC. PCR was applied to the molecular investigation of α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion. Eighty (11.2%) of the 713 individuals investigated presented α-thalassemia, of which 79 (11.1%) were heterozygous (-α3.7/αα) deletions and 1 (0.1%) homozygous (-α3.7/-α3.7). Ethnically, heterozygous deletions were higher (24.8%) in Afro-Brazilians. Comparison of hematological parameters between individuals with normal genotype and those with heterozygous α+-thalassemia showed a statistically significant difference in the number of erythrocytes (p < 0.001), MCV (p < 0.001), MCH (p < 0.001) and Hb A2 (p = 0.007). This study is one of the first dedicated to investigating α-thalassemia 3.7 kb deletion in the population of the State Rio Grande do Norte state. Results obtained demonstrate the importance of investigating this condition in order to elucidate the causes of microcytosis and hypochromia. PMID:23055797

  8. Effect of vitrification on the zona pellucida hardening and follistatin and cathepsin B genes expression and developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wiesak, Teresa; Wasielak, Marta; Złotkowska, Aleksandra; Milewski, Robert

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of vitrification with or without the presence of calcium in the vitrification solution on the: 1) diameter of oocytes and thickness of the zona pellucida, 2) zona pellucida hardening, 3) expression of mRNA follistatin (FST) and cathepsin B (CTSB) in oocytes and 4) developmental competence of embryos derived from in vitro matured and vitrified oocytes. The results of our study demonstrate, that vitrification did not alter thickness of the zona pellucida and diameter of the oocytes, however it triggered hardening of the zona pellucida. The presence of calcium in the vitrification solutions intensified hardening of zona in immature and mature oocytes (P < 0.04, P < 0.001, respectively) and provoked increased mRNA FST expression in oocytes matured in vitro compared to immature oocytes (P < 0.01) and those vitrified without calcium (P < 0.004). CTSB mRNA expression was increased in immature oocytes and oocytes vitrified with calcium compare to mature oocytes (P < 0.02). The developmental potential of vitrified oocytes was impaired compared to non-vitrified oocytes, being more evident in oocytes vitrified with calcium. In summary, vitrification did not change the oocyte diameter and thickness of the zona pellucida and expression of FST and CTSB mRNA. It diminished developmental potential of the vitrified oocytes. The presence of calcium in the vitrification solutions increased hardening of zona pellucida as well as affected the level of FST and CTSB mRNA in oocytes and developmental potential of these oocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  10. Del Norte's Study of High School Factors as Related to Placement of Freshmen in the University of New Mexico's Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Jo Ann

    According to a report from the University of New Mexico (UNM) 52 percent of Del Norte High School's (Albuquerque) graduates who entered UNM in the fall of 1979 were placed in at least one Basic Skills class, designed to assist beginning students whose American College Test (ACT) scores showed deficient college preparation in raising their academic…

  11. Modified Team-Based Learning Strategy to Improve Human Anatomy Learning: A Pilot Study at the Universidad Del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, Emilio G.; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the…

  12. Cryopreservation of zona-free cloned buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) embryos: slow freezing vs open-pulled straw vitrification.

    PubMed

    Sirisha, K; Selokar, N L; Saini, M; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Chauhan, M S; Singla, S K

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to compare the post-thaw cryosurvival rate and the level of apoptosis in vitro produced zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts subjected to slow freezing or vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS). Zona-free cloned embryos produced by handmade cloning were divided into two groups and were cryopreserved either by slow freezing or by vitrification in OPS. Cryosurvival of blastocysts was determined by their re-expansion rate following post-thaw culture for 22-24 h. The post-thaw re-expansion rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher following vitrification in OPS (71.2 ± 2.3%) compared with that after slow freezing (41.6 ± 4.8%). For examining embryo quality, the level of apoptosis in day 8 frozen-thawed blastocysts was determined by TUNEL staining. The total cell number was not significantly different among the control non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (422.6 ± 67.8) and those cryopreserved by slow freezing (376.4 ± 29.3) or vitrification in OPS (422.8 ± 36.2). However, the apoptotic index, which was similar for embryos subjected to slow freezing (14.8 ± 2.0) or OPS vitrification (13.3 ± 1.8), was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that for the control non-cryopreserved cloned embryos (3.4 ± 0.6). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that vitrification in OPS is better than slow freezing for the cryopreservation of zona-free cloned buffalo blastocysts because it offers a much higher cryosurvival rate.

  13. Ability of Catalonian donkey sperm to penetrate zona pellucida-free bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Taberner, E; Morató, R; Mogas, T; Miró, J

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was designed to study the interaction between fresh/frozen-thawed donkey spermatozoa and zona pellucida (ZP)-free bovine oocytes in an attempt to develop a model for assessing cryopreserved Catalonian donkey sperm function. Semen from five donkeys was collected using an artificial vagina. Sperm motility and viability were immediately assessed and the semen sample cryopreserved. Sperm viability and motility were then reassessed immediately after thawing. The motion characteristics of the fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa were determined using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. In vitro-matured cow oocytes were inseminated with different percent live donkey sperm (high (>60%) or low (<40%) viability donkey sperm). After 18h of co-incubation, the oocytes were fixed, stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and examined for sperm penetration, the number of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte, and male pronucleus formation. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from high viability semen showed significantly lower VCL, VAP and mean ALH values than did high viability fresh spermatozoa. In contrast, frozen-thawed spermatozoa of low viability had significantly higher velocity values than fresh spermatozoa of low viability. A significant positive correlation (P<0.01) was detected between percentage fertilization and viability (r=0.84), and between percentage fertilization and certain CASA parameters (VAP, r=0.56; VCL, r=0.61 and mean ALH, r=0.68). Fresh or frozen-thawed high viability spermatozoa penetrated 90.1% and 85.4% of bovine oocytes respectively. Lower rates of penetration were observed for fresh and frozen-thawed low viability spermatozoa (34% and 22.5% respectively). The donkey spermatozoa were able to fuse with the oolema and even to decondense and form the male pronucleus (85-94%). Larger numbers of penetrated spermatozoa per oocyte were recorded when high viability sperm samples were used, whether fresh (3.02 vs. 1.12 for low viability sperm

  14. Imaging for deep brain stimulation: The zona incerta at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Kerl, Hans U; Gerigk, Lars; Brockmann, Marc A; Huck, Sonia; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Groden, Christoph; Hauser, Thomas; Nagel, Armin M; Nölte, Ingo S

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate different promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at 7.0 Tesla (T) for the pre-stereotactic visualization of the zona incerta (ZI). METHODS: Two neuroradiologists qualitatively and quantitatively examined T2-turbo spin-echo (T2-TSE), T1-weighted gradient-echo, as well as FLASH2D-T2Star and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for the visualization of the ZI at 7.0 T MRI. Delineation and image quality for the ZI were independently examined using a 6-scale grading system. Inter-rater reliability using Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) were assessed. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the ZI were calculated for all sequences. Differences in delineation, SNR, and CNR between the sequences were statistically assessed using a paired t-test. For the anatomic validation the coronal FLASH2D-T2Star images were co-registered with a stereotactic atlas (Schaltenbrand-Wahren). RESULTS: The rostral part of the ZI (rZI) could easily be identified and was best and reliably visualized in the coronal FLASH2D-T2Star images. The caudal part was not definable in any of the sequences. No major artifacts in the rZI were observed in any of the scans. FLASH2D-T2Star and SWI imaging offered significant higher CNR values for the rZI compared to T2-TSE images (P > 0.05). The co-registration of the coronal FLASH2D-T2Star images with the stereotactic atlas schema (Schaltenbrand-Wahren) confirmed the correct localization of the ZI in all cases. CONCLUSION: FLASH2D-T2Star imaging (particularly coronal view) provides the reliable and currently optimal visualization of the rZI at 7.0 T. These results can facilitate a better and more precise targeting of the caudal part of the ZI than ever before. PMID:23494089

  15. Two subunits of the 55 K porcine zona pellucida glycoprotein family are immunologically distinct

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.G.; Yurewicz, E.C.; Sacco, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The 55K glycoprotein family (ZP3) of the porcine zona pellucida is comprised of two subunits of 46 K and 45 K which can be resolved by endo-..beta..-galactosidase digestion of ZP3 followed by reversed phase HPLC on Vydac C4 resin. Gel electrophoresis revealed that the 46 K component (EBDG..cap alpha..) is approx. 95% pure and the 45 K component (EBGD..beta..) is 100% pure. In the present study, these two subunits were evaluated immunologically by RIA. Under similar reaction protocols (chloramine-T iodination procedure) comparable specific activities were obtained for EBGD..cap alpha.. (33.06 +/- 7.5 ..mu..ci/..mu..gm), EBGD..beta.. (30.45 +/- 1.6) and ZP3 (26.3 +/- 1.3). Antibody (Ab) titration studies revealed that EBGD..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. are potent immunogens and /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. showed minimal cross reactivity to EBGD..beta..-Ab (8% bound at 1:500 dilution), whereas, /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. showed a greater degree of cross reactivity to EBGD..cap alpha..-Ab (23% bound at 1:500 dilution). Maximum binding for the two labeled antigens against homologous Abs (1:500) was > 60%. Dose response studies revealed that in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..cap alpha.. vs EBGD..cap alpha.. -Ab system, the 50% intercept was 3.25 +/- 0.32 ng for EBGD..cap alpha.. and 472.43 +/- 30.26 ng for EBGD..beta.. (p < 0.01), whereas, in the /sup 125/I-EBGD..beta.. vs EBGD..beta..-Ab system the 50% intercept was 3.51 +/- 0.58 for EBGD..beta.. and 166.77 +/- 49.20 for EBGD..cap alpha.. (p < 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the slopes of the dose response curves. It is concluded that the two subunits of ZP3 possess distinct immunologic characteristics as evaluated by RIA.

  16. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pichardo, J E; Ducolomb, Y; Romo, S; Kjelland, M E; Fierro, R; Casillas, F; Betancourt, M

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU) or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP) binding. Experiment 1, 4-20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN). Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively) but statistically differents (P < 0.05) than mechanical activated oocytes in sham, ICSI and sham injection (13, 25, 32 %, respectively) (10-17 replicates; n = 429). Experiment 2: Twelve ejaculates and 28 straws of semen were used (11-19 replicates). Sperm were selected by SU in BSA-TCM 199-H medium. A total of 2,294 fresh sperm and 2,760 from frozen-thawed semen were analyzed after SU or SU + ZP binding. Fresh sperm selected by SU showed acrosome reaction (AR) of 59 %, the sperm selected by SU + ZP binding increased AR to 91 %. In comparison, the AR of frozen-thawed sperm using SU or SU + ZP binding was 77 and 86 %, respectively (P < 0.05). Experiment 3: fertilization in 200 mechanical activativated oocytes (17 replicates) was 4 %, but fertilization increased in ethanol activated oocytes after ICSI (12-28 %) (5-6 replicates). When fresh sperm only selected by SU were injected to 123 oocytes, a fertilization rate (28 %) was achieved; in sperm selected by SU + ZP was 25 % (73 oocytes). In comparison, in frozen-thawed sperm selected by SU, fertilization was 13 % (70 oocytes), whereas sperm from SU + ZP binding displayed 12 % (51 oocytes) (P > 0.05). Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU

  17. Mapping of Glacial Motion and Surface Topography of Hielo Patagonico Norte, Chile, Using Satellite SAR L-band Interferometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Forster, Rick; Isacks, Bryan

    1996-01-01

    The first topographic and ice-motion maps of the northwestern flank of Hielo Patagonico Norte (HPN, northern Patagonia Icefield), in Chile, were produced using satellite synthetic-aperture interferometric radar data acquired by NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar C instrument in October 1994. The topographic map has a IO m vertical precision with a 30 m horizontal spacing, which should be sufficient to serve as a reference for monitoring future mass changes of the icefield. The ice-motion map is accurate to within 4 mm/ d (or 1/ ma). The radar-derived surface topography and ice velocity are used to estimate the ice discharge from the accumulation area of four outlet glaciers, and the calving flux and mass balance of Glaciar San Rafael. The results demonstrate the use of SAR interferometry for monitoring glaciological parameters on a spatial and temporal scale unattainable by any other means.

  18. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Ahid, Silvia Maria Mendes; Pereira, Josivânia Soares; Vale, André Mendes do; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2014-01-01

    Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  19. Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

  20. [Maternal near misses and health inequalities: an analysis of contextual determinants in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rosendo, Tatyana Maria Silva de Souza; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this study was to identify socioeconomic contextual and health care factors in primary care associated with maternal near misses and their marker conditions. This is an ecological study that used aggregated data of 63 clusters formed by the municipalities of State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using the Skater method of area regionalization, as the unit of analysis. The ratio of maternal near misses and their marker conditions were obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. In multiple linear regression analysis, there was a significant association between maternal near misses and variables of poverty and poor primary health care. Hypertensive disorders were also associated with poverty and poor primary care and the occurrence of hemorrhaging was associated with infant mortality. It was observed that the occurrence of maternal near misses is linked to unfavorable socioeconomic conditions and poor quality health care that are a reflection of public policies that accentuate health inequalities.

  1. Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, amuel V; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Saraiva, Antônio AF; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Background Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. Results A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). Conclusion The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products – and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in

  2. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  3. Effect of laser-assisted multi-point zona thinning on development and hatching of cleavage embryos in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Seok; Park, Min Jung; Park, Sea Hee; Koo, Ja Seong; Moon, Hwa Sook; Joo, Bo Sun

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of laser-assisted zona thinning (LAZT) at one or four-points on the blastocyst formation and hatching process in mice with respect to female age. Eight-cell or morula embryos collected from superovulated C57BL female mice with different ages (6-11 and 28-31 weeks) were treated with LAZT at one-point (LAZT1) or four-points (LAZT4). The zona pellucida was thinned to more than 70% of its initial thickness by making two holes of 15-20 µm. In the young mice, LAZT resulted in a significant increase in early hatching and hatching rates compared to the control group (p<0.05). However, in the old mice, LAZT significantly increased blastocyst formation as well as early hatching and hatching compared to the controls (p<0.05). These effects were more remarkable in LAZT4 than in LAZT1 and in aged mice than in young ones. These results show that multi-point LAZT leads to a significant improvement of blastocyst formation and hatching in mice compared to controls.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and identification of pseudogenes reveal a progressive loss of zona pellucida genes during evolution of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Goudet, Ghylène; Mugnier, Sylvie; Callebaut, Isabelle; Monget, Philippe

    2008-05-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an extracellular matrix with similar functions and conserved individual components: the zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. In mammals, chickens, frogs, and some fish species, we established an updated list of the ZP genes, studied the relationships within the ZP gene family using phylogenetic analysis, and identified ZP pseudogenes. Our study confirmed the classification of ZP genes in six subfamilies: ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, ZPC/ZP3, ZP1, ZPAX, and ZPD. The identification of a Zpb pseudogene in the mouse genome, Zp1 pseudogenes in the dog and bovine genomes, and Zpax pseudogenes in the human, chimpanzee, macaque, and bovine genomes showed that the evolution of ZP genes mainly occurs by death of genes. Our study revealed that the extracellular matrix surrounding vertebrate eggs contains three to at least six ZP glycoproteins. Mammals can be classified in three categories. In the mouse, the ZP is composed of three ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPC/ZP3, and ZP1). In dog, cattle and, putatively, pig, cat, and rabbit, the zona is composed of three ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, and ZPC/ZP3). In human, chimpanzee, macaque, and rat, the ZP is composed of four ZP proteins (ZPA/ZP2, ZPB/ZP4, ZPC/ZP3, and ZP1). Our review provides new directions to investigate the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition, a mechanism which is not yet elucidated.

  5. Assessment of Mouse Germinal Vesicle Stage Oocyte Quality by Evaluating the Cumulus Layer, Zona Pellucida, and Perivitelline Space

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Lei; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Cheng-Jie; Wu, Sha-Na; Shen, Jiang-Peng; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2014-01-01

    To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications. PMID:25144310

  6. Couplet alignment and improved electrofusion by dielectrophoresis for a zona-free high-throughput cloned embryo production system.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, P; Wells, D N; Oback, B

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian cloning by somatic nuclear transfer has great potential for developing medical applications such as biopharmaceuticals and generation of tissues for transplantation. For agricultural applications, it allows the rapid dissemination of genetic gain in livestock breeding. The maximisation of that potential requires improvements to overall cloning technology, especially with respect to increasing cloning efficiency and throughput rates in cloned embryo production. A zona-free embryo reconstruction system was developed to increase cloning throughput and ease of operation. Central to this system is a modified electrofusion procedure for nuclear transfer. Cytoplast-donor cell couplets were placed in a custom-designed 'parallel plate' electrode chamber. A 1 MHz sinusoidal AC dielectrophoresis alignment electric field of 6-10 kV m(-1) was applied for 5-10s. The couplets were then fused using 2 x 10 micros rectangular DC-field pulses (150-200 kV m(-1)), followed by application of the AC field (6-10 kV m(-1)) for another 5-10 s. Fusion was performed in hypoosmolar buffer (210 mOsm). Automated alignment of up to 20 couplets at a time has been achieved, resulting in greatly improved fusion throughput rates (2.5-fold increase) and improved fusion yields (1.3-fold increase), compared with commonly followed zona-intact protocols.

  7. Pentoxifylline acts synergistically with A23187 to increase the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes by cryopreserved human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ford, W C; Rees, J M; McLaughlin, E A; Ling, L; Hull, M G

    1994-08-01

    The number of cryopreserved human spermatozoa which penetrated zona-free hamster oocytes after stimulation with 2 mumol A23187 per litre was increased by the further addition of 0.6 or 3.6 mmol pentoxifylline per litre. With spermatozoa prepared by washing by repeated centrifugation, the median numbers of sperm heads/egg were 1.9, 7.9 and 10.8 in the presence of 0, 0.6 or 3.6 mmol pentoxifylline per litre, respectively. A similar effect was observed with spermatozoa prepared on a Percoll gradient. As A23187 inhibited sperm motility, and this was exacerbated by pentoxifylline, the increased penetration rate of hamster oocytes cannot be explained by improved sperm motility. The number of spermatozoa stimulated to acrosome react by 2 mumol A23187 per litre was increased 3-fold by 3.6 mmol pentoxifylline per litre and 4-fold by 5 mmol caffeine per litre. These data suggest that cAMP may act synergistically with Ca2+ to stimulate the acrosome reaction. Pentoxifylline may improve the fertility of poor-quality human spermatozoa by enhancing their ability to respond to the Ca2+ signal produced by binding to the zona pellucida.

  8. Efficiency of asynchronously in vitro-matured oocytes as recipients for nuclear transfer and of blind enucleation in zona-free bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Malenko, Galina P; Stepanov, Oleg I; Komissarov, Andrey V; Antipova, Tatyana A; Pinyugina, Marina V; Prokofiev, Michael I

    2009-06-01

    We studied the dynamics of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes, the efficiency of asynchronously matured oocytes as recipients for the generation of embryos produced by nuclear transfer, and the potential for using blind enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes in bovine cloning. At 15 h after the initiation of maturation (hpm), oocytes were freed from both cumulus cells and the zona pellucida, and the dynamics of oocyte maturation were monitored every 30 min through the criterion of extrusion of the first polar body (PB1). More than 41% of bovine oocytes had extruded PB1 by 16.5 hpm, and were designated as representing a group of rapidly maturing oocytes. A second group, comprising about 25% of all oocytes, had extruded PB1 by 18.5-20.0 hpm. Examination of Hoechst 33342-stained samples demonstrated that PB1 on the surfaces of zona-free bovine oocytes were always located near the maternal chromosomes. Zona-free oocytes were enucleated by removing PB1 and about 3% of the adjacent oocyte cytoplasm without chromatin staining. Successful enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes was achieved in 96.9% of cases. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly greater in embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing oocytes (47.8%) than with oocytes maturing at 18.0-20.0 hpm (33.3%). Overall, two large groups of bovine oocytes could be distinguished during in vitro maturation by the time required to reach the second stage of metaphase. Bovine embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing enucleated oocytes had a significantly greater rate of development to the blastocyst stage than did embryos derived from later-maturing oocytes. We conclude that blind enucleation is a simple and efficient method for preparing cytoplasts in zona-free bovine cloning.

  9. Binding of Sperm to the Zona Pellucida Mediated by Sperm Carbohydrate-Binding Proteins is not Species-Specific in vitro between Pigs and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Yasuomi; Kanai-Kitayama, Saeko; Suzuki, Reiichiro; Sato, Reiko; Toma, Kazunori; Geshi, Masaya; Akagi, Satoshi; Nakano, Minoru; Yonezawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are candidates for the basis of species-selective interaction of gametes during mammalian fertilization. In this study, we sought to clarify the roles of sugar residues in the species-selective, sperm–oocyte interaction in pigs and cattle. Acrosome-intact porcine and bovine sperm exhibited their strongest binding affinities for β-Gal and α-Man residues, respectively. Porcine-sperm specificity changed from β-Gal to α-Man after the acrosome reaction, while bovine-sperm specificity did not. Binding of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm decreased after trypsinization, indicating that the carbohydrate-binding components are proteins. While immature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm, oocytes matured in vitro bound similar numbers of homologous and heterologous sperm. Lectin staining revealed the aggregation of α-Man residues on the outer surface of the porcine zona during maturation. In both species, zona-free, mature oocytes bound homologous sperm preferentially to heterologous sperm. The lectin-staining patterns of the zona pellucida and zona-free oocytes coincided with the carbohydrate-binding specificities of acrosome-intact and acrosome-reacted sperm, respectively, supporting the involvement of carbohydrates in gamete recognition in pigs and cattle. These results also indicate that sperm-zona pellucida and sperm–oolemma bindings are not strictly species-specific in pigs and cattle, and further suggest that sperm penetration into the zona and/or fusion with oolemma may be species-specific between pigs and cattle. PMID:24970158

  10. Ground-water resources of the Acu Valley, Rio Grande Norte, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; de Castro Araujo, Jonas Maria.

    1968-01-01

    The Acu Valley is the lower part of the Rio Piranhas valley in the northwestern part of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. It begins where the Rio Piranhas leaves the crystalline Precambrian rocks to flow across the outcrop of sedimentary rocks. The area considered in this report extends northward for about 45 kilometers; it is terminated arbitrarily where encroachment by sea water has contaminated the aquifer and imparted a disagreeable saline taste to the water in it. The boundary was not determined in the field, however, for lack of special equipment. Part of the extensive uplands on either side of the valley are included. This makes the total area approximately 2,500 square kilometers. The largest town, Acu, had a population of about 8,000 in 1960. The area is considered to be part of the Drought Polygon of northeast Brazil because the precipitation, although averaging 448 millimeters annually at Acu, varies widely from year to year and often is deficient for many months. The precipitation has been supplemented by use of irrigation wells, but irrigated agriculture is not yet far advanced, and the quantities of water used in irrigation are small. Geologically, the area consists of basement crystalline rocks (Precambrian), a wedge of sedimentary rocks thickening northward (Cretaceous), and alluvial sediments constituting a narrow band in the bottom of the valley (Alluvium and terrace deposits). The crystalline rocks contain water mainly in fractures and, in general, are impermeable. The sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age comprise two units: a thick but fine-grained sandstone grading upward into siltstone and shale (Acu Sandstone), and limestone and dolomite with an included shale zone (Jandaira Limestone). The sandstone especially and the limestone to a lesser degree are ground-water reservoirs of large capacity. The limestone has been tapped at several places, but the sandstone and its contained water are practically untested and, hence, imperfectly

  11. Testing Na+ in blood

    PubMed Central

    Lava, Sebastiano A.G.; Bianchetti, Mario G.; Milani, Gregorio P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Both direct potentiometry and indirect potentiometry are currently used for Na+ testing in blood. These measurement techniques show good agreement as long as protein and lipid concentrations in blood remain normal. In severely ill patients, indirect potentiometry commonly leads to relevant errors in Na+ estimation: 25% of specimens show a disagreement between direct and indirect potentiometry, which is ≥4 mmol/L (mostly spuriously elevated Na+ level due to low circulating albumin concentration). There is a need for increased awareness of the poor performance of indirect potentiometry in some clinical settings.

  12. Determination of βS haplotypes in patients with sickle-cell anemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Cynthia Hatsue Kitayama; Serafim, Édvis Santos Soares; de Medeiros, Waleska Rayane Dantas Bezerra; de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Rebecchi, Ivanise Marina Moretti; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2011-01-01

    βS haplotypes were studied in 47 non-related patients with sickle-cell anemia from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Molecular analysis was conducted by PCR/RFLP using restriction endonucleases XmnI, HindIII, HincII and HinfI to analyze six polymorphic sites from the beta cluster. Twenty-seven patients (57.5%) were identified with genotype CAR/CAR, 9 (19.1%) CAR/BEN, 6 (12.8%) CAR/CAM, 1 (2.1%) BEN/BEN, 2 (4.3%) CAR/Atp, 1 (2.1%) BEN/Atp and 1 (2.1%) with genotype Atp/Atp. The greater frequency of Cameroon haplotypes compared to other Brazilian states suggests the existence of a peculiarity of African origin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. PMID:21931513

  13. Types of neurons of the subthalamic nucleus and zona incerta in the guinea pig--Nissl and Golgi study.

    PubMed

    Robak, A; Bogus-Nowakowska, K; Szteyn, S

    2000-01-01

    The studies were carried out on the subthalamus of adult guinea pigs. Golgi impregnation, Nissl and Klüver-Barrera methods were used for the study. In Nissl stained sections the subthalamic neuronal population consists of multipolar, fusiform, oval and pear-shaped perikarya. In two studied areas: nucleus subthalamicus (STN) and zona incerta (ZI) three types of neurons were distinguished. Type I, multipolar neurons with quadrangular, triangular or oval perikarya. They have 3-6 primary dendrites which run slightly wavy and spread out in all directions. Type II, bipolar neurons with fusiform or semilunar perikarya, they have two primary dendrites. Type III, pear-shaped neurons with 1-2 dendritic trunks arising from one pole of the neuron. In all types of neurons axon emerges from the perikaryon or initial segment of a dendritic trunk and can be followed at a maximum distance of about 50 microns.

  14. Perceived articulatory precision in patients with Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation of subthalamic nucleus and caudal zona incerta.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Elisabeth; Qvist, Johanna; Sandström, Lena; Viklund, Fanny; Van Doorn, Jan; Karlsson, Fredrik

    2015-02-01

    The effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on speech articulation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) was investigated. Read speech samples were collected from nine patients with STN-DBS and 10 with cZi-DBS. The recordings were made pre-operatively and 12 months post-operatively with stimulator on and off (on medication). Blinded, randomised, repeated perceptual assessments were performed on words and isolated fricatives extracted from the recordings to assess (1) overall articulatory quality ratings, (2) frequency of occurrence of misarticulation patterns and (3) fricative production. Statistically significant worsening of articulatory measures on- compared with off-stimulation occurred in the cZi-DBS group, with deteriorated articulatory precision ratings, increased presence of misarticulations (predominately altered realisations of plosives and fricatives) and a reduced accuracy in fricative production. A similar, but not significant, trend was found for the STN-DBS group.

  15. Map showing geochemical characteristics of the North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas, Del Norte County, California, Curry and Josephine Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Carlson, Carl A.; Gray, Floyd; Carlson, R.A.; Briggs, P.H.; Haffty, Joseph; Cooley, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas are located primarily in Del Norte County, northern California, include small parts of Curry and Josephine Counties, Oreg., and cover parts of the Gasquet, Crescent City, and Chetco Peak 15-minute quadrangles. The areas encompass aproximately 39,400 acres of Six rivers National Forest and 950 acres of Siskiyou National Forest and extend from just north of the California-Oregon border southward about 6 mi to the town of Gasquet, Calif. (fig. 1).

  16. Record of the giant sloth Valgipes bucklandi (Lund, 1839) (Tardigrada, Scelidotheriinae) in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, with notes on taphonomy and paleoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Isabella Caroline dos Santos; Dantas, Mário André Trindade; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the first record of the species Valgipes bucklandi in Rio Grande do Norte state, in the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR). This occurrence extends the distribution of this taxon in the BIR. Taphonomic information recovered from this finding indicated that the carcass was probably exposed in a hot and dry environment, whereas carbon isotope data revealed that V. bucklandi had a browser diet (δ13C = -10.17‰), living in more closed environments.

  17. The opening of maitotoxin-sensitive calcium channels induces the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa: differences from the zona pellucida

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Julio C; de Blas, Gerardo A; de la Vega-Beltrán, José L; Nishigaki, Takuya; Chirinos, Mayel; González-González, María Elena; Larrea, Fernando; Solís, Alejandra; Darszon, Alberto; Treviño, Claudia L

    2011-01-01

    The acrosome reaction (AR), an absolute requirement for spermatozoa and egg fusion, requires the influx of Ca2+ into the spermatozoa through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and store-operated channels. Maitotoxin (MTx), a Ca2+-mobilizing agent, has been shown to be a potent inducer of the mouse sperm AR, with a pharmacology similar to that of the zona pellucida (ZP), possibly suggesting a common pathway for both inducers. Using recombinant human ZP3 (rhZP3), mouse ZP and two MTx channel blockers (U73122 and U73343), we investigated and compared the MTx- and ZP-induced ARs in human and mouse spermatozoa. Herein, we report that MTx induced AR and elevated intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in human spermatozoa, both of which were blocked by U73122 and U73343. These two compounds also inhibited the MTx-induced AR in mouse spermatozoa. In disagreement with our previous proposal, the AR triggered by rhZP3 or mouse ZP was not blocked by U73343, indicating that in human and mouse spermatozoa, the AR induction by the physiological ligands or by MTx occurred through distinct pathways. U73122, but not U73343 (inactive analogue), can block phospholipase C (PLC). Another PLC inhibitor, edelfosine, also blocked the rhZP3- and ZP-induced ARs. These findings confirmed the participation of a PLC-dependent signalling pathway in human and mouse zona protein-induced AR. Notably, edelfosine also inhibited the MTx-induced mouse sperm AR but not that of the human, suggesting that toxin-induced AR is PLC-dependent in mice and PLC-independent in humans. PMID:20835262

  18. Hardening of the zona pellucida of unfertilized eggs can reduce polyspermic fertilization in the pig and cow.

    PubMed

    Coy, Pilar; Grullon, Luis; Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Matas, Carmen; Aviles, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms of polyspermy block is an increased resistance of the zona pellucida (ZP) to proteolytic digestion (ZP hardening) as a consequence of cortical granule exocytosis that occurs soon after fertilization. However, evidence is available that the zonae pellucidae of freshly ovulated pig and cow oocytes harden considerably before fertilization. It was thought that such pre-fertilization ZP hardening could be involved in the control of polyspermy, and its lack in the oocytes matured in vitro could be one of the reasons for the extremely high incidence of polyspermy in pig in vitro fertilization (IVF). To test this hypothesis, two different types of cross-linking reagents were employed and their effects on ZP hardening and IVF efficiency were examined. The sulfhydryl-reactive cross-linkers produced a slight hardening of ZP (P<0.001) of treated oocytes compared with control oocytes, and totally inhibited sperm penetration into pig oocytes after IVF. In the cow, sperm penetration into eggs was reduced to 10%. It is proposed that formation of disulfide bonds in ZP or blocking of SH groups in the oocyte plasma membrane proteins prevents sperm penetration. An amine-reactive cross-linker was then assayed and produced strong ZP hardening, increasing the incidence of monospermy in both pig and cow oocytes after fertilization. When the cross-linker concentration was optimized, a 45% improvement for pig IVF efficiency was reached. It is proposed that the observed physiological ZP hardening is a mechanism to control polyspermy, differentially affecting various mammalian species and can be imitated by the use of amine-reactive cross-linkers during IVF.

  19. Aggregation of cloned embryos in empty zona pellucida improves derivation efficiency of pig ES-like cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kyung; Park, Chi-Hun; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Jeong, Yeon-Ik; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    The development of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from large animal species has become an important model for therapeutic cloning using ESCs derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, poor embryo quality and blastocyst formation have been major limitations for derivation of cloned ESCs (ntESCs). In this study, we have tried to overcome these problems by treating these cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and aggregating porcine embryos. First, cloned embryos were treated with Scriptaid to confirm the effect of HDACi on cloned embryo quality. The Scriptaid-treated blastocysts showed significantly higher total cell numbers (29.50 ± 2.10) than non-treated blastocysts (22.29 ± 1.50, P < 0.05). Next, cloned embryo quality and blastocyst formation were analyzed in aggregates. Three zona-free, reconstructed, four-cell-stage SCNT embryos were injected into the empty zona of hatched parthenogenetic (PA) blastocysts. Blastocyst formation and total cell number of cloned blastocysts increased significantly for all aggregates (76.4% and 83.18 ± 8.33) compared with non-aggregates (25.5% and 27.11 ± 1.67, P < 0.05). Finally, aggregated blastocysts were cultured on a feeder layer to examine the efficiency of porcine ES-like cell derivation. Aggregated blastocysts showed a higher primary colony formation rate than non-aggregated cloned blastocysts (17.6 ± 12.3% vs. 2.2 ± 1.35%, respectively, P < 0.05). In addition, derived ES-like cells showed typical characters of ESCs. In conclusion, the aggregation of porcine SCNT embryos at the four-cell stage could be a useful technique for improving the development rate and quality of porcine-cloned blastocysts and the derivation efficiency of porcine ntESCs.

  20. Biomolecule screening for efficient attachment of biofunctionalized microparticles to the zona pellucida of mammalian oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergio; Ibáñez, Elena; Barrios, Leonardo; Castell, Onofre; Nogués, Carme

    2013-10-01

    Individual tagging of oocytes and embryos through the attachment of micrometer-sized polysilicon barcodes to their zona pellucida (ZP) is a promising approach to ensure their correct identification and traceability in human assisted reproduction and in animal production programs. To provide barcodes with the capacity of binding to the ZP, they must be first biofunctionalized with a biomolecule capable of binding to the ZP of both oocytes and embryos. The aim of this work was to select, among an anti-ZP2 antibody and the two lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and phytohemagglutinin-L, the most optimal biomolecule for the eventual biofunctionalization of barcodes, using mouse oocytes and embryos and commercially available microspheres as a model. Despite the anti-ZP2 antibody showed the highest number of binding sites onto the ZP surface, as determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, the binding of anti-ZP2-biofunctionalized microspheres to the ZP of cultured oocytes and embryos was less robust and less stable than the binding of lectin-biofunctionalized ones. WGA proved to be, among the three candidates tested, the most appropriate biomolecule to biofunctionalize microparticles with the aim to attach them to the ZP of both oocytes and embryos and to maintain them attached through oocyte activation (zona reaction) and in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. As saccharides recognized by WGA are highly abundant in the ZP of most mammalian species, WGA-biofuncionalized microparticles would be able to attach to the ZP of oocytes/embryos of species other than the mouse, such as humans and farm animals.

  1. Significance of Poisson distribution theory in analysing the interaction between human spermatozoa and zona-free hamster oocytes.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J; Elton, R A

    1984-11-01

    The value of Poisson distribution theory in describing and predicting the nature of sperm-egg interaction in vitro has been investigated using an interspecific in-vitro fertilization system, incorporating zona-free hamster oocytes and human spermatozoa. The frequency distribution of polyspermic oocyte penetrations in 72 experiments exhibited good agreement with the Poisson distribution at all levels of fertilization indicating that each oocyte must be of equal penetrability and that there can be no block to polyspermy in this interspecific system. Poisson distribution theory also accurately described the relationship between oocyte penetration and sperm motility in 50 out of 54 separate experiments spread across 10 serial dilution curves. For each dilution series the shape of the fitted curve was fixed but its location along the x-axis varied from donor to donor. The fixed nature of the relationship between sperm motility and egg penetration enables the results of such in-vitro fertilization experiments to be corrected for the number of motile spermatozoa in the incubation media. On the basis of these findings a protocol is described for assessing the results of the zona-free hamster oocyte penetration assay, which involves analysis of the degree of polyspermy followed by the application of Poisson distribution theory to correct the results to a standard concentration of motile spermatozoa. Changes in the penetrating ability of human spermatozoa after vasectomy and characterization of the degree of inter-ejaculate variation in penetrating potential are two clinical examples of such analyses given in the text. The statistical methods described in this paper should also be of general relevance to the study of fertilization mechanisms, in providing a rationale by which to analyse the quantitative nature of sperm-egg interaction in vitro.

  2. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  3. Articulatory Closure Proficiency in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Following Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus and Caudal Zona Incerta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; van Doorn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed at comparing the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on the proficiency in achieving oral closure and release during plosive production of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Nineteen patients participated preoperatively and…

  4. Identification of an early cretaceous ophiolite in the Camarines Norte-Calaguas Islands basement complex, eastern Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, E. E.; Kay, R. W.

    1989-10-01

    New geological studies of the Camarines Norte-Calaguas Islands (CNCI) basement complex have resulted in the identification of a pre-Late Cretaceous ophiolite assemblage underlying much of the eastern part of the complex. Dominant ophiolite lithologies include: harzburgites, gabbros, diabasic and basaltic dikes, and pillow lavas. A stratigraphically complete igneous section is lacking due to extensive structural disruption of the ophiolite by westward directed thrusting and displacement along high angle faults. Despite this disruption, geochemical ([ La/ Yb] n ⩽ 1, La/ Ta ≈ 15) and mineralogical data, as well as field relationships, support a cogenetic (N-MORB) origin for the basalt and gabbro units. A minimum crustal age of 100 Ma is inferred from recent {40Ar }/{39Ar } analyses of amphibolites associated with the gabbros. Other lithologies occurring within the basement complex include: medium to high-grade garnet-hornblende-mica schists, low-grade metaigneous rocks, and dioritic and granodioritic intrusives. Geological and geochemical data on these units indicate that they are not genetically related to the ophiolite but have been in close spatial proximity since the Middle Miocene. Together these studies raise new questions concerning the nature of Philippine basement complexes and extent of fundamental, pre-Tertiary basement in the eastern Philippines.

