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Sample records for na2o cao k2o

  1. Influences of Na2O and K2O Additions on Electrical Conductivity of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the influences of Na2O and K2O additions on electrical conductivity of blast furnace type CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts by the four-electrode method. Both the single addition of Na2O or K2O and the double additions of Na2O and K2O were studied. It was found that electrical conductivity monotonously increased as the amount of Na2O addition was gradually increased, whereas, when K2O was added, there was a continuous decrease of electrical conductivity. With melts containing both Na2O and K2O, electrical conductivity first decreased but then increased when Na2O was gradually substituted for K2O while keeping the molar fractions of other components constant. In other words, the mixed-alkali effect took place in CaO-Mg-Al2O3-SiO2-ΣR2O melts.

  2. Influences of Na2O and K2O Additions on Electrical Conductivity of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the influences of Na2O and K2O additions on electrical conductivity of blast furnace type CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts by the four-electrode method. Both the single addition of Na2O or K2O and the double additions of Na2O and K2O were studied. It was found that electrical conductivity monotonously increased as the amount of Na2O addition was gradually increased, whereas, when K2O was added, there was a continuous decrease of electrical conductivity. With melts containing both Na2O and K2O, electrical conductivity first decreased but then increased when Na2O was gradually substituted for K2O while keeping the molar fractions of other components constant. In other words, the mixed-alkali effect took place in CaO-Mg-Al2O3-SiO2-ΣR2O melts.

  3. Effects of Substitution of K2O for Na2O on the Bioactivity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehee; Hwang, Chawon; Gwoo, Donggun; Park, Hoyyul; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-10-01

    The compositional dependences of bioactivity, thermal properties, atomic structure, and surface morphology have been investigated in the CaO-Na2O-SiO2-P2O5 system; this system is known as a bioglass. 45S5 Bioglass® is known to be a general and highly bioactive material. However, the bioactivity of this glassy material is expected to be improved by modifying the alkali-metal composition. Thermal properties, density, and molar volume were measured to investigate the structural packing. FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction were used to confirm the structures of these glasses. The morphology was examined using field emission electron microscopy, and the formation of a Ca-P layer was studied using an energy-dispersive system. This study shows that the tendency to form a calcium phosphate layer is increased with the substitution of K2O for Na2O.

  4. Electronic structure and ground-state properties of alkali-metal oxides-Li 2O, Na 2O, K 2O and Rb 2O: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eithiraj, R. D.; Jaiganesh, G.; Kalpana, G.

    2007-06-01

    Self-consistent scalar-relativistic band structure calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic structure and ground-state properties of alkali-metal oxides Li 2O, Na 2O, K 2O and Rb 2O in cubic antifluorite (anti-CaF 2-type) structure using the linear muffin-tin orbital in its tight-binding representation (TB-LMTO) method. The calculated ground-state properties of these compounds such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus are in agreement with the other theoretical calculations and experimental results. The results of the electronic structure calculations show that Li 2O, K 2O and Rb 2O are indirect band gap semiconductors, whereas Na 2O is found to be a direct band gap semiconductor.

  5. The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  6. Multicomponent diffusion in silicate melts: SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chenghuan; Zhang, Youxue

    2016-12-01

    Nine successful diffusion couple experiments were carried out in a 7-component haplobasaltic silicate melt SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O system to study multicomponent diffusion at ∼1500 °C and 1 GPa, typically with compositional gradients in only two components in each experiment. At least two concentration traverses were measured for each experiment. Effective binary diffusion coefficients (EBDC) for monotonic profiles were obtained by an error function fit, and the EBDC of a given component is dependent on its counter diffusing component, especially for SiO2. The EBDC's of SiO2 vary from 15.7 μm2/s when diffusing against Al2O3, to 102.9 μm2/s when diffusing against K2O. Furthermore, the multicomponent diffusion matrix was obtained by simultaneously fitting profiles of all oxides in all experiments. Most features in the diffusion profiles, for example uphill diffusion, are captured well by this 6 × 6 diffusion matrix. The slowest diffusing eigenvector is largely due to the exchange between Si and Al, and the fastest diffusing eigenvector is the exchange of Na with all other components. An anorthite dissolution experiment was also conducted to test whether the diffusion matrix can be applied to mineral dissolution experiments. The calculated diffusion profiles in the melt during anorthite dissolution roughly match the measured profiles, demonstrating the validity and utility of the diffusion matrix in this FeO-free aluminosilicate melt system.

  7. Orange Peel Oxidative Gasification on Ni Catalysts Promoted with CaO, CeO2 or K2O.

    PubMed

    Vargas, G; Zapata, B; Valenzuela, M A; Alfaro, S

    2015-09-01

    Orange peel can be considered as an attractive raw material to be gasified for hydrogen or syngas production. In this work, the catalytic evaluation of several silica-supported nickel catalysts in the oxidative degradation of waste orange peel is reported. It was found that the catalytic gasification with the K2O-Ni/silica catalyst produces more hydrogen than the non-catalytic route at 600 degrees C. Surprisingly, a significant amount of ethene was obtained with the CeO2-Ni/silica catalyst, which was explained in terms of an oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of ethane formed during biomass or tar decomposition.

  8. Nucleation and crystallization of Na2O-2CaO-3SiO2 glass by differential thermal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xiaojie J.; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    1991-01-01

    DTA is presently used to characterize the nucleation and crystallization processes of the Na2O-2CaO-3SiO2 glass. A nucleation rate-temperaturelike curve is obtained by plotting either the reciprocal of the temperature corresponding to the crystallization peak maximum, or the height of the crystallization peak, as a function of nucleation temperature. The nucleation-temperature range for this glass composition, 550-650 C, and the maximum nucleation temperature of 600 + or - 5 C, are found to be in excellent agreement with those associated with the classical nucleation technique, followed by isothermal crystallization. It is noted that when most of the nucleation occurs during the DTA measurements, a modified Kissinger equation must be used to calculate the crystallization energy.

  9. First Measurements of Time-Dependent Nucleation as a Function of Composition in Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2 Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi

    1996-01-01

    The first measurements in any system of the composition dependence of the time-dependent nucleation rate are presented Nucleation rates of the stoichiometric crystalline phase, Na2O.2CaO.3SiO2, from quenched glasses made with different SiO2 concentrations were determined as a function of temperature and glass composition. A strong compositional dependence of the nucleation rates and a weak dependence for the induction times are observed. Using measured values of the liquidus temperatures and growth velocities as a function of glass composition, these data are shown to be consistent with predictions from the classical theory of nucleation, assuming a composition-dependent interfacial energy.

  10. Crystallization Behavior and Microstructure of Silica-Free 5K2O-45CaO-50P2O5 Bioglass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Moo-Chin; Lai, You-Cheng; Shih, Wei-Jen; Shih, Ping-Yu; Chen, Guo-Ju; Li, Wang-Long

    2010-02-01

    The crystallization behavior and microstructure of silica-free 5K2O-45CaO-50P2O5 (KCP) bioglass have been studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The activation energy for the KCP bioglass crystallization is found to be 337.4 kJ/mol using a nonisothermal method. The crystalline phases of the glass surface determined by XRD are KCa(PO3)3, 4CaO·3P2O5, and β-Ca(PO3)2 when the KCP bioglass is crystallized at 903 K for 4 hours. The crystalline phase of the powder samples determined by XRD is β-Ca(PO3)2 when silica-free KCP glasses crystallized at 873 to 1073 K for 8 hours. Crystallization starts at the surface of the KCP bioglass and then proceeds toward the interior of the glass matrix. The morphology of β-Ca(PO3)2 is a fibrillar shape 20 to 180 nm in length and 17 to 20 nm in diameter, with an aspect ratio ranging from 1.0 to 10.6.

  11. Raman and infrared spectroscopy study on structure and microstructure of glass-ceramic materials from SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system modified by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Janusz; Leśniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-05

    This paper is focused on the effect of the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminium-silicon-oxide lattice of the glass-ceramic materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. Following the heat-treatment procedure, pseudowollastonite, anorthite and the vitreous phase were identified. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR and FIR spectroscopy were performed.

  12. Raman and infrared spectroscopy study on structure and microstructure of glass-ceramic materials from SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system modified by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Leśniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the effect of the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminium-silicon-oxide lattice of the glass-ceramic materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. Following the heat-treatment procedure, pseudowollastonite, anorthite and the vitreous phase were identified. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR and FIR spectroscopy were performed.

  13. Microstructure study of opaque glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leśniak, M.; Partyka, J.; Pasiut, K.; Sitarz, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is focused on the relationship between the phase composition and opaque of glass-ceramic glazes from the SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-K2O-Na2O system by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. The phase composition obtained from the glazes was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the glaze morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy with elemental composition analyser in the microregions (SEM-EDS). Additional information on the microstructure was provided by spectroscopic investigation in the mid- and far-infrared regions as well as by Raman spectroscopy. In order to correlate the phase composition of the optical properties of experimental glazes were measured by their opacity. The increase of molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 in experimental glazes caused to decrease of opacity glazes. At the highest content of Al2O3 was obtained transparent glaze.

  14. Sol-gel Synthesis and Electrospraying of Biodegradable (P2O5)55-(CaO)30-(Na2O)15 Glass Nanospheres as a Transient Contrast Agent for Ultrasound Stem Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Vermesh, Ophir; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a powerful tool in medicine because of the millisecond temporal resolution and sub-millimeter spatial resolution of acoustic imaging. However, the current generation of acoustic contrast agents is primarily limited to vascular targets due to their large size. Nano-size particles have the potential to be used as a contrast agent for ultrasound molecular imaging. Silica-based nanoparticles have shown promise here, however their slow degradation rate may limit their applications as a contrast agent. Phosphate-based glasses are an attractive alternative with controllable degradation rate and easily metabolized degradation components in the body. In this study, biodegradable P2O5-CaO-Na2O phosphate-based glass nanospheres (PGNs) were synthesized and characterized as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. The structure of the PGNs was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P MAS-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The SEM images indicated a spherical shape with a diameter size range of 200-500 nm. The XRD, 31P NMR and FTIR results revealed the amorphous and glassy nature of PGNs that consisted of mainly Q1 and Q2 phosphate units. We used this contrast to label mesenchymal stem cells and determined in vitro and in vivo detection limits of 5 and 9 μg/mL, respectively. Cell counts down to 4000 could be measured with ultrasound imaging with no cytoxicity at doses needed for imaging. Importantly, ion release studies confirmed these PGNs biodegrade into aqueous media with degradation products that can be easily metabolized in the body. PMID:25625373

  15. Sol-gel synthesis and electrospraying of biodegradable (P2O5)55-(CaO)30-(Na2O)15 glass nanospheres as a transient contrast agent for ultrasound stem cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Farzad; Jokerst, Jesse V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Vermesh, Ophir; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-02-24

    Ultrasound imaging is a powerful tool in medicine because of the millisecond temporal resolution and submillimeter spatial resolution of acoustic imaging. However, the current generation of acoustic contrast agents is primarily limited to vascular targets due to their large size. Nanosize particles have the potential to be used as a contrast agent for ultrasound molecular imaging. Silica-based nanoparticles have shown promise here; however, their slow degradation rate may limit their applications as a contrast agent. Phosphate-based glasses are an attractive alternative with controllable degradation rate and easily metabolized degradation components in the body. In this study, biodegradable P2O5-CaO-Na2O phosphate-based glass nanospheres (PGNs) were synthesized and characterized as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging. The structure of the PGNs was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P MAS NMR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The SEM images indicated a spherical shape with a diameter size range of 200-500 nm. The XRD, (31)P NMR, and FTIR results revealed the amorphous and glassy nature of PGNs that consisted of mainly Q(1) and Q(2) phosphate units. We used this contrast to label mesenchymal stem cells and determined in vitro and in vivo detection limits of 5 and 9 μg/mL, respectively. Cell counts down to 4000 could be measured with ultrasound imaging with no cytoxicity at doses needed for imaging. Importantly, ion-release studies confirmed these PGNs biodegrade into aqueous media with degradation products that can be easily metabolized in the body.

  16. The Meaning of High K2O Volcanism In the U.S. Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.

    2010-12-01

    K2O contents provide a highly effective discriminant between volcanic rocks erupted in the Cascades and Basin-and Range-provinces, with Cascades volcanics having lower K2O contents at a given SiO2. To differentiate these suites, we use a K-index, where K-index = K2Oobserved - 0.12[SiO2] + 5.1 (oxides in wt. %). In the Sierra Nevada, regional K2O contents are not controlled by wall-rock assimilation. In addition, none are candidates for K-metasomatism, and none are likely to be derived by partial melting of a K-metasomatized source. As to the latter issue, even volcanic rocks with the highest K2O in the Sierra Nevada have K2O/Na2O <5, and most such ratios are <3. In contrast, K-metasomatized rocks have K2O/Na2O >5, and as high as 30-40 (Brooks and Snee (1996). Also, Sierra-wide K2O variations are not connected to indices of subduction-related mantle enrichments (such as La/Nb, Ba/Nb or Sr/P2O5), and so K2O is unconnected to regional variations in source composition. K2O contents are instead controlled by the degree of partial melting (F) in the mantle source and fractional crystallization. Putirka and Busby (2007) show that maximum K2O in the Sierra increases with increasing crust thickness, and this relationship also holds across the U.S. the Cordillera (at 39oN latitude). This relationship implies that low F magmas more easily transit thick, low-density upper crust (Putirka and Busby, 2007), which is a consequence of the fact that low F melts are enriched not just in K2O, but also in H2O, which greatly lowers magma density (Ochs and Lange, 1999). This model can explain the contrast in Cascade and Basin-and-Range K2O contents: the modern Cascades are built on the thinner crust of accreted terranes, while typical Basin-and-Range volcanics are erupted on older, and thicker, cratonized crust. Mean crust density, however, cannot be the only explanation of high K2O. In the central Sierra Nevada, the Colorado River Extensional Corridor, and at the Lunar Crater

  17. Effects of sodium and potassium ions on a novel SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafir, D. L.; Ponta, O.; Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Simon, V.

    2015-01-01

    The study is focused on Na2O and/or K2O influence on a new sol-gel derived SeO2-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5-CaO bioactive system. The structural changes induced by Na2O and/or K2O addition were correlated with the samples behavior in simulated biological media. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and the type of the chemical bonds. The morphology of the samples was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results pointed out a prevalent vitreous structure with an incipient hydroxyapatite (HA) crystalline phase. FTIR results revealed a complex network consisting of silicate, phosphate and borate units, as well as the development of both A- and B-type of carbonate-substituted HA. The bioactivity of the samples was tested in vitro following the evolution of the apatite layers self-assembled on the samples surface in simulated body fluid. Their biocompatibility was investigated after samples surface functionalization with protein. The results indicate that sodium and potassium addition improves the biocompatibility by enhancement of protein adherence on samples surface and without to prevent the samples bioactivity.

  18. Distribution of anomalously high K2O volcanic rocks in Arizona: metasomatism at the Picacho Peak detachment fault.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metasomatized Tertiary lavas with anomalously high K2O and lower Na2O content are distributed within the NW-trending extensional terrain of SW Arizona. These rocks are common near core-complex-related detachment faults at Picacho Peak and the Harcuvar Mountains and in listric-faulted terrain at the Vulture Mountains. These rocks are also enriched in Zr but depleted in MgO. Fine-grained, euhedral orthoclase (adularia) is the dominant K-mineral; other secondary introduced minerals are quartz and calcite. Spatial association of metasomatism with the detachment faults suggests that detachment provided a conduit for hydrothermal fluids that altered the initial chemistry of the Tertiary volcanics and charged the upper plate rocks with mineralizing fluids that carried Zr and Ba, along with Au, Ag and Cu during detachment 17-18 m.y. ago.-L.C.H.

  19. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells.

  20. Thermodynamic Modeling of Sulfide Capacity of Na2O-Containing Oxide Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the sulfide dissolution in the Na2O-FetO-CaO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2 multicomponent slags was performed to investigate the desulfurization of hot metal using Na2O-containing fluxes. The dissolution behavior of sulfur in the melts was modeled using the modified quasi-chemical model in the quadruplet approximation. This model can take into account the short-range ordering and the reciprocal exchange reaction of cations and anions in oxy-sulfide slags. Experimental sulfide capacity data were well predicted from the model with only three model parameters.

  1. Behavior and effects of phosphorus in the system Na2O-K2O-Al2O3-SiO2-P2O5-H2O at 200 MPa(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, David; Morgan, George B.; Babb, Harold A.; Loomis, Jennifer L.

    1993-12-01

    The addition of phosphorus to H2O-saturated and initially subaluminous haplogranitic (Qz-Ab-Or) compositions at 200 MPa(H2O) promotes expansion of the liquidus field of quartz, a marked decrease of the solidus temperature, increased solubility limits of H2O in melt at low phosphorus concentrations, and fractionation of melt out of the haplogranite plane (projected along an Or28 isopleth) toward a peralkaline, silica-poor but quartz-saturated minimum composition. The partition coefficient for P2O5 between aqueous vapor and melt with an ASI (aluminum saturation index, mol Al/[mol Na+K])=1 is negligible (0.06), and consequently so are the effects of phosphorus on other melt-vapor relations involving major components. Phosphorus becomes more soluble in vapor, however, as the concentration of a NaPO3 component increases via the fractionation of melt by crystallization of quartz and feldspar. The experimental results here corroborate existing concepts regarding the interaction of phosphorus with alkali aluminosilicate melt: phosphorus has an affinity for alkalis and Al, but not Si. Phosphorus is incorporated into alkali feldspars by the exchange component AlPSi-2. For subaluminous compositions (ASI=1), the distribution coefficient of phosphorus between alkali feldspar and melt, D[P]Af/m, is 0.3. This value increases to D[P]Af/m=1.0 at a melt ASI value of 1.3. The increase in D[P]Af/m with ASI is expected from the fact that excess Al promotes the AlPSi-2 exchange. With this experimental data, the P2O5 content of feldspars and whole rocks can reveal important facets of crystallization and phosphorus geochemistry in subaluminous to peraluminous granitic systems.

  2. In vitro reactivity of Na2O MgO SiO2 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdas

    2007-12-01

    A variety of bioactive glasses have been investigated over the last two decades as substitute material for diseased or damaged tissues in a human body. In this investigation, three different melt derived bioactive glasses, each having 55% by mole SiO2 and ratio of MgO to Na2O varying from 1:8 to 8:1, were prepared by melting various oxides at temperature >1250 °C. After microstructure evolution, vitro reactivity of these glasses was examined by keeping them in simulated body fluid (trans buffered pH 7.25 at 25 cc). The surface reactivity of these glasses gradually increased with increasing Na2O/MgO ratio.

  3. Effect of Na2O on aqueous dissolution of nuclear waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah; Hrma, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Sodium oxide is present in the majority of commercial and waste glasses as a viscosity-reducing component. In some nuclear waste glasses, its source is the waste itself. As such, it can limit the waste loading because of its deleterious effect on the resistance of the glass to attack by aqueous media. The maximum tolerable content of Na2O in glass depends on the presence and concentration of components that interact with it. To assess the acceptability limits of Na2O in the composition region of nuclear waste glasses, we formulated 11 baseline compositions by varying the content of oxides of Si, B, Al, Ca, Zr, and Li. In each of these compositions, we varied the Na2O fraction from 8-16 mass% to 23-30 mass%. To each of 146 glasses thus formulated, we applied the seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) to determine normalized B and Na releases (ri, where i ≡ B or Na). Fitting approximation functions ln(ri/gm-2) = Σbijgj to ri data (gj is the j-th component mass fraction and bij the corresponding component coefficient), we showed that the rB (and, consequently, the initial glass alteration rate) was proportional to the glass component mass fractions in the order Al2O3Na2O

  4. Flower-like Na2O nanotip synthesis via femtosecond laser ablation of glass

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in nanotip synthesis relies on techniques that utilize elaborate precursor chemicals, catalysts, or vacuum conditions, and any combination thereof. To realize their ultimate potential, synthesized nanotips require simpler fabrication techniques that allow for control over their final nano-morphology. We present a unique, dry, catalyst-free, and ambient condition method for creating densely clustered, flower-like, sodium oxide (Na2O) nanotips with controllable tip widths. Femtosecond laser ablation of a soda-lime glass substrate at a megahertz repetition rate, with nitrogen flow, was employed to generate nanotips with base and head widths as small as 100 and 20 nm respectively, and lengths as long as 10 μm. Control of the nanotip widths was demonstrated via laser dwell time with longer dwell times producing denser clusters of thinner nanotips. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that nanotip composition is Na2O. A new formation mechanism is proposed, involving an electrostatic effect between ionized nitrogen and polar Na2O. The synthesized nanotips may potentially be used in antibacterial and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:22809176

  5. Glass transition temperature and conductivity in Li2O and Na2O doped borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwajeet, J. S.; Sankarappa, T.; Ramanna, R.; Sujatha, T.; Awasthi, A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Two alkali doped Borophosphate glasses in the composition, (B2O3)0.2. (P2O5)0.3. (Na2O)(0.5-x). (Li2O)x, where x = 0.05 to 0.50 were prepared by standard melt quenching method at 1200K. Non-crystalline nature was confirmed by XRD studies. Room temperature density was measured by Archimedes principle. DC conductivity in the temperature range from 300K to 575K has been measured. Samples were DSC studied in the temperature range from 423K to 673K and glass transition temperature was determined. Glass transition temperature passed through minima for Li2O con.2centration between 0.25 and 0.30 mole fractions. Activation energy of conduction has been determined by analyzing temperature variation of conductivity determining Arrhenius law. Conductivity passed through minimum and activation passed through maximum for Li2O content from 0.25 to 0.30 mole fractions. Glass transition temperature passed through minimum for the same range of Li2O content. These results revealed mixed alkali effect taking place in these glasses. It is for the first time borophosphate glasses doped with Li2O and Na2O have been studied for density and dc conductivity and, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been observed.

  6. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems.

  7. Fabrication and biocompatibility of a porous bioglass ceramic in a Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system.

    PubMed

    Lin, F H; Huang, Y Y; Hon, M H; Wu, S C

    1991-07-01

    A porous bioglass ceramic was prepared from a finely pulverized bioglass powder mixed with particles of two sizes (5 and 500 microns) of 30% by weight with the foaming agent polyethylene glycol 4000 (HO (C2H4O) nH). The batch composition of the bioglass was Na2O 12%, CaO 28%, SiO2 50% and P2O5 10% by weight. The specimens, formed by pressing, were sintered in a high temperature furnace. In this study we are concerned with the preparation and microstructure of the material and its performance in biological tests. The microstructure and crystalline phases of the material were investigated by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In a biomedical examination, it was shown that the porous material was compatible with animal tissues. The microstructure of the implant indicated that newly grown bone interlocked well with the glass ceramic and that macropores and micropores were distributed uniformly in the material, which provided channels for bone ingrowth and improved the microscopic bioresorption.

  8. Nqrs Data for C9H26N3Na2O14P [C9H12N3Na2O7P·7(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1198)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C9H26N3Na2O14P [C9H12N3Na2O7P·7(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1198)

  9. Effects of CaO/SiO2 Ratio and Na2O Content on Melting Properties and Viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigated the effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (0.8 to 1.5) and Na2O concentration (6 to 9 wt pct) on melting properties and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O mold fluxes with a fixed B2O3 content. Melting properties of fluxes (softening temperature T s, hemispherical temperature T h, and fluidity temperature T f) were determined by the hot-stage microscopy method. Viscosity was measured using rotating cylindrical viscometer, and structure of quenched fluxes was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Equilibrium phases in the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O system were calculated using FactSage. It was found that T h decreased with increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio from 0.8 to 1.0 and increased with a further increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio to 1.5. The effect of Na2O content in the range of 6 to 9 wt pct on T h of the flux with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio at 1.3 was marginal. Increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio and Na2O content increased the break temperature and reduced the value of viscosity at 1673 K (1400 °C). Viscosity of liquid fluxes was discussed in the relationship with the flux structure. Melting properties and viscosity of boracic fluxes were compared with those of industrial fluorine-containing mold fluxes.

  10. Thermodynamic study of Na2O-SiO2 melts at 1300° and 1400 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, D. N.; Sigworth, G. K.; Philbrook, W. O.

    1985-06-01

    The vapor pressures of Na above stirred Na2O-SiO2 melts in equilibrium with graphite and CO were determined at 1300° and 1400 °C using the transpiration technique. Compositions studied ranged from about 60 mole pct SiO2 to close to SiO2 saturation. Activities of components Na2O and SiO2 were calculated from the data. Log aNa2O (pure liquid as standard state) varies from about -8.7 and -8.5 at silica saturation to -6.3 and -6.1 at 40 mole pct Na2O at 1300° and 1400 °C, and the molar Gibbs energy of mixing, Δ G m, at the disilicate composition (XNa2O = 0.33) at each of these temperatures is -83.0 and -85.4 kJ, respectively. The Toop and Samis, Yokokawa and Niwa, and Lin and Pelton solution models for binary silicates were applied to the Δ G m data at 1350 °C and parameters for the models were estimated to give best fits. All three models show good correspondence with the measured Δ G m curve. The capabilities of the models in predicting activity data in this system have been compared.

  11. Investigation of SiO2:Na2O ratio as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, N.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A.

    2013-11-01

    The silicate is one of the potential compounds used as a corrosion inhibitor for metal alloys. The mixture between silica and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) succeeded to produce the silicate product. The formulation of a silicate product normally variable depended by the different ratio of SiO2:Na2O. This research utilized the agriculture waste product of paddy using its rice husk. In this study, the amorphous silica content in rice husk ash was used after rice husk burnt in a muffle furnace at a certain temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to determine the existence of amorphous phase of silica in the rice husk ash. There are several studies that recognized rice husk as an alternative source that obtained high silica content. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was carried out to clarify the percentage amount of Si and O elements, which referred the silica compound in rice husk ash. The preparation of sodium silicate formulation were differ based on the SiO2:Na2O ratio (SiO2:Na2O ratio = 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00). These silicate based corrosion inhibitors were tested on several testing samples, which were copper (99.9%), aluminum alloy (AA 6061) and carbon steel (SAE 1045). The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate SiO2:Na2O ratio and understand how this SiO2:Na2O ratio can affect the corrosion rate of each metal alloys immersed in acidic medium. In order to investigate this study, weight loss test was conducted in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) for 24 hours at room temperature.

  12. Ab-initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) Studies of Electronic, Transport, and Bulk Properties of Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polin, Daniel; Ziegler, Joshua; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Bagayoko, Diola

    We present the findings of ab-initio calculations of electronic, transport, and structural properties of cubic sodium oxide (Na2O). These results were obtained using density functional theory (DFT), specifically a local density approximation (LDA) potential, and the linear combination of Gaussian orbitals (LCGO). Our implementation of LCGO followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams method as enhanced by the work of Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). We describe the electronic band structure of Na2O with a direct band gap of 2.22 eV. Our results include predicted values for the electronic band structure and associated energy eigenvalues, the total and partial density of states (DOS and pDOS), the equilibrium lattice constant of Na2O, and the bulk modulus. We have also calculated the electron and holes effective masses in the Γ to L, Γ to X, and Γ to K directions. Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Louisiana Board of Regents, through LASiGMA [Award Nos. EPS- 1003897, NSF (2010-15)-RII-SUBR] and NSF HRD-1002541, the US Department of Energy - National, Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No. DE- NA0002630), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  13. Stability of Fluorine-Free CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang

    2017-01-01

    B2O3 and Na2O are key components of fluorine-free mold fluxes for continuous casting, but both are highly volatile, which affects the flux stability. This paper investigated the evaporation of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O fluxes (Na2O: 6 to 10 wt pct, CaO/SiO2 ratio: 0.8 to 1.3) in the temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1673 K (1300 °C to 1400 °C) using thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss as a result of the flux evaporation increased with the increasing temperature for all fluxes. The rate of evaporation was found to be very small for the Na2O-free flux but significantly increased with the addition of Na2O. The high evaporation rate of fluxes in the presence of B2O3 and Na2O was attributed to the formation of highly volatile NaBO2. Changing the ratio of CaO/SiO2, however, did not affect the rate of evaporation. Kinetic analysis of the evaporation processes demonstrated that external mass transfer contributed to the rate of evaporation.

  14. Stability of Fluorine-Free CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang

    2017-04-01

    B2O3 and Na2O are key components of fluorine-free mold fluxes for continuous casting, but both are highly volatile, which affects the flux stability. This paper investigated the evaporation of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O fluxes (Na2O: 6 to 10 wt pct, CaO/SiO2 ratio: 0.8 to 1.3) in the temperatures ranging from 1573 K to 1673 K (1300 °C to 1400 °C) using thermogravimetric analysis. The weight loss as a result of the flux evaporation increased with the increasing temperature for all fluxes. The rate of evaporation was found to be very small for the Na2O-free flux but significantly increased with the addition of Na2O. The high evaporation rate of fluxes in the presence of B2O3 and Na2O was attributed to the formation of highly volatile NaBO2. Changing the ratio of CaO/SiO2, however, did not affect the rate of evaporation. Kinetic analysis of the evaporation processes demonstrated that external mass transfer contributed to the rate of evaporation.

  15. Thermal and fragility studies on microwave synthesized K2O-B2O3-V2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikamalasree, Reddy, M. Sudhakara; Viswanatha, R.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2016-05-01

    Glasses with composition xK2O-60B2O3-(40-x) V2O5 (15 ≤ x ≤ 39 mol %) was prepared by an energy efficient microwave method. The heat capacity change (ΔCp) at glass transition (Tg), width of glass transition (ΔTg), heat capacities in the glassy (Cpg) and liquid (Cpl) state for the investigated glasses were extracted from Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC) thermograms. The width of glass transition is less than 30°C, indicating that these glasses belongs to fragile category. Fragility functions [NBO]/(Vm3Tg) and (ΔCp/Cpl)increases with increasing modifier oxide concentration. Increase in fragility is attributed to the increasing coordination of boron. Further, addition of K2O creates NBOs and the flow mechanism involves bond switching between BOs and NBOs. Physical properties exhibit compositional dependence and these properties increase with increasing K2O concentration. The observed variations are qualitatively analyzed.

  16. FT-IR and thermoluminescence investigation of P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivascu, C.; Timar-Gabor, A.; Cozar, O.

    2013-11-01

    The 0.5P2O5ṡxBaOṡ(0.5-x)K2O glass system (0≤x≤0.5mol%) is investigated by FT-IR and thermoluminescence as a possible dosimetic material. FT-IR spectra show structural network modifications with the composition variations of the studied glasses. The predominant absorption bands are characterized by two broad peaks near 500 cm-1, two weak peaks around 740 cm-1 and three peaks in the 900-1270 cm-1 region. The shift in the position of the band assigned to asymmetric stretching of PO2- group, υas(PO2-) modes from ˜1100 cm-1 to 1085 cm-1 and the decrease in its relative intensity with the increasing of K2O content shows a network modifier role of this oxide.. Luminescence investigations show that by adding modifier oxides in the phosphate glass a dose dependent TL signals result upon irradiation. Thus P2O5-BaO-K2O glass system is a possible candidate material for dosimetry in the dose 0 - 50 Gy range.

  17. Critical Evaluation and Thermodynamic Optimization of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-02-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation, and thermodynamic optimization of experimental phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3 system were performed at 1 bar total pressure. A set of optimized model parameters obtained for all phases present in this system reproduces available and reliable thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria within experimental error limits from 298 K (25 °C) to above liquidus temperatures for all compositions and oxygen partial pressures from metallic saturation to 1 atm. The liquid phase was modeled based on the Modified Quasichemical Model by considering the possible formation of NaFeO2 associate in the liquid state. Complicated subsolidus phase relations depending on the oxygen partial pressure and temperature were elucidated, and discrepancies among experimental data were resolved.

  18. Understanding the magnetic behavior of heat treated CaO-P2O5-Na2O-Fe2O3-SiO2 bioactive glass using electron paramagnetic resonance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2014-09-01

    Bioactive glass of composition 41CaO-44SiO2-4P2O5-8Fe2O3-3Na2O has been heat treated in the temperature (TA) range of 750-1150 °C for time periods (tA) ranging from 1 h to 3 h to yield magnetic bioactive glass ceramics (MBCs). X-ray diffraction studies indicate the presence of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite and wollastonite) and magnetic (magnetite and α-hematite) phases in nanocrystalline form in the MBCs. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to understand the variation in saturation magnetization and coercivity of the MBCs with TA and tA. These studies reveal the nature and amount of iron ions present in the MBCs and their interaction in the glassy oxide matrix as a function of annealing parameters. The deterioration in the magnetic properties of the glass heat treated above 1050 °C is attributed to the crystallization of the non-magnetic α-hematite phase. These results are expected to be useful in the application of these MBCs as thermoseeds in hyperthermia treatment of cancer.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Molten Silicate of Al2O3-CaO-Na2O-SiO2 Measured by Means of a Front Heating-Front Detection Laser Flash Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroki; Kowatari, Takaya; Shiroki, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Hiromichi; Waseda, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    Thermal conductivity values have been systematically obtained for molten silicates containing Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, and SiO2 by means of a front heating-front detection laser flash method. The measurements were made for 13 samples in the temperature range between 1073 K and 1823 K (800 °C and 1550 °C), depending on the composition. Thermal conductivities of the silicate melts are found to be relatively insensitive to the variation of temperature, but they depend on the composition ratio, particularly the ratio of Non-Bridging Oxygen ions per Tetrahedrally coordinated cation—NBO/T. The thermal conductivity values decrease from 2.8 W/mK to 1.5 W/mK with the NBO/T value until it reaches about 1. Thermal conductivity values become constant for silicate melts with a higher value of NBO/T. It is known that the length of the silicate chain decreases with disconnection by the addition of alkaline earth cation or alkaline cation. The strong correlation between thermal conductivity and NBO/T is quite likely to suggest that silicate chain is a preferential path for heat transport in silicate melts.

  20. Effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio on the properties of foam geopolymers fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Shao, Ning-ning; Huang, Tian-yong; Qin, Jun-feng; Wang, Dong-min; Yang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional aluminosilicates formed in a short time at low temperature by geopolymerization. In this paper, alkali-activated foam geopolymers were fabricated from circulating fluidized bed fly ash (CFA), and the effect of SiO2/Na2O mole ratio (0.91-1.68) on their properties was studied. Geopolymerization products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that SiO2/Na2O mole ratio plays an important role in the mechanical and morphological characteristics of geopolymers. Foam samples prepared in 28 d with a SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of 1.42 exhibit the greatest compressive strength of 2.52 MPa. Morphological analysis reveals that these foam geopolymers appear the relatively optimized pore structure and distribution, which are beneficial to the structure stability. Moreover, a combination of the Si/Al atomic ratio ranging between 1.47 and 1.94 with the Na/Al atomic ratio of about 1 produces the samples with high strength.

  1. Phase Equilibria Study in the TeO2-Na2O-SiO2 System in Air Between 723 K (500 °C) and 1473 K (1200 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Imam; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of phase equilibria in the TeO2-Na2O-SiO2 system at elevated temperatures is important for ceramic and glass industries and for improving the operation of the smelting process of tellurium-containing materials. A review of previous investigations has indicated, however, that there are omissions in the available datasets on the liquidus temperatures of the molten TeO2-Na2O-SiO2 mixtures. The employed experimental method included equilibration of mixtures made from high purity oxides, rapid quenching of the equilibrated samples in water and followed by compositional analysis of the phases using an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. The liquidus and phase equilibria in the TeO2-SiO2, TeO2-Na2O, and SiO2-TeO2-Na2O systems have been studied for a wide range of compositions between 723 K (500 °C) and 1473 K (1200 °C) at TeO2, SiO2, and Na2SiO3 saturations. New data have been generated in the SiO2-TeO2-Na2O system at SiO2 saturation. The liquidus compositions in the TeO2-Na2O system at TeO2 saturation have been compared with the previous data and an assessed phase diagram.

  2. Effect of ZnO on the interfacial bonding between Na 2O-B 2O 3-SiO 2 vitrified bond and diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. F.; Li, Zh. H.; Li, J.; Zhu, Y. M.

    2009-08-01

    Diamond composites were prepared by sintering diamond grains with low melting Na 2O-B 2O 3-SiO 2 vitrified bonds in air. The influence of ZnO on the wettability and flowing ability of Na 2O-B 2O 3-SiO 2 vitrified bonds was characterized by wetting angle, the interfacial bonding states between diamond grains and the vitrified bonds were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the micro-scale bonding mechanism in the interfaces was investigated by means of energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results showed that ZnO facilitated the dissociation of boron/silicon-oxygen polyhedra and the formation of larger amount of non-bridging oxygen in the glass network, which resulted in the increase of the vitrified bonds' wettability and the formation of -C dbnd O, -O-H and -C-H bonds on the surface of diamond grains. B and Si diffused from the vitrified bonds to the interface, and C-C, C-O, C dbnd O and C-B bond formed on the surface of sintered diamond grains during sintering process, by which the interfacial bonding between diamond grains and the vitrified bonds was strengthened.

  3. Critical Evaluation and Thermodynamic Optimization of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi-Khoonsari, Elmira; Jung, In-Ho

    2016-02-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation, and thermodynamic optimization of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 system were performed at 1 atm total pressure. A set of optimized model parameters obtained for all phases present in this system reproduces available and reliable thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria within experimental error limits from 298 K (25 °C) to above liquidus temperatures for all compositions and oxygen partial pressures from metallic Fe saturation to 1 atm. The liquid phase was modeled based on the Modified Quasichemical Model considering the possible formation of NaFeO2 associate in the liquid state. The NaFeO2 metaoxide solid solutions containing the excess SiO2 were described within the framework of Compound Energy Formalism. Based on the thermodynamic models and model parameters, unexplored thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the Na2O-FeO-Fe2O3-SiO2 system were predicted.

  4. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  5. Gels and gel-derived glasses in the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 system. [containerless melting in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    The containerless melting of high-purity multicomponent homogeneous gels and gel-monoliths offers a unique approach to making ultrapure multicomponent optical glasses in the reduced gravity environment of space. Procedures for preparing and characterizing gels and gel-derived glasses in the Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 system are described. Preparation is based on the polymerization reactions of alkoxysilane with trimethyl borate or boric acid and a suitable sodium compound. The chemistry of the gelling process is discussed in terms of process parameters and the gel compositions. The physicochemical nature of gels prepared by three different procedures were found to be significantly different. IR absorption spectra indicate finite differences in the molecular structures of the different gels. The melting of the gel powders and the transformation of porous gel-monoliths to transparent 'glass' without melting are described.

  6. Gels and gel-derived glasses in the system Na2O-B2O3-SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The containerless melting of high-purity multicomponent homogeneous gels and gel monoliths offers a unique approach to making ultrapure multicomponent optical glasses in the reduced gravity environment of space. Procedures for preparing and characterizing gels and gel-derived glasses in the system Na2O-B2O3-SiO2 are described. Preparation is based on the polymerization reactions of alkoxysilane with trimethyl borate or boric acid and a suitable sodium compound. The chemistry of the gelling process is discussed in terms of process parameters and the gel compositions. The physicochemical nature of gels prepared by three different procedures was found to be significantly different. Infrared absorption spectra indicate finite differences in the molecular structures of the different gels. The melting of the gel powders and the transformation of porous gel monoliths to transparent 'glass' without melting are described.

  7. Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, N. A.; Amin, M. J.; La Torre, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    High spatial resolution, low inter-pixel crosstalk, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), adequate application dependent speed, economical and energy efficient design are common goals sought after for optical image sensors. In optical microscopy, overcoming the diffraction limit in spatial resolution has been achieved using materials chemistry, optimal wavelengths, precision optics and nanomotion-mechanics for pixel-by-pixel scanning. Imagers based on pixelated imaging devices such as CCD/CMOS sensors avoid pixel-by-pixel scanning as all sensor pixels operate in parallel, but these imagers are fundamentally limited by inter-pixel crosstalk, in particular with interspersed bright and dim light zones. In this paper, we propose an agile pixel imager sensor design platform called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that can greatly alleviate the mentioned fundamental limitations, empowering smart optical imaging for particular environments. Specifically, this novel CAOS imager engages an application dependent electronically programmable agile pixel platform using hybrid space-time-frequency coded multiple-access of the sampled optical irradiance map. We demonstrate the foundational working principles of the first experimental electronically programmable CAOS imager using hybrid time-frequency multiple access sampling of a known high contrast laser beam irradiance test map, with the CAOS instrument based on a Texas Instruments (TI) Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). This CAOS instrument provides imaging data that exhibits 77 dB electrical SNR and the measured laser beam image irradiance specifications closely match (i.e., within 0.75% error) the laser manufacturer provided beam image irradiance radius numbers. The proposed CAOS imager can be deployed in many scientific and non-scientific applications where pixel agility via electronic programmability can pull out desired features in an irradiance map subject to the CAOS imaging operation.

  8. Optical Properties of K2O-Li2O-WO3-B2O3 Glasses: Evidence of Mixed Alkali Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edukondalu, Avula; Sripathi, T.; Kareem Ahmmad, Shaik; Rahman, Syed; Sivakumar, K.

    2017-02-01

    Glass with compositions xK2O-(30 - x)Li2O-10WO3-60B2O3 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 30 mol.% have been prepared using the normal melt quenching technique. The optical reflection and absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the absorption edge studies, the values of the optical band gap ( E opt) and Urbach energy (Δ E) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and Δ E vary non-linearly with composition parameter, showing the mixed alkali effect. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple Di-Domenico model.

  9. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; King, S P; Barney, E R; Hanna, J V; Newport, R J; Pickup, D M

    2013-01-21

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al(2)O(3))(x)(Na(2)O)(0.11-x)(CaO)(0.445)(P(2)O(5))(0.445), where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state (27)Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al(2)O(3) the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by (27)Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al(2)O(3) content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  10. Basic network structure of SiO2-B2O3-Na2O glasses from diffraction and reverse Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fábián, M.; Araczki, Cs

    2016-05-01

    Neutron- and high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the (75-x)SiO2-xB2O3-25Na2O x = 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol% glasses. The structure factor has been measured over a broad momentum transfer range, between 0.4 and 22 Å-1. For data analyses and modelling the Fourier transformation and the reverse Monte Carlo simulation techniques have been applied. The partial atomic pair correlation functions, the nearest neighbour distances, coordination number distributions and average coordination number values and three-particle bond angle distributions have been revealed. The Si-O network proved to be highly stable consisting of SiO4 tetrahedral units with characteristic distances at r Si-O = 1.60 Å and r Si-Si = 3.0(5) Å. The behaviour of network forming boron atoms proved to be more complex. The first neighbour B-O distances show two distinct values at 1.30 Å and a characteristic peak at 1.5(5) Å and, both trigonal BO3 and tetrahedral BO4 units are present. The relative abundance of BO4 and BO3 units depend on the boron content, and with increasing boron content the number of BO4 is decreasing, while BO3 is increasing.

  11. Structural properties of Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2-Na2O glasses for gamma ray shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-03-01

    Glass samples of the xBi2O3-(0.70-x)B2O3-0.15SiO2-0.15Na2O (where x=0 up to 0.5 mol fraction) have been prepared in the laboratory by using melt quenching technique. 137Cs source has been used for experimental measurements of mass attenuation coefficient of γ-rays at 662 keV. Mass attenuation coefficient of our glass samples has been compared with standard nuclear radiation shield "barite concrete". It has been concluded that bismuth containing glass samples can be potential candidates for γ-ray shielding applications. Glasses must have appreciable elastic moduli values for their practical utility as γ-ray shields which are related to coordination number and non-bridging oxygens. Structural properties including coordination number and non-bridging oxygens of the structural units of the glass system have been estimated from the detailed analysis of Optical, Raman and FTIR spectra. Reported investigations can contribute to the development of transparent gamma ray shields.

  12. On the existence of a high-temperature polymorph of Na2Ca6Si4O15—implications for the phase equilibria in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Maier, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    the previously unknown compound our results will also help to improve the interpretation of the phase relationships between the compounds in the ternary system Na2O-CaO-SiO2 which are of interest for several applications related to the field of applied mineralogy and materials science.

  13. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2014-02-01

    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants.

  14. Bioactivity of Y2O3 and CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Placek, L M; Keenan, T J; Wren, A W

    2016-08-01

    The bioactivity of yttrium and cerium are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na) in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-xNa2O-xMO glass-ceramics (where x = 0.08 and MO = Y2O3 or CeO2). Bioactivity is monitored through pH and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry where pH of simulated body fluid ranged from 7.5 to 7.6 and increased between 8.2 and 10.0 after 14-day incubation with the glass-ceramic disks. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels in simulated body fluid after incubation with yttrium and cerium containing disks show a continual decline over the 14-day period. In contrast, Con disks (not containing yttrium or cerium) caused the elimination of Ca in solution after 1 day and throughout the incubation period, and initially showed a decline in P levels followed by an increase at 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Ca and P on the surface of the simulated body fluid-incubated disks and showed precipitates on Con and HCe (8 mol% cerium) samples. Cell viability of MC3T3 osteoblasts was not significantly affected at a 9% extract concentration. Optical microscopy after 24 h cell incubation with disks showed that Con samples do not support osteoblast or Schwann cell growth, while all yttrium and cerium containing disks have direct contact with osteoblasts spread across the wells. Schwann cells attached in all wells, but only showed spreading with the HY-S (8 mol% yttrium, heated to sintering temperature) and YCe (4 mol% yttrium and cerium) disks. Scanning electron microscopy of the compatible disks shows osteoblast and sNF96.2 Schwann cells attachment and spreading directly on the disk surfaces.

  15. In vitro bioactivity evaluation, mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Naf, Sherief M.; Khalil, El-Sayed M.; El-Sayed, El-Sayed M.; Zayed, Hamdia A.; Youness, Rasha A.

    2015-06-01

    Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been prepared by the melt-quenching method. B2O3 content was systematically increased from 5 to 30 mol%, at the expense of P2O5, in the chemical composition of these glasses. Density, Vickers microhardness and fracture toughness of the prepared glasses were measured. In vitro bioactivity of the glasses was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °C for 3, 7, 14 and 30 days. The glasses were tested in the form of glass grains as well as bulk slabs. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The kinetics of degradation of the glass particles were monitored by measuring the weight loss of the particles and the ionic concentration of Ca, P and B in the SBF solution using inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The obtained results revealed the formation of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) layer, composed of nano-crystallites, on the surface of glass grains after the in vitro assays. The results have been used to understand the formation of HA as a function of glass composition and soaking time in the SBF. It can be pointed out that increasing B2O3 content in glass composition enhances the bioactivity of glasses. The nanometric particle size of the formed HA and in vitro bioactivity of the studied glasses make them possible candidates for tissue engineering application.

  16. Phase evolution of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O gels in synthetic aluminosilicate binders.

    PubMed

    Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Gehman, John D; van Deventer, Jannie S J; Provis, John L

    2016-04-07

    This study demonstrates the production of stoichiometrically controlled alkali-aluminosilicate gels ('geopolymers') via alkali-activation of high-purity synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate powders. This method provides for the first time a process by which the chemistry of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials may be accurately simulated by pure synthetic systems, allowing elucidation of physicochemical phenomena controlling alkali-aluminosilicate gel formation which has until now been impeded by the inability to isolate and control key variables. Phase evolution and nanostructural development of these materials are examined using advanced characterisation techniques, including solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy probing (29)Si, (27)Al and (23)Na nuclei. Gel stoichiometry and the reaction kinetics which control phase evolution are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical composition of the reaction mix, while the main reaction product is a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O type gel comprised of aluminium and silicon tetrahedra linked via oxygen bridges, with sodium taking on a charge balancing function. The alkali-aluminosilicate gels produced in this study constitute a chemically simplified model system which provides a novel research tool for the study of phase evolution and microstructural development in these systems. Novel insight of physicochemical phenomena governing geopolymer gel formation suggests that intricate control over time-dependent geopolymer physical properties can be attained through a careful precursor mix design. Chemical composition of the main N-A-S-H type gel reaction product as well as the reaction kinetics governing its formation are closely related to the Si/Al ratio of the precursor, with increased Al content leading to an increased rate of reaction and a decreased Si/Al ratio in the N-A-S-H type gel. This has significant implications for geopolymer mix design for industrial applications.

  17. SiO2-P2O5-HfO2-Al2O3-Na2O glasses activated by Er3+ ions: From bulk sample to planar waveguide fabricated by rf-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiasera, A.; Vasilchenko, I.; Dorosz, D.; Cotti, M.; Varas, S.; Iacob, E.; Speranza, G.; Vaccari, A.; Valligatla, S.; Zur, L.; Lukowiak, A.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.

    2017-01-01

    0.4 Er3+-doped 90.7 SiO2 - 4.4 P2O5 - 2.3 HfO2 - 1.7 Al2O3 - 0.7 Na2O planar waveguide was fabricated by multi-target rf-sputtering technique starting by massive Er3+-activated P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass. The optical parameters were measured by m-line apparatus operating at 632.8, 1319 and 1542 nm. The waveguide compositions were investigated by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and its morphology analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The waveguide exhibits a single propagation mode at 1319 and 1542 nm with an attenuation coefficient of 0.2 dB/cm in the infrared. The emission of 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ ion, with a 28.5 nm bandwidth was observed upon TE0 mode excitation at 514.5 nm. The optical and spectroscopic features of the Er3+-activated parent P2O5-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O glass were also investigated.

  18. Impact of neocrystallisations on the SiO2-K2O-CaO glass degradation due to atmospheric dry depositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentaz, L.; Lombardo, T.; Chabas, A.; Loisel, C.; Verney-Carron, A.

    2012-08-01

    The medieval SiO2-CaO-K2O stained glasses are particularly vulnerable to the impact of their environment. In the urban atmosphere, they will tend to rapidly deteriorate either by loss of matter or by addition of atmospheric material, that tend to form a crust on the surface of the glass. If the glass surface is protected from the rain run-off, this second phenomenon will be favoured. In the early stage of crust formation, it was shown that primary constituents were salts, called neocrystallisations. However, it is still not clear, if their presence induce further deterioration of the glass matrix. In order to answer this question both field exposure and laboratory experiments were carried out. Model glasses, chosen with compositions similar to those of ancient stained glasses, were exposed to the urban atmosphere in sheltered conditions. Samples exposed were analysed in order to identify the neocrystallisations and further tests were undertaken in order to observe their impact on the glass itself. The analyses of the weathering products on the glasses showed the presence of three principal minerals: syngenite, gypsum, and potassium carbonate. The observed mineral phases were then artificially deposited on model glass surfaces submitted to cycles of relative humidity. It was found that the presence of salts increased the glass degradation by extending the time of wetness of the glass surface and forming saline solutions in the case of deliquescent salts. Evidence of strong leaching could be observed on the glass surface and even more so when considering glass samples in contact with multiple salts. Finally, the impact of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) on the glass was dramatic, since it induced a loss of matter caused by the dissolution of the lattice in contact with the alkaline solution.

  19. Rheology and Structure of Chlorine, Fluorine and Water-Bearing Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, A.; Schmidt, B.; Webb, S. L.; Dupree, R.

    2012-12-01

    The effect of chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F) and water (H2O), alone and in combination, on the rheology and structure of synthetic peralkaline Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts as an analog for highly evolved alkaline melts is investigated. We also investigated a peraluminous counterpart to study how the effect of Cl and F depends on the (Na+Ca)/Al ratio. The volatile-free melts were produced from oxide and carbonate powders at 1 atm and temperatures between 1200 and 1650 °C. Amounts of 0.5 to 1.3 mol% of Cl and 0.5 to 18 mol% F were added as NH4Cl, NH4F, NaCl, NaF, CaCl2 and CaF2. The composition of the samples was analysed by electron microprobe. The melts were hydrated with 0.5 to 4 wt% H2O. For the hydration of the peralkaline melts we used an internally heated pressure vessel at 1200 to 1250 °C and 1.5 to 3 kbar. Because of their high liquidus temperatures, the peraluminous melts were hydrated at 1600 to 1675°C and 5 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Water contents were determined by Karl-Fischer-titration, thermogravimetry and IR-spectroscopy. The viscosities of the dry and hydrous peralkaline and peraluminous melts were measured with micropenetration and parallel plate techniques between 13 log10(Pa s) and 5.5 log10(Pa s). We found that the addition of 1.1 mol% Cl to peralkaline melts increased the viscosity by 0.8 log10(Pa s) while 1.9 mol% F decreased the viscosity by 1.2 log10(Pa s) relative to a viscosity of 12 log10(Pa s) of the halogen-free melt. In peralkaline melts containing equal amounts of both, Cl and F, the viscosity is 0.5 log10(Pa s) lower than the volatile-free melt, independent of the total amount of halogens. The effects of Cl and F seem to buffer each other. If there is twice as much F in the melt as Cl, the viscosity is reduced by 0.7 log10(Pa s). In peraluminous melts containing Cl and F the viscosity decreases with increasing volatile content independent of the ratio between the two volatiles. The addition of H2O decreases the viscosity of

  20. Formation of hydroxyapatite onto glasses of the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system with B2O3, Na2O, CaF2 and P2O5 additives.

    PubMed

    Agathopoulos, S; Tulyaganov, D U; Ventura, J M G; Kannan, S; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2006-03-01

    New bioactive glasses with compositions based on the CaO-MgO-SiO(2) system and additives of B(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Na(2)O, and CaF(2) were prepared. The in vitro mineralization behaviour was tested by immersion of powders or bulk glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF). Monitoring of ionic concentrations in SBF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations at the surface of the glasses were conducted over immersion time. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy shed light on the structural evolution occurring at the surface of the glasses that leads to formation of hydroxyapatite.

  1. Interfacial tension between immiscible melts in the system K2O - FeO - Fe2O3 - Al2O3 - SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehn, J.; Veksler, I. V.; Franz, G.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Interfacial tension is a very important parameter of the kinetics of phase nucleation, dissolution and growth. Excess surface energy contributes to the energy barrier for phase nucleation, and works as the main driving force for minimization of phase contact surfaces in heterogeneous systems. Immiscible silicate melts have been found to form in a broad range of basaltic, dacitic and rhyolitic magmas (Philpotts, 1982). However, liquid-liquid interfaces remain poorly studied in comparison with crystal-melt and vapor-melt interfaces. Here we present first experimental measurements of interfacial tension between synthetic Fe-rich and silica-rich immiscible melts composed of Fe oxides, K2O, alumina and silica. According to Naslund (1983), the miscibility gap in the 5-oxide system expands with increasing fO2 and becomes widest in air (fO2 = 0.2). Our goal was to estimate the maximal liquid-liquid interfacial tension for the immiscible liquids composed of silica and Fe oxides. Therefore, we have chosen the most contrasting liquid compositions that coexist in air at and above 1465 °C. Silica-rich and Fe-rich conjugate liquids at these conditions contain 73 and 17 wt. % SiO2, and 14 and 80 wt. % FeOt, respectively. These starting compositions were synthesized by fusion of reagent-grade oxides and K2CO3 at 1600 °C. In addition to interfacial tension, we have measured density and surface tension of individual coexisting liquids. All the measurements were done at 1500, 1527 and 1550 °C. Density was measured by the Archimedean method; surface and interfacial tensions were calculated from the maximal pool on a vertical cylinder (a 3-mm Pt rod attached to a high precision balance). We found interfacial tension between the immiscible liquids to decrease with increasing temperature from 16.4±2 mN/m at 1500 °C to 8.2±0.8 mN/m at 1550 °C. These values are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than typical interfacial tensions between silicate melts and crystals (Wanamaker

  2. [Tonsillolith: clinical picture and mineralogic analysis].

    PubMed

    Heppt, W; Schmidt, S T; Amstutz, G C; Maier, H

    1989-10-01

    We report the clinical appearance and mechanism of origin of a tonsillolith 7 g in weight, found in a 77-year-old patient and simulating a tumour of the oropharynx. Mineral analysis showed the main ingredients to be CaO and P2O5. Only trace amounts of SiO2, MgO, Na2O and K2O were found.

  3. Structural and optical properties of 60B2O3-(20-x)Na2O-10PbO-10Al2O3:xTiO2:yNd2O3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, N. C. A.; Santos, C. C.; Guedes, I.; Dantas, N. O.; Vermelho, M. V. D.

    2013-10-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of replacing Na2O by TiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic characteristics of the Nd2O3-doped 60B2O3-(20-x)Na2O-10PbO-10Al2O3:xTiO2:yNd2O3 borate glass matrix. Measurements of X-ray patterns, glass temperatures (Tg), vibrational (Raman and infrared (IR)) and optical (absorption and emission) spectra were carried out. The trend of Tg, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and Nephelauxetic ratio as the TiO2 and Nd2O3 concentration increases was interpreted quantitatively and qualitatively in terms of the network bonds and coordination numbers. Measurements of Tg across the Nd-doped glass series for different levels of Ti suggests changes in the rigidity of the matrix due to change of coordination of boron oxide resulting from the BO4-BO3 back conversion effect. The changes observed in the Raman and IR spectra are related to the BO3 → BO4 conversion effect. The variation of the Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω and Ω indicates that the average rare earth-ligand radius decreases establishing an electronic density distribution when Nd3+ concentration increases. This effect is interpreted in terms of Judd-Ofelt parameters and by the bonding parameter b due to Nephelauxetic effect.