  5. Spatial distribution of dengue disease in municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using the Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Bessa Júnior, Francisco Narcísio; Nunes, Renan Flávio de França; de Souza, Marcos Antonio; de Medeiros, Antônio Carlos; Marinho, Maria Jocileide de Medeiros; Pereira, Wogelsanger Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    The dengue viral infection is one of the most relevant vector-borne diseases in the world. The disease can manifest in a variety of forms, from asymptomatic to a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). The last reported cases in Brazil correspond to 80% of the cases reported in the Americas, which emphasizes the magnitude of the problem. This study was conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the disease in the urban area of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. In the period between 2001 and 2007, 867 new cases were listed. About 85.7% of the addresses were georeferenced, with a larger number of cases, 14.8%, in the neighborhoods of Santo Antônio and Santa Delmira (north region), and 11.7% in the neighborhoods of Conjunto Vingt-Rosado and Alto de São Manoel (east region). There were 18 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever associated with regions with the highest incidence of classic cases of the disease. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) proved a great benefit for better visualization of the endemic, especially in elucidating the actual distribution of dengue cases in the county and providing an effective tool for planning the monitoring of the disease at a local level.

  6. Consanguinity and founder effect for Gaucher disease mutation G377S in a population from Tabuleiro do Norte, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chaves, R G; Pereira, L da Veiga; de Araújo, F T; Rozenberg, R; Carvalho, M D F; Coelho, J C; Michelin-Tirelli, K; Chaves, M de Freitas; Cavalcanti, G B

    2015-10-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is caused by a β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency, leading to the accumulation of glucocerebroside in the reticuloendothelial system. The prevalence of GD in Tabuleiro do Norte (TN) (1:4000) is the highest in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to present evidence of consanguinity and founder effect for the G377S mutation (c.1246G>A) among GD patients in TN based on enzyme, molecular and genealogical studies. Between March 2009 and December 2010, 131 subjects at risk for GD (GC in dried blood ≤2.19 nmol/h/ml) and 5 confirmed GD patients from the same community were submitted for molecular analysis to characterize the genetic profile of the population. Based on the enzymatic and molecular analysis, the subjects were classified into three categories: affected (n = 5), carrier (n = 20) and non-carrier (n = 111). All carriers were (G377S/wt). Affected subjects were homozygous (G377S/G377S). The identification of a single mutation in carriers and homozygotes from different generations, the history of the community and the genealogy study suggest that the high prevalence of GD in this population may be due to a combination of consanguinity and founder effect for the G377S mutation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ore mineralogy and sulfur isotope study of the massive sulfide deposit of Filon Norte, Tharsis Mine, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakamura, T.; Mitsuno, C.

    1990-10-01

    The volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of Filon Norte at Tharsis is hosted by carbonaceous black slate and connected only partly with stockwork veins. The massive ores are usually composed of fine-grained pyrite with subordinate amounts of sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and arsenopyrite. Monoclinic pyrrhotite sometimes occurs in massive pyritic ores in the apparently middle and upper horizons of the orebody, and siderite-rich ores are interstratified with compact pyritic ores in the apparently lower horizons. From the occurrence of monoclinic pyrrhotite, together with the FeS contents of sphalerite mostly ranging from 11 to 16 mol %, it is inferred that the sulfide minerals of the massive orebody were precipitated in euxinic muds on the sea-floor at temperatures below 250°C. The negatively shifted, highly variable δ 34S values of the massive ores and their close similarity to those of the underlying black slates strongly suggest that the sulfide sulfur of the massive orebody and the slates is cognate and biogenic.

  8. Copper uptake by Pteris melanocaulon Fée from a Copper-Gold mine in Surigao del Norte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Joseph Benjamin B; Claveria, Rene Juna R; Perez, Rubee Ellaine C; Perez, Teresita R; Doronila, Augustine I

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some plants to take up metal contaminants in the soil has been of increasing interest as an environmental approach to pollution clean-up. This study aimed to assess the ability of Pteris melanocaulon for copper(Cu) uptake by determining the Cu levels in the fern vis-à-vis surrounding soil and the location of Cu accumulation within its biomass. It also aimed to add information to existing literature as P. melanocaulon are found to be less documented compared to other fern metal accumulators, such as P. vittata. The P. melanocaulon found in the Suyoc Pit of a Copper-Gold mine in Placer, Surigao del Norte, Philippines exhibited a high Bioaccumulation Factor(BF) of 4.04 and a low Translocation Factor(TF) of 0.01, suggesting more Cu accumulation in the roots (4590.22 ± 385.66 µg g(-1) Cu). Noteworthy was the Cu concentration in the rhizome which was also high (3539.44 ± 1696.35 µg g(-1) Cu). SEM/EDX analyses of the Cu content in the roots indicated high elemental %Cu in the xylem (6.95%) than in the cortex (2.68%). The high Cu content in the roots and rhizomes and the localization of Cu in the xylem manifested a potential utilization of the fern as a metallophyte for rhizofiltration and phytostabilization.

  9. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat and dairy goat herds in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Andréa Dantas de; Andrade, Milena de Medeiros Clementino; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida; Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months), location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra) and farm (all the farms). The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6%) displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.

  10. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations in patients from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Zama Messala Luna; das Vitórias Barbosa, Maria; de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; Kimura, Elza Miyuki; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; de Fátima Sonati, Maria; Rebecchi, Ivanise Marina Moretti; de Medeiros, Tereza Maria Dantas

    2011-01-01

    35 unrelated individuals were studied for characterization as either heterozygous or homozygous for beta-thalassemia. Molecular analysis was done by PCR/RFLP to detect the mutations most commonly associated with beta-thalassemia (β0IVS-I-1, β+IVS-I-6, and β039). In the patients who showed none of these mutations, the beta-globin genes were sequenced. Of the 31 heterozygous patients, 13 (41.9%) had the β+IVS-I-6 mutation, 15 (48.4%) the β0IVS-I-1 mutation, 2 (6.5%) the β+IVS-I-110 mutation and 1 (3.2%) the β+IVS-I-5 mutation. IVS-I-6 was detected in the four homozygotes. The mutation in codon 39, often found in previous studies in Brazil, was not detected in the present case. This is the first study aiming at identifying mutations that determine beta-thalassemia in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. PMID:21931514

  11. Zona pellucida protein B2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression varies with follicular development and granulosa cell location.

    PubMed

    Benson, A P; Malloy, M N; Steed, J R; Christensen, V L; Fairchild, B D; Davis, A J

    2017-09-01

    The freshly ovulated ovum in avian species is surrounded by a protein layer called the inner perivitelline layer (IPVL). The IPVL contains zona pellucida proteins and 6 distinct zona pellucida genes have been identified (ZPA, ZPB1, ZPB2, ZPC, ZPD and ZPX1) in the chicken. In the present research, the expression of the mRNA for ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1 was investigated in 2 lines of turkey hens selected for either increased egg production (E line) or increased body weight (F line). Theca and granulosa cell expression of the mRNA for ZPA and ZPB2 was also investigated in hierarchical and prehierarchical follicles from broiler breeder hens. Granulosa tissue was collected from F1 through F4 and F1 through F10 follicles in E line and F line hens, respectively. A one cm2 section of the granulosa layer around the germinal disc (GD) and an equivalent sized nongerminal disc (NGD) area was also collected from the F1 and F2 follicles from other hens from each genetic line. Granulosa and theca tissue was collected from hierarchical and prehierarchical follicles of broiler breeder hens. Total RNA was extracted from the samples. Minor groove-binding probes and primers for detecting ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1, were made for real-time PCR analyses. Expression of ZPA, ZPB2, and ZPX1 was detected in all follicle sizes from both genetic lines of hens. No significant differences in ZPA and ZPX1 mRNA expression were detected between the GD and NGD granulosa cells. However, the expression of the mRNA for ZPB2 was significantly greater in the GD granulosa cells when compared to the NGD granulosa cells in F1 and F2 follicles from E line and F line hens. In broiler breeder hens, the mRNA expression of ZPA and ZPB2 was greatest in the smallest prehierarchical follicles. The results suggest that higher expression of ZPB2 in the germinal disc area may be important for the preferential binding of sperm to this region of the IPVL. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Direct embryo tagging and identification system by attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the zona pellucida of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Santaló, Josep; Durán, Sara; Gómez-Matínez, Rodrigo; Samitier, Josep; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of cultured embryos? The results achieved provide a proof of concept for a direct embryo tagging system using biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes, which could help to minimize the risk of mismatching errors (mix-ups) in human assisted reproduction technologies. Even though the occurrence of mix-ups is rare, several cases have been reported in fertility clinics around the world. Measures to prevent the risk of mix-ups in human assisted reproduction technologies are therefore required. Mouse embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and the effectiveness of the tagging system was tested during fresh in vitro culture (n=140) and after embryo cryopreservation (n = 84). Finally, the full-term development of tagged embryos was evaluated (n =105). Mouse pronuclear embryos were individually rolled over wheat germ agglutinin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to distribute them uniformly around the ZONA PELLUCIDA surface. Embryo viability and retention of barcodes were determined during 96 h of culture. The identification of tagged embryos was performed every 24 h in an inverted microscope and without embryo manipulation to simulate an automatic reading procedure. Full-term development of the tagged embryos was assessed after their transfer to pseudo-pregnant females. To test the validity of the embryo tagging system after a cryopreservation process, tagged embryos were frozen at the 2-cell stage using a slow freezing protocol, and followed in culture for 72 h after thawing. Neither the in vitro or in vivo development of tagged embryos was adversely affected. The tagging system also proved effective during an embryo cryopreservation process. Global identification rates higher than 96 and 92% in fresh and frozen-thawed tagged embryos, respectively, were obtained when simulating an automatic barcode reading

  13. High doses of medroxyprogesterone as the cause of disappearance of adherence of the zona pellucida to an oocyte.

    PubMed

    Jodłowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Jedrych, Marian; Matysiak, Włodzimierz

    2010-10-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is an external glycoprotein membrane of oocytes of mammals and embryos in the early stage of their development. ZP first appears in growing ovarian follicles as an extracellular substance between the oocyte and granular cells. The zona pellucid markedly affects the development and maturation of the oocyte. The morphology of the ZP-oocyte complex allows a more precise determination of the oocyte maturity. According to numerous experimental studies, ZP is essential for preimplantation embryonic development of humans and other mammals. It prevents dispersion of blastomeres and enhances their mutual interactions. ZP is a dynamic structure responsible for the provision of nutrients to early forms of oocytes in mammals. The aim of the present study was untrastructural evaluation of the ZP-oocyte contact during inhibited ovulation. Female white rats (Wistar strain) received a suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in incremental intramuscular bolus doses of 3.7 mg (therapeutic dose), 7.4 mg and 11.1 mg. The animals were decapitated 5 days after the administration of MPA. Ovarian sections were evaluated under a transmission electron microscope (TEM) Zeiss EM 900. Morphometric analysis of ZP was conducted using the cell imaging system by Olympus. In females exposed to therapeutic doses of MPA, ZP showed the structure of granular-fibrous reticulum of a medium electron density with single cytoplasmic processes originating from the surrounding structures. The oocyte cell membrane generated single, delicate processes directed toward ZP. Microvilli of the oocyte were short and thin. In the group receiving 7.4 mg of MPA, ZP had the structure of a delicate, loose granular-fibrous reticulum, and the oocyte cell membrane generated single microvilli directed toward ZP. In both those groups, the close ZP-oocyte contact was observed. Otherwise, in the group exposed to the highest MPA doses (11.1 mg), thicker and more numerous oocyte microvilli were

  14. Role of voltage-gated calcium channels in potassium-stimulated aldosterone secretion from rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Uebele, Victor N; Nuss, Cindy E; Renger, John J; Connolly, Thomas M

    2004-10-01

    The mineralocorticoid aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of plasma electrolyte homeostasis. Exposure of acutely isolated rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells to elevated K(+) activates voltage-gated calcium channels and initiates a calcium-dependent increase in aldosterone synthesis. We developed a novel 96-well format aldosterone secretion assay to rapidly evaluate the effect of known T- and L-type calcium channel antagonists on K(+)-stimulated aldosterone secretion and better define the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in this process. Reported T-type antagonists, mibefradil and Ni(2+), and selected L-type antagonist dihydropyridines, inhibited K(+)-stimulated aldosterone synthesis. Dihydropyridine-mediated inhibition occurred at concentrations which had no effect on rat alpha1H T-type Ca(2+) currents. In contrast, below 10 microM, the L-type antagonists verapamil and diltiazem showed only minimal inhibitory effects. To examine the selectivity of the calcium channel antagonist-mediated inhibition, we established an aldosterone secretion assay in which 8Br-cAMP stimulates aldosterone secretion independent of extracellular calcium. Mibefradil remained inhibitory in this assay, while the dihydropyridines had only limited effects. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for the L-type calcium channel in K(+)-stimulated aldosterone secretion. Further, they confirm the need for selective T-type calcium channel antagonists to better address the role of T-type channels in K(+)-stimulated aldosterone secretion.

  15. Effects of components of semen extenders on the binding of stallion spermatozoa to bovine or equine zonae pellucidae.

    PubMed

    Coutinho da Silva, Marco A; Seidel, George E; Squires, Edward L; Graham, James K; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of semen extender components on the ability of stallion sperm to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP) and the suitability of using bovine ZP for a ZP-binding assay for stallion sperm were investigated in a series of experiments. In Experiment I, binding of stallion sperm to both bovine and equine ZP was significantly increased when a skim milk-based extender (EZM) was used. In Experiment II, a threefold increase in sperm binding to ZP was observed when sperm were diluted in EZM compared with diluents, which contained no milk (TALP, LAC, and EmCare). In Experiment III, centrifuging the sperm through Percoll did not increase sperm binding to the ZP but did remove any positive effect of EZM on sperm-ZP binding. In Experiment IV, exposure of either sperm or ZP to EZM before co-incubation did not increase sperm binding to ZP. In Experiment V, sperm diluted in TALP containing skim milk, EZM, or INRA96 bound more efficiently to the ZP than sperm diluted in TALP without milk proteins. In Experiment VI, sodium caseinate, native phosphocaseinate, and caseinoglycopeptide increased sperm binding to the ZP. In conclusion, diluents containing milk or milk proteins markedly enhanced the number of sperm bound to both equine and bovine ZP.

  16. Cysteine analogs with a free thiol group promote fertilization by reducing disulfide bonds in the zona pellucida of mice.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toru; Horikoshi, Yuka; Nakao, Satohiro; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Ishizuka, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Aki; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Archives of cryopreserved sperm harvested from genetically engineered mice, in mouse resource centers, are a readily accessible genetic resource for the scientific community. We previously reported that exposure of oocytes to reduced glutathione (GSH) greatly improves the fertilization rate of frozen-thawed mouse sperm. Application of GSH to in vitro fertilization techniques is widely accepted as a standard protocol to produce sufficient numbers of mice from cryopreserved sperm. However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of fertilization mediated by GSH in vitro is not fully understood. Here we focused on the chemical by determining the effects of its amino acid constituents and cysteine analogs on the fertilization of oocytes by frozen-thawed sperm. Furthermore, we determined the stability of these compounds in aqueous solution. We show here that l-cysteine (l-Cys), d-cysteine (d-Cys), or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) increased the rate of fertilization when added to the medium but did not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The levels of thiol groups of proteins in the zona pellucida (ZP) and the expansion of the ZP were increased by l-Cys, d-Cys, and NAC. These effects were abrogated by the methylation of the thiol group of l-Cys. NAC was the most stable of these compounds in the fertilization medium at 4°C. These results suggest that the thiol groups of cysteine analogs markedly enhance the fertilization rate of mouse oocytes.

  17. Pertussis toxin treatment does not block inhibition by atrial natriuretic factor of aldosterone secretion in cultured bovine zona glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    De Lean, A.; Cantin, M.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) potently inhibits PGE or forskolin-stimulation aldosterone secretion in bovine zona glomerulosa (ZG) by acting through specific high affinity receptors. In order to evaluate the functional role of the regulatory protein N/sub i/ and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in ZG, the authors have studied the effect of treatment with PT on inhibition by ANF of aldosterone production. Primary cultures of ZG were treated for 18 hours in serum-free F12 medium with (0-100 ng/ml PT). No effect of PT pretreatment was observed either on basal, PGE-stimulated or ANF-inhibited levels of steroidogenesis. When membranes prepared from control ZG were ADP-ribosylated with (/sup 32/P) NAD in the presence of PT, two toxin-specific bands with 39 Kd and 41 Kd were documented on SDS gel. Cell pretreatment with as low as 1 ng/ml drastically reduced further labelling of these two bands while higher doses completely abolished them. Since PT treatment covalently modifies completely the toxin substrate without altering ANF inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis, the authors conclude that N/sub i/ is not involved in the mode of action of ANF on aldosterone production.

  18. [Molecular cloning, structural analysis, and expression of zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 gene from Chinese zokor, Myospalax fontanierii].

    PubMed

    Sui, D D; Wu, J L; Zhang, H; Li, H; Zhou, Z M; Zhang, D H; Han, C X

    2014-01-01

    The zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) plays a crucial role in reproductive immunology. We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding Chinese Zokor zp3, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1269 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 422 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence has a high degree of homology with hamster (78%), mouse (76%), and rat (74%). XhoI and SacI sites restricted 1158 bp fragment of zokor ZP3 cDNA, excluding the signal sequence and transmembrane-like domain was cloned under the phage T7 promoterlac operator control in the pET-28a(+) vector. Recombinant pET-zokorZP3 (r-ZP3) was expressed as a poly-histidine fusion protein in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). Optimum expression of r-ZP3 was observed at 28 degrees C, 1 mM IPTG and 2 h of inducing. The purified protein was tested by Western blot.

  19. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jan E; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J

    2006-11-14

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins.

  20. Zona Pellucida Domain-Containing Protein β-Tectorin is Crucial for Zebrafish Proper Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Gen-Der; Liao, Wei-Hao; Chen, Yi-Chung; Huang, Kai-Yun; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Hwang, Sheng-Ping L.; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Background The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is part of many extracellular proteins with diverse functions from structural components to receptors. The mammalian β-tectorin is a protein of 336 amino acid residues containing a single ZP domain and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminus of the protein. It is 1 component of a gel-like structure called the tectorial membrane which is involved in transforming sound waves into neuronal signals and is important for normal auditory function. β-Tectorin is specifically expressed in the mammalian and avian inner ear. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified and cloned the gene encoding zebrafish β-tectorin. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that β-tectorin messenger RNA was expressed in the otic placode and specialized sensory patch of the inner ear during zebrafish embryonic stages. Morpholino knockdown of zebrafish β-tectorin affected the position and number of otoliths in the ears of morphants. Finally, swimming behaviors of β-tectorin morphants were abnormal since the development of the inner ear was compromised. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal that zebrafish β-tectorin is specifically expressed in the zebrafish inner ear, and is important for regulating the development of the zebrafish inner ear. Lack of zebrafish β-tectorin caused severe defects in inner ear formation of otoliths and function. PMID:21829695

  1. Effect of the size of zona pellucida opening on hatching in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) embryo.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Motohashi, Hideyuki H; Kumon, Mami; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okada, Hironori; Okada, Takashi; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    The use of the common marmoset monkey in biomedical research has increased recently, and further attention has been devoted to this model after the successful production of transgenic marmosets. To extend genetic engineering approaches to widespread biomedical research fields, efficient prolonged in vitro culturing of embryo development is necessary. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the size of the zona pellucida opening on promoting the hatching process in the marmoset embryo. Piezo-microdrilling of a 6-μm opening in eight embryos resulted in four partially hatched embryos and one hatched embryo after 5 days of culture. Piezo-microdrilling a 20-μm opening in 11 embryos resulted in nine partial hatchings and no hatched embryos. Piezo-scraping an 80-μm opening in six embryos resulted in no partially hatched embryos and five hatched embryos. These results suggest that an 80-μm opening, rather than 6-μm or 20-μm openings, is suitable to complete the hatching process in the marmoset embryo.

  2. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2006-01-01

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins. PMID:17085584

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta and Subthalamic Nucleus in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Effects on Diadochokinetic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Unger, Elin; Wahlgren, Sofia; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; Nordh, Erik; Zafar, Hamayun; van Doorn, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The hypokinetic dysarthria observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) affects the range, speed, and accuracy of articulatory gestures in patients, reducing the perceived quality of speech acoustic output in continuous speech. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) and of the caudal zona incerta (cZi-DBS) are current surgical treatment options for PD. This study aimed at investigating the outcome of STN-DBS (7 patients) and cZi-DBS (7 patients) in two articulatory diadochokinesis tasks (AMR and SMR) using measurements of articulation rate and quality of the plosive consonants (using the percent measurable VOT metric). The results indicate that patients receiving STN-DBS increased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition in the AMR task only, with no effect on production quality. Patients receiving cZi-DBS decreased in articulation rate in the Stim-ON condition and further showed a reduction in production quality. The data therefore suggest that cZi-DBS is more detrimental for extended articulatory movements than STN-DBS. PMID:22007342

  4. Zona pellucida binding improvement effect of different sperm preparation techniques is not related to changes in sperm motility characterizations.

    PubMed

    Yogev, L; Gamzu, R; Botchan, A; Hauser, R; Paz, G; Yavetz, H

    2000-06-01

    To study the relation between changes in sperm motion characteristics and sperm binding capacity to the zona pellucida (ZP) after different sperm preparation techniques. Prospective study. Andrology laboratory at the Lis Maternity Hospital. Sixty-three infertile men. In vitro preparation of 57 sperm samples by pentoxifylline (PTX), 38 samples by SpermPrep I (SP1), and 27 samples by mini-Percoll (mPER). Sperm preparation was evaluated in comparison with the control washing technique. Motility variables and binding capacity. Binding capacity after PTX, SP1, and mPER preparation methods was significantly higher compared with the control medium preparation. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of sperm motility revealed a significant increase in a number of variables after the different treatments. A statistically significant but low correlation was observed between sperm binding capacity after control swim-up preparation and VAP (r = 0.27) as well as with VSL (r = 0.30). No significant correlations were found between the changes in the CASA and the improved sperm binding to the ZP. The two biologic effects of binding capacity enhancement and motility features improvement are not related. Furthermore, because the binding assay is highly correlated with fertilization capacity, these alterations in motility, as evidenced by CASA, probably have a minor effect on fertilization in vitro.

  5. Effect of urea and detergents on the ability of human spermatozoa to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Roatti, A; Marchini, M; Campana, A; Balerna, M

    1987-01-01

    Washing of human spermatozoa with either BWW alone or with the same buffer containing 0.1 M urea, 0.005% SDS or 0.001% NP40 affected the penetration ability of the gametes into zona-free hamster oocytes to various degrees. In contrast, human spermatozoa washed with BWW buffer containing 0.3 M urea had an increased ability to fuse with the heterologous oocytes when compared to controls capacitated with BWW/BSA. Moreover, the presence or absence of BSA in the insemination medium did not further modify this enhanced penetration pattern. The BWW, BWW/0.1 M urea and BWW/SDS treatments apparently mimicked some of the in vitro capacitation properties of albumin-containing media; the BWW/0.3 M urea treatment overpowered the capacitation and acrosomal reaction extent obtained with BWW+BSA. In all samples the motility of the spermatozoa washed with BWW buffer alone or containing various additives (but no albumin) was significantly decreased if compared to the motility of semen samples washed with albumin containing media. However, each sperm sample behaved differently when exposed to a given buffer.

  6. Primary aldosteronism with aldosterone-producing adenoma consisting of pure zona glomerulosa-type cells in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Kazuto; Nishida, Noriyuki; Sakai, Hideki; Igawa, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Shin; Kawai, Kioko; Takahara, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) consisting of pure zona glomerulosa (ZG)-type cells is extremely rare, and primary aldosteronism complicated by pregnancy is also rare. We report a case of APA discovered in a 32-year-old pregnant woman who visited our hospital for hypertension and hypokalemia at 26 weeks gestation. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentration and hypokalemia were observed, and an magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a right adrenal mass. A laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed because of refractory hypokalemia. Pathologically, the adrenal mass was diagnosed as APA, and in addition to the cytological features, in situ hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction proved that all the component cells were ZG-type cells. The cells also showed estrogen receptor beta immunoreactivity and melanocortin 2 receptor mRNA expression, suggesting that estrogen and/or ACTH might be related to the proliferation of APA cells during pregnancy. Our case is the first report of APA consisting of ZG-type cells discovered during pregnancy.

  7. Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa. II. Postthaw chronology of motility and of zona-free hamster ova penetration.

    PubMed

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Huse-Benda, A R; Ball, G D

    1987-06-01

    Postthaw dynamics of motility maintenance and ability to penetrate zona-free hamster ova were examined with human sperm. Ten semen samples were each divided into two equal volumes; one was cryopreserved while the other half remained untreated. Frozen samples were thawed, and initial evaluations for motility and hamster egg penetration were made on both untreated and frozen-thawed samples. The time difference between the initial evaluations for the two treatment groups was approximately 30 minutes as a result of the time required to freeze and thaw aliquots. Subsequent evaluations were made 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours later. Over all times both the motility and fertilizability of cryopreserved spermatozoa were significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) when compared with those of untreated sperm. The pattern of motility loss over time was similar between untreated and frozen-thawed sperm (P greater than 0.10). Conversely, differences between untreated and frozen-thawed sperm in fertilizability patterns were dramatic (P less than 0.05). This was evidenced by penetration rates for cryopreserved sperm highest at 0 hour and decreasing over time, whereas penetration by untreated spermatozoa was lowest at 0 hour, increasing to a maximum at 24 hours. These observations may be important in the development of laboratory protocols for freezing and clinical protocols for using frozen-thawed sperm.

  8. [Decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and inter-municipal flow of hospital admissions in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Reis, Cláudia Tartaglia; Czeresnia, Dina; Barcellos, Christovam; Tassinari, Wagner Souza

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this article was to analyze the decentralization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic (a shift towards rural areas or away from the coast) and to investigate access to HIV/AIDS services from 1988 to 2002 in the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. An ecological study was performed using temporal and spatial approaches. A hospital admissions flow between municipalities developed, and the reference group was AIDS patients over 15 years of age admitted in 1996 and 2004, residing in municipalities in the Zona da Mata. There were 2,469 reported AIDS cases in individuals over 15 during the period. Mean incidence and mortality rates were calculated and recalculated by a local empirical Bayesian method in order to more clearly represent the municipalities with the highest concentration of cases and deaths. Decentralization of the epidemic was observed. Juiz de Fora was the municipality with the most cases and may have acted as a hub for spread of HIV in the region. Hospital care for AIDS cases in the Zona da Mata was concentrated in that municipality. There is a strong need to further investigate why referral hospitals in other municipalities in the region have not participated in providing management and care for HIV/AIDS patients.

  9. Sperm surface hyaluronan binding protein (HABP1) interacts with zona pellucida of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) through its clustered mannose residues.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ilora; Datta, Kasturi

    2003-02-01

    Sperm-oocyte interaction during fertilization is multiphasic, with multicomponent events, taking place between zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins and sperm surface receptor. d-mannosylated glycoproteins, the major constituents of ZP are considered to serve as ligands for sperm binding. The presence of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) on sperm surface of different mammals including cattle and its possible involvement in sperm function is already reported. Recently, we have demonstrated the specificity of clustered mannose as another ligand for HABP1 (Kumar et al., 2001: J Biosci 26:325-332). Here, we report that only N-linked mannosylated zona-glycoproteins bind to sperm surface HABP1. Labeled HABP1 interacts with ZP of intact oocyte of Bubalus bubalis, which can be competed with unlabeled HABP1 or excess d-mannosylated albumin (DMA). This data suggests the specific interaction of HABP1 with ZP, through clustered mannose residues. In order to examine the physiological significance of such an interaction, the capacity of sperm binding to oocytes under in vitro fertilization plates was examined either in presence of DMA alone or in combination with HABP1. The number of sperms, bound to oocytes was observed to reduce significantly in presence of DMA, which could be reversed by the addition of purified recombinant HABP1 (rHABP1) in the same plate. This suggests that sperm surface HABP1 may act as mannose binding sites for zona recognition. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The use of the ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar to study the wind-driven ocean circulation in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, during Norte events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Diaz-de-Leon, Asdrubal

    This thesis examines whether Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images can play a useful role in observing the meso-scale structures characteristic of the Gulf of Tehuantepec during `Norte' conditions, and whether a combination of nearly coincident SAR and AVHRR derived sea surface temperature images can provide new information about these physical processes occurring in the Gulf. Sets of coincident SAR and AVHRR-derived SST images are shown to illustrate different stages in the response of the Gulf of Tehuantepec to wind forcing during a `Norte' event. From the close spatial match between the thermal signature of meso-scale structures and the radar image patterns we conclude that the SAR could be used to monitor this complex air-sea interaction process even when cloud cover prevents the use of infra- red sensors. Furthermore, the SAR data have revealed much additional detail about the ocean response to wind forcing. Other fronts and current zones which showed no thermal signature have been detected. The SAR also provides a means of determining both wind speed and direction. It has not previously been practicable to measure how sharp the wind front is at the edge of the wind jet. The SAR backscatter shows that it remains extremely tight for a long way offshore, consequently imposing a strong horizontal shear to the sea surface. However, by themselves it would be harder to interpret the SAR images in relation to the Norte processes, and we conclude that the most effective use of remote sensing is to use SAR and SST images in combination. As a case study, a SAR image is selected as expressing a typical thermal front established on the west side of the wind jet during a `Norte' event to estimate the horizontal currents associated with the front by inverting the wave refraction pattern of the swell crossing the front. The horizontal currents estimated are in very good agreement with values reported in the literature. Furthermore, when these currents are used in a numerical

  11. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I- symporter.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-09-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid-the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis-with a 2 Na(+): 1 I(-) stoichiometry. The two Na(+) binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I(-) binding site interact allosterically: when Na(+) binds to a Na(+) site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na(+) and for I(-) increases significantly. In all Na(+)-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na(+) ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues-S66, D191, Q194, and Q263-are also involved in Na(+) coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I(-) These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance.

  12. Roles of GABAA and GABAB receptors in regulating thalamic activity by the zona incerta: a computational study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Anthony; Hoffman, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The posterior thalamic nucleus (PO) is a higher order nucleus heavily implicated in the processing of somatosensory information. We have previously shown in rodent models that activity in PO is tightly regulated by inhibitory inputs from a GABAergic nucleus known as the zona incerta (ZI). The level of incertal inhibition varies under both physiological and pathological conditions, leading to concomitant changes in PO activity. These changes are causally linked to variety of phenomena from altered sensory perception to pathological pain. ZI regulation of PO is mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors (GABAAR and GABABR) that differ in their binding kinetics and their electrophysiological properties, suggesting that each may have distinct roles in incerto-thalamic regulation. We developed a computational model to test this hypothesis. We created a two-cell Hodgkin-Huxley model representing PO and ZI with kinetically realistic GABAAR- and GABABR-mediated synapses. We simulated spontaneous and evoked firing in PO and observed how these activities were affected by inhibition mediated by each receptor type. Our model predicts that spontaneous PO activity is preferentially regulated by GABABR-mediated mechanisms, while evoked activity is preferentially regulated by GABAAR. Our model also predicts that modulation of ZI firing rate and synaptic GABA concentrations is an effective means to regulate the incerto-thalamic circuit. The coupling of distinct functions to GABAAR and GABABR presents an opportunity for the development of therapeutics, as particular aspects of incerto-thalamic regulation can be targeted by manipulating the corresponding receptor class. Thus these findings may provide interventions for pathologies of sensory processing. PMID:25143541

  13. Is the zona pellucida an intrinsic source of signals activating maternal recognition of the developing mammalian embryo?

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Toshimori, Kiyotaka

    2009-07-01

    Mammalian mothers undergoing embryo implantation must specifically recognize the developing embryo in a species-restricted manner. We previously observed that immune cells derived from early pregnant mice could promote endometrial differentiation and embryo implantation in blastocyst-transferred pseudopregnant mice. Although the precise mechanism remains unknown, it is suggested that the maternal immune system undergoes functional changes after recognizing developing embryos from the very early stages of pregnancy. Since it is physically impossible for immune cells to directly interact with the developing embryo while it is surrounded by the zona pellucida (ZP), it is speculated that the embryo produces certain embryo- and species-specific soluble factor(s) in the oviduct before hatching. As a candidate for this factor, we have paid attention to the ZP that is normally protected from immunological attack during oogenesis in the ovarian follicle. ZP-specific glycoproteins are known to play important roles in the species- and oocyte-specific binding of sperm, and the ZP can also be considered an abundant store of oocyte- and species-specific glycoproteins. In contrast to unfertilized oocytes, developing embryos may degrade the ZP starting just after fertilization and proceeding until hatching using enzymes that are released from cortical granules or produced by the developing embryo. Accordingly, the developing embryo might provide ZP-degradation products including oligosaccharide chains to the immune system from the very early stages. Taken together, we propose here a novel hypothesis that these ZP-derivatives can act as an intrinsic signal from the developing embryo for maternal recognition by the immune system.

  14. Effects of crude adlay hull acetone extract on corticosterone release from rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Alfred Wan-Song; Hung, Chien-Te; Hsia, Shih-Min; Chiang, Wenchang; Wang, Paulus S

    2006-11-01

    Adlay is a grass crop which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and also as a nourishing food. It has been shown to posses anti-allergic, antimutagenic and hypolipemic effects. However, the effects and action mechanisms of crude adlay hull acetone extract (AHA) on adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells are still unclear. This study explored the effects of AHA on corticosterone release. ZFR cells were incubated with AHA in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), 8-bromo-cyclic 3': 5'- adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), forskolin (FSK), 25-hydroxy cholesterol (25-OH-cholesterol), pregnenolone, progesterone or deoxycorticosterone. The concentrations of corticosterone or pregnenolone in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The cells were used to measure the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein by Western blot. The present data demonstrated that: (1) AHA inhibited ACTH-, 8-Br-cAMP-, forskolin-, 25-OH-cholesterol-, pregnenolone-, progesterone- or deoxycorticosterone-stimulated corticosterone release; (2) AHA (800 microg/ml) caused more pregnenolone release in control group, but not in 25-OH-cholesterol, trilostane or 25-OH-cholesterol+trilostane group; (3) kinetic study showed an uncompetitive inhibition model of AHA to P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc); (4) kinetic study showed a noncompetitive inhibition model of AHA to 11beta-hydroxylase; and (5) AHA inhibited the expression of StAR protein. These results suggest that AHA acts directly upon rat ZFR cells to diminish corticosterone release. These results indicate the inhibitory mechanism of AHA mediates through an inhibition of the activities of the post-cAMP corticosterone synthesis enzymes, i.e. 3beta-HSD, 21-hydroxylase, 11beta-hydroxylase, and inhibition of StAR protein expression.

  15. [Sequential observation of human sperm penetration into zona pellucida-free hamster oocytes by scanning electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Tsuiki, A; Hoshi, K; Saito, A; Kyono, K; Hoshiai, H; Suzuki, M; Horiuchi, T

    1983-10-01

    Yanagimachi et al. have shown that zona pellucida-free hamster oocytes can be penetrated by capacitated and acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa, and both pronuclei be formed. Recently, it has been said that this technique may be used to test the fertilizing ability of human sperm for clinical use. We have made scanning electron microscopic studies of the interaction of these heterologous gametes, especially the mechanisms of sperm entry into the oocytes. Our results are as follows: The surface of the oocyte is covered with numerous microvilli, which are found to be evenly and densely distributed on the vitellus surface. The surface of the first polar body already released is smooth and microvilli-free. Most spermatozoa lie flat on the vitellus surface, but a few are oriented perpendicularly to the vitellus surface. Most bound sperm had lost their acrosomal caps, because a ridge exists at the leading edge of the equatorial segment. Many microvilli are shown to participate in sperm-egg contact. Initially most microvilli appeared to grasp and immobilize the anterior tip of the sperm head. But as gamete interaction proceeded, microvilli were overlying the postacrosomal region, and observed adjacent to the plasma membrane of the postacrosomal region. The postacrosomal region is first incorporated into the ooplasma, the anterior tip of sperm head being the last portion to be incorporated. The microvilli of the oolenmal surface where sperm penetrated did not show major changes in size or appearance, and the so-called "incorporation cone" was not observed. Our scanning electron micrographs show that the microvillar portion of the oolenma greatly participates in this heterologous gamate interaction.

  16. Differential pattern of Xist RNA accumulation in single blastomeres isolated from 8-cell stage mouse embryos following laser zona drilling.

    PubMed

    Hartshorn, Cristina; Rice, John E; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2003-01-01

    Xist gene expression begins at the late 2-cell stage in female mouse embryos and by the third division results in the accumulation of an average 100 copies of Xist RNA per cell, as measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the blastocyst, the trophectoderm maintains the paternally imprinted pattern of Xist expression present during early development, while either the maternal or the paternal X chromosome can express Xist among cells of the inner mass. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has previously established that Xist transcripts are localized on the silenced X chromosome, forming aggregates of variable dimensions in blastomeres of 8-cell embryos. This observation and the fact that Xist RNA accumulation per cell sharply decreases after morula stage raise the possibility that cells of cleaving embryos contain different levels of Xist RNA, perhaps linked to their subsequent developmental fates. We show here that Xist RNA is efficiently recovered from single blastomeres isolated from 8-cell embryos following laser zona drilling. Sexing of the samples and simultaneous quantification of Xist RNA in individual cells is achieved with a multiplex Xist/Sry real-time RT-PCR assay sensitive to the single-copy level. This analysis reveals that Xist RNA is indeed accumulated to substantially different levels in individual blastomeres of the same 8-cell embryo and that two blastomeres contain most of the molecules per embryo. These results support the conclusion that cells of the early mammalian embryo are not all functionally equivalent. Differential Xist gene expression could arise from differences in DNA methylation, or the order in which cells divide. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Zona reaction in porcine oocytes fertilized in vivo and in vitro as seen with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, H; Ekwall, H; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-11-01

    Morphological changes in zona pellucidae (ZP) isolated from in vitro-matured (IVM) and ovulated porcine oocytes were compared before or after fertilization in vitro and in vivo, respectively, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ZP of some ovulated or IVM oocytes and in vivo- or in vitro-fertilized (IVF) zygotes were equally split into two halves while immersed in an enzyme-inhibitor solution, using a surgical blade. After washing, intact and ZP halves were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde solution in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, processed, and examined using SEM. The outer surface of ZP in ovulated oocytes had a mesh-like structure. The outer morphology in IVM oocytes was more smooth although the mesh-like structure was still visible at high magnification. In in vivo zygotes and IVM-IVF zygotes, this lysed, mesh-like structure was more obvious. The inner surface of ZP had some small depressions (orifices). The mean number of orifices per 100 micrometer(2) of ZP surface was larger in IVM oocytes as compared to ovulated ones. The number of orifices per 100 micrometer(2) decreased in IVM-IVF zygotes as compared to IVM oocytes; whereas, in vivo zygotes did not differ from ovulated oocytes. The mean diameter of intact ZP as well as their mean thickness was greater in ovulated oocytes than IVM oocytes. The mean thickness of the ZP was larger in ovulated oocytes than IVM ones. The ZP thickness was larger in zygotes than in in vivo oocytes, whereas that of IVM-IVF zygotes did not differ from that of IVM oocytes. These results indicate that the morphology of ZP and the ZP reaction at sperm penetration appears to be much different between IVM oocytes and ovulated ones.

  18. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  19. Patterns of Convergence in Rat Zona Incerta from the Trigeminal Nuclear Complex: Light and Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    SIMPSON, KIMBERLY; WANG, YUE; LIN, RICK C.S.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the restricted receptive field (RF) properties of the ventral posteriomedial nucleus (VPM), neurons of the ventral thalamus zona incerta (ZI) have been shown to exhibit multiwhisker responses that vary from the ventral (ZIv) to the dorsal (ZId) subdivision. Differences in activity may arise from the trigeminal nuclear complex (TNC) and result from subnucleus specific inputs via certain cells of origin, axon distribution patterns, fiber densities, bouton sizes, or postsynaptic contact sites. We tested this hypothesis by assessing circuit relationships among TNC, ZI, and VPM. Results from tracer studies show that, 1) relative to ZId, the trigeminal projection to ZIv is denser and arises predominantly from the principalis (PrV) and interpolaris (SpVi) subdivisions; 2) the incertal projection from TNC subnuclei overlaps and covers most of ZIv; 3) two sets of PrV axons terminate in ZI: a major subtype, possessing bouton-like swellings, and a few fine fibers, with minimal specialization; 4) both PrV and SpVi terminals exhibit asymmetric endings and preferentially target dendrites of ZI neurons; 5) small and large neurons in PrV are labeled after retrograde injections into ZI; 6) small PrV cells with incertal projections form a population that is distinct from those projecting to VPM; and 7) ~30–50% of large cells in PrV send collaterals to ZI and VPM. These findings suggest that, 1) although information to ZI and VPM is essentially routed along separate TNC circuits, streams of somatosensory code converge in ZI to establish large RFs, and 2) subregional differences in ZI response profiles are attributable in part to TNC innervation density. PMID:18213707

  20. Purified and refolded recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-B expressed in Escherichia coli binds to spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Govind, C K; Gahlay, G K; Choudhury, S; Gupta, S K

    2001-04-01

    Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-B (bmZPB), excluding the N:-terminal signal sequence and the C:-terminus transmembrane-like domain, has been expressed in Escherichia coli as polyhistidine fusion protein. A requirement of 4 M urea to maintain the purified protein in soluble state rendered it unsuitable for biological studies. Purification of refolded r-bmZPB without urea and devoid of lower molecular weight fragments was achieved by following an alternate methodology that involved purification of inclusion bodies to homogeneity and solubilization in the presence of a low concentration of chaotropic agent (2 M urea) and high pH (pH 12). The solubilized protein was refolded in the presence of oxidized and reduced glutathione. The circular dichroism spectra revealed the presence of both alpha helical and beta sheet components in the secondary structure of the refolded r-bmZPB. The binding of the refolded r-bmZPB to the spermatozoa was evaluated by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and also by direct binding of the biotinylated r-bmZPB. The binding was restricted to the principal segment of the acrosomal cap of capacitated bonnet monkey spermatozoa. In the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa a shift in the binding pattern of r-bmZPB was observed and it bound to the equatorial segment, postacrosomal domain, and midpiece region. Binding of biotinylated r-bmZPB was inhibited by cold r-bmZPB as well as by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies generated against r-bmZPB. These results suggest that nonglycosylated bmZPB binds to capacitated as well as acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in a nonhuman primate and may have a functional role during fertilization.

  1. Hypoglycemia enhances turnover of corticotropin-releasing factor and of vasopressin in the zona externa of the rat median eminence.

    PubMed

    Berkenbosch, F; De Goeij, D C; Tilders, F J

    1989-07-01

    Insulin administration to overnight fasted rats causes a dose-dependent decline in plasma glucose concentrations and a dose-dependent increase in plasma ACTH concentrations. The ACTH response, but not the glucose response, was blocked by treatment with chlorpromazine-morphine-pentobarbital, indicating that the main factors triggering the ACTH response are of central, rather than peripheral, origin. To study whether insulin affected the turnover of CRF and vasopressin (AVP) in the zona externa of the median eminence (ZEME), we determined the rate of decline of both hypophysiotropic factors in rats with or without blockade of axonal transport by colchicine. In the ZEME, the concentrations of CRF and AVP were assessed by quantitative immunocytochemistry (QICC) in tissue sections or by RIA in median eminence extracts. QICC allows selective quantification of AVP and other peptides within the ZEME. The changes in the CRF content, as measured by QICC and RIA, were linearly correlated (r = 0.99), demonstrating that changes in peptide-staining intensity reflect changes in peptide content. Colchicine, when given intracisternally in a nontoxic dose of 5 micrograms, had no marked effect on resting plasma levels of ACTH and only slightly reduced the ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In the ZEME, CRF and AVP concentrations at rest were not affected by colchicine. In colchicine-treated rats insulin-induced hypoglycemia resulted in a prominent decline in CRF and AVP concentrations in the ZEME. The CRF concentration declined at a rate of 23%/h over a period of 3 h. The AVP concentration declined to a similar extent as CRF over the first hour, but tended to fall at the later time points. We conclude that hypoglycemia increases turnover of both CRF and AVP in the ZEME. However, the turnover rates of both hypophysiotropic peptides do not appear to be quantitatively coupled.

  2. Uncontacted Waorani in the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: Geographical Validation of the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; De Marchi, Massimo; Ferrarese, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The Tagaeri Taromenane People are two indigenous groups belonging to the Waorani first nation living in voluntary isolation within the Napo region of the western Amazon rainforest. To protect their territory the Ecuadorean State has declared and geographically defined, by Decrees, the Zona Intangible Tagaeri Taromenane (ZITT). This zone is located within the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve (1989), one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. Due to several hydrocarbon reserve exploitation projects running in the area and the advancing of a large-scale deforestation front, the survival of these groups is presently at risk. The general aim was to validate the ZITT boundary using the geographical references included in the Decree 2187 (2007) by analyzing the geomorphological characteristics of the area. Remote sensing data such as Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Landsat imagery, topographic cartography of IGM-Ecuador, and fieldwork geographical data have been integrated and processed by Geographical Information System (GIS). The ZITT presents two levels of geographic inconsistencies. The first dimension is about the serious cartographical weaknesses in the perimeter delimitation related to the impossibility of linking two rivers belonging to different basins while the second deals with the perimeter line not respecting the hydrographic network. The GIS analysis results clearly show that ZITT boundary is cartographically nonsense due to the impossibility of mapping out the perimeter. Furthermore, GIS analysis of anthropological data shows presence of Tagaeri Taromenane clans outside the ZITT perimeter, within oil production areas and in nearby farmer settlements, reflecting the limits of protection policies for non-contacted indigenous territory. The delimitation of the ZITT followed a traditional pattern of geometric boundary not taking into account the nomadic characteristic of Tagaeri Taromenane: it is necessary to adopt geographical approaches to recognize the

  3. Differential influence of ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells on zona pellucida hardening and in vitro fertilization in ovine.

    PubMed

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Shamsi, Helia; Hajiyavand, Amir M; Saadat, Mozafar

    2016-03-01

    The central role of the oviduct, as the site of zona pellucida (ZP) maturation, fertilization and early embryogenesis, has been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells have different effects on in vitro ZP hardening, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of the resulting embryos. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a coculture system with ampullary/isthmic epithelial cells, TCM199 supplemented with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial derived growth factor (EGF) (GF treated group), conditioned media produced using ampullary (ACM), isthmic (ICM), COCs+ampullary, and COCs+isthmic epithelial cells, contactless culture system, oviductal fluid, GF+ACM/ICM, and drops of TCM199 (control), for 24h. The matured oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: Group I was subjected to ZP digestion; Group II underwent IVF. The duration of the ZP digestion, in a coculture system with ampullary epithelial cells (AE) was significantly increased (p<0.05), compared with other groups. Penetrated oocytes and monospermic fertilization were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the AE group. The mean number of spermatozoa per penetrated oocyte was reduced dramatically for the AE group (p<0.05). A significant increase (p<0.05) in the embryo development was observed in all treated groups, compared to the control. Results revealed that epithelial cells harvested from the ampullary segment of the oviduct had in vitro specialized role in ZP hardening and have subsequent IVF and IVC outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Attic Dust Analysis Approach for Evaluation of Heavy Metal Deposition on the El Paso Del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, E. G.; van Pelt, S.; Pannell, K.; Gill, T. E.; Barnes, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The El Paso del Norte region in the United States is a region of complex topography that is the home to more than 2 million people who share the same air. A large non-ferrous smelter (primary lead-copper smelter),owned by the American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO), was functioning in the Rio Grande River valley on the west side of the Franklin Mountains that divide the city of El Paso and across the river from Juarez, Mexico’s largest city on the United States border. During the more than 100 years of operation, beginning in 1887, the ASARCO smelter emissions considerably deteriorated the already complex environmental condition on the US-Mexican border. In order to identify the sources and patterns of heavy metal dispersion, we used an attic dust analyses approach which has not been previously been applied in this area. Undisturbed attic dust can provide an integrated history of atmospheric loading of particulates emanating from geological, biological and anthropogenic sources and can help to reconstruct the air pollution history on a local scale. We sampled attic dust and dust from undisturbed surfaces in 15 buildings of varying ages from three neighborhoods in the cities of El Paso and Juarez. The dust samples and samples of unpolluted buried soil horizons in the area were extracted with aqua regia and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Enrichment ratios (ER) were calculated by dividing the concentration of a trace metal in the attic dust by the mean concentration of the same element in the buried soil horizons. Mean ER for Pb were 263.3, 95.4, and 70.2 for dust collected in a neighborhood near the smelter, downtown Juarez, and an El Paso neighborhood on the other side of the Franklin Mountains from the smelter. Greater ER for As, Cd, Zn, Sb, and Cu followed the same trends, by neighborhood, noted for Pb. In addition, dust collected from attics surfaces (pipes, ducts, storage containers) post-dating smelter disclosure had lower ER for the trace metals

  5. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Joan P; Foster, Lily N; Mueller, Mark; Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Arbona, Sonia; Melville, Sharon; Ramos, Rebeca; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-11-16

    The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in the region. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Participants were mostly male (87.4%) and Hispanic/Latino (84.7%) whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV) was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions.

  6. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Joan P; Foster, Lily N; Mueller, Mark; Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Arbona, Sonia; Melville, Sharon; Ramos, Rebeca; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-01-01

    Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4%) and Hispanic/Latino (84.7%) whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV) was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions. PMID:19014605

  7. Rio Maria granodiorite and associated rocks of Ourilândia do Norte - Carajás province: Petrography, geochemistry and implications for sanukitoid petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Maria Nattânia Sampaio dos; Oliveira, Davis Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Ourilândia do Norte rocks are located near Rio Maria-Carajás domains boundary and are associated to Rio Maria Mesoarchean sanukitoid. Two groups were defined on the basis of geochemistry: (i) quartz-monzodiorites and granitoids (tonalite and granodiorite) which match to the sanukitoid (stricto sensu); and (ii) enclaves and (quartz) diorites that do not. Despite this, these rocks are spatially and temporally associated and they develop microstructures under three dynamic recrystallization regimes: (i) bulging recrystallization (300-700 °C); (ii) subgrain rotation recrystallization (<700 °C); (iii) grain boundary migration recrystallization (>600 °C). Furthermore, they belong to medium to high potassium calc-alkaline series, being magnesian and mainly metaluminous. The Mg#, Cr and Ni abundances point out an ultramafic mantle source. Variation of LILE, Nb/Y, (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y contents indicate a metasomatized mantle by two independent agents, namely TTG-like melt and aqueous fluids, at different depths. In this way, quartz-monzodiorites and granitoids were derived from fractionation of a mafic magma, whose source is a TTG-metasomatized mantle, at greater depths, while enclaves and (quartz) diorites were generated from a fluid-metasomatized mantle, at shallower depths. The close spatial and temporal association of rocks with sanukitoid (quartz-monzodiorites and granitoids) and BADR (enclaves and (quartz) diorites) signature suggest that Ourilândia do Norte granitoids were generated in close spatial and temporal association with active subduction.

  8. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  9. Cytochrome P450-catalyzed binding of 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD in human adrenal zona fasciculata/reticularis.

    PubMed

    Lindhe, Orjan; Skogseid, Britt; Brandt, Ingvar

    2002-03-01

    3-Methylsulfonyl-2,2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1'-dichloroethene (MeSO(2)-DDE) is a potent, tissue-specific toxicant that induces necrosis of the adrenal zona fasciculata following a local CYP11B1-catalyzed activation to a reactive intermediate in mice. Autoradiography was used to examine CYP11B1-catalyzed binding of MeSO(2)-[(14)C]DDE and the adrenocorticolytic drug 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichlorethane; (o,p'-[(14)C]DDD, Mitotane, Lysodren) in human adrenal tissue slice culture. Both compounds gave rise to a selective binding in the one sample of normal adrenal zona fasciculata/reticularis, leaving zona glomerulosa and the adrenal medulla devoid of binding. Addition of the CYP11B1 selective inhibitor metyrapone (50 microM) reduced MeSO(2)-[(14)C]DDE binding below the detection limit, whereas o,p'-[(14)C]DDD binding was reduced only by 42%. Selective binding of MeSO(2)-[(14)C]DDE and o,p'-[(14)C]DDD was also observed in an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma and in a nonfunctional adrenocortical hyperplasia. Exposure of slices from the normal adrenal cortex to MeSO(2)-DDE (25 microM) resulted in an increased accumulation of 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and androstenedione in the medium, and exposure to o,p'-DDD (25 microM) did not alter the steroid secretion pattern. No histological changes were found in either MeSO(2)-DDE- or o,p'-DDD-exposed slices, compared with nonexposed slices. We suggest that MeSO(2)-DDE might act as a potent adrenocorticolytic agent in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the usefulness of MeSO(2)-DDE as a possible alternative for the treatment of adrenocortical hypersecretion and tumor growth.

  10. The Zona Incerta Regulates Communication between the Superior Colliculus and the Posteromedial Thalamus: Implications for Thalamic Interactions with the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Glenn D.R.; Smith, Jared B.

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty concerning the circuit connections by which the superior colliculus interacts with the basal ganglia. To address this issue, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, into the superior colliculus and globus pallidus of Sprague-Dawley rats. In this two-tracer experiment, the projections from the superior colliculus terminated densely in the ventral zona incerta (ZIv), but did not overlap the labeled neurons observed in the subthalamic nucleus. In cases in which anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed, respectively, in sensory-responsive sites in the superior colliculus and posteromedial (POm) thalamus, the labeled projections from superior colliculus innervated the ZIv regions that contained the labeled neurons that project to POm. We also confirmed this colliculo–incertal–POm pathway by depositing a mixture of retrograde and anterograde tracers at focal sites in ZIv to reveal retrogradely labeled neurons in superior colliculus and anterogradely labeled terminals in POm. When combined with retrograde tracer injections in POm, immunohistochemical processing proved that most ZIv projections to POm are GABAergic. Consistent with these findings, direct stimulation of superior colliculus evoked neuronal excitation in ZIv and caused inhibition of spontaneous activity in POm. Collectively, these results indicate that superior colliculus can activate the inhibitory projections from ZIv to the POm. This is significant because it suggests that the superior colliculus could suppress the interactions between POm and the dorsolateral striatum, presumably to halt ongoing behaviors so that more adaptive motor actions are selected in response to unexpected sensory events. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By demonstrating that the zona incerta regulates communication between the superior colliculus and the posteromedial thalamus, we have uncovered a circuit that partly explains the behavioral changes that occur in response to unexpected

  11. Evaluation of sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona pellucida binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, S; Ravindra, J P; Ghosh, J; Gupta, P S P; Suresh, K P

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate sperm functional attributes in relation to in vitro sperm-zona binding ability and cleavage rate in assessing frozen thawed buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen quality. Frozen-thawed forty-eight ejaculates from eight Surti buffalo bulls (six ejaculates/bull) obtained by artificial vagina were used. Frozen semen from each bull was thawed, pooled, and subjected for sperm functional (six replicates) and in vitro fertilization (four replicates) tests. The progressive forward motility, plasmalemma functional integrity assessed by fluorogenic [6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and propidium iodide (PI)], hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and hypoosmotic swelling-Giemsa (HOS-G) test, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm nuclear morphology, the number of sperm bound to zona and cleavage rate differed significantly (P<0.05) between bulls. When the animals were grouped based on cleavage rate (group I, >40% cleavage rate, n=5, and group II, <40% cleavage rate, n=3), in vitro fertility parameters and all the sperm functional attributes except sperm nuclear morphology differed significantly (P<0.05). The proportions of sperm with functional plasmalemma in the tail and intact acrosome assessed by HOS-G test (25.33, range: 17.48-40.27) were significantly (P<0.001) lower than the functional plasmalemma in the tail assessed by HOS test (39.80, range: 27.85-54.67). The number of sperm bound to zona had significant correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.90, P<0.01) and plasmalemma integrity (fluorogenic, r=0.74 and HOS, r=0.79, P<0.05) and HOS-G, r=0.87, P<0.01). The cleavage rate had significant (P<0.05) correlations with the mitochondrial membrane potential (r=0.70) and plasmalemma integrity measured by HOS-G test (r=0.68). The present study indicates that these attributes could represent important determinants of buffalo sperm quality influencing cleavage rate.

  12. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental

  13. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  14. Inhibitors of serine proteases decrease sperm penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro by inhibiting sperm binding to the zona pellucida and acrosome reaction.

    PubMed

    Beek, J; Nauwynck, H; Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-11-01

    Serine proteases are involved in mammalian fertilization. Inhibitors of serine proteases can be applied to investigate at which point these enzymes exert their action. We selected two serine protease inhibitors, 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, 100 μM) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI, 5 μM) from Glycine max, via previous dose-response IVF experiments and sperm toxicity tests. In the present study, we evaluated how these inhibitors affect porcine fertilization in vitro as calculated on total fertilization rate, polyspermy rate, and the sperm number per fertilized oocyte of cumulus-intact, cumulus-free, and zona-free oocytes. In the control group (no inhibitor), these parameters were 86%, 49%, and 2.2 for cumulus-intact oocytes and 77%, 43%, and 2.2 for cumulus-free oocytes (6-hour gamete incubation period, 1.25 × 10(5) spermatozoa/mL). 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride and STI significantly reduced total fertilization and polyspermy rate in cumulus-intact and cumulus-free oocytes (P < 0.05). Total fertilization rates were respectively 65% and 53% (AEBSF) and 36% and 17% (STI). Inhibition rates were higher in cumulus-free oocytes than in cumulus-intact oocytes, indicating that inhibitors exerted their action after sperm passage through the cumulus. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not STI reduced sperm binding to the ZP. The acrosome reaction was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Only 40.4% (AEBSF) and 11.4% (STI) of spermatozoa completed a calcium-induced acrosome reaction compared to 86.7% of spermatozoa in the control group. There was no effect on sperm binding or fertilization parameters in zona-free oocytes. In conclusion, sperm-zona binding and acrosome reaction were inhibited by serine protease inhibitors during porcine IVF.

  15. The immune response and fertility of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) immunised with porcine zonae pellucidae or recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 protein.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Anne L; Kay, David J; Walters, Bryan; Menkhorst, Peter; McCartney, Carmen A; Buist, Janine A; Mate, Karen E; Rodger, John C

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the potential contraceptive effect of immunisation with zona pellucida antigens, 50 free-ranging koalas were immunised with either porcine zonae pellucidae (PZP), recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 (recBP-ZP3) or buffer, in complete Freund's adjuvant. A single booster immunisation in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was administered 3-5 months later. Where possible animals were recaptured, reproductive status was assessed and blood was collected at 1-3-month intervals for the next 33 months. Forty-three koalas were recaptured at least three times allowing reliable assessments of their fertility. Fourteen animals were observed never to have a pouch young. Of the remaining 29 animals the reproductive productivity of PZP treated females was reduced compared with control and recBP-ZP3 treated females, in terms of both total number of young produced, and failure to produce further young in females of proven fertility. One month after the initial immunisation, serum antigen-specific antibody titres were higher in animals immunised with PZP or recBP-ZP3 compared to controls, and reached a plateau by 4 months. Antibody against the relevant immunising antigen was also detected in ovarian follicular fluid, uterine fluid and vaginal secretions. Epitope analysis suggested that immune responses other than antibodies directed against the ZP3 amino acid sequence were responsible for mediating infertility. The results demonstrate that the fertility of female koalas can be compromised by immunisation against zona pellucida antigens. However, unlike in the eastern grey kangaroo and the brushtail possum, immunisation with bacterial recombinant brushtail possum ZP3 did not compromise fertility in the koala.

  16. DACH1, a zona glomerulosa selective gene in the human adrenal, activates transforming growth factor-β signaling and suppresses aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhua; Shaikh, Lalarukh Haris; Neogi, Sudeshna G; McFarlane, Ian; Zhao, Wanfeng; Figg, Nichola; Brighton, Cheryl A; Maniero, Carmela; Teo, Ada E D; Azizan, Elena A B; Brown, Morris J

    2015-05-01

    Common somatic mutations in CACNAID and ATP1A1 may define a subgroup of smaller, zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. We have therefore sought signature ZG genes, which may provide insight into the frequency and pathogenesis of ZG-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. Twenty-one pairs of zona fasciculata and ZG and 14 paired aldosterone-producing adenomas from 14 patients with Conn's syndrome and 7 patients with pheochromocytoma were assayed by the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on genes >10-fold upregulated in ZG (compared with zona fasciculata) and >10-fold upregulated in aldosterone-producing adenomas (compared with ZG). DACH1, a gene associated with tumor progression, was further analyzed. The role of DACH1 on steroidogenesis, transforming growth factor-β, and Wnt signaling activity was assessed in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of DACH1 in human ZG. Silencing of DACH1 in H295R cells increased CYP11B2 mRNA levels and aldosterone production, whereas overexpression of DACH1 decreased aldosterone production. Overexpression of DACH1 in H295R cells activated the transforming growth factor-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways but inhibited the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway. Stimulation of primary human adrenal cells with angiotensin II decreased DACH1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, there was little overlap between our top ZG genes and those in rodent ZG. In conclusion, (1) the transcriptome profile of human ZG differs from rodent ZG, (2) DACH1 inhibits aldosterone secretion in human adrenals, and (3) transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway is activated in DACH1 overexpressed cells and may mediate inhibition of aldosterone secretion in human adrenals.

  17. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  18. Single-treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rutberg, Allen T; Naugle, Ricky E; Verret, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated gradual reductions of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations through immunocontraception, with stabilization occurring after 2-4 yr of treatment, and subsequent reductions of 6-10% annually. These studies employed porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccines that required two initial treatments and annual retreatments. From 2005 to 2010, 258 adult and yearling female deer on Fripp Island, South Carolina, were treated with one of several PZP preparations designed to produce 2+ yr of effective contraception with a single treatment. These included several preparations of SpayVac and of native PZP-adjuvant emulsion plus PZP and QA-21 in timed-release pellets. Deer were chemically immobilized, ear-tagged, and administered initial treatments by hand in February-March. Some treated deer were boosted remotely with PZP-adjuvant emulsion 1.5 - 4.5 yr after initial treatments. Ground-based distance sampling was used to estimate deer population density at Fripp Island, a resort community, and at a relatively undeveloped neighboring control site, Hunting Island. Most vaccine preparations tested reduced fawning rates by 75% to 95% for at least 1 yr. From 2005 to 2011, deer density on Fripp Island declined by 50%, from 72 deer/km(2) to 36 deer/km(2), an average annual reduction of 11%. In contrast, population density on the Hunting Island control site fluctuated between 2005 and 2011, averaging 23 deer/km(2) (range, 19-28 deer/km(2)). Population declines on Fripp Island were associated with an increase in the proportion of treated females and with a progressive decrease in winter fawn:doe ratios, from 1.21 fawns/doe in 2005 to 0.19 fawns/doe in 2010. Winter fawn:doe ratios averaged 1.36 fawns/doe (range, 0.84 - 1.62 fawns/doe) at the Hunting Island control site. Annual survivorship averaged approximately 79% among ear-tagged females. The rate at which deer populations diminished in association with PZP treatments on Fripp Island was

  19. Dopamine acts on D2 receptors to increase potassium conductance in neurones of the rat substantia nigra zona compacta.

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, M G; Mercuri, N B; North, R A

    1987-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from neurones in the substantia nigra zona compacta in slices of rat mesencephalon in vitro. The majority of neurones fired action potentials spontaneously at 0.2-5.6 Hz. Dopamine, applied either by superfusion or from the tip of a pressurized pipette, prevented spontaneous action potential firing and hyperpolarized the membrane. 2. When the membrane potential was held negative to the threshold for action potential firing, the hyperpolarization evoked by dopamine was accompanied by a fall in input resistance. Under voltage clamp, dopamine produced an outward membrane current associated with an increase in membrane conductance. The effects of superfused dopamine on firing rate, membrane potential and membrane current were concentration dependent in the range 1-100 microM. 3. The reversal potential for the hyperpolarizations and the outward currents produced by dopamine was -109.7 +/- 1.7 mV (n = 12) when the potassium concentration was 2.5 mM and -74.0 +/- 5.0 mV (n = 4) when the potassium concentration was 10.5 mM. The change in reversal potentials in these and intermediate potassium concentrations was described by the Nernst equation. 4. The outward current induced by dopamine was reversibly reduced by barium (100-300 microM) and by high concentrations of tetraethylammonium (greater than or equal to 10 mM). Calcium-free solutions with cobalt (0.5-2 mM) did not reduce the current in response to dopamine during the first 5 min of their application. Currents and hyperpolarizations caused by dopamine were unaffected by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). 5. The hyperpolarization produced by dopamine was mimicked by the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (LY 171555, 0.1-3 microM) and was blocked by the D2 receptor agonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride. Agonists and antagonists at D1 receptors had no effect. 6. (-)-Sulpiride (30 nM-30 microM) produced a progressive shift to the right in the concentration-response curve to either dopamine or

  20. Inoculation of female American black bears (Ursus americanus) with partially purified porcine zona pellucidae limits cub production.

    PubMed

    Lane, V M; Liu, I K M; Casey, K; vanLeeuwen, E M G; Flanagan, D R; Murata, K; Munro, C

    2007-01-01

    The present 2-year study investigated the feasibility of using porcine zona pellucidae (pZP) as antigen for immunocontraception in American black bears. Sows, 3-6 years of age, were administered either two doses of 250 microg pZP with Freund's adjuvant (n = 10) or adjuvant alone (n = 5), one in April and one in May, and were kept away from the boars until June. Serum samples were collected before injections and before denning (November). The presence of sows with cubs at side was observed during premature emergence from denning. First-year results indicated that anti-pZP antibody titres in vaccinated sows were 2.5-9.0-fold (range) higher compared with non-vaccinated sows and that the vaccinated sows were threefold less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.167). Control and vaccinated bears produced 1.6 and 0.2 cubs per sow, respectively (P = 0.06). The second-year study investigated the feasibility of using pZP sequestered in a controlled-release pellet and a water-soluble adjuvant (QS-21) to avoid regulatory problems associated with Freund's adjuvant. Sows in the treatment group (n = 22) were administered a single dose of an emulsion of 250 microg pZP and 150 microg QS-21 plus a pellet containing 70-90 microg pZP for delayed release as booster dose. Control sows (n = 5) received the QS-21 adjuvant in pellet alone. Serum samples were collected before inoculations (April) and before denning (November). Seven cubs were born to the five control sows, but none was born to the 22 vaccinated sows (P < 0.001). Anti-pZP antibody mean absorbance ratios in control sows remained at background levels, whereas vaccinated sows had ratios fourfold higher than controls. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistochemical localisation confirmed immunoreactivity of sera from inoculated bears. We conclude that cub production in the American black bear can be effectively limited with either two injections of 250 microg pZP or a single inoculation of partially

  1. Na+ coordination at the Na2 site of the Na+/I− symporter

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Sánchez, Yuly E.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I− transport in the thyroid—the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis—with a 2 Na+: 1 I− stoichiometry. The two Na+ binding sites (Na1 and Na2) and the I− binding site interact allosterically: when Na+ binds to a Na+ site, the affinity of NIS for the other Na+ and for I− increases significantly. In all Na+-dependent transporters with the same fold as NIS, the side chains of two residues, S353 and T354 (NIS numbering), were identified as the Na+ ligands at Na2. To understand the cooperativity between the substrates, we investigated the coordination at the Na2 site. We determined that four other residues—S66, D191, Q194, and Q263—are also involved in Na+ coordination at this site. Experiments in whole cells demonstrated that these four residues participate in transport by NIS: mutations at these positions result in proteins that, although expressed at the plasma membrane, transport little or no I−. These residues are conserved throughout the entire SLC5 family, to which NIS belongs, suggesting that they serve a similar function in the other transporters. Our findings also suggest that the increase in affinity that each site displays when an ion binds to another site may result from changes in the dynamics of the transporter. These mechanistic insights deepen our understanding not only of NIS but also of other transporters, including many that, like NIS, are of great medical relevance. PMID:27562170

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Streamflow and Dissolved Solids in the Rio Grande from Del Norte, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas, 1993-95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S. J.; Anderholm, S. K.

    2002-12-01

    Data collected as part of the Rio Grande Valley National Water Quality Assessment Program were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in streamflow and the concentration of dissolved solids at selected sites on the Rio Grande from Del Norte, Colorado, to El Paso, Texas, for the period of April 1993 to September 1995. Dissolved solids loads, which were estimated by a multivariate linear regression model (ESTIMATOR2000), are also presented and discussed. Spatial and temporal variations in streamflow, dissolved solids concentrations, and dissolved solids loads were used to evaluate how surface-water and ground-water inflows to and outflows from the Rio Grande affect dissolved solids along the river. Streamflow decreases from Del Norte, Colorado, to the mouth of the Conejos River because of diversions for irrigation. Streamflow increases from the mouth of the Conejos River to Otowi Bridge because of surface-water inflows (from the Conejos River, the Chama River, and other tributaries) and ground-water inflow in northern New Mexico. Streamflow decreases downstream from Otowi Bridge because outflows (due to agricultural use, leakage to ground water, and evapo-transpiration) are greater than inflows. Dissolved solids concentrations generally increase in the downstream direction; however, dissolved solids concentrations decrease between the mouth of the Conejos River and Otowi Bridge due to surface-water inflows from the Conejos and the Chama Rivers and ground-water inflows in northern New Mexico. In several reaches of the Rio Grande, decreasing streamflow and increasing dissolved solids loads indicate the presence of inflows with large dissolved solids concentrations (relative to those of the Rio Grande immediately upstream from that inflow); this occurs (1) between Del Norte, Colorado, and the mouth of Trinchera Creek, near Lasauses, Colorado (2) between Otowi Bridge and San Marcial, New Mexico, and (3) between Leasburg, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas

  3. Estimativas de possiveis recursos de petroleo e gas na America Central e na America do Sul [Estimates of possible petroleum and gas resources in Central American and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    O U.S. Geological Survey recentemente completou estimativas de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás em 130 áreas petrolíferas pré-determinadas no mundo (USGS, 2000). Vinte e três destas áreas ficam na América do Sul, na América Central, e no Caribe (fig. 1). Os resultados estão apresentados na tabela 1. Nas 23 áreas, estimamos um total de 105 BBO e um total de 487 TCFG. A região composta de América Central mais América do Sul ficou em terceiro lugar no mundo em termos de possíveis recursos de petróleo e gás. No primeiro lugar ficou o Oriente Médio e no segundo lugar ficou a antiga União Soviética (USGS, 2000). As áreas com maiores probabilidades de encontrar depósitos gigantes de petróleo e gás se localizam nas áreas do Oceano Atlântico começando com a Bacia de Santos no sul até a Bacia Guyana-Suriname no norte. As possibilidades de existirem depósitos gigantes são maiores nas áreas submersas do mar até profundidades de 3,600 m. Diversos depósitos gigantes de petróleo foram descobertos no mar na Bacia de Campos e ainda podem serem encontrados depósitos similares na Bacia de Campos e suas imediações.

  4. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000-1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-03-26

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C.

  5. Evidence for maize (Zea mays) in the Late Archaic (3000–1800 B.C.) in the Norte Chico region of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Jonathan; Creamer, Winifred; Huamán Mesía, Luis; Goldstein, David; Reinhard, Karl; Rodríguez, Cindy Vergel

    2013-01-01

    For more than 40 y, there has been an active discussion over the presence and economic importance of maize (Zea mays) during the Late Archaic period (3000–1800 B.C.) in ancient Peru. The evidence for Late Archaic maize has been limited, leading to the interpretation that it was present but used primarily for ceremonial purposes. Archaeological testing at a number of sites in the Norte Chico region of the north central coast provides a broad range of empirical data on the production, processing, and consumption of maize. New data drawn from coprolites, pollen records, and stone tool residues, combined with 126 radiocarbon dates, demonstrate that maize was widely grown, intensively processed, and constituted a primary component of the diet throughout the period from 3000 to 1800 B.C. PMID:23440194

  6. Solidification of NaCl-NaF eutectic in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yu, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, have been produced in space and on earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis.

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed. PMID:12896850

  8. Reconstructing the annual mass balance of the Echaurren Norte glacier (Central Andes, 33.5° S) using local and regional hydroclimatic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiokas, Mariano H.; Christie, Duncan A.; Le Quesne, Carlos; Pitte, Pierre; Ruiz, Lucas; Villalba, Ricardo; Luckman, Brian H.; Berthier, Etienne; Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; González-Reyes, Álvaro; McPhee, James; Barcaza, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the great number and variety of glaciers in southern South America, in situ glacier mass-balance records are extremely scarce and glacier-climate relationships are still poorly understood in this region. Here we use the longest (> 35 years) and most complete in situ mass-balance record, available for the Echaurren Norte glacier (ECH) in the Andes at ˜ 33.5° S, to develop a minimal glacier surface mass-balance model that relies on nearby monthly precipitation and air temperature data as forcing. This basic model is able to explain 78 % of the variance in the annual glacier mass-balance record over the 1978-2013 calibration period. An attribution assessment identified precipitation variability as the dominant forcing modulating annual mass balances at ECH, with temperature variations likely playing a secondary role. A regionally averaged series of mean annual streamflow records from both sides of the Andes between ˜ 30 and 37° S is then used to estimate, through simple linear regression, this glacier's annual mass-balance variations since 1909. The reconstruction model captures 68 % of the observed glacier mass-balance variability and shows three periods of sustained positive mass balances embedded in an overall negative trend over the past 105 years. The three periods of sustained positive mass balances (centered in the 1920s-1930s, in the 1980s and in the first decade of the 21st century) coincide with several documented glacier advances in this region. Similar trends observed in other shorter glacier mass-balance series suggest that the Echaurren Norte glacier reconstruction is representative of larger-scale conditions and could be useful for more detailed glaciological, hydrological and climatological assessments in this portion of the Andes.