  4. Effects of CaO/P2O5 ratio on the structure and elastic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioglasses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Chen, Shih-Fan; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of elastic properties and structure upon the change of CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio in SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5) glasses (45S5-derived and 55S4-derived) at ambient conditions has been studied by using both Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction. Under the same SiO(2)/Na(2)O ratio, it is found that a decrease in CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio has caused a more-polymerized silicate network via a net consumption of Q(0), Q(1), and Q(2) species yet enriching in Q(3) and Q(4) species. Brillouin experiments revealed that all the bulk, shear and Young's moduli of the glasses studied increases with the increase of CaO/P(2)O(5) molar ratio. The unexpected variation trend in shear modulus can be correlated to the contribution from cohesion, the less-polymerized phosphate Q species, and density. Compared to the 45S5-derived, the more-polymerized 55S4-deived glass has a lower bulk but slightly higher shear modulus at the given CaO/P(2)O(5) ratio.

  5. [Study on Shi Zhenduo's Ben cao bu (Supplemented materia medica)].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xueyan; Zheng, Jinsheng

    2002-10-01

    Being called "precursor of pharmacy imported from the west" by Fan Xingzhun, a famous medical historian, Ben cao bu was lost in China. It has been found outside China recently. This article deals with the author, blockprinting edition, contents of the book and makes a comparison with its texts cited in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplemented Compendium of Materia Medica). It also evaluates the practical significance of this book as an early dissemination of pharmacy imported from the west.

  6. Approche thermodynamique de la corrosion des refractaires aluminosiliceux par le bain cryolithique : modelisation thermodynamique du systeme quaternaire reciproque AlF3-NaF-SiF 4-Al2O3-Na2O-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambotte, Guillaume

    The main objective of this thesis is the thermodynamic modeling of liquid and solid solutions, the stoichiometric compounds and the gaseous phase of the chemical system which represent the species involved in the corrosion of the refractory lining of the electrolysis cell. This chemical system is the quaternary reciprocal system AlF3-NaF-SiF4-Al 2O3-Na2O-SiO2 with aluminum and carbon. The modeling of the entire reciprocal system has never been realized before and is very challenging due to the nature of the oxyfluoride solution. The thermodynamic modeling is based on Gibbs free energy functions coming from the theory of solutions. The central hypothesis of this project is that, if it is possible to reproduce the strong short-range ordering observed between the ions of the liquid solution, then reasonable results will be obtained for the phase equilibria involved in this chemical system. The thermodynamic model used in this thesis is the Modified Quasichemical Model in the Quadruplet Approximation (MQMQA) which takes into account the short-range ordering between first- and also second-nearest-neighbors, and is the best suited to model the oxyfluoride liquid solution. First, the reciprocal system with the most negative Gibbs free energy change for the exchange reaction between the end-members, NaF-SiF4-Na 2O-SiO2, was modeled, allowing thus the validation of the recent modifications of the MQMQA aimed at improving the modeling of the thermodynamic properties of reciprocal solutions presenting a strong short-range order among first-nearest neighbors as well as second-nearest neighbors. In order to model this system, an estimate of the thermodynamic properties of the hypothetical SiF4 liquid was necessary. The experimental data in the binary systems NaF-SiF4 and Na2O-SiO2 are reproduced within the experimental error limits. In the reciprocal system, a group of data in conflict with all others could not be reproduced. The data considered reliable are well reproduced. A

  7. Fluid compositions in equilibrium with silica-undersaturated magmas in the system Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O: clues to the composition of fenitizing fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Robin; Stevens, Gary; McCarthy, Terence

    2002-11-01

    Fenites result from alkali metasomatism of granitoid rocks associated with the intrusion of silica-undersaturated alkaline magmas, and are characterized by addition of alkalis, iron and magnesium, albitization, nephelinization, removal of silica and the formation of alkali pyroxenes and amphiboles. In an attempt to constrain the fluid compositions involved in this process, we have investigated the compositions of the fluids in equilibrium with a range silica-undersaturated alkaline magmas, in the model system Al2O3-Na2O-SiO2-H2O at 850 °C and 1 kbar. The starting compositions straddle the nepheline-albite join, and include both peralkaline and alkali-granitoid compositions. The quenched run products all contained a glass, representing the melt, as well as an aqueous fluid and a radial crystalline phase interpreted to be a fluid quench phase. Several of the glasses also contained albite, nepheline or quartz crystals. Fluid compositions in crystal-free experiments were calculated using a mass-balance approach that incorporated the composition of the glass, composition of starting materials and carefully determined masses of the different run product fractions, as well as that of the starting materials. Compositions plotting to the peralkaline side of the nepheline-albite join produced fluids that were highly enriched in dissolved solids (SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O, in the range 40-50 wt%). This substantial fractionation of the solid starting materials, between melt and fluid phase, results in reasonable resolution of the fluid compositions produced, despite significant uncertainties in the measured Na2O and H2O concentrations in the glasses. Model calculations indicate that the fluid compositions in equilibrium with the more SiO2 undersaturated melt compositions in this study are capable of converting a typical granodiorite to a nepheline syenite composition at fluid/rock ratios lower than 1:1. Albitization and the removal of quartz (in the form of soluble sodium

  8. Coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riza, Nabeel A.

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2001, we proposed and extensively demonstrated (using a DMD: Digital Micromirror Device) an agile pixel Spatial Light Modulator (SLM)-based optical imager based on single pixel photo-detection (also called a single pixel camera) that is suited for operations with both coherent and incoherent light across broad spectral bands. This imager design operates with the agile pixels programmed in a limited SNR operations starring time-multiplexed mode where acquisition of image irradiance (i.e., intensity) data is done one agile pixel at a time across the SLM plane where the incident image radiation is present. Motivated by modern day advances in RF wireless, optical wired communications and electronic signal processing technologies and using our prior-art SLM-based optical imager design, described using a surprisingly simple approach is a new imager design called Coded Access Optical Sensor (CAOS) that has the ability to alleviate some of the key prior imager fundamental limitations. The agile pixel in the CAOS imager can operate in different time-frequency coding modes like Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Data from a first CAOS camera demonstration is described along with novel designs of CAOS-based optical instruments for various applications.

  9. Investigating the surface reactivity of SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO bioceramics as a function of structure and incubation time in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Coughlan, A; Wren, Anthony W

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on evaluating the biocompatibility of a SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO glass and glass-ceramic series. Glass and ceramic samples were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction. Each material was subject to maturation in simulated body fluid over 1, 7 and 30 days to describe any changes in surface morphology. Calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition was observed predominantly on the Na(+) containing amorphous and crystalline materials, with plate-like morphology. The precipitated surface layer was also observed to crystallize with respect to maturation, which was most evident in the amorphous Na(+) containing glasses, Ly-N and Ly-C. The addition of Sr(2+) greatly reduced the solubility of all samples, with limited CaP precipitation on the amorphous samples and no deposition on the crystalline materials. The morphology of the samples was also different, presenting irregular plate-like structures (Ly-N), needle-like deposits (Ly-C) and globular-like structures (Ly-S). Cell culture analysis presented a significant increase in cell viability with the Na(+) materials, 134%, while the Sr(2+) containing glasses, 60-80% and ceramics, 60-85% presented a general reduction in cell viability, however these reductions were not significant.

  10. Investigating the influence of Na+ and Sr2+ on the structure and solubility of SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Placek, L M; Coughlan, A; Laffir, F R; Pradhan, D; Mellott, N P; Wren, A W

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence that network modifiers, sodium (Na+) and strontium (Sr2+), have on the solubility of a SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O/SrO bioactive glass. Glass characterization determined each composition had a similar structure, i.e. bridging to non-bridging oxygen ratio determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) confirmed structural similarities as each glass presented spectral shifts between -84 and -85 ppm. Differential thermal analysis and hardness testing revealed higher glass transition temperatures (Tg 591-760 °C) and hardness values (2.4-6.1 GPa) for the Sr2+ containing glasses. Additionally the Sr2+ (~250 mg/L) containing glasses displayed much lower ion release rates than the Na+ (~1,200 mg/L) containing glass analogues. With the reduction in ion release there was an associated reduction in solution pH. Cytotoxicity and cell adhesion studies were conducted using MC3T3 Osteoblasts. Each glass did not significantly reduce cell numbers and osteoblasts were found to adhere to each glass surface.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 containing BaO-Fe2O3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N.; Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S.; Pengpat, K.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe12O19-SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe12O19 was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na3Ca6(PO4)5 and Fe3O4 was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe12O19 phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body.

  12. Effect of pH values on surface modification and solubility of phosphate bioglass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xudong; Cai, Shu; Zhang, Wenjuang; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The bioactive glass-ceramics in the CaO-P 2O 5-Na 2O-SrO-ZnO system were synthesized by the sol-gel technique, and then chemically treated at different pH values to study the solubility and surface modification. Samples sintered at 650 °C for 4 h consisted of the crystalline phase β-Ca 2P 2O 7 and the glass matrix. After soaking in the solution at pH 1.0, the residual glass matrix on the surface appeared entirely dissolved and no new phase could be detected. Whereas at pH 3.0, web-like layer exhibiting peaks corresponding to CaP 2O 6 was formed and covered the entire surface of the sample. When conducted at pH 10.0, only part of the glass matrix was dissolved and a new phase Ca 4P 6O 19 was precipitated, forming the petaline layer. The chemical treatment can easily change the surface morphologies and phase composition of this bioactive glass-ceramics. The higher level of surface roughness resulting from the new-formed layer would improve the interface bonding and benefit for cell adhesion.

  13. Scattering Effect of Iron Metallic Particles on the Extinction Coefficient of CaO-SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-Fe2O3-CaF2 Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dae-Woo; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-10-01

    The extinction coefficient of the CaO-SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-Fe2O3-CaF2 glasses has been studied using a FT-IR and a UV-visible spectrometer in the range of 0.5-5 μm to investigate thermal radiation through glassy flux film during continuous casting of steels. In present investigations, iron oxide has been reduced to metallic iron droplets by reaction with graphite crucible during melting, which brings considerable increase of the extinction coefficient due to the scattering. To analyze the scattering effect of these droplets on the extinction coefficient, the number density and size parameter of metallic particles have been measured using an automated scanning electron microscope. The number of metallic particles is intensively proportional to boron contents due to the transition of molar structure, BO4 to BO3, with increasing boron oxide. It is found that calculated scattering coefficients based on Mie scattering theory are in good agreement with measured ones. As the increased scattering coefficient of glassy film would not cause any serious side effects on casting operations, utilization of scattering effects is believed to be significantly essential for the future design of commercial mold fluxes.

  14. Investigating the effect of SiO2-TiO 2-CaO-Na 2O-ZnO bioactive glass doped hydroxyapatite: characterisation and structural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yatongchai, Chokchai; Wren, Anthony W; Curran, Declan J; Hampshire, Stuart; Towler, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    The effects of increasing bioactive glass additions, SiO2-TiO2-CaO-Na2O-ZnO up to 25 wt% in increments of 5 wt%, on the physical and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C for 2 h was investigated. Increasing both the glass content and the temperature resulted in increased HA decomposition. This resulted in the formation of a number of bioactive phases. However the presence of the liquidus glass phase did not result in increased densification levels. At 1000 and 1100 °C the additions of 5 wt% glass resulted in a decrease in density which never recovered with increasing glass content. At 1200 °C a cyclic pattern resulted from increasing glass content. There was no direct relationship between strength and density with all samples experiencing no change or a decrease in strength with increasing glass content. Weibull statistics displayed no pattern with increasing glass content.

  15. Intense 2.7 µm emission and structural origin in Er3+-doped bismuthate (Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3-Na2O) glass.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanyan; Li, Ming; Hu, Lili; Zhang, Junjie

    2012-01-15

    The 2.7 μm emission properties in Er3+-doped bismuthate (Bi2O3-GeO2-Ga2O3-Na2O) glass were investigated in the present Letter. An intense 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuthate glass was observed. It is found that Er3+-doped bismuthate glass possesses high spontaneous transition probability A (65.26 s(-1)) and large 2.7 μm emission cross section σ(em) (9.53×10(-21) cm2) corresponding to the stimulated emission of Er3+:4I11/2→4I13/2 transition. The emission characteristic and energy transfer process upon excitation of a conventional 980 nm laser diode in bismuthate glass were analyzed. Additionally, the structure of bismuthate glass was analyzed by the Raman spectrum. The advantageous spectroscopic characteristics of Er3+ single-doped bismuthate glass together with the prominent thermal property indicate that bismuthate glass might become an attractive host for developing solid-state lasers around 2.7 μm.

  16. Structure vs. composition: A solid-state 1H and 29Si NMR study of quenched glasses along the Na 2O-SiO 2-H 2O join

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, George D.; Mysen, Bjorn O.; Lee, Sung Keun

    2005-05-01

    A suite of six hydrous (7 wt.% H 2O) sodium silicate glasses spanning sodium octasilicate to sodium disilicate in composition were analyzed using 29Si single pulse (SP) magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR, and fast MAS 1H-NMR. From the 29Si SPMAS data it is observed that at low sodium compositions dissolved water significantly depolymerizes the silicate network. At higher sodium contents, however, dissolved H 2O does not affect a significant increase in depolymerization over that predicted based on the Na/Si ratio alone. The fast MAS 1H-NMR data reveal considerable complexity in proton environments in each of the glasses studied. The fast MAS 1H-NMR spectra of the highest sodium concentration glasses do not exhibit evidence of signficantly greater fractions of dissolved water as molecular H 2O than the lower sodium concentration glasses requiring that the decrease in polymerization at high sodium contents involves a change in sodium solution mechanism. Variable contact time 1H- 29Si cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR data reveal an increase in the rotating frame spin lattice relaxation rate constant ( T1ρ*) for various Q n species with increasing sodium content that correlates with a reduction in the average 1H- 29Si coupling strength. At the highest sodium concentration, however, T1ρ* drops significantly, consistent with a change in the Na 2O solution mechanism.

  17. In vitro evaluation of bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2-ZnO glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Bashir, Farooq; Hossain, Tousif; Kayani, Zohra

    2014-09-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element that stimulates bone formation but it is also known as an inhibitor of apatite crystal growth. In this work addition of ZnO to SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 glass-ceramic system was made by conventional melt-quenching technique. DSC curves showed that the addition of ZnO moved the endothermic and exothermic peaks to lower temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis did not reveal any additional phase caused by ZnO addition and showed the presence of wollastonite and hydroxyapatite crystalline phases only in all the glass-ceramic samples. As bio-implant apatite forming ability is an essential condition, the surface reactivity of the prepared glass-ceramic specimens was studied in vitro in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) [1] with ion concentration nearly equal to human blood plasma for 30 days at 37 °C under static condition. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to study the changes in element concentrations in soaking solutions and XRD, FT-IR and SEM were used to elucidate surface properties of prepared glass-ceramics, which confirmed the formation of HCAp on the surface of all glass-ceramics. It was found that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on bioactivity of glass-ceramics and made it a potential candidate for restoration of damaged bones.

  18. Studies on some ternary oxyborates of the Na 2O- Me2O 3-B 2O 3 ( Me=rare earth or aluminum) systems: Synthesis, structure and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshev, P.; Pechev, S.; Nikolov, V.; Gravereau, P.; Chaminade, J.-P.; Binev, D.; Ivanova, D.

    2006-09-01

    Sodium rare-earth oxyborates Na 2RE2O(BO 3) 2 ( RE=Y, Nd, Er) were prepared for the first time in the present study. They were found to be isostructural with phases of the same composition containing Sm, Eu or Gd and reported by Corbel et al. [J. Solid State Chem.144 (1999) 35-44]. It was shown that the yttrium and erbium compounds could be synthesized at 900-1000 °C by a solid-state reaction between oxides in an equimolecular ratio. With both oxyborates melting led to decomposition into a mixture of Y(Er)BO 3, Y 2(Er 2)O 3 and Na 2B 4O 7. Just the opposite was observed during thermal treatment of the oxide mixture containing Nd 2O 3, from which a practically pure phase of Na 2Nd 2O(BO 3) 2 was only obtained after melting. The attempts to synthesize the oxyborate Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2 showed it to be unstable, this leading to the formation of a mixture containing, in addition to Na 2La 2O(BO 3) 2, also other already known stable phases of the system Na 2O-La 2O 3-B 2O 3 along with an unknown ternary oxide phase. This phase was found to represent a new oxyborate of sodium and lanthanum with the formula Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8, whose single crystals were obtained by flux growth. It was established that synthesis of a polycrystalline material with the same composition was also possible using solid-state interaction between Na 2CO 3, La 2O 3 and H 3BO 3 at 1000-1100 °C. X-ray diffraction experiments on single crystals were used to solve the structure of Na 3La 9O 3(BO 3) 8. The unit cell was found to be hexagonal, space group P62 m (No. 189) with Z=1. The compound can be regarded as the forefather of a second group of oxyborates representing a new family of isostructural compounds, Na 3RE9O 3(BO 3) 8. Such phases were obtained with RE=Nd, Sm and Eu whereas with RE=Y and Gd, the synthesis experiments failed. The concentration and temperature regions of crystallization of the double-oxyborate Na 2Al 2O(BO 3) 2 in the ternary system Na 2O-Al 2O 3-B 2O 3 were determined. This

  19. Physical and spectroscopic properties of multi-component Na2O-PbO-Bi2O3-SiO2 glass ceramics with Cr2O3 as nucleating agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasiva Rao, M. V.; Rajyasree, Ch.; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Suneel Kumar, A.; Veeraiah, N.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2015-09-01

    Transparent glass ceramics, synthesized from melt quenching followed by heat treatment, of the composition 10Na2O-30PbO-10Bi2O3-(50 - x)SiO2:xCr2O3 (mol%), where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5, were characterized with XRD, DTA, SEM and EDS. Physical and spectroscopic studies, viz., optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), FTIR and Raman were investigated. The characterization of the host glass ceramic has revealed that the formation of a major phase of sodium silicate along with two minor phases such as lead silicate and bismuth oxide. By integrating Cr2O3 to the host glass additional crystal phases viz., NaCrO2, Na2Cr2O7 and Pb(CrO4) which are the complexes of Cr3+ and Cr6+ ions were also developed. As the concentration of nucleating agent is increased, a part of the Cr6+ ions is found to reduce in to Cr3+ ions. Spectroscopic studies have revealed that with an increase in the concentration of Cr2O3 from 0.1 to 0.5 mol%, there is a gradual increase in the intensity of vibrational modes of various asymmetric structural units of silicate, bismuthate and chromate in the glass ceramic network at the expense of symmetrical structural units. The analysis of the results of these studies has indicated that in the samples containing higher concentration of Cr2O3, chromium ions exists predominantly in Cr3+ state and occupy the octahedral positions in glass ceramic matrix and such glass ceramic samples are suitable for lasing action.

  20. Crystallization of MgFe2O4 from a glass in the system K2O/B2O3/MgO/P2O5/Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shabrawy, Samha; Bocker, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Spherical magnetic Mg-Fe-O nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the crystallization of glass in the system K2O/B2O3/MgO/P2O5/Fe2O3. The magnetic glass ceramics were prepared by melting the raw materials using the conventional melt quenching technique followed by a thermal treatment at temperatures in the range 560-700 °C for a time ranging from 2 to 8 h. The studies of the X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and FTIR spectra confirmed the precipitation of finely dispersed spherical (Mg, Fe) based spinel nanoparticles with a minor quantity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) in the glass matrix. The average size of the magnetic nano crystals increases slightly with temperature and time from 9 to 15 nm as determined by the line broadening from the XRD patterns. XRD studies show that annealing the glass samples for long periods of time at temperature ≥604 °C results in an increase of the precipitated hematite concentration, dissolution of the spinel phase and the formation of magnesium di-borate phase (Mg2B2O5). For electron microscopy, the particles were extracted by two methods; (i) replica extraction technique and (ii) dissolution of the glass matrix by diluted acetic acid. An agglomeration of the nano crystals to larger particles (25-35 nm) was observed.

  1. Mössbauer study and magnetic properties of MgFe2O4 crystallized from the glass system B2O3/K2O/P2O5/MgO/Fe2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrawy, S. El; Bocker, C.; Miglierini, M.; Schaaf, P.; Tzankov, D.; Georgieva, M.; Harizanova, R.; Rüssel, C.

    2017-01-01

    An iron containing magnesium borate glass with the mol% composition 51.7 B2O3/9.3 K2O /1 P2O5/27.6MgO/10.4Fe2O3was prepared by the conventional melts quenching method followed by a thermal treatment process at temperatures in the range from 530 to 604 °C.The thermally treated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that superparamagnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles were formed during thermal treatment. The size of the spinel type crystals was in the range from 6 to 15 nm. Mössbauer spectra of the powdered glass ceramic samples and the extracted nanoparticles after dissolving the glass matrix in diluted acid were recorded at room temperature. The deconvolution of the spectra revealed the crystallization of two spinel phases MgFe2O4 (as a dominant phase) and superparamagnetic maghemite, γ-Fe2O3 (as a secondary phase). Room temperature magnetic measurements showed that, increasing the crystallization temperature changed the superparamagnetic behavior of the samples to ferrimagnetic behavior. The Curie temperatures of the samples were measured and showed a higher value than that of the pure bulk MgFe2O4.

  2. The Oxygenase CAO-1 of Neurospora crassa Is a Resveratrol Cleavage Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Violeta; F. Estrada, Alejandro; Limón, M. Carmen; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    The genome of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa encodes CAO-1 and CAO-2, two members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family that target double bonds in different substrates. Previous studies demonstrated the role of CAO-2 in cleaving the C40 carotene torulene, a key step in the synthesis of the C35 apocarotenoid pigment neurosporaxanthin. In this work, we investigated the activity of CAO-1, assuming that it may provide retinal, the chromophore of the NOP-1 rhodopsin, by cleaving β-carotene. For this purpose, we tested CAO-1 activity with carotenoid substrates that were, however, not converted. In contrast and consistent with its sequence similarity to family members that act on stilbenes, CAO-1 cleaved the interphenyl Cα-Cβ double bond of resveratrol and its derivative piceatannol. CAO-1 did not convert five other similar stilbenes, indicating a requirement for a minimal number of unmodified hydroxyl groups in the stilbene background. Confirming its biological function in converting stilbenes, adding resveratrol led to a pronounced increase in cao-1 mRNA levels, while light, a key regulator of carotenoid metabolism, did not alter them. Targeted Δcao-1 mutants were not impaired by the presence of resveratrol, a phytoalexin active against different fungi, which did not significantly affect the growth and development of wild-type Neurospora. However, under partial sorbose toxicity, the Δcao-1 colonies exhibited faster radial growth than control strains in the presence of resveratrol, suggesting a moderate toxic effect of resveratrol cleavage products. PMID:23893079

  3. The 1.53 μm spectroscopic properties and thermal stability in Er3+/Ce3+ codoped TeO2-WO3-Na2O-Nb2O5 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shichao; Zhou, Yaxun; Yin, Dandan; Xu, Xingchen; Qi, Yawei; Peng, Shengxi

    2013-05-01

    Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite-based glasses with composition of TeO2-WO3-Na2O-Nb2O5 were prepared by high-temperature melt-quenching technique and a detailed study of the 1.53 μm band spectroscopic properties and thermal stability was presented in this paper. The absorption spectra, visible upconversion spectra, 1.53 μm band fluorescence spectra, fluorescence lifetimes, Raman spectra, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) curves of glass samples were measured and investigated, together with the quantitative calculations and analyses of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, stimulated emission and absorption cross-sections, amplification quality factors, energy transfer rates and quantum transition efficiencies. It was found that the prepared glass samples have good thermal stability (Tg>425 °C), large Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter (Ω6>0.80×10-20 cm2) and bandwidth quality factor (σep×FWHM>360×10-21 cm2 nm) of Er3+. With the increasing of Ce3+ doped concentration, the visible upconversion emission decreased while the 1.53 μm band fluorescence intensity improved significantly due to the enhanced energy transfer of Er3+:4I11/2+Ce3+:2F5/2→Er3+:4I13/2+Ce3+:2F7/2 owing to the moderate phonon energy (˜930 cm-1) of glass host, which was beneficial in compensating for the existing energy mismatch between the Er3+:4I11/2→4I13/2 emission and Ce3+:2F5/2→2F7/2 absorption transitions. Compared with the Er3+ single-doped case, the 1.53 μm band fluorescence intensity in Er3+/Ce3+ codoped glass sample could increase by about 30%. The results indicate that the prepared tellurite-based glass with a suitable Er3+/Ce3+ codoping concentration is an excellent gain medium applied for broadband EDFA pumped with a 980 nm laser diode.

  4. Silicate speciation in H2O-Na2O-SiO2 fluids from 3 to 40 mol% SiO2, to 600 °C and 2 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The silicate speciation in H2O-Na2O-SiO2 fluids was studied in situ up to 600 °C and 2.0 GPa using Raman spectroscopy and a Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell. Fluid compositions ranged from 3 to 40 mol% SiO2, with various Na/Si ratios. The main trends observed in Raman spectra of fluids with increasing SiO2 concentration include (1) decrease in the intensity of the ∼770 cm-1 band (monomer, Q0, symmetric stretch); (2) increase in the intensity of the ∼1050 cm-1 band (bridging oxygen Si-O-Si antisymmetric stretch) and the bands at ∼450-600 cm-1 (bridging oxygen Si-O-Si bending modes); and (3) increase in spectral contributions at ∼800-1000 cm-1 from stretching vibrations of Q1, Q2 and Q3 species. These trends are interpreted to represent decrease in the proportion of Q0 monomers, and increase in the proportions of Q1 and Q2 (±Q3) species, with increasing silicate concentration in the fluid up to 40 mol% SiO2. Raman spectra in the range of tetrahedral Si-O stretching vibrations (700-1200 cm-1) exhibit little discernable difference with changing Na/Si ratio, when compared at constant molar concentration of SiO2. Particularly at lower Na/Si ratio, increasing silicate concentration also results in increasing relative intensity of the Raman signal of O-H stretching vibrations at about 3300 cm-1, suggesting increased intermolecular hydrogen bonding between H2O molecules and/or oxygen atoms belonging to silicate species. These results suggest that silicate in hydrous fluids in the deep Earth remains occurs predominately as partly polymerized, Q1 and Q2 species up to high silicate concentrations, providing an opportune medium for mobilizing high field-strength and other elements in the lithosphere.

  5. Understanding Structural Properties of Carbonate-Silicate Melts: An EXAFS Study on Y and Sr in the System Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlenz, J.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Belin, S.; Shiryaev, A.; Safonov, O.; Murzin, V.; Shablinskaya, K.; Irifune, T.; Wilke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonatite volcanism generally occurs in intra-plate settings associated with continental rifting. The only active carbonatitic volcano is the Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which generates sodium-rich carbonatites in close association with phonolites and nephelinites1. The processes of carbonatite genesis are still unresolved, however carbonate-bearing melts evidently play a crucial role during mantle melting, in diamond formation and as metasomatic agents. Carbonate melts show extraordinary properties, especially in regard to their low melt viscosities and densities, high surface tensions and electrical conductivities as well as distinct geochemical affinities to a wide range of trace elements2. Understanding the structural properties of carbonate-bearing melts is fundamental to explaining their chemical and physical behaviour as well as modeling processes operating in the deep Earth. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is a versatile tool for element specific investigation of the short to medium range structure of melts and glasses. This study focuses on unraveling the influence of carbonate concentration on the structural incorporation of the geochemically important trace elements Y and Sr in silicate and carbonate melts in the system Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2. First, we present structural data of silicate glasses with up to 10 wt% CO2, quenched from melts under high temperature and pressure, which indicate that the local structure of Y and Sr is not or only slightly affected by CO2. Melts with higher CO2 contents could not be quenched to glass, so far. Second, we show results of high pressure, high temperature experiments conducted in the Paris Edinburgh-Press, which provides in-situ insight into carbonate-silicate melts. All EXAFS measurements were performed at the synchrotron facility beamlines SAMBA (SOLEIL) and BM23 (ESRF). Information derived from the trace elements' local structure is used to develop a structural model for carbonate

  6. Caos en sistemas clásico-cuánticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirani, L. D.; Núñez, J. A.

    Una de las formas de estudiar la existencia de caos en el comportamiento de un sistema clásico-cuántico, es truncando el espacio de Hilbert del sistema cuántico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar como afecta dicho truncamiento en la dinámica del sistema. Para tal fin se propone un Hamiltoniano integrable, cuyos valores de expectación asociados a coordenadas y momentos cuánticos responden, por el teorema de Ehrenfest, a un sistema de dos osciladores clásicos con acoplamiento lineal.

  7. Optical and dielectric properties of isothermally crystallized nano-KNbO3 in Er3+-doped K2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 glasses.

    PubMed

    Chaliha, Reenamoni Saikia; Annapurna, K; Tarafder, Anal; Tiwari, V S; Gupta, P K; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2010-01-01

    Precursor glass of composition 25K(2)O-25Nb(2)O(5)-50SiO(2) (mol%) doped with Er(2)O(3) (0.5 wt% in excess) was isothermally crystallized at 800 degrees C for 0-100 h to obtain transparent KNbO(3) nanostructured glass-ceramics. XRD, FESEM, TEM, FTIRRS, dielectric constant, refractive index, absorption and fluorescence measurements were carried out to analyze the morphology, dielectric, structure and optical properties of the glass-ceramics. The crystallite size of KNbO(3) estimated from XRD and TEM is found to vary in the range 7-23 nm. A steep rise in the dielectric constant of glass-ceramics with heat-treatment time reveals the formation of ferroelectric nanocrystalline KNbO(3) phase. The measured visible photoluminescence spectra have exhibited green emission transitions of (2)H(11/2), (4)S(3/2)-->(4)I(15/2) upon excitation at 377 nm ((4)I(15/2)-->(4)G(11/2)) absorption band of Er(3+) ions. The near infrared (NIR) emission transition (4)I(13/2)-->(4)I(15/2) is detected around 1550 nm on excitation at 980 nm ((4)I(15/2)-->(4)I(11/2)) of absorption bands of Er(3+) ions. It is observed that photoluminescent intensity at 526 nm ((2)H(11/2)-->(4)I(15/2)), 550 nm ((4)S(3/2)-->(4)I(15/2)) and 1550 nm ((4)I(13/2)-->(4)I(15/2)) initially decrease and then gradually increase with increase in heat-treatment time. The measured lifetime (tau(f)) of the (4)I(13/2)-->(4)I(15/2) transition also possesses a similar trend. The measured absorption and fluorescence spectra reveal that the Er(3+) ions gradually enter into the KNbO(3) nanocrystals.

  8. Phase equilibria in the system K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2 and the stability limit of stilpnomelane in metamorphosed Precambrian iron-formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Takashi; Klein, Cornelis

    1989-08-01

    The phase relations of Al- and Fe-bearing silicates in the system K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2, in the presence of quartz and magnetite, are discussed on the basis of mineralogic and petrologic data from Precambrian iron-formations and blueschist facies meta-ironstone from the Franciscan Formation, California. These relations allow an estimation of the physiochemical conditions during low-grade metamorphism of iron-formations. Petrologic data together with available experimental and predicted thermodynamic data on the associated minerals place the upper stability limit of stilpnomelane in iron-formations at about 430 470° C and 5 6 kilobars. Fe-end member stilpnomelane can persist to a maximum temperature of 500° C and pressures up to 6 7 kilobars, although it is unlikely to occur in metamorphosed iron-formations. In iron-formation occurrences the stilpnomelane stability field is bordered by four equilibrium reactions with the assemblages stilpnomelane-zussmanite-chlorite-minnesotaite, stilpnomelane-zussmanite-chlorite-grunerite, stilpnomelane-biotite-chlorite-grunerite, and stilpnomelane-biotite-almandine-grunerite. The stability field is reduced by increasing X(CO2) and X {Mg/Stil}, and is also a function of a( K +)/ a( H +) in the metamorphic fluid. If the value of a( K +)/ a( H +) is smaller than that defined by the above assemblages, stilpnomelane decomposes to chlorite, but if larger, it is replaced by biotite. At pressures less than 4 kilobars, the zussmanite field is restricted to a very high value of a( K +)/a( H +) (> 5.0 in log units at 1.0 kilobar) where iron-formation assemblages are not stable.

  9. Effect of Bi2O3 addition on electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, and conductivity in vanadyl-doped Li2O-K2O-Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses.

    PubMed

    Subhadra, M; Kistaiah, P

    2011-02-17

    Glasses with composition 15Li(2)O-15K(2)O-xBi(2)O(3)-(65 - x)-B(2)O(3)/5V(2)O(5) (3 ≤ x ≤ 15) have been prepared by the conventional melt quench technique. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of VO(2+) in these glasses have been recorded in the X-band frequency (≈9.3 GHz) at room temperature. The spin Hamiltonian parameters and covalency rates were evaluated. It was found that the V(4+) ions exist as vanadyl (VO(2+)) ions and are in an octahedral coordination with a tetragonal compression. The covalency rates (1 - α(2)) and (1 - γ(2)) indicate moderate covalency for the σ- and π-bonds. It was observed that the spin-Hamiltonian parameters depend slightly on the relative concentration of Bi(2)O(3). The optical properties of this glass system are studied from the optical absorption spectra recorded in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. The fundamental absorption edge has been identified from the optical absorption spectra. The values of optical band gap for indirect allowed transitions have been determined using available theories. The direct current electrical conductivity, σ, has been measured in the temperature range 373-573 K. The conductivity decreases with the increase in Bi(2)O(3) concentration. This has been discussed in terms of the decrease in the number of mobile ions and their mobility. An attempt is made to correlate the EPR, optical, and electrical results and to find the effect of Bi(2)O(3) content on these parameters.

  10. The software package CAOS 7.0: enhanced numerical modelling of astronomical adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, Marcel; La Camera, Andrea; Folcher, Jean-Pierre; Perruchon-Monge, Ulysse; Sy, Adama

    2016-07-01

    The Software Package CAOS (acronym for Code for Adaptive Optics Systems) is a modular scientific package performing end-to-end numerical modelling of astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems. It is IDL-based and developed within the eponymous CAOS Problem-Solving Environment, recently completely re-organized. In this paper we present version 7.0 of the Software Package CAOS, containing a number of enhancements and new modules, in particular for wide-field AO systems modelling.

  11. Development of electrically insulating CaO coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Uz, M.; Rink, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    A systematic study has been initiated to develop electrically insulating CaO coatings by vapor phase transport and by in-situ formation in a liquid Li environment. Several experiments were conducted in vapor transport studies with variations in process temperature, time, specimen location, specimen surface preparation, and pretreatment. Several of the coatings obtained by the method exhibited Ca concentration in the range of 60--95 wt.% on the surface. However, coating thickness has not been very uniform among several samples exposed in the same run or even within the same sample. The coatings developed in these early tests degraded after 24 h exposure to Li at 500 C. Additional experiments are underway to develop better-adhering and more dense coatings by this method. A program to develop in-situ CaO coatings in Li has been initiated, and the first set of capsule tests at 800 C in three different Li-Ca mixtures will be completed in early July. Specimens included in the run are bare V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, specimens with a grit-blasted surface and O-precharged in 99.999% Ar, polished specimens precharged in a 99.999% Ar and 5000 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixture, and prealuminized V-5Cr-5Ti alloy preoxidized in a 5000 ppm O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixture. Additional experiments at lower temperatures are planned.

  12. Mammalian Cu-containing amine oxidases (CAOs): new methods of analysis, structural relationships, and possible functions.

    PubMed

    Houen, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes new and original experimental results on Cu-dependent amine oxidases (CAOs), which show that these enzymes can be conveniently and specifically detected in situ using a peroxidase-coupled activity staining method with 4-Cl-1-naphtole as hydrogen donor substrate. Even more sensitive in situ detection can be achieved using a chemiluminescence-based coupled peroxidase assay which was applied to show that human placenta CAO activity is confined to maternal vessels. A general purification scheme for CAOs is described, and applied to purification of different CAOs. Peptide maps and immunological crossreactivity studies with monoclonal antibodies raised against the purified enzymes showed that they were closely related. Amino acid sequence data for the bovine serum CAO showed that they form a separate group (E.C. 1.4.3.6) with no homology to other enzymes. A cDNA sequence was obtained on the basis of the amino acid sequence data, and this was found to encode a bovine lung CAO, related to bovine serum CAO. The genes for bovine lung and bovine serum CAO are characterized, and Southern blotting analysis of bovine chromosomal DNA shows the existence of a least one more bovine CAO. The purification of human neutrophil CAO is attempted, but it is described how lactoferrin, a protein with many properties in common with CAOs, and with a low degree of sequence identity can account for many observations on human neutrophil CAO. The products of bovine serum CAO oxidation of polyamines are characterised, and 3-aminopropanal is found to be the principal aminoaldehyde produced. Finally, a polyamine-stimulated binding of human placenta CAO to single-stranded DNA is described, and it is reported that the DNA-bound CAO is enzymically active and that the oxidation of DNA-bound polyamines leads to degradation of DNA. In addition to the experimental results, the properties of polyamines and Cu-dependent amine oxidases are reviewed. The polyamines spermidine and spermine

  13. 12Cao-7Al2o3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al.sub.2O.sub.3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  14. Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Merzlyakov, D. A.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2016-09-01

    Spectra of 11 optical functions of CaO in the ranges 6.5-7.2 eV at 2 K and 0-60 eV at 77 K were determined. A total of 14 maxima and shoulders of excitons and interband transitions were found including two distinct exciton structures at 6.9 and 11.4 eV and volume and surface plasmon maxima at ~38.3 and 33.2 eV, respectively. Their principal features and general trends were established. Variable formation efficiencies of spectra of the dielectric permittivity and characteristic electron-energy losses in different spectral ranges were analyzed. The calculations used known experimental reflectance spectra and computer programs based on the Kramers-Kronig correlations and analytical formulae for the relationship between optical functions.

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  16. Viscosity of many-component glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of composition on the viscosity of multicomponent glasses was expressed as a function of temperature and composition for three composition regions containing various subsets of Al2O3, B2O3, Bi2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, F, Fe2O3, K2O, Li2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, NiO, P2O5, SiO2, UO2, and ZrO2. Limits of applicability of the composition models are discussed.

  17. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  18. [Discussion on Tang edition (TE) and notes of the Tang edition (NT) under the "ink cap" in Zheng lei ben cao (Classified materia medica)].

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhijun

    2002-04-01

    The TE and NT cited under ink cap in Zheng lei ben cao (Classified Materia Medica) cannot be found in the contents and fragmentary volumes of Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica), yet can be seen in the "annotations of Shu ben cao (Materia Medica of Sichuan)", cited by Zhang Yuxi. This showed that the TE and NT were, in fact, coming from Shu ben cao, whose old name was Chong guang ying gong ben cao (Augmented Yinggong's Materia Medica). The so - called Yinggong was Li Ji, who compiled Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty) by the imperial order, and gained the title Master Yingguogong, hence the title. Chong guang ying gong ben cao was meant revised Tang ben cao. This was the reason why Tang Shenwei called Shu ben cao as Tang ben cao right away in his Zheng lei ben cao.

  19. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    PubMed Central

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  20. [Investigation on bookstore block-printed editions of Zheng He Ben Cao in Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Fei

    2011-05-01

    Many editions of Zheng He Ben Cao was published in Ming Dynasty. The bookstore block-printed editions recorded are Liu's Rixintang Edition in Zhengde year 14 (1519 AD), Yangxianchun Gui Renzai Edition and Jinling Tang's Fuchuntang Edition in Wanli year 6 (1578 AD). Rixintang Edition took Chenghua year 4 (1478 AD) Edition as source text and inherited the mistakes too. Guirenzai Version took Rixintang Version as source text, thereafter, Fuchuntang version took Guirenzai Version. Errors, missing, rough collation handed down from one version to another, thus in Fuchuntang Version, mistakes jumped out on each page. In order to attract more buyers, the bookstores erase the name Chong Xiu Zheng He Jing Shi Zheng Lei Bei Yong Ben Cao and change the name to Da Guan Ben Cao Gang Mu Quan Shu or Da Guan Ben Cao.

  1. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    PubMed

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan.

  2. [Investigation on supplements from Tang Edition (TE) cited in Jia You ben cao (Materia medica of Jia You reign)].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shun

    2004-01-01

    Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica), also called Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty) is the first state pharmacopoeia in the world, the original edition of which was lost yet cited by various books. After analyzing the TE in Jia You ben cao (Materia Medica of Jia You Reign) supplemantarily cited by Zhang Yuxi in the Song Dynasty, the author holds that Zhang himself didn't witness Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and the so-called TE ought to be derived from Shu ben cao (Materia Medica of Sichuan) because both share the same features. Inference can also be drawn that Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) might have been lost at the time when Jia You ben cao (Materia Medica of Jia You Reign) was compiled in the 2nd year of Jia You Reign (A.D.1057). As the TE was not directly extracted from Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica), the trustworthiness of the texts allegedly cited from Xin xiu ben cao should be evaluated in many ways and it should be dealt with prudently while recompiling Xin xiu ben cao (Newly Revised Materia Medica).

  3. CAOS: the nested catchment soil-vegetation-atmosphere observation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Most catchment based observations linking hydrometeorology, ecohydrology, soil hydrology and hydrogeology are typically not integrated with each other and lack a consistent and appropriate spatial-temporal resolution. Within the research network CAOS (Catchments As Organized Systems), we have initiated and developed a novel and integrated observation platform in several catchments in Luxembourg. In 20 nested catchments covering three distinct geologies the subscale processes at the bedrock-soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface are being monitored at 46 sensor cluster locations. Each sensor cluster is designed to observe a variety of different fluxes and state variables above and below ground, in the saturated and unsaturated zone. The numbers of sensors are chosen to capture the spatial variability as well the average dynamics. At each of these sensor clusters three soil moisture profiles with sensors at different depths, four soil temperature profiles as well as matric potential, air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, rainfall/throughfall, sapflow and shallow groundwater and stream water levels are measured continuously. In addition, most sensors also measure temperature (water, soil, atmosphere) and electrical conductivity. This setup allows us to determine the local water and energy balance at each of these sites. The discharge gauging sites in the nested catchments are also equipped with automatic water samplers to monitor water quality and water stable isotopes continuously. Furthermore, water temperature and electrical conductivity observations are extended to over 120 locations distributed across the entire stream network to capture the energy exchange between the groundwater, stream water and atmosphere. The measurements at the sensor clusters are complemented by hydrometeorological observations (rain radar, network of distrometers and dense network of precipitation gauges) and linked with high resolution meteorological models. In this

  4. Combined effects of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning on sewage sludge thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng; Hu, Hongyun; Zhang, Qiang; Wu, Zhenyu; Yang, Jiakuan; Yao, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Joint application of Fenton's reagent and CaO can dramatically enhance sludge dewaterability, thus are also likely to affect subsequent thermal drying process. This study investigated the synergistic effects of the two conditioners on the thermal drying behavior of sewage sludge and the emission characteristics of main sulfur-/nitrogen-containing gases. According to the results, Fenton peroxidation combined with CaO conditioning efficiently promoted sludge heat transfer, reduced the amounts of both free and bound water, and created porous structure in solids to provide evaporation channels, thus producing significant positive effects on sludge drying performance. In this case, the required time for drying was shortened to one-third. Additionally, joint usage of Fenton's reagent and CaO did not increase the losses of organic matter during sludge drying process. Meanwhile, they facilitated the formation of sulfate and sulfonic acid/sulfone, leading to sulfur retention in dried sludge. Both of Fenton peroxidation and CaO conditioning promoted the oxidation, decomposition, and/or dissolution of protein and inorganic nitrogen in sludge pre-treatment. As a consequence, the emissions of sulfurous and nitrogenous gases from dewatered sludge drying were greatly suppressed. These indicate that combining Fenton peroxidation with CaO conditioning is a promising strategy to improve drying efficiency of sewage sludge and to control sulfur and nitrogen contaminants during sludge thermal drying process.

  5. Effect of sulfation on the surface activity of CaO for N2O decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingnan; Hu, Xiaoying; Qin, Wu; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2015-12-01

    Limestone addition to circulating fluidized bed boilers for sulfur removal affects nitrous oxide (N2O) emission at the same time, but mechanism of how sulfation process influences the surface activity of CaO for N2O decomposition remains unclear. In this paper, we investigated the effect of sulfation on the surface properties and catalytic activity of CaO for N2O decomposition using density functional theory calculations. Sulfation of CaO (1 0 0) surface by the adsorption of a single gaseous SO2 or SO3 molecule forms stable local CaSO3 or CaSO4 on the CaO (1 0 0) surface with strong hybridization between the S atom of SOx and the surface O anion. The formed local CaSO3 increases the barrier energy of N2O decomposition from 0.989 eV (on the CaO (1 0 0) surface) to 1.340 eV, and further sulfation into local CaSO4 remarkably increases the barrier energy to 2.967 eV. Sulfation from CaSO3 into CaSO4 is therefore the crucial step for deactivating the surface activity for N2O decomposition. Completely sulfated CaSO4 (0 0 1) and (0 1 0) surfaces further validate the negligible catalytic ability of CaSO4 for N2O decomposition.

  6. Zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic and geochemical constraints on the origin of the paragneisses from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Houxiang; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhu, Xiyan; Santosh, M.; Hong, Tao; Ge, Songsheng

    2016-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary rocks are important tracers to understand the evolution of the continental crust. Whole-rock major and trace element data, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic data for the paragneisses from the Jiaobei terrane are presented in this study in order to constrain their protoliths, provenance and tectonic setting. The paragneisses are characterized by enrichment in Al2O3 and TiO2, negative DF (DF = 10.44 - 0.21SiO2 - 0.32Fe2O3T - 0.98MgO + 0.55CaO + 1.46Na2O + 0.54K2O) values and the presence of aluminum-rich metamorphic minerals (e.g., garnet and sillimanite). Together with the mineral assemblages and zircon features, it can be inferred that the protoliths of these rocks are of sedimentary origin. The K-A (A = Al2O3/(Al2O3 + CaO + Na2O + K2O), K = K2O/(Na2O + K2O)) and log(Fe2O3/K2O)-log(SiO2/Al2O3) diagrams indicate that they belong principally to clay-silty rocks with some contributions from graywacke. A series of geochemical indexes, such as the widely employed CIA (CIA = [Al2O3/(Al2O3 + CaO∗ + Na2O + K2O)] × 100; molar proportions) and ICV (ICV = (Fe2O3 + MnO + MgO + CaO + Na2O + K2O + TiO2)/Al2O3) values, and the A-CN-K diagram for the paragneisses indicate relatively weak weathering in the source rocks and negligible post-depositional K-metasomatism. In addition, their REE patterns, low Cr/Zr (0.61-1.99), high Zr/Y (4.81-23.59) and Th/U (3.21-40.67) ratios, the low to moderate contents of Cr (197-362 ppm) and Ni (6.68-233 ppm), and source rock discrimination diagrams collectively suggest that the sediments of the protoliths of the paragneisses in the Jiaobei terrane were derived from the source with intermediate-acidic composition, probably granitic-to-tonalitic rocks. In combination with geochronological and isotopic studies on the paragneisses and the basement rocks in the Jiaobei terrane, it is suggested that the Archean-early Paleoproterozoic granitic rocks in the Jiaobei terrane possibly provided the most important source materials. In

  7. Effects of pressure and temperature on the isothermal bulk modulus of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T.; Sun, X. W.; Wang, R. F.; Lu, H. W.; Tian, J. H.; Guo, P.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the isothermal bulk modulus of CaO using pair-wise interactions that include polarization effects through the shell model (SM). The dependence of isothermal bulk modulus BT of CaO on the compression ratio V/ V0 and pressure P have been obtained from MD runs at T=300 K, and compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. A good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained. Meanwhile, BT dependence on temperature T at zero pressure is investigated. At extended pressure and temperature ranges, SM-MD method has also been carried out for predicting the P- V- T equation of state and isothermal bulk modulus at different temperatures along the isotherms 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 K, and at different pressures along the isobars 5, 15, 30, 40, and 50 GPa for CaO, respectively.

  8. [Determination of major elements in superphosphate by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-Kui; Li, He; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo

    2008-11-01

    Phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important fertilizers. The authors determined nine kinds of major elements in superphosphate, the most important phosphate fertilizer, by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The detection range of SiO2, Al2O3, TFe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 is 15.0%-90.0%, 0.20%-25.0%, 0.20%-25.0%, 0.01%-0.35%, 0.20%-40.0%, 0.10%-35.0%, 0.10%-7.50%, 0.05%-7.50% and 1.00%-100.00% respectively, and the precision of the method for SiO2, Al2O3, TFe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5 range from 0.20% to 0.005%, so the method of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a fast and effectual method for detecting the composition of phosphate fertilizer. The contents of the above elements showed (1) the detected superphosphate content is 18.101% of P2O5, which is accordant to the labeled level (> or = 16%); (2) the detected superphosphate contains much SiO2, TFe2O3, MgO, CaO and K2O, which are necessary for plant growth and the content of which is 16.954%, 1.495%, 1.580%, 21.428% and 1.585% respectively. These data showed that phosphate fertilizer sometimes can supply some trace elements for plants, but we should eliminate the interference effect of these elements when we research the role of phosphorus; (3) superphosphate contains 3.225% of Al2O3, so the authors should attention to the aluminium poison when superphosphate is used chronically.

  9. Dissolution process for ZrO.sub.2 -UO.sub.2 -CaO fuels

    DOEpatents

    Paige, Bernice E.

    1976-06-22

    The present invention provides an improved dissolution process for ZrO.sub.2 -UO.sub.2 -CaO-type pressurized water reactor fuels. The zirconium cladding is dissolved with hydrofluoric acid, immersing the ZrO.sub.2 -UO.sub.2 -CaO fuel wafers in the resulting zirconium-dissolver-product in the dissolver vessel, and nitric acid is added to the dissolver vessel to facilitate dissolution of the uranium from the ZrO.sub.2 -UO.sub.2 -CaO fuel wafers.

  10. [Collation between Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang and Xin Xiu Ben Cao].

    PubMed

    Liang, Fei; Jiang, Li-Sheng; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2012-10-01

    To analyze specific content of Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang, this essay compares its content with related content of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, finding that Za Liao of Qian Jin Yi Fang is derived from the part of Jin An of Xin Xiu Ben Cao, which complements with herbal chapters from volume II to IV of Qian Jin Yi Fang. The texts in Za Liao can verify and collate part of Jin An, and thereby showing important literature value and great help for further studies on traditional Chinese medicines of Tang dynasty.

  11. Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

    2012-06-01

    Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of plant mediated CaO nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis extract.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Gowdhami; Ramasamy, Balagurunathan; Banwarilal, Sarkar; Munusamy, Ayyasamy Pudukadu

    2016-02-01

    An assessment of antibacterial activity of greenly synthesized nanoparticles using aqueous stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis was carried out. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, FTIR and further subjected for antibacterial activity against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. The SEM photograph represents cubic and hexagonal shape of NPs about 58nm respectively whereas the XRD indicated the pure phase of the product and no impurity in peaks of well crystallized products. The FTIR spectrum of nanoparticles showed intensive peaks with blue shift indicating the crystalline and shorten the distance of crystal lattice. The plant mediated CaO nanoparticles showed maximum inhibition on E. coli followed by other strains. In MIC, the plant mediated CaO NPs possess high activity against all the test organisms whereas the CaCl2 and CaO compounds were moderately active. The approach to the synthesis of plant mediated CaO NPs has many advantages as scaled up, economic viability, etc. Application of such ecofriendly nanoparticles in bactericidal, wound healing and other medical applications makes this method potential existing for the large scale synthesis of the inorganic materials.

  13. Postcombustion Capture of CO2 with CaO in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Carbonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M.; Rodriguez, N.; González, B.; Grasa, G.; Murillo, R.; Abanades, J. C.

    There is an emerging postcombustion capture technology that uses CaO to capture CO2 from combustion flue gases in a circulating fluidized bed reactor. This paper summarizes recent work conducted at CSIC to understand and develop this technology. The paper includes experimental results at conditions close to those expected in the real system, carried out in continuous mode in a 30kW test facility made up of two interconnected circulating fluidized bed reactors. In one of the reactors, CO2 is captured from the gas phase by the CaO continuously circulating from a calciner. In the second reactor, the CaCO3 formed in the carbonator is regenerated to CaO and CO2 by calcination. Modeling of the system at process level, at reactor level (in particular the CFB carbonator), and at particle level (decay in capture capability of CaO) is also outlined. The work carried out so far confirms that the carbonator reactors can be designed to attain capture efficiencies between 70-90%, operating at fluid dynamic conditions close to those present in circulating fluidized bed combustors.

  14. Food selection in relation to nutritional chemistry of Cao Vit gibbons in Jingxi, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changyong; Liao, Jiancun; Fan, Pengfei

    2017-01-01

    The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) has only one population with about 110 individuals living in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Investigation of food choice in relation to chemical nutrition will offer important insights into its conservation. We studied the food choice of two groups of Cao Vit gibbons using instantaneous scan sampling in Bangliang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, over 4 years, and analyzed the chemical components (total nitrogen, TN; water-soluble sugar, WSS; crude fat, CF; neutral detergent fiber, NDF; acid detergent fiber, ADF; acid detergent lignin, ADL; condensed tannin, CT; and ash) of 48 food plant parts and 22 non-food plant parts. Fruits and figs that are rich in sugar are important food resources for gibbons. For other food types, flowers are a good source of total nitrogen and carbohydrates, and leaves and buds provide sources of protein and minerals. Cao Vit gibbons selected fruits that contain less total nitrogen, less acid detergent fiber and more water-soluble sugar than non-food fruits. Several food species that were heavily consumed by Cao Vit gibbons are suggested as potential tree species for ongoing habitat restoration.

  15. Hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from CaO treated EAF dust in ammonium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takahiro; Chairaksa-Fujimoto, Romchat; Maruyama, Katsuya; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Zinc in Electric Arc Furnace dust or EAF dust mainly exists as ZnFe2O4 and ZnO. While ZnO can be simply dissolved into either an acidic or alkaline solution, it is difficult to dissolve ZnFe2O4. In our previous work, we introduced a process called "CaO treatment", a preliminary pyrometallurgical process designed to transform the ZnFe2O4 in the EAF dust into ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5. The halogens and others heavy metals were favorably vaporized during CaO treatment with no essential evaporation loss of zinc and iron, leaving CaO treated dust which consisted mainly of ZnO and Ca2Fe2O5 and no problematic ZnFe2O4 compound. In this work, the selective leaching of zinc over iron and calcium in the CaO treated dust was investigated using an NH4Cl solution. The effects of temperature, reaction time and NH4Cl concentration on dissolution behavior were examined. While most of the zinc in the CaO treated dust was extracted after 2 h at 70 °C with 2 M NH4Cl, only about 20% of calcium was leached in NH4Cl solution. However, the iron did not dissolve and remained as Ca2Fe2O5 in residue. It was confirmed that zinc can be effectively recovered using NH4Cl solution.

  16. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2017-04-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  17. Mg-Ca Alloys Produced by Reduction of CaO: Understanding of ECO-Mg Alloy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jin Kyu; Kim, Shae K.

    2016-12-01

    There have been long debates about the environment conscious (ECO) Mg technology which utilizes CaO to produce Ca-containing Mg alloys. Two key process technologies of the ECO-Mg process are the chemical reduction of CaO by liquid Mg and the maintenance of melt cleanliness during the alloying of Ca. Thermodynamic calculations using FactSage software were performed to explain these two key issues. In addition, an experimental study was performed to compare the melt cleanliness of the Ca-containing Mg alloys produced by the conventional route with metallic Ca and the ECO-Mg route with CaO.

  18. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Spinels in Vanadium Slag with High CaO Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wang; Xie, Bing; Tan, Wen-Feng; Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Xie; Li, Hong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the spinel crystals in vanadium slags containing high CaO content. Experiments were performed in combination with theoretical calculation to address this issue, and statistical analyses based on the Crystal Size Distribution theory. The results indicate that low cooling rate and high CaO content benefit the growth of spinel crystals. The growth mechanism is revealed to be controlled by interface reactions and diffusion at the cooling rates of 5 K/min and 15 K/min, respectively. However, at higher temperatures (>1673 K), the growth of spinel crystals is controlled by nucleation. While the temperature is decreased to 1523 K at the cooling rate of 5 K/min, the mean diameter of spinel crystals could reach 36.44 μm. Experimental results combining with theoretical reveal that low cooling rate benefits spinels growth, especially for the interval of 1523 K-1200 K.

  19. Initial stages of CO2 adsorption on CaO: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Solis, Brian H; Cui, Yi; Weng, Xuefei; Seifert, Jan; Schauermann, Swetlana; Sauer, Joachim; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-08

    Room temperature adsorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) on monocrystalline CaO(001) thin films grown on a Mo(001) substrate was studied by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and quantum chemical calculations. For comparison, CO2 adsorption was examined on poorly ordered, nanoparticulate CaO films prepared on Ru(0001). For both systems, CO2 readily adsorbs on the clean CaO surface. However, additional bands were observable on the CaO/Ru(0001) films compared with CaO/Mo(001), because the stricter IRAS surface selection rules do not apply to adsorption on the disordered thin films grown on Ru(0001). Spectral evolution with increasing exposure of the IRA bands suggested the presence of several adsorption sites which are consecutively populated by CO2. Density functional calculations showed that CO2 adsorption occurs as monodentate surface carbonate (CO3(2-)) species at monatomic step sites and other low-coordinated sites, followed by formation of carbonates on terraces, which dominate at increasing CO2 exposure. To explain the coverage-dependent IRAS results, we propose CO2 surface islanding from the onset, most likely in the form of pairs and other chain-like species, which were calculated as thermodynamically favorable. The calculated adsorption energy for isolated CO2 on the terrace sites (184 ± 10 kJ mol(-1)) is larger than the adsorption energy obtained by temperature programmed desorption (∼120-140 kJ mol(-1)) and heat of adsorption taken from microcalorimetry measurements at low coverage (∼125 kJ mol(-1)). However, the calculated adsorption energies become less favorable when carbonate chains intersect on CaO terraces, forming kinks. Furthermore, our assignments of the initial stages of CO2 adsorption are consistent with the observed coverage effect on the CO2 adsorption energy measured by microcalorimetry and the IRAS results.