  9. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of particulate organic matter from the Paso del Norte airshed along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Daniel E; Ontiveros, Cynthia C; Li, Wen-Whai; Garcia, Jose H; Denison, Michael S; McDonald, Jacob D; Burchiel, Scott W; Washburn, Barbara Shayne

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we determined the biologic activity of dichloromethane-extracted particulate matter < 10 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) obtained from filters at three sites in the Paso del Norte airshed, which includes El Paso, Texas, USA; Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, and Sunland Park, New Mexico, USA. The extracts were rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and had significant biologic activity, measured using two in vitro assay systems: ethoxyresorufin-(O-deethylase (EROD) induction and the aryl hydrocarbon-receptor luciferase reporter system. In most cases, both EROD (5.25 pmol/min/mg protein) and luciferase activities (994 relative light units/mg) were highest in extracts from the Advance site located in an industrial neighborhood in Juarez. These values represented 58% and 55%, respectively, of induction associated with 1 micro M ss-naphthoflavone exposures. In contrast, little activity was observed at the Northeast Clinic site in El Paso, the reference site. In most cases, luciferase and EROD activity from extracts collected from the Tillman Health Center site, situated in downtown El Paso, fell between those observed at the other two sites. Overall, a statistically significant correlation existed between PM10 and EROD and luciferase activities. Chemical analysis of extracts collected from the Advance site demonstrated that concentrations of most PAHs were higher than those reported in most other metropolitan areas in the United States. Calculations made with these data suggest a cancer risk of 5-12 cases per 100,000 people. This risk estimate, as well as comparisons with the work of other investigators, raises concern regarding the potential for adverse health effects to the residents of this airshed. Further work is needed to understand the sources, exposure, and effects of PM10 and particulate organic material in the Paso del Norte airshed.

  10. Evaluation of the immunocontraceptive potential of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant non-human primate zona pellucida glycoproteins in homologous animal model.

    PubMed

    Govind, Chhabi K; Srivastava, Neelu; Gupta, Satish K

    2002-11-22

    In order to evaluate the immunocontraceptive potential of zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins, recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 (r-bmZP1) and -2 (r-bmZP2) were expressed as polyhistidine fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Female bonnet monkeys were immunized with the purified r-bmZP1 (n=5) and r-bmZP2 (n=4) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT). Immunization led to generation of antibodies against r-bmZP1, r-bmZP2 and DT as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The immunized animals exhibited normal menstrual cyclicity and progesterone profile, except during the summer amenorrhoea. Immunized animals, when mated with males of proven fertility, showed protection from conceiving for cumulative 45 ovulatory cycles in r-bmZP1-DT immunized group and 32 ovulatory cycles in r-bmZP2-DT immunized group. Ovarian histopathology of both the immunized groups revealed the presence of atretic follicles with degenerated oocytes, which may have been the principle cause for the failure of immunized animals to conceive in spite of the decline in either anti-r-bmZP1 or anti-r-bmZP2 antibody titres to background levels. These studies demonstrate, for the first time, that the block of fertility subsequent to immunization with r-bmZP1 and r-bmZP2, in a homologous non-human primate model, may be mediated due to ovarian dysfunction.

  11. Failure of female baboons (Papio anubis) to conceive following immunization with recombinant non-human primate zona pellucida glycoprotein-B expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Govind, C K; Gupta, S K

    2000-07-01

    Progress in the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine based on zona pellucida glycoproteins has been hampered due to observed ovarian dysfunction associated with immunization using these as immunogens. In this study four female baboons (Papio anubis) were immunized with recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-B (r-bmZPB) expressed in Escherichia coli and conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) using Arlacel-A and Squalene as adjuvants. All the immunized animals elicited a good antibody response against r-bmZPB, continued to have ovulatory cycles and showed no disturbance in the cyclicity. In presence of high titres of circulating anti-bmZPB antibodies (>2x10(3) antibody units), the immunized animals failed to conceive following mating with males of proven fertility. Pregnancy was observed in the immunized animals subsequent to the decline in anti-r-bmZPB antibody titres. These results, though preliminary, suggest that immunization with ZPB may be used for immunocontraception without obvious ovarian dysfunction.

  12. Immunocontraceptive potential of recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-C expressed in Escherichia coli and its corresponding synthetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Renuka; Sivapurapu, Neela; Afzalpurkar, Abhijit; Srikanth, V.; Govind, Chhabi K.; Gupta, Satish K.

    2001-01-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins have been proposed as candidate antigens for development of immunocontraceptive vaccines. In this study, the efficacy to block fertility by immunization with recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-C (r-bmZPC) expressed in Escherichia coli and its synthetic peptide (P(4): KGDCGTPSHSRRQPHVVSQWSRSA, aa residues 324-347) conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) has been evaluated in a homologous system. Female bonnet monkeys, immunized with P(4)-DT conjugate showed better immunocontraceptive potential as compared to an r-bmZPC-DT immunized group. In spite of high anti-P(4) antibody titres, animals continued to have ovulatory cycles and showed no disturbance in cyclicity (except summer amenorrhoea). No ovarian pathology was observed in the P(4) immunized group. These results suggest that immunization with the P(4) may lead to block in fertility without obvious ovarian dysfunction. However, further inputs are required to identify additional ZP based B-cell epitopes to enhance the contraceptive efficacy.

  13. Angio-OCT de la zona avascular foveal en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina.

    PubMed

    Wons, Juliana; Pfau, Maximilian; Wirth, Magdalena A; Freiberg, Florentina J; Becker, Matthias D; Michels, Stephan

    2017-07-11

    Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio comprendía visualizar y cuantificar las alteraciones patológicas de la zona avascular foveal (ZAF) mediante angio-OCT en ojos con oclusión venosa de la retina (OVR) en comparación con el ojo contralateral sano. Procedimientos: La angio-OCT se llevó a cabo mediante el sistema Avanti® RTVue 100 XR (Optovue Inc., Fremont, Calif., EE. UU.). Los bordes de la capa vascular superficial (CVS) se definieron como 3 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y 15 μm por debajo de la capa plexiforme interna y, para la capa vascular profunda (CVP), como 15 y 70 μm por debajo de la membrana limitante interna y de la capa plexiforme interna, respectivamente. La longitud de la ZAF horizontal, vertical y máxima de la CVS y la CVP en cada ojo se midió de forma manual. Además, se midió el ángulo entre el diámetro máximo de la ZAF y el plano papilomacular. Resultados: La angio-OCT representó los defectos dentro de la vasculatura en el área perifoveal en ojos con oclusión de rama venosa de la retina (ORVR; n = 11) y con oclusión de la vena central de la retina (OVCR; n = 8). Esto resultó en un crecimiento del diámetro máximo de la ZAF en ojos con OVR (n = 19) en comparación con el ojo contralateral (n = 19; 921 ± 213 frente a 724 ± 145 µm; p = 0,008). Además, se observó una correlación significativa entre la mejor agudeza visual corregida (MAVC) y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF en la CVP (ρ de Spearman = -0,423, p < 0,01). Por último, en los ojos con OVR, el ángulo entre el plano papilomacular y el diámetro máximo de la ZAF se dio tan solo en el 21,05% (CVS) y en el 15,79% (CVP) de los casos a 0 ± 15 ó 90 ± 15°, respectivamente. En ojos sanos, estos ángulos (que supuestamente representan una configuración de la ZAF regular) fueron más prevalentes (CVS 68,42 frente a 21,05%, p = 0,003; CVP 73,68 frente a 15,79%, p < 0,001). Conclusiones: La angio-OCT muestra alteraciones morfológicas de la ZAF en ojos con

  14. Na+ recirculation and isosmotic transport.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E H; Møbjerg, N

    2006-01-01

    The Na(+) recirculation theory for solute-coupled fluid absorption is an expansion of the local osmosis concept introduced by Curran and analyzed by Diamond & Bossert. Based on studies on small intestine the theory assumes that the observed recirculation of Na(+) serves regulation of the osmolarity of the absorbate. Mathematical modeling reproducing bioelectric and hydrosmotic properties of small intestine and proximal tubule, respectively, predicts a significant range of observations such as isosmotic transport, hyposmotic transport, solvent drag, anomalous solvent drag, the residual hydraulic permeability in proximal tubule of AQP1 (-/-) mice, and the inverse relationship between hydraulic permeability and the concentration difference needed to reverse transepithelial water flow. The model reproduces the volume responses of cells and lateral intercellular space (lis) following replacement of luminal NaCl by sucrose as well as the linear dependence of volume absorption on luminal NaCl concentration. Analysis of solvent drag on Na(+) in tight junctions provides explanation for the surprisingly high metabolic efficiency of Na(+) reabsorption. The model predicts and explains low metabolic efficiency in diluted external baths. Hyperosmolarity of lis is governed by the hydraulic permeability of the apical plasma membrane and tight junction with 6-7 mOsm in small intestine and < or = 1 mOsm in proximal tubule. Truly isosmotic transport demands a Na(+) recirculation of 50-70% in small intestine but might be barely measurable in proximal tubule. The model fails to reproduce a certain type of observations: The reduced volume absorption at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium in AQP1 knockout mice, and the stimulated water absorption by gallbladder in diluted external solutions. Thus, it indicates cellular regulation of apical Na(+) uptake, which is not included in the mathematical treatment.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence

  16. Application of Poisson distribution theory to the zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test to assess sperm function of men with asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J; Elton, R A

    1986-05-01

    Assessments of the penetrating potential of human spermatozoa were carried out using the zona-free hamster oocyte penetration test on 4 groups of subjects exhibiting normal fertility, idiopathic asthenozoospermia(less than 40% motility), asthenozoospermia associated with varicocele and oligoaesthenozoospermia (less than 20 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and less than 40% motility). When the Poisson model was used to correct the results of the in-vitro penetration experiments for differences in motile sperm concentration, significant differences were apparent between the normal fertile controls and all 3 categories of asthenozoospermic patient. Furthermore, the penetrating ability of the motile spermatozoa from patients presenting with a varicocele or oligoaesthenozoospermia was significantly less than that for the group in which asthenozoospermia was the only detectable defect. These results emphasize the practical significance of the Poisson model in the analysis of male fertility and demonstrate that the asthenozoospermic condition is associated with a significant reduction in the fertilizing potential of the motile spermatozoa.

  17. Identification of a Novel TGF-β-Binding Site in the Zona Pellucida C-terminal (ZP-C) Domain of TGF-β-Receptor-3 (TGFR-3)

    PubMed Central

    Diestel, Uschi; Resch, Marcus; Meinhardt, Kathrin; Weiler, Sigrid; Hellmann, Tina V.; Mueller, Thomas D.; Nickel, Joachim; Eichler, Jutta; Muller, Yves A.

    2013-01-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) domain is present in extracellular proteins such as the zona pellucida proteins and tectorins and participates in the formation of polymeric protein networks. However, the ZP domain also occurs in the cytokine signaling co-receptor transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor type 3 (TGFR-3, also known as betaglycan) where it contributes to cytokine ligand recognition. Currently it is unclear how the ZP domain architecture enables this dual functionality. Here, we identify a novel major TGF-β-binding site in the FG loop of the C-terminal subdomain of the murine TGFR-3 ZP domain (ZP-C) using protein crystallography, limited proteolysis experiments, surface plasmon resonance measurements and synthetic peptides. In the murine 2.7 Å crystal structure that we are presenting here, the FG-loop is disordered, however, well-ordered in a recently reported homologous rat ZP-C structure. Surprisingly, the adjacent external hydrophobic patch (EHP) segment is registered differently in the rat and murine structures suggesting that this segment only loosely associates with the remaining ZP-C fold. Such a flexible and temporarily-modulated association of the EHP segment with the ZP domain has been proposed to control the polymerization of ZP domain-containing proteins. Our findings suggest that this flexibility also extends to the ZP domain of TGFR-3 and might facilitate co-receptor ligand interaction and presentation via the adjacent FG-loop. This hints that a similar C-terminal region of the ZP domain architecture possibly regulates both the polymerization of extracellular matrix proteins and cytokine ligand recognition of TGFR-3. PMID:23826237

  18. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  19. Calmodulin limits pathogenic Na+ channel persistent current

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Haidun; Wang, Chaojian; Marx, Steven O.

    2017-01-01

    Increased “persistent” current, caused by delayed inactivation, through voltage-gated Na+ (NaV) channels leads to cardiac arrhythmias or epilepsy. The underlying molecular contributors to these inactivation defects are poorly understood. Here, we show that calmodulin (CaM) binding to multiple sites within NaV channel intracellular C-terminal domains (CTDs) limits persistent Na+ current and accelerates inactivation across the NaV family. Arrhythmia or epilepsy mutations located in NaV1.5 or NaV1.2 channel CTDs, respectively, reduce CaM binding either directly or by interfering with CTD–CTD interchannel interactions. Boosting the availability of CaM, thus shifting its binding equilibrium, restores wild-type (WT)–like inactivation in mutant NaV1.5 and NaV1.2 channels and likewise diminishes the comparatively large persistent Na+ current through WT NaV1.6, whose CTD displays relatively low CaM affinity. In cerebellar Purkinje neurons, in which NaV1.6 promotes a large physiological persistent Na+ current, increased CaM diminishes the persistent Na+ current, suggesting that the endogenous, comparatively weak affinity of NaV1.6 for apoCaM is important for physiological persistent current. PMID:28087622

  20. [Relation of socioeconomic and environmental indicators to the nutritional status of preschool children in a community of Sierra Norte de Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, S E; Cifuentes, E

    1986-03-01

    A brief discussión on "the social" approach in nutritional research is presented. The relevance that socioeconomic factors have acquired in recent years for this type of studies, is also discussed. The main purpose of our communication was to identify and validate some socioeconomic and environmental indicators and their association with the nutritional status of preschool children in a Mexican indigenous community (Sierra Norte de Puebla). A total of 89 children below five years of age were studied and classified according to their nutritional status. A socioeconomic questionnaire was applied to their parents. Results revealed ample correlation between the degree of malnutrition of the preschool child and the following indicators: housing conditions, father's main occupation, land tenure, income, etc. It is argued that the analysis of these indicators is relevant, emphasizing the importance that the combination of anthropometrical, food consumption and socioeconomic data have for detecting population groups vulnerable to malnutrition. The obtention of these indicators is therefore highly recommended, but should not imply great obstacles; on the contrary, they should be highly sensitive and easy to detect.

  1. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Dias, Edmilson de Castro; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Oliveira, Paula Gabriela Melo de; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Macedo, Iara Térsia Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p < 0.05). Monthly analysis of the variables temperature, relative humidity and rainfall did not show a significant influence on population density. However, there were seasonal differences: approximately 70% of sand flies were captured during the rainy season (p < 0.05). The predominant species, L. longipalpis, is present in substantial number, representing a public health risk. Therefore, because of higher prevalence during the rainy season, we recommend intensified VL control measures before and during this season to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

  2. High Triatoma brasiliensis Densities and Trypanosoma cruzi Prevalence in Domestic and Peridomestic Habitats in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil: The Source for Chagas Disease Outbreaks?

    PubMed

    Lilioso, Mauricio; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Rabinovich, Jorge; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Harry, Myriam; Marcet, Paula L; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    AbstractA total of 2,431 Triatoma brasiliensis were collected from 39 populations of Paraíba (PB) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN) states, Brazil. In PB, Trypanosoma cruzi infection was not detected in either peridomestic or domestic vector populations. In contrast, in RN, T. brasiliensis was detected with high parasite prevalence in these ecotopes (30.7-40.0%). Moreover, peridomicile insect population densities were more than double the average densities of all other settings evaluated (19.17 versus < 8.94 triatomine/man-hour). Genotyped parasites evidenced a mix of T. cruzi lineages circulating in both peridomestic and sylvatic populations. Although vector control efforts have dramatically decreased Chagas disease transmission to humans, recent outbreaks have been detected in four municipalities of RN state. Our results clearly evidence a worrisome proximity between infected vectors and humans in RN. Indeed, finding of infected T. brasiliensis inside homes is routinely recorded by local vector control surveillance staff around the outbreak area, challenging the current and conventional view that vector transmissions are controlled in northeastern Brazil. This scenario calls for strengthening vector control surveillance and interventions to prevent further Chagas transmission, especially in RN State.

  3. Water-quality data for the Rio Grande between Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces and Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico, 1996-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    The City of Las Cruces is concerned about water quality in a reach of the Rio Grande that receives outfall from the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant. Water-quality samples were collected from the Rio Grande at Picacho Bridge near Las Cruces, New Mexico; from the sampling site at the City of Las Cruces wastewater-treatment plant; and from the Rio Grande at Calle del Norte Bridge near Mesilla, New Mexico. The samples were collected on 12 days from August 6, 1996, to February 28, 1997, and were analyzed for a suite of dissolved and total constituents including trace metals. Instantaneous stream discharge was measured concurrently with collection of the Rio Grande samples. At the wastewater- treatment plant, the City of Las Cruces provided instantaneous discharge rates concurrent with sampling. Quality-control measures used in this study to ensure analytical accuracy included replicate sampling, replicate analysis of split samples, ambient blanks, equipment blanks, and analysis of standard reference water samples.

  4. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  5. Factors contributing to elevated indoor radon in the Paso Del Norte region of the Texas-Mexico border: information for physicians.

    PubMed

    Cech, Irina; Burau, Keith D; Al-Hashimi, Radhiya

    2009-07-01

    We collected sample data on radon concentrations concurrently in the air, water, and soil in the northern part of the Texas-Mexico border (both sides) popularly known as Paso Del Norte. These field data were used to statistically correlate relative contributions of yard soil, tap water, location, and house features to concentrations of radon indoors. Indoor air radon concentrations in some homes were up to nine-fold the limit recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Concentrations of radon in tap water were up to nearly three-fold the recommended limit. Apartments and manufactured homes had generally greater concentrations of indoor radon. Statistically significant associations were indicated between indoor radon air levels and radon in the soil (P < 0.001); radon in the water and radium in water (P = 0.016); radon air levels and apartment living (P = 0.010); and mobile homes vs. wood, brick, and stucco construction (P = 0.016). Radon soil gas, apartment living, and the aluminum plank wall environment of mobile homes were associated with elevated indoor radon in the homes studied. Physician's attention is invited to the potential nontrivial risk from radon, as it becomes trapped inside enclosed structures. This article is intended to serve as a resource for primary care physicians who want to better understand the distribution and contributing factors for indoor radon. The Surgeon General recommends every US home be tested for radon as of January 13, 2005.

  6. Gonad development and reproduction of the ballyhoo half beak, Hemiramphus brasiliensis from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M R; Silva, N B; Yamamoto, M E; Chellappa, S

    2015-05-01

    The gonad development and reproductive aspects of Hemiramphus brasiliensis from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil were verified. This paper presents data on the length-weight relationship, sex ratio, length at first sexual maturity, gonad development, reproductive period and fecundity of H. brasiliensis. Females of this species predominated in the sampled population and were larger in size than the males. The length at the first sexual maturation of males was 20.8 cm and that of females was 21.5 cm. The macroscopic characteristics of the gonads indicated four maturation stages. Histological studies of gonads of H. brasiliensis showed six phases of oocyte development and four phases of spermatocyte development. The batch fecundity of this species is 1153 (± 258.22) oocytes for 50 g body weight of female. The microscopic characteristics of gonad development indicate that H. brasiliensis is a multiple spawner, with active reproductive period during the months of January to June and October. The reproductive period of this species is independent of the rainy period of the region.

  7. [Clinical severity and functionality of acute stroke patients attended at the physiotherapy public services of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fabrícia Azevêdo; da Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; da Rocha, Vera Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the severity and functional independence of hemiplegics patients' post-acute stroke by means of a multidisciplinary clinical staff. It is a descriptive study composed by 40 hemiplegics attended at the four largest physiotherapy public services in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State. The methods used were an evaluation form, Functional Independence Measure and NIHSS. The results showed a sample predominantly female (55%), stroke ischemic (90%), right brain hemisphere (52.5%) and Hypertension Risk Factor (90%). The mean of clinical severity and functional independence was 13.32±4.7 and 54.6±17.15 respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean of functionality about stroke side (pvalue = 0.66). There is a significant relation between clinical severity and functional independence (r = -0.45 pvalue=0.003). It can be concluded that the level of clinical severity and functional dependence of stroke patients that make use of public physiotherapy services is significant and show the necessity, beyond the classic treatment, to be encouraged preventive educational actions to improve knowledge of this population.

  8. Modified team-based learning strategy to improve human anatomy learning: A pilot study at the Universidad del Norte in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Emilio G; Tuesca, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    As part of an institutional program sponsored by the Centre for Teaching Excellence at the Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia, we developed an educational research study on two sessions of human anatomy in which we combined team-based learning (TBL) and the use of iPads. Study data included the TBL, assessments applied during the course, student's grades on mid-term examinations and students' perceptions of their experiences. Students reported a positive attitude toward the use of the TBL sessions, and the results showed a significant improvement in their learning between the first and second sessions. Significantly positive correlations (P < 0.05) were obtained between (a) the individual students' readiness test performance 1 and mid-term examination 1, (b) the individual readiness test performances from Session 1 to Session 2, and (c) the group readiness test performances from the first and second sessions. These results point to positive learning experiences for these students. Analyses of the students' reflections on their activities also pointed toward future challenges.

  9. Optimal oil recovery strategies in Miocene transgressive-barrier, coastal-plain, and mixed-load fluvial systems in the Mioceno Norte Area, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.A.; Wang, F.P.; Akhter, M.S.; Skolnakorn, J.

    1996-08-01

    Miocene oil reservoirs in the 30-km{sup 2} Mioceno Norte area are estimated to have a recovery efficiency of only 27 percent at the end of primary recovery operations at the current 40-acre well spacing. Although this area has produced oil since the 1930s, appreciable volumes of oil remain in multiple, poorly contacted reservoir compartments. Strategic development of these compartments could improve ultimate recovery up to an additional 15 to 20 percent of the original oil in place. Multiple Miocene regressive-transgressive episodes in the Maracaibo Basin resulted in a complex reservoir architecture. Basal Miocene fluvial deposits, deposited during a forced regression, are overlain by shelf and transgressive barrier-island deposits of a highstand systems tract. Episodes of upper Miocene fluvial and lacustrine-fill deposits, bounded by continuous paleosol marker beds, record climate changes or intermittent tectonic activity resulting in reorganization of dip-dispersal systems. We used an integrated reservoir-characterization program incorporating structural, stratigraphic, seismic, palynological, petrophysical, petrographic, petroleum-engineering, and volumetric analyses to target areas for strategic oil recovery. Remaining oil is inferred to occur mainly in narrow (less than 2000 in wide), uncontacted or poorly contacted fluvial-and distributary-channel sandstones commonly projected between existing well spacing. Additional remaining oil exists in tidal-channel and backbarrier areas where washover-fan sandstones pinch out into muddy lagoonal-fill deposits.

  10. Astrocytes generate Na+-mediated metabolic waves.

    PubMed

    Bernardinelli, Yann; Magistretti, Pierre J; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2004-10-12

    Glutamate-evoked Na+ increase in astrocytes has been identified as a signal coupling synaptic activity to glucose consumption. Astrocytes participate in multicellular signaling by transmitting intercellular Ca2+ waves. Here we show that intercellular Na+ waves are also evoked by activation of single cultured cortical mouse astrocytes in parallel with Ca2+ waves; however, there are spatial and temporal differences. Indeed, maneuvers that inhibit Ca2+ waves also inhibit Na+ waves; however, inhibition of the Na+/glutamate cotransporters or enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate selectively inhibit the Na+ wave. Thus, glutamate released by a Ca2+ wave-dependent mechanism is taken up by the Na+/glutamate cotransporters, resulting in a regenerative propagation of cytosolic Na+ increases. The Na+ wave gives rise to a spatially correlated increase in glucose uptake, which is prevented by glutamate transporter inhibition. Therefore, astrocytes appear to function as a network for concerted neurometabolic coupling through the generation of intercellular Na+ and metabolic waves.

  11. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, na62.web.cern.ch/NA62/Documents/TD_Full_doc_v1.pdf> [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  12. Europlanet NA2 Science Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Szego, Karoly; Genzer, Maria; Schmidt, Walter; Krupp, Norbert; Lammer, Helmut; Kallio, Esa; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    Europlanet RI / NA2 Science Networking [1] focused on determining the major goals of current and future European planetary science, relating them to the Research Infrastructure that the Europlanet RI project [2] developed, and placing them in a more global context. NA2 also enhanced the ability of European planetary scientists to participate on the global scene with their own agenda-setting projects and ideas. The Networking Activity NA2 included five working groups, aimed at identifying key science issues and producing reference books on major science themes that will bridge the gap between the results of present and past missions and the scientific preparation of the future ones. Within the Europlanet RI project (2009-2012) the NA2 and NA2-WGs organized thematic workshops, an expert exchange program and training groups to improve the scientific impact of this Infrastructure. The principal tasks addressed by NA2 were: • Science activities in support to the optimal use of data from past and present space missions, involving the broad planetary science community beyond the "space club" • Science activities in support to the preparation of future planetary missions: Earth-based preparatory observations, laboratory studies, R&D on advanced instrumentation and exploration technologies for the future, theory and modeling etc. • Develop scientific activities, joint publications, dedicated meetings, tools and services, education activities, engaging the public and industries • Update science themes and addressing the two main scientific objectives • Prepare and support workshops of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern and • Support Trans National Activities (TNAs), Joined Research Activities (JRAs) and the Integrated and Distributed Information Service (IDIS) of the Europlanet project These tasks were achieved by WG workshops organized by the NA2 working groups, by ISSI workshops and by an Expert Exchange Program. There were 17 official WG

  13. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Guo, Yu -Guo

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmosphere during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.

  14. Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content as a Na-rich cathode material for Na-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    You, Ya; Yu, Xi -Qian; Yin, Ya -Xia; ...

    2014-10-27

    Owing to the worldwide abundance and low-cost of Na, room-temperature Na-ion batteries are emerging as attractive energy storage systems for large-scale grids. Increasing the Na content in cathode material is one of the effective ways to achieve high energy density. Prussian blue and its analogues (PBAs) are promising Na-rich cathode materials since they can theoretically store two Na ions per formula. However, increasing the Na content in PBAs cathode materials is a big challenge in the current. Here we show that sodium iron hexacyanoferrate with high Na content could be obtained by simply controlling the reducing agent and reaction atmospheremore » during synthesis. The Na content can reach as high as 1.63 per formula, which is the highest value for sodium iron hexacyanoferrate. This Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate demonstrates a high specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and remarkable cycling performance with 90% capacity retention after 200 cycles. Furthermore, the Na intercalation/de-intercalation mechanism is systematically studied by in situ Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis for the first time. As a result, the Na-rich sodium iron hexacyanoferrate could function as a plenteous Na reservoir and has great potential as a cathode material toward practical Na-ion batteries.« less

  15. Ionic regulation of Na absorption in proximal colon: cation inhibition of electroneutral Na absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Soignie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Active Na absorption (J/sub net//sup NA/) in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is paradoxically stimulated as (Na) in the bathing media is lowered with constant osmolarity. J/sub m..-->..s//sup Na/ increases almost linearly from 0 to 50 mM (Na)/sub 0/ but then plateaus and actually decreases from 50 to 140 mM (Na)/sub 0/, consistent with inhibition of an active transport process. Both lithium and Na are equally effective inhibitors of J/sub net//sup Na/, whereas choline and mannitol do not block the high rate of J/sub net//sup Na/ observed in decreased (Na)/sub 0/. Either gluconate or proprionate replacement of Cl inhibits J/sub net//sup Na/. J/sub net//sup Na/ at lowered (Na)/sub 0/ is electrically silent and is accompanied by increased Cl absorption; it is inhibited by 10/sup -3/ M amiloride and 10/sup -3/ theophylline but not by 10/sup -4/ M bumetanide. Epinephrine is equally effective at stimulating Na absorption at 50 and 140 mM (Na). Na gradient experiments are consistent with a predominantly serosal effect of the decreased (Na)/sub 0/. These results suggest that 1) Na absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro is stimulated by decreased (Na); 2) the effect is cation specific, both Na and Li blocking the stimulatory effect; 3) the transport is mediated by Na-H exchange and is Cl dependent but 4) is under different regulatory mechanisms than the epinephrine-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport previously described in proximal colon. Under the appropriate conditions, proximal colon absorbs Na extremely efficiently. Na-H exchange in this epithelium is cation inhibitable, either directly or by a secondary regulatory process.

  16. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3 and KNO3-NaNO3 Salt Mixtures at 90C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S; Craig, L; Wolery, T

    2003-12-29

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO3-H2O and KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems at 90 C to determine relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Model predictions agree with experimental results for the NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system, but underestimate relative humidity by as much as 8% and solution composition by as much as 50% in the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O system.

  17. Proteomic characterization and evolutionary analyses of zona pellucida domain-containing proteins in the egg coat of the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma belcheri.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianghua; Li, Guang; Cao, Lixue; Wang, Zhongjun; Ye, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyin; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yiquan; Chen, Liangbiao

    2012-12-08

    Zona pellucida domain-containing proteins (ZP proteins) have been identified as the principle constituents of the egg coat (EC) of diverse metazoan taxa, including jawed vertebrates, urochordates and molluscs that span hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary divergence. Although ZP proteins generally contain the zona pellucida (ZP) structural modules to fulfill sperm recognition and EC polymerization functions during fertilization, the primary sequences of the ZP proteins from the above-mentioned animal classes are drastically different, which makes it difficult to assess the evolutionary relationships of ZP proteins. To understand the origin of vertebrate ZP proteins, we characterized the egg coat components of Branchiostoma belcheri, an invertebrate species that belongs to the chordate subphylum Cephalochordata. Five ZP proteins (BbZP1-5) were identified by mass spectrometry analyses using the egg coat extracts from both unfertilized and fertilized eggs. In addition to the C-terminal ZP module in each of the BbZPs, the majority contain a low-density lipoprotein receptor domain and a von Willebrand factor type A (vWFA) domain, but none possess an EGF-like domain that is frequently observed in the ZP proteins of urochordates. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immuno-histochemical analyses of B. belcheri ovaries showed that the five BbZPs are synthesized predominantly in developing eggs and deposited around the extracellular space of the egg, which indicates that they are bona fide egg coat ZP proteins. BbZP1, BbZP3 and BbZP4 are significantly more abundant than BbZP2 and BbZP5 in terms of gene expression levels and the amount of mature proteins present on the egg coats. The major ZP proteins showed high polymorphism because multiple variants are present with different molecular weights. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between the ZP proteins from cephalochordates, urochordates and vertebrates showed that BbZP1-5 form a monophyletic group

  18. Proteomic characterization and evolutionary analyses of zona pellucida domain-containing proteins in the egg coat of the cephalochordate, Branchiostoma belcheri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Zona pellucida domain-containing proteins (ZP proteins) have been identified as the principle constituents of the egg coat (EC) of diverse metazoan taxa, including jawed vertebrates, urochordates and molluscs that span hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary divergence. Although ZP proteins generally contain the zona pellucida (ZP) structural modules to fulfill sperm recognition and EC polymerization functions during fertilization, the primary sequences of the ZP proteins from the above-mentioned animal classes are drastically different, which makes it difficult to assess the evolutionary relationships of ZP proteins. To understand the origin of vertebrate ZP proteins, we characterized the egg coat components of Branchiostoma belcheri, an invertebrate species that belongs to the chordate subphylum Cephalochordata. Results Five ZP proteins (BbZP1-5) were identified by mass spectrometry analyses using the egg coat extracts from both unfertilized and fertilized eggs. In addition to the C-terminal ZP module in each of the BbZPs, the majority contain a low-density lipoprotein receptor domain and a von Willebrand factor type A (vWFA) domain, but none possess an EGF-like domain that is frequently observed in the ZP proteins of urochordates. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immuno-histochemical analyses of B. belcheri ovaries showed that the five BbZPs are synthesized predominantly in developing eggs and deposited around the extracellular space of the egg, which indicates that they are bona fide egg coat ZP proteins. BbZP1, BbZP3 and BbZP4 are significantly more abundant than BbZP2 and BbZP5 in terms of gene expression levels and the amount of mature proteins present on the egg coats. The major ZP proteins showed high polymorphism because multiple variants are present with different molecular weights. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between the ZP proteins from cephalochordates, urochordates and vertebrates showed that BbZP1-5 form a

  19. Progesterone in mare follicular fluid induces the acrosome reaction in stallion spermatozoa and enhances in vitro binding to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Cheng, F P; Fazeli, A R; Voorhout, W F; Tremoleda, J L; Bevers, M M; Colenbrander, B

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether mare follicular fluid (FF) induces the acrosome reaction (AR) in stallion spermatozoa and, if so, to identify the component in FF responsible for it. Furthermore, the effect of this component on sperm-zona binding and the subsequent AR was studied. Pooled FF, aspirated from the preovulatory follicles of mares in oestrous, was used and aliquots of the fluid were treated with charcoal to remove steroids (CFF). Charcoal treatment reduced the progesterone concentration in FF from 153 to < 2 ng/mL. Spermatozoa from fertile stallions collected by a swim-up procedure were preincubated in modified Tyrode's medium for 5 h and then incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with either (1) 50% FF + 50% CFF, (2) 50% FF + 50% CFF + 150 ng/mL progesterone, (3) 50% CFF + 150 ng/mL progesterone, (4)150 ng/mL progesterone or (5) modified Tyrode's medium alone. The sperm-hemizona assay was applied: (a) to compare the number of spermatozoa bound to a hemizona in the presence and absence of 1.5, 15 or 150 ng/mL progesterone after 1 h co-incubation of spermatozoa and hemizonae, (b) to compare the incidence of the AR in sperm-hemizona complexes incubated for 1 h in the presence and absence of 1 microgram/mL progesterone. Both spermatozoa in suspension and bound to a hemizona were treated with the supravital dye Ethidium homodimer and fixed. Their plasma membranes were permeabilized, and the outer acrosomal membranes were labelled with FITC-PNA. Viable spermatozoa without the outer acrosomal membrane were considered as physiologically acrosome-reacted. Results showed that (1) FF induced a higher percentage of AR than did CFF or modified Tyrode's medium, (2) addition of 150 ng/mL progesterone to CFF restored 77% of the AR-inducing activity and (3) CFF and modified Tyrode's medium both induced the AR to a similar extent when supplemented with 150 ng/mL progesterone. Neither FF nor progesterone treatment affected sperm viability severely. The

  20. Na+ Tolerance and Na+ Transport in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    TESTER, MARK; DAVENPORT, ROMOLA

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to high soil [Na+] involves processes in many different parts of the plant, and is manifested in a wide range of specializations at disparate levels of organization, such as gross morphology, membrane transport, biochemistry and gene transcription. Multiple adaptations to high [Na+] operate concurrently within a particular plant, and mechanisms of tolerance show large taxonomic variation. These mechanisms can occur in all cells within the plant, or can occur in specific cell types, reflecting adaptations at two major levels of organization: those that confer tolerance to individual cells, and those that contribute to tolerance not of cells per se, but of the whole plant. Salt‐tolerant cells can contribute to salt tolerance of plants; but we suggest that equally important in a wide range of conditions are processes involving the management of Na+ movements within the plant. These require specific cell types in specific locations within the plant catalysing transport in a coordinated manner. For further understanding of whole plant tolerance, we require more knowledge of cell‐specific transport processes and the consequences of manipulation of transporters and signalling elements in specific cell types. PMID:12646496

  1. β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase gene therapy upregulates tight junctions to rescue lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Barravecchia, M; Kothari, P; Young, J L; Dean, D A

    2016-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with diverse disorders and characterized by disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, leakage of edema fluid into the lung, and substantial inflammation leading to acute respiratory failure. Gene therapy is a potentially powerful approach to treat ALI/ARDS through repair of alveolar epithelial function. Herein, we show that delivery of a plasmid expressing β1-subunit of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase) alone or in combination with epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) α1-subunit using electroporation not only protected from subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated lung injury, but also treated injured lungs. However, transfer of α1-subunit of ENaC (α1-ENaC) alone only provided protection benefit rather than treatment benefit although alveolar fluid clearance had been remarkably enhanced. Gene transfer of β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, but not α1-ENaC, not only enhanced expression of tight junction protein zona occludins-1 (ZO-1) and occludin both in cultured cells and in mouse lungs, but also reduced pre-existing increase of lung permeability in vivo. These results demonstrate that gene transfer of β1-Na(+),K(+)-ATPase upregulates tight junction formation and therefore treats lungs with existing injury, whereas delivery of α1-ENaC only maintains pre-existing tight junction but not for generation. This indicates that the restoration of epithelial/endothelial barrier function may provide better treatment of ALI/ARDS.

  2. The Morphologic Evolution of the Amazon Coastal Plain, Cabo Norte, Amapa, Brazil: The Need for Integrated Investigation on the Internal Continental Shelf.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, O.; Santos, V. F.; Takiyama, L. R.

    2007-05-01

    refers to the coastal zone between the Amapa Grande River and Araguari River, including Maraca Island and the Oriental lacustrine Belt. Westward the island, at least three paleolevels of clays with roots in life position suggests regressive/transgressive events. Extraordinaty paleodrainage network beginnig at the continent and recognized at the insular portion suggests links with the paleochannels found at the continental shelf. The Oriental Belt of lakes is located close to the coastline, at Cabo Norte. It main feature is a mud lump approximately 10 Km ratio, well recognized at the remote sensing. It shows similar evolutionary processes with Araguari River, dating from XIX century, when this river had two mouths defined by the Carpori Island. The reasons of the deactivation are still unknowed, but, this rapid morphological evolution indicates short time colmatation processes that can be linked to tectonic regional processes. On the other hand, the Cabo Norte feature consolidation may impose changes in the sedimentation processes yielding space reduction over the coastal plain accumulation, diminishing of the solid and liquid fluvial discharge and promoting the availability of the local sediment transport over the littoral. The investigation of these processes requires an integrated coastal plain-continental shelf morphological study applying adequate techniques for modification studies and dating ages over short geological time frame, in century scale level.

  3. The use of Geographical Information System (GIS) to improve active leprosy case finding campaigns in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Souza Dias, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dias, Gutemberg Henrique; Nobre, Maurício Lisboa

    2007-09-01

    There is a high incidence of leprosy in the municipality of Mossor6, Rio Grande do Norte state, where the detection coefficient has risen from 2.78/10,000 population in 1998 to 5.14 in 2004. While cases have been registered throughout the urban area, the disease is concentrated in select neighbourhoods. This study was undertaken using Geographical Information System (GIS) with the objective of defining low-cost, effective strategies to control leprosy. The land registry map of the city, Ikonos satellite images and the SINAN (National Morbidity Notification Information System) database were used as the cartographical basis for the study. The sample for the leprosy mapping was drawn from the 358 new cases of the disease diagnosed in the municipality between 1998 and 2002. The houses of 281 patients were located (78.5% of the total) and their addresses geo-referenced using a GPS handheld device. Subsequently, geographical analysis was carried out using ArcView 9.0 software showing predominant concentration of cases in the neighbourhoods of Barrocas, Santo Antônio, Bom Jardim and Paredões. This mapping served as the basis for four active case finding campaigns conducted in the most highly concentrated areas between March and September of 2005. Campaigns guided by spatial analysis led to the diagnosis of 104 new cases of the disease (50% of the total number of new cases detected in the municipality in 2005). The use of GIS in leprosy diagnosis has shown to be extremely effective, providing a clear visual understanding of the distribution of the disease in the municipality, which results in targeted interventions and important cost reductions in leprosy control activities.

  4. An analysis of the meanings of pre-eclampsia for pregnant and postpartum women and health professionals in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Daniela Vasconcelos; de Araújo, Ana C P F; Clara Costa, Iris C

    2011-12-01

    To understand the meanings of pre-eclampsia for pregnant and postpartum women and health-care professionals. a word-association test and semi-structured interviews. A maternity hospital located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil that serves pregnant and postpartum women considered to be at high risk. 51 Pregnant women, 10 postpartum women and 87 health-care professionals completed a word-association test; 18 pregnant women, two postpartum women and 20 health-care professionals for the interviews. Thematic categories based on the word-association test and the interviews were created to help the data analysis. χ(2) test was used to compare the categories raised by both groups in the word-association test to determine the association between the frequencies of these categories. The meanings of pre-eclampsia to pregnant and postpartum women were fear, risk, care and lack of information. To the health-care professionals, the meanings were care, fear, risk, high blood pressure, oedema and proteinuria. The frequencies of the categories 'fear', 'care' and 'risk' were statistically different (χ(2) = 31.84, 14.5, 38.19, respectively; df = 2, p < 0.001) between the group of pregnant and postpartum women and the group of health-care professionals. For the first group, the most significant meanings were fear and risk, compared with care for the second group. The analysis of the interviews confirmed and deepened the results of the word-association test, and also demonstrated that the pregnant and postpartum women had no information about pre-eclampsia. There is a gap between how women and health professionals view their experiences of pre-eclampsia. A warm welcome to the health-care facility, with clear explanations about the disease and the procedures to be performed during the visits and hospitalisation would be important aspects for the physical and mental well-being of pregnant and postpartum women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping of High Value Crops Through AN Object-Based Svm Model Using LIDAR Data and Orthophoto in Agusan del Norte Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candare, Rudolph Joshua; Japitana, Michelle; Cubillas, James Earl; Ramirez, Cherry Bryan

    2016-06-01

    This research describes the methods involved in the mapping of different high value crops in Agusan del Norte Philippines using LiDAR. This project is part of the Phil-LiDAR 2 Program which aims to conduct a nationwide resource assessment using LiDAR. Because of the high resolution data involved, the methodology described here utilizes object-based image analysis and the use of optimal features from LiDAR data and Orthophoto. Object-based classification was primarily done by developing rule-sets in eCognition. Several features from the LiDAR data and Orthophotos were used in the development of rule-sets for classification. Generally, classes of objects can't be separated by simple thresholds from different features making it difficult to develop a rule-set. To resolve this problem, the image-objects were subjected to Support Vector Machine learning. SVMs have gained popularity because of their ability to generalize well given a limited number of training samples. However, SVMs also suffer from parameter assignment issues that can significantly affect the classification results. More specifically, the regularization parameter C in linear SVM has to be optimized through cross validation to increase the overall accuracy. After performing the segmentation in eCognition, the optimization procedure as well as the extraction of the equations of the hyper-planes was done in Matlab. The learned hyper-planes separating one class from another in the multi-dimensional feature-space can be thought of as super-features which were then used in developing the classifier rule set in eCognition. In this study, we report an overall classification accuracy of greater than 90% in different areas.

  6. [Sexuality and STD/AIDS prevention: social representations by rural men in a county in the Zona da Mata region in Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria de Fátima Paz

    2003-01-01

    This study analyzes the concepts displayed by rural men in the Zona da Mata region in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, concerning their sexual practices and STD/AIDS prevention. The study adopts a qualitative methodology, having interviewed 22 men According to the interviews, their first sexual intercourse is characterized as a learning experience and is sometimes marked by violence. They make a distinction between the "woman at home" and "street women"; they acknowledge women's sexual desire and value reciprocity in sexual relations, differentiating between the kinds of sex they have with different categories of women. Seven men report homoerotic experiences during adolescence, which they ascribe to immaturity, not affecting their heterosexual identity. Condom use, perceived in a negative light, is inconstant and irregular, inversely proportional to knowing the female partner. STDs in general inspire little fear, while AIDS is associated with death; the interviewees do not see themselves at risk of acquiring HIV. Ambiguities in the men's discourse, together with a basically ineffective approach by health services and preventive campaigns, reveal a high level of exposure to the risk of contracting STDs/AIDS among the interviewees and their female or male partners.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies against boar sperm zona pellucida-binding protein AWN-1. Characterization of a continuous antigenic determinant and immunolocalization of AWN epitopes in inseminated sows.

    PubMed

    Calvete, J J; Ensslin, M; Mburu, J; Iborra, A; Martínez, P; Adermann, K; Waberski, D; Sanz, L; Töpfer-Petersen, E; Weitze, K F; Einarsson, S; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    1997-10-01

    Boar spermadhesin AWN-1 is a sperm surface-associated 14.7-kDa lectin and a major protein of porcine seminal plasma. AWN-1 binds to beta-galactosides and to porcine zona pellucida glycoproteins, suggesting that this protein might play a role in the primary binding of spermatozoa to the egg's external glycoprotein matrix. We have produced a collection of murine monoclonal antibodies against purified AWN-1. Five monoclonal antibodies recognized sequential antigenic determinants. All these epitopes were located at the C-terminal region of AWN-1 (residues 109-123) by competitive ELISA using overlapping synthetic peptides that cover the complete 133 amino acid sequence of the lectin. In a structural model of spermadhesin AWN-1, the polypeptide stretch 109-123 is fully solvent-exposed, providing a reasonable explanation for its high immunogenicity. In addition to epitope mapping, we have employed anti-AWN monoclonal antibodies for immunolocalization of the protein in the genital tract of inseminated sows. Clusters of AWN epitopes were occasionally found attached to the epithelium of the uterotubal junction and the adjacent lower isthmus. However, neither AWN-1 nor other seminal plasma proteins were found in the isthmic fluid collected 10-26 h after insemination. These results suggest that the whole amount of seminal plasma proteins are absorbed by the epithelium of the female genital tract, supporting the claim that removal of seminal plasma components from spermatozoa might be a major event in both in vitro and in vivo sperm capacitation.

  8. The egg coat zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein ? evolution of its putative sperm-binding region in Old World murine rodents (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    Swann, Christine A; Cooper, Steven J B; Breed, William G

    2017-04-13

    In eutherian mammals, before fertilisation can occur the spermatozoon has to bind to, and penetrate, the egg coat, the zona pellucida (ZP). In the laboratory mouse there is good evidence that the primary sperm-binding site is a protein region encoded by Exon 7 of the ZP3 gene and it has been proposed that binding is species specific and evolves by sexual selection. In the present study we investigate these hypotheses by comparing Exon 6 and 7 sequences of ZP3 in 28 species of murine rodents of eight different divisions from Asia, Africa and Australasia, in which a diverse array of sperm morphologies occurs. We found considerable nucleotide (and corresponding amino acid) sequence divergence in Exon 7, but not in Exon 6, across these species, with evidence for positive selection at five codon positions. This molecular divergence does not appear to be due to reinforcement to reduce hybridisation, nor does it correlate with divergence in sperm head morphology or tail length, thus it is unlikely to be driven by inter-male sperm competition. Other forms of post-copulatory sexual selection therefore appear to have resulted in the molecular divergence of this region of ZP3 in this highly speciose group of mammals.

  9. Oviductal fluid proteins associated with the bovine zona pellucida and the effect on in vitro sperm-egg binding, fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R F; Staros, A L; Killian, G J

    2008-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated that oviductal fluid (ODF) proteins associate with eggs of numerous species including the bovine. In this study, the association of three ODF proteins, the bovine oestrus-associated protein, osteopontin (OPN), lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), with the bovine zona pellucida (ZP) was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The biological function of ODF derived egg-associated OPN and L-PGDS in sperm binding, fertilization and embryonic development was also explored. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were pre-incubated with ODF collected by cannula from cows in oestrus, or ODF with antibodies to OPN, L-PGDS and bovine serum albumin (BSA). Following incubation, oocytes were inseminated with 1 x 10(5) frozen-thawed spermatozoa, and they were evaluated for sperm binding, fertilization and embryonic development in vitro. Pre-treatment of ODF with antibodies to all of proteins reduced sperm binding to the ZP and fertilization in vitro. Cleavage rates were not significantly different among incubations, but rates of embryo development were significantly decreased. We conclude that antibodies to OPN, L-PGDS and BSA react with oocytes incubated with ODF and inhibit sperm binding, fertilization and embryonic development in vitro, suggesting a potential role of these proteins in these events.

  10. Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin Improves Sperm Capacitation Status Assessed by Flow Cytometry Analysis and Zona Pellucida-Binding Ability of Frozen/Thawed Bovine Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Águila, L; Arias, M E; Vargas, T; Zambrano, F; Felmer, R

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian sperm undergo a series of biochemical transformations in the female reproductive tract that are collectively known as capacitation. Cyclodextrins added to the sperm culture medium have been described to induce in vitro sperm capacitation, enabling its use in protein-free media. However, the additive capacitating effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) in the medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) is unknown in the bovine species. In this study, we evaluated the effects of incubating frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa in a BSA-containing medium supplemented with MβCD on different sperm quality and functional parameters. Sperm viability decreased with the addition of MβCD in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and DNA damage could be observed but only with the highest concentration of MβCD. However, pre-incubation of spermatozoa in MβCD-supplemented medium improved the capacitation status as assessed by the increase in plasma membrane fluidity, intracellular calcium concentration, induced acrosome reactivity and zona pellucida (ZP)-binding ability (p < 0.05). Thus, we conclude that MβCD supplementation is able to enhance the capacitation status of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa cultured in capacitation medium containing BSA and could result in a valid strategy for its application on artificial reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  11. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species: V. Prolonged antibody titers in Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) and domestic goats (Capra hircus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Lyda, Robin O; Frank, Kimberly M; Wallace, Roberta; Lamberski, Nadine; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP. Of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park animals, the 4 comparison species demonstrated the typical 1-yr pattern of anti-PZP antibodies, whereas the Armenian sheep and Himalayan tahr showed prolonged (2-3 yr) antibody responses after a single primer and booster dose. The Dall sheep and domestic goats had significantly longer durations of antibody titers (3 yr) from a single year's treatment (primer plus booster). Analysis of the data indicates that Armenian sheep, Himalayan tahr, Dall sheep, and domestic goats have prolonged responses, and are more sensitive to PZP in that they produce a protracted antibody response.

  12. Automated semen analysis: 'zona pellucida preferred' sperm morphometry and straight-line velocity are related to pregnancy rate in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; Clarke, G N; Rushford, D D; Baker, H W G

    2003-08-01

    Standard semen analysis has low objectivity and reproducibility and is not closely related to fertility. We assess the prognostic value of automated measurements of sperm motility and morphology. During 1997-1999, 1191 infertile couples with no known absolute barrier to conception were assessed by conventional semen analysis, and automated measurements of average straight-line velocity (VSL) and the percentage of sperm with characteristics that conform to those of sperm which bind to the zona pellucida of the human oocyte (%Z). During follow-up to 2001, there were 336 natural pregnancies. Only %Z, VSL and female age were independently significantly related to pregnancy rate by Cox regression analysis. Pregnancy rate was higher with above average %Z and VSL, indicating a continuous rather than a threshold relationship. The likelihood of pregnancy within 12 cycles can be evaluated for specific values of %Z, VSL and female age using the Cox regression model. The automated semen measures of sperm morphometry (%Z) and velocity (VSL) are related to pregnancy rates in subfertile couples and should assist clinicians in counselling subfertile patients about their prognosis for a natural pregnancy. Objective automated methods should replace the traditional manual assessments of semen quality.

  13. Role of voltage-gated calcium channels in the regulation of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Paula Q; Guagliardo, Nick A; Klein, Peter M; Hu, Changlong; Breault, David T; Beenhakker, Mark P

    2016-10-15

    Zona glomerulosa cells (ZG) of the adrenal gland constantly integrate fluctuating ionic, hormonal and paracrine signals to control the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone. These signals modulate Ca(2+) levels, which provide the critical second messenger to drive steroid hormone production. Angiotensin II is a hormone known to modulate the activity of voltage-dependent L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels that are expressed on the plasma membrane of ZG cells in many species. Because the ZG cell maintains a resting membrane voltage of approximately -85 mV and has been considered electrically silent, low voltage-activated T-type Ca(2+) channels are assumed to provide the primary Ca(2+) signal that drives aldosterone production. However, this view has recently been challenged by human genetic studies identifying somatic gain-of-function mutations in L-type CaV 1.3 channels in aldosterone-producing adenomas of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism. We provide a review of these assumptions and challenges, and update our understanding of the state of the ZG cell in a layer in which native cellular associations are preserved. This updated view of Ca(2+) signalling in ZG cells provides a unifying mechanism that explains how transiently activating CaV 3.2 channels can generate a significant and recurring Ca(2+) signal, and how CaV 1.3 channels may contribute to the Ca(2+) signal that drives aldosterone production.

  14. Microdissection of mouse and human zona pellucida using a 1.48-microns diode laser beam: efficacy and safety of the procedure.

    PubMed

    Germond, M; Nocera, D; Senn, A; Rink, K; Delacrétaz, G; Fakan, S

    1995-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a small and affordable 1.48-microns continuous wave diode laser for zona pellucida (ZP) microdissection. Mouse and human oocytes and zygotes were submitted to ZP drilling. The hole characteristics and possible laser-induced structural alterations of the neighboring cytoplasm were investigated with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The safety of the procedure was checked on control and drilled zygotes by determining their ability to develop in vitro and in vivo. Collaborative study between three Swiss academic centers. The collimated diode laser beam was delivered through a 45x objective of an inverted microscope and focused through the culture dish and culture medium in 1- to 3-microns spots. Safety assessment of the laser drilling procedure. The 1.48-microns radiation achieves a rapid, precise, and easily controlled lysis of the ZP without any micromanipulative handling of the eggs. Different shapes of holes can be produced by varying the laser beam intersection site on the ZP, laser power, and irradiation time. The energy needed to drill holes of a given diameter is greater for zygotes than for oocytes. Safety of the drilling procedure is confirmed by the lack of damage at the ultrastructural and biologic levels. The low-cost 1.48-microns diode laser allows an easy, objective-driven, nontouch microdissection of the ZP. The procedure is safe, as drilled embryos give rise to normal and fertile offspring.

  15. Roles of the zona pellucida and functional exposure of the sperm-egg fusion factor 'IZUMO' during in vitro fertilization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Nakai, Michiko; Men, Nguyen Thi; Kato, Noriko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Junko; Otoi, Takeshige; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The zona pellucida (ZP) is considered to play important roles in the prevention of polyspermy in mammalian oocytes. However, in pigs we have shown that the presence of the ZP accelerates sperm penetration into the ooplasm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ZP on sperm binding, acrosomal status, and functional exposure of IZUMO, a critical factor involved in sperm-egg fusion, during IVF in pigs. We evaluated the numbers and acrosomal statuses of sperm binding to the ZP and oolemma, and being present in the ZP and perivitelline space (PVS) using ZP-intact and ZP-free oocytes. More sperm bound to the ZP than to the oolemma. The average number of sperm present in the PVS was 0.44-0.51 per oocyte, and all sperm had lost their acrosomes. The proportion of sperm that were immunopositive for anti-IZUMO antibody was significantly higher after they were passing or had passed through the ZP. Furthermore, addition of anti-IZUMO antibody to the fertilization medium significantly inhibited the penetration of sperm into ZP-free oocytes. These results suggest that, in pigs, the ZP induces the acrosome reaction, which is associated with the functional exposure of IZUMO, resulting in completion of fertilization.

  16. Effect of L-carnitine on in vitro developmental rate, the zona pellucida and hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Khanmohammadi, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Safari, Manouchehr; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Yousefi, Behpour; Jafari, Behnaz; Zarbakhsh, Sam

    2016-01-01

    L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant with the ability to promote the growth in vitro embryo. Objective: The goal was to evaluate the effect of LC on some indicators of embryo development and blastocyst quality including zona pellucid (ZP) thickness, the hatching of blastocysts and their cell numbers. Materials and Methods: Mouse embryos were randomly divided into five groups and incubated with different concentrations of LC (I; 0, II; 0.5, III; 1, IV; 2 and V; 4 mg/ml) from 2-cell to hatched blastocyst. The percentage of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts was calculated. Blastocysts ZP thickness was measured and the number of blastocyst cells was counted using Hoechst and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Results: The results showed concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of LC had an antioxidant effect as in this group, the percentage of blastocysts and hatched blactocysts (p=0.01), the ZP thickness (p=0.00) and the number of blastocyst inner cell mass were significantly more favorable than the control group (p=0.03); and concentration of 4 mg/ml of LC had a toxic effect on embryo development and blastocyst quality (p=0.00). Conclusion: The results suggest that LC may increase the number of blastocyst cells, which probably helps to expand the blastocyst and thinning of the ZP thickness and, therefore, creating a successful hatching for implantation. PMID:27921089

  17. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-05-22

    Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  18. The levels of epithelial anchor proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 are altered by E7 of human papillomaviruses 5 and 8.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Sandra; Hufbauer, Martin; Marx, Benjamin; Tok, Ali; Majewski, Slawomir; Pfister, Herbert; Akgül, Baki

    2016-02-01

    Infection with viruses of the genus Betapapillomavirus, β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPV), is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and HPV8 in patients with the skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The relocalization of the junctional bridging proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the adherens and tight junctions are common processes of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with tumour invasion. Here, we report that β-catenin and ZO-1 are strongly upregulated by the E7 oncoproteins of HPV5 and HPV8 in keratinocytes grown in organotypic skin cultures. Although the membrane-tethered form of β-catenin was elevated, no signs of β-catenin activity within the canonical Wnt signalling pathway could be detected. The upregulation of β-catenin and ZO-1 could also be confirmed in the skin of HPV8 transgenic mice as well as in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of EV patients. These data provide the first evidence that β-catenin and ZO-1 are direct targets of E7 of the oncogenic β-HPV types 5 and 8. The ability to deregulate these epithelial junction proteins may contribute to the oncogenic potential of these viruses in human skin.

  19. Production of tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 for contraceptive vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrestha, Abhinav; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Affinity tags can interfere in various physicochemical properties and immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. In the present study, tag-free recombinant fusion protein encompassing promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid [TT; amino acid (aa) residues 830-844] followed by dilysine linker and dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3; aa residues 23-348) (TT-KK-ZP3) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs), was purified by isolation of IBs, processed to remove host cell proteins, followed by solubilization and refolding. A specific 39 kDa protein including ZP3 was identified by SDS-PAGE. CD spectra showed the presence of α-helices and β-sheets, and fluorescent spectroscopy revealed emission maxima of 265 A.U. at 339 nm for refolded protein and showed red shift in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. Immunization of inbred FvB/J female mice with purified recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 (25 μg/animal) led to generation of high antibody titers against the recombinant protein. The antibodies reacted specifically with ZP matrix surrounding mouse oocytes. Immunized mice showed significant reduction in fertility as compared to the control group. The studies described herein provide a simple method to produce and purify tag-free recombinant protein for the development of a contraceptive vaccine.

  20. Compensatory regulation of Na+ absorption by Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-Cl- cotransporter in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In mammals, internal Na+ homeostasis is maintained through Na+ reabsorption via a variety of Na+ transport proteins with mutually compensating functions, which are expressed in different segments of the nephrons. In zebrafish, Na+ homeostasis is achieved mainly through the skin/gill ionocytes, namely Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3b)-expressing H+-ATPase rich (HR) cells and Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC)-expressing NCC cells, which are functionally homologous to mammalian proximal and distal convoluted tubular cells, respectively. The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the functions of HR and NCC ionocytes are differentially regulated to compensate for disruptions of internal Na+ homeostasis and if the cell differentiation of the ionocytes is involved in this regulation pathway. Results Translational knockdown of ncc caused an increase in HR cell number and a resulting augmentation of Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae, while NHE3b loss-of-function caused an increase in NCC cell number with a concomitant recovery of Na+ absorption. Environmental acid stress suppressed nhe3b expression in HR cells and decreased Na+ content, which was followed by up-regulation of NCC cells accompanied by recovery of Na+ content. Moreover, knockdown of ncc resulted in a significant decrease of Na+ content in acid-acclimated zebrafish. Conclusions These results provide evidence that HR and NCC cells exhibit functional redundancy in Na+ absorption, similar to the regulatory mechanisms in mammalian kidney, and suggest this functional redundancy is a critical strategy used by zebrafish to survive in a harsh environment that disturbs body fluid Na+ homeostasis. PMID:23924428

  1. The hydrogen storage properties of Na decorated small boron cluster B6Na8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chunmei; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xue; Wen, Ninghua

    2016-09-01

    The binding energy of the Na atoms to the hollow sites of the B6 cage is larger than the experimental cohesive energy of bulk Na, so the clustering of Na atoms can be avoided. The polarization interaction dominates the adsorption of H2 by the B6Na8 cluster. The Na-coated B6Na8sbnd B8sbnd B6Na8 complex with the dispersive Na atoms and four H2 molecules adsorbed per Na can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (B6Na8)2 dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on sp2-terminated boron chains.

  2. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2016-12-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  3. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  4. Expression of a P-selectin ligand in zona pellucida of porcine oocytes and P-selectin on acrosomal membrane of porcine sperm cells. Potential implications for their involvement in sperm-egg interactions.

    PubMed

    Geng, J G; Raub, T J; Baker, C A; Sawada, G A; Ma, L; Elhammer, A P

    1997-05-05

    The selectin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates initial leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cells at sites of inflammation. O-glycan structural similarities between oligosaccharides from human leukocyte P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and from zona pellucida glycoproteins of porcine oocytes indicate the possible existence of a P-selectin ligand in the zona pellucida. Here, using biochemical as well as morphological approaches, we demonstrate that a P-selectin ligand is expressed in the porcine zona pellucida. In addition, a search for a specific receptor for this ligand leads to the identification of P-selectin on the acrosomal membrane of porcine sperm cells. In vitro binding of porcine acrosome-reacted sperm cells to oocytes was found to be Ca2+ dependent and inhibitable with either P-selectin, P-selectin receptor-globulin, or leukocyte adhesion blocking antibodies against P-selectin and PSGL-1. Moreover, porcine sperm cells were found to be capable of binding to human promyeloid cell line HL-60. Taken together, our findings implicate a potential role for the oocyte P-selectin ligand and the sperm P-selectin in porcine sperm-egg interactions.

  5. A long-life Na-air battery based on a soluble NaI catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Wen; Shadike, Zulipiya; Yang, Yin; Ding, Fei; Sang, Lin; Li, Hong; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2015-02-11

    A Na-air battery with NaI dissolved in a typical organic electrolyte could run up to 150 cycles with a capacity limit of 1000 mA h g(-1). The low charge voltage plateau of 3.2 V vs. Na(+)/Na in a Na-air battery should mainly be attributed to the oxidation reaction of active iodine anions.

  6. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2016-09-01

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954 mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730 mAh/g for the graphene-silicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of \\gt 0.3 {{V}} against the Na{}+/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be \\lt 0.3 {eV}.

  7. Kinetic Analysis of H(+)-Na(+) Selectivity in a Light-Driven Na(+)-Pumping Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Keiichi; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-12-17

    Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2) is a recently identified light-driven Na(+) pump from a marine bacterium. KR2 pumps Na(+) in NaCl solution but pumps H(+) in the absence of Na(+) and Li(+). The Na(+) transport mechanism in KR2 has been extensively studied, whereas understanding of the H(+) transport mechanism is very limited. Here we studied ion uptake mechanisms and H(+)-Na(+) selectivity using flash photolysis. The results show that decay of the blue-shifted M intermediate is dependent on both [Na(+)] and [H(+)], indicating that KR2 competitively uptakes Na(+) or H(+) upon M decay. Comprehensive concentration dependence of Na(+) and H(+) revealed that the rate constant of H(+) uptake (kH) was much larger than that of Na(+) uptake (kNa) with a ratio (kH/kNa) of >10(3). Therefore, KR2 pumps only H(+) when Na(+) and H(+) concentrations are similar. On the contrary, KR2 pumps Na(+) exclusively under physiological conditions in which [Na(+)] is much greater than [H(+)].

  8. Structural effects of 34Na in the 33Na(n ,γ )34Na radiative capture reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2017-06-01

    Background: The path towards the production of r -process seed nuclei follows a course where the neutron rich light and medium mass nuclei play a crucial role. The neutron capture rates for these exotic nuclei could dominate over their α -capture rates, thereby enhancing their abundances at or near the drip line. Sodium isotopes especially should have a strong neutron capture flow to gain abundance at the drip line. In this context, study of 33Na(n ,γ )34Na and 33Na(α ,n )36Al reactions becomes indispensable. Purpose: In this paper, we calculate the radiative neutron capture cross section for the 33Na(n ,γ )34Na reaction involving deformation effects. Subsequently, the rate for this reaction is found and compared with that of the α -capture for the 33Na(α ,n )36Al reaction to determine the possible path flow for the abundances of sodium isotopes. Method: We use the entirely quantum mechanical theory of finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation upgraded to incorporate deformation effects, and calculate the Coulomb dissociation of 34Na as it undergoes elastic breakup on 208Pb when directed at a beam energy of 100 MeV/u. Using the principle of detailed balance to study the reverse photodisintegration reaction, we find the radiative neutron capture cross section with variation in one-neutron binding energy and quadrupole deformation of 34Na. The rate of this 33Na(n ,γ )34Na reaction is then compared with that of the α -capture by 33Na deduced from the Hauser-Feshbach theory. Results: The nonresonant one-neutron radiative capture cross section for 33Na(n ,γ )34Na is calculated and is found to increase with increasing deformation of 34Na. An analytic scrutiny of the capture cross section with neutron separation energy as a parameter is also done at different energy ranges. The calculated reaction rate is compared with the rate of the 33Na(α ,n )36Al reaction, and is found to be significantly higher below a temperature of T9=2 . Conclusion: At the

  9. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galib, M.; Baer, M. D.; Skinner, L. B.; Mundy, C. J.; Huthwelker, T.; Schenter, G. K.; Benmore, C. J.; Govind, N.; Fulton, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    A combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na+. The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å-1 while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å-1. Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na-O pair distribution function, gNaO(r). The measured Na-O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Å (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na-O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na-Oavg ˜ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na-O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na-O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (-D3 and -D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na-O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na-O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na-O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na-O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.

  10. Revisiting the hydration structure of aqueous Na().

    PubMed

    Galib, M; Baer, M D; Skinner, L B; Mundy, C J; Huthwelker, T; Schenter, G K; Benmore, C J; Govind, N; Fulton, J L

    2017-02-28

    A combination of theory, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are used to probe the hydration structure of aqueous Na(+). The high spatial resolution of the XRD measurements corresponds to Qmax = 24 Å(-1) while the first-reported Na K-edge EXAFS measurements have a spatial resolution corresponding to 2k = Qmax = 16 Å(-1). Both provide an accurate measure of the shape and position of the first peak in the Na-O pair distribution function, gNaO(r). The measured Na-O distances of 2.384 ± 0.003 Å (XRD) and 2.37 ± 0.024 Å (EXAFS) are in excellent agreement. These measurements show a much shorter Na-O distance than generally reported in the experimental literature (Na-Oavg ∼ 2.44 Å) although the current measurements are in agreement with recent neutron diffraction measurements. The measured Na-O coordination number from XRD is 5.5 ± 0.3. The measured structure is compared with both classical and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Both of the DFT-based methods, revPBE and BLYP, predict a Na-O distance that is too long by about 0.05 Å with respect to the experimental data (EXAFS and XRD). The inclusion of dispersion interactions (-D3 and -D2) significantly worsens the agreement with experiment by further increasing the Na-O distance by 0.07 Å. In contrast, the use of a classical Na-O Lennard-Jones potential with SPC/E water accurately predicts the Na-O distance as 2.39 Å although the Na-O peak is over-structured with respect to experiment.

  11. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable

  12. Extracellular Na+ inhibits Na+/H+ exchange: cell shrinkage reduces the inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Philip B; Kelley, Scott J; Logue, Paul J

    2004-08-01

    Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) are ubiquitous transporters participating in regulation of cell volume and pH. Cell shrinkage, acidification, and growth factors activate NHE by increasing its sensitivity to intracellular H+ concentration. In this study, the kinetics were studied in dog red blood cells of Na+ influx through NHE as a function of external Na+ concentration ([Na+](o)). In cells in isotonic media, [Na+](o) inhibited Na+ influx >40 mM. Osmotic shrinkage activated NHE by reducing this inhibition. In cells in isotonic media + 120 mM sucrose, there was no inhibition, and influx was a hyperbolic function of [Na+](o). The kinetics of Na+-inhibited Na+ influx were analyzed at various extents of osmotic shrinkage. The curves for inhibited Na+ fluxes were sigmoid, indicating more than one Na+ inhibitory site associated with each transporter. Shrinkage significantly increased the Na+ concentration at half-maximal velocity of Na+-inhibited Na+ influx, the mechanism by which shrinkage activates NHE.

  13. Mechanism of epithelial lithium transport. Evidence for basolateral Na:Na and Na:Li exchange

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of transmural sodium fluxes across isolated, ouabain- inhibited turtle colon in the presence of a serosal-to-mucosal sodium gradient shows that in the absence of active transport the amiloride- sensitive cellular path contains at least two routes for the transmural movement of sodium and lithium, one a conductive path and the other a nonconductive, cation-exchange mechanism. The latter transport element can exchange lithium for sodium, and the countertransport of these two cations provides a mechanistic basis for the ability of tight epithelia to actively absorb lithium despite the low affinity of the basolateral Na/K-ATPase for this cation. PMID:6644269

  14. Pre-fertilization zona pellucida hardening by different cross-linkers affects IVF in pigs and cattle and improves embryo production in pigs.

    PubMed

    Canovas, Sebastian; Romar, Raquel; Grullon, Luis Alberto; Aviles, Manuel; Coy, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (resistance to proteolysis) has been classically identified as a post-fertilization event that contributes to the block to polyspermy. Di-(N-succinimidyl)-3,3'-dithiodipropionate (DSP), a permeable amine-reactive cross-linker, was recently shown to induce pre-fertilization ZP hardening and to improve porcine IVF productivity. The objectives of this study were to investigate i) how DSP affects pre-fertilization ZP hardening and IVF in cattle, ii) if a non-permeable amine-reactive cross-linker such as bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) affects ZP hardening and IVF in cattle and pigs, and iii) whether DSP or BS3, if improvement in IVF productivity was demonstrated in either species, affects in vitro embryo development. Bovine and porcine in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the cross-linkers (0.06, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/ml) for 30 min. Then they were subjected to ZP digestion or IVF. In cattle, both DSP and BS3 induced ZP hardening and decreased the penetration rate, although monospermy, penetration, or male pronuclear formation was not affected. In pigs, BS3 treatment induced ZP hardening, decreased penetration and male pronuclear formation, and increased monospermy. IVF productivity only improved when porcine oocytes were exposed to DSP. When porcine zygotes derived from this treatment were further cultured in vitro, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates increased. These results support the idea that mechanisms involved in the prevention of polyspermic fertilization in cattle and pigs have different efficiencies, and ZP hardening induced by DSP cross-linker may be useful for improving porcine embryo production.

  15. Reduction of sperm cholesterol:phospholipid ratio is a possible mechanism for enhancement of human sperm binding to the zona pellucida following incubation with phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gamzu, R; Yogev, L; Paz, G; Yavetz, H; Lichtenberg, D

    1997-09-01

    TEST (TES (N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) and Tris) yolk buffer (TYB) has recently been shown to improve the binding capacity of spermatozoa to zona pellucidae. The present study had two objectives: 1) to elucidate which component(s) of TYB dominates this effect and 2) to define the responsible mechanism. Sperm samples obtained from subfertile men were incubated for 2 h in either TYB or media containing egg yolk lipoproteins or phospholipids. After incubation, sperm binding was tested by the hemizona assay. Yolk lipoprotein-treated spermatozoa bound hemizonae with efficiency equal to that of the spermatozoa incubated in control medium. Conversely, incubation of spermatozoa in media containing either TYB, yolk-phospholipids, or pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) resulted in a 2- to 3-fold increased binding capacity (p < 0.01). A close correlation was found between the effect of yolk-phospholipids and TYB on the binding capacity of the same sperm samples, compared to spermatozoa incubated in control medium. Incubation of spermatozoa in yolk phospholipid medium caused a dose-dependent increase of sperm binding capacity (p < 0.05). Treatment of sperm samples with 1 mg/ml or more of purified PC preparation also resulted in a reduction of the sperm cholesterol:phospholipid molar ratio. Significant correlations between the effects of the treatments on sperm cholesterol: phospholipid molar ratio and sperm binding were obtained with yolk-phospholipids (r = -0.55) or 1 mg/ml purified PC (r = -0.61). We conclude that 1) the enhanced binding capacity of human spermatozoa following TYB treatment is probably due to yolk-phospholipids, mainly egg yolk PC; and 2) it appears that the enhanced binding capacity of human spermatozoa following treatment with egg yolk-containing media may be a result of the reduction of the cholesterol:phospholipid molar ratio in the sperm cells.

  16. Relationship between seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction in subfertile men.

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Yi; Sie, Boon-Shih; Liu, Ming-Li; Agresta, Franca; Baker, H W Gordon

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between seminal zinc concentration and spermatozoa-zona pellucida (ZP) binding and the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (ZPIAR) in subfertile men. Semen analyses and seminal zinc concentration assessments were carried out according to the World Health Organization manual for 458 subfertile men. A spermatozoa-ZP interaction test was carried out by incubating 2 x 10(6) motile spermatozoa with a group of four unfertilized oocytes obtained from a clinical in vitro fertilization programme. After 2 h of incubation, the number of spermatozoa bound per ZP and the ZPIAR of ZP-bound spermatozoa were examined. The effect of adding 0.5 mmol L(-1) zinc to the media on the ZPIAR of spermatozoa from normozoospermic men was also tested in vitro. Seminal zinc concentration positively correlated with sperm count and duration of abstinence, but negatively correlated with semen volume. On analysis of data from all participants, both spermatozoa-ZP binding and the ZPIAR were significantly correlated with sperm motility and normal morphology, but not with seminal zinc concentration. However, in men with normozoospermic semen, the seminal zinc concentration was significantly higher in men with defective ZPIAR (< 16%) than in those with normal ZPIAR (>or= 16%) (P < 0.01). The addition of 0.5 mmol L(-1) zinc to the culture media had no effect on spermatozoa-ZP binding, but significantly reduced the ZPIAR in vitro (P < 0.001). In conclusion, seminal zinc concentration is correlated with sperm count and the duration of abstinence in subfertile men. In men with normozoospermic semen, high seminal zinc concentration may have an adverse effect on the ZPIAR.

  17. Romance without responsibilities: the use of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida to manage free-ranging bison (Bison bison) on Catalina Island, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Calvin L; King, Julie L; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Prior to 2010, the introduced population of American bison (Bison bison) on Santa Catalina Island, California, was managed through the shipment of surplus bison to private ranches, Native American reservations, and livestock auctions on the mainland. In response to escalating costs, transport-induced stress to the animals, and ecologic impacts associated with high bison numbers on-island between shipments, the use of the immunocontraceptive vaccine porcine zona pellucida (PZP) as a fertility control option for managing the population was investigated. Between 2009 and 2012, a total of 64 bison cows (> or =1 yr old) received primer inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's modified adjuvant (FMA) delivered through a combination of intramuscular injections by hand (50 bison cows) during roundups and via field darting (14 bison cows). Pre-rut booster inoculations of 100 microg PZP emulsified with 0.5 ml Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) were administered exclusively via field darting in 2010, 2011, and 2012 to 45, 48, and 61 bison cows (> or =1 yr old), respectively. During the present study, 38 adult cows (marked and unmarked) received one or more PZP inoculations during their first, second, or third trimesters of pregnancy, and of these individuals, 35 successfully produced calves. Low pregnancy values detected in the remaining three cows have been attributed to residual progesterone associated with unsuccessful fertilization. The 2010 pretreatment calving rate (calves born per cow) determined via direct observation was 67.4% (29 calves from 43 cows). Through the use of PZP, the calving rate was reduced to 10.4% by 2011 and to 3.3% by 2012. Considering the annual mortality rate of 2-5% documented during this study, the results demonstrate the potential of PZP use as an effective nonlethal tool for controlling population growth in free-ranging bison.