  20. Characteristics of HCN removal using CaO at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Houzhang Tan; Xuebin Wang; Congling Wang; Tongmo Xu

    2009-03-15

    Experimental investigation on the removal of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) using calcium oxide (CaO) was carried out in a fixed bed reactor at temperature ranging from 300 to 1173 K, and the original HCN was produced during the pyrolysis of pyridine. Effects of temperature, volume space velocity, and initial HCN concentration on HCN removal were discussed. The results of temperature-programmed experiments show that temperature is the main factor affecting HCN removal. With the formation of CO, HCN starts to decrease from 473 K, and remains unchanged from 673 to 873 K. At 873 K, there is a further decrease in HCN without CO formation, and when temperature is higher than 1023 K, HCN is removed completely. In the isothermal experiments, CaCN{sub 2} was detected at 723 K, but at higher temperatures of 923 and 1123 K, there was no CaCN{sub 2} in the solid residues, and the nitrogen in the removed HCN was equal to that in the formed N{sub 2}. This indicates that at a lower temperature CaO is consumed to remove HCN, CaO + 2HCN {yields} CaCN{sub 2} + CO + H{sub 2}; but at a higher temperature, CaO acts as a catalyst for HCN removal, 2C{sub i}H{sub j} + 2HCN {yields} N{sub 2} + (j + 1 - k)H{sub 2} + 2C{sub I} + 1H{sub k}. The investigation on the removal efficiency shows that there is a critical temperature and a critical volume space velocity at which the HCN removal efficiency is able to reach up to 100%. 41 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Social structure and group dynamics of the Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) in Bangliang, Jingxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengfei; Fei, Hanlan; Xiang, Zuofu; Zhang, Wen; Ma, Changyong; Huang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) was rediscovered in 2002 in Vietnam and then in 2006 in China. This is the only known population with about 110 individuals located along the China-Vietnam border. Little is known about it other than its population size and distribution. We describe the social structure and group dynamics of the Cao Vit gibbons in China based on 2 years of monitoring from 2007 to 2009. Four established study groups at this site consisted of 1 adult male, 2 adult females and 2-6 offspring. Two juveniles in 2 groups disappeared during the research. Four infants were born in 3 groups from November 2008 to February 2009. In 2 of the groups, both adult females had dependent infants. These observations suggest that Cao Vit gibbons live in polygynous groups, contrary to the usual monogamous group with only 1 adult female, but nevertheless similar to the social organization of both N. concolor and N. hainanus. We observed a coordinated dispersal of 1 adult male and 2 large juveniles, and the male formed a pair with a newly arrived female. Our observations support a growing awareness of variability in gibbon social organization.

  2. Porous carbon material containing CaO for acidic gas capture: preparation and properties.

    PubMed

    Przepiórski, Jacek; Czyżewski, Adam; Pietrzak, Robert; Toyoda, Masahiro; Morawski, Antoni W

    2013-12-15

    A one-step process for the preparation of CaO-containing porous carbons is described. Mixtures of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with natural limestone were pyrolyzed and thus hybrid sorbents could be easily obtained. The polymeric material and the mineral served as a carbon precursor and CaO delivering agent, respectively. We discuss effects of the preparation conditions and the relative amounts of the raw materials used for the preparations on the porosity of the hybrid products. The micropore areas and volumes of the obtained products tended to decrease with increasing CaO contents. Increase in the preparation temperature entailed a decrease in the micropore volume, whereas the mesopore volume increased. The pore creation mechanism is proposed on the basis of thermogravimetric and temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The prepared CaO-containing porous carbons efficiently captured SO2 and CO2 from air. Washing out of CaO from the hybrid materials was confirmed as a suitable method to obtain highly porous carbon materials.

  3. Interfacial Phenomena among Liquid Iron-Carbon Alloy, Liquid Slag, and Solid CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2012-06-01

    Interfacial phenomena between hot metal, liquid slag and solid CaO are important to the understanding of the desulfurization reaction in hot-metal treatment processes. In the current work, the surface tension of molten iron-carbon alloy and liquid slag as well as the interfacial tensions among molten iron-carbon alloy-solid CaO, liquid slag-solid CaO, as well as molten iron-carbon alloy-liquid slag were measured in the temperature range 1623 K to 1723 K (1350 °C to 1450 °C). The sessile drop method has been used for these measurements. To analyze the experimental results, two types of graphical analysis programs have been developed to determine the coordinates of the X-ray shadow or charge-coupled device (CCD) image of the droplet. Furthermore, a software package that uses the Gauss-Newton method to minimize an error function between the physically observed and a theoretical Laplacian curve has also been developed in this work.

  4. Thermoluminescence properties of gamma irradiated CaO: Sm3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, D.; Nagabhushana, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    Pure and samarium doped calcium oxide (CaO) is synthesized by solution combustion technique. The samples are annealed at 600 °C for two hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the annealed sample show cubic phase with space group Fm3m. The average crystallite size is found to be ∼54 nm. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectrum exhibits bands at 424, 544 cm-1 (Ca-O bond), 875 cm-1 (C-O bond), 1460 cm-1 (C-O stretch) and 3640 cm-1 (O-H stretch). The samples are irradiated with gamma rays in a dose range 100-4000 Gy. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are recorded at a linear heating rate (β) of 5 Ks-1. A prominent TL glow with a peak at 636 K is observed in undoped sample. A new TL glow with peak at ∼458 K is observed in addition to 636 K in samarium doped (1 mol%) CaO. TL glow peak intensity (Imax) at 636 K increases with γ - dose in the study range. TL emissions at 560, 600 and 640 nm are observed in doped samples corresponding to Sm3+ transitions along with pristine emissions. TL glow curves are deconvoluted to obtain kinetic parameters. The mean value of activation energy and the frequency factor of the prominent deconvoluted TL glow peak (626 K) are found to be 1.26 eV and 4.49 × 109 s-1 respectively.

  5. [Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong

    2014-05-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.

  6. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  7. CaO nanocrystals grown over SiO2 microtubes for efficient CO2 capture: organogel sets the platform.

    PubMed

    Prathap, Annamalai; Shaijumon, M M; Sureshan, Kana M

    2016-01-25

    Materials that can capture and store CO2 are important. Though CaO is a cheap sorbent, it is inefficient for practical purposes due to sintering and poor diffusion of CO2 through the surface-CaCO3 layer. We have developed a high performance, sintering-resistant CaO-based sorbent by uniformly nanofabricating the CaO nanocrystals on SiO2 microtubes made by organogel templated polymerization.

  8. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    PubMed

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder.

  9. Locomotion behavior of cao vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) living in karst forest in Bangliang Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pengfei; Scott, Matthew B; Fei, Hanlan; Ma, Changyong

    2013-12-01

    The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species. Only approximately 110 individuals remain in degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Karst forest is unusual gibbon habitat. Currently, the canopy height of cao vit gibbon habitat is approximately 10 m. Research on the locomotor behavior of gibbons living in this particular forest type might provide important insight into locomotor stability and variability of gibbons. We used 5 min scan samples to record the locomotion mode, support use and canopy strata of gibbons in 3 groups for 2096 h between January 2008 and December 2009. Although cao vit gibbon habitat has a lower canopy in comparison to that of other forests inhabited by gibbons, cao vit gibbons displayed a similar overall locomotor pattern to other gibbon species (Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar and Hylobates agilis) in which brachiation dominate their locomotor behavior. Cao vit gibbons spent most of their time travelling on inclined branches (2-10 cm) in the middle stratum through the forest canopy. Adult females appear to more often employ safer modes of locomotion (bridging more often and brachiation less), while adult males choose riskier modes (leaping more and climbing less). As gibbons increased in body weight, as they grew from infant to adult, they tended to use larger supports. This research documented that locomotor behavior in Hylobatidae is strongly determined by anatomical characters, but cao vit gibbons also show the ability to use various supports, enabling them to survive in karst forest.

  10. Physicochemical study of skarn formation in pelitic rock, Costabonne peak area, eastern Pyrenees, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marcke de Lummen, G.; Verkaeren, J.

    1986-03-01

    The Costabonne skarn complex was emplaced in the lower part of the Cambrian Canaveilles Formation (eastern Pyrenees) in contact with a Hercynian granitic stock. Skarns have developed from calcium-poor (<1% CaO) pelitic rocks. A zonation can be clearly seen: schists (Z0), biotite zone (Z1), amphibole zone (Z2), pyroxene zone (Z3), and garnet zone (Z4). Two superposed successions of transformations are observed: (1) muscovite→feldspar→ garnet and (2) biotite→amphibole→pyroxene. Calculation of mass transfer indicates an important exchange of CaO and K2O and, in lesser amounts, Fe2O3, MgO and MnO. SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, TiO2, the heavy rare earths (HREE) and most of the trace elements remain constant; whereas the contents of Na2O, Rb, Sr, Ba, and the light rare earths elements (LREE) are reduced. According to fluid inclusion data and mineral compositions, the metasomatic fluid was mainlyH_2 O(X_{H_2 O} > 0.99) with minor CO2, CH4, N2, H2, O2, H2S, HCl and HF. Ca, Na, and K were the most abundant cations. Temperature and pressure conditions are estimated to be at least 550° C and 1.7 to 2.0 kb, respectively. The totality of the observed transformations may be described in the system CaO-K2O-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-H2O with the minerals quartz, muscovite, phlogopite, tremolite, diopside, grossular, K-feldspar, and anorthite. With CaO and K2O taken as perfectly mobile components, SiO2, Al2O3, and MgO as determining inert components and H2O as excess component, the reactions leading to the skarn formation can be represented in aμ _{CaO} - μ _{K_2 O} diagram. The succession of zones is shown to take place with increasing μCaO from the schist (Z0) up to the garnet zone (Z4). The nature of the feldspar (plagioclase or K-feldspar) depends on the value ofμ _{K_2 O} relative to μ CaO.

  11. Viability of Clostridium sporogenes spores after CaO hygienization of meat waste.

    PubMed

    Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Skowron, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the pathogenic species C. perfringens and C. botulinum spores in animal by-products poses a potential epidemiological hazard. Strong entero- and neurotoxins produced by these bacteria adversely affect human health. To inactivate pathogens present in animal by-products, waste must be subjected to various methods of sanitization. The aim of the presented study was to estimate the effect of different doses of CaO on the viability of spores Clostridium sporogenes in meat wastes category 3. During the research, two doses of burnt lime were added to the poultry mince meat and meat mixed with swine blood contaminated with Clostridium sporogenes spore suspension. Half of the samples collected for microbiological analyses were buffered to achieve the pH level ~7, the other were examined without pH neutralization. To estimate the spore number, 10-fold dilution series in peptone water was prepared and heat-treated at 80 °C for 10 min. After cooling-down, one milliliter of each dilution was pour-plated onto DRCM medium solidified with agar. Statistical analysis were performed using the Statistica software. Application of 70% CaO caused complete inactivation of Clostridium spores in meat wastes after 48 hours. The highest temperature achieved during the experiment was 67 °C. Rapid alkalization of the biomass resulted in increasing pH to values exceeding 12. The effect of liming was not dependent on the meat wastes composition nor CaO dose. The experiment proved the efficiency of liming as a method of animal by-products sanitization. Application of the obtained results may help reduce the epidemiological risk and ensure safety to people handling meat wastes at each stage of their processing and utilization.

  12. Synthesis of tourmaline solid solutions in the system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl and the distribution of Na between tourmaline and fluid at 300 to 700 °C and 200 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    v. Goerne, G.; Franz, G.; Heinrich, W.

    2001-05-01

    Tourmaline has been synthesized hydrothermally at 200 MPa between 300 and 700 °C from oxide mixtures with Mg-Al ratios for the end members dravite NaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH) and Mg-foitite ❏(Mg2Al)Al6 (Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH). Six different Na concentrations were investigated to determine the distribution of Na between tourmaline and fluid in the SiO2-saturated system Na2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3-H2O-HCl. Synthetic tourmaline ranges from X-site vacant (❏) tourmaline (Mg-foitite) to nearly ideal dravite with Na=0.95 apfu. There are small, but significant, amounts of proton deficiency and negligible tetrahedral Al. Chemical variation is primarily caused by the substitutions Al❏Mg-1Na-1 and minor AlMg-1H-1. Varying amounts of Na and ❏ determine the Mg/Al ratios. Besides tourmaline and quartz, additional Mg-Al phases are chlorite and, at 700 °C, cordierite. Albite is also present at high Na concentrations in the bulk composition. The c dimension of the tourmaline crystals increases with Na in tourmaline. The amount of Na in the X-site depends strongly on the bulk concentration of Na in the system as well as on the temperature. These factors in turn control the phase assemblage and the composition of the fluid phase. For the assemblage tourmaline + quartz + chlorite/cordierite + fluid, a linear relationship exists between Na concentration in the fluid (quenched after the run) and tourmaline with temperature: T °C [±25 °C]=(Nafluid/Natur)×558.878-14.692 (r2=0.96). For the assemblage tourmaline + albite + quartz + fluid, it is: T °C [±15 °C]=(Nafluid/Natur)×845.813-6.231 (r2=0.95), where Nafluid is the concentration of Na+ in the final fluid (mol/l) and Natur is the number of Na cations in the X-site of tourmaline. The equations are valid in the temperature range of 500-715 °C. Our experiments demonstrate that the occupancy of the X-site in combination with the changing concentrations of Al and Mg can be used to monitor changes in the fluid composition

  13. Impacts of the 2010 Amazon drought on forest structure and function using CAO AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.; Kellner, J.

    2012-12-01

    The 2010 Amazon mega-drought is thought to have had a widespread impact on forest condition, including tree mortality. However, no large-scale, high-resolution information exists on changes in forest structure, function, turnover or other processes in response to the drought. With the possibility of increasing drought frequency in the Amazon basin, it is now critical that we develop repeat, large-area studies to assess impacts and recovery. Using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), we assessed the impacts of the 2010 drought by repeat flying of approximately 500,000 hectares of lowland humid tropical forest in the Peru Amazon. The CAO AToMS Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Visible-to-Shortwave-Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectrometers recorded changes in forest canopy spectral, chemical and physiological state from 2009 to 2011. Areas of greatest functional change were observed near the Peru-Brazil border in areas under heavy forest use for selective logging. The CAO AToMS waveform Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) instruments measured highest rates of treefall and canopy gap formation in areas subjected to combined drought and logging, and on low fertility soils. The results provide the first spatially-explicit, large-scale and ecologically detailed information on the response of Amazonian forests to drought.

  14. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  15. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on ZrO2-CaO dental ceramics properties.

    PubMed

    Gionea, Alin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Bleotu, Coralia; Surdu, Vasile-Adrian

    2016-08-30

    Different hot isostatic pressing conditions were used to obtain zirconia ceramics, in order to assess the influence of HIP on phase transformation, compressive strength, Young's modulus and density. First, CaO stabilized zirconia powder was synthesized through sol-gel method, using zirconium propoxide, calcium isopropoxide and 2-metoxiethanol as precursors, then HIP treatment was applied to obtain final dense ceramics. Ceramics were morphologically and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Density measurements, compressive strength and Young's modulus tests were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of HIP treatment. The zirconia powders heat treated at 500°C for 2h showed a pure cubic phase with average particle dimension about 70nm. The samples that were hot isostatic pressed presented a mixture of monoclinic-tetragonal or monoclinic-cubic phases, while for pre-sintered samples, cubic zirconia was the single crystalline form. Final dense ceramics were obtained after HIP treatment, with relative density values higher than 94%. ZrO2-CaO ceramics presented high compressive strength, with values in the range of 500-708.9MPa and elastic behavior with Young's modulus between 1739MPa and 4372MPa. Finally zirconia ceramics were tested for biocompatibility allowing the normal development of MG63 cells in vitro.

  16. Experimental derivation of nepheline syenite and phonolite liquids by partial melting of upper mantle peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, Didier; Lambart, Sarah; Schiano, Pierre; Ottolini, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    Piston-cylinder experiments were performed to characterize the composition of liquids formed at very low degrees of melting of two fertile lherzolite compositions with 430 ppm and 910 ppm K2O at 1 and 1.3 GPa. We used the microdike technique (Laporte et al., 2004) to extract the liquid phase from the partially molten peridotite, allowing us to analyze liquid compositions at degrees of melting F down to 0.9%. At 1.3 GPa, the liquid is in equilibrium with olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + spinel in all the experiments; at 1 GPa, plagioclase is present in addition to these four mineral phases up to about 5% of melting (T≈1240 °C). Important variations of liquid compositions are observed with decreasing temperature, including strong increases in SiO2, Na2O, K2O, and Al2O3 concentrations, and decreases in MgO, FeO, and CaO concentrations. The most extreme liquid compositions are phonolites with 57% SiO2, 20-22% Al2O3, Na2O + K2O up to 14%, and concentrations of MgO, FeO, and CaO as low as 2-3%. Reversal experiments confirm that low-degree melts of a fertile lherzolite have phonolitic compositions, and pMELTS calculations show that the amount of phonolite liquid generated at 1.2 GPa increases from 0.3% in a source with 100 ppm K2O to 3% in a source with 2000 ppm K2O. The enrichment in silica and alkalis with decreasing melt fraction is coupled with an increase of the degree of melt polymerization, which has important consequences for the partitioning of minor and trace elements. Thus Ti4+ in our experiments and, by analogy with Ti4+, other highly charged cations, and rare earth elements become less incompatible near the peridotite solidus. Our study brings a strong support to the hypothesis that phonolitic lavas or their plutonic equivalents (nepheline syenites) may be produced directly by partial melting of upper mantle rock-types at moderate pressures (1-1.5 GPa), especially where large domains of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has been enriched in

  17. Demonstration of 136 dB dynamic range capability for a simultaneous dual optical band CAOS camera.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, J Pablo

    2016-12-26

    For the first time, proposed and demonstrated is a simultaneous dual optical band coded access optical sensor (CAOS) camera design suited for extreme contrast multispectral bright target scenarios. Deploying a digital micromirror devices (DMDs)-based time-frequency agile pixels CAOS-mode within a two point detector spatially and spectrally isolating framework, this imager simultaneously and independently detects pixel selective image information for two different broad spectral bands that further undergo independent spectral image data extraction via finer-tuned wavelength filtering using all-optical or CAOS-mode electronic filters. A proof-of-concept visible-near infrared band CAOS imager is successfully demonstrated using a target scene containing LEDs and engaging narrowband optical filters. In addition, using the CAOS-mode, demonstrated is the RF domain simultaneous color content monitoring of a white light LED image pixel. Also proposed is the use of a higher bit count analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with both range and sampling duration parameter control along with a larger data set electronic DSP to extract higher DSP gain and realize additional noise suppression. Using a 16-bit ADC and 2,097,152 point fast Fourier transform (FFT) digital signal processing (DSP) for a 633 nm laser engaged test target scene that is subject to nearly 7 decades (107) of gradual optical attenuation, the experimental camera demonstrates an agile pixel extreme dynamic range of 136 dB, which is a 56 dB improvement over the previous CAOS-imaging demonstrations.

  18. Mineralogical and chemical analyses of ancient glass beads from Taiwan and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Y. S.; Liu, Y. C.

    2015-12-01

    Large numbers of monochrome glass beads with different colors, shapes, and stylistics excavated from the archaeological sites of Taiwan, which were dated mainly from the 2nd century AD to the early Historical Period of Taiwan. Archaeologically, these glass beads were more prevalent in eastern and northern Taiwan and were generally believed to be non-native, as well as were brought into Taiwan through the maritime exchange and/or trade activities between Taiwan and Southeast Asia/China since the Neolithic Age. Nevertheless, ancient glass beads have been little studies in Taiwan, aspects of these glass beads are not well detailed. In this work, non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy and μXRF are used in combination to examine 56 ancient glass beads excavated from six archaeological sites, eastern Taiwan, to unravel the mineralogical and chemical compositions and to help decipher the raw materials used and the provenance of beads. Micro-Raman measurements indicate the presence of hematite, zincite, siderite, sphalerite, lead tin yellow type II, adularia, chalcedony, anatase, rutite, ankerite, graphite, calcite, etc. Hematite, zincite, siderite, sphalerite, lead tin yellow type II, and rutile were found to be colorants/opacifiers. Among these crystalline phases, lead tin yellow type II was first detected in the ancient glass bead unearthed from Taiwan, which is accordant with results of chemical analysis. The chemical results obtained by μXRF show SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, MgO, CaO, and PbO as the most abundant oxides. It is found that Na2O, Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, and MgO are the main/minor fluxes. According to the results, the three most frequent types are mineral soda alumina glass, soda plant ash glass, and lead silicate glass. The provenance of ancient beads unearthed from archaeological sites of Taiwan is possibility of multiple sources.

  19. 12CaO-7Al2O3 Electride Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rand, Lauren P. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The use of the electride form of 12CaO-7Al2O3, or C12A7, as a low work function electron emitter in a hollow cathode discharge apparatus is described. No heater is required to initiate operation of the present cathode, as is necessary for traditional hollow cathode devices. Because C12A7 has a fully oxidized lattice structure, exposure to oxygen does not degrade the electride. The electride was surrounded by a graphite liner since it was found that the C12A7 electride converts to it's eutectic (CA+C3A) form when heated (through natural hollow cathode operation) in a metal tube.

  20. CO2 and potassium in the mantle: carbonaceous pelite melts from the trailing edge of a detached slab hybridizing in the mantle to ultrapotassic kamafugite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.

    2007-12-01

    The ultrapotassic magmas from the Intra-Apennine and Roman provinces constitute worldwide endmembers in terms of K2O/Na2O, K2O content and CO2 degassing, and are associated with carbonatites. Group II kimberlites, which are geochemically similar but less extreme, occur on cratons stable since several 100 Ma. This geotectonic situation appears in strong contrast to the subduction setting of central Italy, where plate convergence has slowed down to less than a few mm/a, the slab now tearing off leading hot asthenospheric mantle to flow in between the trailing slab and the crust. A successful recipe for ultrapotassic magmas requires K/Na fractionation at some previous stage. Melts from fluid-absent melting of carbonaceous pelites at >3 GPa are ultrapottasic phonolites (SiO2 ~64 wt%) and have K2O/Na2O up to 9 because of residual cpx with jadeite80. The effect of CO2 is to stabilize residual jadeite, to lower SiO2, and to increase K2O/Na2O ratios (as compared to CO2 free melts with K2O/Na2O of 1-3 and SiO2 = 73-77 wt%). The carbonaceous pelite melts were equilibrated with fertile, refractory but cpx bearing mantle, and wherlite. At sufficient pressures (3.5 GPa) and XCO2 in the volatile component, hybridization of the carbonaceous pelite melts produces highly subsilicic kamafugites, with K2O/Na2O only slightly lowered, and XMg's >0.70 as characteristic of primitive melts. The essential role of CO2 is to reduce the olivine saturation volume and to shift the olivine-cpx-opx cotectic to lower SiO2. The Italian kamafugites are ultracalcic (CaO/Al2O3 = 1.2-1.4), and although carbonaceous pelite melts have little CaO and 20 wt% Al2O3, the assimilation of cpx and production of aluminous opx leads to ultracalcic compositions when equilibrated with refractory peridotite or wherlite. Temperatures necessary for the fluid absent carbonaceous pelite melting are 1050-1150 °C, far above any reasonable subduction geotherm. Hybridization in the mantle requires 1320-1400 °C (at 3

  1. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIII. The spectrum of CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Blissett, Audra; Asari, Usama; Vasilios, Marcus; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    An accurate line list for calcium oxide is presented covering transitions between all bound ro-vibronic levels from the five lowest electronic states X 1Σ+, A' 1Π, A 1Σ+, a 3Π, and b 3Σ+. The ro-vibronic energies and corresponding wavefunctions were obtained by solving the fully coupled Schrödinger equation. Ab initio potential energy, spin-orbit, and electronic angular momentum curves were refined by fitting to the experimental frequencies and experimentally derived energies available in the literature. Using our refined model we could (1) reassign the vibronic states for a large portion of the experimentally derived energies (van Groenendael A., Tudorie M., Focsa C., Pinchemel B., Bernath P. F., 2005, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 255), (2) extended this list of energies to J = 61-118 and (3) suggest a new description of the resonances from the A 1Σ+-X 1Σ+ system. We used high level ab initio electric dipole moments reported previously (Khalil H., Brites V., Le Quere F., Leonard C., 2011, Chem. Phys., 386, 50) to compute the Einstein A coefficients. Our work is the first fully coupled description of this system. Our line list is the most complete catalogue of spectroscopic transitions available for 40Ca16O and is applicable for temperatures up to at least 5000 K. CaO has yet to be observed astronomically but its transitions are characterized by being particularly strong which should facilitate its detection. The CaO line list is made available in an electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  2. DUSTER: collection of meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles in the upper stratosphere .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, V.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Rotundi, A.; Ferrari, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Nanometer- to micrometer-size particles present in the upper stratosphere are a mixture of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origins. They can be extraterrestrial particles condensed after meteor ablation. Meteoric dust in bolides is occasionally deposited into the lower stratosphere around 20 km altitude. Nanometer CaO and pure carbon smoke particles were collected at 38 km altitude in the upper stratosphere in the Arctic during June 2008 using DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), a balloon-borne instrument for the non-destructive collection of solid particles between 200 nm to 40 microns. We report the collection of micron sized CaCO_3 (calcite) grains. Their morphologies show evidence of melting and condensation after vaporization suggest at temperatures of approximately 3500 K. The formation environment of the collected grains was probably a dense dust cloud formed by the disintegration of a carbonaceous meteoroid during deceleration in the Earth� atmosphere. For the first time, DUSTER collected meteor ablation products that were presumably associated with the disintegration of a bolide crossing the Earth's atmosphere. The collected mostly CaO and pure carbon nanoparticles from the debris cloud of a fireball, included: 1) intact fragments; 2) quenched melted grains; and 3) vapor phase condensation products. The DUSTER project was funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), PRIN2008/MIUR (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universitá e della Ricerca), PNRA 2013(Piano Nazionale Ricerca Antartide). CNES graciously provided this flight opportunity. We thank E. Zona and S. Inarta at the Laboratorio di Fisica Cosmica INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte-Universitá di Napoli Parthenope. F.J.M.R. was supported by grant NNX07AI39G from the NASA Cosmochemistry Program. We thank three anonymous reviewers who assisted us in introducing our new instrument.

  3. Statistical analysis of the effective factors on the 28 days compressive strength and setting time of the concrete

    PubMed Central

    Abolpour, Bahador; Mehdi Afsahi, Mohammad; Hosseini, Saeed Gharib

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various factors (weight fraction of the SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, CaO, MgO, Cl, SO3, and the Blaine of the cement particles) on the concrete compressive strength and also initial setting time have been investigated. Compressive strength and setting time tests have been carried out based on DIN standards in this study. Interactions of these factors have been obtained by the use of analysis of variance and regression equations of these factors have been obtained to predict the concrete compressive strength and initial setting time. Also, simple and applicable formulas with less than 6% absolute mean error have been developed using the genetic algorithm to predict these parameters. Finally, the effect of each factor has been investigated when other factors are in their low or high level. PMID:26425360

  4. Semimicro chemical and x-ray fluorescence analysis of lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, H.J.; Cuttitta, F.; Dwornik, E.J.; Carron, M.K.; Christian, R.P.; Lindsay, J.R.; Ligon, D.T.; Larson, R.R.

    1970-01-01

    Major and selected minor elements were determined in seven whole rock fragments, five portions of pulverized lunar rock, and the lunar soil. Three different rock types were represented: vesicular, fine-grained basaltic rocks; medium-to coarse-grained, vuggy gabbroic rocks; and breccia. The ranges (in percent) for the major constituents of the lunar samples are: SiO2, 38 to 42; Al2O3, 8 to 14; total iron as FeO, 15 to 20; MgO, 6 to 8; CaO, 10 to 12; Na2O, 0.5 to 1; K2O, 0.05 to 0.4; TiO2, 8 to 13; MnO, 0.2 to 0.3; and Cr2O3, 0.2 to 0.4. The high reducing capacity of the samples strongly suggests the presence of Ti(III).

  5. Major and trace elements in igneous rocks from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Telander, K.; Weiss, C.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of major and trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks from Apollo 15. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for minerals separated from sample 15085. Four samples have concentrations of trace elements that are similar to those of KREEP. The samples of mare basalt from Apollo 15 have higher concentrations of FeO, MgO, Mn, and Cr and lower concentrations of CaO, Na2O, K2O, and rare-earth elements (REE) as compared to the samples of mare basalt from Apollos 11, 12, and 14. The samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their normative compositions. One group is quartz normative and has low concentrations of FeO while the other is olivine normative and has high concentrations of FeO. The trace element data indicate that the samples of olivine normative basalt could be from different portions of a single lava flow.

  6. Antibacterial glass-composite coatings for protection of special purpose steel panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savvova, O.; Bragina, L.; Babich, E.

    2011-12-01

    It has been established that the most informative and universal method for determination of biocide properties of vitreous coatings is qualitative method that takes into account the growth level of biotest microorganisms inoculated into liquid nutrient media. It is shown, that biocidity of glass-composite coatings on the basis of glasses of Na2O - K2O - CaO - ZrO2 - TiO2 - Al2O3 - P2O5 - B2O3 - SiO2 system is determined by the presence of calcium phosphates in them and depends on the type of bactericide filler. The most effective ones by the action on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium and Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans fungi are zinc titanate and Ag+, to Escherichia coli- only zinc phosphate.

  7. Synergetic and inhibition effects in carbon dioxide gasification of blends of coals and biomass fuels of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Satyam Naidu, V; Aghalayam, P; Jayanti, S

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the enhancement of CO2 gasification reactivity of coals due to the presence of catalytic elements in biomass such as K2O, CaO, Na2O and MgO. Co-gasification of three Indian coal chars with two biomass chars has been studied using isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in CO2 environment at 900, 1000 and 1100°C. The conversion profiles have been used to establish synergetic or inhibitory effect on coal char reactivity by the presence of catalytic elements in biomass char by comparing the 90% conversion time with and without biomass. It is concluded that both biomasses exhibit synergistic behavior when blended with the three coals with casuarina being more synergetic than empty fruit bunch. Some inhibitory effect has been noted for the high ash coal at the highest temperature with higher 90% conversion time for the blend over pure coal, presumably due to diffusional control of the conversion rate.

  8. Thermodynamic physico-chemical modelling and calculation for the synthesis process of modern functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, A. B.; Ralys, R.; Kremnev, D.; Radin, M.; Slobodov, A.

    2017-02-01

    The method of thermodynamic modeling of phase and chemical transformations for synthesis conditions of multicomponent functional materials is presented. Calculation of the phase transformations taking place in the conditions of synthesis and operation of ceramic materials on the basis of the system SiO2 – K2ONa2O – Al2O3 – Fe2O3 – CaO – MgO – TiO2 – P2O5 – SO3 in the field of temperatures from 0 to 2000° C is carried out. The sequence of phase and chemical transformations between components of synthesizable material and their reaction products, depending on temperature, is founded.

  9. Effect of CaO on the selectivity of N2O decomposition products: A combined experimental and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingnan; Hu, Xiaoying; Qin, Wu; Gao, Pan; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The effect of CaO on N2O decomposition and the selectivity of its decomposition products (NO and N2) was investigated using a fixed-bed flow reactor with varying temperatures from 317 °C to 947 °C. The selectivity of NO from CaO-catalyzed N2O decomposition is much lower than the N2 selectivity with the N2/NO products ratio greater than 12.1. Compared to N2O homogeneous decomposition with the minimum N2/NO products ratio of 6.2 at 718 °C, CaO also decreases the NO selectivity from 718 °C to 947 °C. Density functional theory calculations provide possible N2O decomposition routes on the CaO (1 0 0) surface considering both N2 and NO as N2O decomposition products. The N2 formation route is more favorable than the NO formation route in terms of energy barrier and reaction energy, and NO formation on the CaO (1 0 0) surface is likely to proceed via N2O + Osurf2- → N2 + O2 , surf2- and N2O + O2 , surf2- → 2NO + Osurf2-.

  10. CaO insulator coatings on a vanadium-base alloy in liquid 2 at.% calcium-lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-10-01

    The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-15%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy (round bottom samples 6-in. long by 0.25-in. dia.) to liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% dissolved calcium was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 300-464{degrees}C. The solute element, calcium in liquid lithium, reacted with the alloy substrate at these temperatures for 17 h to produce a calcium coating {approx}7-8 {mu}m thick. The calcium-coated vanadium alloy was oxidized to form a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer on V-15Cr-5Ti, measured in-situ in liquid lithium that contained 2 at.% calcium, was 1.0 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 300{degrees}C and 400 h, and 0.9 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm{sup 2} at 464{degrees}C and 300 h. Thermal cycling between 300 and 464{degrees}C changed the resistance of the coating layer, which followed insulator behavior. Examination of the specimen after cooling to room temperature revealed no cracks in the CaO coating. The coatings were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray analysis. Adhesion between CaO and vanadium alloys was enhanced as exposure time increased.

  11. Sampling and major element chemistry of the recent (A.D. 1631-1944) Vesuvius activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Kilburn, C.R.J.; de Vivo, B.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed sampling of the Vesuvius lavas erupted in the period A.D. 1631-1944 provides a suite of samples for comprehensive chemical analyses and related studies. Major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fetotal, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K and P), volatile species (Cl, F, S, H2O+, H2O- and CO2), and ferrous iron (Fe2+) were determined for one hundred and forty-nine lavas and five tephra from the A.D. 1631-1944 Vesuvius activity. The lavas represent a relatively homogeneous suite with respect to SiO2, TiO2, FeOtotal, MnO and P2O5, but show systematic variations among MgO, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3 and CaO. The average SiO2 content is 48.0 wt.% and the rocks are classified as tephriphonolites according to their content of alkalis. All of the lavas are silica-undersaturated and are nepheline, leucite, and olivine normative. There is no systematic variation in major-element composition with time, over the period A.D. 1631-1944. The inter-eruption and intra-eruption compositional differences are the same magnitude. The lavas are highly porphyritic with clinopyroxene and leucite as the major phases. Fractionation effects are not reflected in the silica content of the lavas. The variability of MgO, K2O, Na2O, and CaO can be modelled as a relative depletion or accumulation of clinopyroxene. ?? 1993.

  12. Biomineral microstructures in ferromanganese nodules: evidence of the biological and abiogenous origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysyuk, G. N.

    2011-10-01

    Manganese oxides, which are widespread and of great practical importance, are formed and transformed by the active role of microorganisms. Manganese aggregates occur as both crystallized varieties and disordered fine-grained phases with significant ore grade and up to 50-60 vol % of X-ray amorphous components. X-ray amorphous nanosizedMn oxides in Fe-Mn nodules from the Pacific Ocean floor were examined from the standpoint of their biogenic origin. SEM examination showed abundant mineralized biofilms on the studied samples. The chemical composition of bacterial mass is as follows (wt %): 28.34 MnO, 17.14 Fe2O3, 7.11 SiO2, 2.41 CaO, 17.90 TiO2, 1.74Na2O,1.73 A12O3,1.30 MgO, 1.25P2O5,1.25 SO3,0.68 CoO, 0.54 CuO, 0.53 NiO, and 0.50 K2O. The chemical composition of fossilized cyanobacterial mats within the interlayer space of nodules is as follows (wt %): 48.35 MnO, 6.23 Fe2O3, 8.76 MgO, 5.05 A12O3, 4.45 SiO2, 3.63 NiO, 2.30 Na2O, 2.19 CuO, 1.31 CaO, and 0.68 K2O is direct evidence for participation of bacteria in Mn oxide formation. This phase consists of mineralized glycocalix consisting of nanosized flakes of todorokite. Native metals (Cu, Fe, and Zn) as inclusions 10-20 μm in size were identified in ferromanganese nodules as well. The formation of native metals can be explained by their crystallization at highly reducing conditions maintained by organic matter.

  13. GEMAS: Distribution of major elements in Polish agricultural soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusza-Dobek, Aleksandra; Pasieczna, Anna; Kwecko, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Amount and quality of produced food is highly dependent on soil chemical properties and composition. The GEMAS project (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil of Europe) has provided new homogeneous geochemical data for Polish agricultural soils. This study presents the distribution of common major elements such as CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, SiO2, determined in 129 samples of agricultural soil of Poland. The total element concentrations obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were compared with the results from aqua regia acid digestion determined by ICP-MS. The distribution patterns of selected major elements reveal two major geochemical provinces - the northern province and the southern province, distinguished with respect to the natural geochemical background and resulting from the geological evolution of the region. The soil of the northern province (Polish Lowland), dominated by glacial deposits, show low contents of CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, and high contents of SiO2. High silica content reflects the presence of sand-rich deposits which belong to the larger European feature with cover sands and loess of mainly Weichselian age and stretching from Ukraine to western Germany and Denmark. The southern province is characterised by high concentrations of almost all major elements (except SiO2). Soils in the Sudetes, Upper Silesia and the Carpathian Mountains developed in majority on pre-Quaternary rocks. In the Sudetes, soil formed on magmatic and metamorphic rocks of Paleozoic age. In the Carpathians and Upper Silesia, the flysch and molasse formations containing various material of magmatic and sedimentary origin constitute the immediate substratum of soil.

  14. Characterization of forest biodiversity in Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Mapping canopy species richness is a key to the study and conservation of biological diversity in tropical forests, but to date, no reliable methods exist for operational biodiversity mapping of tropical regions. Airborne imaging spectroscopy has proven potential for the discrimination of canopy tree species, as a combination of high spectral and spatial resolution allows measurement of subtle spectral variations among individual tree crowns, corresponding to the chemical properties of the leaves in different species. We developed a method to estimate the Shannon diversity index, a popular biodiversity indicator, of a forest canopy from airborne spectral data by building upon the Spectral Variation Hypothesis, which relates biological diversity to spectral variability. We collected and analyzed hyperspectral data acquired by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) over the Los Amigos Conservation Concession in the Peruvian Amazon. The data have a spatial resolution of 2.0 m and 217 bands evenly spaced between 380 nm and 2510 nm. The method relies on a k-means clustering of a subset of pixels randomly selected from a site, each cluster serving as a proxy for different species. Each pixel in the image is then assigned to the nearest 'proxy-species', the Shannon index is computed for a given area, i.e. 1 ha, and the process is repeated several times to obtain the average estimated Shannon index. To test our approach, we applied the method to two types of data acquired by CAO AToMS. The first was an artificial gradient of biological diversity generated using pixels corresponding to species identified during a field campaign. This artificial gradient allowed total control on the number of species (ranging from 1 to 36 species per ha), and accurate quantification of the results. The spectral diversity index mapped using our method showed a strong correlation with the actual Shannon diversity index (R^2=0.81). The second dataset

  15. Cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2-CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-CaO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Lan; Wang, Wei; Li, Shi-Chao; Cao, Shan-Hui

    2010-12-01

    The cathodic behavior of molten CaCl2, CaCl2-CaO and equimolar CaCl2-NaCl-CaO was studied by cyclic voltammograms and constant potential polarization at temperatures of 1123 to 1173 K on molybdenum and titanium electrodes. The diffusion coefficient of Ca2+ (CaO) in molten CaCl2-CaO was calculated from the linear relationship between the square root of scan rate and the peak current density. The deposition potentials and the potential temperature coefficient of CaO in molten CaCl2-0.5mol%CaO and CaCl2-NaCl-0.5mol%CaO were also obtained from their cyclic voltammograms. The result shows that CaO is more easily reduced than CaCl2. The addition of NaCl in molten CaCl2-CaO induces the underpotential electrodeposition of CaO.

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang) on P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuka; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the effects of various Kampo medicines on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter, in vitro. The present study focused on Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), which shows the most potent inhibitory effects on P-gp among the 50 Kampo medicines studied, and investigated the P-gp inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto herbal ingredients (rhubarb and licorice root) and their components by an ATPase assay using human P-gp membrane. Both rhubarb and licorice root significantly inhibited ATPase activity, and the effects of rhubarb were more potent than those of licorice root. The content of rhubarb in Daiokanzoto is double that in licorice root, and the inhibition patterns of Daiokanzoto and rhubarb involve both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto are mainly due to rhubarb. Concerning the components of rhubarb, concentration-dependent inhibitory effects were observed for (−)-catechin gallate, (−)-epicatechin gallate, and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, rhubarb may cause changes in the drug dispositions of P-gp substrates through the inhibition of P-gp. It appears that attention should be given to the interactions between these drugs and Kampo medicines containing rhubarb as an herbal ingredient. PMID:22969825

  17. Preparation and characterizaton of CaO nanoparticle for biodiesel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Jharna; Agarwal, Madhu

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticle of CaO from calcium Nitrate (CaO/CaN) and Snail shell (CaO/SS) are successfully synthesized by method as described in the literature and used as an active and stable catalyst for the biodiesel production. These catalysts are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The average crystalline size in nanometer was also calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation. The performance of the CaO/CaN and CaO/SS were tested for their catalytic activity via transesterification process and it was found that biodiesel yield has been increased from 93 to 96%. The optimum conditions for the highest yield were 8wt% catalyst loading, 65°C temperature, 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, and 6 h for reaction time. The nano catalyst from snail shell exhibits excellent catalytic activity and stability for the transesterification reaction, which suggested that this catalyst would be potentially used as a solid base nano catalyst for biodiesel production. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from snail shell, five transesterification reaction cycles were also performed.

  18. Strain-induced topological transition in SrRu2O6 and CaOs2O6

    DOE PAGES

    Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Trivedi, Nandini; ...

    2016-05-24

    The topological property of SrRumore » $$_2$$O$$_6$$ and isostructural CaOs$$_2$$O$$_6$$ under various strain conditions is investigated using density functional theory. Based on an analysis of parity eigenvalues, we anticipate that a three-dimensional strong topological insulating state should be realized when band inversion is induced at the A point in the hexagonal Brillouin zone. For SrRu$$_2$$O$$_6$$, such a transition requires rather unrealistic tuning, where only the $c$ axis is reduced while other structural parameters are unchanged. However, given the larger spin-orbit coupling and smaller lattice constants in CaOs$$_2$$O$$_6$$, the desired topological transition does occur under uniform compressive strain. Our study paves a way to realize a topological insulating state in a complex oxide, which has not been experimentally demonstrated so far.« less

  19. Fabrication and performance testing of CaO insulator coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Corrosion resistance of structural materials, and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion, are major concerns in the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs). The objective of this study is to develop in-situ stable coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on coatings that can be converted to an electrically insulating film to prevent adverse currents that are generated by the MHD force from passing through the structural walls. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5Cr-5Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5 - 8.5 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degree}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degree}C to produce a CaO coating.

  20. Canopy spectral and chemical diversity from lowland to tree line in the Western Amazon using CAO-VSWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Canopy chemistry and spectroscopy offer insight into community assembly and ecosystem processes in high-diversity tropical forests. Results from one lowland site in the Peruvian Amazon suggests both an environmental and an evolutionary component of canopy trait development however, the degree to which larger environmental differences influence diversity in canopy traits and their respective spectroscopic signatures across remains poorly understood. The spectranomics approach explicitly connects phylogenetic, chemical and spectral patterns in tropical canopies providing the basis for analysis, while high-fidelity, airborne remote sensing measurements extend plot-level data to landscape-scale, achieving a comprehensive view of the region. In 2011, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) was used to sample a large region of the Western Amazon Basin in southeastern Peru, extending from lowlands to tree line in the Andean mountains. The CAO Visible-Shortwave Imaging Spectrometer (VSWIR) collected 480-band high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy data of the forest canopy, while its high-resolution LiDAR captured information on canopy structure and the underlying terrain. The data were used to quantify relationships between environmental gradients and canopy chemical and spectral diversity. Results suggest strong environmental control with additional phylogenetic influence over canopy spectral and chemical properties, particularly those related to structure, defense and metabolic function. Data from CAO-VSWIR extends the large range in canopy chemical and spectral diversity related to environmental factors across the Western Amazon Basin.

  1. Individuality and Stability in Male Songs of Cao Vit Gibbons (Nomascus nasutus) with Potential to Monitor Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chang-Yong; Fei, Han-Lan; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Vocal individuality and stability has been used to conduct population surveys, monitor population dynamics, and detect dispersal patterns in avian studies. To our knowledge, it has never been used in these kinds of studies among primates. The cao vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only one small population living in a karst forest along China-Vietnam border. Due to the difficult karst terrain, an international border, long life history, and similarity in male morphology, detailed monitoring of population dynamics and dispersal patterns are not possible using traditional observation methods. In this paper, we test individuality and stability in male songs of cao vit gibbons. We then discuss the possibility of using vocal individuality for population surveys and monitoring population dynamics and dispersal patterns. Significant individuality of vocalization was detected in all 9 males, and the correct rate of individual identification yielded by discriminant function analysis using a subset of variables was satisfactory (>90%). Vocal stability over 2–6 years was also documented in 4 males. Several characters of cao vit gibbons allowed long-term population monitoring using vocal recordings in both China and Vietnam: 1) regular loud calls, 2) strong individuality and stability in male songs, 3) stable territories, and 4) long male tenure. During the course of this research, we also observed one male replacement (confirmed by vocal analysis). This time- and labor-saving method might be the most effective way to detect dispersal patterns in this transboundary population. PMID:24788306

  2. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-02-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5--85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400--420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance. which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes(e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {ge}360{degrees}C.

  3. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    PubMed

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer.

  4. The Software Package PAOLAC: an embedment of the analytical code PAOLA within the CAOS problem-solving environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbillet, Marcel; Jolissaint, Laurent; Maire, Anne-Lise

    We present the Software Package PAOLAC (“PAOLA within Caos”) in its first distributed version. This new numerical simulation tool is an embedment of the analytical adaptive optics simulation code PAOLA (“Performance of Adaptive Optics for Large (or Little) Apertures”) within the CAOS problem-solving environment. The main goal of this new tool is to allow an easier and direct comparison between studies performed with the analytical open-loop code PAOLA and studies performed with the end-to-end closed-loop Software Package CAOS (“Code for Adaptive Optics Systems”), with the final scope of better understanding how to take advantage from the two approaches: one analytical allowing extremely quick results on a wide range of cases and the other extremely detailed but with a computational and memory costs which can be impressive. The practical implementation of this embedment is briefly described, showing how this absolutely does not affect any aspect of the original code which is simply directly called from the CAOS global graphical interface through ad hoc modules. A comparison between end-to-end modelling and analytical modelling is hence also initiated, within the specific framework of wide-field adaptive optics at Dome C, Antarctica.

  5. Melting of CaO and CaSiO3 at Deep Mantle Condition Using First Principles Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, S. K.; Ghosh, D. B.; Karki, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate prediction of melting temperatures of major mantle minerals at high pressures is important to understand the Hadean Earth as well as to explain the observed seismic anomalies at ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ). To further investigate the geophysical implications of our recent first principles study of molten CaO and CaSiO­3, we calculated the melting temperatures of the corresponding solid phases by integrating the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The melting behavior of their high-pressure phases can constrain the lower mantle solidus. Our calculations show melting temperature of 5700 ± 500 kelvins for CaSiO3 and 7800 ± 600 kelvins for CaO at the base of the lower mantle (136 GPa). The bulk sound velocities of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids at the core-mantle boundary are found to be 40 % lower than P-wave seismic velocity and 22 % lower than that of MgSiO3 liquid. With substantial decrease of melting temperature by freezing point depression and iron partitioning, the partial melting of multi-component silicate and its gravitational buoyancy at ULVZ cannot be ruled out.

  6. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst.

    PubMed

    Witoon, Thongthai; Bumrungsalee, Sittisut; Vathavanichkul, Peerawut; Palitsakun, Supaphorn; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2014-03-01

    Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325μm achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent %FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles.

  7. Fusing Hyperspectral and LiDAR data from CAO-VSWIR for Increased Data Dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.; Boardman, J. W.; Kennedy-Bowdoin, T.; Eastwood, M.; Anderson, C.; Martin, R. E.; Green, R. O.

    2012-12-01

    The use of multi-sensor platforms for scientific data collection requires precise co-location in order to gain maximum data dimensionality for Earth system research. The different types of collection mechanisms of the sensors (e.g., scanning and pushbroom) can make it difficult to precisely match data from multiple sensors, even when the sensors are flown on the same aircraft at the same time. To overcome these problems, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) AToMS sensor suite uses a method that maximizes the match between the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Visible-to-Near Infrared (VNIR), and Visible-to-Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) sensors. This is done by generating an intensity image from the LiDAR data that serves as a base on which the spectrometers (VNIR and VSWIR) are matched using ground control points (GCPs). To do so, we employ the use of automated tie point matching in the overlap regions of the spectrometers to improve the co-location between flightlines. The combination of the GCPs and tie points produce data that is used to build camera models for the VNIR and VSWIR spectrometers such that they will match the LiDAR data. The result produces a matched hyper-dimensional data set with great scientific information content. We compare the data dimensionality of two contrasting scenes - a built environment at Stanford University and a lowland tropical forest in Amazonia. Principal components analysis revealed 336 dimensions (degrees of freedom) in the Stanford case, and 218 dimensions in the Amazon. The Amazon case presents what could be the highest level of remotely sensed data dimensionality ever reported for a forested ecosystem. Simulated misalignment of data streams reduced the effective information content by up to 48%, highlighting the critical role of achieving high precision when undertaking multi-sensor fusion. The instrumentation and methods described here are a pathfinder for future airborne applications undertaken by the National

  8. Theoretical study on influence of CaO and MgO on the reduction of FeO by CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong; Er, Dequan; Wen, Liangying

    2017-03-01

    Coating of CaO or MgO on the particle surface can prevent the sticking among iron ore particles effectively during fluidization process. However, CaO and MgO promote the formation of iron whiskers at high temperature, leading to the catastrophic defluidization. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were implemented to investigate the influence of CaO and MgO on reduction of FeO/Fe2O2 by CO. Our results show that the CO molecule tends to bind to FeO/Fe2O2 on CaO(100) and MgO(100) surfaces through newly formed C-Fe and Csbnd O bonds. The CaO(100) surface will accelerate the reduction reactions which occur on it, in particular, in the initial stage of reactions, however, will slow down the reactions in the posterior stage. For the MgO(100) surface, the reduction reactions which occur on it will be promoted. The positive roles displayed by CaO and MgO in promoting the reduction of FeO by CO accelerate the precipitation of fresh iron and therefore, leading to the formation of iron whiskers.

  9. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  10. Improved Retrieval of Chlorophyll and Carotenoids Contents at the Canopy Scale Using Hyperspectral CAO Data and PROSAIL Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.; Jacquemoud, S.; François, C.

    2008-12-01

    The sustainability of biodiversity requires frequent and spatially detailed assessment of species number and distribution, among other information. Remote sensing is one of the most promising way to achieve this environmental management due to reasonable cost and accuracy. However, the use of airborne and spaceborne data remains challenging: sensors must combine the appropriate spatial and spectral resolutions to retrieve pertinent environmental parameters that will permit identification of specific properties of organisms present in an ecosystem. Leaf area index (LAI), canopy structure and pigment composition of vegetation are valuable information to study ecosystem dynamics and distinguish between many species. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments are of particular interest because they are involved in photosynthesis, but until now, remote sensing was unable to assess these pigments separately and accurately. Some advances have been made recently with the separation of these pigments in PROSPECT-5, a radiative transfer model that simulates leaf spectral reflectance and transmittance at 1 nm resolution. PROSAIL, the joint vegetation canopy reflectance model associating PROSPECT-5 with 4SAIL, the latest version of the SAIL model, was first run in direct mode to design vegetation indices sensitive to leaf pigments. Subsequently, we retrieved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents using PROSAIL with CAO (Carnegie Airborne Observatory) data acquired in Hawaii. The CAO, an imaging spectrometer coupled with a 3-D laser scanner, has already demonstrated its ability to manage biodiversity in various ecosystems like tropical rainforests or savannah. Its performance make it particularly adapted to assess vegetation structure, biochemistry, and then fluxes. The first results obtained when processing CAO images with PROSAIL are promising in terms of chlorophyll and carotenoid retrieval at the canopy scale. They show that our approach can provide original information on vegetation

  11. On the use of ocean-atmosphere-wave models during an extreme CAO event: the importance of being coupled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Sandro; Barbariol, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Miglietta, Mario M.; Ricchi, Antonio; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    During winter 2012 an extreme meteorological event stroke the whole Europe and particularly its central-southern sector. A strong and persistent spit of cold air coming from Siberian region (a Cold Air Outbreak, CAO) insisted on northern Italy and the Adriatic sea basin, leading to decreases in the sea temperatures up to 6 °C in less than two weeks, ice formation on the Venice lagoon and an exceptional snow fall in the Apennine region. In the sea the CAO was associated to a significant episode of dense water formation (DWF), a crucial phenomenon that heavily impacts the whole Adriatic Sea (from the sinking of water masses and associated ventilation of the northernmost shelf, to the flow along the western coast, until the flushing of southern Adriatic open slope and submarine canyons, with associated sediment transport and bottom reshaping). The extent of the DWF event in the Northern Adriatic sub-basin was estimated by means of coastal observatories, ad hoc measurements and, until now, results from existing one-way coupled atmosphere-ocean models. These are characterized by no SST feedback from the ocean to the atmosphere, and therefore by turbulent heat fluxes that may heavily reflect a non-consistent ocean state. The study proposes an investigation of the 2012 CAO using a fully coupled, three components, ocean-atmosphere-wave system (COAWST). Results highlight that, although the energy interplays between air and sea do not seem to significantly impact the wind forecasts, when providing heat fluxes that are consistent with the ocean temperature we find modified heat fluxes and air sea temperatures figures. Moreover, the consistent description of thermal exchanges adopted in the fully coupled model can affect the basin circulation, the quantification of dense water produced mass, and the description of its migration pathways and rates of off-shelf descent.

  12. Behavioral responses of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) to variations in food abundance and temperature in Bangliang, Jingxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Fei, Han-Lan; Ma, Chang-Yong

    2012-07-01

    The Cao Vit gibbon is a critically endangered species with only about 110 individuals remaining in a degraded karst forest along the China-Vietnam border. Behavioral data from this site are particularly useful in understanding gibbon behavioral adaptations to different sets of ecological conditions and will contribute to the conservation of the species. We studied seasonal variation in the time budget and diet of the Cao Vit gibbon in response to variation in food availability and ambient temperature by observing two groups for 1,379 hr between January and December 2009. We used 5-min scan samples to record the activity of gibbons. Both ambient temperature and food availability varied from month to month. Gibbon groups increased resting time and huddled together in sleeping places in cold months. Gibbons spent more time feeding on fruit when fruit was more abundant suggesting that fruit was their preferred food. Alternatively, leaf eating was negatively correlated with leaf availability which suggested that leaves may be used as a fallback food. Gibbons increased their diet diversity when they ate more leaves. This might be a strategy to cope with toxins or digestion inhibitor accumulation associated with feeding from a limited number of leaf species. Individuals consumed more buds when Broussonetia papyrifera produced buds in March and April. During this period, they decreased traveling time and engaged in less frequent social interactions. Gibbons spent more time searching for and feeding on invertebrates during June and October. However, we did not collect data on invertebrate abundance and therefore cannot determine the relationship between invertebrate feeding and availability. We conclude that flexibility in consuming diverse food types and food species, and in responding to the availability of preferred foods, has enabled the Cao Vit gibbon to survive in a degraded karst forest habitat.

  13. Nepheline structural and chemical dependence on melt composition

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, José; Crum, Jarrod; Neill, Owen; McCloy, John

    2016-02-01

    Nepheline crystallizes upon slow-cooling in some melts concentrated in Na2O and Al2O3, which can result in a residual glass phase of low chemical durability. Nepheline can incorporate many components often found in high-level waste radioactive borosilicate glass, including glass network ions (e.g., Si, Al, Fe), alkali metals (e.g., Cs, K, Na, and possibly Li), alkaline-earth metals (e.g., Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg), and transition metals (e.g., Mn, and possibly Cr, Zn, Ni). When crystallized from melts of different compositions, nepheline chemistry varies as a function of starting glass composition. Five simulated high level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses shown to crystallize large fractions of nepheline on slow cooling, were selected for study. These melts constituted a range of Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3, and SiO2 compositions. Compositional analyses of nepheline crystals in glass by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) indicate that boron is unlikely to be present in any significant concentration, if at all, in nepheline. Also, several models are presented for calculating the fraction of vacancies in the nepheline structure.