  18. [Expression of Ki-67 and estrogen receptor in the uterus of mice with autoimmune premature ovarian failure induced by peptide zona pellucida 3].

    PubMed

    Cai, Huihua; Fu, Xiafei; Ren, Xuwen; Chen, Xiazhu; Zhang, Dongmei; He, Yuanli

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the histomorphology and the expressions of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor in the uterus of mice with autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) induced by zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3). Autoimmune POP models were established in 20 female BALB/c mice (7-8 weeks old) by immunization with pZP3 and another 20 mice served as the control group. The POP models were verified by vaginal cytology, serum sex hormones, ovary histomorphology and ZP3 antibody immunohistochemistry. The histomorphology and expressions of Ki-67, estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β in the uterus of the mice were detected. Autoimmune POP models were established successfully in 80% of the mice at 8 weeks after the immunization. Compared with those in the control group, the mice in the model group showed a smaller volume of the uterus, thinner endometrium and a reduced number of glands. The luminal epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells in the uterus of the model mice all presented with a lower expression of Ki-67 than those in the control group, and Ki-67 translocation from the nuclei to the cytoplasm was found in the model group. The luminal epithelial cells, glandular epithelial cells and stromal cells showed positive ERα immunoreactivity in the model group but not in the control group. No obvious ERβ expression was found in the uterus in either of the groups. pZP3 can induce autoimmune POP, cause suppressed proliferation of the endometrial epithelial cells and stromal cells, and reduce the cellular expression of ERα in the uterus of mice.

  19. Growth of binary organic NLO crystals: m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to grow 3.Nitroaniline (m.NA) crystals doped with 4.Nitroaniline (p.NA) and 2.chloro 4.Nitroaniline (CNA). The measured undercooling for m.NA, p.NA, and CNA were 0.21 tm K, 0.23 tm K, and 0.35 tm K respectively, where tm represents the melting temperature of the pure component. Because of the crystals' large heat of fusion and large undercooling, it was not possible to grow good quality crystals with low thermal gradients. In the conventional two-zone Bridgman furnace we had to raise the temperature of the hot zone above the decomposition temperature of CNA, p.NA, and m.NA to achieve the desired thermal gradient. To avoid decomposition, we used an unconventional Bridgman furnace. Two immiscible liquids, silicone oil and ethylene glycol, were used to build a special two-zone Bridgman furnace. A temperature gradient of 18 K/cm was achieved without exceeding the decomposition temperature of the crystal. The binary crystals, m.NA-p.NA and m.NA-CNA, were grown in centimeter size in this furnace. X-ray and optical characterization showed good optical quality.

  20. 13C and 23Na NMR studies of Na2C60 and Na6C60 fullerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachdi, F.; Hajji, L.; Galtier, M.; Yildirim, T.; Fischer, J. E.; Goze, C.; Mehring, M.

    1997-10-01

    We report on 13C and 23Na NMR measurements on Na2C60 and Na6C60 compounds. The room-temperature 13C NMR spectra of Na2C60 and Na6C60 samples present a narrow isotropic line at 172 and 176 ppm, respectively. The Na6C60 resonance is shifted 20 ppm more down field than the resonances of A6C60 compounds with heavier alkalis, indicating a partial charge transfer to the threefold degenerate t1u level which is totally filled in the latter compounds. The 23Na NMR spectrum of A2C60 shows one line at 73 ppm and the one of A6C60 presents two lines at 73 and 147 ppm. The intensity ratio of the latter lines is about 2:1. According to previously reported x-ray data we attribute the line at 147 ppm to the Na tetramers in the octahedral sites and the line at 73 ppm to the Na cations in the tetrahedral ones which are singly occupied.

  1. Soil-transmitted helminth and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in indigenous people communities in Davao del Norte, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Lumampao, Yvonne F; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T

    2011-09-01

    A significant portion of the population in the Philippines consists of indigenous people (IP) groups, approximately 9% or 8.1 million. Data on the health status of these groups are very limited including the status of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Provision of such data will be of great importance in the formulation of policy on control and prevention of these diseases in this group. This study was conducted in selected villages/barangays in the municipalities of Carmen, Kapalong, San Isidro and Sto. Tomas in the Province of Davao del Norte in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Parasitologic assessment was performed using Kato-Katz to qualify and quantify STH infections, while nutritional status assessment was based on hemoglobin determination and on nutritional status indicators, i.e., weight-for-age (WFA), height-for-age (HFA), and body mass index (BMI) for age derived from anthropometric measurements. A total of 572 school children participated in the survey, 264 (46.2%) of whom belonged to a specific IP group. Results showed that 34.1% of the school children had at least one STH infection while 5.9% had heavy intensity infections. Cumulative prevalence in IP school children was significantly higher than in non-IP children with rates at 39.0% and 29.9%, respectively (P = 0.021). Overall prevalence of school children with below normal WFA was 29.9%, while prevalence of those with below normal HFA and BMI for age was 42.8% and 14.9%, respectively. Of those examined, 8.3% had below normal hemoglobin levels. There was no significant difference observed between the nutritional status parameters of IP and non-IP school children. The parasitologic parameters reported in this study signify the need to pay more attention to IP children who are at higher risk of morbidity due to helminth infections. Access of IP communities to quality health services, which include mass drug administration (MDA) and health education on a regular basis, must be ensured. Further

  2. Investigating the relationship between climate teleconnection patterns and soil moisture variability in the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin using the NOAH land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedun, C. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Bolten, J. D.; Giardino, J. R.; Singh, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of the hydrological cycle. Climate variability patterns, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are determining factors on surface water availability and soil moisture. Understanding this complex relationship and the phase and lag times between climate events and soil moisture variability is important for agricultural management and water planning. In this study we look at the effect of these climate teleconnection patterns on the soil moisture across the Rio Grande/Río Bravo del Norte basin. The basin is transboundary between the US and Mexico and has a varied climatology - ranging from snow dominated in its headwaters in Colorado, to an arid and semi-arid region in its middle reach and a tropical climate in the southern section before it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Agricultural activities in the US and in northern Mexico are highly dependent on the Rio Grande and are extremely vulnerable to climate extremes. The treaty between the two countries does not address climate related events. The soil moisture is generated using the community NOAH land surface model (LSM). The LSM is a 1-D column model that runs in coupled or uncoupled mode, and it simulates soil moisture, soil temperature, skin temperature, snowpack depth, snow water equivalent, canopy water content, and energy flux and water flux of the surface energy and water balance. The North American Land Data Assimilation Scheme 2 (NLDAS2) is used to drive the model. The model is run for the period 1979 to 2009. The soil moisture output is validated against measured values from the different Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) sites within the basin. The spatial and temporal variability of the modeled soil moisture is then analyzed using marginal entropy to investigate monthly, seasonal, and annual variability. Wavelet transform is used to determine the relation, phase

  3. Maintaining the Na atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.; Morgan, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  4. Maintaining the NA atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killen, R. M.; Morgan, T. H.

    1993-02-01

    The possible sources of the Na atmosphere of Mercury are calculatively studied. The likely structure, composition, and temperature of the planet's upper crust is examined along with the probable flux of Na from depth by grain boundary diffusion and by Knudsen flow. The creation of fresh regolith is considered along with mechanisms for supplying Na from the surface to the exosphere. The implications of the calculations for the probable abundances in the regolith are discussed.

  5. Simulation study of Na-majorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymshits, A.; Vinograd, V.; Paulsen, N.; Winkler, B.; Perchuk, L.; Bobrov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Garnets, which are found as inclusions in diamonds, often have the excess of Na2O and SiO2 [Stachel, 2001]. Experimental studies suggest that Na is incorporated in pyrope-rich garnet via the coupled substitution Mg+Al=Na+Si [Bobrov et al., 2008]. This study is concerned with the determination of the structure and the thermodynamic properties of NaGrt (Na2MgSi5O12), which is assumed to be the end-member of pyrope-rich garnets with the excess of Na2O and SiO2. Static lattice energy calculations were performed with the program GULP [Gale & Rohl, 2003] using the force-field model [Vinograd et al., 2007] for 200 structures of Na2MgSi5O12 composition. These structures were prepared from Ia3-d pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12 by replacing all octahedral Al atoms with Si and 2/3 of Mg atoms with Na. The distribution of Mg and Na was varied randomly. The static energies of these structures were cluster expanded using 8 pairwise effective cluster interactions (ECI). The ECIs were used to constrain Monte Carlo simulations within a 4×4×4 supercell (NNN exchangeable sites). The annealing experiments have shown that the lowest energy structure has the space group I4

  6. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic.

  7. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  8. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  9. First mesopause Na retrievals from satellite Na D-line nightglow observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savigny, C.; Langowski, M. P.; Zilker, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Fussen, D.; Sofieva, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    We report the retrieval of Na concentration profiles in the mesopause region from satellite observations of the Na D-line nightglow emission near 589 nm made by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) on the Envisat spacecraft. The retrieval assumes the Na D-line excitation mechanism originally proposed by Chapman in 1939. The retrieval approach, including treatment of self-absorption by Na, a retrieval uncertainty budget, and first retrieval results, is presented. The retrieved Na profiles are compared to independent satellite measurements. Good agreement in terms of peak altitude, peak concentration, and vertical column density is found. The retrievals constitute the first Na profile retrievals from satellite observations of the Na D-line nightglow emission profile. They enable our understanding of the Na nightglow excitation mechanism to be tested.

  10. Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Michael J; Ottolia, Michela; Bers, Donald M; Blaustein, Mordecai P; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Bossuyt, Julie; Bridge, John H B; Chen-Izu, Ye; Clancy, Colleen E; Edwards, Andrew; Goldhaber, Joshua; Kaplan, Jack; Lingrel, Jerry B; Pavlovic, Davor; Philipson, Kenneth; Sipido, Karin R; Xie, Zi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of reviews published in this issue resulting from the University of California Davis Cardiovascular Symposium 2014: Systems approach to understanding cardiac excitation–contraction coupling and arrhythmias: Na+ channel and Na+ transport. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts in the field to discuss points of consensus and controversy on the topic of sodium in the heart. The present review focuses on cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA). While the relevance of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac function has been extensively investigated, the role of Na+ regulation in shaping heart function is often overlooked. Small changes in the cytoplasmic Na+ content have multiple effects on the heart by influencing intracellular Ca2+ and pH levels thereby modulating heart contractility. Therefore it is essential for heart cells to maintain Na+ homeostasis. Among the proteins that accomplish this task are the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and the Na+/K+ pump (NKA). By transporting three Na+ ions into the cytoplasm in exchange for one Ca2+ moved out, NCX is one of the main Na+ influx mechanisms in cardiomyocytes. Acting in the opposite direction, NKA moves Na+ ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space against their gradient by utilizing the energy released from ATP hydrolysis. A fine balance between these two processes controls the net amount of intracellular Na+ and aberrations in either of these two systems can have a large impact on cardiac contractility. Due to the relevant role of these two proteins in Na+ homeostasis, the emphasis of this review is on recent developments regarding the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and Na+/K+ pump and the controversies that still persist in the field. PMID:25772291

  11. Exploration of NaVOPO4 as a cathode for a Na-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Xu, Maowen; Wang, Long; Goodenough, John B

    2013-06-11

    Monoclinic NaVOPO4 is explored as a cathode material for a sodium ion battery. It exhibits electrochemical activity operating at an average potential of 3.6 V (vs. Na(+)/Na) and delivers a reversible capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 1/15 C.

  12. Cerros del Norte Conservation Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Udall, Tom [D-NM

    2013-02-07

    Senate - 06/27/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 108. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Kinetin Reversal of NaCl Effects

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Adriana; Dehan, Klara; Itai, Chanan

    1978-01-01

    Leaf discs of Nicotiana rustica L. were floated on NaCl in the presence of kinetin or abscisic acid. On the 5th day 14CO2 fixation, [3H]leucine incorporation, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content were determined. Kinetin either partially or completely reversed the inhibitory effects of NaCl while ABA had no effect. PMID:16660618

  14. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. Methods: To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax

  15. Effect of oviductal and cumulus cells on zona pellucida and cortical granules of porcine oocytes fertilized in vitro with epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Romar, R; Coy, P; Gadea, J; Rath, D

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of porcine oviductal epithelial cell (POEC) monolayers and cumulus cells on the zona pellucida (ZP) and cortical granules (CG) of in vitro matured porcine oocytes. Denuded and cumulus-enclosed oocytes were exposed to POEC before or during in vitro fertilization (IVF). The functional effects of the co-culture system were the tested on the ZP resistance, measured by the time necessary to dissolve the ZP with 0.1% pronase, and the distribution and density of the cortical granules. CG density in the equator and cortex of each oocyte was evaluated by confocal microscopy after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA). Both variables were assessed immediately after an in vitro maturation period (IVM group), 3 and 6h after culture with or without (Control) oviductal cells (Experiment 1) and 3h after insemination with frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa in the presence or absence (Control) of oviductal cells (Experiment 2). The time to dissolve the ZP of oocytes from IVM group was 440.4 +/- 61.7 s and no difference was observed among groups in Experiment 1. In contrast, the density of CG was affected; oocytes pre-incubated for 6h had a higher density than those pre-incubated for 3 h (P <0.001). Oocytes fertilized in vitro in the presence of POEC (Experiment 2) had a similar ZP digestion time as control oocytes 3 h after insemination. The presence of POEC during IVF as well as the presence of cumulus cells had no effect on the density and distribution of CG. However, a significant decrease in the density of CG was observed in the fertilized oocytes compared to in vitro matured oocytes (P <0.001). It is concluded that under the conditions employed the oviductal and cumulus cells in the perifertilization period had no effect on ZP hardening and CG density. However, an increase in CG density was observed when oocytes were maintained in culture. In addition, no hardening of ZP was

  16. Hydrogen-rich Water Exerting a Protective Effect on Ovarian Reserve Function in a Mouse Model of Immune Premature Ovarian Failure Induced by Zona Pellucida 3.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Yin, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tong; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min

    2016-10-05

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a disease that affects female fertility but has few effective treatments. Ovarian reserve function plays an important role in female fertility. Recent studies have reported that hydrogen can protect male fertility. Therefore, we explored the potential protective effect of hydrogen-rich water on ovarian reserve function through a mouse immune POF model. To set up immune POF model, fifty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control (mice consumed normal water, n = 10), hydrogen (mice consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 10), model (mice were immunized with zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 [ZP3] and consumed normal water, n = 15), and model-hydrogen (mice were immunized with ZP3 and consumed hydrogen-rich water, n = 15) groups. After 5 weeks, mice were sacrificed. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, granulosa cell (GC) apoptotic index (AI), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) expression were examined. Analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software. Immune POF model, model group exhibited markedly reduced serum AMH levels compared with those of the control group (5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml vs. 16.23 ± 1.97 ng/ml, P = 0.033) and the hydrogen group (19.65 ± 7.82 ng/ml, P = 0.006). The model-hydrogen group displayed significantly higher AMH concentrations compared with that of the model group (15.03 ± 2.75 ng/ml vs. 5.41 ± 0.91 ng/ml, P = 0.021). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model group (21.30 ± 1.74%) than those in the control (7.06 ± 0.27%), hydrogen (5.17 ± 0.41%), and model-hydrogen groups (11.24 ± 0.58%) (all P < 0.001). The GC AI was significantly higher in the model-hydrogen group compared with that of the hydrogen group (11.24 ± 0.58% vs. 5.17 ± 0.41%, P = 0.021). Compared with those of the model group, ovarian tissue Bcl-2 levels increased (2.18 ± 0.30 vs. 3.01 ± 0.33, P = 0.045) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio decreased in the

  17. High NA Nicrostepper Final Optical Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hudyma, R

    1999-09-24

    The development of a new EUV high NA small-field exposure tool has been proposed for obtaining mask defect printability data in a timeframe several years before beta-tools are available. The imaging system for this new Micro-Exposure Tool (MET), would have a numerical aperture (NA) of about 0.3, similar to the NA for a beta-tool, but substantially larger than the 0.10 NA for the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) and 0.088 NA for the existing 10x Microstepper. This memorandum discusses the development and summarizes the performance of the camera for the MET and includes a listing of the design prescription, detailed analysis of the distortion, and analysis demonstrating the capability to resolution 30 nm features under the conditions of partially coherent illumination.

  18. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  19. Na+ binding to the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter is potential dependent.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E; Kimmich, G A

    1992-02-01

    Activity of the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells was assayed by measuring sugar-induced currents (IAMG) using whole cell recording techniques. IAMG was compared among cells by standardizing the measured currents to cell size using cell capacitance measurements. IAMG at a given membrane potential was measured as a function of alpha-methylglucoside (AMG) concentration and can be fit to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. IAMG at varying Na+ concentrations can be described by the Hill equation with a Hill coefficient of 1.6 at all tested potentials. At high external Na+ levels (155 mM), Na+ is at least 90% saturating at all tested potentials. Maximal currents at a given membrane potential (Im) are calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation fit to data measuring IAMG vs. AMG concentration at a constant Na+ concentration. Im showed potential dependence under all conditions. Potential-dependent Na+ binding rate(s) cannot alone explain the observed potential dependence of Im under saturating Na+ conditions. Therefore, because Im is potential dependent, at least one step of the transport cycle other than external Na+ binding must be potential dependent. Im was also calculated from data taken at 40 mM external Na+. At all potentials studied, Im at 155 mM Na+ is greater than Im calculated at 40 mM Na+. This implies that the rate of external Na+ binding to the transporter at 40 mM also affects the maximal transport rate. Furthermore, Im at 40 mM external Na+ increases with hyperpolarization faster than Im at 155 mM Na+. Together, these facts indicate that the rate at which Na+ binds to the transporter is also potential dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Na-doped optical Germanium bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, G. S.; Singaevsky, A. F.

    2012-09-01

    In an effort to develop a material for infrared (IR) optics with improved parameters, bulk crystals of optical germanium doped with Na have been first grown and studied. Single-crystalline and coarse-crystalline Ge:Na boules of different shapes and dimensions, up to 10 kg by weight, have been grown. Sodium was incorporated into the Ge crystal during the crystal growing from the melt. Despite the fact that Na contamination in the source material was not strictly controlled, the density of Na in the grown crystals determined by the neutron activation analysis as well as by the glow discharge mass spectrometry did not exceed 1015 cm-3. Just this value may be supposed to be close to the solubility limit of Na incorporated in Ge in the course of bulk crystal growth. A first demonstration of donor behavior of Na in bulk Ge crystals is made by means of a thermoelectric type of testing. An interstitial location of Na impurity has been verified by experiments on donor drift in the dc electric field. The crystals are grown with free electron density in the range from 5ṡ1013 to 4ṡ1014 cm-3 which is optimal for using Ge crystals as an optical material for fabricating passive elements of the IR technique. A comparison between the properties of Ge:Na crystals and Ge crystals doped with Sb, a conventional impurity in optical germanium, grown under the same technological conditions and from the same intrinsic Ge as a source material, revealed a number of advantages of Ge:Na crystals; among them, the higher transparency in the IR region, smaller radiation scattering and higher regular optical transmission, lower dislocation density, more uniform distribution of electrical and optical characteristics over the crystal volume, the identity of optical parameters in the single-crystalline, and coarse-crystalline boules. No degradation of optical elements fabricated from Ge:Na crystals was detected in the course of their commercial application, starting from 1998.

  1. Pharmacological modulation of human cardiac Na+ channels.

    PubMed

    Krafte, D S; Davison, K; Dugrenier, N; Estep, K; Josef, K; Barchi, R L; Kallen, R G; Silver, P J; Ezrin, A M

    1994-02-15

    Pharmacological modulation of human sodium current was examined in Xenopus oocytes expressing human heart Na+ channels. Na+ currents activated near -50 mV with maximum current amplitudes observed at -20 mV. Steady-state inactivation was characterized by a V1/2 value of -57 +/- 0.5 mV and a slope factor (k) of 7.3 +/- 0.3 mV. Sodium currents were blocked by tetrodotoxin with an IC50 value of 1.8 microM. These properties are consistent with those of Na+ channels expressed in mammalian myocardial cells. We have investigated the effects of several pharmacological agents which, with the exception of lidocaine, have not been characterized against cRNA-derived Na+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Lidocaine, quinidine and flecainide blocked resting Na+ channels with IC50 values of 521 microM, 198 microM, and 41 microM, respectively. Use-dependent block was also observed for all three agents, but concentrations necessary to induce block were higher than expected for quinidine and flecainide. This may reflect differences arising due to expression in the Xenopus oocyte system or could be a true difference in the interaction between human cardiac Na+ channels and these drugs compared to other mammalian Na+ channels. Importantly, however, this result would not have been predicted based upon previous studies of mammalian cardiac Na+ channels. The effects of DPI 201-106, RWJ 24517, and BDF 9148 were also tested and all three agents slowed and/or removed Na+ current inactivation, reduced peak current amplitudes, and induced use-dependent block. These data suggest that the alpha-subunit is the site of interaction between cardiac Na+ channels and Class I antiarrhythmic drugs as well as inactivation modifiers such as DPI 201-106.

  2. Long range intermolecular interactions between the alkali diatomics Na2, K2, and NaK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemke, Warren T.; Byrd, Jason N.; Michels, H. Harvey; Montgomery, John A.; Stwalley, William C.

    2010-06-01

    Long range interactions between the ground state alkali diatomics Na2-Na2, K2-K2, Na2-K2, and NaK-NaK are examined. Interaction energies are first determined from ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory, including counterpoise corrections. Long range energies calculated from diatomic molecular properties (polarizabilities and dipole and quadrupole moments) are then compared with the ab initio energies. A simple asymptotic model potential ELR=Eelec+Edisp+Eind is shown to accurately represent the intermolecular interactions for these systems at long range.

  3. Long range intermolecular interactions between the alkali diatomics Na(2), K(2), and NaK.

    PubMed

    Zemke, Warren T; Byrd, Jason N; Michels, H Harvey; Montgomery, John A; Stwalley, William C

    2010-06-28

    Long range interactions between the ground state alkali diatomics Na(2)-Na(2), K(2)-K(2), Na(2)-K(2), and NaK-NaK are examined. Interaction energies are first determined from ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster with singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory, including counterpoise corrections. Long range energies calculated from diatomic molecular properties (polarizabilities and dipole and quadrupole moments) are then compared with the ab initio energies. A simple asymptotic model potential E(LR)=E(elec)+E(disp)+E(ind) is shown to accurately represent the intermolecular interactions for these systems at long range.

  4. Kinetics of onset of mouse sperm acrosome reaction induced by solubilized zona pellucida: fluorimetric determination of loss of pH gradient between acrosomal lumen and medium monitored by dapoxyl (2-aminoethyl) sulfonamide and of intracellular Ca(2+) changes monitored by fluo-3.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, P L; Storey, B T

    2000-03-01

    The onset of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction in mouse sperm is marked by loss of the pH gradient existing in acrosome-intact sperm between the acidic acrosomal lumen and the suspending medium, due to pore formation between outer acrosomal and plasma membranes. In earlier work, it was shown that this pH gradient loss occurred in single sperm bound to structurally intact zonae pellucidae with a half-time of 2.1 min; the extended kinetics of this loss determined in a sperm population bound to intact zonae was due to a 180-min range of variable lag times. We hypothesized that this lag time range was due to steric constraints imposed by the three-dimensional structure of the structurally intact zona pellucida, and that this constraint should be removed in solubilized zonae. The fluorescent probe, Dapoxyl(TM) (2-aminoethyl)sulfonamide (DAES) allowed a test of this hypothesis in a population of sperm cells. It is a weak base that is non-fluorescent in aqueous solution, but which accumulates in the acidic acrosomal compartment due to the pH gradient with highly enhanced fluorescence; loss of the pH gradient leads to a decrease in fluorescence. The half-time for DAES fluorescence loss in a population of capacitated, acrosome-intact sperm in response to solubilized zona pellucida protein was 2.13 +/- 0.10 min (SEM, n = 9). The agreement between single cell and cell population kinetics validates the hypothesis of steric constraint in the structurally intact zona pellucida. The change in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in response to solubilized zona pellucida, as monitored with fluo-3, was a rapid increase, followed by a decrease, with a half-time of 0.85 +/- 0.09 min (SEM, n = 6) to a steady state level higher than the initial level, indicating this Ca(2+) transient as the precursor reaction to onset of the zona-induced acrosome reaction. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Use of geostatistics for assessing the concentration of heavy metals in a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoro (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, J. M.; Siqueira, G. M.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Silva, P. C. M.; Batista, R. O.

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental changes with respect to the concentration of heavy metals in the sediment contained a stretch of the River Apodi-Mossoró (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil), considering changes in land use and soil. The sediment samples were collected at 30 points in the bed Apodi- Mossoró River in a section with features urban-rural town of Mossoró. The concentration of heavy metals in the sediment was determined using composite samples of surface sediments from the bottom with a depth of 20 cm, according to the methodology of APHAAWWA-WPCF (1998), where he subsequently held to determine the presence and quantity of metal concentration total by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry, and analyzed the following heavy metals: aluminum(Al), cádmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Data were analyzed using statistical and geostatistical. The geostatistical analysiswas performed by the construction of experimental semivariogramas self-assessment and adjustment by using the technique of Jack-kinifing. The elemento Cd was absent in the samples, which reduces the possibility of environmental contamination events. The average concentrations of the elements under study are within the limits proposed by the environmental legislation (National Environmental Council). However, for the elements Fe, Al and Mn no threshold values, because these are associated with the rocky material of geochemical origin. The elemento Fe had the highest range of values than the other, and all elements except for Zn and Cd showed the presence of outliers, suggesting the possibility that these points are listed as points liable to contribution by human activities. It was verified the presence of human influence, because the elements undergo an increase of concentration values from the point 11, which is located downstream of the urban bus consolidated. The experimental

  6. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    variability of the PREDICTED to OBSERVED ozone concentrations of both BASELINE model and simulations with modified emissions assessed by the sensitivity analysis. All simulations were found to vary within acceptable ranges of these two criteria variables. Simulation results indicate ozone formation in the PdN region is VOC-limited. Under VOC-limited conditions, modifications to NOx emissions do not produce a marked increase or decrease in ozone concentrations. Modifications to VOC emissions generated the highest variability in ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% produced results which minimized model bias and error when comparing PREDICTED and OBSERVED ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% either alone or in combination with a 75% increase in NOx emissions generated PREDICTED ozone concentrations very near to OBSERVED ozone. By evaluating the changes in ambient ozone concentrations through photochemical modeling, air quality planners may identify the most efficient or effective VOC emissions control strategies for area sources. Among the strategies to achieve emissions reductions are installation of gasoline vapor recovery systems, replacing high-pressure low-volume surface coating paint spray guns with high-volume low-pressure spray paint guns, requiring emissions control booths for surface coating operations as well as undertaking solvent management practices, requiring the sale of low VOC paint solvents in the surface-coating industry, and requiring low-VOC solvents in the dry cleaning industry. Other strategies to reduce VOC emissions include initiating Eco-Driving strategies to reduce fuel consumption from mobile sources and minimize vehicle idling at the international ports of entry by reducing bridge wait times. This dissertation depicts a tool for evaluating impacts of emissions on regional air quality by addressing the highly unresolved fugitive emissions in the Paso del Norte region. It provides a protocol for decision makers to

  7. Cytosolic Na+ controls and epithelial Na+ channel via the Go guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Komwatana, P; Dinudom, A; Young, J A; Cook, D I

    1996-01-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the fate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-beta-S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the alpha-subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8755611

  8. Cytosolic Na+ Controls an Epithelial Na+ Channel Via the Go Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Regulatory Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komwatana, P.; Dinudom, A.; Young, J. A.; Cook, D. I.

    1996-07-01

    In tight Na+-absorbing epithelial cells, the rate of Na+ entry through amiloride-sensitive apical membrane Na+ channels is matched to basolateral Na+ extrusion so that cell Na+ concentration and volume remain steady. Control of this process by regulation of apical Na+ channels has been attributed to changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration or pH, secondary to changes in cytosolic Na+ concentration, although cytosolic Cl- seems also to be involved. Using mouse mandibular gland duct cells, we now demonstrate that increasing cytosolic Na+ concentration inhibits apical Na+ channels independent of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, pH, or Cl-, and the effect is blocked by GDP-β -S, pertussis toxin, and antibodies against the α -subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Go). In contrast, the inhibitory effect of cytosolic anions is blocked by antibodies to inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (Gi1/Gi2. It thus appears that apical Na+ channels are regulated by Go and Gi proteins, the activities of which are controlled, respectively, by cytosolic Na+ and Cl-.

  9. Anomalously high Na(+) and low Li(+) mobility in intercalated Na2Ti6O13.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-04-12

    We report an anomalous diffusion behavior in intercalated Na2Ti6O13. Using first-principles calculations, the direct migration of inserted Na(+) along the tunnel direction is predicted to have a barrier of 0.24-0.44 eV, while the migration of inserted Li(+) along the tunnel direction has a barrier of 0.86-1.15 eV. Although Li(+) can also diffuse along a zig-zag path in the tunnel, the barrier of 0.86-0.99 eV is still much higher than that for Na(+). Our results surprisingly lead to the conclusion that the diffusion of larger Na(+) is 4-8 orders of magnitude faster than Li(+) in the same host lattice, and explain the experimentally observed exceptional rate capability of Na2Ti6O13 as the Na-ion battery anode. The anomalous diffusion behavior is attributed to the geometric features of Na2Ti6O13. For migration of Li(+) it is necessary to weaken Li-O bonds and to overcome the repulsion between Li and host Na ions simultaneously, while for Na(+) diffusion the improved Na-O bonding at the transition state partially compensates for the energy penalty from the repulsion of host Na ions.

  10. Extracellular Na+ levels regulate formation and activity of the NaX/alpha1-Na+/K+-ATPase complex in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Emmanuelle; Smith, Pascal Y.; Henry, Mélaine; Soulet, Denis; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Toth, Katalin; Mouginot, Didier; Drolet, Guy

    2014-01-01

    MnPO neurons play a critical role in hydromineral homeostasis regulation by acting as sensors of extracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]out). The mechanism underlying Na+-sensing involves Na+-flow through the NaX channel, directly regulated by the Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform which controls Na+-influx by modulating channel permeability. Together, these two partners form a complex involved in the regulation of intracellular sodium ([Na+]in). Here we aim to determine whether environmental changes in Na+ could actively modulate the NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase complex activity. We investigated the complex activity using patch-clamp recordings from rat MnPO neurons and Neuro2a cells. When the rats were fed with a high-salt-diet, or the [Na+] in the culture medium was increased, the activity of the complex was up-regulated. In contrast, drop in environmental [Na+] decreased the activity of the complex. Interestingly under hypernatremic condition, the colocalization rate and protein level of both partners were up-regulated. Under hyponatremic condition, only NaX protein expression was increased and the level of NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase remained unaltered. This unbalance between NaX and Na+/K+-ATPase pump proportion would induce a bigger portion of Na+/K+-ATPase-control-free NaX channel. Thus, we suggest that hypernatremic environment increases NaX/Na+/K+-ATPase α1-isoform activity by increasing the number of both partners and their colocalization rate, whereas hyponatremic environment down-regulates complex activity via a decrease in the relative number of NaX channels controlled by the pump. PMID:25538563

  11. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na/sub 2//sup +/ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na/sub 2/ molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na/sub 2/ D/sup 1/PI..mu.. Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na/sub 2//sup +/ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na/sub 2//sup +/ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na/sub 2/ molecules.

  12. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.; Roussel, F.; Carré, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-09-01

    The production of Na2+ ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200Å region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na2 D1Πu Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na2+ ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al. we estimate that the cross section for producing Na2+ through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na2 molecules.

  13. NMR studies on Na+ transport in Synechococcus PCC 6311

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitschmann, W. H.; Packer, L.

    1992-01-01

    The freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6311 is able to adapt to grow after sudden exposure to salt (NaCl) stress. We have investigated the mechanism of Na+ transport in these cells during adaptation to high salinity. Na+ influx under dark aerobic conditions occurred independently of delta pH or delta psi across the cytoplasmic membrane, ATPase activity, and respiratory electron transport. These findings are consistent with the existence of Na+/monovalent anion cotransport or simultaneous Na+/H+ +anion/OH- exchange. Na+ influx was dependent on Cl-, Br-, NO3-, or NO2-. No Na+ uptake occurred after addition of NaI, NaHCO3, or Na2SO4. Na+ extrusion was absolutely dependent on delta pH and on an ATPase activity and/or on respiratory electron transport. This indicates that Na+ extrusion via Na+/H+ exchange is driven by primary H+ pumps in the cytoplasmic membrane. Cells grown for 4 days in 0.5 m NaCl medium, "salt-grown cells," differ from control cells by a lower maximum velocity of Na+ influx and by lower steady-state ratios of [Na+]in/[Na+]out. These results indicate that cells grown in high-salt medium increase their capacity to extrude Na+. During salt adaptation Na+ extrusion driven by respiratory electron transport increased from about 15 to 50%.

  14. Dynamic Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 association and dissociation regulate parathyroid hormone receptor trafficking at membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Juan A; Wang, Bin; Watkins, Simon C; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Friedman, Peter A

    2011-10-07

    Na/H exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF1) is a cytoplasmic PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disc large/zona occludens) protein that assembles macromolecular complexes and determines the localization, trafficking, and signaling of select G protein-coupled receptors and other membrane-delimited proteins. The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), which regulates mineral ion homeostasis and bone turnover, is a G protein-coupled receptor harboring a PDZ-binding motif that enables association with NHERF1 and tethering to the actin cytoskeleton. NHERF1 interactions with the PTHR modify its trafficking and signaling. Here, we characterized by live cell imaging the mechanism whereby NHERF1 coordinates the interactions of multiple proteins, as well as the fate of NHERF1 itself upon receptor activation. Upon PTHR stimulation, NHERF1 rapidly dissociates from the receptor and induces receptor aggregation in long lasting clusters that are enriched with the actin-binding protein ezrin and with clathrin. After NHERF1 dissociates from the PTHR, ezrin then directly interacts with the PTHR to stabilize the PTHR at the cell membrane. Recruitment of β-arrestins to the PTHR is delayed until NHERF1 dissociates from the receptor, which is then trafficked to clathrin for internalization. The ability of NHERF to interact dynamically with the PTHR and cognate adapter proteins regulates receptor trafficking and signaling in a spatially and temporally coordinated manner.

  15. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase: Clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2003-01-01

    The specific binding of digitalis glycosides to Na,K-ATPase is used as a tool for Na,K-ATPase quantification with high accuracy and precision. In myocardial biopsies from patients with heart failure, total Na,K-ATPase concentration is decreased by around 40%; a correlation exists between a decrease in heart function and a decrease in Na,K-ATPase concentration. During digitalization, around 30% of remaining pumps are occupied by digoxin. Myocardial Na,K-ATPase is also influenced by other drugs used for the treatment of heart failure. Thus, potassium loss during diuretic therapy has been found to reduce myocardial Na,K-ATPase, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may stimulate Na,K pump activity. Furthermore, hyperaldosteronism induced by heart failure has been found to decrease Na,K-ATPase activity. Accordingly, treatment with the aldosterone antagonist, spironolactone, may also influence Na,K-ATPase activity. The importance of Na,K pump modulation with heart disease, inhibition in digitalization and other effects of medication should be considered in the context of sodium, potassium and calcium regulation. It is recommended that digoxin be administered to heart failure patients who, after institution of mortality-reducing therapy, still have heart failure symptoms, and that the therapy be continued if symptoms are revealed or reduced. Digitalis glycosides are the only safe inotropic drugs for oral use that improve hemodynamics in heart failure. An important aspect of myocardial Na,K pump affection in heart disease is its influence on extracellular potassium (Ke) homeostasis. Two important aspects should be considered: potassium handling among myocytes, and effects of potassium entering the extracellular space of the heart via the bloodstream. It should be noted that both of these aspects of Ke homeostasis are affected by regulatory aspects, eg, regulation of the Na,K pump by physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as by medical

  16. On the occurrence of Cebus flavius (Schreber 1774) in the Caatinga, and the use of semi-arid environments by Cebus species in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Renata G; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Silva, Thiago César Farias; de Souza Fialho, Marcos; de Araújo Roque, Alan; Fernandes, Adalberto; Arruda, Fátima

    2009-10-01

    Cebus flavius is a recently rediscovered species and a candidate for the 25 most endangered primate species list. It was hypothesized that the distribution of C. flavius was limited to the Atlantic Forest, while the occurrence of C. libidinosus in the Rio Grande do Norte (RN) Caatinga was inferred, given its occurrence in neighboring states. As a result of a survey in ten areas of the RN Caatinga, this paper reports on four Cebus populations, including the first occurrence of C. flavius in the Caatinga, and an expansion of the northwestern limits of distribution for the species. This C. flavius population may be a rare example of a process of geographic distribution retraction, and is probably the most endangered population of this species. New areas of occurrence of C. libidinosus are also described. Tool use sites were observed in association with reports of the presence of both capuchin species.