  14. CO2 multicyclic capture of pretreated/doped CaO in the Ca-looping process. Theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Jose M; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E; Perejon, Antonio; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A

    2013-07-28

    We study in this paper the conversion of CaO-based CO2 sorbents when subjected to repeated carbonation-calcination cycles with a focus on thermally pretreated/doped sorbents. Analytical equations are derived to describe the evolution of conversion with the cycle number from a unifying model based on the balance between surface area loss due to sintering in the looping-calcination stage and surface area regeneration as a consequence of solid-state diffusion during the looping-carbonation stage. Multicyclic CaO conversion is governed by the evolution of surface area loss/regeneration that strongly depends on the initial state of the pore skeleton. In the case of thermally pretreated sorbents, the initial pore skeleton is highly sintered and regeneration is relevant, whereas for nonpretreated sorbents the initial pore skeleton is soft and regeneration is negligible. Experimental results are obtained for sorbents subjected to a preheating controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) program. By applying this preheating program in a CO2 enriched atmosphere, CaO can be subjected to a rapid carbonation followed by a slow rate controlled decarbonation, which yields a highly sintered skeleton displaying a small conversion in the first cycle and self-reactivation in the next ones. Conversely, carbonation of the sorbent at a slow controlled rate enhances CO2 solid-state diffusion, which gives rise, after a quick decarbonation, to a highly porous skeleton. In this case, CaO conversion in the first cycle is very large but it decays abruptly in subsequent cycles. Data for CaO conversion retrieved from the literature and from further experimental measurements performed in our work are analyzed as influenced by a variety of experimental variables such as preheating temperature program, preheating exposition time, atmosphere composition, presence of additives, and carbonation-calcination conditions. Conversion data are well fitted by the proposed model equations, which are of help for a

  15. A study of the dissociative recombination of CaO+ with electrons: Implications for Ca chemistry in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, D. L.; Gerding, M.; Höffner, J.; Martín, Juan Carlos Gómez; Plane, J. M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The dissociative recombination of CaO+ ions with electrons has been studied in a flowing afterglow reactor. CaO+ was generated by the pulsed laser ablation of a Ca target, followed by entrainment in an Ar+ ion/electron plasma. A kinetic model describing the gas-phase chemistry and diffusion to the reactor walls was fitted to the experimental data, yielding a rate coefficient of (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10-7 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K. This result has two atmospheric implications. First, the surprising observation that the Ca+/Fe+ ratio is 8 times larger than Ca/Fe between 90 and 100 km in the atmosphere can now be explained quantitatively by the known ion-molecule chemistry of these two metals. Second, the rate of neutralization of Ca+ ions in a descending sporadic E layer is fast enough to explain the often explosive growth of sporadic neutral Ca layers.

  16. High-temperature high-density heat storage using Ca(OH){sub 2}/CaO thermochemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Michito; Ogura, Hironao; Matsuda, Hitoki; Hasatani, Masanobu

    1996-12-31

    The applicability of Ca(OH ){sub 2}/CaO thermochemical reaction for high temperature level heat utilization and for storing heat converted from night-time electricity was studied. The operating temperature level and heat releasing/storing rate were investigated by means of lab-scale heat storage units and the results were evaluated in terms of theoretical values. It was found that the temperature of the CaO reactant bed during the heat-releasing step carried out under 500k Pa water vapor is upgraded from 773 K to 873 K. Complete regeneration was obtained under 670 K and 2-3 kPa. Another practical feature of this type of thermal energy storage system was proven by using an adiabatic reactor incorporated with a fin-type heat exchanger where the produced heat of hydration was recovered by raising the temperature of water from 300 K to 343 K for domestic use. The amount of the heat recovered by this storage unit was about 4 times higher than that will be recovered if the energy storage was carried out by sensible heat of water in the same volume. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  17. A study of the dissociative recombination of CaO+ with electrons: Implications for Ca chemistry in the upper atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Bones, D. L.; Gerding, M.; Höffner, J.; Martín, Juan Carlos Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The dissociative recombination of CaO+ ions with electrons has been studied in a flowing afterglow reactor. CaO+ was generated by the pulsed laser ablation of a Ca target, followed by entrainment in an Ar+ ion/electron plasma. A kinetic model describing the gas‐phase chemistry and diffusion to the reactor walls was fitted to the experimental data, yielding a rate coefficient of (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10−7 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 at 295 K. This result has two atmospheric implications. First, the surprising observation that the Ca+/Fe+ ratio is ~8 times larger than Ca/Fe between 90 and 100 km in the atmosphere can now be explained quantitatively by the known ion‐molecule chemistry of these two metals. Second, the rate of neutralization of Ca+ ions in a descending sporadic E layer is fast enough to explain the often explosive growth of sporadic neutral Ca layers. PMID:28239205

  18. CaO insulator and Be intermetallic coatings on V-base alloys for liquid-lithium fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop (a) stable CaO insulator coatings at the Liquid-Li/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coating that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the V-alloy wall, and (b) stable Be-V intermetallic coating for first-wall components that face the plasma. Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid-Li/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket application. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on oxygen-enriched surface layers of V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposing the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5-85 wt% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. Crack-free Be{sub 2}V intermetallic coatings were also produced by exposing V-alloys to liquid Li that contained Be as a solute. These techniques can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coatings are formed by liquid-phase reactions.

  19. Generation of hydrogen from polyvinyl chloride by milling and heating with CaO and Ni(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Tongamp, William; Zhang, Qiwu; Shoko, Miyagi; Saito, Fumio

    2009-08-15

    This work discusses an alternative process option for the treatment of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by producing hydrogen (H(2)) gas, at the same time fixing chlorine for proper environmental control. In the first-stage, a milling operation is performed in a planetary ball mill to obtain a mixture of PVC sample with CaO and Ni(OH)(2) to be used as feed in the second-step, involving heating of the milled product. Analyses by thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) showed H(2), CH(4), CO and CO(2) as main constituents. The results clearly show that addition of Ni(OH)(2) to provide nickel as catalyst and CaO as adsorbent to fix CO(2) and HCl gases generated during heating, assisted in clean H(2) generation with concentration near 90% at temperatures between 450 and 550 degrees C. Analyses of solids after heating by X-ray diffraction and TG-DTA techniques showed both CaOHCl and CaCO(3) as main phases in the product. This process could be developed to treat PVC wastes together with other polymers and/or plastic wastes for production of H(2) gas.

  20. Petrology and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Late Cretaceous continental rift ignimbrites, Kap Washington peninsula, North Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorarinsson, Sigurjon B.; Holm, Paul M.; Duprat, Helene I.; Tegner, Christian

    2012-03-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Palaeocene (71-61 Ma) Kap Washington Group (KWG) volcanic sequence is exposed at the north coast of Greenland. The sequence is bimodal and was erupted in a continental rift setting during the opening of the Arctic Ocean. The succession exposed on the Kap Washington peninsula, which forms the bulk of the KWG sequence (> 5 km thick), has been sampled along four traverses with a combined stratigraphic thickness of ca. 1500 m. The sampled sequence is dominated by silicic ignimbrites (69-79 wt.% SiO2) showing geochemical features typical of ferroan, A-type granitoids. The ignimbrites range from sparsely phyric, mildly peraluminous compositions [ASI = Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) = 1.05-1.20] to feldspar + quartz ± sodic amphibole ± Fe-Ti oxide phyric peralkaline compositions [PI = (Na2O + K2O)/Al2O3 = 1.00-1.40]. The peraluminous ignimbrites appear to overlie the peralkaline ignimbrites, although stratigraphy is complicated by faulting. Fiamme imbrication indicates that both types were erupted from a vent area located north of the Kap Washington peninsula. The peralkaline ignimbrites have Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions which overlap with the compositions of KWG basalts, indicating a dominantly basaltic source. The more peralkaline compositions were generated by up to ca. 50% fractional crystallisation of alkali feldspar-quartz-dominated assemblages from mildly peralkaline parental magmas, themselves probably derived by fractionation of trachytic magmas. The peraluminous ignimbrites have slightly negative ɛNd(i) and more radiogenic 207Pb/204Pbi and 208Pb/204Pbi. Modelling indicates that they are not cogenetic with the peralkaline ignimbrites and they are inferred to have originated by partial melting of hybridised mafic crust. Petrographic evidence suggests that magma mixing was an important process and variations in Nd-Pb isotopes and trace element ratios indicate mixing between peralkaline and peraluminous magma batches.

  1. Mudrock geochemistry of the proterozoic pretoria group, transvaal sequence (South Africa): geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, U. M.; Eriksson, P. G.; Snyman, C. P.

    1992-04-01

    Mudrocks of the 2300-2100 Ma Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, differ from published data on Proterozoic mudrocks from other parts of the world. Most SiO 2/Al 2O 3 and K 2O/Na 2O ratios lie outside the field of Proterozoic-Phanerozoic shales, with K 2O/Na 2O ratios becoming more widely spread with increasing stratigraphic height. Stratigraphic trends occur in the major element distribution within the Pretoria Group: Al 2O 3 and FeO (total) contents decrease upward, with a major change between the Silverton and Vermont Formations, whereas the opposite is true of MgO and CaO. The increase of the latter elements with stratigraphic height is possibly related to penecontemporaneous andesitic volcanism in the depository during the later stages of sedimentation. Higher Al 2O 3 and total iron contents towards the base of the group probably indicate more deeply weathered source materials, as is borne out by the Chemical Index of Alteration (Nesbitt and Young, 1982) of these older mudrocks. Mixed granitic to basaltic source rock composition is inferred from low Cr/Zr and intermediate TiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratios. Variable Th/Sc ratios suggest that sedimentary recycling did not play a major part during deposition of the Pretoria Group. A decrease in the determined loss on ignition for stratigraphically younger mudrock samples can be related to a reduced carbonaceous mudrock component. Low boron contents point to a freshwater palaeoenvironment rather than a marine depository.

  2. The Capilla del Monte pluton, Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina: the easternmost Early Carboniferous magmatism in the pre-Andean SW Gondwana margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Pankhurst, Robert J.; Rapela, Carlos W.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Saavedra, Julio; Baldo, Edgardo G.; Murra, Juan A.; da Costa Campos Neto, Mario

    2016-07-01

    New geochronological, geochemical, and isotopic data are reported for the Capilla del Monte two-mica granite pluton in the northeastern Sierras de Córdoba. An Early Carboniferous age is established by a U-Pb zircon concordia (336 ± 3 Ma) and a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (337 ± 2 Ma). Zircon saturation geothermometry indicates relatively high temperatures (735-800 °C). The granites have high average SiO2 (74.2 %), Na2O + K2O (7.8 %), and high field-strength elements, high K2O/Na2O (1.7) and FeO/MgO ratios (5.1), with low CaO content (0.71 %). REE patterns with marked negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.14-0.56) indicate crystal fractionation, dominantly of plagioclase and K-feldspar, from a peraluminous magma enriched in F. Isotope data (87Sr/86Srinitial = 0.7086, ɛ Nd336 = -5.5 to -4.4 with T DM = 1.5 Ga, zircon ɛ Hf336 +0.8 to -6.1; mean T DM = 1.5 Ga) suggest a Mesoproterozoic continental source, albeit with some younger or more juvenile material indicated by the Hf data. The pluton is the easternmost member of a Carboniferous A-type magmatic suite which shows an increase in juvenile input toward the west in this part of the pre-Andean margin. The petrological and geochemical data strongly suggest a similar intraplate geodynamic setting to that of the nearby but much larger, Late Devonian, Achala batholith, although Hf isotope signatures of zircon suggest a more uniformly crustal origin for the latter. Further studies are required to understand whether these bodies represent two independent magmatic episodes or more continuous activity.

  3. Cao-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated activation of K+ channels is blunted in CaR gene-deficient mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, P M; Ho-Pao, C L; Kanazirska, M P; Ye, C; Hong, K; Seidman, C E; Seidman, J G; Brown, E M

    1997-04-14

    The extracellular Ca2+ (Cao)-sensing receptor (CaR) is expressed in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that it could mediate some of the well recognized but poorly understood direct actions of Cao on neuronal function. This study presents evidence that the CaR is functionally coupled to Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels. The effects of CaR agonists on these channels in neurons from wild type (WT) and CaR-deficient (CaR -/-) mice were compared. Neomycin (100 mM) and elevation of Cao from 0.5 to 3 mM significantly increased the probability of channel opening (Po) in neurons from WT but not in those from CaR -/- mice. Thus the CaR activates neuronal K+ channels and could potentially inhibit neuronal excitability and neurotransmission via membrane repolarization.

  4. Bioactivity, pre-osteoblastic cell responses, and osteoconductivity evaluations of the electrospun non-woven SiO2-CaO gel fabrics.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yang-Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Kang, Young Mi; Kim, In Ae; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2009-08-01

    The evaluations of the fibers characteristics, bioactivity, pre-osteoblastic cell responses, and osteoconductivity of the non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric made by electrospinning method was carried out. Silica gels with four different calcium contents were prepared by condensation following hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate under acidic conditions. The molar ratios of Ca to Si prepared ranged from 0 to 0.15. SiO(2)-CaO gel fabrics were heat-treated at 300 degrees C for 3 h after spinning under an electric field of 2 kV/cm. As the Ca to Si ratio increased, the diameter of electrospun SiO(2)-CaO gel fibers increased because the viscosity of the SiO(2)-CaO gel solution increased. The apatite-forming ability of heat-treated, non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric was evaluated in simulated body fluid and tended to increase with an increasing Ca to Si molar ratio. However, proliferation and differentiation tended to decrease with an increasing Ca to Si molar ratio. The sample which had the Ca to Si ratio as 0.10 showed good osteoconductivity in vivo in the calvarial defect New Zealand white rabbit model compared to that had the Ca to Si ratio as 0 and empty defect. These results strongly suggest that non-woven SiO(2)-CaO gel fabric made by the electrospinning method has potential for application as a bone grafting material.

  5. Hydrogen-rich gas production via CaO sorption-enhanced steam gasification of rice husk: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Sayyed Mohsen; Ghassemi, Hojat; Shahsavan-Markadeh, Rasoul; Fremaux, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Gasification is a thermochemical process in which solid or liquid fuels are transformed into synthesis gas through partial oxidation. In this paper, a kinetic model of rice husk gasification has been developed, which is interesting for the applications of the syngas produced. It is a zero-dimensional, steady-state model based on global reaction kinetic, empirical correlation of pyrolysis and is capable of predicting hydrogen yield in the presence of sorbent CaO. The model can also be used as a useful tool to investigate the influence of process parameters including steam/biomass ratio, CaO/fuel ratio (CaO/Fuel), and gasification temperature on hydrogen efficiency, CO2 capture ratio (CCR), and average carbonation conversion (Save). Similar to hydrogen formation, CCR also increases with increasing CaO/Fuel, but an opposite trend is exhibited in Save. Model predictions were compared with available data from the literature, which showed fairly good agreement.

  6. Environmental controls on plant chemical traits: Using the CAO-VSWIR to characterize patterns in a mediterranean-type ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Here we present results from a new imaging spectrometer, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory's (CAO) Visible-Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor, and we use these data to map key plant functional traits in a semi-arid ecosystem, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Woodside, CA USA). We considered four fundamental plant traits: leaf nitrogen per mass (Nmass, %), leaf carbon per mass (Cmass, %), leaf water fraction (WL), and canopy water fraction (WC).With these maps we ask the following questions: (1) How do these traits vary with environmental gradients and land use history, independent of species composition? (2) Does information about plant community improve our ability to explain trait patterns? And (3) what does the variation within plant communities tell us about the underlying processes driving or limiting this ecosystem? We show that the new CAO-VSWIR combined with partial least squares regression can effectively map these four plant chemical traits across multiple plant functional types (observed v. predicted R2s ranging from 0.55 for WL to 0.84 for Cmass). To consider how these traits varied with environmental gradients we used simultaneous autoregressive modeling and found, in general, that environment and land-use history together explained about a quarter of the variation in each trait, but that information about plant community boundaries dramatically improved our predictive power. While 29 - 44% of the variation in these four traits remained unexplained, when we considered the trait distributions within each plant community we found that most plant communities were sharply peaked (leptokurtic) or near normal, while a few communities were more evenly distributed (platykurtic) for each trait. These results show that, even though environmental gradients play a small but significant role, most of the plant communities at Jasper Ridge are characterized by a narrow range of trait patterns. For the few communities that are highly divergent, possible causal

  7. Dry mechanochemical synthesis of hydroxyapatites from DCPD and CaO: influence of instrumental parameters on the reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mochales, Carolina; El Briak-BenAbdeslam, Hassane; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Terol, Alain; Planell, Josep A; Boudeville, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Mechanochemistry is a possible route to synthesize calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) with an expected molar calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) ratio +/-0.01. To optimize the experimental conditions of CDHA preparation from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium oxide by dry mechanosynthesis reaction, we performed the kinetic study varying some experimental parameters. This kinetic study was carried out with two different planetary ball mills (Retsch or Fritsch Instuments). Results obtained with the two mills led to the same conclusions although the values of the rate constants of DCPD disappearance and times for complete reaction were very different. Certainly, the origin of these differences was from the mills used, thus we investigated the influence of instrumental parameters such as the mass and the surface area of the balls or the rotation velocity on the mechanochemical reaction kinetics of DCPD with CaO. Results show that the DCPD reaction rate constant and the inverse of the time for complete disappearance of CaO both vary linearly with (i) the square of the rotation velocity, (ii) the square of eccentricity of the vial on the rotating disc and (iii) the product of the mass by the surface area of the balls. These observations comply with theoretical models developed for mechanical alloying. The consideration of these four parameters allows the transposition of experimental conditions from one mill to another or the comparison between results obtained with different planetary ball mills. These instrumental parameters have to be well described in papers concerning mechanochemistry or when grinding is an important stage in a process.

  8. Tephra record from the Sea of Marmara for the last 70 ka and its paleoceanographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagatay, M.; Wulf, S.; Guichard, F.; Ozmaral, A.; Sancar; Akçer-Ön, S.; Henry, P.; Gasperini, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea of Marmara (SoM) is a gateway between the Mediterraean and Black seas, and a tectonically active basin located on a transform plate boundary. Tephra record in the SoM is therefore very important for dating palaeoceanographic, paleoclimatic and tectonic events. We report three tephra units in cores from the SoM extending back to ca 70 ka BP and including an upper marine and a lower lacustrine units separated by a 12 ka (uncalib.) boundary. The uppermost tephra unit is up to 8 mm thick layer in the marine unit. It is heterogenous phonolitic with high total alkali content of 12.4-15.7 wt % and K2O/Na2O of 0.9 to 1.2. The middle and lower tephra layers occur in the lacustrine unit in ca 29 m-long Core MD-01-2430. The middle tephra (MT-1) is a 70 mm-thick homogeneously rhyolitic layer. The lower tephra (MT-2) is 140 mm thick and has a phonolitic-trachytic composition with CaO content of 1.7-1.9 wt % and bimodal K2O/Na2O of 1.0-1.4. Using their geochemical composition and stratigraphic analysis, we assign the tephra units, from top to bottom, to Vesuvius AP2 Pumice, Santorini Cape Riva and Campanian Ignimbrite, which have been previously dated at 3.5 ka BP, 21.95 ka BP, and 39.3 ka BP (all calender ka). The continuous sedimentary record in the Core MD-01-2430 covering the last ca 70 ka indicates that the SoM was lacustrine, disconnected from the Mediterraean Sea during MIS4, MIS3 and most of MIS2. This implies that the sill depth of the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) was shallower than the present-day -65 m sill depth during MIS3 and MIS4. Figure 1: Morphotectonic map of the Sea of Marmara showing location of the studied cores (red stars). Figure 2: Geochemical biplots of tephra glass composition. a) Total alkali silica diagram b) FeO versus total alkalies for allocating cryptotephras from core MNTKS34 and ML01 to the AP2 tephra from Vesuvius. c) FeO versus CaO for correlating tephra MT1 with the Y-2 tephra from Santorini. d) SiO2 versus CaO for discriminating the

  9. First measurement of the dissociative recombination of CaO+ with electrons brings closure to Ca ion recycling chemistry in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bones, David; Plane, John

    2016-04-01

    Modelling the temporal and spatial extent of the metal layers in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere requires knowledge of the rate coefficients of dissociative recombination of metal oxide ions with electrons. Previously, these coefficients have been assumed to be 3 × 10-7 cm3 s-1 at 200 K. In this study the coefficient has been measured directly for the dissociative recombination of CaO+. Measurements are made in a flowing afterglow system with a Langmuir probe. Calcium oxide ions are introduced into an argon ion/electron plasma by pulsed laser ablation of a solid target. The relative concentration of CaO+ is measured by a quadrupole mass spectrometer as a function of flow rate (3 - 5 slm), which is inversely proportional to the reaction time of the CaO+ ions with the electrons in the plasma (2.1 to 3.5 ms). Charge transfer reactions between argon ions and neutral molecules complicate the analysis. A kinetic model describing gas-phase chemistry and diffusion to the reactor walls was fitted to the experimental data to extract the DR rate coefficient for CaO+. Unlike other metals present in the atmosphere, Ca+ ions are far more abundant than neutral Ca. The new DR rate coefficient is used to explore possible reasons for this anomaly in a model of meteor-ablated calcium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  10. Conversion of melt-derived microfibrous borate (13-93B3) and silicate (45S5) bioactive glass in a simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2013-03-01

    Microfibrous bioactive glasses are showing a considerable capacity to heal soft tissue wounds, but little information is available on the mechanism of healing. In the present study, the conversion of microfibrous borate bioactive glass (diameter = 0.2-5 μm) with the composition designated 13-93B3 (5.5 Na2O, 11.1 K2O, 4.6 MgO, 18.5 CaO, 3.7 P2O5, 56.6 B2O3 wt%) was evaluated in vitro as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C using structural and chemical techniques. Silicate 45S5glass microfibers (45 SiO2, 24.5 Na2O, 24.5 CaO, 6 P2O5 wt%) were also studied for comparison. Microfibrous 13-93B3 glass degraded almost completely and converted to a calcium phosphate material within 7-14 days in SBF, whereas >85 % of the silica remained in the 45S5 microfibers, forming a silica gel phase. An amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) product that formed on the 13-93B3 microfibers crystallized at a slower rate to hydroxyapatite (HA) when compared to the ACP that formed on the 45S5 fibers. For immersion times >3 days, the 13-93B3 fibers released a higher concentration of Ca into the SBF than the 45S5 fibers. The fast and more complete degradation, slow crystallization of the ACP product, and higher concentration of dissolved Ca in SBF could contribute to the capacity of the microfibrous borate 13-93B3 glass to heal soft tissue wounds.

  11. Pan-African alkali granites and syenites of Kerala as imprints of taphrogenic magmatism in the South Indian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosh, M.; Drury, S. A.; Iyer, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    Granite and syenite plutons with alkaline affinities ranging in age from 550 to 750 Ma sporadically puncture the Precambrian granulites of the Kerala region. All the bodies are small (20 to 60 sq km), E-W to NW-SE elongated elliptical intrusives with sharp contacts and lie on or close to major late Proterozoic lineaments. Geochemical plots of A-F-M and An-Ab-Or relations show an apparent alkali enrichment trend on the former, but the plutons define relatively distinct fields on the latter. Most of the plutons are adamellitic to granitic by chemistry. The variations of SiO2 with log sub 10 K2O/MgO (1) brings out the distinct alkaline nature of the plutons. Some of the granites are extremely potassic, like the Peralimala pluton, which shows up to 11.8 percent K2O. On a SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O+K2O (mol percent) plot, the plutons vary from peraluminous to peralkaline, but none are nepheline normative. Low MgO, low to moderate CaO and high Fe2O3/FeO values are other common characteristics. Among trace elements, depletion of Ba, Sr and Rb with high K/Ba and K/Rb values are typical. Overall, the plutons show a trend of decreasing K/Rb ratio with increasing K content. Individual plutons show more clearly defined trends similar to those from granitic masses characterized by plagioclase fractionation.

  12. Oxidation of CoO into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in CoO-ZrO{sub 2}(CaO) and Co{sub 1{minus}x}Ni{sub x}O-ZrO{sub 2}(CaO) lamellar eutectic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleurielle, M.; Dhalenne, G.; Millot, F.; Revcolevschi, A.

    1995-09-01

    Unidirectional solidification experiments were carried out at the eutectic composition of the systems CoO-ZrO{sub 2}(CaO) and Co{sub 1{minus}x}Ni{sub x}O-ZrO{sub 2}(CaO) yielding materials made of regularly aligned lamellar structures. These eutectic samples were submitted to a high temperature chemical oxidation treatment under oxygen, in conditions where CoO should be oxidized into Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The study of partially oxidized samples shows that Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} is formed by two mechanisms which are presented together with the corresponding kinetics.

  13. Materials Data on TbNa2O3 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Geological control of canopy structure and function in Panamanian forests as identified by CAO-AToMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R. E.; Knapp, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations and their edaphic properties are known to control plant species composition in tropical forests. It has been speculated that these edaphic and compositional patterns might also be translated into functional patterns, but this has been difficult to test due to a lack of broad-scale but detailed canopy structural and functional data. Here we use the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), which combines a 480-band visible-to-shortwave imaging spectrometer (VSWIR) with dual waveform LiDAR, to generate ultra-high resolution data on geomorphology, canopy structure, and canopy chemistry for forests in the vicinity of the Panama Canal. Using these remotely-sensed data, in conjunction with field data on soils and plant species composition, we demonstrate that geological formations regulate forest structure and chemistry in these forests via changes in soils and plant species composition. These chemical properties, moreover, correspond to canopy functional properties including photosynthetic investment and anti-herbivore defenses. Together, our findings indicate that forest canopy structure and function in these forests are an expression their geological history, over which variations due to contemporary variables such as climate are overlaid.

  15. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV.

  16. Sleeping tree selection of Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) living in degraded karst forest in Bangliang, Jingxi, China.

    PubMed

    Fei, Han-Lan; Scott, Matthew B; Zhang, Wen; Ma, Chang-Yong; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Fan, Peng-Fei

    2012-11-01

    We studied the sleep-related behavior of two Cao Vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) groups in Bangliang Nature Reserve in Jingxi County, China between January 2008 and December 2009 to test four hypotheses related to sleeping tree selection (predation avoidance, thermoregulation, food access, and range defense). Gibbons entered sleeping trees 88 ± SD 37 min before sunset before their main potential nocturnal predator become active. They usually moved rapidly and straight to sleeping trees and kept silent once settled. Over the course of the study, gibbon groups used many (87 and 57 per group) sleeping trees and reused them irregularly. They also tended to sleep in relatively tall trees without lianas, choosing small branches close to the treetop. These behaviors would make it difficult for potential terrestrial predators to detect and approach the gibbons. Therefore, these results strongly support the predation avoidance hypothesis. Gibbons tended to sleep closer to ridges than to valley bottoms and they did not sleep at lower elevations in colder months. They thus appeared not to select sleeping trees to minimize thermoregulatory stress. Gibbons very rarely slept in feeding trees, instead generally sleeping more than 100 m away from the last feeding trees of the day or the first feeding tree of the next morning. These patterns led us to reject the food access hypothesis. Lastly, we did not find evidence to support the range defense hypothesis because gibbons did not sleep in overlap areas with neighbors more often than expected based on the proportion of overlap and exclusively used areas.

  17. Geochemistry of sedimentary-derived migmatite from NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Scodina, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    In NE Sardinia at Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia (NE Sardinia), crops out a sequence of migmatized ortho and paragneiss, belonging to the Variscan basement's axial zone. Sedimentary-derived migmatite, which have a layered appearance in the field, were affected by three major variscan folding phase. D2, which is characterized by tight folds, is the most widespread deformation in the field. Leucosomes consists of discontinuous centimetre-thick, coarse-grained layers, that follow the S2 schistosity and are folded by D2 deformation phase. The contact with mesosome is sharp and sometimes marked by melanosome trails. They consist of quartz, plagioclase, very rare K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite, fibrolite, and rare kyanite. Plagioclase is unzoned oligoclase, though in some cases a thin albite rim is observed. Muscovite occurs as: i) single small- to medium-grained flakes enclosed in feldspar; ii) coarse grained crystals associated to biotite, fibrolite, and opaques, iii) in intergrowth with biotite to form thin elongated, slightly oriented trails, marking the faint foliation. Mesosomes are medium-grained, well foliated rocks, consisting of quartz, plagioclase muscovite, , biotite, fibrolite ± K-feldspar ± garnet. Fibrolite, muscovite and biotite are associated, to form strongly oriented, thick levels. Muscovite also occurs as unoriented crystals, showing quartz exsolutions and thin rims. A few mm-thick melanosome is usually present at the boundary between the leucosomes and mesosomes. Leucosomes are characterized by: SiO2: 75.4-77.9; Al2O3: 13.2-14.5; Fe2O3tot: 0.3-0.5; MgO: 0.1-0.2; CaO: 2.7- 3.7; Na2O: 3.9-4.6; K2O: 0.4-0.6 wt.%. An interesting feature is the relative high calcium content already described in other sedimentary-derived migmatite from Sardinia (Cruciani et al., 2008). In the normative Ab-An-Or diagram (Barker, 1979) the leucosomes plot at the boundary between trondhjemite/tonalite fields. All leucosomes are corundum normative and peraluminous

  18. Materials Data on K2O (SG:12) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-05-20

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. First-principles calculations of surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) oxide film: The case of water-based surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xin; Zapol, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Surfactant-assisted growth of polar CaO(111) oxide film in the presence of water-based surfactant is studied by first-principles calculations both from thermodynamic and kinetic points of view. We show that the water molecules not only supply a surfactant by depositing hydrogen on the surface throughout the growth process, but also supply oxygen atoms as an elemental constituent in the film growth with rather small energy barriers, i.e. water oxygen atoms are easily inserted in the top surface layer of the growth film during the wet oxidation process. Adding the water surfactants to conventional synthesis techniques leads to the continuous presence of hydrogen atoms in the surface region during the growth process, which efficiently quenches polarity and dynamically stabilizes the growth of the polar surface, and thus facilitates the growth of defect-free CaO(111) films with arbitrary thickness.

  20. Role of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO additives on structural and microstructural behavior of zirconia/mullite aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, D. K.; Prusty, Sasmita; Mohapatra, B. K.; Singh, S. K.; Behera, S. N.

    2012-07-23

    Zirconia mullite (MUZ), Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MUZ, CaO-MUZ and MgO-MUZ composites, synthesized through plasma fusion technique, are becoming important due to their commercial scale of production within five minutes of plasma treatment from sillimanite, zircon and alumina mixture. The X-ray diffraction studies reveal the monoclinic zirconia phase in MUZ composite whereas mixed monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic phases of zirconia have been observed in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO added MUZ composites. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO and MgO additives act as sintering aids to favour the transformation and stabilisation of tetragonal and cubic zirconia phases at room temperature. These additives also play a key role in the development of various forms of microstructure to achieve dense MUZ composites.

  1. The effect of Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3 and MgO on devitrification of silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    The effect of doping on devitrification of vitreous silica was studied at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Dispersion of dopants on a molecular scale was accomplished via a sol-gel technique. All dopants accelerated the devitrification of silica but to different degrees. The most active was CaO followed by MgO, Al2O3, and Cr2O3. Pure silica and silica containing Cr2O3 and Al2O3 devitrified to alpha-cristobalite only, whereas silica doped with CaO and MgO produced alpha-quartz and alpha-cristobalite. It appears that prolonged heat treatment would cause alpha-quartz to transform to alpha-cristobalite.

  2. The Vibrational Frequencies of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2: A Comparison of Theoretical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Chertihin, George V.; Andrews, Lester; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of several states of CaO2, ScO2, and TiO2 are computed at using density functional theory (DFT), the Hatree-Fock approach, second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and the complete-active-space self-consistent-field theory. Three different functionals are used in the DFT calculations, including two hybrid functionals. The coupled cluster singles and doubles approach including the effect of unlinked triples, determined using perturbation theory, is applied to selected states. The Becke-Perdew 86 functional appears to be the cost effective method of choice, although even this functional does not perform well for one state of CaO2. The MP2 approach is significantly inferior to the DFT approaches.

  3. Preparation of CaO as OLED getter material through control of crystal growth of CaCO{sub 3} by block copolymers in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2009-01-08

    As the starting materials of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) getter, calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) particles with various shapes and crystal structures have been successfully prepared with additives (L64 or PEGPG), which contain blocks of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO). These CaCO{sub 3} particles were calcinated into highly crystalline calcium oxide (CaO) nanoparticles with high capacity of water adsorption up to 14.23 wt.%. The CaCO{sub 3} and CaO particles prepared at various conditions were characterized using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) method.

  4. (CaO · Al2O3 · SiO2): Eu phosphors for violet/ultraviolet-to-white radiation conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, N. T.; Paksyutov, K. V.; Terent'ev, M. A.; Shirokov, A. V.

    2012-02-01

    (2CaO · 0.5Al2O3 · 5SiO2): Eu and (CaO · 0.2Al2O3 · SiO2): Eu phosphors doped with B2O3 in an amount of 3 wt % are obtained by direct solid-phase synthesis at 1350°C. When excited by LED radiation with a maximum at 380 nm, these phosphors emit white light with color coordinates, which are close to those in the EBU and NTSC TV standards and fall into the field of white light corresponding to light warning systems according to the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

  5. Preserved Collateral Blood Flow in the Endovascular M2CAO Model Allows for Clinically Relevant Profiling of Injury Progression in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Little, Philip; Kvist, Ola; Grankvist, Rikard; Jonsson, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Söderman, Michael; Arnberg, Fabian; Holmin, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Short (90 min), Intermediate (180 min) or Extended (600 min) transient M2CAO and examined longitudinally with interleaved diffusion-, T2- and arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before and after reperfusion. We identified a rapid emergence of cytotoxic edema within tissue regions undergoing infarction, progressing in several distinct phases in the form of subsequent moderation and then reversal at 230 min (p < 0.0001). We identified also the early emergence of vasogenic edema, which increased consistently before and after reperfusion (p < 0.0001). The perfusion of the penumbra correlated more strongly to the perfusion of adjacent tissue regions than did the perfusion of regions undergoing infarction (p = 0.0088). This was interpreted as an effect of preserved collateral blood flow during M2CAO. Accordingly, we observed only limited recruitment of penumbra regions to the infarction core. However, a gradual increase in infarction size was still occurring as late as 10 hours after M2CAO. Our results indicate that patients suffering MCA branch occlusion stand to benefit from interventional therapy for an extended time period after the emergence of ischemic injury. PMID:28068417

  6. Effect of CaO on the conductivity and dielectric properties of novel Fe 2O 3·CaO·Bi 2O 3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghi, Sujata; Duhan, Sarita; Agarwal, Ashish; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2010-09-01

    Iron calcium bismuthate glasses having composition 0.05Fe 2O 3·0.95{ xCaO·(100- x)Bi 2O 3} ( x=30, 35 and 40 mol%) were prepared using normal melt quench technique. Complex impedance spectra of these glasses have been recorded in the temperature range 523-633 K and in the frequency range 20 Hz-1 MHz. The complex impedance data have been analyzed using the conductivity as well as electric modulus formalisms. The dc conductivity increases and activation energy decreases when CaO content increases. The modification of the glass network, due to the increase in CaO content, is responsible for the increase in conductivity. The frequency dependence of ac conductivity is found to obey the Jonscher power law. At low frequencies, dispersion was investigated in terms of dielectric loss. Significant changes in the values of the non exponential parameter ( β) and the power law exponent ( s) of the ac electrical properties have been observed as a function of CaO in the present glasses. A single ‘master curve’ for the normalized plots of all the modulus isotherms observed for a given composition indicates that the conductivity relaxation is temperature independent. The overlapping of the normalized peaks corresponding to impedance ( Z″) and electric modulus ( M″) suggests the same thermal activation energy for conduction and relaxation, which further suggests a single mechanism for the dynamic processes in the present glasses.

  7. Adsorption energies of mercury-containing species on CaO and temperature effects on equilibrium constants predicted by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Gyeong; Li, Xinxin; Blowers, Paul

    2009-03-03

    The adsorption of Hg, HgCl, and HgCl2 on the CaO surface was investigated theoretically so the fundamental interactions between Hg species and this potential sorbent can be explored. Surface models of a 4 x 4 x 2 cluster, a 5 x 5 x 2 cluster, and a periodic structure using density functional theory calculations with LDA/PWC and GGA/BLYP functionals, as employed in the present work, offer a useful description for the thermodynamic properties of adsorption on metal oxides. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constant for the adsorption of mercury-containing species on the CaO (0 0 1) surface was investigated with GGA/BLYP calculations in the temperature range of 250-600 K. Results show that, at low coverage of elemental mercury, adsorption on the surface is physisorption while the two forms of oxidized mercury adsorption undergo stronger adsorption. The adsorption energies decrease with increasing coverage for elemental mercury on the surfaces. The chlorine atom enhances the adsorption capacity and adsorbs mercury to the CaO surface more strongly. The adsorption energy is changed as the oxidation state varies, and the equilibrium constant decreases as the temperature increases, in good agreement with data for exothermic adsorption systems.

  8. CaO insulator coatings and self-healing of defects on V-Cr-Ti alloys in liquid lithium system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kassner, T.F.

    1995-09-01

    Electrically insulating and corrosion-resistant coatings are required at the liquid metal/structural interface in fusion first-wall/blanket applications. Electrical resistance of CaO coatings that were produced on V-5%Cr-5%Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li containing 0.5-85 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degrees}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degrees}C to produce a CaO coating. Resistance of the coating layer measured in-situ in liquid Li was {approx}10{sup 6} {Omega} at 400{degrees}C. Thermal cycling between 300 and 700{degrees}C changed the coating layer resistance, which followed insulator behavior. These results suggest that thin homogeneous coatings can be produced on variously shaped surfaces by controlling the exposure time, temperature, and composition of the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes (e.g., inside/outside of tubes, complex geometrical shapes) because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. Examination of the specimens after cooling to room temperature revealed no spallation, but homogeneous crazing cracks were present in the CaO coating. Additional tests to investigate the in-situ self-healing behavior of the cracks indicated that rapid healing occurred at {>=}360{degrees}C.

  9. Synthesis of Ni supported by CaO from Ni(0)L complexes (L=dihydrazine, bisethylenediamine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perangin-angin, Sabarmin; Bangun, Nimpan; Ginting, Adil; Putri, Nabila Karina

    2017-01-01

    Ni/CaO have been synthesis by using thermal reaction between Ni(0)L complexes (L=dihydrazine, bisethylenediamine) and CaO from Ca-stearate or CaCO3. Ni(0)L complexes (L=dihydrazine, bisethylenediamine) prepared by ligand substitution between Cl and hydrazine to perform dichlorohydrazine-Nickel (II) and this reaction monitored by IR spectroscopy and then mention as A. Two ways reaction have been used due to obtain dihydrazine-Nickel (0) from dichlorohydrazine-Nickel (II). The resulted dihydrazine-Nickel (0), B and E, then analyzed by FT-IR. To compare the result, dichloroethylenediamine-Nickel (II), as C, also has been prepared by ligand substitution between Cl and ethylenediamine. The obtain dichloroethylenediaminedichloro-Nickel (II) was then further reduction by using Zinc dust then analyzed by IR spectroscopy and result bisethylenediamine-Nickel (0), as D. The N-H functional groups have been indicated at 3500 - 3000 cm -1 for all A-E. Ni(0)L that obtain then characterized by SEM-EDX to confirm the morphology and molecules that contain in Ni(0)L that form. The reaction between Ca-stearate and dihydrazine-Nickel (0) then resulted black that mention as F. While the reaction between CaCO3 and Ni(0)L respectively resulted Ni/CaO, G, H and I. Ni/CaO surface then characterized by XRD, SEM-EDX and surface area analysis. The EDX analysis confirm the forming compounds of Ni/CaO. All of G, H and I are mesoporous materials.

  10. Mapping the geographic distribution of canopy species communities in lowland Amazon rainforest with CAO-AToMS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feret, J.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping regional canopy diversity will greatly advance our understanding as well as the conservation of tropical rainforests. Changes in species composition across space and time are particularly important to understand the influence of climate, human activity and environmental factors on these ecosystems, but to date such monitoring is extremely challenging and is facing a scale gap between small-scale, highly detailed field studies and large-scale, low-resolution satellite observations. Advances were recently made in the field of spectroscopic imagery for the estimation of canopy alpha-diversity, and an original approach based on the segmentation of the spectral space proved its ability to estimate Shannon diversity index with unprecedented accuracy. We adapted this method in order to estimate spectral dissimilarity across landscape as a proxy for changes in species composition. We applied this approach and mapped species composition over four sites located in lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazon. This study was based on spectroscopic imagery acquired using the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS), operating a unique sensor combining the fine spectral and spatial resolution required for such task. We obtained accurate estimation of Bray-Curtis distance between pairs of plots, which is the most commonly used metric to estimate dissimilarity in species composition (n=497 pairs, r=0.63). The maps of species composition were then compared to topo-hydrographic properties. Our results indicated a strong shift in species composition and community diversity between floodplain and terra firme terrain conditions as well as a significantly higher diversity of species communities within Amazonian floodplains. These results pave the way for global mapping of tropical canopy diversity at fine geographic resolution.

  11. Reconnaissance study of the Taylor Mountains pluton, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Travis L.; Miller, Marti L.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Layer, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The Taylor Mountains pluton is a Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (median age 65 + or ? 2 Ma) epizonal, composite biotite granite stock located about 235 km (145 mi) northeast of Dillingham in southwestern Alaska. This 30 km2 (12 mi2) pluton has sharp and discordant contacts with hornfels that developed in Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks of the Kuskokwim Group. The three intrusive phases in the Taylor Mountains pluton, in order of emplacement, are (1) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar phenocrysts in a coarse-grained groundmass, (2) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar and smaller, but still coarse, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts in a fine-grained groundmass, and (3) fine-grained, leucocratic, equigranular granite. The porphyritic granites have different emplacement histories, but similar compositions; averages are 69.43 percent SiO2, 1.62 percent CaO, 5.23 percent FeO+MgO, 3.11 percent Na2O, and 4.50 percent K2O. The fine-grained, equigranular granite is distinctly felsic compared to porphyritic granite; it averages 75.3 percent SiO2, 0.49 percent CaO, 1.52 percent FeO+MgO, 3.31 percent Na2O, and 4.87 percent K2O. Many trace elements including Ni, Cr, Sc, V, Ba, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, La, Ce, Th, and Nd are strongly depleted in fine-grained equigranular granite. Trace elements are not highly enriched in any of the granites. Known hydrothermal alteration is limited to one tourmaline-quartz replacement zone in porphyritic granite. Mineral deposits in the Taylor Mountains area are primarily placer gold (plus wolframite, cassiterite, and cinnabar); sources for these likely include scattered veins in hornfels peripheral to the Taylor Mountain pluton. The granite magmas that formed the Taylor Mountains pluton are thought to represent melted continental crust that possibly formed in response to high heat flow in the waning stage of Late Cretaceous subduction beneath interior Alaska.

  12. Fault controlled Carboniferous A-type magmatism in the proto-Andean foreland (Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina): Geochemical constraints and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlquist, Juan A.; Alasino, Pablo H.; Eby, G. Nelson; Galindo, Carmen; Casquet, César

    2010-03-01

    The intrusion of granitoids into the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas in the Early Carboniferous took place after a long period of mainly compressional deformation that included the Famatinian (Ordovician) and Achalian (Devonian) orogenies. These granitoids occur as small scattered plutons emplaced in a dominant extensional setting, within older metamorphic and igneous rocks, and many of them are arranged along a reactivated large shear zone. A set of 46 samples from different granitic rocks: Huaco granitic complex, San Blas pluton, and the La Chinchilla stock from the Sierra de Velasco, Zapata granitic complex from Sierra de Zapata, and the Los Árboles pluton from Sierra de Fiambalá, display high and restricted SiO 2 contents between 69.2 and 76.4 wt.%. On both FeO/(FeO + MgO) vs. SiO 2 and [(Na 2O + K 2O) - CaO] vs. SiO 2 plots the samples plot in the ferroan and alkaline-calcic to calco-alkaline fields (FeO/(FeO + MgO) = 0.88-1.0%;[(Na 2O + K 2O) - CaO] = 6.3-8.3%), thus showing an A-type granitoid signature. The high concentrations for the High Field Strength Elements (HSFE), such as Y, Nb, Ga, Ta, U, Th, etc. and flat REE patterns showing significant negative Eu anomalies are also typical features of A-type granites. Our petrogenetic model supports progressive fractional crystallization with dominant fractionation of feldspar and a source mineral assemblage enriched in plagioclase. Biotites have distinctive compositions with high FeO/MgO ratios (7.8-61.5), F (360-5610 ppm), and Cl (120-1050 ppm). The FeO/MgO ratios together with the F and Cl content of igneous biotites seem to reflect the nature of their parental host magmas and may be useful in identifying A-type granitoids. The isotopic data (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd) confirm that the A-type granites represent variable mixtures of asthenospheric mantle and continental crust and different mixtures lead to different subtypes of A-type granite (illustrating the lack of consensus about A-type magma origin). We conclude that

  13. A study of machine learning regression methods for major elemental analysis of rocks using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Thomas F.; Ozanne, Marie V.; Carmosino, Marco L.; Dyar, M. Darby; Mahadevan, Sridhar; Breves, Elly A.; Lepore, Kate H.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-05-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Curiosity rover is generating thousands of LIBS spectra and bringing interest in this technique to public attention. The key to interpreting Mars or any other types of LIBS data are calibrations that relate laboratory standards to unknowns examined in other settings and enable predictions of chemical composition. Here, LIBS spectral data are analyzed using linear regression methods including partial least squares (PLS-1 and PLS-2), principal component regression (PCR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), elastic net, and linear support vector regression (SVR-Lin). These were compared against results from nonlinear regression methods including kernel principal component regression (K-PCR), polynomial kernel support vector regression (SVR-Py) and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) regression to discern the most effective models for interpreting chemical abundances from LIBS spectra of geological samples. The results were evaluated for 100 samples analyzed with 50 laser pulses at each of five locations averaged together. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were employed to evaluate the statistical significance of differences among the nine models using their predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) to make comparisons. For MgO, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, and MnO, the sparse models outperform all the others except for linear SVR, while for Na2O, K2O, TiO2, and P2O5, the sparse methods produce inferior results, likely because their emission lines in this energy range have lower transition probabilities. The strong performance of the sparse methods in this study suggests that use of dimensionality-reduction techniques as a preprocessing step may improve the performance of the linear models. Nonlinear methods tend to overfit the data and predict less accurately, while the linear methods proved to be more generalizable with better predictive performance. These results are attributed to the high dimensionality of the data (6144 channels

  14. Characterization and origin of the Taishanmiao aluminous A-type granites: implications for Early Cretaceous lithospheric thinning at the southern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changming; Chen, Liang; Bagas, Leon; Lu, Yongjun; He, Xinyu; Lai, Xiangru

    2016-07-01

    Late Mesozoic magmatic rocks from the Taishanmiao Batholith were collected for LA-ICP-MS dating, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope systematics, and whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry to help understand the nature of collisional and extensional events along the southern margin of the North China Craton. The batholith consists of three texturally distinguishable phases of a 125 ± 1 Ma medium- to coarse-grained syenogranite, a 121 ± 1 Ma fine- to medium-grained syenogranite, and a 113 ± 1 Ma porphyritic monzogranite. Most of the units in the batholith are syenogranitic in composition with high levels of silica (70-78 wt% SiO2), alkalis (8.0-8.6 wt% Na2O + K2O), Fe* (FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) = 0.76-0.90), and depletion in CaO (0.34-1.37 wt%), MgO (0.12-0.52 wt%), TiO2 (0.09-0.40 wt%), and A/CNK (Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO)) molar ratios of 1.00-1.11. All samples have high proportions of Ga, Nb, Zr, Ga/Al, and REE, and depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu, and compatible elements, indicating that the batholith consists of A-type granites. The zircon saturation temperature for these units yields a mean value of 890 °C, and zircons with Early Cretaceous magmatic ages have ɛNd( t) values of -14.0 to -12.0, ɛHf( t) values ranging from -18.7 to -2.1, and corresponding Hf model ages of 2339-1282 Ma. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics allowed us to conclude that the primary magma for the Taishanmiao Batholith originated from partial melting of Precambrian crustal rocks in the medium-lower crust. However, the high Nb and Ta contents and low normalized Nb/Ta values for the Taishanmiao granites are due to fractionation in Nb- and Ta-rich amphibole (or biotite). It is further proposed that these aluminous A-type granites were generated in an extensional tectonic setting during the Early Cretaceous, which was induced by lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling beneath eastern China toward the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  15. The CAOS System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    creates the static agents. In figure 4.4, a static agent named e.- gotcha -handler-i, an instance of the class el-observation-handler, is created on the...reportor-0 ol-thzeat-reporter-O el-dlust er-sanager-O el-cluster-manager-I el-clustr-manager-2 el- gotcha -handler el-emitter-trace-repozter-0)) Figure...observation-reader (2 2)) (.1-big-ear-handler-I 1 -observat ion-handler (I M) Cl-big-ear-handler-2 el-observation-handler (1 1)) (el- gotcha -handler-I el

  16. Use of CaO as an activator for producing a price-competitive non-cement structural binder using ground granulated blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Sik; Jun, Yubin; Lee, Changha Oh, Jae Eun

    2013-12-15

    The use of calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrates a superior potential for the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), and it produces a higher mechanical strength than calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}]. The mechanical strength differences between CaO- and Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated GGBFS binders are explored using isothermal calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA) as well as compressive strength testing. Calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H), Ca(OH){sub 2} and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found as reaction products in all samples. The TGA and DTA results indicate that the use of CaO produces more C–S–H, although this is not likely to be the primary cause of higher strength development in the CaO-activated GGBFS. Rather, other factors such as porosity may govern the strength at a higher order of magnitude. Significant reduction of Ca(OH){sub 2} occurs only with the use of Ca(OH){sub 2}, followed by the formation of carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), indicating carbonation. -- Highlights: •CaO showed a better potential for the activation of GGBFS than Ca(OH){sub 2}. •Strength test, XRD, TGA/DTA and isothermal calorimetry are used. •C-S-H, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and a hydrotalcite-like phase are found in all samples. •The use of Ca(OH){sub 2} causes some degree of carbonation.

  17. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  18. Impact of CaO, fly ash, sulfur and Na2S on the (im)mobilization and phytoavailability of Cd, Cu and Pb in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Amanullah; Wang, Ping; Ali, Amjad; Guo, Zhanyu; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Lahori, Altaf Hussain; Wang, Quan; Shen, Feng; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2016-12-01

    Soil heavy metals pollution is a serious problem worldwide due to its potential human health risks through food chain. Therefore, a sustainable solution is needed to efficiently remediate HMs contaminated soils. Our study aimed to assess the impact of CaO, fly ash, sulfur, and Na2S on the immobilization of Cd, Cu, and Pb and their uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis) in a contaminated soil. The concentration of DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, and Pb was significantly decreased as compared to control in treated soil. However, the solubility of Cd, Cu, and Pb has increased at greater extent in soil system which favored the uptake of metals in roots and shoots of Chinese cabbage. In general, Cd uptake was significantly increased in shoots followed by roots as compared to control. In addition, Cu has also same trend of increased uptake in shoots as compared to roots. However, the uptake Pb in shoots was considerably increased in Na2S treated samples whereas roots have shown great potential for Pb uptake in CaO treated samples as compared to control. Although, sulfur treatments had efficiently immobilized metals but reduced soil pH to highly acidic level which restricted the growth of Chinese cabbage in sulfur treated samples. We assume that sulfur amendment could be applied for immobilization of metals in alkaline soils rather than acidic soils to achieve better immobilization results. In order to achieve sustainable phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, and Pb using CaO, FA, and Na2S, the non-edible hyperaccumulators species are suggested to be investigated in future studies.

  19. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Dong-Ae, KIM; Hany, ABO-MOSALLAM; Hye-Young, LEE; Jung-Hwan, LEE; Hae-Won, KIM; Hae-Hyoung, LEE

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitro rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC. Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs. Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  20. The role of temperature on Cr(VI) formation and reduction during heating of chromium-containing sludge in the presence of CaO.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Zhai, Jianping; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Qin; Cui, Hao

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of Cr(VI) formation and reduction in the presence of CaO was examined during the thermal treatment of sludge that contains chromium. thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were used to characterize the thermal behavior and phase transformation, respectively. Na2CO3 leaching procedure was employed to determine the amount of Cr(VI). The result showed that CaO promoted Cr(III) oxidation, however, its influence is very dependent on heating temperature, with the extent of the effect varying with temperature. From 200-400 °C, the presence of CaO facilitated formation of intermediate product Cr2O3+x containing Cr(VI) during dehydration of chromium hydrate, while Cr2O3+x would decompose as temperature over 400 °C, accompanied by part of Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III). From 500 to 900 °C, Cr(III) reacted with CaO to form a leachable CaCrO4 product. This product was stable and a prolonged heating time did not reduce the amount of Cr(VI) significantly. At 1000-1200 °C, part of CaCrO4 was reduced to Ca(CrO2)2 in 1h. While extended heating time above 1h resulted in the Ca(CrO2)2 being oxidized reversibly to CaCrO4 at 1200 °C. Since CaCrO4 is thermodynamically less stable over 1000 °C, MgO could induce CaCrO4 to be reduced into MgCr2O4 at around 900 °C, lower than that for the reduction from CaCrO4 into Ca(CrO2)2. It suggested that adding MgO might be a potential approach for inhibiting Cr(VI) formation during heating sludge containing chromium.

  1. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou.

  2. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David A.

    2013-08-15

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst-capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam-coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO3 was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO-CaCO3 cycles. The increased steam-coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2-4% per CaO-CaCO3 cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier-calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO4 and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  3. Crystallization paths in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system as a genotype of silicate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutsyk, V. I.; Zelenaya, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The phases trajectories in the fields of primary crystallization of cristobalite (SiO2cr), tridymite (SiO2tr), mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and in a field of liquid immiscibility are analyzed on a basis of computer model for T-x-y diagram of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO system. The concentration fields with unique set of microconstituents and the fields without individual crystallization schemes and microconstituents are revealed.

  4. The role of melt-rock interaction in the formation of Quaternary high-MgO potassic basalt from the Greater Khingan Range, northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Qiang; Chen, Li-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xun; Zeng, Gang; Erdmann, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Melt-rock interaction between ascending melt and peridotite results in mantle metasomatism and also leads to compositional modification of the primary melt. While this process is known to occur, it is less well understood how the reactions and the composition of the resulting magma temporally evolve. Here whole-rock major and trace element, Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes, and olivine major element composition of Quaternary Nuominhe basalts in the Greater Khingan Range of northeast China are presented to unravel how melt-rock interaction modified the composition of the high-MgO potassic basalts as time progressed. The Nuominhe basalts are predominantly basanite with high MgO (8.1-16.8 wt %) and high total alkali content (K2O + Na2O = 6.0-9.2 wt %). They have high K2O/Na2O ratios (K2O/Na2O = 0.77-1.24) and low SiO2 and Al2O3 content (SiO2 = 44.4-48.7 wt %, Al2O3 = 10.5-13.2 wt %). They are characterized by enrichment in strongly incompatible elements, positive Ba, K, and Sr and negative Th, U, Zr, Hf, and Ti anomalies, similar to the composition of enriched mantle (EM1)-type oceanic island basalts (OIBs). Their isotopic composition also compares to that of EM1-type OIBs (i.e., with 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70467-0.70483, ɛNd = -4.1 to -1.5, ɛHf = -0.3 to 2.3, 206Pb/204Pb = 17.03-17.36). These elemental and isotopic characteristics are consistent with the interpretation that the potassium-rich melts were derived from recycled crustal materials with EM1 signature. Phlogopite-bearing mantle xenoliths and zoned olivine xenocrysts with high Fo89-92 and low CaO (<0.1 wt %) core and low Fo75-86 and high CaO (>0.1 wt %) rim composition record interaction between the ascending melt and mantle peridotite. Basalts erupted during late stages (Late Pleistocene and Holocene) of activity at the Nuominhe volcanic field show notably higher SiO2 content, Rb/Nb, Ba/Nb, K/La, and Ba/La, and lower MgO content than early-stage basalts (Early and Middle Pleistocene), which we infer to reflect a temporally

  5. Influences of CaO on Crystallization, Microstructures, and Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Tang, Bo; Xu, Mingjiang

    2015-10-01

    We have developed BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics with high thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) to overcome thermal mismatch at board level. The crystalline phases include quartz (major), cristobalite (minor), and bazirite BaZrSi3O9 (minor). Calculations from whole-pattern fitting show that the crystallinity varies slightly within the range of 33.48% to 34.89%, while the mass fraction of the phases changes remarkably with the CaO content. This indicates that CaO cannot promote crystallization of Ba-Al-B-Si glass, but effectively suppresses the phase transformation from quartz to cristobalite, making the thermal expansion curves linear. An empirical equation for the TCE versus the temperature and the amount of CaO is established. Furthermore, the densification mechanism of Ca modifiers is revealed. Due to its higher field strength than Ba, substitution of Ca increases the glass viscosity and inhibits ion diffusion. Excessive CaO is thus harmful to the density, bending strength, and electrical properties. The sample with 10 wt.% CaO sintered at 950°C exhibited high bending strength (154.1 MPa) and high TCE (12.38 ppm/°C) as well as good electrical properties ( ɛ = 6.2, tan δ = 5 × 10-4, ρ = 3.8 × 1012 Ω cm).

  6. Distribution of major and trace elements in surface sediments of the western Gulf of Thailand: Implications to modern sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengfa; Shi, Xuefa; Yang, Gang; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Kornkanitnan, Narumol

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we analyze major and trace elements (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, MgO, Na2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Cu, Pb, Ba, Sr, V, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, and Zr) and grain size of 157 surface sediment samples from the western Gulf of Thailand (GoT). On the basis of the space distribution characteristics, the study area can be classified into three geochemical provinces. Province I covers the northern and northwestern coastal zones of the GoT, including the whole upper GoT and thus the sediments from the rivers in the area. It contains high contents of SiO2. Province II is located in the middle of the GoT and has similar geochemistry composition as the South China Sea (SCS). It contains sediments that are characterized by higher contents of Na2O, TiO2, Ba, Cr, V, Zn, Zr, and Ni. Province Ш is located in the lower GoT, close to Malaysia. Major and trace elements in this area showed complex distribution patterns, which may be due to terrestrial materials from Malay rivers combining with some sediments from the SCS in this province. The results also indicate that grain size is the controlling factor in elemental contents, and that the hydrodynamic environment and mineral composition of the sediments play an important role in the distribution of these elements. The anthropogenic impact of heavy metal introduction (especially Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb) can be seen in surface sediments from the nearshore region of Chantaburi province and north of Samui Island.

  7. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  8. X-ray fluorescence analysis with micro glass beads using milligram-scale siliceous samples for archeology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2014-06-01

    A micro glass bead technique was developed to assay precious siliceous samples for geochemical and archeological analyses. The micro-sized (approximately 3.5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in height) glass beads were prepared by mixing and fusing 1.1 mg of the powdered sample and 11.0 mg of the alkali lithium tetraborate flux for wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence determination of major oxides (Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, and total Fe2O3). The preparation parameters, including temperature and agitation during the fusing process, were optimized for the use of a commercial platinum crucible rather than a custom-made crucible. The procedure allows preparation of minute sample amounts of siliceous samples using conventional fusing equipment. Synthetic calibration standards were prepared by compounding chemical reagents such as oxides, carbonates, and diphosphates. Calibration curves showed good linearity with r values > 0.997, and the lower limits of detection were in the 10s to 100s of μg g- 1 range (e.g., 140 μg g- 1 for Na2O, 31 μg g- 1 for Al2O3, and 8.9 μg g- 1 for MnO). Using the present method, we determined ten major oxides in igneous rocks, stream sediments, ancient potteries, and obsidian. This was applicable to siliceous samples with various compositions, because of the excellent agreement between the analytical and recommended values of six geochemical references. This minimal-scale analysis may be available for precious and limited siliceous samples (e.g., rock, sand, soil, sediment, clay, and archeological ceramics) in many fields such as archeology and geochemistry.

  9. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyu; Xie, Qinglong; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Effects of reaction temperature, CaO/HZSM-5 ratio, and corn stover/scum ratio on co-pyrolysis product fractional yields and selectivity were investigated. Results showed that co-pyrolysis temperature was selected as 550°C, which provides the maximum bio-oil and aromatic yields. Mixed CaO and HZSM-5 catalyst with the weight ratio of 1:4 increased the aromatic yield to 35.77 wt.% of feedstock, which was 17% higher than that with HZSM-5 alone. Scum as the hydrogen donor, had a significant synergistic effect with corn stover to promote the production of bio-oil and aromatic hydrocarbons when the H/C(eff) value exceeded 1. The maximum yield of aromatic hydrocarbons (29.3 wt.%) were obtained when the optimal corn stover to scum ratio was 1:2.

  10. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  11. Influence of CaO and SiO2 co-doping on the magnetic, electrical properties and microstructure of a Ni-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajalilou, A.; Hashim, M.; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, R.; Sarami, N.

    2015-04-01

    Effect of CaO and SiO2 additions on the grain growth and magnetic and electrical properties of a Ni-Zn ferrite was studied. The common oxides (x = 0.4CaO + 0.8SiO2) were added in different moles (x = 0, 0.02, 0.06, 0.012, 0.24 and 0.48) to Fe2O3, Zn, and NiO. The mixed powders were mechanically alloyed for 12 h using a high energy ball mill before heating at 1200 °C for 240 min. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and static hysteresisgraph, and later by an impedance analyzer with a frequency range from 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. The XRD results indicate a formation of single phase spinel structure in all the samples. The average grain size was affected by the additive contents so that their sizes grew, up to x = 0.06, and after that their sizes reduced from 0.631 to 0.371 μ at x = 0.48. The experimental density of the samples displayed an upward trend for x < 0.06, increasing from 5.39 g cm-3 (x = 0) to 5.51 g cm-3 (x = 0.06): afterwards, their values presented a downward trend, reducing to 4.01 g cm-3 at x = 0.48. Magnetic behaviors such as saturation magnetization ({{M}s} ) and induction magnetization ({{B}s} ) degraded as well as the real permeability of the samples by increasing the x content. The loss factor i.e. hysteresis loss also remarkably decreased by accumulation of SiO2 and CaO in the grain boundaries. The electrical resistivity was determined in the order of 6.9  ×  1010 Ω cm for x = 0 and 6.4  ×  1011 Ω cm for x = 0.48. Therefore, low relative loss factor and high resistivity make these ferrites particularly useful as inductor and transformer materials for high frequency applications.

  12. Conversion of borate-based glass scaffold to hydroxyapatite in a dilute phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Pan, Haobo; Fu, Hailuo; Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Huang, Wenhai

    2010-02-01

    Porous scaffolds of a borate-based glass (composition in mol%: 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5), with interconnected porosity of approximately 70% and pores of size 200-500 microm, were prepared by a polymer foam replication technique. The degradation of the scaffolds and conversion to a hydroxyapatite-type material in a 0.02 M K2HPO4 solution (starting pH = 7.0) at 37 degrees C were studied by measuring the weight loss of the scaffolds, as well as the pH and the boron concentration of the solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed that a hydroxyapatite-type material was formed on the glass surface within 7 days of immersion in the phosphate solution. Cellular response to the scaffolds was assessed using murine MLO-A5 cells, an osteogenic cell line. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the scaffolds supported cell attachment and proliferation during the 6 day incubation. The results indicate that this borate-based glass could provide a promising degradable scaffold material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  13. Multielement chemical and statistical analyses from a uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment survey in and near the Elkhorn Mountains, Jefferson County, Montana; Part II, Stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suits, V.J.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-two stream-sediment samples, collected from an area south of Helena, Jefferson County, Montana, were sieved into two size fractions (50 ppm for the fine fraction) were encountered in samples from the Warm Springs Creek drainage area, along Prickly Pear Creek near Welmer and Golconda Creeks and along Muskrat Creek. All groups showed a significant correlation at the 99 percent confidence level (r between 0.73 and 0.77) between U and Th. Uranium was found to correlate significantly only with Th (as mentioned above) and with -Ni in the fine fraction of the volcanics group. U correlates significantly with -Al2O3, Ba, organic C, -K2O, -Sr and Y in both size fractions for the Boulder batholith. Correlations between U and each of several elements differ for the fine and coarse fractions of the Boulder batholith group, suggesting that the U distribution in these stream sediments is in large part controlled by grain size. Correlations were found between U and CaO, Cr, Fe203, -Na2O, Sc, -SiO2, TiO2, Yb and Zr in the coarse fraction but not in the fine fraction. U correlates weakly (to the 90% confidence level, crc<.37) with -Co and -Cu in the fine but not the coarse fraction. These results are compared to a previous study in the northern Absaroka mountains. Correlation coefficients between all other elements determined from these samples are also shown in Tables 12 to 15.

  14. Reactions of yttria-stabilized zirconia with oxides and sulfates of various elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    The reactions between partially stabilized zirconia, containing 8 weight-percent yttria, and oxides and sulfates of various elements were studied at 1200, 1300, and 1400 C for times to 800, 400, and 200 hours, respectively. These oxides and sulfates represent impurities and additives potentially present in gas turbine fuels or impurities in the turbine combustion air as well as the elements of the substrate alloys in contact with zirconia. Based on the results, these compounds can be classified in four groups: (1) compounds which did not react with zirconia (Na2SO4, K2SO4, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and NiO); (2) compounds that reached completely with both zirconia phases (CaO, BaO, and BaSO4); (3) compounds that reacted preferentially with monoclinic zirconia (Na2O, K2O, CoO, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, and ZnO); and (4) compounds that reacted preferentially with cubic zirconia (V2O5, P2O5).

  15. Petrogenesis of selected A-type granitic intrusions from Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The Pan-African orogeny in the Arabian-Nubian Shield was terminated by intrusion of A-type granites (~ 595 Ma; Greenberg, 1981) and its volcanic equivalents. Subsequent to the intrusions of these granitic bodies the shield was exhumed. Eroded A-type granite pebbles were found in the molasse sediments that were deposited in intermountain basins. Therefore the A-type granites provide information about the last stage of the Pan-African geochemical system. Preliminary whole-rock geochemical data of three granitic intrusions (Kadabora, Um Naggat and El shiekh Salem) from the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt; indicate that all of them are peraluminous and with A-type characteristics. These intrusions show low CaO content (average 0.43 %wt), high FeOT/MgO ratio (10.46-121.88), high Na2O+K2O (average 8.04 %wt), marked enrichment of high field strength elements (Y, Nb and Ga except Zr), depletion in MgO (0.01-0.11 %wt) and with low concentration of Sr and Ba. The studied granitoids were emplaced in within plate tectonic regime. References: Greenberg, J.K. (1981): Characteristic and origin of Egyptian younger granites. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. Part 1, v.92: 224-232.

  16. A Structurally Based Viscosity Model for Oxide Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chih; Mills, Ken

    2014-04-01

    A structurally based viscosity model is proposed to represent the viscosity of oxide melts as functions of both temperature and composition; The oxide melts cover the following constituents: Li2O, Na2O, K2O, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, FeO, MnO, Al2O3, SiO2, CaF2, TiO2, Fe2O3, and P2O5. The model describes the slag structure in terms of the various forms of oxygen ions which are classified according to the metal cations they bond with. Approximate methods for calculating the concentrations of these oxygen ions are proposed and are then used to describe the effect of melt structure on viscosity. The model provides a good description of the variations in viscosity with composition and temperature. The measured viscosities were compared with values calculated with the model, and the current model was found to provide reliable estimates of viscosities of slags used in various industrial processes ( e.g., blast furnace, basic oxygen steelmaking, ladle refining, continuous casting of steel, coal gasification, and electroslag remelting).

  17. Straczekite, a new calcium barium potassium vanadate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Nord, G.; Marinenko, J.; Milton, C.

    1984-01-01

    Straczekite occurs as a rare secondary mineral in fibrous seams, along with other V minerals (A.M. 64-713), in ore from the vanadium mine in Wilson Springs (formerly Potash Sulfur Springs), Garland County, Arkansas. It forms soft, thin laths of dark greenish black crystals up to 0.5 mm in length. Indexed XRD data are tabulated; strongest lines 3.486(100), 10.449(50), 1.8306(50), 1.9437(15) A; a 11.679, b 3.6608, c 10.636 A, beta 100.53o; space group C2/m, C2 or Cm. Chemical analysis gave V2O5 66.4, V2O4 15.3, Fe2O3 0.9, Na2O 0.4, K2O 1.8, CaO 2.5, BaO 5.5, H2O 7.2, = 100.0, leading to the formula (Ca0.39Ba0.31K0.33Na0.11)- 196(V4+1.59V5+6.31Fe3+0.10)O20.02(H2O)2.9; Dcalc. 3.21 g/cm3. A possible layer structure is discussed. The name is for J. A. Straczek, Chief Geologist at Union Carbide Corp.-R.A.H.

  18. Petrology and oxygen isotope geochemistry of a fossil seawater hydrothermal system within the Solea graben, northern Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Peter; Smith, Brian M.

    1988-05-01

    Hydrothermal mineral zonations and O isotope patterns of the northern Troodos complex do not parallel the ophiolite pseudostratigraphy, but reflect the convective geometry of an Upper Cretaceous seawater hydrothermal system. Large areas of the sheeted intrusive complex (SIC), including the subaxial region of the Solea graben, are composed of 18O-rich, subgreenschist mineral assemblages and may represent regions of diffuse seawater recharge. Other areas of the SIC are recrystallized to distinctive epidosite rocks: granular, high-variance assemblages of epidote + quartz ± chlorite that are depleted in 18O, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Zr, Cu, and Zn and are enriched in CaO and Sr compared with other mafic volcanic and dike rocks of the Solea graben. Epidosite alteration occurred at temperatures of ˜310-370°C and involved fluids with δ18O values and salinities similar to those of Upper Cretaceous seawater. The epidosite zones are discordant with earlier, mineral/O isotope zonations and with the axis of spreading in the Solea graben, suggesting a postspreading, off-axis origin. The seawater hydrothermal system responsible for Solea graben massive sulfide deposits was probably driven by hypabyssal intrusions (not exposed), emplaced in a terminal, failed spreading episode. The geometries of O isotope surfaces within the Solea graben imply that the epidosites formed in fossil upflow and deep recharge conduits. Depletions in base metals show that epidosite alteration liberated Cu and Zn to mineralizing fluids within the fossil upflow zone.

  19. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Proterozoic granitic rocks from northern margin of the Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Bhupendra S.; Wanjari, Nishchal; Ahmad, Talat; Chaturvedi, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    This study presents the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks located on the northern margin of Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC), exposed in parts of Gaya district, Bihar and discusses the possible petrogenetic process and source characteristics. These granites are associated with Barabar Anorthosite Complex and Neo-proterozoic Munger-Rajgir group of rocks. The granitic litho-units identified in the field are grey, pink and porphyritic granites. On the basis of geochemical and petrographic characteristics, the grey and pink granites were grouped together as GPG while the porphyritic granites were named as PG. Both GPG and PG are enriched in SiO2, K2O, Na2O, REE (except Eu), Rb, Ba, HFSE (Nb, Y, Zr), depleted in MgO, CaO, Sr and are characterised by high Fe* values, Ga/Al ratios and high Zr saturation temperatures (GPGavg˜ 861 ∘C and PGavg˜ 835 ∘C). The REE patterns for GPG are moderately fractionated with an average (La/Yb)N˜ 4.55 and Eu/Eu* ˜ 0.58, than PG which are strongly fractionated with an average (La/Yb)N˜ 31.86 and Eu/Eu* ˜ 0.75. These features indicate that the granites have an A-type character. On the basis of geochemical data, we conclude that the granites are probably derived from a predominant crustal source with variable mantle involvement in a post-collisional setting.

  20. High-silica glass inclusions in olivine of Luna-24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Optical examination of nine polished grain mounts of Luna-24 drill-core material (0.09-0.50 mm size) revealed melt inclusions in olivine crystals. Two inclusions consist of clear glass with exceptionally high Si, yet contain no visible daughter minerals and have had no reaction effects with the olivine walls. Their compositions (one has SiO2 93.8, Al2O3 1.51, FeO 2.32, MgO 1.61, CaO 0.06, Na2O less than 0.05, K2O 0.11, total 99.41%; the other is similar) are unique and quite unlike the high-Si high-K melt of granitic composition that is found as inclusions in late-stage minerals of these (and the Apollo) samples, from silicate liquid immiscibility. The host olivines are Fo73 and Fo51. The origin of the melt in the inclusions and the lack of reaction effects are perplexing unsolved problems.

  1. Novel systems for tailored neurotrophic factor release based on hydrogel and resorbable glass hollow fibers.

    PubMed

    Novajra, G; Tonda-Turo, C; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Ciardelli, G; Geuna, S; Raimondo, S

    2014-03-01

    A novel system for the release of neurotrophic factor into a nerve guidance channel (NGC) based on resorbable phosphate glass hollow fibers (50P2O5-30CaO-9Na2O-3SiO2-3MgO-2.5K2O-2.5TiO2 mol%) in combination with a genipin-crosslinked agar/gelatin hydrogel (A/G_GP) is proposed. No negative effect on the growth of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cell line (NOBEC) as well as on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins was measured in vitro in the presence of fiber dissolution products in the culture medium. For the release studies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-20), taken as growth factor model molecule, was solubilized in different media and introduced into the fiber lumen exploiting the capillary action. The fibers were filled with i) FD-20/phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, ii) FD-20/hydrogel solution before gelation and iii) hydrogel before gelation, subsequently lyophilized and then filled with the FD-20/PBS solution. The different strategies used for the loading of the FD-20 into the fibers resulted in different release kinetics. A slower release was observed with the use of A/G_GP hydrogel. At last, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nerve guides containing the hollow fibers and the hydrogel have been fabricated.

  2. Mineralogical and chemical compositions of the paleosols of different ages buried under kurgans in the southern Ergeni region and their paleoclimatic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatyanchenko, T. V.; Alekseeva, T. V.; Kalinin, P. I.

    2013-04-01

    The chemical and mineralogical compositions and the contents and properties of the organic matter were studied in the paleosols of different ages buried under the kurgan group "Kalmykia" in the southern part of the Ergeni Upland. The investigated sequence of soils included profiles developed on the given territory about 5100, 4410, 4260, 4120, 3960, and 600 yrs ago. The background light chestnut soil was also examined. The results of our study showed that the earlier established climate changes in this area during the second half of the Holocene are reflected in the chemical and mineralogical compositions of the soils. These characteristics can be used as indicators of the paleoclimatic conditions together with some petrophysical characteristics, such as the magnetic susceptibility of the soil samples. The study of the mineralogical composition of the clay fraction of the paleosols attests to the transformation of the smectitic phase, accumulation of illites, and destruction of chlorites manifested at different degrees. It is argued that the geochemical indices—CIA, Al2O3/(CaO + MgO + K2O + Na2O), Rb/Sr, and Ba/Sr—are sensitive to climate changes and reflect the transformation of the mineral soil mass and the soil genesis.

  3. Geochemical evidence for sundering of the West Mariana arc in miocene ash from the Parece Vela Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Russell J.; Flower, Martin F. J.; Rodolfo, Kelvin S.

    1987-10-01

    Glass and mineral fragments from discrete volcanic ash layers were sampled from DSDP/IPOD Site 450 in the Parece Vela Basin, Philippine Sea and analyzed by electron microprobe. The ashes are interpreted as eruptive products of the adjacent West Mariana arc system between 25 and 14 Ma B.P., and have compositions between basaltic andesite and rhyolite, and rarely, boninite. 'Continuous' chemical trends appear to reflect mixing of mafic and silicic magmas. 'Discontinuous' trends between these end-members are relatively few, and are consistent with 'liquid lines' produced by fractional crystallization. Andesitic tephra become progressively richer in MgO and CaO through the middle Miocene, while boninite appears towards the end of the sequence, between 14 and 15 Ma B.P. Coeval rhyolitic glasses become richer in K 2O and Na 2O, with maximum concentrations at about 15 Ma B.P. Chronologic changes in fractionation type and composition of parent magmas are interpreted to reflect the subaerial volcanic evolution of the West Mariana arc. The appearance of boninite is believed to signal early stages of arc sundering, and corresponds temporally with regional uplift of the sea floor above the carbonate compensation depth, precursor to a new pulse of back-arc spreading.

  4. Vanadium chlorite from a sandstone-hosted vanadium-uranium deposit, Henry basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, G.; Northrop, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    This ore deposit formed by reduction and precipitation of U and V in the presence of organic matter at the interface between a stagnant brine and overlying circulating meteoric water. Some samples of the vanadium chlorite (heated before analysis) contain = or >10% V2O5; in fresh samples most of the V is in the V3+ state. XRD data suggest that Fe and V are concentrated preferentially in the interlayer hydroxide sheets of the chlorite. A d060 value of 1.52 A indicates that the chlorite probably has a dioctahedral structure distended by the presence of octahedral Fe and V; it is a IIb polytype. The V ore zone is flanked by peripheral zones with perfectly ordered chlorite/smectite containing much less V than the pure chlorite. Chemical analysis of a sample heated to 900oC before analysis gave SiO2 44.89, Al2O3 25.14, TiO2 0.35, Fe2O3 8.29, MgO 8.47, CaO 0.84, Na2O 0.27, K2O 2.18, Li2O 0.16, UO3 0.92, V2O5 9.14, = 100.65, together with Cr 10, Mn 200, Co 150, Ni 5.8, Cu 10, Zn 140 ppm; XRD, DTG, TG and IR curves are presented. -R.A.H.

  5. Environmental changes in the western Amazônia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data.

    PubMed

    Horbe, Adriana M C; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Mapes, Russell

    2011-09-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a "terra firme" lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acará lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the floodplain of the mid-Solimões river, in the western Amazônia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rainforest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acará lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al(2)O(3), Fe(2)O(3), FeO, CaO, K(2)O, MgO, Na(2)O, P(2)O(5), Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimões river, and the Acará lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimões river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP.

  6. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  7. Fluid-rock interaction at a carbonatite-gneiss contact, Alnö, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelton, A.; Hode Vuorinen, J.; Arghe, F.; Fallick, A.

    2007-07-01

    We evaluate balanced metasomatic reactions and model coupled reactive and isotopic transport at a carbonatite-gneiss contact at Alnö, Sweden. We interpret structurally channelled fluid flow along the carbonatite-gneiss contact at ˜640°C. This caused (1) metasomatism of the gneiss, by the reaction: {biotite + quartz + oligoclase + K2 O + Na2O ± CaO ± MgO ± FeO = albite + K-feldspar + arfvedsonite + aegirene-augite + H2 O + SiO2}, (2) metasomatism of carbonatite by the reaction: calcite + SiO2 = wollastonite + CO2, and (3) isotopic homogenization of the metasomatised region. We suggest that reactive weakening caused the metasomatised region to widen and that the metasomatic reactions are chemically (and possibly mechanically) coupled. Spatial separation of reaction and isotope fronts in the carbonatite conforms to a chromatographic model which assumes local calcite-fluid equilibrium, yields a timescale of 102-104 years for fluid-rock interaction and confirms that chemical transport towards the carbonatite interior was mainly by diffusion. We conclude that most silicate phases present in the studied carbonatite were acquired by corrosion and assimilation of ijolite, as a reactive by-product of this process and by metasomatism. The carbonatite was thus a relatively pure calcite-H2O-CO2-salt melt or fluid.

  8. The geochemistry model of the surface sediment determined by using ED-XRF technique: a case study of the Boka Kotorska bay, Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Tanaskovski, Bojan; Jović, Mihajlo; Miličić, Ljiljana; Pezo, Lato; Mandić, Milica; Stanković, Slavka

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of major oxides (Na2O, K2O, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, MnO, TiO2, P2O5) and numerous elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, Sn, Sb, Ba, Sr, Br, Rb, Zr, Mo, Cs, Y, V, Ga, La, U, Th, Nb, W, Sc, Ge, Gd, Yb, Hf, and Ce) was determined by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on the basis of previously measured organic matter and carbonates. The optimal measuring variables for the investigated oxides and elements were determined by using five standard reference materials. The carbonated sediment type can be determined on the basis of the highest Sr, Sc, La, Nb, Hf, and Yb concentrations followed with the lowest concentrations of the remaining elements and the negative Ce anomaly. The complexity of the obtained data was also examined by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) in the identifying geochemical composition of the surface sediment. Boka Kotorska bay's geographical position, orographical configuration, and hydrographic characteristics influence the geochemistry model of the surface sediment, quite different from the open sea.

  9. Mechanism of bone-like formation on a bioactive implant in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Aza, P N; Luklinska, Z B; Santos, C; Guitian, F; De Aza, S

    2003-04-01

    The physical and chemical nature of the remodelled interface between the porous A3 glass-ceramic, composed of (wt%): SiO(2) = 54.5; CaO = 15.0; Na(2)O = 12.0; MgO = 8.5; P(2)O(5) = 6.0 K(2)O = 4.0, and the surrounding bone was studied after implantation into rat tibias. The interfaces which developed new bone layer in direct contact with the implants were examined by analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy after implantation for 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Degradation processes of the implants also encouraged osseous tissue ingrowths into the pores of the material, changing drastically the macro- and microstructure of the implants. The ionic exchange initiated at the implant interface with the physiological environment was essential in the integration process of the implant, through a dissolution-precipitation-transformation mechanism. The interfaces developed non-toxic biological and chemical activities and remained reactive over the 12-week implantation period. These findings were significant as indicative of morphological and chemical integration of the A3 glass-ceramic into the structure of living bone tissue. A3 glass-ceramic could be suitable for the repair or replacement of living bone.

  10. On the synthesis atmosphere influence in the technology of complex composite materials in the wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspensky, A. A.; Yavshits, S.; Lipin, V.; Zhigalov, P.; Slobodov, A.

    2017-02-01

    Heterogeneous and homogeneous processes of synthesis for complex functional materials are studied by the methods of thermodynamic modeling and calculation, based on minimization of the Gibbs energy of the researched system. The conditions and products of gasification in the field of 0-2000 °C are determined for the synthesis conditions of a ceramic tile with complex composition (10-component system). All main products of interaction of components of ceramic mass (the system SiO2 – K2ONa2O – Al2O3 – Fe2O3 – CaO – MgO – TiO2 – P2O5 – SO3) and main components of air (the system N2 – O2 – CO2 – H2O) are found for the synthesis of material in the conditions of the air atmosphere at various temperatures. The character of physico-chemical influence of each components on the occurring processes is revealed, that determines a theoretical and calculation base of management and optimization of the synthesis engineering process for various functional materials.

  11. Lead recovery and high silica glass powder synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mingfei; Fu, Zegang; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B2O3 in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase. The metallic Pb phase and boric oxide phase were completely leached out by 5mol/L HNO3. The lead removal rate was 99.80% and high silica glass powder (SiO2 purity >95wt%) was obtained by setting the temperature, B2O3 added amount and holding time at 1000°C, 20% and 30mins, respectively. The prepared high silicate glass powders can be used as catalyst carrier, semipermeable membranes, adsorbents or be remelted into high silicate glass as an ideal substitute for quartz glass. Thus this study proposed an eco-friendly and economical process for recycling Pb-rich electronic glass waste.

  12. The lunar regolith - Chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Laul, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The data base on the lunar regolith is surveyed to form a synthesis of the lunar regolith chemistry, mineralogy, and petrology. The data were derived from samples collected by the Apollo missions 11-17 and the Luna 16, 20, and 24 probes. The missions were sent to sample formations and areas which typified the common observed features of the lunar surface. Drive tubes were used to extract samples from beneath the surface in order to study the relationship between the regolith and the bedrock, as well as to identify the processes that formed the regolith, which is regarded as the prime source of raw materials for early lunar industrial activities. Regolith origins are now understood to be destructive processes of comminution and constructional processes of agglutinate formation. Mixing occurs on the local scale, although lateral transport is inefficient on the moon. The usual contents of the fraction of regolith less than 10 microns in diameter are Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O, light REE, and Th.

  13. Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

    2010-05-01

    The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

  14. Phosphate glass fibres and their role in neuronal polarization and axonal growth direction.

    PubMed

    Vitale-Brovarone, C; Novajra, G; Lousteau, J; Milanese, D; Raimondo, S; Fornaro, M

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate glass fibres with composition 50P(2)O(5)-30CaO-9Na(2)O-3SiO(2)-3MgO-(5-x)K(2)O-xTiO(2)mol.% (x=0, 2.5, 5, respectively coded as TiPS(0), TiPS(2.5) and TiPS(5)) were drawn following the preform drawing approach. A 20-day solubility test in bi-distilled water was carried out on glass fibres with different compositions and diameters ranging between 25 and 82 μm. The results show that the glass composition, the initial fibre diameter and the thermal treatment are the main factors influencing the dissolution kinetics and that the fibres maintain their structural integrity and composition during dissolution. Biological tests were carried out on aligned TiPS(2.5) glass fibres using Neonatal Olfactory Bulb Ensheathing Cell Line (NOBEC) and Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) neurons. The fibres showed to be permissive substrates for cell adhesion and proliferation. The aligned configuration of the fibres seemed to provide a directional cue for growing axons of DRG neurons, which showed to sprout and grow long neurites along the fibre axis direction. These promising findings encourages further studies to evaluate the potential use of resorbable glass fibres (e.g.in combination with a nerve guidance tube) for the enhancement of the peripheral nerve healing with the role of supporting and guiding the cells involved in the nerve regeneration.

  15. Biodegradable borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with a trabecular microstructure for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yifei; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yadong; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Huang, Wenhai; Pan, Haobo

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (designated 13-93B1), with the composition 6Na2O-8K2O-8MgO-22CaO-18B2O3-36SiO2-2P2O5 (mol%), were prepared using a foam replication technique and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Immersion of the scaffolds for 30 days in a simulated body fluid in vitro resulted in partial conversion of the glass to a porous hydroxyapatite composed of fine needle-like particles. The capacity of the scaffolds to support bone formation in vivo was evaluated in non-critical sized defects created in the femoral head of rabbits. Eight weeks post-implantation, the scaffolds were partially converted to hydroxyapatite, and they were well integrated with newly-formed bone. When loaded with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), the scaffolds supported bone regeneration in segmental defects in the diaphysis of rabbit radii. The results indicate that these 13-93B1 scaffolds, loaded with PRP or without PRP, are beneficial for bone repair due to their biocompatibility, conversion to hydroxyapatite, and in vivo bone regenerative properties.

  16. In vitro cell response to Co-containing 1,393 bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Alexander; Brandl, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E; Jokic, Bojan; Janackovic, Djordje; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-12-01

    Cobalt ions are known to stimulate angiogenesis via inducing hypoxic conditions and hence are interesting agents to be used in conjunction with bioactive glasses (BGs) in bone tissue engineering approaches. In this work we investigated in vitro cell biocompatibility of Co releasing 1393 BG composition (in wt.%: 53SiO2, 6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, and 4P2O5) derived scaffolds with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMECs). Cell viability, cell number and cell morphology of osteoblast-like cells in contact with particulate glass and 3D scaffolds were assessed showing good biocompatibility of 1393 reference material and with 1 wt.% CoO addition whereby 5 wt.% of CoO in the glass showed cytotoxicity. Furthermore for 1393 with 1 wt.% of CoO increased mitochondrial activity was measured. Similar observations were made with hDMECs: while 1393 and 1393 with 1 wt.% CoO were biocompatible and the endothelial phenotype was retained, 5 wt.% CoO containing BG showed cytotoxic effects after 1 week of cell culture. In conclusion, 1 wt.% Co containing BG was biocompatible with osteoblast like cells and endothelial cells and showed slightly stimulating effects on osteoblast-like cells whereas the addition of 5 wt.% CoO seems to exceed the vital therapeutic ranges of Co ions being released in physiological fluids.

  17. Recalibration of the Mars Science Laboratory ChemCam instrument with an expanded geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Anderson, Ryan; Forni, Olivier; Frydenvang, Jens; Lasue, Jeremie; Cousin, Agnes; Payré, Valérie; Boucher, Tommy; Dyar, M. Darby; McLennan, Scott M.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Belgacem, Ines; Newsom, Horton; Clark, Ben C.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; McInroy, Rhonda E.; Martinez, Ronald; Gasda, Patrick; Gasnault, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-03-01

    The ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has obtained > 300,000 spectra of rock and soil analysis targets since landing at Gale Crater in 2012, and the spectra represent perhaps the largest publicly-available LIBS datasets. The compositions of the major elements, reported as oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), have been re-calibrated using a laboratory LIBS instrument, Mars-like atmospheric conditions, and a much larger set of standards (408) that span a wider compositional range than previously employed. The new calibration uses a combination of partial least squares (PLS1) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithms, together with a calibration transfer matrix to minimize differences between the conditions under which the standards were analyzed in the laboratory and the conditions on Mars. While the previous model provided good results in the compositional range near the average Mars surface composition, the new model fits the extreme compositions far better. Examples are given for plagioclase feldspars, where silicon was significantly over-estimated by the previous model, and for calcium-sulfate veins, where silicon compositions near zero were inaccurate. The uncertainties of major element abundances are described as a function of the abundances, and are overall significantly lower than the previous model, enabling important new geochemical interpretations of the data.

  18. Effect of the solution flow rate on the in vitro bioactivity of 2.5CaO x 2SiO(2) glass.

    PubMed

    Luciani, G; Costantini, A; Silvestri, B; Cajafa, M; Colella, M; Branda, F

    2007-03-01

    A comparative study of in vitro bioactivity of 2.5CaO x 2SiO(2) glass has been carried out by soaking it in a simulated body fluid, with continuously and periodic exchange of this solution (dynamic and differential protocols). Dynamic assays were carried out at different solution flow rates, 3 mL/h, 6 mL/h, 12 mL/h, to study the influence of flow rate on glass reactivity. Glass surface was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy so as to compare the behavior in the two procedures, revealing that in both cases an apatite layer is formed on the glass surface, although there are differences on deposition rate and morphology, which are also influenced by the solution flow rate.

  19. Microwave enhanced alcoholysis of non-edible (algal, jatropha and pongamia) oils using chemically activated egg shell derived CaO as heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girdhar; Rawat, Devendra S; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Pandey, Jitendra K

    2016-11-01

    Microwave enhanced fast and efficient alcoholysis (methanolysis and ethanolysis) of non-edible oils (algal, jatropha and pongamia) is achieved using chemically activated waste egg shell derived CaO (i.e. CaO(cesp)) as heterogeneous catalyst. CaO(cesp) was extracted from waste chicken egg shell and further activated chemically by supporting transition metal oxide. The maximum conversion was achieved using 3wt% catalysts under 700W microwave irradiation and 10:1 alcohol/oil ratio in 6min. Alcoholysis using ZnO activated CaO(cesp) catalyst has shown higher reaction yields in comparison to other modified catalysts. Methanolysis has shown better biodiesel conversion in comparison to ethanolysis. The catalyst has shown longer lifetime and sustained activity after being used for four cycles. Due to more saturated fatty acid content; algal biodiesel has shown improved fuel properties in comparison to other biodiesels.

  20. [Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shen-ntonz's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hongchang; Wang, Zhenrui

    2015-01-01

    As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored, Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains, among its 365 kinds of materia medica, 75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease. Among the latter ones, 51 are related to "damp impediment", "cold-damp impediment", "wind-cold-damp impediment", "wind impediment", "wind-damp impediment", and "cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment", "general impediment", and "blood impediment"; 8 are related to "muscular impediment", "stomach impediment", "hernia-conglomeration impediment", "internal consumptive-thirst impediment", "wilting impediment", and "hemiplegic impediment". To systematically analyze the properties, tastes, and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge, and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease, but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  1. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  2. Factors Related to Adoption and Non-Adoption of Technical and Organizational Recommendations by Farmers Involved with Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in Cameroon. A Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamga, Andre; Cheek, Jimmy G.

    In order to promote cocoa production and assist cocoa farmers in overcoming diseases in this crop, the government of Cameroon created an experimental corporation called Societe de Developpement du Cacao (SO.DE.CAO) in 1974. This organization functioned much like an extension service to provide information about crop production and disease control.…

  3. New data on selected Ivory Coast tektites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, F.; Carron, M.K.; Annell, C.S.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen Ivory Coast tektites exhibit a range of bulk indices of refraction of 1.5156 to 1.5217 ?? 0.0004 and of bulk specific gravities of 2.428 to 2.502 ??0.005. Seven of these Ivory Coast (IVC) tektites were analyzed for major and minor element content. Compared to tektites from other strewn fields, their SiO2 content is low (67.2-69.1 %), A12O3 relatively high (15.8-16.8 %), and total iron relatively high but with a more restricted range (6.3-6.8 % as FeO). Their lime content is low (0.71-1.35%) compared to Australasian tektites but their MgO CaO ratio (about 3.1) is unusually high. All other tektite groups have Na2O K2O ratios less than unity, but the Na2O K2O ratio of the IVC tektites is slightly greater than unity. Their K Rb ratios range from 200 to 256 and average 227, which is higher than those determined for Australasian tektites, but similar to some obtained for moldavites. The Li content (41-48 ppm) is about the same as that of the Australasian tektites, but the Cs and Rb are lower, being 1.9 to 2.9 and 57 to 86 ppm, respectively. The IVC tektites are high in Cr (260-375 ppm), Co (19-25 ppm) and Ni (101-167 ppm), and particularly in Pb (<10-18 ppm), Cu (13-21 ppm) and Ga (14-23 ppm). The high Cr Ni ratios of the IVC tektites (range 2-3.6) are similar to those found for australites, philippinites and thailandites, but not the javanites and indochinites. Evaluation of these and other reported data show that compositional similarities between the IVC tektites and green or black Bosumtwi Crater glasses strongly support the hypothesis of a common impact origin-i.e. the Bosumtwi Crater site. Comparison of the IVC tektite composition with those of returned lunar materials (gabbros, basalts, breccia and soils) do not support a lunar origin for the Ivory Coast tektites. ?? 1972.

  4. Geochemistry of the Cretaceous coals from Lamja Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Implications for paleoenvironment, paleoclimate and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2015-04-01

    The Cretaceous coals of Lamja Formation located in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria, were analyzed based on a combined investigation of organic and inorganic geochemistry to define the paleodepositional environment condition, organic matter source inputs and their relation to paleoclimate and tectonic setting. The total organic carbon and sulfur contents of Lamja Formation coals ranges from 48.2%-67.8% wt.% and 0.42%-0.76% wt.%, respectively, pointing their deposition in freshwater environment with inferred marine influence during burial. Biomarkers and chemical compositions provide evidence for a major contribution of land-derived organic matter, with minor aquatic organic matter input. Minerals such as quartz, pyrite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and calcite were present in the coals, suggesting that these minerals were sourced from terrigenous origin with slightly marine influence, considered as post-depositional. This is consistent with a significant amount of the oxides of major elements such as SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, and MgO. The investigated biomarkers are characterized by dominant odd carbon numbered n-alkanes (n-C23 to n-C33), moderately high Pr/Ph ratios (1.72-3.75), very high Tm/Ts ratios (18-29), and high concentrations of regular sterane C29, indicating oxic to relatively suboxic conditions, delta plain marine environment of deposition with prevalent contribution of land plants and minor aquatic organic matter input. Concentrations of trace elements such as Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Co and their standard ratios also suggested that the organic matter was deposited under oxic to relatively suboxic conditions, which is in parts deposited under marine influenced. Some standard binary plots of SiO2 versus (Al2O3 + K2O + Na2O) indicate a semi-arid paleoclimatic condition whereas log SiO2 versus (K2O/Na2O) also revealed passive continental margin setting. The inferred tectonic setting is in agreement with the tectonic

  5. The geochemistry and genesis of the granitoids of Sirohi, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, M. S.

    The granitoids were emplaced into metasediments of the Delhi Super Group. The Erinpura rapakivi granite (ERG) is a coarse grained rock and contains megacrysts of alkali feldspar. Chemically, it can be characterized by relatively low SiO 2 but high TiO 2, MgO and CaO. The Balda leucogranite (BLG) on the other hand is a medium grained rock and is chemically characterized by high SiO 2 and K 2O in excess of Na 2O, but distinctly low in CaO. Tungsten mineralization occurs in the form of fissure veins within the Balda leucogranite. The petrographic and petrochemical features of the granites suggest that the magmatic evolution was by fractional crystallization of parent magma generated by partial melting of the crustal rocks. The formation of megacrysts of alkali feldspar of the Erinpura granite seems to be caused by potash metasomatism (influx of K-solution, differentiation product of the parent magma). Ovoids of feldspars present indicate that potash and soda-metasomatisms had occurred during the formation of the rapakivi structure in the Erinpura granite. The Balda leucogranite is enriched in volatile elements and has low K/Rb and Ba/Rb ratios whereas Rb/Sr is high. Trace element study supports the view that the parent magma of the Balda granite was fractionated and enriched in volatile contents at the end stage of its evolution. From the REE studies of the granites it is found that ERG represents the early crystallized phase but the BLG solidified from the residual liquid after the fractional crystallization. The Sm/Nd ratio in BLG is higher than ERG. This indicates that there was a major fractionation of Sm and Nd during the genesis of the granites. The chemical variation within the two plutons studied support an in-situ crystal fractionation model combined with a variable degree of metasomatism of ERG after its emplacement.

  6. The dissolution of natural and artificial dusts in glutamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhang; Faqin, Dong; Xiaochun, He

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the characteristics of natural dusts, industrial dusts, and artificial dusts, such as mineral phases, chemical components, morphological observation and size. Quartz and calcite are the main phases of natural dusts and industrial dusts with high SiO2 and CaO and low K2O and Na2O in the chemical composition. The dissolution and electrochemical action of dusts in glutamic acid liquor at the simulated human body temperature (37 °C) in 32 h was investigated. The potential harm that the dust could lead to in body glutamic acid acidic environment, namely biological activity, is of great importance for revealing the human toxicological mechanism. The changes of pH values and electric conductivity of suspension of those dusts were similar, increased slowly in the first 8 h, and then the pH values increased rapidly. The total amount of dissolved ions of K, Ca, Na, and Mg was 35.4 to 429 mg/kg, particularly Ca was maximal of 20 to 334 mg/kg. The total amount of dissolved ions of Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Ba was 0.18 to 5.59 mg/kg and in Al and Si was 3.0 to 21.7 mg/kg. The relative solubility order of dusts in glutamic acid is wollastonite > serpentine > sepiolite, the cement plant industrial dusts > natural dusts > power plant industrial dusts. The wollastonite and cement plant industrial dusts have the highest solubility, which also have high content of CaO; this shows that there are a poorer corrosion-resisting ability and lower bio-resistibility. Sepiolite and power plant industrial dusts have lowest solubility, which also have high content of SiO2; this shows that there are a higher corrosion-resisting ability and stronger bio-resistibility.

  7. Cuprian fraipontite and sauconite from the Defiance-Silver Bill mines, Gleeson, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Taggart, J.E.; Conklin, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    XRD studies have shown the fine-grained, light blue-green mineral previously identified as turquoise or chrysocolla to be the rare species fraipontite + or - admixed sauconite. Composite microprobe and XRF analyses gave SiO2 24.8, Al2O3 17.3, CaO 0.34, CuO 5.2, ZnO 40.95, H2O (ign. loss, 900oC) 12.8, = 101.39, yielding the formula (Zn1.84Al0.77Cu0.24box 0.13- Ca0.02)3.00(Si1.51Al0.49)2.00O5(OH)4. Semiquantitative emission spectrographic analysis showed Fe 0.007, Mg 0.01, Ca 0.07, Si 10, Al major, Na 0.015, Zn major, Cu 5%; Mn 15, B 150, Be 7, Ni 50, Pb 15, Sc 15, Ga 70 and Ag 1 ppm. It has a 5.331(8), b 9.23(1), c 7.275(6) A, beta 104.15o; H. 3.5-4; Dcalc 3.44, Dobs. 3.08- 3.10; mean refr. ind. approx 1.61. Much of the fraipontite is admixed with sauconite, which may be forming from the fraipontite. XRF analysis of this material gave SiO2 32.8, Al2O3 10.9, MgO < 0.1, CaO 1.51, Na2O < 0.2, K2O < 0.02, TiO2 < 0.02, P2O5 < 0.02, MnO < 0.02, CuO 4.65, ZnO 39.9, ign. loss 13.9, = 103.7.-G.W.R.

  8. The self-organization window in (Na2O)x(B2O3)1-x glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompicharla, Vamsikrishna

    2005-03-01

    T-modulated DSC measurements on dry sodium borate glasses show Tg(x) to display a global maximum near x ˜.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex4 , and the non-reversing enthalpy (δHnr(x)) to show a square- well like deep and flat global minimum (˜0) in the 0.27 < x < 0.36 range-the reversibility window. In analogy to the work on chalcogenide glasses, we identify borate glasses at x < 0.27 to be stressed-rigid, those in the reversibility window to be intermediate and those at x > 0.36 to be floppy. The reversibility window correlates well with a maximum in packing fraction^1 deduced from mass density results and with a maximum in concentration of isostatically rigid diborate structural groupings in NMR^2. Optical transmission of polished platelets examined with a polarizing microscope show window compositions to be optically transparent and clear, while those outside the window at x < 0.27 and at x > 0.36 to show dark spots of increasing density as one goes away from the window compositions. The spotting reflects birefringence due to stress accumulation. These results confirm that intermediate phases occur in oxide- as in chalcogenide- glasses and form space filling and stress-free or self-organized networks. 1. Steve Feller (private communication). 2. G.E.Gellison and P.J.Bray, JNCS 29, 187(1978). Supported by NSF grant DMR 04-56472.

  9. The Produce of Methyl Ester from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Using Heterogene Catalyst Ash of Chicken Bone (CaO) using Ethanol as Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Fauzi, R.; Turnip, J. R.

    2017-03-01

    Methyl Ester (methyl ester) is generally made by trans esterification using heterogeneous base catalyst. To simplify the separation, the heterogeneous catalyst is used, such as CaO, which in this case was isolated from chicken bones made by softening chicken bones and do calcination process. Some other important variables other than the selection of the catalyst is the catalyst dosage, molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO and the reaction temperature. The best result from this observe is at the molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO is 17: 1, the reaction temperature is 70 ° C and 7% catalyst (w.t) with reaction time for 7 hours at 500 rpm as a constant variable, got 90,052 % purity, so that this result does not get the standard requirements of biodiesel, because of the purity of the biodiesel standard temporary must be achieve > 96.5 %. This study aims to produce methyl ester yield with the influence of the reaction temperature, percent of catalyst and molar ratio of ethanol and CPO. The most influential variable is the temperature of the reaction that gives a significant yield difference of methyl ester produced. It’s been proven by the increasing temperature used will also significantly increase the yield of methyl ester.

  10. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulation of the ligand vibrations of the water-oxidizing Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-10-11

    During photosynthesis, the light-driven oxidation of water performed by photosystem II (PSII) provides electrons necessary to fix CO2, in turn supporting life on Earth by liberating molecular oxygen. Recent high-resolution X-ray images of PSII show that the water-oxidizing center (WOC) is composed of an Mn4CaO5 cluster with six carboxylate, one imidazole, and four water ligands. FTIR difference spectroscopy has shown significant structural changes of the WOC during the S-state cycle of water oxidation, especially within carboxylate groups. However, the roles that these carboxylate groups play in water oxidation as well as how they should be properly assigned in spectra are unresolved. In this study, we performed a normal mode analysis of the WOC using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method to simulate FTIR difference spectra on the S1 to S2 transition in the carboxylate stretching region. By evaluating WOC models with different oxidation and protonation states, we determined that models of high-oxidation states, Mn(III)2Mn(IV)2, satisfactorily reproduced experimental spectra from intact and Ca-depleted PSII compared with low-oxidation models. It is further suggested that the carboxylate groups bridging Ca and Mn ions within this center tune the reactivity of water ligands bound to Ca by shifting charge via their π conjugation.

  11. Synthesis of SiO₂ and CaO rich calcium silicate systems via sol-gel process: bioactivity, biocompatibility, and drug delivery tests.

    PubMed

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Roviello, G; Ferone, C; Bollino, F; Trifuoggi, M; Aurilio, C

    2014-09-01

    Silica and calcium silicate amorphous materials, mixed with sodium ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The amorphous nature of the gels was ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The bioactivity of the synthesized materials has been put into evidence by the appearance of a crystal of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the samples soaked in a fluid simulating the composition of the human blood plasma, as detected through FTIR measurements and SEM micrographs. The present work refers to a series of in-vitro biocompatibility tests, which has been performed on silicate and CaO rich calcium silicate gel-glasses, to study the cell behavior when seeded on 1 cm(2) material fragments, introduced into an in-vitro culture system. 3T3 cell lines have been used and the viability has been evaluated by WST-8 test. The composition of the adopted glasses can be expressed by the following general formula: x CaO• (1 - x) SiO2 with x = 0.00; 0.30; 0.40; 0.50; 0.60. Subsequently, release kinetics in a simulate body fluid (SBF) has been investigated. The amount of sodium ampicillin released has been detected by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The release kinetics has appeared to occur in more than one stage. All data have shown that those materials could be used as drug delivery bioactive systems.

  12. The adsorption of mercury-species on relaxed and rumpled CaO (0 0 1) surfaces investigated by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Paul; Kim, Bo Gyeong

    2011-03-01

    This research examines the importance of several computational choices in modeling mercury species adsorption on calcium oxide surfaces and is the second in a series of papers. The importance of surface relaxation was tested and it was found that adsorption energies changed for HgCl(2), moving adsorption from being at the borderline of physisorption and chemisorption to being strongly chemisorbed. Results for Hg and HgCl were unaffected. A second computational choice, that of the cluster or periodic model size was tested in both the plane of the model (4 × 4 or 5 × 5 model sizes) and for the depth (two or three layers). It was found that the minimum cluster size for handling mercury adsorption was 5 × 5 and that only two layers of depth were needed. The energetic results show that rumpled CaO surfaces will only weakly physisorb elemental mercury, but could be used to capture HgCl(2) from coal combustion flue gases, which is in agreement with limited experimental data.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  14. A network pharmacology approach to discover active compounds and action mechanisms of San-Cao Granule for treatment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shizhang; Niu, Ming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jiabo; Su, Haibin; Luo, Shengqiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Guo, Yanlei; Liu, Liping; Liu, Fengqun; Zhao, Qingguo; Chen, Hongge; Xiao, Xiaohe; Zhao, Pan; Zhao, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance San-Cao Granule (SCG) has been used in patients with liver fibrosis for many years and has shown good effect. However, its mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear because of its complex chemical system. The purpose of our study is to establish a comprehensive and systemic method that can predict the mechanism of action of SCG in antihepatic fibrosis. Materials and methods In this study, a “compound–target–disease” network was constructed by combining the SCG-specific and liver fibrosis–specific target proteins with protein–protein interactions, and network pharmacology was used to screen out the underlying targets and mechanisms of SCG for treatment of liver fibrosis. Then, some key molecules of the enriched pathway were chosen to verify the effects of SCG on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Results This systematic approach had successfully revealed that 16 targets related to 11 SCG compounds were closely associated with liver fibrosis therapy. The pathway-enrichment analysis of them showed that the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway is relatively important. Animal experiments also proved that SCG could significantly ameliorate liver fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad pathway. Conclusion SCG could alleviate liver fibrosis through the molecular mechanisms predicted by network pharmacology. Furthermore, network pharmacology could provide deep insight into the pharmacological mechanisms of Chinese herbal formulas. PMID:26929602

  15. Ab initio study of the positronation of the CaO and SrO molecules including calculation of annihilation rates.

    PubMed

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter

    2012-07-15

    Ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations have been performed to compute potential curves for ground and excited states of the CaO and SrO molecules and their positronic complexes, e(+)CaO, and e(+)SrO. The adiabatic dissociation limit for the (2)Σ(+) lowest states of the latter systems consists of the positive metal ion ground state (M(+)) and the OPs complex (e(+)O(-)), although the lowest energy limit is thought to be e(+)M + O. Good agreement is found between the calculated and experimental spectroscopic constants for the neutral diatomics wherever available. The positron affinity of the closed-shell X (1)Σ(+) ground states of both systems is found to lie in the 0.16-0.19 eV range, less than half the corresponding values for the lighter members of the alkaline earth monoxide series, BeO and MgO. Annihilation rates (ARs) have been calculated for all four positronated systems for the first time. The variation with bond distance is generally similar to what has been found earlier for the alkali monoxide series of positronic complexes, falling off gradually from the OPs AR value at their respective dissociation limits. The e(+)SrO system shows some exceptional behavior, however, with its AR value reaching a minimum at a relatively large bond distance and then rising to more than twice the OPs value close to its equilibrium distance.

  16. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the modern sediments of Seyfe Lake, Kırşehir, central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önalgil, Nergis; Kadir, Selahattin; Külah, Tacit; Eren, Muhsin; Gürel, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Seyfe Lake (Kırşehir, Turkey) is located within a depression zone extending along a NW-SE-trending fault in central Anatolia. Evaporite and carbonate sediments occur at the bottom of the lake which is fed by high-sulfate spring and well waters circulating N-S through salt domes. The recent sediments of Seyfe Lake are deposited in delta, backshore, beach, mud-flat and shallow lake environments. In the mud-flat environment, calcite, gypsum, halite, and thenardite are associated with fine-grained detrital sediments. Sediments from the margin to the lake center are distributed as calcite, gypsum and halite ± thenardite, yielding an annular distribution pattern. An increase in Na2O, SO3, and S, and a decrease in CaO toward the lake center are due to sediment distribution. On the other hand, a positive correlation of SiO2 with MgO, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 + TiO2 is attributed to the presence of smectite, illite and feldspar. In addition, a positive correlation of Sr and Ba with CaO is related to the amount of gypsum in the sediments. Strontium is associated with in situ gypsum crystals; it increases in the intermediate and central zones of the lake as a result of a relative increase in salinity toward the lake center. The association of Sr with gypsum in the sediments suggests that Ca and Sr were derived from Sr-bearing evaporites and their carbonate host rocks, which were the likely aquifers for the brine. The S- and O-isotopic compositions of sulfate crystals range from +19.1‰ to +21.7‰ and from +16.9‰ to +20.9‰ SMOW, respectively, suggesting precipitation in a closed lake system. A relative increase of oxygen and sulfur isotope ratios toward the lake center suggests dissolution of gypsum in the host rock, with contributions from circulating groundwater and sulfate reduction (possibly by bacterial reduction). 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios range from 0.707286 to 0.707879, suggesting a non-marine Oligo-Pliocene evaporitic host rock source for precipitation in

  17. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (<120, 120-160, 160-300, 300-360, 360-500, and >500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Toward models for the full oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II by ligand coordination to lower the symmetry of the Mn3CaO4 cubane: demonstration that electronic effects facilitate binding of a fifth metal.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jacob S; Lin, Po-Heng; Carsch, Kurtis M; Nielsen, Robert J; Takase, Michael K; Goddard, William A; Agapie, Theodor

    2014-10-15

    Synthetic model compounds have been targeted to benchmark and better understand the electronic structure, geometry, spectroscopy, and reactivity of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II, a low-symmetry Mn4CaOn cluster. Herein, low-symmetry Mn(IV)3GdO4 and Mn(IV)3CaO4 cubanes are synthesized in a rational, stepwise fashion through desymmetrization by ligand substitution, causing significant cubane distortions. As a result of increased electron richness and desymmetrization, a specific μ3-oxo moiety of the Mn3CaO4 unit becomes more basic allowing for selective protonation. Coordination of a fifth metal ion, Ag(+), to the same site gives a Mn3CaAgO4 cluster that models the topology of the OEC by displaying both a cubane motif and a "dangler" transition metal. The present synthetic strategy provides a rational roadmap for accessing more accurate models of the biological catalyst.

  19. Characterization of the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Chen, Pinghong; Xu, Yimin; Li, Xiaodong; Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, were studied by liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry for the first time. Among the 146 compounds detected in Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang, 104 compounds were identified unambiguously or tentatively based on their accurate molecular weight and multistage MS data, including one potential novel compound and two reported in Glycyrrhiza genus for the first time. The possible fragmentation pathways were proposed and fragmentation rules of the major types of compounds were concluded. This study provided an example to facilitate the tedious identification of chemical composition in traditional Chinese medicine, and maybe a promising reference approach to research the analogous formulae.

  20. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  1. Role of a Water Network around the Mn4CaO5 Cluster in Photosynthetic Water Oxidation: A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculation Study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shin; Ota, Kai; Shibuya, Yuichi; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-01-26

    Photosynthetic water oxidation takes place at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II. Around the Mn4CaO5 cluster, a hydrogen bond network is formed by several water molecules, including four water ligands. To clarify the role of this water network in the mechanism of water oxidation, we investigated the effects of the removal of Ca(2+) and substitution with metal ions on the vibrations of water molecules coupled to the Mn4CaO5 cluster by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. The OH stretching vibrations of nine water molecules forming a network between D1-D61 and YZ were calculated using the QM/MM method. On the the calculated normal modes, a broad positive feature at 3200-2500 cm(-1) in an S2-minus-S1 FTIR spectrum was attributed to the vibrations of strongly hydrogen-bonded OH bonds of water involving the vibrations of water ligands to a Mn ion and the in-phase coupled vibration of a water network connected to YZ, while bands in the 3700-3500 cm(-1) region were assigned to the coupled vibrations of weakly hydrogen-bonded OH bonds of water. All the water bands were lost upon Ca(2+) depletion and Ba(2+) substitution, which inhibit the S2 → S3 transition, indicating that a solid water network was broken by these treatments. By contrast, Sr(2+) substitution slightly altered the water bands around 3600 cm(-1), reflecting minor modification in water interactions, consistent with the retention of water oxidation activity with a decreased efficiency. These results suggest that the water network around the Mn4CaO5 cluster plays an essential role in the water oxidation mechanism particularly in a concerted process of proton transfer and water insertion during the S2 → S3 transition.

  2. Effect of CaO on retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, W and Pb in bottom ashes from fluidized-bed coal combustion power station.

    PubMed

    Bartoňová, Lucie; Klika, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate whether Ca-bearing additives used during coal combustion can also help with the retention of some other elements. This work was focused on the evaluation of bottom ashes collected during four full-scale combustion tests at an operating thermal fluidized-bed power station. Bottom ashes were preferred to fly ashes for the study to avoid interference from condensation processes usually occurring in the post-combustion zone. This work focused on the behaviors of S, Cl, Br, As, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, W, and Pb. Strong positive correlations with CaO content in bottom ashes were observed (for all four combustion tests) for S, As, Cl and Br (R=0.917-0.999). Strong inverse proportionality was calculated between the contents of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr and Mn and CaO, so these elements showed association to materials other than Ca-bearing compounds (e.g., to aluminosilicates, organic matter, etc.). Somewhat unclear behaviors were observed for W, Cu, and V. Their correlation coefficients were evaluated as statistically "not significant", i.e., these elements were not thought to be significantly associated with CaO. It was also discovered that major enrichment of CaO in the finest bottom ash fractions could be advantageously used for simple separation of elements strongly associated with these fractions, mainly S and As, but also Cl or Br. Removal of 5% of the finest ash particles brings about a decrease in As concentration down to 77%-80% of its original bulk ash content, which can be conveniently used e.g., when high As content complicates further ash utilization.

  3. Effect of mechanical grinding of MCPM and CaO mixtures on their composition and on the mechanical properties of the resulting self-setting hydraulic calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Serraj, S; Boudeville, P; Terol, A

    2001-01-01

    Calcium bis-dihydrogenophosphate monohydrate (or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, MCPM) is often used as the acid calcium phosphate in hydraulic calcium phosphate cement formulations. But commercial MCPM is not pure; it contains a small amount of orthophosphoric acid and moisture. Consequently, MCPM is difficult to mill and the powder is sticky and presents aggregates. Because granularity influences the mechanical properties of the hardened cements, a possible way to get around this difficulty that has been proposed is to premix it with other materials before grinding. We therefore ground commercial MCPM with CaO. A rapid decrease in the amount of MCPM was observed during mechanical grinding by a solid-solid reaction with calcium oxide. The final products were anhydrous or dihydrate dicalcium phosphate and/or hydroxyapatite or calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite depending on the initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) ratio. The mechanical properties (compressive strength and setting time) of cements made from MCPM and CaO were affected whatever the Ca/P ratio as a consequence of the change in composition of the starting materials. Storage at different temperatures of MCPM and CaO mixtures manually ground in a mortar for only 2 min and without mechanical grinding did not affect their composition, but a decrease was observed in the compressive strength of cements made from these mixtures.