  17. Characteristics and pharmacological regulation of epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and epithelial Na+ transport.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial Na(+) transport participates in control of various body functions and conditions: e.g., homeostasis of body fluid content influencing blood pressure, control of amounts of fluids covering the apical surface of alveolar epithelial cells at appropriate levels for normal gas exchange, and prevention of bacterial/viral infection. Epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is mediated by the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via Epithelial Na(+) Channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane, and the extrusion step of Na(+) across the basolateral membrane via the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase located at the basolateral membrane. The rate-limiting step of the epithelial Na(+) transport via the transcellular pathway is generally recognized to be the entry step of Na(+) across the apical membrane via ENaC. Thus, up-/down-regulation of ENaC essentially participates in regulatory systems of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. Amount of ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport is determined by the number of ENaCs located at the apical membrane, activity (open probability) of individual ENaC located at the apical membrane, single channel conductance of ENaC located at the apical membrane, and driving force for the Na(+) entry via ENaCs across the apical membrane. In the present review article, I discuss the characteristics of ENaC and how these factors are regulated.

  18. Computational and Experimental Investigations of Na-Ion Conduction in Cubic Na3PSe4

    DOE PAGES

    Bo, Shou -Hang; Wang, Yan; Kim, Jae Chul; ...

    2015-11-17

    All-solid-state Na-ion batteries that operate at or close to room temperature are a promising next-generation battery technology with enhanced safety and reduced manufacturing cost. An indispensable component of this technology is the solid-state electrolyte that allows rapid shuttling of the mobile cation (i.e., Na+) between the cathode and anode. However, there are very few fast Na-ion conductors with ionic conductivity approaching that of the liquid counterparts (i.e., 1 mS cm–1). In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of a fast Na-ion conductor, cubic Na3PSe4. This material possesses a room-temperature ionic conductivity exceeding 0.1 mS cm–1 and does notmore » require high-temperature sintering to minimize grain boundary resistance, making it a promising solid-state electrolyte candidate for all-solid-state Na-ion battery applications. On the basis of density functional theory, nudged elastic band, and molecular dynamics investigations, we demonstrate that the framework of cubic Na3PSe4 only permits rapid Na+ diffusion with the presence of defects, and that the formation of the Na vacancy (charge-balanced by slight Se2– oxidation) is more energetically favorable among the various defects considered. This finding provides important guidelines to further improve Na-ion conductivity in this class of materials.« less

  19. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na(+)-K(+)-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na(+) Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-03-08

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na(+) in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K(+) after a period of exposure to K(+)-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na(+) that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K(+)-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na(+) diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K(+) reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na(+) concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K(+)-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na(+) diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na(+)- and K(+) concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na(+)-K(+) pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K(+)-induced peak Na(+)-K(+) pump current reflects the effect

  20. Catalysis of Na+ permeation in the bacterial sodium channel NaVAb

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Ing, Christopher; Payandeh, Jian; Zheng, Ning; Catterall, William A.; Pomès, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Determination of a high-resolution 3D structure of voltage-gated sodium channel NaVAb opens the way to elucidating the mechanism of ion conductance and selectivity. To examine permeation of Na+ through the selectivity filter of the channel, we performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of NaVAb in an explicit, hydrated lipid bilayer at 0 mV in 150 mM NaCl, for a total simulation time of 21.6 μs. Although the cytoplasmic end of the pore is closed, reversible influx and efflux of Na+ through the selectivity filter occurred spontaneously during simulations, leading to equilibrium movement of Na+ between the extracellular medium and the central cavity of the channel. Analysis of Na+ dynamics reveals a knock-on mechanism of ion permeation characterized by alternating occupancy of the channel by 2 and 3 Na+ ions, with a computed rate of translocation of (6 ± 1) × 106 ions⋅s−1 that is consistent with expectations from electrophysiological studies. The binding of Na+ is intimately coupled to conformational isomerization of the four E177 side chains lining the extracellular end of the selectivity filter. The reciprocal coordination of variable numbers of Na+ ions and carboxylate groups leads to their condensation into ionic clusters of variable charge and spatial arrangement. Structural fluctuations of these ionic clusters result in a myriad of ion binding modes and foster a highly degenerate, liquid-like energy landscape propitious to Na+ diffusion. By stabilizing multiple ionic occupancy states while helping Na+ ions diffuse within the selectivity filter, the conformational flexibility of E177 side chains underpins the knock-on mechanism of Na+ permeation. PMID:23803856

  1. Interaction between Na+ and H+ ions on Na-H exchange in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers.

    PubMed

    Wu, M L; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    1997-04-01

    The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions upon Na-H exchange (NHE) was examined in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Acid equivalent fluxes through NHE were examined using recordings of intracellular pH and Na+ in isolated preparations measured with ion selective microelectrodes. The extent of acid-extrusion by NHE was estimated from pH(i) recovery-rate, multiplied by beta(i) (intracellular buffering power) in response to an internal acid load induced by 20 mm NH4Cl removal (nominally HCO3- free media). A mixed inhibitory effect was found of extracellular H+ on external Na+-activation of NHE (i.e. an increase, at low pH(o), in the apparent Michaelis constant for external Na+ ions [K(Nao)(0.5)] and a decrease in the maximum transport rate [V(Nao)(max)]). In addition, we confirmed that the stoichiometry of Na(o) binding is unaffected by the pH(o) (between 7.5 and 6.5), showing a Hill coefficient close to one. The interaction between Na+ and H+ ions at the internal face of the cardiac NHE was also studied. Our evidence suggests that an increase in the intracellular Na+ ion concentration ([Na+]i) inhibits acid efflux and that this inhibition can be approximated by the decrease in thermodynamic driving force caused by reducing the transmembrane Na+ gradient. It appears, however, that small variations in [Na+]i from the normal resting level (intracellular sodium activity, a(i)Na = 7 to 13 mm) have little or no effect on acid efflux, suggesting that variation of a(i)Na is not a physiologically important controller of NHE activity in heart.

  2. Glutathionylation-Dependence of Na+-K+-Pump Currents Can Mimic Reduced Subsarcolemmal Na+ Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alvaro; Liu, Chia-Chi; Cornelius, Flemming; Clarke, Ronald J.; Rasmussen, Helge H.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a subsarcolemmal space with restricted diffusion for Na+ in cardiac myocytes has been inferred from a transient peak electrogenic Na+-K+ pump current beyond steady state on reexposure of myocytes to K+ after a period of exposure to K+-free extracellular solution. The transient peak current is attributed to enhanced electrogenic pumping of Na+ that accumulated in the diffusion-restricted space during pump inhibition in K+-free extracellular solution. However, there are no known physical barriers that account for such restricted Na+ diffusion, and we examined if changes of activity of the Na+-K+ pump itself cause the transient peak current. Reexposure to K+ reproduced a transient current beyond steady state in voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes as reported by others. Persistence of it when the Na+ concentration in patch pipette solutions perfusing the intracellular compartment was high and elimination of it with K+-free pipette solution could not be reconciled with restricted subsarcolemmal Na+ diffusion. The pattern of the transient current early after pump activation was dependent on transmembrane Na+- and K+ concentration gradients suggesting the currents were related to the conformational poise imposed on the pump. We examined if the currents might be accounted for by changes in glutathionylation of the β1 Na+-K+ pump subunit, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the pump. Susceptibility of the β1 subunit to glutathionylation depends on the conformational poise of the Na+-K+ pump, and glutathionylation with the pump stabilized in conformations equivalent to those expected to be imposed on voltage-clamped myocytes supported this hypothesis. So did elimination of the transient K+-induced peak Na+-K+ pump current when we included glutaredoxin 1 in patch pipette solutions to reverse glutathionylation. We conclude that transient K+-induced peak Na+-K+ pump current reflects the effect of conformation-dependent β1 pump subunit

  3. Thermodynamic Model for the Solubility of Cr(OH)(3)(am) in Concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO3 Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat ); Hess, Nancy J. ); Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Felmy, Andrew R. ); Moore, Dean A. ); Clark, Sue B.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a reliable thermodynamic model for predicting Cr(III) behavior in concentrated NaOH and in mixed NaOH-NaNO3 solutions for application to effective caustic leaching strategies for high-level tank sludges. To meet these objectives, the solubility of Cr(OH)3(am) was measured in 0.003 to 10.5 m NaOH, 3.0 m es in NaOH concentration...

  4. Erythrocyte 22Na+ influx in hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Shalev, O.; Eaton, J.W.; Ben-Ishay, D.

    1984-01-01

    We assessed 22Na+ uptake by erythrocytes (RBC) from 38 individuals with essential hypertension and 37 healthy controls. All subjects were male, white, non-obese and with normal renal function, obviating sex, race, hormonal, ponderal and renal factors known to influence RBC Na+ handling. The mean +/- sem 22Na+ uptake of the patients was 284 +/- 16 mumole/liter RBC/hour while that of normal controls was 249 +/- 11 mumole/liter RBC/hour; although the difference reached borderline significance, individual values showed considerable overlap. Consequently, in our population, RBC 22Na+ uptake is not a reliable marker for essential hypertension. We believe that previous studies should be reassessed with regard to patients' characteristics and future studies employ rigorous criteria in selection of subjects.

  5. Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in NaBH4-NaBF4.

    PubMed

    Rude, L H; Filsø, U; D'Anna, V; Spyratou, A; Richter, B; Hino, S; Zavorotynska, O; Baricco, M; Sørby, M H; Hauback, B C; Hagemann, H; Besenbacher, F; Skibsted, J; Jensen, T R

    2013-11-07

    Hydrogen-fluorine exchange in the NaBH4-NaBF4 system is investigated using a range of experimental methods combined with DFT calculations and a possible mechanism for the reactions is proposed. Fluorine substitution is observed using in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) as a new Rock salt type compound with idealized composition NaBF2H2 in the temperature range T = 200 to 215 °C. Combined use of solid-state (19)F MAS NMR, FT-IR and DFT calculations supports the formation of a BF2H2(-) complex ion, reproducing the observation of a (19)F chemical shift at -144.2 ppm, which is different from that of NaBF4 at -159.2 ppm, along with the new absorption bands observed in the IR spectra. After further heating, the fluorine substituted compound becomes X-ray amorphous and decomposes to NaF at ~310 °C. This work shows that fluorine-substituted borohydrides tend to decompose to more stable compounds, e.g. NaF and BF3 or amorphous products such as closo-boranes, e.g. Na2B12H12. The NaBH4-NaBF4 composite decomposes at lower temperatures (300 °C) compared to NaBH4 (476 °C), as observed by thermogravimetric analysis. NaBH4-NaBF4 (1:0.5) preserves 30% of the hydrogen storage capacity after three hydrogen release and uptake cycles compared to 8% for NaBH4 as measured using Sievert's method under identical conditions, but more than 50% using prolonged hydrogen absorption time. The reversible hydrogen storage capacity tends to decrease possibly due to the formation of NaF and Na2B12H12. On the other hand, the additive sodium fluoride appears to facilitate hydrogen uptake, prevent foaming, phase segregation and loss of material from the sample container for samples of NaBH4-NaF.

  6. Deliquescence of NaCl-NaNO3, KNO3-NaNO3, and NaCl-KNO3 Salt Mixtures From 90 to 120?C

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S A; Craig, L; Wolery, T J

    2004-10-20

    We conducted reversed deliquescence experiments in saturated NaCl-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O, and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O systems from 90 to 120 C as a function of relative humidity and solution composition. NaCl, NaNO{sub 3}, and KNO{sub 3} represent members of dust salt assemblages that are likely to deliquesce and form concentrated brines on high-level radioactive waste package surfaces in a repository environment at Yucca Mountain, NV, USA. Discrepancy between model prediction and experimental code can be as high as 8% for relative humidity and 50% for dissolved ion concentration. The discrepancy is attributed primarily to the use of 25 C models for Cl-NO{sub 3} and K-NO{sub 3} ion interactions in the current Yucca Mountain Project high-temperature Pitzer model to describe the non-ideal behavior of these highly concentrated solutions.

  7. Theoretical study of Na-atom emission from NaCl (100) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchin, Vladimir; Shluger, Alexander; Nakai, Yasuo; Itoh, Noriaki

    1994-04-01

    Several models for the elementary processes causing the emission of alkali atoms by electronic excitation of NaCl (100) surfaces have been investigated theoretically. First, the desorption of a Na atom neighboring an electronically excited F center on the surface is simulated using a quantum-mechanical embedded-cluster technique. It is shown that emission of a Na atom is energetically favorable. The kinetics of this process is shown to be controlled by the probability of a nonradiative transition between the two states: the excited state of the F center and that corresponding to a Na atom desorbing from the surface. The potential barrier for desorption of an excited Na atom from the excited F-center state is found to be 2.1 eV. It is also found that the energy for emission of a Na atom from a cluster of F centers (the F3 center) is considerably reduced (for a certain configuration of the defect) with respect to the similar energy for a single F center. The energy barrier for emission of a Na atom neighboring an F' center on the surface is calculated to be 1 eV. It is shown that the electronic excitation of kinklike sites, with a Na atom at the edge, can lead to a barrierless emission of a Na atom, leaving a Vk-type defect behind. The results of calculations are discussed critically on the basis of existing experimental data.

  8. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na(+) Bound Na(+), K(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-13

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na(+), K(+) -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na(+) or K(+) selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na(+) bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na(+) ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na(+) binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na(+) from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na(+) release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na(+) bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na(+) binding and release mechanism of NKA.

  9. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain- sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS- treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES- buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o. Addition of 10 mM Ko to tartrate i,o ghosts, with or without Cli,o, resulted in full activation of Na/K exchange and the pump's electrogenicity

  10. Glutamate Water Gates in the Ion Binding Pocket of Na+ Bound Na+, K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Minwoo; Kopec, Wojciech; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    The dynamically changing protonation states of the six acidic amino acid residues in the ion binding pocket of the Na+, K+ -ATPase (NKA) during the ion transport cycle are proposed to drive ion binding, release and possibly determine Na+ or K+ selectivity. We use molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations to determine the protonation scheme of the Na+ bound conformation of NKA. MD simulations of all possible protonation schemes show that the bound Na+ ions are most stably bound when three or four protons reside in the binding sites, and that Glu954 in site III is always protonated. Glutamic acid residues in the three binding sites act as water gates, and their deprotonation triggers water entry to the binding sites. From DFT calculations of Na+ binding energies, we conclude that three protons in the binding site are needed to effectively bind Na+ from water and four are needed to release them in the next step. Protonation of Asp926 in site III will induce Na+ release, and Glu327, Glu954 and Glu779 are all likely to be protonated in the Na+ bound occluded conformation. Our data provides key insights into the role of protons in the Na+ binding and release mechanism of NKA. PMID:28084301

  11. Stoichiometry and Na+ binding cooperativity of rat and flounder renal type II Na+-Pi cotransporters.

    PubMed

    Forster, I C; Loo, D D; Eskandari, S

    1999-04-01

    The stoichiometry of the rat and flounder isoforms of the renal type II sodium-phosphate (Na+-Pi) cotransporter was determined directly by simultaneous measurements of phosphate (Pi)-induced inward current and uptake of radiolabeled Pi and Na+ in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the cotransporters. There was a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Pi uptake into the oocytes; the slope indicated that one net inward charge was transported per Pi. There was also a direct correlation between the Pi-induced inward charge and Na+ influx; the slope indicated that the influx of three Na+ ions resulted in one net inward charge. This behavior was similar for both isoforms. We conclude that for both Na+-Pi cotransporter isoforms the Na+:Pi stoichiometry is 3:1 and that divalent Pi is the transported substrate. Steady-state activation of the currents showed that the Hill coefficients for Pi were unity for both isoforms, whereas for Na+, they were 1.8 (flounder) and 2.5 (rat). Therefore, despite significant differences in the apparent Na+ binding cooperativity, the estimated Na+:Pi stoichiometry was the same for both isoforms.

  12. Vascular contractile reactivity in hypotension due to reduced renal reabsorption of Na(+) and restricted dietary Na().

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saeed; Rapoport, Robert M; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2017-03-01

    Reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption along with restricted dietary Na(+) depletes intravascular plasma volume which can then result in hypotension. Whether hypotension occurs and the magnitude of hypotension depends in part on compensatory angiotensin II-mediated increased vascular resistance. We investigated whether the ability of vascular resistance to mitigate the hypotension was compromised by decreased contractile reactivity. In vitro reactivity was investigated in aorta from mouse models of reduced renal Na(+) reabsorption and restricted dietary Na(+) associated with considerable hypotension and renin-angiotensin system activation: (1) the Na(+)-Cl(-)-Co-transporter (NCC) knockout (KO) with Na(+) restricted diet (0.1%, 2 weeks) and (2) the relatively more severe pendrin (apical chloride/bicarbonate exchanger) and NCC double KO. Contractile sensitivity to KCl, phenylephrine, and/or U46619 remained unaltered in aorta from both models. Maximal KCl and phenylephrine contraction expressed as force/aorta length from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while in pendrin/NCC double KO were reduced to 49 and 64%, respectively. Wet weight of aorta from NCC KO with Na(+)-restricted diet remained unaltered, while pendrin/NCC double KO was reduced to 67%, consistent with decreased medial width determined with Verhoeff-Van Gieson stain. These findings suggest that hypotension associated with severe intravascular volume depletion, as the result of decreased renal Na(+) reabsorption, may in part be due to decreased contractile reactivity as a consequence of reduced vascular hypertrophy.

  13. Influence of sodium halides (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI) on the photocatalytic performance of hydrothermally synthesized hematite photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsinghai; Huang, Mao-Chia; Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Jing-Chie; Lee, Chih-Hao; Wang, Chu-Fang

    2013-08-28

    It has been suggested that a high concentration of Fe(3+) in solution, a low pH, and noncomplexing ions of high ionic strength are all essential for developing a high-quality hematite array. Our curiosity was piqued regarding the role of the electrolyte ions in the hydrothermal synthesis of hematite photoanodes. In this study, we prepared hematite photoanodes hydrothermally from precursor solutions of 0.1 M FeCl3 at pH 1.55 with a background electrolyte of 1.0 M sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, or NaI). We compared the structures and properties of the as-obtained hematite photoanodes with those of the material prepared in 1.0 M NaNO3, the most widely adopted electrolyte in previous studies. Among our studied systems, we found that the hematite photoanode prepared in NaCl solution was the only one possessing properties similar to those of the sample obtained from the NaNO3 solution-most importantly in terms of photoelectrochemical performance (ca. 0.2 mA/cm(2) with +0.4 V vs SCE). The hematites obtained from the NaF, NaBr, and NaI solutions exhibited much lower (by approximately 2 orders of magnitude) photocurrent densities under the same conditions, possibly because of their relatively less ordered crystallinity and the absence of rodlike morphologies. Because the synthetic protocol was identical in each case, we believe that these two distinct features reflect the environments in which these hematite photoanodes were formed. Consistent with the latest studies reported in the literature of the X-ray photoelectron spectra of fast-frozen hematite colloids in aqueous solutions, it appears that the degree of surface ion loading at the electrolyte-hematite interface (Stern layer) is critical during the development of hematite photoanodes. We suspect that a lower ion surface loading benefits the hematite developing relatively higher-order and a rodlike texture, thereby improving the photoelectrochemical activity.

  14. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  15. Quasi–solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]–4% SiO2/NaClO4–TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm−1), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na+ plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm−2). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g−1 with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g−1 in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg−1). This study makes quasi–solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect. PMID:28164158

  16. Quasi-solid state rechargeable Na-CO2 batteries with reduced graphene oxide Na anodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofei; Li, Zifan; Zhao, Yaran; Sun, Jianchao; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Na-CO2 batteries using earth-abundant Na and greenhouse gas CO2 are promising tools for mobile and stationary energy storage, but they still pose safety risks from leakage of liquid electrolyte and instability of the Na metal anode. These issues result in extremely harsh operating conditions of Na-CO2 batteries and increase the difficulty of scaling up this technology. We report the development of quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries with high safety using composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) Na anodes. The CPE of PVDF-HFP [poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)]-4% SiO2/NaClO4-TEGDME (tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether) has high ion conductivity (1.0 mS cm(-1)), robust toughness, a nonflammable matrix, and strong electrolyte-locking ability. In addition, the rGO-Na anode presents fast and nondendritic Na(+) plating/stripping (5.7 to 16.5 mA cm(-2)). The improved kinetics and safety enable the constructed rGO-Na/CPE/CO2 batteries to successfully cycle in wide CO2 partial pressure window (5 to 100%, simulated car exhaust) and especially to run for 400 cycles at 500 mA g(-1) with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA·hour g(-1) in pure CO2. Furthermore, we scaled up the reversible capacity to 1.1 A·hour in pouch-type batteries (20 × 20 cm, 10 g, 232 Wh kg(-1)). This study makes quasi-solid state Na-CO2 batteries an attractive prospect.

  17. Electrophysiological Determination of Submembrane Na(+) Concentration in Cardiac Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Bence; Bányász, Tamás; Shannon, Thomas R; Chen-Izu, Ye; Izu, Leighton T

    2016-09-20

    In the heart, Na(+) is a key modulator of the action potential, Ca(2+) homeostasis, energetics, and contractility. Because Na(+) currents and cotransport fluxes depend on the Na(+) concentration in the submembrane region, it is necessary to accurately estimate the submembrane Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]sm). Current methods using Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent indicators or Na(+) -sensitive electrodes cannot measure [Na(+)]sm. However, electrophysiology methods are ideal for measuring [Na(+)]sm. In this article, we develop patch-clamp protocols and experimental conditions to determine the upper bound of [Na(+)]sm at the peak of action potential and its lower bound at the resting state. During the cardiac cycle, the value of [Na(+)]sm is constrained within these bounds. We conducted experiments in rabbit ventricular myocytes at body temperature and found that 1) at a low pacing frequency of 0.5 Hz, the upper and lower bounds converge at 9 mM, constraining the [Na(+)]sm value to ∼9 mM; 2) at 2 Hz pacing frequency, [Na(+)]sm is bounded between 9 mM at resting state and 11.5 mM; and 3) the cells can maintain [Na(+)]sm to the above values, despite changes in the pipette Na(+) concentration, showing autoregulation of Na(+) in beating cardiomyocytes.

  18. Interaction of NaCl(g) and HCl(g) with condensed NA2SO4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The interaction of Na2SO4(l) with NaCl(g), HCl(g) and H2O(g) was studied in atmospheric pressure flowing air and oxygen at Na2SO4(l) temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. Thermomicrogravimetric and high pressure mass spectrometric sampling techniques were used. Experimental results establish that previously reported enhanced rates of weight loss of Na2SO4(l) in the presence of NaCl(g) are due to the reaction: Na2SO4(c) + 2HCl(g) = 2NaCl(g) + SO2(g) + H2O(g) + 1/2O2(g) being driven to the right in flowing gas systems. The HCl(g) is the product of hydrolysis of NaCl caused by small but significant amounts of H2O(g) present in the system. Thermochemical calculations are used to show that even with sub-ppm levels of H2O(g) present, significant quantities of HCl(g) are produced.

  19. Dynamics of Na + in a single crystal of Naβ″Al 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, N.; Lucazeau, G.; Bates, J.; Dianoux, A. J.

    1989-01-01

    A single crystal of Naβ″ Al 2O 3 has been used to measure quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectra at 227 and 377°C. Fitted data are presented with a new model and the results are compared to those obtained with NaβAl 2O 3.

  20. Voltage dependence of Na translocation by the Na/K pump.

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Gadsby, D C

    During each complete reaction cycle, the Na/K pump transports three Na ions out across the cell membrane and two K ions in. The resulting net extrusion of positive charge generates outward membrane current but, until now, it was unclear how that net charge movement occurs. Reasonable possibilities included a single positive charge moving outwards during Na translocation; or a single negative charge moving inwards during K translocation; or either positive or negative charges moving during both translocation steps, but in unequal quantities. Any step that involves net charge movement through the membrane must have voltage-dependent transition rates. Here we report measurements of transient, voltage-dependent, displacement currents generated by the pump when its normal Na/K transport cycle has been interrupted by removal of external K and it is thus constrained to carry out Na/Na exchange. The quantity and voltage sensitivity of the charge moved during these transient currents suggests that Na translocation includes a voltage-dependent transition involving movement of one positive charge across the membrane. This single step can thus fully account for the electrogenic nature of Na/K exchange. The result provides important new insight into the molecular mechanism of active cation transport.

  1. Dynamics of Na(+)(Benzene) + Benzene Association and Ensuing Na(+)(Benzene)2* Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Amit K; Kolakkandy, Sujitha; Hase, William L

    2015-07-16

    Chemical dynamics simulations were used to study Bz + Na(+)(Bz) → Na(+)(Bz)2* association and the ensuing dissociation of the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster (Bz = benzene). An interesting and unexpected reaction found from the simulations is direct displacement, for which the colliding Bz molecule displaces the Bz molecule attached to Na(+), forming Na(+)(Bz). The rate constant for Bz + Na(+)(Bz) association was calculated at 750 and 1000 K, and found to decrease with increase in temperature. By contrast, the direct displacement rate constant increases with temperature. The cross section and rate constant for direct displacement are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those for association. The Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster, formed by association, dissociates with a biexponential probability, with the rate constant for the short-time component approximately an order of magnitude larger than that for the longer time component. The latter rate constant agrees with that of Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, consistent with rapid intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and intrinsic RRKM dynamics for the Na(+)(Bz)2* cluster. A coupled phase space model was used to analyze the biexponential dissociation probability.

  2. Low-affinity Na+ uptake in the halophyte Suaeda maritima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suo-Min; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Flowers, Timothy J

    2007-10-01

    Na(+) uptake by plant roots has largely been explored using species that accumulate little Na(+) into their shoots. By way of contrast, the halophyte Suaeda maritima accumulates, without injury, concentrations of the order of 400 mM NaCl in its leaves. Here we report that cAMP and Ca(2+) (blockers of nonselective cation channels) and Li(+) (a competitive inhibitor of Na(+) uptake) did not have any significant effect on the uptake of Na(+) by the halophyte S. maritima when plants were in 25 or 150 mM NaCl (150 mM NaCl is near optimal for growth). However, the inhibitors of K(+) channels, TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (5 mM), significantly reduced the net uptake of Na(+) from 150 mM NaCl over 48 h, by 54%, 24%, and 29%, respectively. TEA(+) (10 mM), Cs(+) (3 mM), and Ba(2+) (1 mm) also significantly reduced (22)Na(+) influx (measured over 2 min in 150 mM external NaCl) by 47%, 30%, and 31%, respectively. In contrast to the situation in 150 mm NaCl, neither TEA(+) (1-10 mM) nor Cs(+) (0.5-10 mM) significantly reduced net Na(+) uptake or (22)Na(+) influx in 25 mM NaCl. Ba(2+) (at 5 mm) did significantly decrease net Na(+) uptake (by 47%) and (22)Na(+) influx (by 36% with 1 mM Ba(2+)) in 25 mM NaCl. K(+) (10 or 50 mM) had no effect on (22)Na(+) influx at concentrations below 75 mM NaCl, but the influx of (22)Na(+) was inhibited by 50 mM K(+) when the external concentration of NaCl was above 75 mM. The data suggest that neither nonselective cation channels nor a low-affinity cation transporter are major pathways for Na(+) entry into root cells. We propose that two distinct low-affinity Na(+) uptake pathways exist in S. maritima: Pathway 1 is insensitive to TEA(+) or Cs(+), but sensitive to Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under low salinities (25 mM NaCl); pathway 2 is sensitive to TEA(+), Cs(+), and Ba(2+) and mediates Na(+) uptake under higher external salt concentrations (150 mM NaCl). Pathway 1 might be mediated by a high-affinity K transporter

  3. Anion-coupled Na efflux mediated by the human red blood cell Na/K pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dissing, S.; Hoffman, J.F. )

    1990-07-01

    The red cell Na/K pump is known to continue to extrude Na when both Na and K are removed from the external medium. Because this ouabain-sensitive flux occurs in the absence of an exchangeable cation, it is referred to as uncoupled Na efflux. This flux is also known to be inhibited by 5 mM Nao but to a lesser extent than that inhibitable by ouabain. Uncoupled Na efflux via the Na/K pump therefore can be divided into a Nao-sensitive and Nao-insensitive component. We used DIDS-treated, SO4-equilibrated human red blood cells suspended in HEPES-buffered (pHo 7.4) MgSO4 or (Tris)2SO4, in which we measured 22Na efflux, 35SO4 efflux, and changes in the membrane potential with the fluorescent dye, diS-C3 (5). A principal finding is that uncoupled Na efflux occurs electroneurally, in contrast to the pump's normal electrogenic operation when exchanging Nai for Ko. This electroneutral uncoupled efflux of Na was found to be balanced by an efflux of cellular anions. (We were unable to detect any ouabain-sensitive uptake of protons, measured in an unbuffered medium at pH 7.4 with a Radiometer pH-STAT.) The Nao-sensitive efflux of Nai was found to be 1.95 +/- 0.10 times the Nao-sensitive efflux of (SO4)i, indicating that the stoichiometry of this cotransport is two Na+ per SO4=, accounting for 60-80% of the electroneutral Na efflux. The remainder portion, that is, the ouabain-sensitive Nao-insensitive component, has been identified as PO4-coupled Na transport and is the subject of a separate paper. That uncoupled Na efflux occurs as a cotransport with anions is supported by the result, obtained with resealed ghosts, that when internal and external SO4 was substituted by the impermeant anion, tartrate i,o, the efflux of Na was inhibited 60-80%. This inhibition could be relieved by the inclusion, before DIDS treatment, of 5 mM Cli,o.

  4. A thermochemical explanation for the stability of NaCl3 and NaCl7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2017-03-01

    Thermodynamically stable cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 as well as NaCl7 have been synthesized (Zhang et al., 2013). In the present work, a thermochemical explanation for the stability of such unusual sodium chlorides is provided, based on lattice energy values. Using the Glasser-Jenkins generalized equation (Glasser and Jenkins, 2000) lattice energies (kJ mol-1) of -162.5, -168.9 and -113.1 are calculated for Pm3n NaCl3, Pnma NaCl3 and NaCl7, respectively. It is postulated that any NaxCly compound could be synthesized, if the ionic character of the Nasbnd Cl bond in the prepared compound remains around 80%, and the sodium charge below unit.

  5. Na-ion dynamics in Quasi-1D compound NaV2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Umegaki, I.; Nozaki, H.; Higuchi, Y.; Kawasaki, I.; Watanabe, I.; Sakurai, H.; Sugiyama, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have used the pulsed muon source at ISIS to study high-temperature Na-ion dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) metallic antiferromagnet NaV2O4. By performing systematic zero-field and longitudinal-field measurements as a function of temperature we clearly distinguish that the hopping rate increases exponentially above Tdiff ≈ 250 K. The data is well fitted to an Arrhenius type equation typical for a diffusion process, showing that the Na-ions starts to be mobile above Tdiff. Such results make this compound very interesting for the tuning of Q1D magnetism using atomic-scale ion-texturing through the periodic potential from ordered Na-vacancies. Further, it also opens the door to possible use of NaV2O4 and related compounds in energy related applications.

  6. Na/K pump inactivation, subsarcolemmal Na measurements, and cytoplasmic ion turnover kinetics contradict restricted Na spaces in murine cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Min; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2017-07-03

    Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization. Na channel currents are nearly unchanged by pump activity in these conditions, and conversely, continuous Na currents up to 0.5 nA in magnitude have negligible effects on pump currents. These outcomes are even more pronounced using 50 mM Li as a cytoplasmic Na congener. Thus, the Na/K pump current decay reflects mostly an inactivation mechanism that immobilizes Na/K pump charge movements, not cytoplasmic Na depletion. When channel currents are increased beyond 1 nA, models with unrestricted subsarcolemmal diffusion accurately predict current decay (τ ∼15 s) and reversal potential shifts observed for Na, Li, and K currents through Na channels opened by veratridine, as well as for Na, K, Cs, Li, and Cl currents recorded in nystatin-permeabilized myocytes. Ion concentrations in the pipette tip (i.e., access conductance) track without appreciable delay the current changes caused by sarcolemmal ion flux. Importantly, cytoplasmic mixing volumes, calculated from current decay kinetics, increase and decrease as expected with osmolarity changes (τ >30 s). Na/K pump current run-down over 20 min reflects a failure of pumps to recover from inactivation. Simulations reveal that pump inactivation coupled with Na-activated recovery enhances the rapidity and effectivity of Na homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, an autoregulatory mechanism enhances cardiac Na/K pump activity when

  7. Functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling causes high blood pressure in Na+ replete mice.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Helga; Seniuk, Anika; Schulte, Laura Helene; Müller, Maxie Luise; Hetz, Hannah; Ehmke, Heimo

    2014-03-01

    A network of kinases, including WNKs, SPAK and Sgk1, is critical for the independent regulation of K+ and Na+ transport in the distal nephron. Angiotensin II is thought to act as a key hormone in orchestrating these kinases to switch from K+ secretion during hyperkalaemia to Na+ reabsorption during intravascular volume depletion, thus keeping disturbances in electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis at a minimum. It remains unclear, however, how K+ and Na+ transport are regulated during a high Na+ intake, which is associated with suppressed angiotensin II levels and a high distal tubular Na+ load. We therefore investigated the integrated blood pressure, renal, hormonal and gene and protein expression responses to large changes of K+ intake in Na+ replete mice. Both low and high K+ intake increased blood pressure and caused Na+ retention. Low K+ intake was accompanied by an upregulation of the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) and its activating kinase SPAK, and inhibition of NCC normalized blood pressure. Renal responses were unaffected by angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonism, indicating that low K+ intake activates the distal nephron by an angiotensin-independent mode of action. High K+ intake was associated with elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations and an upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and its activating kinase Sgk1. Surprisingly, high K+ intake increased blood pressure even during ENaC or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism, suggesting the contribution of aldosterone-independent mechanisms. These findings show that in a Na+ replete state, changes in K+ intake induce specific molecular and functional adaptations in the distal nephron that cause a functional coupling of renal K+ and Na+ handling, resulting in Na+ retention and high blood pressure when K+ intake is either restricted or excessively increased.

  8. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Wayne R.

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O’Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase. PMID:27875582

  9. Changes in Intracellular Na+ following Enhancement of Late Na+ Current in Virtual Human Ventricular Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Karen; Trenor, Beatriz; Giles, Wayne R

    2016-01-01

    The slowly inactivating or late Na+ current, INa-L, can contribute to the initiation of both atrial and ventricular rhythm disturbances in the human heart. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these pro-arrhythmic influences are not fully understood. At present, the major working hypothesis is that the Na+ influx corresponding to INa-L significantly increases intracellular Na+, [Na+]i; and the resulting reduction in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ reduces and (may reverse) Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These changes increase intracellular Ca2+, [Ca2+]i; which may further enhance INa-L due to calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of the Na+ channels. This paper is based on mathematical simulations using the O'Hara et al (2011) model of baseline or healthy human ventricular action potential waveforms(s) and its [Ca2+]i homeostasis mechanisms. Somewhat surprisingly, our results reveal only very small changes (≤ 1.5 mM) in [Na+]i even when INa-L is increased 5-fold and steady-state stimulation rate is approximately 2 times the normal human heart rate (i.e. 2 Hz). Previous work done using well-established models of the rabbit and human ventricular action potential in heart failure settings also reported little or no change in [Na+]i when INa-L was increased. Based on our simulations, the major short-term effect of markedly augmenting INa-L is a significant prolongation of the action potential and an associated increase in the likelihood of reactivation of the L-type Ca2+ current, ICa-L. Furthermore, this action potential prolongation does not contribute to [Na+]i increase.

  10. Recent results from MoNA-LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyrou, Artemisia

    2012-03-01

    Studies of the nuclear properties of nuclei close and even beyond the limits of stability have revealed exotic modes of decay and new structural characteristics. The MoNA-LISA array is used at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University to study nuclei along the neutron dripline. In a typical experiment, a radioactive beam is employed to produce the neutron-unbound state of interest. This state/resonance immediately decay into a neutron, which is detected by MoNA-LISA and a remaining charged nucleus detected by the sweeper magnet detector suite. In this talk, new exciting findings from recent MoNA-LISA experiments will be presented. These include the first observation of a dineutron decay from ^16Be, the exploration of the ``south shore'' of the Island of Inversion and the first evidence of the decay of the troubling nucleus ^26O.

  11. Photoionization studies of Na/sub 2/Cl and Na/sub 2/O and reactions of metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.I.; Dao, P.D.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1983-07-15

    Reaction between metal clusters and various reactant gases in a coexpanding nozzle led to the formation of Na/sub 2/Cl and Na/sub 2/O. These species were subjected to photoionization using a UV light source, monochromator, and mass spectrometer detection system. Appearance potentials of 95.7 and 116.7 kcal/mol were obtained for Na/sub 2/Cl and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. The appearance potential of the Na/sub 2/Cl lies between the ionization potential of the metal and the electron affinity of chlorine, while that of Na/sub 2/O is close to the ionization potential of the metal. Using these values and other literature data, energies were derived for the following bonds: Na--NaCl (19.7 kcal/mol), Na/sup +//sub 2/xCl (115.5), Na/sub 2/xCl (98.9), and Na/sup +//sub 2/xCl/sup -/ (127.8); Na/sup +/xNaO (56.8), Na/sup +//sub 2/xO (94.2), Na/sub 2/xO (98.6), and Na/sup +//sub 2/xO/sup -/ (177.2).