  4. Reaction Rind Formation in Mèlange in the Catalina Schist, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penniston-Dorland, S. C.; Bebout, G. E.; Sorensen, S. S.; Piccoli, P. M.; Walker, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Reaction rinds between differing lithologies are commonly considered the result of fluid-assisted metasomatic alteration, however, enrichments in relatively fluid-immobile elements such as Cr and Ni seemingly reflect other processes such as volume strain or tectonic mixing. Eleven samples along a 30 cm traverse of an amphibolite grade block and its reaction rind adjacent to ultramafic-rich matrix, show dramatic change in mineral abundance and whole-rock major and trace element and Li isotope composition. Samples of the rind are enriched in whole-rock SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Li, MgO, Cr, Ni, and also Os, Ir and Ru relative to samples of the block core, and are depleted in FeO, Al2O3, TiO2, CaO, and Zr. δ7LiL-SVEC ranges from -3 to +1% and the distribution of Li concentrations and δ7Li is consistent with diffusion on the scale of nearly the entire profile. FeO content of garnets in the rind is lower than that of garnets in the block core, reflecting whole-rock FeO concentrations, and suggesting garnet growth after the depletion in whole-rock FeO. Garnets in the rind show extensive pseudomorphing by decussate chlorite, suggesting post-garnet growth infiltration by H2O-rich fluid. Rind concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zr, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, and possibly CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Sr can be most simply explained by mechanical mixing of mafic block with mèlange matrix. Such mixing cannot explain the increases in SiO2, K2O, Li, and Ba, and we propose that the concentrations of these elements in the rind reflect element mobility during relatively late-stage fluid infiltration. We propose an early episode of mechanical mixing during which mixing of material derived from the mafic block and mèlange matrix produced rind-like material which then accreted onto the basaltic block. Garnet growth in both the block core and the rind occurred after this mechanical mixing. Fluid infiltration in the rind occurred after peak metamorphism of the block, causing alteration of garnet to chlorite and the

  5. Red emission generation through highly efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) in CaO for warm white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Leyu; Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Liangliang; Pan, Guohui; Luo, Yongshi; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Jiahua

    2016-01-28

    CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) phosphors with various Mn(2+) concentrations were synthesized by a solid state reaction method. Efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) was observed and it allows the emission color of CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) to be continuously tuned from yellow (contributed by Ce(3+)) to red (by Mn(2+)) with an increase in Mn(2+) concentration and upon blue light excitation. The red emission becomes dominant when the Mn(2+) concentration is ≥0.014 with an energy transfer efficiency higher than 87% which can reach as high as 94% for a Mn(2+) concentration of only 0.02. A critical distance of 10.5 Å for the Ce(3+)-Mn(2+) energy transfer was determined. A faster decrease of Ce(3+) luminescence intensity in comparison with its lifetime was observed on increasing the Mn(2+) concentration. The analysis of this feature reveals that the Ce(3+) excitation energy can be completely transferred to Mn(2+) if the Ce(3+)-Mn(2+) distance is shorter than 7.6 Å. A warm white LED was fabricated through integrating an InGaN blue LED chip and a blend of two phosphors (YAG:Ce(3+) yellow phosphor and CaO:0.007Ce(3+),0.014Mn(2+) red phosphor) into a single package, which has CIE chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.37, y = 0.35), a correlated color temperature of 3973 K and a color rendering index of 83.1. The results indicate that CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) may serve as a potential red phosphor for blue LED based warm white LEDs.

  6. Synthetic model of the asymmetric [Mn3CaO4] cubane core of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shreya; Stull, Jamie A; Yano, Junko; Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Pringouri, Konstantina; Stich, Troy A; Abboud, Khalil A; Britt, R David; Yachandra, Vittal K; Christou, George

    2012-02-14

    The laboratory synthesis of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II has been the objective of synthetic chemists since the early 1970s. However, the absence of structural information on the OEC has hampered these efforts. Crystallographic reports on photosystem II that have been appearing at ever-improving resolution over the past ten years have finally provided invaluable structural information on the OEC and show that it comprises a [Mn(3)CaO(4)] distorted cubane, to which is attached a fourth, external Mn atom, and the whole unit attached to polypeptides primarily by aspartate and glutamate carboxylate groups. Such a heterometallic Mn/Ca cubane with an additional metal attached to it has been unknown in the literature. This paper reports the laboratory synthesis of such an asymmetric cubane-containing compound with a bound external metal atom, [(1)]. All peripheral ligands are carboxylate or carboxylic acid groups. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data have established 1 to possess an S = 9/2 ground state. EPR spectroscopy confirms this, and the Davies electron nuclear double resonance data reveal similar hyperfine couplings to those of other Mn(IV) species, including the OEC S(2) state. Comparison of the X-ray absorption data with those for the OEC reveal 1 to possess structural parameters that make it a close structural model of the asymmetric-cubane OEC unit. This geometric and electronic structural correspondence opens up a new front in the multidisciplinary study of the properties and function of this important biological unit.

  7. The structure of phosphate glass biomaterials from neutron diffraction and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance data.

    PubMed

    Pickup, D M; Ahmed, I; Guerry, P; Knowles, J C; Smith, M E; Newport, R J

    2007-10-17

    Neutron diffraction and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to probe the structure of phosphate glass biomaterials of general composition (CaO)0.5-x(Na2O)x(P2O5)0.5 (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.5). The results suggest that all three glasses have structures based on chains of Q(2) phosphate groups. Clear structural differences are observed between the glasses containing Na2O and CaO. The P-O bonds to bridging and non-bridging oxygens are less well resolved in the neutron data from the samples containing CaO, suggesting a change in the nature of the bonding as the field strength of the cation increases [Formula: see text]. In the (CaO)0.5(P2O5)0.5 glass most of the Ca(2+) ions are present in isolated CaOx polyhedra whereas in the (Na2O)0.5(P2O5)0.5 glass the NaOx polyhedra share edges leading to a Na-Na correlation. The results of the structural study are related to the properties of the (CaO)0.4(Na2O)0.1(P2O5)0.5 biomaterial.

  8. Probing the role of P dbnd O stretching mode enhancement in nerve-agent sensors: Simulation of the adsorption of diisopropylfluorophosphate on the model MgO and CaO surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejczyk, Wojciech; Majumdar, D.; Roszak, Szczepan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-12-01

    The interactions of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) with model MgO and CaO surfaces have been investigated using density functional (DFT) and Møller-Plesset second order perturbation techniques. The geometries were fully optimized at the DFT level. The calculated interaction energies and the corresponding thermodynamic properties show that DFP is physisorbed on these two model oxide surfaces and adsorption on the MgO surface is stronger. Analyses of the calculated IR and Raman spectra point to the enhancement of the P dbnd O stretching mode with respect to the isolated DFP and this property could be used to detect nerve-agents using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  9. End-member fluids for diamond formation and their possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, O.; Weiss, Y.; Klein-Bendavid, O.; Bell, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Microinclusions in fibrous diamonds carry high density fluids (HDF) with compositions that vary between silicic, carbonatitic and saline end-members. Combining EPMA and FTIR data we can estimate the composition of each end-member. The silicic end-member composition (Udachnaya) comprises ~90 wt% silicates, 4% carbonate, 4% water and minor apatite. The saline end-member (Diavik, Canada) carries 51 wt% alkali halides, 12% carbonates and 37% water. Klein-BenDavid et al. (in review) defined two carbonatitic end-members. The low-Mg one carries ~75 wt% carbonates, 11% silicates, 5% halides, 2% apatite and 7% water; the high-Mg end-member carries similar proportions, except for the higher apatite: 78% carbonates, 9% silicates, 5% apatite, 2% halides and 6% water, but with much higher Mg/(Mg+Fe+Ca) ratio. The volatile-free oxides proportions of the most silicic microinclusions in an Udachnaya diamond are: 69 wt% SiO2; 14% Al2O3; 10% K2O, 2% Na2O, 1% CaO and P2O5 and minor FeO, TiO2, MgO, and Cl. The saline HDF carries 73 wt% KCl, 12% NaCl, 7% CaO, 2.5% MgO, 2.5% BaO, 1.5% FeO and 1.5% SiO2. In the low-Mg carbonatitic HDF calcium exceeds magnesium: ~21 wt% CaO, 18% FeO, 12% MgO, 22% K2O; 10% SiO2, 8% Na2O and minor TiO2, Al2O3, P2O5 and Cl, while in the high-Mg end-member MgO is the main oxide: ~29% MgO, 23% CaO, 7% FeO, 17% K2O, 8% SiO2, 9% Na2O, 2% P2O5 and Cl and minor BaO, TiO2, Cr2O3 and Al2O3 ( all values were calculated on volatile-free basis). Weiss et al., in a companion abstract, suggest that the four end-members form two arrays; one between the saline and the high-Mg carbonatitic compositions and the second between the silicic and the low-Mg carbonatitic ones. They further suggest that the first array represents a process that takes place in a peridotitic environment and the other in an eclogitic one. For example, the arrays may be formed by interaction of hydrous or saline fluids with carbonate-eclogite or with carbonate-peridotite. Safonov et al. (2007

  10. Bimodal Silurian and Lower Devonian volcanic rock assemblages in the Machias-Eastport area, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Olcott; Moench, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    titanium and poorer in magnesium and nickel than the Silurian basalts; and the Eastport Formation has rhyolites and silicic dacites that have higher average SiO2 and K2O contents and higher ratios of FeO* to MgO than the Silurian ones. The younger Devonian assemblage is represented by one sample of basalt from a flow in red beds of the post-Acadian Upper Devonian Perry Formation, and by three samples from pre-Acadian diabases that intrude the Leighton and Hersey Formations. These rocks are even richer in titanium and iron and poorer in magnesium and nickel than the older Devonian basalts. Post-Acadian granitic plutons exposed along the coastal belt for which analyses are available are tentatively included in the younger Devonian assemblage. The most conspicuous features of the coastal volcanics and associated intrusives are the preponderance of rocks of basaltic composition ( < 52 percent SiO2 ) in the Silurian assemblage, and the near absence in all assemblages of intermediate rocks having 57-67 percent SiO2 (calculated without volatiles). All the rocks are variably altered spilites and keratophyres. The basaltic types are adequately defined, however, by eight samples of least altered basalts having calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and 0.5 percent or less CO2 , The more altered basalts are variably enriched or depleted in Na2O, K2O, and CaO relative to the least altered ones. In the silicic rocks no primary ferromagnesian minerals are preserved. The Na2O and K2O contents of the silicic rocks are erratic; they are approximately reciprocal, possibly owing to alkali exchange while the rocks were still glassy. We propose that the coastal volcanic belt extended along an axis of thermal swelling in the Earth's mantle and upward intrusion of partially melted mantle into the sialic Avalonian crust. These processes were accompanied by shoaling and emergence of the belt, and they produced the bimodal volcanism. Tholeiitic basaltic melts segregated from mantle material

  11. Low-Temperature Sintering of AlN Ceramics by Sm2O3-Y2O3-CaO Sintering Additives Formed via Decomposition of Nitrate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jun; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Jianhua; Geng, Chunlei; Shi, Changdong; Cui, Song; Tang, Wenming

    2017-01-01

    The Sm, Y and Ca anhydrous nitrates were mixed with the AlN powder in ethanol and then decomposed into the Sm2O3-Y2O3-CaO sintering additives via calcining. Low-temperature sintering of the AlN ceramics was carried out at temperature range from 1675 to 1750 °C. Effects of the composition and adding amount of the sintering additives on the phases, microstructures and properties of the AlN ceramics were investigated. During sintering the AlN ceramics, main secondary phases of CaYAl3O7 and CaSmAl3O7 form. The relative density, bending strength and thermal conductivity of the AlN ceramics increase with the increase in the rare-earth oxides in them. The thermal conductivity of the sintered AlN ceramics is also greatly affected by the distribution of the secondary phases. As sintered at 1750 °C, the AlN ceramics by adding the sintering additives of 2 wt.% Sm2O3, 2 wt.% Y2O3 and 1 wt.% CaO formed via decomposition of their nitrates is fully dense and have the optimal bending strength and thermal conductivity of 402.1 MPa and 153.7 W/(m K), respectively.

  12. Improving SiO2 impurity tolerance of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9: Synergy of CaO and ZnO in scavenging grain-boundary resistive phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Lin; Ni, Qing; Cai, Guifan; Sang, Tianyi; Guo, Lucun

    2016-08-01

    Rapid oxygen ion conduction, which is important in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolytes, is often dramatically hindered by the presence of even small concentrations of impurities such as SiO2, which is ubiquitous in ceramic processing. In this study, rapid degradation of the grain boundary (GB) conduction of Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) is observed with increasing SiO2 addition from 0 to 1 wt%. Nearly complete GB conduction recovery is achieved through synergy between CaO and ZnO in the SDC + x wt% Si systems. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrate the formation of a Ca-, Si-, and Sm-containing secondary phases, which is related to the enhancements in GB conductivity and reductions in activation energy. The scavenging effect of CaO is verified in this study and ZnO is observed to promote the scavenging reaction. Compared with the single-addition case (CaO/ZnO), the much higher SiO2 impurity tolerance of the combined system suggests the commercial potential of the "scavenger + promoter" strategy presented in this work.

  13. Evidence from FTIR difference spectroscopy that D1-Asp61 influences the water reactions of the oxygen-evolving Mn4CaO5 cluster of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Debus, Richard J

    2014-05-13

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthetic water oxidation requires characterizing the reactions of the water molecules that serve as substrate or that otherwise interact with the oxygen-evolving Mn4CaO5 cluster. FTIR difference spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structural changes of hydrogen bonded water molecules. For example, the O-H stretching mode of water molecules having relatively weak hydrogen bonds can be monitored near 3600 cm(-1), the D-O-D bending mode can be monitored near 1210 cm(-1), and highly polarizable networks of hydrogen bonds can be monitored as broad features between 3000 and 2000 cm(-1). The two former regions are practically devoid of overlapping vibrational modes from the protein. In Photosystem II, water oxidation requires a precisely choreographed sequence of proton and electron transfer steps in which proton release is required to prevent the redox potential of the Mn4CaO5 cluster from rising to levels that would prevent its subsequent oxidation. Proton release takes place via one or more proton egress pathways leading from the Mn4CaO5 cluster to the thylakoid lumen. There is growing evidence that D1-D61 is the initial residue of one dominant proton egress pathway. This residue interacts directly with water molecules in the first and second coordination spheres of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. In this study, we explore the influence of D1-D61 on the water reactions accompanying oxygen production by characterizing the FTIR properties of the D1-D61A mutant of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. On the basis of mutation-induced changes to the carbonyl stretching region near 1747 cm(-1), we conclude that D1-D61 participates in the same extensive networks of hydrogen bonds that have been identified previously by FTIR studies. On the basis of mutation-induced changes to the weakly hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching region, we conclude that D1-D61 interacts with water molecules that are located near the Cl(-)(1) ion and that

  14. Petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of Early Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic intrusions, South China: A case study from the Gan-Hang tectonic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Youqiang; Hu, Ruizhong; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.; Qi, Huawen; Tian, Jianji; Zhu, Jingjing

    2016-08-01

    A study using whole-rock major-trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb dating has been carried out on Early Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic intrusions from the Gan-Hang tectonic belt (GHTB), South China, to understand the origin of mantle sources and the sequential evolution of the underlying Late Mesozoic lithospheric mantle of this area. The study focused on two intrusions, one at Quzhou and the other at Longyou (see Fig. 1). They are primarily composed of mafic-ultramafic rocks with wide range of chemical compositions. The Quzhou mafic rocks have relatively narrow ranges of SiO2 (48.94-51.79 wt%), MgO (6.07-7.21 wt%), Fe2O3 (10.48-11.56 wt%), CaO (8.20-8.81 wt%), and Mg# (51.7-56.5) with relatively low K2O (0.56-0.67 wt%) and Na2O (3.09-3.42 wt%). By contrast, the ultramafic rocks from Longyou have distinct lower SiO2 (41.50-45.11 wt%) and higher MgO (9.05-9.90 wt%), Fe2O3 (12.14-12.62 wt%), CaO (8.64-10.67 wt%), and Mg# (59.5-61.1) with relatively higher K2O (1.32-1.75 wt%) and Na2O (4.53-5.08 wt%). They are characterized by Ocean Island Basalts (OIB)-type trace element distribution patterns, with a significant enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE), large ion lithophile elements (LILE, i.e., Rb, Ba, K, and Sr) and high field strength elements (HFSE, i.e., Nb, Ta), and slight depletion of Th, U, Ti, and Y. The intrusions exhibit relatively depleted Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with (87Sr/86Sr)i range of 0.7035 to 0.7055 (143Nd/144Nd)i of 0.51264 to 0.51281 and εNd(t) values of + 3.0 to + 6.6. Zircon U-Pb dating of Longyou and Quzhou intrusions yields consistent magma emplacement ages of 129.0 ± 3.9 to 126.2 ± 2.4 Ma, respectively. The dating results are consistent with the peak of extension in Early Cretacerous throughout the Gan-Hang tectonic belt. Their magmas were principally derived from near-solidus partial melting of pyroxenites with different content of silica, and the pyroxenites were resulted from a juvenile SCLM peridotite

  15. Geochemical Predictions of Elemental Compositions using Remote LIBS under Mars Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Tucker, J.; Humphries, S.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Carmosino, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on Mars Science Laboratory will be the first deployment of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for remote geochemical analysis. Successful quantitative analyses of those results will use in-situ calibration targets and laboratory calibrations, and employ sophisticated algorithms for data reduction in order to correct for variations in peak intensities and areas caused by interactions in the plasma that are a function of chemical composition. Such chemical matrix effects influence the ratio of each emission line to the abundance of the element that produces it, and are directly related to the elemental composition of the sample. Advances in statistical analysis of LIBS data that mitigate matrix effects and provide for accurate and precise bulk analysis of major, minor, and trace elements are reported here. Our in-house data set currently includes LIBS spectra of >140 rock powders (igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary) with highly-varying compositions (as determined by XRF) that were acquired at 7-9 m standoff distance under Mars atmospheric conditions using a laboratory instrument [1]. LIBS spectra were modeled using partial least squares analysis (PLS) to predict elemental compositions. Within the igneous suite, 10 repeat measurements of a single sample demonstrates consistency and precision; calculated 1-σ errors were 1.6 wt.%SiO2, 1.5 wt.% Al2O3, 0.4 wt.% TiO2, 1.2 wt.% Fe2O3T, 1.6 wt.% MgO, 0.02 wt.% MnO, 1.1 wt.% CaO, 0.5 wt.% Na2O, 0.2 wt.% P2O5, and 0.4 wt.% K2O. In the overall suite, predictions of all elements, expressed as root mean square errors (RMSEP), are better than ±2.45 for SiO2, ±1.64 for Al2O3, ±0.38 for TiO2, ±1.50 for Fe2O3T, ±1.88 for MgO, ±0.03 for MnO, ±0.82 for CaO, ±0.55 for K2O, ±0.62 for Na2O, and ±0.24 for P2O5 in units of wt.% oxides. On-going work should reduce these values even further. For elements at low concentrations, multivariate analyses must be interpreted with care because their

  16. Major Elements Budget Between Abyssal Peridotite And Seawater During The Serpentinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Dong, Y.; Li, X.; Chu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Water-Rock Interaction is one of the most hot-debated issues among geologists, geophysicists, as well as geochemists. Abyssal peridotites recovered from the seafloor are often greatly affected or alterated by seawater in the form of serpentinization. The alteration to the peridotites makes it difficult to do the straightforward analysis for its primary composition as it was settled in the upper mantle, which confine the usage of these rare direct samples from the mantle in the scientific study, such as mantle dynamics, mantle composition and crust-mantle interaction. Besides, It was revealed recently that the serpentinization of abyssal peridotites may give birth to the hydrothermal activity. The elements migration during the serpentinization may perform a great role on the chemical composition of the hydrothermal fluid, which can support a hidden chemosynthetic ecosystem in the abyssal seabed. The research work focused on the major elements behavior during the serpentinization by studying the partially serpentinized samples of abyssal peridotite from Southwest Indian Ridge. The primary mineral assemblage of peridotite is olivine (Mg2SiO4), orthopyroxene (Mg2Si2O6), clinopyroxene (CaMgSi2O6) and spinel ((Mg,Fe)(Al,Cr)2O4). The major chemical composition are usually as SiO2 (30~45wt.%), MgO (20~45 wt.%), FeO and Fe2O3 (total 5~15 wt.%). Besides there are very few MnO, CaO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, NiO, Na2O, K2O and H2O. While on the other hand the serpentinized peridotite shows a more complicated mineral assemblage, besides the primary minerals there are more alteration minerals, such as serpentine (Mg3[Si2O5](OH)4), magnetite (Fe3O4), talc (Mg3[Si4O10](OH)2), brucite (Mg(OH)2), tremolite (Ca2Mg5[Si8O22](OH)2), chromite (FeCr2O4), chlorite ((Mg,Fe)6[(Si,Al)4O10](OH)8), and other accessary minerals like native metals, sulfides, clay minerals and hornblende. According to the EMPA analysis, the serpentinized sample shows the chemical composition as SiO2(~40 wt.%), MgO(~30 wt

  17. Growth of Megaspherulites In a Rhyolitic Vitrophyre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert K.; Tremallo, Robin L.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    Megaspherulites occur in the middle zone of a thick sequence of rhyolitic vitrophyre that occupies a small, late Eocene to early Oligocene volcanic-tectonic basin near Silver Cliff, Custer County, Colorado. Diameters of the megaspherulites range from 0.3 m to over 3.66 m, including a clay envelope. The megaspherulites are compound spherulites. consisting of an extremely large number (3.8 x 10(exp 9) to 9.9 x 10(exp 9)) of individual growth cones averaging 3 mm long by 1.25 mm wide at their termination. They are holocrystalline, very fine- to fine-grained, composed of disordered to ordered sanidine (orthoclase) and quartz, and surrounded by a thin K-feldspar, quartz rich rind, an inner clay layer with mordenite, and an outer clay layer composed wholly of 15 A montmorillonite. Whole rock analyses of the megaspherulites show a restricted composition from their core to their outer edge, with an average analyses of 76.3% SiO2, 0.34% CaO, 2.17% Na2O, 6.92% K2O, 0.83% H2O+ compared to the rhyolitic vitrophyre from which they crystallize with 71.07% SiO2, 0.57% CaO, 4.06% Na2O,4.l0% K2O, and 6.40% H2O+. The remaining oxides of Fe2O3 (total Fe), A12O3, MnO,MgO, TiO2, P2O5, Cr2O3, and trace elements show uniform distribution between the megaspherulites and the rhyolitic vitrophyre. Megaspherulite crystallization began soon after the rhyolitic lava ceased to flow as the result of sparse heterogeneous nucleation, under nonequilibrium conditions, due to a high degree of undercooling, delta T. The crystals grow with a fibrous habit which is favored by a large delta T ranging between 245 C and 295 C, despite lowered viscosity, and enhanced diffusion due to the high H2O content, ranging between 5% and 7%. Therefore, megaspherulite growth proceeded in a diffusion controlled manner, where the diffusion, rate lags behind the crystal growth rate at the crystal-liquid interface, restricting fibril lengths and diameters to the 10 micron to 15 micron and 3 micron and 8 micron ranges

  18. Reaction between Metapelite-derived Hydrous Partial Melt and Subsolidus Fertile Peridotite at 2-3 GPa - Generation of High-K Magmas in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Mallik, A.; Dasgupta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Trace compositions of arc magmas display signatures of recycled sediments [1] and thermal and geodynamic models of subduction zones suggest that sediment contribution to sub-arc mantle occurs in the form of hydrous melts generated at the slab-mantle interface by fluid-present melting [2, 3] or in the mantle wedge by diapiric rise of downgoing sediments [4]. Partial melts of hydrous pelitic sediments are rhyolitic in P-T conditions of the mantle wedge and are out of equilibrium with the surrounding peridotite, which implies inevitable reaction between such melt and overlying peridotite. However, partial melting in the mantle wedge with slab input has mostly been studied in peridotite+H2O systems [e.g. 5] and experimental constraints on sediment-peridotite hybrid remain limited [6]. In this study, we explore the phase equilibria of a sediment melt-fluxed fertile peridotite with the aim of understanding genesis of high-K arc magmas. Experiments were performed in AuPd capsules using a piston cylinder, on a 1:3 mixture of rhyolitic melt with 7.3 wt.% H2O [3] and fertile peridotite from 1150-1350 °C at 2-3 GPa. Interstitial melt/fluid is present at 1150 °C, 2 GPa and 1150-1200 °C, 3 GPa. While residual opx+cpx+biotite are present at both pressures, olivine is present from 1200-1300 °C, 2 GPa and garnet from 1150-1300 °C, 3 GPa. Cpx and biotite disappear at 1200-1250 °C, 2 GPa and 1350 °C, 3 GPa. At 2 GPa, from 1200-1300 °C, the melt composition (on a volatile-free basis), shows an increase in SiO2 (50-51 wt.%), MgO (10-14 wt.%) and decrease in Al2O3 (16-14 wt.%), CaO (10-7 wt.%), Na2O (3-2 wt.%) and H2O (13-8 wt.%.). K2O increases from 5 to 7 wt.% till 1250 °C followed by a decrease to 5 wt.%, at 1300 °C. FeO* varies between 6 and 5 wt.%. At 3 GPa, from 1225-1350 °C, the reacted melt displays an increase in SiO2 (47-49 wt.%), FeO* (4.2-5.4 wt.%), MgO (11-14 wt.%), and decrease in Al2O3 (15-14 wt.%), CaO (12-7 wt.%), Na2O (4-3 wt.%) and H2O (16-11 wt.%). K2O

  19. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mashhad granitoids: An insight into the geodynamic history of the Paleo-Tethys in northeast of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnejad, H.; Lalonde, A. E.; Obeid, M.; Hassanzadeh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Mashhad granitoids in northeast Iran are part of the so-called Silk Road arc that extended for 8300 km along the entire southern margin of Eurasia from North China to Europe and formed as the result of a north-dipping subduction of the Paleo-Tethys. The exact timing of the final coalescence of the Iran and Turan plates in the Silk Road arc is poorly constrained and thus the study of the Mashhad granitoids provides valuable information on the geodynamic history of the Paleo-Tethys. Three distinct granitoid suites are developed in space and time (ca. 217-200 Ma) during evolution of the Paleo-Tethys in the Mashhad area. They are: 1) the quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite, 2) the granodiorite, and 3) the monzogranite. Quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite stock from Dehnow-Vakilabad (217 ± 4-215 ± 4 Ma) intruded the pre-Late Triassic metamorphosed rocks. Large granodiorite and monzogranite intrusions, comprising the Mashhad batholith, were emplaced at 212 ± 5.2 Ma and 199.8 ± 3.7 Ma, respectively. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.708042-0.708368), low initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512044-0.51078) and low ɛNd(t) values (- 5.5 to - 6.1) of quartz diorite-tonalite-granodiorite stock along with its metaluminous to mildly peraluminous character (Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) Mol. = 0.94-1.15) is consistent with geochemical features of I-type granitoid magma. This magma was derived from a mafic mantle source that was enriched by subducted slab materials. The granodiorite suite has low contents of Y (≤ 18 ppm) and heavy REE (HREE) (Yb < 1.53 ppm) and high contents of Sr (> 594 ppm) and high ratio of Sr/Y (> 35) that resemble geochemical characteristics of adakite intrusions. The metaluminous to mildly peraluminous nature of granodiorite from Mashhad batholiths as well as its initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.705469-0.706356), initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512204-0.512225) and ɛNd(t) values (- 2.7 to - 3.2) are typical of adakitic magmas generated by partial melting of a

  1. Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2015-07-01

    The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% FeMgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% FeMgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO-Na2O-K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O-SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan-Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

  2. Method of preventing oxidation of graphite fireproof material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, S.; Suzuki, H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of preventing oxidation of graphite fireproof material is given. A blend of 1 to 33 weight parts alumina and 3 to 19 parts of K2O + Na2O in 100 parts of SiO2 is pulverized followed by addition of 5 to 160 parts of silicon carbide powder in 100 parts of the mixture. This is thoroughly blended and coated on the surface of graphite fireproof material.

  3. The Use of Multi-Component Statistical Techniques in Understanding Subduction Zone Arc Granitic Geochemical Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompe, L.; Clausen, B. L.; Morton, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-component statistical techniques and GIS visualization are emerging trends in understanding large data sets. Our research applies these techniques to a large igneous geochemical data set from southern California to better understand magmatic and plate tectonic processes. A set of 480 granitic samples collected by Baird from this area were analyzed for 39 geochemical elements. Of these samples, 287 are from the Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) and 164 from part of the Transverse Ranges (TR). Principal component analysis (PCA) summarized the 39 variables into 3 principal components (PC) by matrix multiplication and for the PRB are interpreted as follows: PC1 with about 30% of the variation included mainly compatible elements and SiO2 and indicates extent of differentation; PC2 with about 20% of the variation included HFS elements and may indicate crustal contamination as usually identified by Sri; PC3 with about 20% of the variation included mainly HRE elements and may indicate magma source depth as often diplayed using REE spider diagrams and possibly Sr/Y. Several elements did not fit well in any of the three components: Cr, Ni, U, and Na2O.For the PRB, the PC1 correlation with SiO2 was r=-0.85, the PC2 correlation with Sri was r=0.80, and the PC3 correlation with Gd/Yb was r=-0.76 and with Sr/Y was r=-0.66 . Extending this method to the TR, correlations were r=-0.85, -0.21, -0.06, and -0.64, respectively. A similar extent of correlation for both areas was visually evident using GIS interpolation.PC1 seems to do well at indicating differentiation index for both the PRB and TR and correlates very well with SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, FeO*, CaO, K2O, Sc, V, and Co, but poorly with Na2O and Cr. If the crustal component is represented by Sri, PC2 correlates well and less expesively with this indicator in the PRB, but not in the TR. Source depth has been related to the slope on REE spidergrams, and PC3 based on only the HREE and using the Sr/Y ratios gives a reasonable

  4. Experimental constraints on the destabilization of basalt + calcite + anhydrite at high pressure-high temperature and implications for meteoroid impact modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-05-01

    Calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 are two sedimentary components or alteration products of basalts on the Earth, Venus, and Mars. The fate of anhydrite-, calcite-bearing crust during a meteoroid impact must be addressed in order to evaluate: (1) the potential S- and C-gas release to the atmosphere, (2) the formation of S- and C-rich melts, and (3) the crystallization of S- and C-rich minerals which may be recognized by spectral analyses of planetary surfaces. We performed piston-cylinder experiments at 1 GPa, between 1200 and 1750 °C, on a mixture of 70 wt.% tholeiitic basalt + 15 wt.% anhydrite + 15 wt.% calcite. Up to ~ 1440 °C, an ultracalcic (CaO > 19.8 wt.%; CaO/Al2O3 > 1 wt.%) picrobasaltic (SiO2 ~ 39-43 wt.%; Na2O + K2O < 2 wt.%) melt containing up to 5.7 wt.% SO3 and up to 5.1 wt.% CO2 + H2O (calculated by difference) is present in equilibrium with fassaitic clinopyroxene, anhydrite, scapolite, chromian spinel and a gas composed mainly of CO and, occasionally, aliphatic thiols like CH3(CH2)3SH. Hydrogen was incorporated either by contact between the starting material and air or by diffusion through the capsule during the experiments. Above ~ 1440 °C, a CaO-rich (~ 35 wt.%) sulfate-carbonate (SC) melt which contains 41-47 wt.% SO3, 7-12 wt.% CO2 + H2O and a few percent of Na2O, forms in equilibrium with the picrobasaltic melt. This study shows that a meteoroid impact onto an anhydrite- and calcite-bearing basaltic crust is likely to release CO gas to the atmosphere, while S is trapped in solid or liquid phases. Under hydrous conditions, however, the S/C in the gas may increase. The importance of the temperature parameter on the impact phase relations is also demonstrated. In particular, SC melt may form by meteoroid impact, and flow rapidly on a planetary surface. Physical modeling must therefore be combined with high P-high T phase diagrams of complex assemblages similar to planetary lithologies in order to evaluate the effects of a meteoroid impact.

  5. Mineralogy and geochemistry of pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments in the Ngog-Lituba region, Southern Cameroon: An implication to their genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndjigui, Paul-Désiré; Ebah Abeng, Sandrine Appolonie; Ekomane, Emile; Nzeukou, Aubin Nzeugang; Ngo Mandeng, Francine Sidonie; Matoy Lindjeck, Marthe

    2015-08-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical investigations have been done on the hydromorphic clays (pseudogley soils and recent alluvial clastic sediments) in the Sanaga Maritime region (Southern Cameroon). Pseudogley soils are developed on gneisses from the Yaoundé Group. They have a dark brown to greyish brown color, with silty clay texture. Their mineral assemblage is made up of kaolinite, goethite, quartz, smectite, rutile, muscovite-illite and feldspars. The alluvial clastic sediments are characterized by variable colors (purple yellow, greenish, dark brown and purple brown) and sandy clay to clay texture. The mineral assemblage of alluvial clays is similar to that of pseudogley soils. SEM observations confirm the presence of kaolinite, smectite, quartz and muscovite-illite. Infrared data show that kaolinite is more orderly in pseudogley than in the alluvial clastic sediments. The Ngog-Lituba gneisses have moderate contents in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O and several trace elements including REE. High element depletion is noticed in the pseudogley soils except Cr, V, Zr, Pb and REE. However, the alluvial clays are marked by a strong mobilization of LILE (Na, K, Ba, Rb and Sr) and REE, relative to the parent rock and pseudogley soils. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are homogenous and parallel with Ce-anomalies. The (La/Yb)N shows that the REE fractionation increase from the parent rock to the alluvial clastic sediments. The mineralogical and geochemical features show that the clastic river sediments are derived from the erosion of the neighboring pseudogley materials before hydraulic sorting.

  6. Determination of major elements by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in igneous rocks from the same fused sample (110 mg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosova, Alena A.; Panteeva, Svetlana V.; Chubarov, Victor M.; Finkelshtein, Alexandr L.

    2016-08-01

    The fusion technique is proposed for simultaneous determination of 35 elements from the same sample. Only 110 mg of rock sample was used to obtain fused glasses for quantitative determination of 10 major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, 16 rare earth elements and some other trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Fusion was performed with 1.1 g of lithium metaborate and LiBr solution as the releasing agent in platinum crucible in electric furnace at 1100 °C. The certified reference materials of ultramafic, mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks have been applied to obtain the calibration curves for rock-forming oxides (Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3) and some trace elements (Ba, Sr, Zr) determination by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The repeatability does not exceed the allowable standard deviation for a wide range of concentrations. In the most cases the relative standard deviation was less than 5%. Obtained glasses were utilized for the further determination of rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and some other (Ba, Sr, Zr, Rb, Cs, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th and U) trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis with the same certified reference materials employed. The results could mostly be accepted as satisfactory. The proposed procedure essentially reduces the expenses in comparison with separate sample preparation for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis.

  7. Geochemistry of rock units at the potential repository level, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Cloke, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The compositional variability of the phenocryst-poor member of the 12.8 Ma Topopah Spring Tuff at the potential repository level was assessed by duplicate analysis of 20 core samples from the cross drift at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Previous analyses of outcrop and core samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff showed that the phenocryst-poor rhyolite, which includes both lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones, is relatively uniform in composition. Analyses of rock samples from the cross drift, the first from the actual potential repository block, also indicate the chemical homogeneity of this unit excluding localized deposits of vapor-phase minerals and low-temperature calcite and opal in fractures, cavities, and faults. The possible influence of vapor-phase minerals and calcite and opal coatings on rock composition at a scale sufficiently large to incorporate these heterogeneously distributed deposits was evaluated and is considered to be relatively minor. Therefore, the composition of the phenocryst-poor member of the Topopah Spring Tuff is considered to be adequately represented by the analyses of samples from the cross drift. The mean composition as represented by the 10 most abundant oxides in wt. % or g/100 g is: SiO2, 76.29; Al2O3, 12.55; FeO, 0.14; Fe2O3, 0.97; MgO, 0.13; CaO, 0.50; Na2O, 3.52; K2O, 4.83; TiO2, 0.11; and MnO, 0.07. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Wang, Deping; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the use of synthetic biomaterials to deliver inorganic ions that are known to stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the effects of varying amounts of copper in a bioactive glass on the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in vitro and on blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects in vivo. Porous scaffolds of a borosilicate bioactive glass (composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 36B2O3, 18SiO2, 2P2O5, mol.%) doped with 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0wt.% CuO were created using a foam replication method. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the scaffolds released Cu ions into the medium and converted to hydroxyapatite. At the concentrations used, the Cu in the glass was not toxic to the hBMSCs cultured on the scaffolds in vitro. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the hBMSCs and the expression levels of angiogenic-related genes (vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor) and osteogenic-related genes (runt-related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin) increased significantly with increasing amount of Cu in the glass. When implanted in rat calvarial defects in vivo, the scaffolds (3wt.% CuO) significantly enhanced both blood vessel formation and bone regeneration in the defects at 8weeks post-implantation. These results show that doping bioactive glass implants with Cu is a promising approach for enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the healing of osseous defects.

  9. Differentiation in the cumulates from a Mauna Loa, Hawaii magma chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Schwindinger, K.R.; Anderson, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial glass in cognate nodules from Mauna Loa, has by chemical diffusion or convective fluid transport, remained in equilibrium with the overlying magma. The glass bearing nodules were collected from Damona Cone on the southwest rift zone of Mauna Loas. The nodules have approximately 15% olivine, 40% orthopyroxene plus clinopyroxene (3-20%), and 85% plagioclase plus vescicular glass (2-25%). Olivine norites have anhedral olivine mantled with anhedral orthopyroxene, subhedral to euhedral pyroxene, anhedral plagioclase, and 20 to 25% glass. Olivine gabbros have anhedral olivine, subequant, anhedral to subhedral pyroxene and plagioclase and less than 10% glass. The bulk composition of greater than 15%, MgO, with the textures, indicate the nodules are an accumulative origin. Thus these nodules are partially solidified pieces of crystal/liquid accumulative mush. The compositions of the olivines are Fa 18 to 25 mole percent, of the plagioclases are An 70 to 80 mole percent. The composition of the orthopyroxene is En76 Fs19 Wo5, and of the clinopyroxene is En50 Fall Wo30. The composition of the interstitial glasses is: SiO2 52.54, TiO2 2.04, Al2O3 14.39, FeO 11.47, MgO 7.15, CaO 10.28, Na20 1.42, K2O 0.39, P2O5 0.21. The low Na2O is from two nodules that may have experienced high temperature alteration. The uniformity of the glass composition, in contrast to its large variation in the mode, suggests the interstitial liquid in the mush has remained in equilibrium with some large reservoir of MgO rich liquid, such as the magma above the mush. Two possible mechanisms of cation exchange between the magma and the interstitial liquid of the mush are chemical diffusion and convective fluid transport.

  10. Characterization of MSWI bottom ashes towards utilization as glass raw material.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, R C C; Figueiredo, C F; Alendouro, M S; Ferro, M C; Davim, E J R; Fernandes, M H V

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of the bottom ashes produced by two Portuguese municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) was performed with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using this waste as raw material in the production of glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics for application in construction. Density and particle size distribution measurements were carried out for physical characterization. Chemical characterization revealed that SiO(2), a network glass former oxide, was present in a relatively high content (52-58wt%), indicating the suitability for this waste to be employed in the development of vitreous materials. CaO, Na(2)O and K(2)O, which act as fluxing agents, were present in various amounts (2-17wt%) together with several other oxides normally present in ceramic and glass raw materials. Mineralogical characterization revealed that the main crystalline phases were quartz (SiO(2)) and calcite (CaCO(3)) and that minor amounts of different alkaline and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate phases were also present. Thermal characterization showed that the decomposition of the different compounds occurred up to 1100 degrees C and that total weight loss was <10wt%. Heating both bottom ashes at 1400 degrees C for 2h resulted in a melt with suitable viscosity to be poured into a mould, and homogeneous black-coloured glasses with a smooth shiny surface were obtained after cooling. The vitrified bottom ashes were totally amorphous as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The results from the present experimental work indicate that the examined bottom ashes can be a potential material to melt and to obtain a glass that can be further processed as glass-ceramics to be applied in construction.

  11. Partial melting of apatite-bearing charnockite, granulite, and diorite: Melt compositions, restite mineralogy, and petrologic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, James S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Sinha, A. Krishna; Tollo, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Melting experiments (P = 6.9 kbar, T = 850-950 deg C, NNO is less than fO2 is less than HM) were done on mafic to felsic charnockites, a dioritic gneiss, and a felsic garnet granulite, all common rock types in the Grenville basement of eastern North America. A graphite-bearing granulite gneiss did not melt. Water (H2O(+) = 0.60 to 2.0 wt %) is bound in low-grade, retrograde metamorphic minerals and is consumed during the earliest stages of melting. Most melts are water-undersaturated. Melt compositions range from metaluminous, silicic granodiorite (diorite starting composition) to peraluminous or weakly metaluminous granites (all others). In general, liquids become more feldspathic, less silicic, and less peraluminous and are enriched in FeO, MgO, and TiO2 with increasing temperature. Residual feldspar mineralogy controls the CaO, K2O, and Na2O contents of the partial melts and the behavior of these elements can be used, particularly if the degree of source melting can be ascertained, to infer some aspects of the feldspar mineralogy of the source. K-feldspar, a common restite phase in the charnockite and granulite (but not the diorite) should control the behavior of Ba and, possibly, Eu in these systems and yield signatures of these elements that can distinguish source regions and, in some cases, bulk versus melt assimilation. Apatite, a common restite phase, is enriched in rare earth elements (REE), especially middle REE. Retention of apatite in the restite will result in steep, light REE-enriched patterns for melts derived from the diorite and charnockites.

  12. Natural radionuclide concentrations in granite rocks in Aswan and Central-Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt and their radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M; Uosif, M A M; Abd el-Salam, L M

    2012-07-01

    Different types of granites, used extensively in local construction, were collected from five localities in Egypt, namely: Abu Ziran (Central Eastern Desert), Gabal El Maesala (Aswan) and three areas from Wadi Allaqi, (Gabal Abu Marw, Gabal Haumor and Gabal um Shalman), in the South Eastern Desert. Granite samples were studied radiologically, petrographically and geochemically. The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3'×3']. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 9±0.5 to 111±7, 8±1 to 75±4 and 100±6 to 790±40 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The external hazard index (H(ex)), absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated radium equivalents were lower than the values recommended for construction materials (370 Bq kg(-1)). The excess lifetime cancer risks were also calculated. Petrographically, the granites studied are varied in the form of potash-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, mica and hornblende. The accessory minerals are zircon, apatite and allanite. Geochemically, the chemical composition of the granite is studied especially for major oxides. They are characterized to have SiO(2), K(2)O, Na(2)O and Al(2)O(3) with depletion in CaO, MgO, TiO(2) and P(2)O(5).

  13. Chemical modifications accompanying blueschist facies metamorphism of Franciscan conglomerates, Diablo Range, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Liou, J.G.; King, B.-S.

    1981-01-01

    As part of an investigation of blueschist-facies mineral parageneses in pebbles and matrix of some Franciscan metaconglomerates of the Diablo Range, California, textural and major-element chemical analyses were conducted on a number of igneous pebbles that comprise a range of rock types from granite and dacite to gabbro and basalt. Compositions of the igneous pebbles differ significantly from common igneous rocks, particularly with respect to Ca, K, Na, Si and H2O. The SiO2 and H2O contents are characteristically high and the K2O contents low. The CaO and Na2O contents may be relatively enriched or reduced in different pebbles. The igneous pebbles show little evidence of alteration prior to their incorporation into the Franciscan conglomerates, and the chemical modifications are considered to have been produced during metamorphism of the conglomerates to (lawsonite + albite + aragonite ?? jadeite)-bearing assemblages. The observed variations in the pebbles are shown to be functions of: (1) bulk chemistry; (2) the igneous mineral assemblage; (3) the stable metamorphic mineral assemblage; and (4) the composition of pore fluids in the conglomerates. The relative proportions of Mg and Fe in most of the pebbles apparently have been unaffected by the metamorphism, and these parameters, along with other textural and chemical factors, were used to determine the petrogenetic affinities of the igneous pebbles. The plutonic and most of the volcanic pebbles correspond to calc-alkaline rock series, whereas a few volcanic pebbles show apparent Fe-enrichment characteristic of tholeiitic rocks. A continental margin arc-batholith complex would be the best source for these igneous detrital assemblages. Conglomerates in local areas differ in igneous lithologies from conglomerates in other areas and probably differ somewhat in age, perhaps reflecting varying degrees of unroofing of such a complex during deposition of Franciscan sediments. ?? 1981.

  14. Zircon saturation in silicate melts: a new and improved model for aluminous and alkaline melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervasoni, Fernanda; Klemme, Stephan; Rocha-Júnior, Eduardo R. V.; Berndt, Jasper

    2016-03-01

    The importance of zircon in geochemical and geochronological studies, and its presence not only in aluminous but also in alkaline rocks, prompted us to think about a new zircon saturation model that can be applied in a wide range of compositions. Therefore, we performed zircon crystallization experiments in a range of compositions and at high temperatures, extending the original zircon saturation model proposed by Watson and Harrison (Earth Planet Sci Lett 64:295-304, 1983) and Boehnke et al. (Chem Geol 351:324-334, 2013). We used our new data and the data from previous studies in peraluminous melts, to describe the solubility of zircon in alkaline and aluminous melts. To this effect, we devised a new compositional parameter called G [ {( {3 \\cdot {{Al}}2 {{O}}3 + {{SiO}}2 )/({{Na}}2 {{O}} + {{K}}2 {{O}} + {{CaO}} + {{MgO}} + {{FeO}}} )} ] (molar proportions), which enables to describe the zircon saturation behaviour in a wide range of rock compositions. Furthermore, we propose a new zircon saturation model, which depends basically on temperature and melt composition, given by (with 1σ errors): ln [ {{Zr}} ] = ( {4.29 ± 0.34} ) - ( {1.35 ± 0.10} ) \\cdot ln G + ( {0.0056 ± 0.0002} ) \\cdot T( °C ) where [Zr] is the Zr concentration of the melt in µg/g, G is the new parameter representing melt composition and T is the temperature in degrees Celsius. The advantages of the new model are its straightforward use, with the G parameter being calculated directly from the molar proportions converted from electron microprobe measurements, the temperature calculated given in degrees Celsius and its applicability in a wider range of rocks compositions. Our results confirm the high zircon solubility in peralkaline rocks and its dependence on composition and temperature. Our new model may be applied in all intermediate to felsic melts from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions.

  15. Solving petrological problems through machine learning: the study case of tectonic discrimination using geochemical and isotopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrelli, Maurizio; Perugini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Machine-learning methods are evaluated to study the intriguing and debated topic of discrimination among different tectonic environments using geochemical and isotopic data. Volcanic rocks characterized by a whole geochemical signature of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3T, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O), selected trace elements (Sr, Ba, Rb, Zr, Nb, La, Ce, Nd, Hf, Sm, Gd, Y, Yb, Lu, Ta, Th) and isotopes (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd) have been extracted from open-access and comprehensive petrological databases (i.e., PetDB and GEOROC). The obtained dataset has been analyzed using support vector machines, a set of supervised machine-learning methods, which are considered particularly powerful in classification problems. Results from the application of the machine-learning methods show that the combined use of major, trace elements and isotopes allows associating the geochemical composition of rocks to the relative tectonic setting with high classification scores (93 %, on average). The lowest scores are recorded from volcanic rocks deriving from back-arc basins (65 %). All the other tectonic settings display higher classification scores, with oceanic islands reaching values up to 99 %. Results of this study could have a significant impact in other petrological studies potentially opening new perspectives for petrologists and geochemists. Other examples of applications include the development of more robust geothermometers and geobarometers and the recognition of volcanic sources for tephra layers in tephro-chronological studies.

  16. Isotopic variation in the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kistler, R.W.; Chappell, B.W.; Peck, D.L.; Bateman, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the compositionally zoned Late Cretaceous Toulumne Intrusive Suite in the central Sierra Nevada, California, have initial87Sr/86Sr values (Sri) and143Nd/144Nd values (Ndi) that vary from 0.7057 to 0.7067 and from 0.51239 to 0.51211 respectively. The observed variation of both Sri and Ndi and of chemical composition in rocks of the suite cannot be due to crystal fractionation of magma solely under closed system conditons. The largest variation in chemistry, Ndi, and Sri is present in the outer-most equigranular units of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite. Sri varies positively with SiO2, Na2O, K2O, and Rb concentrations, and negatively with Ndi, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, FeO, CaO, MnO, P2O5, TiO2, and Sr concentrations. This covariation of Sri, Ndi and chemistry can be modeled by a process of simple mixing of basaltic and granitic magmas having weight percent SiO2 of 48.0 and 73.3 respectively. Isotopic characteristic of the mafic magma are Sri=0.7047, Ndi=0.51269 and ??18O=6.0, and of the felsic magma are Sri=0.7068, Ndi=0.51212 and ??18O=8.9. The rocks sampled contain from 50 to 80% of the felsic component. An aplite in the outer equigranular unit of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite apparently was derived by fractional crystallization of plagioclase and hornblende from magma with granudiorite composition that was a product of mixing of the magmas described above. Siliceous magmas derived from the lower crust, having a maximum of 15 percent mantle-derived mafic component, are represented by the inner prophyritic units of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  18. Chemical composition of phosphorites of the Phosphoria Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.

    1966-01-01

    The chemical composition, both major and minor constituents, of 60 samples of phosphorite from the Phosphoria Formation was determined. Major constituents of the average phosphorite are, by weight per cent: SiO2, 11??9; Al2O3, 1??7; Fe2O3,1??1; MgO, 0??3; CaO, 44??0; Na2O, 0??6; K2O, 0??5; total H2O, 2??2; H2O-, 0??6; TiO2, 0??1; P2O5, 30??5; CO2, 2??2; SO3, 1??8; F, 3??1; organic matter, 2??1; and oil, 0??2. Uranium averages 0??009 per cent. The phosphate mineral is basically apatite, Ca5(PO4)3F, with small but significant and variable substitutions-Na, Sr, U and Th for Ca, and CO3 and SO4 for PO4. Rare metals not associated with apatite are associated principally with the organic-matter component of the rocks. This group includes As, Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, V and Zn. Chromium is the most abundant, having a modal abundance of 0??1 per cent and a maximum concentration of 0??3 per cent. The average phosphorite is composed of approximately 80 per cent apatite, 10 per cent quartz, 5 per cent muscovite-illite, 2 per cent organic matter, 1 per cent dolomite-calcite, 1 per cent iron oxide, and 1 per cent other components. It is texturally a medium-grained pellet phosphorite. ?? 1966.

  19. Genesis of post-collisional calc-alkaline and alkaline granitoids in Qiman Tagh, East Kunlun, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Feng, Chengyou; Zhao, Yiming; Li, Daxin

    2015-12-01

    The post-collisional magmatism of Qiman Tagh is characterized by the intrusion of voluminous intermediate to felsic granitoids, including syenogranite, monzogranite, granodiorite, tonalite and diorite. The granitoids can be divided into two magmatic suites: Calc-alkaline (CA) and alkaline (Alk), which were emplaced from ~ 236 Ma to ~ 204 Ma. The CA suite contains metaluminous granodiorites and monzogranites. Typical Qiman Tagh CA granodiorites show moderately fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 4.35-25.11) with significant negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.54-1.34), and the primitive mantle-normalized spidergrams show strong depletion of Nb and Sr. The Qiman Tagh CA monzogranites show similar fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 2.70-13.5) with less prominent negative Eu anomalies, and the chondrite-normalized spidergrams show strongly depleted Ba, Nb and Sr. The Alk suite, including syenogranite, is highly potassic (K2O/Na2O = 1.09-3.56) and peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.91-1.06). Compared to typical Qiman Tagh CA granodiorites, the Qiman Tagh Alk granitoids can be distinguished by their higher Rb, Nb, Ga/Al, FeO*/MgO, Y/Sr and Rb/Sr, as well as their lower Mg#, MgO, CaO, Al2O3, Sr, Co, V, Eu/Eu*, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, Ba/La and Ce/Nb. The Qiman Tagh CA rocks were most likely to be derived from the partial melting of garnet-amphibolite-facies rocks in the lower crust, leaving behind anhydrous granulite-facies rocks with plagioclase and garnet in the residue. The Alk rocks may have formed by the continued partial melting of granulite-facies rocks at elevated temperatures (> 830 °C).

  20. Decoupling of Mg-C and Sr-Nd-O isotopes traces the role of recycled carbon in magnesiocarbonatites from the Tarim Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Hou, Tong; Santosh, M.; Chen, Lili; Ke, Shan; Xu, Lijuan

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim Large Igneous Province in NW China hosts numerous magmatic carbonatite dikes along its northern margin. The carbonatites are composed mainly of dolomite (90 vol.%) and minor calcite (5 vol.%), with apatite, barite, celestine, aegirine, monazite and bastnaesite as accessory minerals. The rocks correspond to magnesiocarbonatites with a compositional range of 13.73-19.59 wt.% MgO, and 20.03-30.11 wt.% CaO, along with 1.65-3.31 wt.% total Fe2O3, 0.02-2.39 wt.% SiO2 and other minor elements, such as P2O5, Na2O and K2O. These magnesiocarbonatites are characterized by extreme enrichment in incompatible elements with high total rare earth element (REE) contents of 372-36965 ppm. The strontium [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70378-0.70386], neodymium [εNd(t) = +2.51 - +3.59] and oxygen (δ18OV-SMOW = 5.9‰-8.0‰) isotope values of these rocks are consistent with a mantle origin, whereas the magnesium (δ26Mg = -1.09‰ to -0.85‰) and carbon (δ13CV-PDB = -4.1‰ to -5.9‰) isotopes are decoupled from mantle values and reflect signature of recycled sedimentary carbonates. Global plate tectonic models predict that sedimentary carbonates in convergent margins are subducted to deep domains in the mantle, with phase transitions from calcite/dolomite to magnesite, and eventually to periclase/perovskite. The involvement of a mantle plume enhances the normal mantle geotherms and promotes decomposition reactions of magnesite. The decoupling of Mg-C and Sr-Nd-O isotopes in the mangesiocarbonatites provides insights on the origin of carbonatites, and also illustrates a case of interaction between mantle plume and subduction-related components.

  1. Log-ratio transformed major element based multidimensional classification for altered High-Mg igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Rivera-Gómez, M. Abdelaly; Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    A new multidimensional classification scheme consistent with the chemical classification of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is proposed for the nomenclature of High-Mg altered rocks. Our procedure is based on an extensive database of major element (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3t, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5) compositions of a total of 33,868 (920 High-Mg and 32,948 "Common") relatively fresh igneous rock samples. The database consisting of these multinormally distributed samples in terms of their isometric log-ratios was used to propose a set of 11 discriminant functions and 6 diagrams to facilitate High-Mg rock classification. The multinormality required by linear discriminant and canonical analysis was ascertained by a new computer program DOMuDaF. One multidimensional function can distinguish the High-Mg and Common igneous rocks with high percent success values of about 86.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Similarly, from 10 discriminant functions the High-Mg rocks can also be classified as one of the four rock types (komatiite, meimechite, picrite, and boninite), with high success values of about 88%-100%. Satisfactory functioning of this new classification scheme was confirmed by seven independent tests. Five further case studies involving application to highly altered rocks illustrate the usefulness of our proposal. A computer program HMgClaMSys was written to efficiently apply the proposed classification scheme, which will be available for online processing of igneous rock compositional data. Monte Carlo simulation modeling and mass-balance computations confirmed the robustness of our classification with respect to analytical errors and postemplacement compositional changes.

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of rare earth elements in rocks using low dilution glass beads.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kenichi; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2005-07-01

    Major and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Th and U) in igneous rocks were assayed with fused lithium borate glass beads using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Low dilution glass beads, which had a 1:1 sample-to-flux ratio, were prepared for determination of rare earth elements. Complete vitrification of 1:1 mixture required heating twice at 1200 degrees C with agitation. Extra pure reagents containing determinants were used for calibrating standards instead of the rock standard. The calibration curves of the 23 elements showed good linearity. Furthermore, the lower limits of detection corresponding to three times the standard deviation for blank measurements were 26 mass ppm for Na2O, 6.7 for MgO, 4.5 for Al2O3, 4.5 for SiO2, 18 for P2O5, 1.1 for K2O, 4.0 for CaO, 3.9 for TiO2, 1.6 for MnO, 0.8 for Fe2O3, 0.5 for Rb, 0.2 for Sr, 0.4 for Y, 0.5 for Zr, 3.3 for La, 6.5 for Ce, 2.7 for Pr, 2.1 for Nd, 1.7 for Sm, 0.7 for Gd, 2.7 for Dy, 0.5 for Th, and 0.6 for U. Using the present method, we determined the contents of these 23 elements in four rhyolitic and granitic rocks from Japan.

  3. Reactivity of clay minerals with acids and alkalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, D.; Starkey, H.C.

    1971-01-01

    One-g samples of a montmorillonite, a metabentonite, an illite, two kaolinites, and three halloysites were treated with 50 ml of hydrochloric acid (6??45 N, 1:1), acetic acid (4??5 N, 1:3), sodium hydroxide (2??8 N), sodium chloride solution (pH 6??10; Na = 35???; Cl = 21??5???), and natural sea water (pH 7??85; Na = 35??5???; Cl = 21??5???) for a 10-day period in stoppered plastic vials. The supernatant solutions were removed from the clay minerals and analyzed for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and K2O. All the solutions removed some SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 from the samples, but the quantities were small. Sodium hydroxide attacked the kaolin group minerals more strongly than it did montmorillonite, metabentonite, or illite. Halloysite was more strongly attacked by hydrochloric acid than was any of the other experimental minerals. Hydrochloric acid removed iron oxide coatings from soil clay minerals, but acetic acid did not remove them completely. The samples most strongly attacked by HCl and NaOH were examined by X-ray diffraction. Acid treatment did not destroy the structure of the clays, but the halloysite structure was partially destroyed. Sodium hydroxide attacked the halloysite structure, as shown by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. These experiments show that treatment in dilute acids has no harmful effect in the preparation of clays for X-ray diffraction. Acetic acid is preferred to hydrochloric acid for this purpose. Hydrochloric acid cleans clay minerals by removing free iron oxide from the surface; acetic acid is less effective. ?? 1971.

  4. Petrogeochemistry of listvenite association in metaophiolites of Sahlabad region, eastern Iran: Implications for possible epigenetic Cu-Au ore exploration in metaophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftabi, Alijan; Zarrinkoub, Mohammad Hossien

    2013-01-01

    Petrogeochemical investigations at the Sahlabad region have revealed that epigenetic listvenite veins occur in sheared zones of metaophiolitic suites of Cretaceous age. The listvenite mineralization developed in three forms, namely (1) the silica-listvenite veins which are chiefly composed of chalcedony, opal, quartz, pyrite, chalcopyrite, serpentine and relicts of chrome spinels, magnetite and fuchsite; (2) the carbonate listvenite veins which are comprised principally of magnesite, dolomite, calcite, siderite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, serpentine and relicts of fuchsite, chrome spinels and magnetite; and (3) the silica-carbonate listvenite veins which include opal, quartz, dolomite, magnesite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, serpentine and relicts of chrome spinels and magnetite. The absence of mineralized granitoids and the frequent occurrences of clearcut non-metamorphosed veins indicate that the mineralizing fluids were rich in CO2, H2O, H2S and H4SiO4 and possibly formed as a result of metamorphic dehydration and decarbonation reactions of the oceanic crust at the amphibolite-greenschist facies. Geochemically, the listvenites are enriched in SiO2, MgO, CaO, CO2, LOI, Cr, Ni, Co, Au, Cu, Ag, Hg, and Pt. Also, the veins contain high values of LOI, indicating the H2O-CO2-rich metamorphogenic fluids. The high Cr content and detectable values of K2O, Al2O3 and Na2O in the listvenite veins possibly indicate the presence of fuchsite and chrome spinels. The geochemical signatures attest that the hydrothermal fluids probably derived from a metamorphosed ultramafic protolith. The maximum values for gold, copper, mercury and silver in the listvenites are about 1.9 ppm, 5.4 %, 8 ppm and 6.5 ppm, respectively and provide a unique exploration guide for further gossan sampling, remote sensing mapping, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies in the Iranian metaophiolites.

  5. Petrological and geochemical comparition between the upper and lower rhyolite of the Binchuan basaltic profile,Emeishan LIP succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huixin, H.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Emeishan basalt is well known worldwide,and it has been well tested from the geochemistry and petrology.However,the eruptional rock sequences is rare reported. Some former work reported that on the top of Emeishan basalt,there is always sit with rhyolite(or felsic-composition,mainly are rhyolite and trachyte ).This work is focusing on newly found rhyolite and trachyte succession at the bottom of Binchuan basalt pofile,and the comparition between the bottom and top felsic-composition of the Binchuan pofile basaltic related succession from petrological and geochemistry points. The bottom rhyolite is lack of phenocryst,and the filling of blowhole is observed quartz only. Otherwise,the phenocryst of the top rhyolite is mainly alkaline-feldspar. The upper layered rhyolite is less sillical rich than the lower part with the content of SiO2 65-70,68-74 respectively. Additionally,the content of TiO2 (0.82-0.87,0.57-0.70),Total Fe2O3(5.15-5.87,2.89-4.88),MgO(2.13-2.64,0.19-0.48),CaO(1.18-1.49,0.13-0.42), P2O5(0.18-0.25,0.02-0.25) of the upper layered rhyolite is more abundant than the lower layer. However,the amount of the Na2O,K2O of both upper and lower rhyolite can not be distinguished clearly as weathering effect suspectively. This may note that the two kinds of rhyolite are formed from different geological process. The upper may due to the crystallization differentiation of the mafic magmas ,while the lower is formed in the result of crust remelting.

  6. Tertiary epizonal plutonic rocks of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Motzer, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness identified approximately 731 kmS of epizonal plutonic granitic rocks within the Bitterroot lobe of the Idaho batholith. From north to south, the intrusions are the Rock Lake Creek stock and the Whistling Pig, Running Creek, Bad Luck and Painted Rocks plutons. The stock and plutons consist of medium- to coarse-grained biotite and hornblende-biotite syenorgranite to monzogranite and quartz syenite capped by fine-grained biotite leucogranite. These rocks are intruded by late-synplutonic leucogranite dikes and post plutonic porphyritic rhyolite to rhyodacite and basalt dikes. The medium-grained granitic rocks are high in SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Ga, Th, U, W and Zr, but low in Al7O3, CaO, MgO, Cr, Ni, Co and V. Most of the granites are peraluminous. Rare-earth element (REE) plots (rock sample/chondrite) show enrichment in light REE over heavy REE with strong EU depletions. K-Ar biotite radiometric age determinations for medium-grained granites in all of the plutons range from approximately 51 Ma (Whistling Pig pluton) to 43.7 Ma (Painted Rocks pluton). Petrogenetic studies suggest that the plutons were rapidly emplaced to within 3.0 km of the paleosurface. The types, textures and color of the rocks result from devolatilization of the crystallizing melt and very low-grade hydrothermal alteration. The fluorine-rich melts are the fractionated with accumulate residue; they are considered to be anorogenic (A-type) granites intruded into the center of a metamorphic core complex.

  7. Experiments on liquid immiscibility along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlier, Bernard; Grove, Timothy L.

    2012-07-01

    Crystallization experiments have been conducted on compositions along tholeiitic liquid lines of descent to define the compositional space for the development of silicate liquid immiscibility. Starting materials have 46-56 wt% SiO2, 11.7-17.7 wt% FeOtot, and Mg-number between 0.29 and 0.36. These melts fall on the basaltic trends relevant for Mull, Iceland, Snake River Plain lavas and for the Sept Iles layered intrusion, where large-scale liquid immiscibility has been recognized. At one atmosphere under anhydrous conditions, immiscibility develops below 1,000-1,020°C in all of these compositionally diverse lavas. Extreme iron enrichment is not necessary; immiscibility also develops during iron depletion and silica enrichment. Variations in melt composition control the development of silicate liquid immiscibility along the tholeiitic trend. Elevation of Na2O + K2O + P2O5 + TiO2 promotes the development of two immiscible liquids. Increasing melt CaO and Al2O3 stabilizes a single-liquid field. New data and published phase equilibria show that anhydrous, low-pressure fractional crystallization is the most favorable condition for unmixing during differentiation. Pressure inhibits immiscibility because it expands the stability field of high-Ca clinopyroxene, which reduces the proportion of plagioclase in the crystallizing assemblage, thus enhancing early iron depletion. Magma mixing between primitive basalt and Fe-Ti-P-rich ferrobasalts can serve to elevate phosphorous and alkali contents and thereby promote unmixing. Water might decrease the temperature and size of the two-liquid field, potentially shifting the binodal (solvus) below the liquidus, leading the system to evolve as a single-melt phase.

  8. Porous and strong bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13-93 bioactive glass (6Na(2)O, 12K(2)O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P(2)O(5), 53SiO(2); wt.%) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700°C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1-7°C min(-1)) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3°C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7°C min(-1) (porosity=50±4%; average pore diameter=100 μm), had a compressive strength of 47±5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11±3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35±11 MPa and 8±3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones.

  9. Silicate globules in kyanite from grospydites of the Zagadochnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia: The problem of the origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomilenko, A. A.; Kovyazin, S. V.; Pokhilenko, L. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The results of complex study of silicate globules and α-quartz paramorphs after coesite in kyanite from grospydites from the Zagadochnaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia, using optical and scanning electron spectroscopy, electron and ion microprobes, LA ICP MS and Raman spectroscopy, are presented. The existence of radial fractures diverging from silicate globules into the matrix (kyanite) attests to the fact that the content of the globules is extremely condensed. A zonal structure is usually typical for globules: a coat and a core, which can be explicitly distinguished under the electron microscope, can be differentiated in them. Compositionally, the coat of the globule corresponds to potassium feldspar (wt %: 66.4 SiO2; 16.9 Al2O3; 0.4 FeO; 0.1 CaO; 0.2 Na2O; 14.7 K2O). The globules were also detected in which along with K, a high content of Na and Ca was also ascertained in the silicate coat. The globule coat is considerably enriched with Ba, La, Ce, Nb, and a number of other noncompatible elements as compared with xenolith minerals. The water content in globules is ˜0.6 wt %. As compared with the host mineral (kyanite), the core part of the globules is also enriched with Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu; their content in kyanite is negligibly low. The entire data collection attests to the fact that the formation of silicate globules could have been caused by interaction of the conservated fluid and/or water-silicate melt with the host mineral and crystalline inclusions of clinopyroxene and garnet with decreasing pressure during the transportation of grospydite xenoliths by the kimberlite melt to the Earth's surface.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2-pillared Romanian clay and their application for azoic dyes photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Dvininov, E; Popovici, E; Pode, R; Cocheci, L; Barvinschi, P; Nica, V

    2009-08-15

    The synthesis and properties of metal oxide pillared cationic clays (PILCs) has been subject to numerous studies in the last decades. In order to obtain TiO(2)-pillared type materials, sodium montmorillonite from Romania-areal of Valea Chioarului, having the following composition (% wt): SiO(2)-72.87; Al(2)O(3)-14.5; MgO-2.15; Fe(2)O(3)-1.13; Na(2)O-0.60; K(2)O-0.60; CaO-0.90; PC-5.70 and cation exchange capacity, determined by ammonium acetate method, of 82 meq/100g, as matrix, was used. Sodium form of the clay was modified, primarily, by intercalation of cetyl-trimethylammonium cations between negatively charged layers which will lead to the expansion of the interlayer space. For the preparation of the TiO(2)-pillared clay, the alkoxide molecules, as titania precursor, were adsorbed onto/into clay samples (1 mmol Ti/g clay), in hydrochloric acid environment, the resulted species being converted into TiO(2) pillars by calcination. The as-prepared materials have been used as catalysts for Congo Red dye photodegradation, under UV. The photocatalytic activity of the pillared clays is a function of TiO(2) pillars size, their increase leading to the enhancement of the contact areas between dye solution and photoactive species present in the interlayer space. The structural characteristics and properties of the obtained materials were investigated by X-ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetry Analysis, UV-vis Diffuse Reflectance, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis.

  11. Constraints on abundance, composition, and nature of X-ray amorphous components of soils and rocks at Gale crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehouck, Erwin; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Cousin, Agnès.

    2014-12-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns of the three samples analyzed by Curiosity's Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument during the first year of the Mars Science Laboratory mission—the Rocknest sand, and the John Klein and Cumberland drill fines, both extracted from the Sheepbed mudstone—show evidence for a significant amorphous component of unclear origin. We developed a mass balance calculation program that determines the range of possible chemical compositions of the crystalline and amorphous components of these samples within the uncertainties of mineral abundances derived from CheMin data. In turn, the chemistry constrains the minimum abundance of amorphous component required to have realistic compositions (all oxides ≥ 0 wt %): 21-22 wt % for Rocknest and 15-20 wt % for Cumberland, in good agreement with estimates derived from the diffraction patterns (~27 and ~31 wt %, respectively). Despite obvious differences between the Rocknest sand and the Sheepbed mudstone, the amorphous components of the two sites are chemically very similar, having comparable concentrations of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, FeOT, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5. MgO tends to be lower in Rocknest, although it may also be comparable between the two samples depending on the exact composition of the smectite in Sheepbed. The only unambiguous difference is the SO3 content, which is always higher in Rocknest. The observed similarity suggests that the two amorphous components share a common origin or formation process. The individual phases possibly present within the amorphous components include: volcanic (or impact) glass, hisingerite (or silica + ferrihydrite), amorphous sulfates (or adsorbed SO42-), and nanophase ferric oxides.

  12. Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Reimann, Clemens; Bastrakov, E.; Bowbridge, D.; Boyle, P.; Briggs, S.; Brown, D.; Brown, M.; Brownlie, K.; Burrows, P.; Burton, G.; Byass, J.; de Caritat, P.; Chanthapanya, N.; Cooper, M.; Cranfield, L.; Curtis, S.; Denaro, T.; Dhnaram, C.; Dhu, T.; Diprose, G.; Fabris, A.; Fairclough, M.; Fanning, S.; Fidler, R.; Fitzell, M.; Flitcroft, P.; Fricke, C.; Fulton, D.; Furlonger, J.; Gordon, G.; Green, A.; Green, G.; Greenfield, J.; Harley, J.; Heawood, S.; Hegvold, T.; Henderson, K.; House, E.; Husain, Z.; Krsteska, B.; Lam, J.; Langford, R.; Lavigne, T.; Linehan, B.; Livingstone, M.; Lukss, A.; Maier, R.; Makuei, A.; McCabe, L.; McDonald, P.; McIlroy, D.; McIntyre, D.; Morris, P.; O'Connell, G.; Pappas, B.; Parsons, J.; Petrick, C.; Poignand, B.; Roberts, R.; Ryle, J.; Seymon, A.; Sherry, K.; Skinner, J.; Smith, M.; Strickland, C.; Sutton, S.; Swindell, R.; Tait, H.; Tang, J.; Thomson, A.; Thun, C.; Uppill, B.; Wall, K.; Watkins, J.; Watson, T.; Webber, L.; Whiting, A.; Wilford, J.; Wilson, T.; Wygralak, A.; Albanese, S.; Andersson, M.; Arnoldussen, A.; Baritz, R.; Batista, M. J.; Bel-lan, A.; Birke, M.; Cicchella, C.; Demetriades, A.; Dinelli, E.; De Vivo, B.; De Vos, W.; Duris, M.; Dusza-Dobek, A.; Eggen, O. A.; Eklund, M.; Ernstsen, V.; Filzmoser, P.; Finne, T. E.; Flight, D.; Forrester, S.; Fuchs, M.; Fugedi, U.; Gilucis, A.; Gosar, M.; Gregorauskiene, V.; Gulan, A.; Halamić, J.; Haslinger, E.; Hayoz, P.; Hobiger, G.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoogewerff, J.; Hrvatovic, H.; Husnjak, S.; Janik, L.; Johnson, C. C.; Jordan, G.; Kirby, J.; Kivisilla, J.; Klos, V.; Krone, F.; Kwecko, P.; Kuti, L.; Ladenberger, A.; Lima, A.; Locutura, J.; Lucivjansky, P.; Mackovych, D.; Malyuk, B. I.; Maquil, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Meuli, R. G.; Miosic, N.; Mol, G.; Négrel, P.; O'Connor, P.; Oorts, K.; Ottesen, R. T.; Pasieczna, A.; Petersell, V.; Pfleiderer, S.; Poňavič, M.; Prazeres, C.; Rauch, U.; Reimann, C.; Salpeteur, I.; Schedl, A.; Scheib, A.; Schoeters, I.; Sefcik, P.; Sellersjö, E.; Skopljak, F.; Slaninka, I.; Šorša, A.; Srvkota, R.; Stafilov, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Trendavilov, V.; Valera, P.; Verougstraete, V.; Vidojević, D.; Zissimos, A. M.; Zomeni, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SiO2 and TiO2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

  13. P-from wave velocities and anisotropy of typical rocks the Yunkai Mts. (Guangdong and Guangxi, China) and constraints on the composition of the crust beneath the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shaocheng; Wang, Qian; Salisbury, Matthew H.; Wang, Yuejun; Jia, Dong

    2016-12-01

    In order to provide constraints on the interpretation of seismic data of the crust beneath the South China Sea (SCS) and its continental margins, we have measured P-wave velocities and anisotropy as a function of hydrostatic confining pressure, up to 650 MPa, for 31 representative samples (i.e., granite, diorite, felsic gneiss, mylonite and ultramylonite, amphibolite, schist, and marble) from the Yunkai Mts (Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, China) that represent the crystalline basement beneath the continental margins of the SCS. The intrinsic velocity of each crack-free rock increases with increasing density (ρ) which is linearly dependent on the chemical composition: ρ increases with increasing MgO, CaO, FeO + Fe2O3, and Al2O3 contents, but decreases with increasing contents of SiO2 and Na2O + K2O. Most of the rocks have small (<4%) or moderate (4-8%) seismic anisotropy because (1) the contribution of quartz to the bulk anisotropy opposes that of feldspar, and (2) the rocks only contain small amounts of amphibole and/or mica. The interpretation of 12 seismic transects suggests that the crust of the Cathaysia block (the southern part of South China) has a mafic-to-felsic layer thickness ratio (Rm/f) of 41-43% and the ratio shows a general increase from the continental margin to the central basin. The high velocity (7.0-7.6 km/s) materials in the lower crust could be either the former lower crustal mafic rocks that were present before rifting, which have experienced less extensional thinning than the felsic upper crust, or the materials crystallized from mafic magma which underplated the lower crust from the partially molten upper mantle during rifting.

  14. Application of distance correction to ChemCam laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, A.; Melikechi, N.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Clegg, S. M.; Tokar, R.; Bender, S.; Lanza, N. L.; Maurice, S.; Berger, G.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Boucher, T.; Lewin, E.; Fabre, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provides chemical information from atomic, ionic, and molecular emissions from which geochemical composition can be deciphered. Analysis of LIBS spectra in cases where targets are observed at different distances, as is the case for the ChemCam instrument on the Mars rover Curiosity, which performs analyses at distances between 2 and 7.4 m is not a simple task. In our previous work we showed that spectral distance correction based on a proxy spectroscopic standard created from first-shot dust observations on Mars targets ameliorates the distance bias in multivariate-based elemental-composition predictions of laboratory data. In this work, we correct an expanded set of neutral and ionic spectral emissions for distance bias in the ChemCam data set. By using and testing different selection criteria to generate multiple proxy standards, we find a correction that minimizes the difference in spectral intensity measured at two different distances and increases spectral reproducibility. When the quantitative performance of distance correction is assessed, there is improvement for SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeOT, Na2O, K2O, that is, for most of the major rock forming elements, and for the total major-element weight percent predicted. However, for MgO the method does not provide improvements while for TiO2, it yields inconsistent results. In addition, we have observed that many emission lines do not behave consistently with distance, evidenced from laboratory analogue measurements and ChemCam data. This limits the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Origin of the disseminated magnetite pyroxenite in the Tieshanmiao-type iron deposits in the Wuyang region of Henan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tong; Li, Hou-Min; Li, Wen-Jun; Li, Li-Xing; Zhao, Chuang

    2015-12-01

    The Tieshanmiao-type iron deposits in the southern North China Craton comprise two types of ores: banded pyroxene-magnetite quartzite (BMQ) and disseminated magnetite pyroxenite (DMP). Whether the quartz-poor DMP represents metamorphosed iron-bearing ultramafic rocks or chemical sedimentary rocks is still unclear. Pyroxene compositions in the DMP are low in Al2O3 and TiO2, which are similar to those from the BMQ and altered marble and pyroxenite. However, the compositions are different from those in the metamorphosed ultramafic rocks. The DMP and BMQ also show similar major element contents, with dominant SiO2, total Fe2O3, CaO, MgO but low contents of Al2O3, TiO2, MnO, Na2O, K2O, indicating a similar source through submarine chemical precipitation with little input from terrestrial or volcanic materials. The BMQ, DMP and magnetite separates from these rocks exhibit seawater-like signatures of REE patterns with LREE depletion, positive La, Gd and Y anomalies and high Y/Ho ratios, indicating that seawater participated in the formation of the iron ores. Combined with strong positive Eu anomalies, we infer that the deposition of the BMQ and DMP was mainly controlled by the mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids. The lack of negative Ce anomalies of the DMP, BMQ and magnetite separates indicate an anoxic marine environment. The DMP is rich in carbonate but relatively poor in silica and the BMQ is rich in silica but poor in carbonate. The protoliths of the DMP and BMQ in the Tieshanmiao-type iron deposits are inferred to be quartz-carbonate iron-bearing formations which underwent subsequent metamorphism.

  16. Inorganic geochemistry data from Lake El'gygytgyn sediments: marine isotope stages 6-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyuk, P. S.; Borkhodoev, V. Y.; Wennrich, V.

    2014-03-01

    Geochemical analyses were performed on sediments recovered by deep drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn in central Chukotka, northeastern Russia (67°30' N; 172°05' E). Major and rare element concentrations were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the < 250 μm fraction from 617 samples dated to ca. 440 and 125 ka, which approximates marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 to 6. The inorganic geochemistry indicates significant variations in elemental composition between glaciations and interglaciations. Interglacial sediments are characterized by high contents of SiO2, Na2O, CaO, K2O, and Sr and are depleted in Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, and MgO. An extreme SiO2 enrichment during MIS 11.3 and 9.3 was caused by an enhanced flux of biogenic silica (BSi). The geochemical structure of MIS 11 shows similar characteristics as seen in MIS 11 records from Lake Baikal (southeastern Siberia) and Antarctic ice cores, thereby arguing for the influence of global forcings on these records. High sediment content of TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, Al2O3, LOI, Ni, Cr, and Zr typifies glacial stages, with the most marked increases during MIS 7.4 and 6.6. Reducing conditions during glacial times are indicated by peaks in the Fe2O3 content and coinciding low Fe2O3/MnO ratios. This conclusion also is supported by P2O5 and MnO enrichment, indicating an increased abundance of authigenic, fine-grained vivianite. Elemental ratios (CIA, CIW, PIA, and Rb/Sr) indicate that glacial sediments are depleted in mobile elements, like Na, Ca, K and Sr. This depletion was caused by changes in the sedimentation regime and thus reflects environmental changes.

  17. Initial generation of sand across climate zones of the Mojave, Sierra Nevada, and Klamath Batholiths in California, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessler, Angela M.; Lowe, Donald R.

    2017-03-01

    The generation of modern, plutoniclastic sediment across California varies with climate, resulting in significant mineralogical and geochemical differences between parent rock, weathering profile material, and low-order stream sand. With average precipitation of 15 cm/yr in the arid zones and 120 cm/yr in the temperate zones, feldspar is relatively decreased in stream sand (compared to parent rock) by < 2% and 20%, respectively. Potassium feldspar is more resistant to weathering than plagioclase but is less stable than quartz in temperate climates. Hornblende and biotite are more easily weathered in temperate than arid climates, although their occurrence in medium-grained stream sands is affected by hydraulic sorting and comminution during transport. Temperate-climate sands have lower concentrations of CaO and Na2O compared to K2O and Al2O3, reflective of the expected faster loss of plagioclase than potassium feldspar during weathering. With the exception of biotite, the mineralogy of medium-grained stream sand reflects that of medium-grained weathering profile material in both climates, confirming the findings from constant-climate case studies that the composition of proximal sand is largely achieved within weathering profiles and during initial erosion. We encourage continued attention to climate as a control on sand composition in provenance and paleoclimate studies, where a moderate precipitation shift is capable of producing a significant loss of feldspar. The differential response of common minerals to chemical weathering should be considered for studies and modeling related to bedrock erodibility, sediment supply, and landscape evolution.

  18. Clay mineralogical and geochemical constraints on late Pleistocene weathering processes of the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, WeiLiang; Fan, QiShun; Wei, HaiCheng; Zhang, XiYing; Ma, HaiZhou

    2016-09-01

    At the Qarhan Salt Lake (QSL) on the central-eastern Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, Quaternary lacustrine sediments have a thickness of over 3000 m and mainly composed of organic-rich clay and silty clay with some silt halite and halite. In this study, a 102-m-long sediment core (ISL1A) was obtained from the QSL. Combining with AMS 14C and 230Th dating, clay minerals and major-element concentrations of ISL1A were used to reconstruct the weathering process and trend of the QSL since late Pleistocene. The results reveal that the clay mineral from <2 μm fraction in ISL1A is composed of illite (47-77%), chlorite (8-27%), smectite (including illite-smectite mixed layers, 3-29%) and kaolinite (2-11%). Such clay mineral assemblages in ISL1A derived primarily from felsic igneous rocks, gneisses and schists of Eastern Kunlun Mountains on the south of the QSL. The abundance of illite mineral displays an opposite fluctuation trending with that of smectite, chlorite and kaolinite mineral in ISL1A, which is significantly different from the monsoon-controlled regions. Moreover, higher values of illite, kaolinite/chlorite and illite/chlorite ratios, and lower values of smectite, chlorite and kaolinite minerals occurred in 83-72.5 ka, 68.8-54 ka, 32-24 ka, corresponding to late MIS 5, late MIS 4, early MIS 3 and late MIS 3, respectively. These three phases were almost similarly changed with oxygen isotopes of authigenic carbonates and pollen records in ISL1A, which implies that stronger chemical weathering corresponds to higher effective moisture periods of source region in the Qaidam Basin. Based on chemical weathering index and (Al2O3-(CaO + Na2O)-K2O) diagram, chemical weathering degree in this study area takes a varying process from low to intermediate on the whole.

  19. [Rapid determination of major and trace elements in the salt lake clay minerals by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Meng, Qing-Fen; Dong, Ya-Ping; Chen, Mei-Da; Li, Wu

    2010-03-01

    A rapid multi-element analysis method for clay mineral samples was described. This method utilized a polarized wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer--Axios PW4400, which had a maximum tube power of 4 000 watts. The method was developed for the determination of As, Mn, Co, Cu, Cr, Dy, Ga, Mo, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ni, ,Cs, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2 and so on. Thirty elements in clay mineral species were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder pellets. Spectral interferences, in particular the indirect interferences of each element, were studied. A method to distinguish the interference between each other periodic elements in element periodic table was put forward. The measuring conditions and existence were mainly investigated, and the selected background position as well as corrected spectral overlap for the trace elements were also discussed. It was found that the indirect spectral overlap line was the same important as direct spectral overlap line. Due to inducing the effect of indirect spectral overlap, some elements jlike Bi, Sn, W which do not need analysis were also added to the elements channel. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 0.01% to 5.45% except three elements Mo, Cs and Ta. The detection limits, precisions and accuracies for most elements using this method can meet the requirements of sample analysis in clay mineral species.

  20. Geochemistry of the Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clayey materials of the eastern part of the Wouri River (Douala sub-basin, Cameroon): Influence of parent rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngon Ngon, G. F.; Mbog, M. B.; Etame, J.; Ntamak-Nida, M. J.; Logmo, E. O.; Gerard, M.; Yongue-Fouateu, R.; Bilong, P.

    2014-03-01

    Major and trace element concentrations of clay deposits of the Missole II and Bomkoul respectively from the Paleocene-Eocene N'Kapa Formation and the Miocene-Pliocene-Matanda-Wouri Formation in the eastern part of the Wouri River in the Douala sub-basin of Cameroon have been investigated to identify the parent rocks. To carry out this study, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) were performed to determine respectively the mineralogical and chemical data of Missole II and Bomkoul clayey materials. Clay sediments are essentially kaolinitic and illitic, and kaolinitic and smectitic respectively in both sites. They are generally siliceous, aluminous with small iron and bases (MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O) contents. Samples of Missole II profiles are more siliceous than those from the Bomkoul grey and dark grey clayey materials. Clayey materials have high Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA = 80-99.34) which suggests that they are strongly weathered under humid tropical climate before and after their deposition in the coastal plain. The value of Eu/Eu* (0.48-0.61), La/Sc (2.15-20.50), Th/Sc (0.74-2.25), Th/Co (1.08-8.33), and Cr/Th (5.24-13.55) ratios support essentially a silicic or felsic parent rocks. Total REE concentrations reflect the variations in their grain-size fractions. Chondrite-normalised REE patterns with LREE enrichment, flat HREE, and negative Eu anomaly are attributed essentially to silicic or felsic parent rocks like those from weathered materials developed from the gneisses around the coastal plain in the littoral part of Cameroon (Noa Tang et al., 2012), main characteristic of Paleocene-Eocene and Miocene-Pliocene clay sediments of Missole II and Bomkoul areas.

  1. Porous and strong bioactive glass (13–93) scaffolds prepared by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    Scaffolds of 13–93 bioactive glass (6Na2O, 12K2O, 5MgO, 20CaO, 4P2O5, 53SiO2; wt %) with an oriented pore architecture were formed by unidirectional freezing of camphene-based suspensions, followed by thermal annealing of the frozen constructs to grow the camphene crystals. After sublimation of the camphene, the constructs were sintered (1 h at 700 °C) to produce a dense glass phase with oriented macropores. The objective of this work was to study how constant freezing rates (1–7 °C/min) during the freezing step influenced the pore orientation and mechanical response of the scaffolds. When compared to scaffolds prepared by freezing the suspensions on a substrate kept at a constant temperature of 3 °C (time-dependent freezing rate), higher freezing rates resulted in better pore orientation, a more homogeneous microstructure, and a marked improvement in the mechanical response of the scaffolds in compression. Scaffolds fabricated using a constant freezing rate of 7 °C/min (porosity = 50 ± 4%; average pore diameter = 100 μm), had a compressive strength of 47 ± 5 MPa and an elastic modulus of 11 ± 3 GPa (in the orientation direction). In comparison, scaffolds prepared by freezing on the constant-temperature substrate had strength and modulus values of 35 ± 11 MPa and 8 ± 3 GPa, respectively. These oriented bioactive glass scaffolds prepared by the constant freezing rate route could potentially be used for the repair of defects in load-bearing bones, such as segmental defects in the long bones. PMID:21855661

  2. Application of chemical, physical and chemometric analytical techniques to the study of ancient ceramic oil lamps.

    PubMed

    García Giménez, R; Vigil de la Villa, R; Petit Domínguez, M D; Rucandio, M I

    2006-02-15

    A chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of 54 fragments of oil lamps found in two Spanish archaeological sites (Cordoba and Herrera de Pisuerga (Palencia)) has been performed. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry were used for the determination of Al(2)O(3), CaO, Fe(2)O(3), K(2)O, MgO, MnO, Na(2)O and TiO(2) as major constituents and Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn as minor and trace selected elements. Physical, mineralogical and morphological analyses were made by using dilatometry at constant heating rate for the thermal behaviour, X-ray diffraction spectrometry for the mineralogical composition and, in a group of selected samples, scanning electron microscopy and polarizing petrographic microscopy for the observation of thin layers and mineral identification. Separations of light and heavy minerals were carried out with bromoform and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to both fractions. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to establish correlations between variables and to deduce factors which allow the gathering of oil lamp samples in groups as a function of their composition. The results of these analyses allow the comparison among pieces and the establishment of conclusions about several aspects of their manufacture, the origin of the raw materials and the provenance of the oil lamps (local or imported). They provide information supporting certain archaeological hypothesis. For example, some oil lamps found in Herrera de Pisuerga showed a clearly different physicochemical composition. They were probably brought from Italy by the Roman Legions together with their initial furniture household.

  3. Evolution of the trachydacite and pantellerite magmas of the bimodal volcanic association of Dzarta-Khuduk (Central Mongolia): evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, I.

    2012-04-01

    compositions (wt %):68-70 SiO2, 12-13 Al2O3, 0.34-0.74 TiO2, 5-7 FeO, 0.4-0.9 CaO, and 9-12 Na2O + K2O. The agpaitic index ranges from 0.92 to 1.24. The glasses of homogenized melt inclusions in quartz from the pantellerites and pantelleritic tuffs have rhyolitic compositions. Compared with the homogeneous glasses trapped in anorthoclase of the trachydacites, quartz-hosted inclusions from the pantellerites show higher SiO2 (72-78 wt %) and lower Al2O3 contents (7.8-10.0 wt %). They also contain 0.14-0.26 wt % TiO2, 2.5-4.9 wt % FeO, 9 -11 wt % Na2O + K2O, and 0.9-0.15 wt % CaO and show an agpaitic index of 1.2-2.05. Homogeneous melt inclusions in quartz from the pantelleritic tuffs contain 69-72 wt % SiO2. The contents of other major components, including TiO2, Al2O3, FeO, and CaO, are close to those in the homogeneous glasses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions in the pantellerites. The contents of Na2O + K2O are 4-10 wt %, and the agpaitic index is 1.0-1.6. The glasses of melt inclusions from each rock group show distinctive volatile compositions. The H2O content is up to 0.08 wt % in anorthoclase of the trachydacites, 0.4-1.4 wt % in quartz of the pantellerites, and up to 5 wt % in quartz of the pantelleritic tuffs. The content of F in the glasses of melt inclusions in the phenocrysts of the trachydacites is no higher than 0.67 wt %, and up to 1.4-2.8 wt % in quartz from the pantellerites. The Cl content is up to 0.2 wt % in the glasses of melt inclusions in the minerals of the trachydacites and up to 0.5 wt % in the glasses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from the pantellerites. The investigation of trace elements in the homogenized glasses of melt inclusions in minerals showed that the trachydacites and pantellerites were formed from strongly evolved rare-metal alkaline silicate melts with high contents of Li, Zr, Rb, Y, Hf, Th, U, and REE. The analysis of the composition of homogeneous melt inclusions in the minerals of the above rocks allowed us to distinguish magmatic

  4. Provenance, tectonic setting and source-area weathering of the lower Cambrian sediments of the Parahio valley in the Spiti basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shivani; Parcha, Suraj K.

    2017-03-01

    The geochemical study of siliciclastic rocks from the Lower Cambrian of Parahio Valley has been studied to describe the provenance, chemical weathering and tectonic setting. The K2O/Al2O3 ratio and positive correlation of Co ( r=0.85), Ni ( r=0.86), Zn ( r=0.82), Rb ( r=0.98) with K2O reflects that the presence of clay minerals control the abundances of these elements and suggests a warm and humid climate for this region. The chondrite normalized REE pattern of the samples is equivalent to upper continental crust, which reflects enriched LREE and flat HREE with negative Eu anomaly. The tectonic setting discriminant diagram log[K2O/Na2O] vs. SiO2; [SiO2/Al2O3] vs. log[K2O/Na2O]; [SiO2/20] - [K2O+Na2O] - [TiO2+Fe2O3+MgO] indicates transitional tectonic setting from an active continental margin to a passive margin. The discriminant function plot indicates quartzose sedimentary provenance, and to some extent, the felsic igneous provenance, derived from weathered granite, gneissic terrain and/or from pre-existing sedimentary terrain. The CIA value indicates low to moderate degree of chemical weathering and the average ICV values suggests immature sediments deposited in tectonically active settings. The A-CN-K diagram indicates that these sediments were generated from source rocks of the upper continental crust.

  5. Characterization of 12CaO x 7Al2O3 doped indium tin oxide films for transparent cathode in top-emission organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chul Ho; Hwang, In Rok; Park, Bae Ho; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2013-11-01

    12CaO x 7Al2O3, insulator (C12A7) doped indium tin oxide (ITO) (ITO:C12A7) films were fabricated using a radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering system with ITO and C12A7 targets. The qualitative and quantitative properties of ITO:C12A7 films, as a function of C12A7 concentration, were examined via X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray scattering as well as by conducting atomic force microscopy. The work function of ITO:C12A7 (1.3%) films of approximately 2.8 eV obtained by high resolution photoemission spectroscopy measurements make them a reasonable cathode for top-emission organic light-emitting diodes.

  6. Influence of ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-CaO coatings on microstructural and mechanical properties on Mg-1,3Ca- 5,5Zr biodegradable alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Matei, MN; Oprisan, B.; Chicet, D.; Earar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) as a ceramic biomaterial facilitates the osteoconductivity in new bone formation around implant. In order to improve the degradation and the surface properties, it is necessary to apply a surface film to satisfy multiple clinical requirements such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradation rate. Therefore, surface changing to form a tenacious, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer has become a necessary study in biodegradable materials. The aim of the study is to observe the morphology, structural and scratch analysis for some coatings of ZrO2-CaO and ZrO2-Y2O3 having similar thickness deposited with an atmospheric plasma spraying facility, Sulzer Metco 9MCE, using scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Some mechanical aspects were highlighted during the scratch test. Comparative scratch tests were carried out to study the bonding properties between the coatings and the substrates.

  7. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (2) Petrology and geochemistry of rhyolitic melts drilled at Krafla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Schiffman, P.; Marks, N. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Pope, E. C.; Bird, D. K.; Mortensen, A.; Gudmundsson

    2009-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) in the Krafla Geothermal Field was intended to investigate the feasibility of producing energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. Drilling was stopped at 2104 meter when a rhyolitic melt was intersected. Sporadic cuttings included abundant dark brown, sparsely phyric obsidian. Most fragments were poorly vesiculated, but white frothy pumice, some with highly stretched bubbles, sere also present. The dense obsidian and highly vesiculated samples have identical phenocryst assemblages, major element compositions, and volatile contents. The glass is a high silica (75.0 wt %) rhyolite with low TiO2 (0.3 wt %) and 3.7 and 3.0 wt % Na2O and K2O, respectively. Phenocrysts include titanomagnetite, plagioclase, augite and pigeonite, with minor amounts of apatite, rare zircon crystals and pyrrhotite, which occurs as rounded droplets of an immiscible sulfide liquid. Augite and pigeonite each contain abundant exsolution lamellae of the complimentary phase. Plagioclase shows some compositional zoning, but mostly is in the range from An45-An48. The low water contents (1.75 wt %) are consistent with the absence of hydrous phenocrysts, and together with the CO2 content (75 ppm) indicate relatively shallow (<4 km) degassing. Stable isotope compositions (δ18O = 3.2‰, δD = -118‰) indicate an origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered crustal rock, as do chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, that are enriched in light elements and relatively flat for middle and heavy elements. Fragments of a partially crystallized granite intrusion with areas of interstitial melt quenched to glass by the drilling fluids also are present in the drill cuttings from the bottom of the hole. The granite is composed of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, augite and titanomagnetite. The interstitial glass has a silica content (75.6 wt. %) similar to the rhyolite melt, but is easily distinguished from it by higher K2O and

  8. Geochemistry of Eclogite Xenoliths from Kimberlite Pipe Udachnaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashev, Aleksey; Pokhilenko, Ludmila; Pokhilenko, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    A suite of 17 unique big (1 to 20 kg) and fresh ecligite xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe have been studied for their whole-rock and minerals major and trace elements composition.Whole rock major elements composition of the Udachnaya eclogite xenoliths suite have a great variability in their MgO contents (9-19Wt%). Based on major elements composition Udachnaya eclogites can be subdivided in two subsets, high magnesian (Mg# 68.8-81.9) and low magnesian (Mg# 56.8-59). High variations also shown by Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations and high Mg# samples tend to contain less of those oxides then low Mg# samples with some exceptions. Two eclogitic groups are clearly different in style of inter-elements correlations. FeO and CaO contents are positively correlate with MgO in low Mg# group of eclogites but negatively in high Mg# group. The same relations present between Al2O3 contents of eclogite group with their Mg#. Compared to present day MORB composition eclogite samples have similar contents of most of elements with some depletion in TiO2 and P2O5 and enrichment in MgO and K2O. The variability of these elements concentrations can be related to melt extraction while elevated K2O can indicate late metasomatic enrichment. In terms of trace elements composition Udachnaya eclogites are enriched over PM but comparable to that of MORB composition, except significant enrichment in LILE elements (Rb, Ba, K, Sr). The records of both subduction related processes and mantle metasomatism could be find in geochemical features of these rocks. Most of the eclogites show positive Eu anomaly which is direct evidence of plagioclase accumulation in eglogites protolith. Variation of La/Yb ratio (1-11), in majority of samples are the range 2-4 indicates different degrees of samples metasomatic enrichment in LREE. Udachnaya eclogites have range of Sm/Nd ratio from 0.25 to 0.5 (MORB is 0.32) which positive covariates with Nd content. This trend could not be a result of melt extraction nor

  9. Chemo-stratigraphy in the Murray Formation Using ChemCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaney, D. L.; Anderson, R. B.; Bridges, N.; Bridges, J.; Calef, F. J., III; Clegg, S. M.; Le Deit, L.; Fisk, M. R.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Kah, L. C.; Kronyak, R. E.; Lanza, N.; Lasue, J.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Milliken, R.; Ming, D. W.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H. E.; Rapin, W.; Stack, K.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Curiosity has completed a detailed chemo-stratigraphy analysis at the Pahrump exposure of the Murray formation. In total >570 chemical measurements and supporting remote micro images to classify texturally were collected. Chemical trends with both stratigraphic position and with texture were evaluated. From these data emerges a complex aqueous history where sediments have interacted with fluids with variable chemistry in distinct episodes. The ChemCam data collected at the nearby "Garden City" (GC) vein complex provides constraints on the chemical evolution of the Pahrump. GC is thought be stratigraphically above the Pahrump outcrop. Fluids producing the veins likely also migrated through the Pahrump sediments. Multiple episodes of fluids are evident at GC, forming distinct Ca sulfate, F-rich, enhanced MgO, and FeO-rich veins. These different fluid chemistries could be the result of distinct fluids migrating through the section from a distance with a pre-established chemical signature, fluids locally evolved from water rock interactions, or both. Texturally rocks have been classified into two distinct categories: fine grained or as cross-bedded sandstones. The sandstones have significantly lower SiO2, Al2O3, and K2O and higher FeO, and CaO. Fine grained rocks have further been sub-classified as resistant and recessive with other textural features such as laminations and pits noted.The strongest chemical trend in the fine-grained sandstones shows enhancements in MgO and FeO in erosion-resistant materials compared to fine grained recessive units, suggesting that increased abundance of Mg- and/or iron-rich cements may provide additional strength. The MgO and FeO variations with texture are independent of stratigraphic locations (e.g resistant material at both the bottom and top of the outcrop both are enhanced in MgO and FeO). The presence of the GC MgO and FeO rich veins provides additional evidence for fluids rich in these elements were present in the outcrop. Other

  10. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics of Late Cenozoic leucite lamproites from the East European Alpine belt (Macedonia and Yugoslavia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altherr, R.; Meyer, H.-P.; Holl, A.; Volker, F.; Alibert, C.; McCulloch, M. T.; Majer, V.

    In the East European Alpine belt, leucite-sanidine-phlogopite-olivine-bearing volcanic rocks of Late Cenozoic age occur at eight localities within the Vardar suture zone and at one locality in the Southern Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. Most of these volcanics are characterized by high Mg# (66.6-78.6), high abundances of Ni (117-373 ppm) and Cr (144-445 ppm) as well as high primary K2O contents (5.63-7.01 %) and K2O/Na2O values (1.93-4.91). Rocks with more differentiated compositions are rare. A lamproite affinity of these rocks is apparent from their relatively low contents of Al2O3 (9.9-14.3 wt%) and CaO (6.2-8.3 wt%) in combination with high abundances of Rb (85-967 ppm), Ba (1,027-4,189 ppm), Th (18.9-76.5 ppm), Pb (19-54 ppm), Sr (774-1,712 ppm) and F (0.16-0.52 wt%), and the general lack of plagioclase. Although eruption of the magmas took place in post-collisional extensional settings, significant depletions of Nb and Ta relative to Th and La, low TiO2 contents (0.92-2.17 %), low ratios of Rb/Cs, K/Rb and Ce/Pb as well as high ratios of Ba/La and Ba/Th suggest close genetic relationships to subduction zone processes. Whereas Sr and Nd isotope ratios show relatively large variations (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7078-0.7105, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51242-0.51215), Pb isotope ratios display a very restricted range with 206Pb/204Pb = 18.68-18.88 and variable but generally high Δ7/4 (11-18) and Δ8/4 (65-95) values. The observed petrographic, geochemical and isotopic characteristics are best explained by a genetic model involving preferential melting of phlogopite-rich veins in an originally depleted lithospheric mantle source, whereby the metasomatic enrichment of the mantle source is tentatively related to the addition of components from subducted sediments during consumption of Tethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  11. Characteristics of chemical weathering and water-rock interaction in Lake Nyos dam (Cameroon): Implications for vulnerability to failure and re-enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantong, Wilson Y.; Kamtchueng, Brice T.; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Ueda, Akira; Issa; Ntchantcho, Romaric; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J.; Kusakabe, Minoru; Ohba, Takeshi; Zhang, Jing; Aka, Festus T.; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, comprehensive study of hydrogeochemistry of water seeps, role of chemical weathering on dam failure, estimation of minimum width of dam to resist failure and simulation of changes in dissolved ions and secondary mineral was conducted on the Lake Nyos dam. The salient results and conclusions were; the dam spring water represented a mixture of 60-70% rainwater and 30-40% Lake water (from 0 to -40 m). The chemistry of the observed waters was Ca-HCO3 for rainwater, Ca-Mg-HCO3 in boreholes, and Mg-Ca-HCO3- for spring water. The relative rate at which ions dissolved in water was HCO3- > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > SiO2 > K+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl-. Weathering of rocks resulted in the formation of clay minerals such as kaolinite and smectite. Relative mobility of elements compared to Alumina (Al2O3) indicated that in monzonites there was a loss of CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5 and gain of SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, MnO and MgO, while in basalts there was a loss of SiO2, Fe2O3, Ca2O, NaO, MgO and gain of TiO2, K2O and P2O5. Values of chemical alteration index that ranged from 49 to 82 suggest a weak to intermediate categories of chemical weathering that occurred at a rate of 5.7 mm/year. Paired to that rate, which suggests that the dam is not vulnerable to failure at the previously thought time scale, some other processes (physical weathering, secondary mineral formation and lake overflow) can cause instant failure. Hydrostatic pressure of 1.6 GN generated by Lake water can be supported only when the width of the dam is greater than 19 m. PHREEQC-based simulation for 10 years indicates decoupling of Ca and Mg, and Na and Mg. Multidisciplinary monitoring of the dam is advocated.

  12. Investigation of the evaporation thermodynamics and stationary states (so-called ''congruent states'') in the study of oxides and their mixtures by the effusion method--application to Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO, and the mixtures Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-CaO and Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Banon, S.; Chatillon, C.; Allibert, M.

    1982-01-01

    The congruent vaporization of oxides and oxide mixtures during Knudsen effusion has been studied, taking into account the nature of the equilibrium reactions between samples and crucible materials, the complexity of the resulting gaseous phases, and the possibility of an oxygen leak by diffusion through the crucible walls. The influence of the crucible reaction and of oxygen diffusion is estimated for pure CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and for the mixtures CaO + Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + TiO/sub 2/, in molybdenum cells. The results show a systematic shift of the effusion flow composition toward a reducing composition--either by crucible reaction or by establishment of a diffusion process. In the case of the Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiO/sub 2/ system, calculations of the expected congruent evaporation from JANAF standard pressures and our activity measurements indicate that the standard pressure of TiO/sub 2/ gas over solid TiO/sub 2/ must be increased by a factor of 4 to 14 to agree with the results from our studies of the congruent vaporization of solid Ti/sub 3/O/sub 5/. The congruent vaporization of liquid Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/-TiO/sub 2/ mixtures occurs in the composition range Ti/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Ti/sub 3/O/sub 5/, an with inert crucible, a molybdenum crucible, or diffusion through the walls.

  13. A study of physical and optical absorption spectra of VO2+ ions in potassium and sodium oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Kumar, J. Siva; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Spectroscopic and physical properties of V2O5 doped mixed alkali borate glasses are investigated. Borate glasses containing fixed concentrations of alkaline earth oxides (MgO and BaO) and alkali oxides (K2O and Na2O) were changes and are prepared by melt quenching technique. The values of ri, rp, Rm, αm molar volume and Λth increase and oxygen packing density, density and dopant ion concentration decrease with increasing of K2O content. As a result there shall be an increase in the disorder of the glass network. The optical band gap energies, Urbach energy, boron-boron separation,refractive index, dielectric constant, electronic polarizability and reflection loss values are varies nonlinearly with the K2O content which manifests the mixed alkali effect.

  14. O(-) identified at high temperatures in CaO-based catalysts for oxidative methane dimerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, F.; Maiti, G. C.; Batllo, F.; Baerns, M.

    1990-01-01

    A technique called charge-distribution analysis (CDA) is employed to study mobile charge carriers in the oxidation catalysts CaO, CaO with 11 percent Na2O, and CaO with 10 percent La2O3. A threshold temperature of about 550-600 C is identified at which highly mobile charge carriers are present, and the CDA studies show that they are O(-) states. The present investigation indicates the usefulness of CDA in catalysis research with pressed powder samples and gas/solid reactions.

  15. Geochemistry and shock petrography of the Crow Creek Member, South Dakota, USA: Ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katongo, C.; Koeberl, C.; Witzke, B.J.; Hammond, R.H.; Anderson, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The Crow Creek Member is one of several marl units recognized within the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale Formation of eastern South Dakota and northeastern Nebraska, but it is the only unit that contains shock-metamorphosed minerals. The shocked minerals represent impact ejecta from the 74-Ma Manson impact structure (MIS). This study was aimed at determining the bulk chemical compositions and analysis of planar deformation features (PDFs) of shocked quartz; for the basal and marly units of the Crow Creek Member. We studied samples from the Gregory 84-21 core, Iroquois core and Wakonda lime quarry. Contents of siderophile elements are generally high, but due to uncertainties in the determination of Ir and uncertainties in compositional sources for Cr, Co, and Ni, we could not confirm an extraterrestrial component in the Crow Creek Member. We recovered several shocked quartz grains from basal-unit samples, mainly from the Gregory 84-21 core, and results of PDF measurements indicate shock pressures of at least 15 GPa. All the samples are composed chiefly of SiO2, (29-58 wt%), Al2O3 (6-14 wt%), and CaO (7-30 wt%). When compared to the composition of North American Shale Composite, the samples are significantly enriched in CaO, P2O5, Mn, Sr, Y, U, Cr, and Ni. The contents of rare earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE), Cr, Co, Sc, and their ratios and chemical weathering trends, reflect both felsic and basic sources for the Crow Creek Member, an inference, which is consistent with the lithological compositions in the environs of the MIS. The high chemical indices of alteration and weathering (CIA' and CIW': 75-99), coupled with the Al2O3-(CaO*,+Na2O -K2O (A-CN'-K) ratios, indicate that the Crow Creek Member and source rocks had undergone high degrees of chemical weathering. The expected ejecta thicknesses at the sampled locations (409 to 219 km from Manson) were calculated to range from about 1.9 to 12.2 cm (for the present-day crater radius of Manson

  16. In vitro mineralization of a glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO x P2O5-SiO2 system: wettability studies.

    PubMed

    Serro, A P; Fernandes, A C; Saramago, B; Fernandes, M H V

    2002-07-01

    The calcium phosphate deposition on the surface of a bioactive glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO. P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) system during a 1-week immersion in biological model fluids, was investigated through wettability studies. Two model fluids with chemical composition similar to the human blood plasma were tested: Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF) with a higher calcium content. The effect of the presence of albumin, both in solution or previously adsorbed to the surface, was assessed. The behavior observed using two SBF solutions prepared with and without TRIS buffer was compared. The surface free energy of the glass-ceramic samples was determined, before and after immersion, and dynamic contact angle analysis was performed using the biological model fluids as scanning liquids. Scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis were performed to complement the wettability studies. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the precipitation of a calcium phosphate film in HBSS occurred mainly when the immersion solution was renewed daily or in the presence of adsorbed albumin. In SBF, the addition of TRIS buffer seemed to inhibit the formation of the calcium phosphate film.

  17. First-principles calculations of typical anisotropic cubic and hexagonal structures and homogenized moduli estimation based on the Y-parameter: Application to CaO, MgO, CH and Calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jia; Bernard, Fabrice; Kamali-Bernard, Siham

    2017-02-01

    X-ray method to test the material properties and to obtain elastic constants is commonly based on the Reuss model and Kroner model. Y parameter has been turned out to be an effective method to estimate elastic properties of polycrystalline material. Since Y-parameters of cubic polycrystalline material based on the certain uniform stress (Reuss model) has not been given, our work aims to complete this part of the theoretical analysis, which can effectively compare elastic constants measured by the X-ray diffraction method. The structural and the elastic properties of cubic structures (CaO and MgO) and hexagonal structures (CH and Calcite CaCO3) are investigated by the density functional theory method. And then the credibility of Y parameters for determing elastic moduli of cubic structures is proved and elastic properties in typical crystallographic planes of [100], [110] and [111] are also calculated. Meanwhile, Young's moduli of CH and Calcite structure are 58.08 GPa and 84.549 GPa, which are all close to references. Elastic properties of cubic and hexagonal structures under various pressures are calculated and the surface constructions of elastic moduli are drawn, showing the anisotropy at various directions. The crystal structure investigated in this work are typical of some primary or secondary components of Hardened Cements Pastes and their homogenized elastic properties are needed in a hierarchical multi-scale modeling, such as the one developed by some of the authors of this paper.

  18. Structural characterization of glass-ceramics made from fly ash containing SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-CaO and analysis by FT-IR-XRD-SEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, G.

    2012-07-01

    The glass-ceramics has been proposed as a useful recycling fly ash from thermal power plants. In this study, C type fly ash containing SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-CaO has been sintered to form glass-ceramic materials at different temperatures between 850 °C and 1050 °C after using powder processing based on milling and powder compaction without inorganic additives. The effect of firing temperatures between 850 °C and 1050 °C on mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were applied on the sintered powder form. From the XRD results, the amount of quartz decreases on sintering, when the sintering temperature increases. On the basis of SEM observations, new crystallites structure developed in the microstructures of the C type of fly ash samples and the glassy region decreased at the crystallization temperature.

  19. Proto-Pacific-margin source for the Ordovician turbidite submarine fan, Lachlan Orogen, southeast Australia: Geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offler, R.; Fergusson, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    The Early Palaeozoic proto-Pacific Pacific margin of Gondwana was characterised by a huge turbidite submarine fan with abundant clastic detritus derived from unknown sources within Gondwana. These deposits are widespread in the Lachlan Orogen of southeast Australia and include the Ordovician Adaminaby Group. Here we show that the mudstones and sandstones of the Adaminaby Group have chemical compositions that indicate the detritus in them was derived from a felsic, continental source similar in composition to Post Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Chondrite normalised REE patterns showing LREE enrichment, flat PAAS normalised patterns and elemental ratios La/Sc, Cr/Th, Cr/V, Th/Sc and Th/U, have been used to support this interpretation. The dominance of quartz, and to a lesser degree plagioclase and biotite in the sandstones, suggests that the source was mainly granodioritic to tonalitic in composition. Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios indicate that the source was probably calc-alkaline, continental and shoshonitic. In addition, the presence of detrital muscovite, low-grade metamorphic and felsic volcanic clasts, demonstrates that a low-grade metamorphic terrane and volcanic arc contributed to the detritus observed in the samples. The presence of well-rounded zircons and tourmalines, very high Zr contents, high Zr/Sc and higher Cr/V ratios in some samples particularly in the Shoalhaven River area, indicate that some of the detritus was recycled. SiO2 versus (Al2O3 + K2O + Na2O) plots suggest the source areas experienced conditions varying from humid/semi-humid to semi-arid. Textural features and weathering trends of samples from all locations follow a curved pathway on Al2O3 - (CaO* + Na2O) - K2O (ACNK) diagrams, and indicate that the clays formed from weathering had been K-metasomatised prior to penetrative deformation. Chemical indices of alteration (CIA) reveal that even the freshest sandstones are altered and others are moderately to strongly altered. Discrimination

  20. Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic arc-related magmatism in southeastern Korea: SHRIMP zircon geochronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Keewook; Cheong, Chang-sik; Kim, Jeongmin; Kim, Namhoon; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Cho, Moonsup

    2012-11-01

    Phanerozoic granitoids are widespread in the Korean Peninsula and form a part of the East Asian Cordilleran-type granitoid belt extending from southeastern China to Far East Russia. Here we present SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical and Nd isotopic compositions of Late Paleozoic to Early Jurassic granitoid plutons in the northern Gyeongsang basin, southeastern Korea; namely the Jangsari, Yeongdeok, Yeonghae, and Satkatbong plutons. The granite and associated gabbroic rocks from the Jangsari pluton were coeval and respectively dated at 257.3 ± 2.0 Ma and 255.7 ± 1.4 Ma. This result represents the first finding of a Late Paleozoic pluton in South Korea. Three granite samples from the Yeongdeok pluton yielded a slightly younger age span ranging from 252.9 ± 2.5 Ma to 246.7 ± 2.1 Ma. Two diorite samples from the Yeonghae pluton gave much younger ages of 195.1 ± 1.9 Ma and 196.3 ± 1.6 Ma. An Early Jurassic age of 192.4 ± 1.6 Ma was also obtained from a diorite sample from the Satkatbong pluton. The mineral assemblage and Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O) versus Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) relationship indicate that all the analyzed plutons are subduction zone granitoids. Enrichments in large-ion-lithophile-elements and depletions in high-field-strength-elements of these plutons are also concordant with geochemical characteristics typical for the subduction zone magma. The presence of Late Permian to Early Triassic arc system is in contrast with the conventional idea that the arc magmatism along the continental margin of the Korean Peninsula has commenced from Early Jurassic after the termination of Triassic collisional orogenesis. The ɛNd(t) values of the granitoid plutons are consistently positive (2.4-4.6), suggesting that crustal residence time of the basement beneath the Gyeongsang basin is relatively short. Moreover, the reevaluation of previously-published data reveals that geochemical compositions of the Yeongdeok pluton are compatible with those of high

  1. Crystallization of tholeiitic basalt in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1966-01-01

    . Ferric-ferrous ratios suggest that oxidation with maximum intensity between 550??C and 610??C moved downward in the crust as it cooled; this was followed by reduction at a temperature of about 100??C. The crystallized basalt is a homogeneous fine-grained rock containing on the average 48.3 percent by volume intergranular pyroxene (augite > pigeonite), 34.2 percent plagioclase laths (An60 70), 7.9 percent interstitial glass, 6.9 percent opaques (ilmenite > magnetite), 2.7 percent olivine (Fo70 80), and a trace of apatite. Chemical analyses of 18 samples, ranging from initially quenched pumice to lava cored more than a year after the eruption from the center and from near the base of the lake, show little variation from silica-saturated tholeiitic basalt containing 50.4 percent SiO2, 2.4 percent Na2O, and 0.54 percent K2O. Apparently there was no significant crystal settling and no appreciable vapor-phase transport of these components during the year of crystallization. However, seven samples of interstitial liquid that had been filter-pressed into gash fractures and drill holes from partly crystalline mush near the base of the crust show large differences from the bulk composition of the solidified crust-lower MgO, CaO, and Al2O3; and higher total iron, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and F, and, in most samples, SiO2. The minor elements Ba, Ga, Li, Y, and Yb and possibly Cu tend to be enriched in the filter-pressed liquids, and Cr and possibly Ni tend to be depleted. ?? 1966 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.