  12. Targeting voltage gated sodium channels NaV1.7, Na V1.8, and Na V1.9 for treatment of pathological cough.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Undem, Bradley J

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) lead to the rational hypothesis that drugs capable of selective blockade of NaV subtypes may be a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of unwanted cough. Among the nine NaV subtypes (NaV1.1-NaV1.9), the afferent nerves involved in initiating cough, in common with nociceptive neurons in the somatosensory system, express mainly NaV1.7, NaV1.8, and NaV1.9. Although knowledge about the effect of selectively blocking these channels on the cough reflex is limited, their biophysical properties indicate that each may contribute to the hypertussive and allotussive state that typifies subacute and chronic nonproductive cough.

  13. Intracellular [Na+], Na+ pathways, and fluid transport in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Kunyan; Li, Yansui; Yiming, Maimaiti; Sánchez, José M; Iserovich, Pavel; Cragoe, E J; Diecke, Friedrich P J; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2004-07-01

    The mechanism of fluid transport across corneal endothelium remains unclear. We examine here the relative contributions of cellular mechanisms of Na+ transport and the homeostasis of intracellular [Na+] in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells, and the influence of ambient Na+ and HCO3- on the deturgescence of rabbit cornea. Bovine corneal endothelial cells plated on glass coverslips were incubated for 60 min with 10 microm of the fluorescent Na+ indicator SBFI precursor in HCO3- HEPES (BH) Ringer's solution. After loading, cells were placed in a perfusion chamber. Indicator fluorescence (490 nm) was determined with a Chance-Legallais time-sharing fluorometer. Its voltage output was the ratio of the emissions excited at 340 and 380 nm. For calibration, cells were treated with gramicidin D. For fluid transport measurements, rabbit corneas were mounted in a Dikstein-Maurice chamber, and stromal thickness was measured with a specular microscope. The steady-state [Na+]i in BH was 14.36+/-0.38 mM (n = mean+/-s.e.). Upon exposure to Na+ -free BH solution (choline substituted), [Na+]i decreased to 1.81+/-0.20mM (n = 19). When going from Na+ -free plus 100 microm ouabain to BH plus ouabain, [Na+]i increased to 46.17+/-2.50 (n = 6) with a half time of 1.26+/-0.04 min; if 0.1 microm phenamil plus ouabain were present, it reached only 21.78+/-1.50mm. The exponential time constants (min-1) were: 0.56+/-0.04 for the Na+ pump; 0.39+/-0.01 for the phenamil sensitive Na+ channel; and 0.17+/-0.02 for the ouabain-phenamil-insensitive pathways. In HCO3- free medium (gluconate substituted), [Na+]i was 14.03+/-0.11mM; upon changing to BH medium, it increased to 30.77+/-0.74 mm. This last [Na+]i increase was inhibited 66% by 100 microm DIDS. Using BH medium, corneal thickness remained nearly constant, increasing at a rate of only 2.9+/-0.9 microm hr-1 during 3 hr. However, stromal thickness increased drastically (swelling rate 36.1+/-2.6 microm hr-1) in corneas superfused with BH

  14. Concentration dependence of Li+/Na+ diffusion in manganese hexacyanoferrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takachi, Masamitsu; Fukuzumi, Yuya; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Manganese hexacyanoferrates (Mn-HCFs) with a jungle-gym-type structure are promising cathode materials for Li+/Na+ secondary batteries (LIBs/SIBs). Here, we investigated the diffusion constants D Li/D Na of Li+/Na+ against the Li+/Na+ concentration x Na/x Li and temperature (T) of A 1.32Mn[Fe(CN)6]0.833.6H2O (A = Li and Na). We evaluated the activation energy E\\text{a}\\text{Li}/E\\text{a}\\text{Na} of D Li/D Na against x Na/x Li. We found that E\\text{a}\\text{Na} steeply increases with x Na from 0.41 eV at x Na = 0.69 to 0.7 eV at 1.1. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Na} is ascribed to the occupancy effect of the Na+ site. The increase in E\\text{a}\\text{Li} is suppressed, probably because the number of Li+ sites is three times that of Na+ sites.

  15. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  16. Compact clinical high-NA multiphoton endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; König, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton imaging methods are excellent for non-invasive imaging of living tissue without any need of additional contrast agents. The increasing demand for endoscopic techniques has forced the development of multiphoton endoscopes for imaging of areas with reduced accessibility like chronic wounds. Gradient index (GRIN) lenses can miniaturize the bulky distal focusing optics of conventional tomographs to a diameter of less than 1.4 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.8. We combined a high NA clinical multiphoton endoscope with existing multiphoton tomographs like the DermaInspect® and the MPTflex® to enable the examination of wound healing processes.

  17. CAPE-2 Cubesat - ELaNa IV

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-25

    CAPE-2: Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment – ELaNa IV CAPE-2 was developed by students from the University of Louisiana Lafayette to engage, inspire and educate K-12 students to encourage them to pursue STEM careers. The secondary focus is the technology demonstration of deployed solar panels to support the following payloads: text to speech, voice repeater, tweeting, email, file transfer and data collection from buoys. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the ELaNa IV mission as an auxiliary payload aboard the U.S. Air Force-led Operationally Responsive Space (ORS-3) Mission on November 19, 2013.

  18. Sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB): a new electrolyte salt for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juner; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Caiyun; Porter, Spencer; Wang, Baofeng; Lie, Wilford; Liu, Hua Kun

    2015-06-18

    A new electrolyte salt, sodium-difluoro(oxalato)borate (NaDFOB), was synthesized and studied, which enables excellent reversible capacity and high rate capability when used in Na/Na0.44MnO2 half cells. NaDFOB has excellent compatibility with various common solvents used in Na-ion batteries, in strong contrast to the solvent dependent performances of NaClO4 and NaPF6. In addition, NaDFOB possesses good stability and generates no toxic or dangerous products when exposed to air and water. All these properties demonstrate that NaDFOB could be used to prepare high performance electrolytes for emerging Na-ion batteries.

  19. Downregulation of DNA Methyltransferase 1 in Zona-Free Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos by Small Interefering RNA Improves In Vitro Development But Does Not Alter DNA Methylation Level

    PubMed Central

    Selokar, Naresh L.; Saini, Monika; Agrawal, Himanshu; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Manik, Radheysham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming, especially genomic hypermethylation, is implicated as the primary reason behind the failure of the cloning process during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We transfected one-cell-stage zona-free buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning with 50 nM DNMT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), using lipofectamine, to knockdown the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene. siRNA treatment decreased (p<0.001) the expression level of DNMT1 mRNA and DNMT1 protein in the one-cell-stage embryos and increased (p<0.05) the blastocyst rate (52.3±1.3% vs. 45.3±2.5%) compared to that in the controls, but did not reduce the DNA methylation level similar to the in vitro–fertilized (IVF) embryos. It also increased (p<0.05) the relative mRNA abundance of P53 and CASPASE 3, but not that of HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3a, in the blastocysts of the siRNA group compared to the controls. The global level of H3K18ac was higher (p<0.05) in the blastocysts of the siRNA group than in the controls, whereas that of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 was not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, lipofection can be successfully used for transfection of DNMT1 siRNA into one-cell-stage zona-free cloned buffalo embryos. It results in a concomitant decrease in the DNMT1 mRNA and protein levels in the one-cell-stage embryos. siRNA-mediated knockdown increases the blastocyst rate but does not alter the DNA methylation level. PMID:25826721

  20. Delineation of a conserved B cell epitope on bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) and human zona pellucida glycoprotein-B by monoclonal antibodies demonstrating inhibition of sperm-egg binding.

    PubMed

    Govind, C K; Hasegawa, A; Koyama, K; Gupta, S K

    2000-01-01

    To circumvent autoimmune oophoritis after immunization with zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins, synthetic peptides encompassing B cell epitope(s) and devoid of oophoritogenic T cell epitopes as immunogens have been proposed. In this study, bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) ZP glycoprotein-B (bmZPB) was expressed as polyhistidine fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against recombinant bmZPB (r-bmZPB) significantly inhibited human sperm-oocyte binding. To map B cell epitopes on ZPB, a panel of 7 murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against r-bmZPB. All 7 mAbs, when tested in an indirect immunofluorescence assay, reacted with bonnet monkey ZP, and only 6 recognized human zonae. Monoclonal antibodies MA-809, -811, -813, and -825 showed significant inhibition in the binding of human spermatozoa to human ZP in a hemizona assay. Epitope-mapping studies using multipin peptide synthesis strategy revealed that these 4 mAbs recognized a common epitope corresponding to amino acids (aa) 136-147 (DAPDTDWCDSIP). Competitive binding studies revealed that the synthetic peptide corresponding to the identified epitope (aa 136-147) inhibited the binding of MA-809, -811, -813, and -825 to r-bmZPB in an ELISA and to bonnet monkey ZP in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The epitopic domain corresponding to aa 136-147 of bmZPB was completely conserved in human ZPB. These studies will further help in designing ZP-based synthetic peptide immunogens incorporating relevant B cell epitope for fertility regulation in humans.

  1. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to <4.3 from 7 to 21 days. Subsequent repletion of the cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg(-1) DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg(-1) DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Semisynthesis of NaK; a Na+ and K+ conducting ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Kellie M.; Derebe, Mehebaw G.; Jiang, Youxing; Valiyaveetil, Francis I.

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe the semisynthesis of NaK, a bacterial non-selective cation channel. In the semisynthesis, the NaK polypeptide is assembled from a recombinantly expressed thioester peptide and a chemically synthesized peptide using the native chemical ligation reaction. We describe a temporary tagging strategy for the purification of the hydrophobic synthetic peptide and demonstrate the efficient ligation of the synthetic peptide with the recombinant peptide thioester to form the semisynthetic NaK polypeptide. Following assembly, the NaK polypeptide is folded in vitro to the native state using lipid vesicles. Functional characterization of the folded semisynthetic NaK channels indicates that it is functionally similar to the wild type protein. We used semisynthesis to substitute aspartate 66 in the selectivity filter region of the NaK channel with the unnatural amino acids, homoserine and cysteine sulfonic acid. Functional analysis of these mutants suggests that the presence of a negatively charged residue in the vicinity of the ion binding sites is necessary for optimal flux of ions through the NaK channel. PMID:20415433

  3. Semisynthesis of NaK, a Na(+) and K(+) conducting ion channel.

    PubMed

    Linn, Kellie M; Derebe, Mehabaw G; Jiang, Youxing; Valiyaveetil, Francis I

    2010-06-01

    In this contribution, we describe the semisynthesis of NaK, a bacterial nonselective cation channel. In the semisynthesis, the NaK polypeptide is assembled from a recombinantly expressed thioester peptide and a chemically synthesized peptide using the native chemical ligation reaction. We describe a temporary tagging strategy for the purification of the hydrophobic synthetic peptide and demonstrate the efficient ligation of the synthetic peptide with the recombinant peptide thioester to form the semisynthetic NaK polypeptide. Following assembly, the NaK polypeptide is folded in vitro to the native state using lipid vesicles. Functional characterization of the folded semisynthetic NaK channels indicates that it is functionally similar to the wild-type protein. We used semisynthesis to substitute aspartate 66 in the selectivity filter region of the NaK channel with the unnatural amino acids homoserine and cysteine sulfonic acid. Functional analysis of these mutants suggests that the presence of a negatively charged residue in the vicinity of the ion binding sites is necessary for optimal flux of ions through the NaK channel.

  4. Study on Na layer response to geomagnetic activities based on Odin/OSIRIS Na density data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Takuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Hedin, Jonas; Gumbel, Jorg; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-07-01

    The Na layer is normally distributed from 80 to 110 km, and the height range is corresponding to the ionospheric D and E region. In the polar region, the energetic particles precipitating from the magnetosphere can often penetrate into the E region and even into the D region. Thus, the influence of the energetic particles to the Na layer is one of interests in the aspect of the atmospheric composition change accompanied with the auroral activity. There are several previous studies in this issue. For example, recently, we have reported an initial result on a clear relationship between the electron density increase (due to the energetic particles) and the Na density decrease from observational data sets obtained by Na lidar, EISCAT VHF radar, and optical instruments at Tromsoe, Norway on 24-25 January 2012. However, all of the previous studies had been carried out based on case studies by ground-based lidar observations. In this study, we have performed, for the first time, statistical analysis using Na density data from 2004 to 2009 obtained with the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) onboard Odin satellite. In the presentation, we will show relationship between the Na density and geomagnetic activities, and its latitudinal variation. Based on these results, the Na layer response to the energetic particles will be discussed.

  5. Role of the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in voltage generation and Na(+) extrusion in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Vorburger, Thomas; Nedielkov, Ruslan; Brosig, Alexander; Bok, Eva; Schunke, Emina; Steffen, Wojtek; Mayer, Sonja; Götz, Friedrich; Möller, Heiko M; Steuber, Julia

    2016-04-01

    For Vibrio cholerae, the coordinated import and export of Na(+) is crucial for adaptation to habitats with different osmolarities. We investigated the Na(+)-extruding branch of the sodium cycle in this human pathogen by in vivo (23)Na-NMR spectroscopy. The Na(+) extrusion activity of cells was monitored after adding glucose which stimulated respiration via the Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR). In a V. cholerae deletion mutant devoid of the Na(+)-NQR encoding genes (nqrA-F), rates of respiratory Na(+) extrusion were decreased by a factor of four, but the cytoplasmic Na(+) concentration was essentially unchanged. Furthermore, the mutant was impaired in formation of transmembrane voltage (ΔΨ, inside negative) and did not grow under hypoosmotic conditions at pH8.2 or above. This growth defect could be complemented by transformation with the plasmid encoded nqr operon. In an alkaline environment, Na(+)/H(+) antiporters acidify the cytoplasm at the expense of the transmembrane voltage. It is proposed that, at alkaline pH and limiting Na(+) concentrations, the Na(+)-NQR is crucial for generation of a transmembrane voltage to drive the import of H(+) by electrogenic Na(+)/H(+) antiporters. Our study provides the basis to understand the role of the Na(+)-NQR in pathogenicity of V. cholerae and other pathogens relying on this primary Na(+) pump for respiration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Na(+) dependence of K(+) -induced natriuresis, kaliuresis and Na(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, I S; Larsen, C K; Leipziger, J; Sørensen, M V

    2016-09-01

    High dietary K(+) intake is associated with protection against hypertension. In mammals, acute K(+) intake induces natriuresis and kaliuresis, associated with a marked dephosphorylation of the renal Na(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). It has been suggested that reduced activity of NCC increases the driving force for more distal tubular epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-dependent K(+) secretion. This study investigated the ENaC dependence of urinary K(+) and Na(+) excretion following acute K(+) loading. Mice were fed low (0.03%), control (0.2%) or high (2%) Na(+) diets for 25 days to preserve or promote Na(+) loss and thus ENaC activity. Once a week, the mice received either K(+) -containing gavage or a control gavage. Following the gavage treatment, the mice were placed in metabolic cages and urine was collected in real time. ENaC dependence of kaliuresis was assessed by benzamil injections prior to gavage. We confirmed that dietary Na(+) content is inversely related to plasma aldosterone, NCC phosphorylation and ENaC cleavage products. The novel findings were as follows: (i) acute K(+) feeding caused NCC dephosphorylation in all dietary groups; (ii) under all dietary conditions, K(+) loading induced natriuresis; (iii) high Na(+) diet markedly reduced the K(+) excretion following K(+) gavage; (iv) benzamil injection prior to K(+) loading increased natriuresis, decreased kaliuresis and eliminated the differences between the dietary groups. These data indicate that acute K(+) -induced kaliuresis is ENaC dependent. Maximal K(+) excretion rates are attenuated when ENaC is physiologically down-regulated or pharmacologically blocked. NCC is dephosphorylated following acute K(+) loading under all dietary Na(+) regimens. This leads to natriuresis, even in severely Na(+) -restricted animals. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Electronic Polarisability of NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 Ionic Melts and Effective Ionic Radius of OH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohnishi, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Molar volumes and refractive indexes of molten NaNO2-NaNO3 and NaOH-NaNO3 systems were measured by dilatometry and goniometry, respectively. The molar volumes of both systems increased with increasing temperature. Refractive indexes decreased with a rise of temperature or with increasing wavelength of the incident visible light. Assuming that the electronic polarisability is inherent in an ion, the electronic polarisability of a OH- ion in the melt was estimated from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to be 1.26×10-30 m3, being comparable with that in the crystal. The effective ionic radius of a OH- ion was evaluated from the obtained electronic polarisability to be 1.34×10-10 m, using the correlation between the third power of the ionic radius and the electronic polarisability of an ion so far reported. The effective ionic radius obtained in this work was in good agreement with that assigned by Shannon.

  8. Light-induced drift of Na atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werij, H. G. C.; Woerdman, J. P.

    1988-10-01

    Light can induce a flux of optically absorbing particles immersed in a buffer gas, when these particles have a different mobility in the ground and excited state. This paper presents a study of light-induced drift (LID) of Na atoms in noble gases, which can be regarded as the “canonical” system for experiments in this field. We have experimentally studied the LID effect in the optically thin and the optically thick regimes. Parameters which have been varied are laser frequency, laser intensity, buffer gas pressure and buffer gas species. This work gives the first critical comparison of LID experiments with realistic theory in which the multilevel complications of the Na atom have been incorporated. In the optically thick case (“optical piston”) one can distinguish the open cell and the closed cell regimes. Effects of adsorption and desorption of Na atoms at the surface of the cell wall have been incorporated into the theory. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with the results of a four-level rate-equation model for LID which incorporates the fine and hyperfine structure of the level scheme of the Na absorbers.

  9. Mechanisms contributing to the cardiac inotropic effect of Na pump inhibition and reduction of extracellular Na

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Reduction of the transsarcolemmal [Na] gradient in rabbit cardiac muscle leads to an increase in the force of contraction. This has frequently been attributed to alteration of Ca movements via the sarcolemmal Na/Ca exchange system. However, the specific mechanisms that mediate the increased force at individual contractions have not been clearly established. In the present study, the [Na] gradient was decreased by reduction of extracellular [Na] or inhibition of the Na pump by either the cardioactive steroid acetylstrophanthidin or by reduction of extracellular [K]. Contractile performance and changes in extracellular Ca (sensed by double-barreled Ca-selective microelectrodes) were studied in order to elucidate the underlying basis for the increase in force. In the presence of agents that inhibit sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function (10 mM caffeine, 100-500 nM ryanodine), reduction of the [Na] gradient produced increases in contractile force similar to that observed in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. It is concluded that an intact, functioning SR is not required for the inotropic effect of [Na] gradient reduction (at least in rabbit ventricle). However, this does not exclude a possible contribution of enhanced SR Ca release in the inotropic response to [Na] gradient reduction in the absence of caffeine or ryanodine. Acetylstrophanthidin (3-5 microM) usually leads to an increase in the magnitude of extracellular Ca depletions associated with individual contractions. However, acetylstrophanthidin can also increase extracellular Ca accumulation during the contraction, especially at potentiated contractions. This extracellular Ca accumulation can be suppressed by ryanodine and it is suggested that this apparent enhancement of Ca efflux is secondary to an enhanced release of Ca from the SR. Under conditions where Ca efflux during contractions is minimized (after a rest interval in the presence of ryanodine), acetylstrophanthidin increased both the rate and the

  10. Intracellular Na(+) and metabolic modulation of Na/K pump and excitability in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chi; Yang, Jyh-Jeen; Huang, Rong-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Na/K pump activity and metabolic rate are both higher during the day in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that houses the circadian clock. Here we investigated the role of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity and neuronal excitability. Removal of extracellular K(+) to block the Na/K pump excited SCN neurons to fire at higher rates and return to normal K(+) to reactivate the pump produced rebound hyperpolarization to inhibit firing. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to block the action potentials, both zero K(+)-induced depolarization and rebound hyperpolarization were blocked by the cardiac glycoside strophanthidin. Ratiometric Na(+) imaging with a Na(+)-sensitive fluorescent dye indicated saturating accumulation of intracellular Na(+) in response to pump blockade with zero K(+). The Na(+) ionophore monensin also induced Na(+) loading and hyperpolarized the membrane potential, with the hyperpolarizing effect of monensin abolished in zero Na(+) or by pump blockade. Conversely, Na(+) depletion with Na(+)-free pipette solution depolarized membrane potential but retained residual Na/K pump activity. Cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation blocked the Na/K pump to depolarize resting potential and increase spontaneous firing in most cells, and to raise intracellular Na(+) levels in all cells. Nonetheless, the Na/K pump was incompletely blocked by cyanide but completely blocked by iodoacetate to inhibit glycolysis, indicating the involvement of both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in fueling the Na/K pump. Together, the results indicate the importance of intracellular Na(+) and energy metabolism in regulating Na/K pump activity as well as neuronal excitability in the SCN neurons.

  11. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  12. [Regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger].

    PubMed

    DiPolo, R; Rojas, H; Beaugé, L

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of the squid giant axon preparation to studies on Ca homeostasis has proven very useful in laying the foundations in the study of Ca regulation. In particular the Na/Ca exchange mechanism has been characterized in terms of its regulatory processes using the well define technique of intracellular dialysis and membrane potential control. The Na/Ca exchange countertransport system plays a critical role in physiological processes including cardiac contractility and photoreception. It has also been implicate in the etiology of essential hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and cell death. The ability of the Na/Ca exchanger to regulate the intracellular ionized Ca concentration ([Ca2+i]) under physiological conditions, is determined by the direction (net Ca efflux or Ca influx), and magnitude of transport. The direction of Ca transport is decided by the chemical gradient of sodium and calcium. The magnitude of the exchange is regulated by kinetic factors. This kinetic factors are critical since they decide whether the exchanger will mediate a net Ca movement under certain conditions. Recently, a large effort has been put together to characterize the secondary modulation of the Na/Ca exchanger. In particular modulation by MgATP and intracellular Ca2+. In nerve cells we have discover that MgATP regulates the exchanger through as phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes most probably relate to the action of a kinase-phosphatase system. The other important ligand that regulates the exchange activity is the level of [Ca2+i]. We have found the presence of a regulatory site in the cytoplasmic face of the exchanger different from the transport site and probably responsible for turning the carrier "on" or "off". In this article we will depict some of the processes involved in the metabolic and ionic regulation of the Na/Ca exchanger.

  13. The Na4(+3) Clusters in Sodium Sodalite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    ATES COVOIN0i-15-92 Technical 06-01-91 to 05-31-92 4. TITLE ANA SUGTITLE S. RNORNG NUMBER The Na4+ 3 Clusters in Sodium Sodalite NN l14-e0-J-se59a 𔄀...3 [AlSiO 4]3 sodalite prepared by high vacuum deposition of sodium atoms. The samples with a Na 43 +:Na33+ cluster ratio up to 1:10 show a single...absorption feature with -m. = 628 nm (1.99 eV). The absorption originates from the individual sodalite cages containing Na 43+ cluster. For the Na 43+:Na

  14. Furosemide-sensitive Na and K fluxes in human red cells. Net uphill Na extrusion and equilibrium properties

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports experiments designed to find the concentrations of internal and external Na and K at which inward and outward furosemide- sensitive (FS) Na and K fluxes are equal, so that there is no net FS movement of Na and K. The red cell cation content was modified by using the ionophore nystatin, varying cell Na (Nai) from 0 to 34 mM (K substitution, high-K cells) and cell K (Ki) from 0 to 30 mM (Na substitution, high-Na cells). All incubation media contained NaCl (Nao = 130 or 120 nM), and KCl (Ko = 0-30 mM). In high-K cells, incubated in the absence of Ko, there was net extrusion of Na through the FS pathway. The net FS Na extrusion increased when Nai was increased. Low concentrations of Ko (0-6 mM) slightly stimulated, whereas higher concentrations of Ko inhibited, FS Na efflux. Increasing Ko stimulated the FS Na influx (K0.5 = 4 mM). Under conditions similar to those that occur in vivo (Nai = 10, Ki = 130, Nao = 130, Ko = 4 mM, Cli/Clo = 0.7), net extrusion of Na occurs through the FS pathway (180-250 mumol/liter cell X h). The concentration of Ko at which the FS Na influx and efflux and the FS K influx and efflux become equal increased when Nai increased in high-K cells and when Ki was increased in high-Na cells. The net FS Na and K fluxes both approached zero at similar internal and external Na and K concentrations. In high-K cells, under conditions when net Na and K fluxes were near zero, the ratio of FS Na to FS K unidirectional flux was found to be 2:3. In high-K cells, the empirical expression (Nai/Nao)2(Ki/Ko)3 remained at constant value (apparent equilibrium constant, Kappeq +/- SEM = 22 +/- 2) for each set of internal and external cation concentrations at which there was no net Na flux. These results indicate that in the physiological region of concentrations of internal and external Na, K, and Cl, the stoichiometry of the FS Na and K fluxes is 2 Na:3 K. In high-Na cells under conditions when net FS Na and K fluxes were near zero, the ratio of

  15. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) in concentrated NaOH and NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, A.R.; Rai, D.; Fulton, R.W.

    1994-08-01

    Chromium is a major component of the Hanford waste tank sludges, and the presence of Cr in the sludges is a significant concern in the disposal of these sludges because Cr can interfere with the formation of waste glasses. One of the current pretreatment strategies for removing constituents that can interfere with glass formation, such as P and Cr, is to wash/dissolve the sludges in basic NaOH solutions. The solubility of Cr(OH){sub 3}(am) was measured in concentrated NaOH ranging in concentration from 0.1M to 6.0M and in NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions with fixed NaOH concentration and variable NaNO{sub 3} concentration at room temperature (22--23 C). Equilibrium between solids and solutions was approached relatively slowly and required approximately 60--70 days before steady-state concentrations were reached. A thermodynamic model, based upon the Pitzer equations, was developed from the solubility data in NaOH, which includes only two aqueous Cr species (Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NaCr(OH){sub 4}(aq)) and ion-interaction parameters for Na{sup +} with Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}}. This model was then tested in the mixed NaOH-NaNO{sub 3} solutions and found to be reliable.

  16. Effects of non-uniform root zone salinity on water use, Na+ recirculation, and Na+ and H+ flux in cotton.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang

    2012-03-01

    A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.

  17. Synthesis of Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites from carbonized rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Hiroaki; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2009-07-01

    Na-A and/or Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were prepared under hydrothermal conditions by NaOH dissolution of silica first from carbonized rice husk followed by addition of NaAlO 2 and in situ crystallization of zeolites i.e., using a two-step process. When a one-step process was used, both Na-A and Na-X zeolites crystallized on the surface of carbon. Na-A or Na-X zeolite crystals were prepared on the porous carbonized rice husk at 90 °C for 2-6 h by changing the SiO 2/Al 2O 3, H 2O/Na 2O and Na 2O/SiO 2 molar ratios of precursors in the two-step process. The surface area and NH 4+-cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na-A zeolite/porous carbon were found to be 171 m 2/g and 506 meq/100 g, respectively, while those of Na-X zeolite/porous carbon composites were 676 m 2/g and 317 meq/100 g, respectively. Na-A and Na-X zeolites are well-known microporous and hydrophilic materials while carbonized rice husk was found to be mesoporous (pores of ˜3.9 nm) and hydrophobic. These hybrid microporous-mesoporous and hydrophilic-hydrophobic composites are expected to be useful for decontamination of metal cations as well as organic contaminants simultaneously.

  18. Regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility by phospholemman: Na+/Ca2+ exchange versus Na+ -K+ -ATPase.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, JuFang; Cheskis, Ellina; Chan, Tung O; Feldman, Arthur M; Tucker, Amy L; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2008-10-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) regulates cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cardiac myocytes. PLM, when phosphorylated at Ser(68), disinhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits NCX1. PLM regulates cardiac contractility by modulating Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and/or NCX1. In this study, we first demonstrated that adult mouse cardiac myocytes cultured for 48 h had normal surface membrane areas, t-tubules, and NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase levels, and retained near normal contractility, but alpha(1)-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was slightly decreased. Differences in contractility between myocytes isolated from wild-type (WT) and PLM knockout (KO) hearts were preserved after 48 h of culture. Infection with adenovirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) did not affect contractility at 48 h. When WT PLM was overexpressed in PLM KO myocytes, contractility and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transients reverted back to those observed in cultured WT myocytes. Both Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current (I(pump)) and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current (I(NaCa)) in PLM KO myocytes rescued with WT PLM were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes. Overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant (phosphomimetic) in PLM KO myocytes resulted in the suppression of I(NaCa) but had no effect on I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the PLMS68E mutant were depressed compared with PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. Overexpressing the PLMS68A mutant (mimicking unphosphorylated PLM) in PLM KO myocytes had no effect on I(NaCa) but decreased I(pump). Contractility, [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) contents in PLM KO myocytes overexpressing the S68A mutant were similar to PLM KO myocytes overexpressing GFP. We conclude that at the single-myocyte level, PLM affects cardiac contractility and [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis primarily by its direct

  19. A Geostatistical Approach to Reducing Uncertainty in Rainfall Estimates Using Terrain Characteristics: A Case Study in the Central-North Regional Water Administration of Mozambique (ARA Centro-Norte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheem, Y. T.; Freyberg, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many data-sparse regions, such as southern Africa, will likely face significant changes in water resources availability and timing in the future due land use change, climate change and population growth. Improved estimates of rainfall and streamflow are necessary to improve water resources decision-making, risk management, and uncertainty quantification. In this study, we use a universal kriging framework to associate various watershed terrain characteristics with gauged rainfall data to improve the estimation of monthly rainfall fields. We focus on available gauge data because other precipitation data sources, such as satellite precipitation products, are unavailable over historic periods of interest and exhibit bias in our context of streamflow estimation. Our study area is the 185,000 sq km Central-North Regional Water Administration of Mozambique (ARA Centro-Norte), which is predominantly rural tropical savanna. We use fifty years of spatially and temporally sparse monthly rainfall observations from 316 rainfall gauges. Most of the watershed terrain characteristics we use are derived from the 90m HydroSHEDS Digital Elevation Model dataset. These include elevation, aspect, slope, distance to large water bodies, distance to ridges, and distance to watershed rainfall maximum. We quantify the importance of these characteristics for reducing uncertainty in rainfall estimates using the Bayes information criterion (BIC) approach. Future work includes using these rainfall estimates to drive the semi-distributed monthly time-step Pitman rainfall-runoff model, in order to reduce uncertainty in streamflow estimates in gauged and ungauged basins.

  20. [Prevalence and factors associated with the risk of falls among the elderly registered in a primary healthcare unit of the city of Natal in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Roberta Kelly Mendonça; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti; Britto, Heloísa Maria Jácome de Souza; Lima, Jackson Cláudio Costa; de Souza, Túlio Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    The scope of the study was to analyze the prevalence and factors associated with falls among the elderly registered in a Primary Healthcare Unit (PHU) in Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte. It involved a cross-sectional study conducted with 280 elderly individuals with data collected at the primary healthcare unit. The association between falls, recurrent falls and independent variables was assessed using bivariate analysis and Poisson regression with calculation of their respective prevalence ratios. It involved predominantly elderly females (68.2%) with mean age of 71.6 years (± 6.7), literate (54.6%), non-retired (73.5%) and sedentary (87.1%). 53.6% of the elderly recorded falls and 27.8% fell twice or more. The predictive model of falls included the female gender (PR= 1.81), osteoarticular diseases (PR = 1.71) and balance impairment (PR = 0.88), while functional mobility (PR = 0.94), fear of falling (PR = 1.21) and balance deficit disorders (PR = 0.80) constituted the definitive model of recurrent falls. A higher prevalence of single fall episodes was found and the associated factors included sociodemographic, health and physical performance variables. On the other hand, the occurrence of two or more falls were only associated with physical performance variables.

  1. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania protozoa, at an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in the municipality of Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, Marcel Miranda de Medeiros; Silva Júnior, João Batista; da Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Alves, Maria de Lima; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-11

    Sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus Leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and American tegumentary leishmaniases. The present study discusses the bioecological aspects of sand fly species, transmitters of Leishmania protozoa, in different ecotopes of an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit located in the metropolitan region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Two monthly captures were made in 1 year, using CDC light traps, in two anthropized and two preserved environments. A total of 2936 sand flies belonging to the following ten species were captured: Evandromyia walkeri, Evandromyia evandroi, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Evandromyia lenti, Psathyromyia shannoni, Nyssomyia whitmani and Nyssomyia intermedia. The most common species was E. walkeri (77.6%), followed by E. evandroi (17.5%). Forest was the site with the greatest abundance (32.4%), followed by bamboo grove (26.3%). Sand flies were generally more abundant in the rainy season and L. longipalpis, a vector species of Leishmania infantum, was adapted to anthropized environments. It was confirmed that P. wellcomei, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis in Amazônia, is a species associated with more preserved environments, and occurs only in the rainy season.

  2. Hypo-osmotic stimulation of active Na+ transport in frog muscle: apparent upregulation of Na+ pumps.

    PubMed

    Venosa, R A

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if hypotonicity, in addition to the stimulation of active Na+ transport (Venosa, R.A., 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 510:378-383), promoted changes in (i) active K+ influx, (ii) passive Na+ and K+ fluxes, and (iii) the number of 3H-ouabain binding sites. The results indicate that a reduction of external osmotic pressure (pi) to one-half of its normal value (pi = 0.5) produced the following effects: (i) an increase in active K+ influx on the order of 160%, (ii) a 20% reduction in Na+ influx and K+ permeability (PK), and (iii) a 40% increase in the apparent density of ouabain binding sites. These data suggest that the hypotonic stimulation of the Na+ pump is not caused by an increased leak of either Na+ (inward) or K+ (outward). It is unlikely that the stimulation of active Na+ extrusion and the rise in the apparent number of pump sites produced by hypotonicity were due to a reduction of the intracellular ionic strength. It appears that, at least in part, the stimulation of active Na+ transport takes place whenever muscles are transferred from one medium to another of lower tonicity even if neither one was hypotonic (for instance pi = 2 to pi = 1 transfer). Comparison of the present results with those previously reported indicate that in addition to the number of pump sites, the cycling rate of the pump is increased by hypotonicity. Active Na+ and K+ fluxes were not significantly altered by hypertonicity (pi = 2).

  3. Studies of Inelastic Collisions of NaK and NaCs Molecules with Atomic Perturbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua A.

    We have investigated collisions of NaK molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma+], with Ar and He collision partners using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIF) and polarization-labeling (PL) spectroscopy in a two-step excitation scheme. Additionally, we have investigated collisions of NaCs molecules in the first excited state [2(A)1Sigma +] with Ar and He perturbers using the LIF technique. We use a pump-probe, two-step excitation process. The pump laser prepares the molecule in a particular ro-vibrational (v, J) level in the A state. The probe laser frequency is scanned over transitions to the 31Π in NaK or to the 53Π in NaCs. In addition to observing strong direct lines, we also see weak collisional satellite lines that arise from collisions in the intermediate state that take the molecule from the prepared level (v, J) to level (v, J + Delta J). The ratio of the intensity of the collisional line to the intensity of the direct line in LIF and PL yield information about population and orientation transfer. Our results show a propensity for DeltaJ=even collisions of NaK with Ar and an even stronger propensity for collisions with He. Collisions of NaCs with Ar do not show any such J=even propensity. Preliminary investigations of collisions of NaCs with He seem to indicate a slight J=even propensity. In addition, we observe that rotationally inelastic collisions of excited NaK molecules with potassium atoms destroy almost all of the orientation, while collisions with argon destroy about one third to two thirds and collisions with helium destroy only about zero to one third of the initial orientation.

  4. K+ Congeners That Do Not Compromise Na+ Activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmmoud, Yasser A.; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase is essential for ionic homeostasis in animal cells. The dephosphoenzyme contains Na+ selective inward facing sites, whereas the phosphoenzyme contains K+ selective outward facing sites. Under normal physiological conditions, K+ inhibits cytoplasmic Na+ activation of the enzyme. Acetamidinium (Acet+) and formamidinium (Form+) have been shown to permeate the pump through the outward facing sites. Here, we show that these cations, unlike K+, are unable to enter the inward facing sites in the dephosphorylated enzyme. Consistently, the organic cations exhibited little to no antagonism to cytoplasmic Na+ activation. Na+,K+-ATPase structures revealed a previously undescribed rotamer transition of the hydroxymethyl side chain of the absolutely conserved Thr772 of the α-subunit. The side chain contributes its hydroxyl to Na+ in site I in the E1 form and rotates to contribute its methyl group toward K+ in the E2 form. Molecular dynamics simulations to the E1·AlF4−·ADP·3Na+ structure indicated that 1) bound organic cations differentially distorted the ion binding sites, 2) the hydroxymethyl of Thr772 rotates to stabilize bound Form+ through water molecules, and 3) the rotamer transition is mediated by water traffic into the ion binding cavity. Accordingly, dehydration induced by osmotic stress enhanced the interaction of the congeners with the outward facing sites and profoundly modified the organization of membrane domains of the α-subunit. These results assign a catalytic role for water in pump function, and shed light on a backbone-independent but a conformation-dependent switch between H-bond and dispersion contact as part of the catalytic mechanism of the Na+,K+-ATPase. PMID:25533461

  5. Na Partitioning During Thermomechanical Processing of an Mg-Sn-Zn-