  2. Physico-chemical conditions of crystallization of the Guli ulrabasic massif (North Part of the Siberian Platform): evidence from melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Vasiliev, Yuri; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Conditions of formation of the Guli ultrabasic massif (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform) attract attention of numerous researchers. For the solution of genetic problems of various rocks from this ultramafic complex the data on melt inclusions in minerals has been earlier used (Sokolov et al., 1999; Rass, Plechov, 2000; Sokolov, 2003; Panina, 2006). At the same time, formation of dunites, occupying the main volume of the Guli massif, remain almost not considered by means of thermobarogeochemical methods and the role of magmatic processes in this case is not ascertained. As a result of melt inclusions study in the Cr-spinel the new data on physical and chemical parameters of dunite crystallization in the Guli ulrabasic massif was obtained. On the ratio (Na2O + K2O) - SiO2 the majority of analyses of glasses and calculated compositions of inclusions settle down in the field of subalkaline series. On the diagram MgO - SiO2 bulk chemical compositions of inclusions (with the magnesium content of 19-28 wt. %) correspond to picrites and picrite-basalts. They are in close association with the data on inclusions in the Cr-spinel from dunites of Konder (Siberian Platform) and Nizhnii Tagil (Ural Mountains) platinum-bearing ultrabasic massifs and also are situated near to the field of inclusions in the olivine phenocrysts from meimechites (Maimecha Kotui Province in the North Part of the Siberian Platform). Similarity of melt inclusions in the Cr-spinel from the dunite of the Guli massif and in the olivine from meimechites is established on the variety of petrochemical components - Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, K2O. The calculated compositions of inclusions from dunites coincide mostly with the data on inclusions from meimechites, while glasses of inclusions from Cr-spinel contain less titan and magnesium. As a whole for the melts of the Maimecha Kotui Province (that form both dunites of the Guli massif and meimechites) much higher contents of TiO2 (from

  3. Glass and mineral analyses from first deposits of Peach Spring Supereruption (SW USA) illuminate initial tapping of a zoned magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Buesch, D.; Gualda, G. A.; Covey, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Peach Spring supereruption (18.78±0.02 Ma) was sourced from Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, Arizona (Ferguson et al. in press). The resulting ignimbrite, the Peach Spring Tuff (PST), blanketed >32,000 km2 of Arizona, California, and Nevada (Buesch, 1993). Underlying the ignimbrite is a thin (≤ 1m thick) basal layered deposit that consists of texturally distinct layers 1a-e (Valentine et al. 1989) and is present up to ~100 km from the source caldera. Basal layered deposits contain the first material erupted during the PST supereruption, preceding the main eruption event. Petrography and geochemistry of minerals and pumice clasts from basal layered deposits collected ~15-100 km from the caldera, combined with a survey of glass and crystal compositions from both outflow and basal deposits, permit (1) comparisons with the overlying ignimbrite, and (2) insights into the initial stages of the supereruption and extraction of magma from the chamber. Pumice clasts from a pumice-rich layer (1a2) of the basal deposit were characterized by LA-ICPMS and SEM. Unaltered glass has a uniform high-Si rhyolite composition (76.7% SiO2, 13.0% Al2O3, 3.6% Na2O, 5.3% K2O, 0.6% FeO, <0.1% MgO, 0.6% CaO, 0.1% TiO2). Mildly altered glass is similar but has lower Na2O and higher K2O. Pumice clasts are relatively crystal poor (<10% phenocrysts) with an assemblage dominated by sanidine (~Or55Ab43An2), with lesser plagioclase (~Ab73An19Or8), minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon, chevkinite, and apatite; no quartz was identified. Initial LA-ICPMS results for glass reveal REE patterns with large negative Gd (0.21: i.e. U-shaped REE pattern) and Eu (0.31) anomalies, very low Ba and Sr (≤10 ppm), and high Rb (~250 ppm). These compositions are essentially identical to those of the most common pumice from distal outflow ignimbrite, but very different from crystal-rich (>30%) trachyte pumice that dominates the intracaldera fill and is

  4. The Influence of Melt Composition and Dissolved Water on the Melt-Vapor Surface Tension of Dacite and Rhyolite Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.

    2004-12-01

    Melt-vapor surface tension (σ ) is a poorly known quantity, yet it plays a critical role in many volcanic processes. In this study, we provide new data for σ of hydrous natural dacite and rhyolite melt at 200 MPa, 800-1055° C, and 4.8-7.7 wt% H2O using results from high temperature and pressure decompression experiments (this study; Mangan and Sisson, 2000; Mourtada-Bonnefoi and Laporte, 2002; 2004) and classical nucleation theory. The solutions give values for σ that vary inversely with dissolved H2O by 0.025 (± 0.009) J/m2 per wt% H2O. Combining our results with data from hydrous haplogranite and rhyodacite (Epel'baum et al., 1973; Bagdassarov et al., 2000) reveals that melt-vapor surface tension also varies inversely with the concentration of mafic melt components (e.g., CaO, FeOtotal, MgO). At constant H2O content, σ increases by 0.70 (± 0.53) J/m2 per tenth increment increase in the melt felsic index (FI = Na2O+K2O/Na2O+K2O+CaO) from FI ˜ 0.75 (dacite) to FI ˜ 1.0 (haplogranite). To understand these results, we consider the thermodynamic definition of σ , i.e., the work per unit surface area to create an interface between two phases. It can be expressed as: σ dA = ω dissociation - ω interaction. The ω dissociation term is the work done to dissociate molecules from the bulk melt for incorporation in a diffuse, lower density interfacial zone only a few molecular layers thick. In contrast, the work of interaction, ω interaction, is work made available as a result of across-interface attractions between gas and melt molecules. Increasing the concentration of dissolved H2O and other network modifiers (e.g., Ca, Fe, and Mg) influence the balance of work terms as (1) the ω dissociation declines due to lowered cohesion of the disrupted melt structure, and (2) the ω interaction increases because enhanced molecular diversity supports more numerous and varied interfacial zone attractions. The net effect of decreased ω dissociation and increased

  5. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Paleo-Proterozoic granitoids from Mahakoshal Supracrustal Belt (MSB), CITZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Bhupendra; Ahmad, Talat; Kaulina, Tatiana; Bayanova, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Voluminous granitic magmatism of Proterozoic age occupies a vast expanse at the southern margin of Mahakoshal Supracrustal Belt (MSB), CITZ. The present study focuses on eastern part of this belt and discusses possible crustal evolution processes based on the geochemical, geochronological and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on these rocks. The rocks present are predominantly granites and gneisses viz. grey to pink granite gneiss and leuco- to mesocratic granites. In general these rocks are medium to coarse grained and microscopically show typical granitic assemblages with apatite, titanite, zircon and allanite as accessories. Mineralogically these rocks are grouped into three categories viz. Hbl-Bt granite gneiss, Bt- granite gneiss and Bt-granite. Major oxide characteristics show that the Hbl-Bt granite Gneiss are metaluminous (ASI~0.98), whereas Bt- granite gneiss (ASI=1.05-1.22) and Bt- granite (ASI=1.03-1.21) are weakly peraluminous to strongly peraluminous. In terms of Fe* number and alkali-lime index these rocks belong to magnesian and calc-alkalic series respectively. Overall these rocks range from 59.43 to 72.01 wt.% SiO2 and have low Na2O content (average ~2.60 wt.%) with average ~4.02 wt.% K2O and high K2O/Na2O ratio. On Harker variation diagrams, all rock types show negative correlation for TiO2, P2O5, CaO, MnO, MgO, Fe2O3T and Al2O3 against SiO2 suggesting fractionation of Pl-Hbl-Ttn-Mag-Ap during evolution of these rocks. On chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) plot, the Bt-granite is enriched in LREE ((La/Sm)N ~10.21) and show negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.39) with depleted HREE ((Gd/Yb)N ~4.38). The Hbl-Bt granite gneiss shows LREE ((La/Sm)N ~6.68) depletion and enriched HREE ((Gd/Yb)N ~2.05) patterns compared to Bt-granite, with negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.44). Whereas Bt-gneiss is moderate in comparison with LREE enrichment ((La/Sm)N ~9.17) and HREE depletion ((Gd/Yb)N ~3.02) with weak negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.60). Multi-elemental plot

  6. Tm 3+ doped Bi 2O 3-GeO 2-Na 2O glasses for 1.8 μm fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Huiyan; Gao, Guojun; Wang, Guonian; Hu, Junjiang; Hu, Lili

    2010-03-01

    53.3BiO 1.5-33.3GeO 2-13.4NaO 0.5 (cation%) glasses with various Tm 3+ concentration were prepared by melt-quenching method. These glasses show high density, high refractive index, low phonon energy and good stability against crystallization. Absorption spectra of Tm 3+-doped bismuthate glass were measured to obtain the radiative lifetimes by Judd-Ofelt theory. The absorption (4.5 × 10 -21 cm 2) and emission (6.7 × 10 -21 cm 2) cross-sections were calculated by Beer-Lambert and McCumber theory. The results show that the Tm 3+ ( 3F 4 → 3H 6) in these glasses have high spontaneous radiative transition probabilities and large stimulated emission cross-section. Then the fluorescence emission spectra were measured under 808 nm excitation and the maximum emission intensity at 1.8 μm is obtained at 0.9 mol% Tm 2O 3 in the glasses.

  7. Synthesis and several features of the Na2O-B2O3-Bi2O3-MoO3 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saddeek, Yasser B.; Abousehly, A. M.; Hussien, Shaban I.

    2007-08-01

    Glasses in the system Na2-2xB4-4xBixMo0.5xO7-4x, 0 <= x <= 0.4, have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties and IR spectroscopic studies have been employed to study the role of Bi2O3 and MoO3 on the structure of Na2B4O7 glass. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been investigated using sound velocity measurements at 4 MHz. The results showed that the density and the molar volume increase while both sound velocities and the determined glass transition temperatures decrease with increase in x. Infrared spectra of the glasses reveal that the strong borate network consists of diborate units and is affected by the increase in the concentration of Bi2O3, and MoO3. These results are interpreted in terms of the increase in the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms, substitution of longer bond lengths of Bi-O, and Mo-O in place of shorter B-O bond and the change in Na+ ion concentration. The results indicate that bismuth and molybdenum ions have been substituted for boron ions as network modifier ions. The elastic moduli are observed to increase with the increase in Bi2O3 and MoO3 content. This contradiction in the elastic moduli-molar volume relation is attributed to the role of the respective bonds.

  8. Moessbauer Effect Study of Bi2O3. Na2O. B2O3. Fe2O3 Glass System

    SciTech Connect

    Salah, S.H.; Kashif, I.; Salem, S.M.; Mostafa, A.G.; El-Manakhly, K.A.

    2005-04-26

    Sodium-tetra-borate host glass containing both bismuth and iron cations were prepared obeying the composition (Na2B4O7)0.75 (Fe2O3)0.25-x (Bi2O3)x [where x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 mol.%]. X-ray diffraction indicated that all samples were in a homogeneous glassy phase. Moessbauer effect results showed that all iron ions appeared as Fe3+ ions occupying tetrahedral coordination state. The covalency of the Fe-O bond increased as bismuth oxide was gradually increased. IR measurements indicated the presence of some non-bridging oxygens and confirmed that iron ions occupy the tetrahedral coordination state. It was found also that, as Bi2O3 was gradually increased both magnetic susceptibility and specific volume decreased, while both density and molar volume increased.

  9. The thermal stability of sideronatrite and its decomposition products in the system Na2O-Fe2O3-SO2-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventruti, Gennaro; Scordari, Fernando; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Gualtieri, Alessandro F.; Lausi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The thermal stability of sideronatrite, ideally Na2Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)·3(H2O), and its decomposition products were investigated by combining thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, in situ high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HT-XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HT-FTIR). The data show that for increasing temperature there are four main dehydration/transformation steps in sideronatrite: (a) between 30 and 40 °C sideronatrite transforms into metasideronatrite after the loss of two water molecules; both XRD and FTIR suggest that this transformation occurs via minor adjustments in the building block. (b) between 120 and 300 °C metasideronatrite transforms into metasideronatrite II, a still poorly characterized phase with possible orthorhombic symmetry, consequently to the loss of an additional water molecule; X-ray diffraction data suggest that metasideronatrite disappears from the assemblage above 175 °C. (c) between 315 and 415 °C metasideronatrite II transforms into the anhydrous Na3Fe(SO4)3 compound. This step occurs via the loss of hydroxyl groups that involves the breakdown of the [Fe3+(SO4)2(OH)]{∞/2-} chains and the formation of an intermediate transient amorphous phase precursor of Na3Fe(SO4)3. (d) for T > 500 °C, the Na3Fe(SO4)3 compound is replaced by the Na-sulfate thenardite, Na2SO4, plus Fe-oxides, according to the Na3Fe3+(SO4)3 → 3/2 Na2(SO4) + 1/2 Fe2O3 + SOx reaction products. The Na-Fe sulfate disappears around 540 °C. For higher temperatures, the Na-sulfates decomposes and only hematite survives in the final product. The understanding of the thermal behavior of minerals such as sideronatrite and related sulfates is important both from an environmental point of view, due to the presence of these phases in evaporitic deposits, soils and sediments including extraterrestrial occurrences, and from the technological point of view, due to the use of these materials in many industrial applications.

  10. Fertilization ratios of N-P2O5-K2O for Tifton 85 bermudagrass on two coastal plain soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] cultivar Tifton 85 is widely grown throughout the southeastern United States and many other countries for forage production. Because Tifton 85 is actually a hybrid between C. dactylon and C. nlemfuensis, it may not respond to fertilization in the same way ...

  11. The Composition of Water-Rich Components in the Sources of Back Arc and Arc Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, K. A.; Hauri, E. H.

    2007-12-01

    Arc and back-arc basin basalts are distinguished by geochemical signatures that are a complex function of the composition of crustal inputs form the subducting plate and the internal "factory" processes that extract materials from the slab and distribute them across the mantle wedge. Here, we use a global data set of basaltic melts from back arcs and arcs to examine relationships between four elements thought to be primary constituents of slab- derived materials: H2O, Na2O, K2O, and Cl. We use the methods of Kelley et al. (2006), coupled with recent constraints on mantle/melt DH2O and DCl (Hauri et al., 2006) to constrain concentrations of these elements in the mantle source, which compare directly with compositional models of the mantle and the slab-derived component beneath the Mariana trough (Stolper & Newman, 1994). The Mariana trough samples define linear trends in Na2O/H2O (1), K2O/H2O (0.2), and Cl/H2O (0.03) consistent with mixing between these two components. Four other back-arc basins (Sumisu, Central Lau, Manus, and E. Scotia) also fall along this trend in Na2O/H2O and K2O/H2O, suggesting that slab additions to most back-arc mantle sources have common major element characteristics. The Valu Fa Ridge segment of the southern Lau basin, however, trends away from other back arcs towards lower Na2O/H2O (0.1) and K2O/H2O (0.08). Such lower ratios are generally characteristic of arc sources in the Marianas and other arcs (e.g., Na2O/H2O=0.5-0.05), but also appear to be distinct for specific arc volcanoes. In back arcs, Cl may also be affected by late-stage magmatic assimilation of seawater, which drives up Cl/H2O and obscures primary trends, although some central Lau basin samples do point towards a mixing array coincident with the Mariana trough. Mariana arc sources have higher H2O and Cl concentrations than the Mariana trough, and indicate overall lower, but volcano-specific, Cl/H2O (0.02-0.01). In terms of these major-element constituents, arc volcanoes

  12. Alkali element enrichments on the BABBs at the IODP Expedition 333 Site C0012 in the northern Shikoku Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Fujinaga, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Shikoku Basin is a back arc basin located westside of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, spreading was from 25 to 15 Ma. The drilling of the DSDP, ODP and IODP recovered the backarc basin basalt (BABB) of the Shikoku Basin. Site C0012, south of the Kii Peninsula, was operated during the IODP Exp 333, and BABB was recovered 100m thickness under the 520m of sediment. This BABB is divided into upper aphyric pillow (Unit 1) and lower massive flow (Unit 2) divided at the 560 mbsf, and show variable degree of alteration, clay mineral and zeolite depositions. SiO2 and MgO contents of these basalts are 47-55 and 5-8 wt%. These basalts show wide variation of enrichment of alkali elements, 2.3-7.5 and 0.4-4.2 wt% of Na2O and K2O. Na2O+K2O contents show 3.2-8.0 wt%, and 2 wt% higher trends than other BABBs in the Shikoku Basin at the same SiO2 contents. Na2O and K2O show proportional and anti-proportional trends with increasing LOI. Therefore, both alkali element enrichments in these rocks are caused by secondary mineralization, and host phase of Na2O is hydrous and that of K2O is anhydrous minerals. Secondary mineral phases was mainly identified by XRD. The identified host phases of Na are analcime and thomsonite. Analcime is observed in rocks of more than 4 wt% of Na2O. Chlorite and smectite are identified to clay minerals. This mineral assemblage indicates the high-temperature zeolite facies alteration. The host phases of K are mainly identified into K-feldspar. We assume that secondary mineralization of K-fd is associated with low-temperature albitization. Compared to the lithostratigraphy, the Na enrichment is prominent in the Unit 1 and upper 20 m of the Unit 2, and the K enrichment is prominent in lower part of the Unit 2. We consider that the Na enrichment associated with zeolite depositions occurred under high water/rock ratio with active hydrothermal circulation because of high water permeability of pillow lava, and K enrichment associated with albitization occurred

  13. Variation of photoluminescence features in Pr{sup 3+} doped lithium-fluoro-borate glass by changing different modifier oxides (MgO, CaO, CdO and PbO)-Judd-Ofelt theory application

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Rajesh, D.; Babu, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2015-06-24

    Pr{sup 3+} (1.0 mol%) doped different modifier oxide based six lithium-fluoro-borate glasses with chemical composition of 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-20MO (where M= Mg, Ca, Cd and Pb), 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-10MgO-10CaO and 49Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-20BaF{sub 2}-10NaF-10CdO-10PbO were prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied for evaluating the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters for Pr{sup 3+} ion in these glass compositions and are in turn to used to predict radiative properties such as radiative transition probabilities (A{sub T}), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub P}). Stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub p}) of prominent emission transitions, {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} of Pr{sup 3+} ion in all lithium-fluoro-borate glasses were calculated. Among all the emission transitions, {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4} posseses higher branching ratio and stimulated emission cross-section in Mg-Ca glass, which leads to the best laser excitation at 487 nm wavelength.

  14. Lanthanum and neodymium solubility in simplified SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO high level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kidari, Abdessamad; Bardez-Giboire, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    Lanthanum and neodymium incorporation in simplified high level waste glasses has been investigated for SiO{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}Na{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}CaO compositions quenched from 1200 degrees C, for varying La /(La + Nd) (atomic) and increasing rare-earth oxides contents. In this system and beyond the solubility limit, rare-earths (RE) elements are reported to form apatite phases with the general formula Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}. In the current study, speciation of these trivalent RE{sup 3+} cations in both amorphous network and crystal phases was determined from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption at 10 K, Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. It appeared that RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility was higher for La -rich formulations than for Nd -rich ones and that an increase in the RE oxide content reduces the connectivity of the network building units through formation of non-bridging oxygens at the expense of the oxygen bridges. This depolymerization of the glass network did not affect neodymium environment which consisted in silicate tetrahedra. The composition of the apatite crystals was found to be affected by the La /(La + Nd) of the parent glass and deviation from the ideal composition (Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}) occurred in the neodymium end of the system. It thus appears that both RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility and crystal composition are strongly dependent on the type and crystal chemistry of the RE elements. (authors)

  15. Structural Changes Correlated with Magnetic Spin State Isomorphism in the S2 State of the Mn4CaO5 Cluster in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D; Garachtchenko, Anna; Young, Iris; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2016-08-01

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in Photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, with a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. Such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.

  16. Structural changes correlated with magnetic spin state isomorphism in the S2 state of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Ruchira; Han, Guangye; Kern, Jan; ...

    2016-05-09

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II catalyzes the four-electron redox reaction of water oxidation in natural photosynthesis. This catalytic reaction cycles through four intermediate states (Si, i = 0 to 4), involving changes in the redox state of the four Mn atoms in the cluster. Recent studies suggest the presence and importance of isomorphous structures within the same redox/intermediate S-state. It is highly likely that geometric and electronic structural flexibility play a role in the catalytic mechanism. Among the catalytic intermediates that have been identified experimentally thus far, there is clear evidence of such isomorphism in the S2 state, withmore » a high-spin (5/2) (HS) and a low spin (1/2) (LS) form, identified and characterized by their distinct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy) signals. We studied these two S2 isomers with Mn extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and absorption and emission spectroscopy (XANES/XES) to characterize the structural and electronic structural properties. The geometric and electronic structure of the HS and LS S2 states are different as determined using Mn EXAFS and XANES/XES, respectively. The Mn K-edge XANES and XES for the HS form are different from the LS and indicate a slightly lower positive charge on the Mn atoms compared to the LS form. Based on the EXAFS results which are clearly different, we propose possible structural differences between the two spin states. As a result, such structural and magnetic redox-isomers if present at room temperature, will likely play a role in the mechanism for water-exchange/oxidation in photosynthesis.« less

  17. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudon, Pierre; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-05-01

    P2O5 is an important oxide component in the late stage products of numerous igneous rocks such as granites and pegmatites. Typically, P2O5 combines with CaO and crystallizes in the form of apatite, while in volatile-free conditions, Ca-whitlockite is formed. In spite of their interest, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containg systems are not well known yet. In the case of the pure P2O5 for example, no experimental thermodynamic data are available for the liquid and the O and O' solid phases. As a result, we re-evaluated all the thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the P2O5 unary system [1]. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the binary P2O5 systems was then performed including the Li2O-, Na2O-, MgO-, CaO-, BaO-, MnO-, FeO-, Fe2O3-, ZnO-, Al2O3-, and SiO2-P2O5 [2] systems. All available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were simultaneously reproduced in order to obtain a set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In particular, the Gibbs energy of the liquid solution was described using the Modified Quasichemical Model [3-5] implemented in the FactSage software [6]. Thermodynamic modeling of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which include many granite-forming minerals such as nepheline, leucite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspar and spinel is currently in progress. [1] Jung, I.-H., Hudon, P. (2012) Thermodynamic assessment of P2O5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 (11), 3665-3672. [2] Rahman, M., Hudon, P. and Jung, I.-H. (2013) A coupled experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the SiO2-P2O5 system. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (4), 837-852. [3] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1984) Computer-assisted analysis of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of slags. Proc. AIME Symp. Metall. Slags Fluxes, TMS-AIME, 281-294. [4] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1986) Thermodynamic analysis of ordered liquid solutions by a modified

  18. órbitas: caos en familia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.

    Durante los últimos años, ha ido adquiriendo importancia la descripción dinámica de un sistema estelar a través de su estructura orbital, complementando el tradicional uso de la función de distribución en el espacio fase. El desarrollo de esta nueva concepción condujo, con el tiempo, a la conclusión de que las órbitas caóticas juegan un importante papel dinámico en modelos realistas de galaxias. Sin embargo, la determinación de la caoticidad de una órbita, o de la familia regular a la cual pertenece, siguió siendo una tarea artesanal. Nuevos métodos de clasificación fueron surgiendo con el tiempo; hoy en día, se cuenta con métodos que permiten determinar automáticamente el contenido orbital de cualquier potencial arbitrario que se desee para modelar una galaxia, o incluso determinar la familia de una órbita sin siquiera conocer el potencial en el que está sumergida.

  19. Multi-analytical characterization of archaeological ceramics. A case study from the Sforza Castle (Milano, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberini, V.; Maspero, F.; Galimberti, L.; Fusi, N.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization, using several analytical techniques, of a sample of ancient pottery found during archaeological excavations in the 14th century's Sforza Castle in Milano. The use of a multi-analytical approach is well established in the study of archaeological materials (e.g. Tite et al. 1984, Ribechini et al. 2008). The chemical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The chemical composition is: SiO2 61.3(±3)%, Al2O3 22.5(±2)%, Fe2O3 7.19(±6)%, K2O 3.85(±1)%, MgO 1.6(±1)%, Na2O 1.6(±4)% (probably overestimated), TiO2 1.02(±2)%, CaO 0.93(±1)%, MnO 0.15(±1)% and P2O5 0.06(±2)%. The K2O content, important when dealing with TL dating, was determined also with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The K2O content determined with atomic absorption is 3.86(±3)%, in agreement with X-ray fluorescence analysis. The mineralogical composition of the sample was determined with X-ray powder diffraction: quartz 59.6(±1) wt%, mica 37.8(±3) wt% and feldspar (plagioclase) 2.6(±2) wt%. The sample homogeneity was assessed with X-ray computerised tomography (CT), which is a very powerful non-destructive analysis tool for 3D characterization (Sèguin, 1991). CT images show differences in materials with different X-ray absorption (mainly depending on different densities) and 3D reconstruction has many interesting archaeological applications (e.g. study of sealed jars). CT images of the studied sample showed the presence of angular fragments (probably quartz) few millimetres wide immersed in a fine grained matrix. Moreover, before and after the CT analysis, some ceramic powder was sampled to perform thermoluminescence analysis (TL, the powder used for this analysis can not be recovered). It was thus possible to evaluate the dose absorbed by the material due the X-ray irradiation. The dose absorbed after 3 hours of irradiation, the time needed for a complete scan of a 7 x 5 x 1 cm, is about 100 Gy, which

  20. Multi-component diffusion between molten SiO2 inclusions and surrounding felsic melt in an indochinite: Tektites as natural laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, C. A.; Eiler, J. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Stolper, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tektites are natural glasses thought to have formed as a result of melting and quenching of distally ejected terrestrial material upon hypervelocity (>11 km/s) impact on Earth. Some tektites contain inclusions of lechatelierite (nearly pure SiO2 glass; 99-100 wt. % SiO2), generally thought to be the amorphous relicts of partially digested quartz grains (Koeberl, 1994). Electron and ion microprobe analyses of major and minor elements were performed on transects between lechatelierite inclusions and the surrounding felsic glass in an indochinite (sample from Newman et al., 1995). The surrounding glass is peraluminous with an average composition of 73.4 wt.% SiO2, 12.8 wt.% Al2O3, 4.5 wt. % FeO, 2.3 wt.% K2O, and < 2 wt.% (each) CaO, MgO, Na2O, and TiO2. The boundary between the lechatelierite and felsic glass is broad (~30 μm), with complex concentration profiles reflecting diffusion between the two melts at high temperatures (>2200 °C for formation of lechatelierite; Bunch et al., 2012) prior to quenching. Although all components except SiO2 are pinned to near zero at the same point at the lechatelierite end of the profiles, the shapes of the oxide concentration profiles differ, with Ca and Mg falling off from their far-field values first, followed in order by Fe, Ti, Al, Na, and K. K has apparently propagated the longest distance, diffusing faster than other components from the surrounding melt toward the lechatelierite. Furthermore, concentration profiles of K2O systematically increase, reach a maximum, then decrease closest to lechatelierite, indicating uphill diffusion of K against its concentration gradient. All concentration profiles are asymmetric, becoming steepest towards the most silicic portions of the interdiffusion zone approaching lechatelierite, likely due to the sharp compositional contrast between matrix glass and inclusions. Sato (1974) observed similar alkali enrichment in coronas around quartz xenocrysts in basalt and andesite, where K, and to

  1. Melt inclusions and origin of granite in migmatitic granulites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Silvio; Cesare, Bernardo; Salvioli Mariani, Emma; Cavallo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    =73 wt%, K2O =6.7 wt%, Na2O =1 wt% and CaO <1 wt%. EMP analyses on the primary glassy inclusions in not re-heated samples provide similar compositions, while the differentiated melt in partially crystallized MI has higher CaO content and lower K2O content. The EMP characterization therefore confirms the work hypothesis that the different types of MI had the same original composition, except for the different trapped accessories, and that melt in partially crystallized MI is the result of a differentiation of the original trapped melt via crystal fractionation. The low Na content of melt in inclusions is consistent with the scarcity or absence of plagioclase in the melanosome of the studied samples, and with the UHT conditions at which the rocks melted. In fact, in the Q-Ab-An diagram melts plot far from the haplogranitic minima. Our results show that MI studies represent a powerful novel approach in the petrology of crustal melting and S-type granite genesis, and highlight the potential pitfalls of assuming anatectic melt as having a minimum melt composition. References Cesare, B., Ferrero, S., Salvioli-Mariani, E., Pedron, D., Cavallo, A., 2009. Nanogranite and glassy inclusions: the anatectic melt in migmatites and granulites. Geology 37, 627-630.

  2. Origin of primitive ultra-calcic arc melts at crustal conditions - Experimental evidence on the La Sommata basalt, Vulcano, Aeolian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzo, Giovanni; Di Carlo, Ida; Pichavant, Michel; Rotolo, Silvio G.; Scaillet, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    To interpret primitive magma compositions in the Aeolian arc and contribute to a better experimental characterization of ultra-calcic arc melts, equilibrium phase relations have been determined experimentally for the La Sommata basalt (Som-1, Vulcano, Aeolian arc). Som-1 (Na2O + K2O = 4.46 wt.%, CaO = 12.97 wt.%, MgO = 8.78 wt.%, CaO/Al2O3 = 1.03) is a reference primitive ne-normative arc basalt with a strong ultra-calcic affinity. The experiments have been performed between 44 and 154 MPa, 1050 and 1150 °C and from NNO + 0.2 to NNO + 1.9. Fluid-present conditions were imposed with H2O-CO2 mixtures yielding melt H2O concentrations from 0.7 to 3.5 wt.%. Phases encountered include clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and Fe-oxide. Clinopyroxene is slightly earlier than olivine in the crystallization sequence. It is the liquidus phase at 150 MPa, being joined by olivine on the liquidus between 44 and 88 MPa. Plagioclase is the third phase to appear in the crystallization sequence and orthopyroxene was not found. Experimental clinopyroxenes (Fs7-16) and olivines (Fo78-92) partially reproduce the natural phenocryst compositions (respectively Fs5-7 and Fo87-91). Upon progressive crystallization, experimental liquids shift towards higher SiO2 (up to ~ 55 wt.%), Al2O3 (up to ~ 18 wt.%) and K2O (up to ~ 5.5 wt.%) and lower CaO, MgO and CaO/Al2O3. Experimental glasses and natural whole-rock compositions overlap, indicating that progressive crystallization of Som-1 type melts can generate differentiated compositions such as those encountered at Vulcano. The low pressure cotectic experimental glasses reproduce glass inclusions in La Sommata clinopyroxene but contrast with glass inclusions in olivine which preserve basaltic melts more primitive than Som-1. Phase relations for the La Sommata basalt are identical in all critical aspects to those obtained previously on a synthetic ultra-calcic arc composition. In particular, clinopyroxene + olivine co-saturation occurs at very low

  3. The Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) to Calc-alkaline Granodiorite-Granite Transition: Evolution of the Archaean Basement of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province (Southeast Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Lana, C.; Stevens, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Bação, Bonfim and Belo Horizonte domes are the largest domes in the Archaean Southern São Francisco craton (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil). These domes are mainly formed by fine-grained banded gneisses typically intruded by leucogranitic veins and by weakly foliated granites, cropping out as large batholiths and small scale-domains closely associated to the gneisses. Granites and gneisses have high silica content (70-76 wt%), K2O ranging from 2wt% to 6wt%, Sr from 600 to 40 ppm and La/Yb from 150 to 5. Based on their K2O/Na2O ratios, these rocks are subdivided in three groups: sodic (K2O/Na2O≤0.7), transitional (0.7<K2O/Na2O<1.1) and potassic (K2O/Na2O≥1.1). There is no direct relationship between the metamorphic overprint (granites vs. gneisses) and the K2O/Na2O ratio; e.g. granites plots equally in the sodic and potassic groups. Overall, the composition of gneisses and granitoids in the three domes marks the transition between Archean TTGs and modern calc-alkalic granitoids. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data allow three main periods of magmatism to be defined. The oldest recorded magmatic contribution to the craton began at 3200 Ma, as attested by the occurrence of inherited zircons in younger granitoids as well as by the fact that zircons with a ca. 3200 Ma age represent a significant subset in the detrital zircon population of the greenstone belt. Subsequent magmatic events took place at 2930-2870 Ma and 2780-2700 Ma. The geochronological data reveal that, although the sodic rocks represent a greater proportion of the older gneisses, sodic, transitional and potassic granitoids intruded contemporaneously. The geochemistry of sodic and transitional granites and gneisses suggests that they formed by partial melting of TTG source rocks that are not preserved in the rock record. MC-ICP-MS Hf isotope data on magmatic zircon, suggesting crustal reworking with minor or no involvement of juvenile magmas, support this interpretation. Further recycling of sodic

  4. Novel polyvinyl alcohol-bioglass 45S5 based composite nanofibrous membranes as bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kumar, Manishekhar; Mandal, Biman B; Srinivasan, A

    2016-12-01

    Composite nanofibrous membranes based on sol-gel derived 45SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 (bioglass, BG) and 43SiO2 24.5CaO 24.5 Na2O 6 P2O5 2Fe2O3 (magnetic bioglass, MBG) blended with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been electrospun. These low cost membranes were mostly amorphous in structure with minor crystalline (sodium calcium phosphate) precipitates. All membranes were biodegradable. Among these, the composites exhibited higher tensile strength, better proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells and higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity than the bare PVA membrane, indicating their potential in bone tissue engineering. The magnetic PVA-MBG scaffold was also found to be a promising candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application.

  5. Vibrational features of phospho-silicate glasses: Periodic B3LYP simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Marta; Pedone, Alfonso

    2009-07-01

    B3LYP periodic calculations with double-ζ polarised basis set using C RYSTAL06 code have been run on a bioactive phospho-silicate glass similar in composition to Bioglass ® 45S5 (46.1 SiO 2, 24.4 Na 2O, 26.9 CaO and 2.6 P 2O 5 mol%) and a phosphorous-free soda-lime glass (49.5 SiO 2, 24.2 Na 2O and 26.4 CaO mol%). Initial structures have been obtained through a melt-quench process by classical molecular dynamics techniques and the effect of phosphorous on the glass network structure and dynamics have been assessed by B3LYP vibrational spectra.

  6. Geochemistry of Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous deposits in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan: implication of factor analysis to sorting effects and provenance signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    One of the intractable problems in provenance analysis is the hydraulic sorting effect and resultant mineralogical heterogeneity in coarse- and fine-grained sediments which conceals provenance characteristics. The present study uses factor analysis to address geochemical responses to the sorting effect and provenance of Late Mesozoic sediments in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan. Factor analysis has proven useful for comprehending geochemical gradients between coarse- and fine-grained sediments. In the present example, compositional differences are based on varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, chrome spinel, authigenic minerals and phyllosilicates. The contrasting behaviors of these minerals during the depositional stage resulted in the systematic fractionation of SiO 2/Al 2O 3, Na 2O/K 2O and Cr/Ba. Sandstones and mudstones exhibit an array of compositions in SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O and SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagrams, the ranges of which reflect compositional variations due to the sorting effect. Sediments of different provenance exhibit distinctive mineral arrays and can be discriminated simply by reading the gradients of the continua. Therefore, this kind of data management concurrently quantifies the sorting effect and allows an estimation of the original source material. The SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O diagram is particularly useful for scrutinizing igneous and mature continental provenances, while the SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagram ascertains contributions from mafic sources. This investigative approach delineates a systematic provenance transition within the Nagato Basin: a serpentinite melange provenance in the early Early Jurassic, a magmatic arc in the late Early to middle Middle Jurassic and a continental interior in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous. The provenance changed by the direct input of mature continental material into the Nagato Basin, which resulted from dissection of the volcanic arc.

  7. An Investigation of Bonding Mechanisms at the Interface of a Prosthetic Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    bonding of bioglass to bone. When critical concentrations of SiO2, Na2O, CaO, or P2O5 are reached bonding no longer occurs. The absence of bonding...these coatings. Femoral head prostheses for monkey have been coated with 45S5 bioglass by this process and implanted. After 8 weeks the stems withstood...tensile loads of more than 137 lbs force without failure of the bioglass -bone interface.

  8. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    PubMed

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  9. Search for solid conductors of Na/+/ and K/+/ ions - Five new conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Kautz, H.; Fielder, W.; Fordyce, J.

    1975-01-01

    Five new conductors of positive Na and K ions, for use as separators in high energy secondary batteries, have been discovered. They include: (1) the pyrochlores NaTaWO6 and NaTa2O5F; (2) the bcc form of NaSbO3; and (3) the niobates 2Na2O-3Nb2O5 and 2K2O-3Nb2O5, with the alkali ions probably in open layers of the completely determined structure. On the basis of approximately 40 structure types, generalizations have been made regarding the relation between structure and ionic transport.

  10. Bulk, rare earth, and other trace elements in Apollo 14 and 15 and Luna 16 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laul, J. C.; Wakita, H.; Showalter, D. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of 24 and 34 bulk, minor, and trace elements in lunar specimens by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis shows greater Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O abundances and higher TiO2, FeO, MnO and Cr2O3 depletions in Apollo 14 soil samples as compared to Apollo 11 samples and to most of Apollo 12 samples. The uniform abundances in 14230 core tube soils and three other Apollo 14 soils indicate that the regolith is uniform to at least 22 cm depth and within about 200 m from the lunar module.

  11. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE PAGES

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; ...

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore » turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  12. Geochemical indications and Detrital Zircon U-Pb ages of net-like laterite from Youjiang terrace, Bose Basin, southwestern China: new evidence of proximal provenance for laterite sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Hong, H.; Li, C.; Ye, H.; Yang, H.

    2015-12-01

    The net-like laterite sediments is widely spread over the terraces and high lands of the river valley in southern China during mid-Pleistocene, although whose origin is still debated. The Xiaomei laterite sediments on the terraces of Youjiang River, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China, was dominated by the intermittently uplift of the Tibetan Plateau for the mechanism during the Quaternary times. Compared to the loess-paleosol deposits in Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), the upper continental crust (UCC) and the post-Archean Australian average shale (PAAS), the sediments show notable depletion of the relative mobile compositions like CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Sr, Ba and the accumulation of TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(t), Zr, but similar with other laterite sediments (the Xuancheng and Jiujiang laterite profiles) in the middle to lower reaches of Yangtze River, southern China. The relatively uniform La/Th ratio, U/Pb vs. Th/Pb ratio and chondrite-normalized REE distribution pattern of Xiaomei samples are similar with the loess-paleosol deposits and UCC values, which suggesting the sediments have experienced well-mixing prior to deposition and intense superficial weathering. The low ɛNd(t) values and uniform 147Sm/144Nd ratios with the 87Sr/86Sr vs. Rb/Sr ratios show the notable differences with loess-paleosol deposits and the recycling function of the old fluvial sediments which are similar with the Pearl River sediments. The stable zircon age distribution pattern with three age groups of 240-300Ma, 420-480Ma and 900-1000Ma for Xiaomei laterite samples are different with the loess-paleosol deposits and its source regions. The zircons are mainly derived from a source of the Upper Permian to Middle Triassic clastic rocks in Youjiang Basin, superordinate tectonic unit of Bose Basin, and their potential source areas like the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (Emeishan LIP) and the southeastern area of south China Craton (SCC). For the basis of these data, we suggest that that

  13. Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes IV. A revised and internally consistent thermodynamic model for the interpolation and extrapolation of liquid-solid equilibria in magmatic systems at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiorso, Mark S.; Sack, Richard O.

    1995-03-01

    A revised regular solution-type thermodynamic model for twelve-component silicate liquids in the system SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Cr2O3 FeO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5 H2O is calibrated. The model is referenced to previously published standard state thermodynamic properties and is derived from a set of internally consistent thermodynamic models for solid solutions of the igneous rock forming minerals, including: (Mg, Fe2+, Ca)-olivines, (Na, Mg, Fe2+, Ca)M2 (Mg, Fe2+, Ti, Fe3+, Al)M1 (Fe3+, Al, Si)2 TETO6- pyroxenes, (Na,Ca,K)-feldspars, (Mg, Fe2+) (Fe3+, Al, Cr)2O4-(Mg, Fe2+)2 TiO4 spinels and (Fe2+, Mg, Mn2+)TiO3-Fe2O3 rhombohedral oxides. The calibration utilizes over 2,500 experimentally determined compositions of silicate liquids coexisting at known temperatures, pressures and oxygen fugacities with apatite ±feldspar ±leucite ±olivine ±pyroxene ±quartz ±rhombohedral oxides ±spinel ±whitlockite ±water. The model is applicable to natural magmatic compositions (both hydrous and anhydrous), ranging from potash ankaratrites to rhyolites, over the temperature ( T) range 900° 1700° C and pressures ( P) up to 4 GPa. The model is implemented as a software package (MELTS) which may be used to simulate igneous processes such as (1) equilibrium or fractional crystallization, (2) isothermal, isenthalpic or isochoric assimilation, and (3) degassing of volatiles. Phase equilibria are predicted using the MELTS package by specifying bulk composition of the system and either (1) T and P, (2) enthalpy (H) and P, (3) entropy (S) and P, or (4) T and volume (V). Phase relations in systems open to oxygen are determined by directly specifying the f o2 or the T-P-f o2 (or equivalently H- P-f o2, S- P-f o2, T-V- f o2) evolution path. Calculations are performed by constrained minimization of the appropriate thermodynamic potential. Compositions and proportions of solids and liquids in the equilibrium assemblage are computed.

  14. Diffusion-Reaction Between Basaltic Andesite and Gabbro at 0.5 GPa: an Explanation for Anorthitic Plagioclase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundstrom, C. C.; Boudreau, A. E.; Pertermann, M.

    2004-12-01

    Despite the remarkably smooth variation in bulk composition of erupted lavas at Arenal volcano (1968-2003), mineral compositions vary widely. Plagioclase ranges from An52 to An95 while Cr2O3 in CPX varies from 0.7 to 0.05 wt % (Streck et al., 2003). To address the question "how do bulk compositions remain near-steady-state while crystal compositions vary widely," we have performed 2 diffusion-reaction experiments in the piston cylinder at 0.5 GPa. These juxtaposed Arenal basaltic andesite AR-8 at 1200° C with a Stillwater Complex gabbro, lying in a thermal gradient toward the piston. In one experiment, we synthesized a glass-plagioclase (An67-75) aggregate of AR-8 in a graphite-Pt-Ti capsule at P-T, polished one end, dried tracer solutions of 45Ca, 6Li, 84Sr and 136Ba on its surface, and juxtaposed it with gabbro for 13 days. Profiles of bulk composition as a function of distance from the interface show that AR-8 gains Al2O3, MgO and CaO from the gabbro and loses Na2O, K2O, SiO2 and FeO to it. Notably, a plagioclase rich (65%) layer develops at the interface between the two materials as CPX disappears. This layer and the compositional profiles are reproduced by diffusion-reaction models using IRIDIUM (Boudreau, 2003). Plagioclase at the interface develops a texture of homogeneous anorthitic cores (An90) that abruptly shift to 10μ m rims having compositions (An67) in Na-Ca exchange equilibrium with the co-existing melt. A beta track map shows that 45Ca is incorporated into the plagioclase cores while SIMS analyses indicate isotopic equilibration between core and melt. Thus, these anorthitic plagioclase result from diffusion-reaction with efficient chemical communication between the melt and the plagioclase core. Microchannels cutting through the rim, rather than solid-state diffusion, appear to control re-equilibration. Other observations from the experiment parallel Arenal lavas: Mg# variation in OPX is small in both experiments and lavas while profiles of Cr

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitic rocks from the Nansha micro-block, the South China Sea: Constraints on the basement nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Quanshu; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Wang, Kunshan; Bu, Wenrui

    2010-01-01

    There are several micro-blocks dispersed in the South China Sea (SCS), e.g., Xisha-Zhongsha block, Nansha block and Reed-Northeastern Palawan block, etc., but detailed petrological constraints on their basement nature were previously lacking. The magmatic ages for granitic rock samples from two dredge stations in the Nansha micro-block vary from 159 to 127 Ma, which are comparable to magmatic activities occurred in the northern margin (Pearl river mouth), HongKong and East China. Petrographic characteristics, major-, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data of nine samples from two dredged station performed in the Nansha micro-block, the SCS, are reported. Petrographically, these granitic rocks can be divided into two groups which underwent a complex history of magmatic process, i.e., tonalitic rock (Group I) and monzogranitic rock (Group II). The Rittmann index ( σ) for these rocks (1.9-3.1) suggest that they belong to calc-alkaline rocks. Group I rocks which is of typical I-type, have higher contents of TiO 2, Al 2O 3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na 2O and P 2O 5, but lower values of SiO 2 and K 2O, when compared with those of Group II with I-type characteristics. Group I rocks are produced by partial melting of older Precambrian basement with the variable influence of mantle-derived magma which results from the interaction of released fluids from the subducted slab and the overlying mantle wedge in a general convergent margin setting, and Group II rocks result from partial melting of lower crustal basic rocks (amphibolite) and/or further partial melting of the Group I rocks associated with the variable influence from the underplating mantle-derived magma resulting from lithospheric extensional regime. Both Groups I and II have undergone assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) processes during its petrogenesis. This study therefore demonstrates that there exists a continental basement within micro-blocks in the South China Sea, and further supports the idea that a

  16. Comparison of baseline removal methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Giguere, Stephen; Carey, CJ; Boucher, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This project examines the causes, effects, and optimization of continuum removal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to produce the best possible prediction accuracy of elemental composition in geological samples. We compare prediction accuracy resulting from several different techniques for baseline removal, including asymmetric least squares (ALS), adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares (Air-PLS), fully automatic baseline correction (FABC), continuous wavelet transformation, median filtering, polynomial fitting, the iterative thresholding Dietrich method, convex hull/rubber band techniques, and a newly-developed technique for Custom baseline removal (BLR). We assess the predictive performance of these methods using partial least-squares analysis for 13 elements of geological interest, expressed as the weight percentages of SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and the parts per million concentrations of Ni, Cr, Zn, Mn, and Co. We find that previously published methods for baseline subtraction generally produce equivalent prediction accuracies for major elements. When those pre-existing methods are used, automated optimization of their adjustable parameters is always necessary to wring the best predictive accuracy out of a data set; ideally, it should be done for each individual variable. The new technique of Custom BLR produces significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing methods across varying geological data sets, instruments, and varying analytical conditions. These results also demonstrate the dual objectives of the continuum removal problem: removing a smooth underlying signal to fit individual peaks (univariate analysis) versus using feature selection to select only those channels that contribute to best prediction accuracy for multivariate analyses. Overall, the current practice of using generalized, one-method-fits-all-spectra baseline removal results in poorer predictive performance for all methods. The

  17. Geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of Late Cretaceous A-type granites from the Sibumasu Block, Southern Myanmar, SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai; Li, Wen-Qian; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Wang, He; Wei, Xiao-Peng

    2017-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous to Paleogene granitoids occur widespread in the Sibumasu block within Myanmar (SE Asia), which show a close association with tin-tungsten mineralization. However, the precise timing, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of these granitoids are poorly constrained so far. In this study, we present a detailed study on geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic geochemistry for the Hermyingyi and Taungphila granites in southern Myanmar, with the aim of determining their petrogenesis and tectonic implications. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon grains from the two granites yield ages of 69-70 Ma, indicating a Late Cretaceous magmatic event. These granitic rocks are weakly peraluminous and belong to the high-K calc-alkaline series. They are both characterized by high SiO2, K2O + Na2O, FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) and Ga/Al ratios and low Al2O3, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and TiO2 contents, enriched in Rb, Th, U and Y, but depleted in Ba, Sr, P, and Eu, suggesting an A-type granite affinity. Moreover, they display prominent tetrad REE patterns and non-CHARAC trace element behavior, which are common in late magmatic differentiates with strong hydrothermal interaction or deuteric alteration. The granites belong to A2-type and probably formed at a high temperature and anhydrous condition. They have zircon εHf(t) values from - 12.4 to - 10.0 and whole-rock εNd(t) values from - 11.3 to - 10.6, with Paleoproterozoic TDM2 ages (1741-1922 Ma) for both Hf and Nd isotopes. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that these A-type granites were derived from partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic continental crust dominated by metaigneous rocks with tonalitic to granodioritic compositions, without significant input of mantle-derived magma and followed by subsequent fractional crystallization. By integrating all available data for the regional tectonic evolution in SE Asia and adjacent regions, we attribute the formation of the Late Cretaceous A-type granites to a back-arc extension

  18. Mass balance attending gel palagonitization of hyaloclastites in the HSDP 2 Phase 1 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. W.; Schiffman, P.; MacPherson, G.

    2002-12-01

    In the HSDP 2 core, the alteration of hyaloclastites is multi-episodic, but the predominant, "normal" alteration process - recorded in samples from depths between 1573 m and the bottom of the hole at over 3000 m - entails the conversion of rinds of sideromelane-rich shards to gel palagonite and growth of pore-filling chabazite. This reaction must occur relatively rapidly, because point-count porosity in the zone of normal alteration approaches zero within 200 m of the top of this zone and remains very low to the deepest samples. Furthermore, thickness of palagonite rinds does not increase down hole. Using modes from point counts on thin sections, major element analyses by electron microprobe, and trace element analyses by LAM-ICPMS, we have modeled the elemental mass balance for the normal palagonitization process in the HSDP hyaloclastites. Petrographic evidence suggests that this reaction does not involve solids other than sideromelane, gel palagonite, and chabazite and that the conversion of sideromelane to gel palagonite is isovolumetric. We used literature values of density: 2.80 g/cc for sideromelane, 2.00 for gel palagonite, and 2.075 for chabazite. The major elemental balance calculated for these conditions, and averaged over 10 samples shows net addition of K2O (by 17%), TiO2 (19%), and water, with net losses of MgO (73%), P2O5 (52%), MnO (29%), CaO (17%), Na2O (36%), SiO2 (19%), FeO (15%), and Al2O3 (18%). Individual samples show similar patterns. Decreasing the gel palagonite density (to 1.9 g/cc) and allowing for a 5% volume decrease reduces the TiO2 uptake (to 8%), but also increases the apparent loss of other "immobile" elements (FeO to 23% and Al2O3 to 22%). Normalized REE patterns for sideromelane versus gel palagonite show no systematic fractionations, although the normal reaction requires net gains on the order of 10-20% for most REEs. HFS elements are enriched in gel palagonite, relative to values in sideromelane, but LIL elements are depleted

  19. A large eruption convulsed in prehistoric times an extensive area of Catamarca, Southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Ratto, Norma; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Rejas, Marta; Lobo, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological, stratigraphical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of many recent 30-160 cm ash deposits occurring at the Bolsón de Fiambalá in Catamarca, NW Argentina, allow their correlation. This lithostratigraphic unit is named Fiambalá Ash and it is uncovered or covered by colluvial deposits and present-day aeolian deposits, reworked products of the primary fall deposits. The grain size of these ash deposits is gritty rather than silty. They are nearly unique among regional ashes in containing hornblende phenocrysts. In addition, they are made up of glass (subangular blocky shards), feldspars, biotite, and quartz; magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and titanite are scarce. The glass is rhyolitic (˜75 to 79 % m/m SiO2; ˜3 to 4 % m/m Na2O; ˜3 to 5 % m/m K2O; 1 to 2 % m/m CaO; normalized to 100 %). On the other hand, in northern margins of Fiambalá basin, extensive remnants of fines-poor pumiceous debris flows and hyperconcentrated sandflow deposits as thick as 10 m are exposed on the walls of the river gorges, where the base is usually covered, e.g., Chuquisaca River. There is no significant unconformity or intercalation of other materials, thus suggesting rapid emplacement after a single eruptive event. A preliminary age of Fiambalá Ash based on archaeological studies bracket it between 1400-1270 and 1270-980 cal a BP (OxCal 4.2.4, SHCal13, 2 sigma). The geographical distribution, the geomorphological features observed in satellite images and the information on the main trends of the stratigraphy, the abundance of hornblende and biotite in the younger proximal ash fall deposits, ignimbrites and lava-domes of the Nevado Tres Cruces complex, favours this edifice as the strongest candidate to be the source of the Upper Holocene pyroclastic deposits found in the Fiambalá basin. The archaeological records seem to evidence the abrupt environmental and societal changes associated with this major eruption. Significant areas of Catamarca were likely

  20. Apatite and clinopyroxene as tracers for metasomatic processes in nepheline clinopyroxenites of Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains, Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Joachim; Harlov, Daniel E.; Pushkarev, Evgeny V.; Brügmann, Gerhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Clinopyroxene and apatite are found to trace metasomatic processes in nepheline-bearing clinopyroxenites (tilaites) from the igneous, mafic-ultramafic Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes of Kytlym and Nizhny Tagil, Ural Mountains, Russian Federation. The clinopyroxenites consist predominantly of coarse-grained, partially to totally altered clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine-grained olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and nepheline. Apatite occurs as idiomorphic inclusions (<25 μm) in the clinopyroxene and as xenomorphic grains in the matrix. In the matrix, plagioclase is partially to totally replaced by a fine-grained symplectitic intergrowth of K-feldspar and nepheline most likely due to the influx of an K2O-, Na2O-, and Al2O3-bearing fluid. During conversion of the plagioclase, CaO and SiO2 were partitioned into the fluid. Altered areas in the clinopyroxene phenocrysts are characterized by the redistribution of major and trace elements. This includes depletion in Mg, Rb, and Sr and enrichment in Al, Na, Ba, U, Th, REE except Eu, and HFSE compared to the original magmatic areas in the clinopyroxene. Apatite inclusions in the altered areas of the clinopyroxene and in the matrix are enriched in Cl relative to apatite inclusions in the unaltered areas of clinopyroxene. It is proposed that these rocks experienced a two-stage metasomatic process. Stage 1 was the partial to total alteration of plagioclase to K-feldspar and nepheline due to interaction with an infiltrating (K,Na)Cl-rich brine (most likely late magmatic) with an Al component, which enriched the fluid in CaCl2. Stage 2 consisted of the partial to total chemical alteration of the original magmatic clinopyroxene by this now CaCl2-enriched fluid through the mechanism of coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. This process also chemically altered the apatite inclusions from fluor-chlorapatite to chlor-fluorapatite and redistributed as well as partially removed the titanomagnetite inclusions in

  1. Geochemistry of oceanic igneous rocks - Ridges, islands, and arcs - With emphasis on manganese, scandium, and vanadium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    A database on a number of elements in oceanic volcanic rocks is presented, including the principal major-element oxides - SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3(T), MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5 (where T refers to total iron) - and the trace elements - Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Sr, V, Pb (mainly by isotope dilution), Yb, Zn, and Zr. Interpretations are given for transition metals, with emphasis on Mn, Sc, and V, in order to determine the concentration of the elements in primitive melts and assess their trends in magmatic differentiation. Transition metals are not enriched in plagioclase, so all are incompatible with pure plagioclase removal - that is, they become enriched in the melt. Both Cr and Ni are known to be highly compatible with olivine separation - i.e., they are depleted in the melt early in differentiation. Also, Sc is compatible with clinopyroxene (Cpx) removal from the melt and is depleted by separation of Cpx. Copper does not fit well in any of the principal silicates, but Cu, like Ni, is greatly enriched in sulfides that may remain in the source or separate from the magma. Decreasing Ni abundances and increasing Cu contents during differentiation are a sign of olivine separation. In the analysis presented herein, V - in the absence of Cpx separation - is found to behave remarkably like the moderately incompatible element Zn, and these two elements add to the list of element pairs of similar incompatibility whose ratios are insensitive to differentiation and to submarine weathering as well. Both are enhanced in titanomagnetite, so both would he compatible during titanomagnetite separation. When Cpx separates, however, V becomes compatible like Sc, but Zn remains incompatible. Thus, decreasing V (and Sc) contents and increasing Zn contents during differentiation are a sign of Cpx separation. Manganese often behaves much like Zn and therefore is moderately incompatible, but Mn is less compatible than Zn and V in titanomagnetite. Thus, decreasing Zn and V with

  2. Calcium isotope analytical technique for mafic rocks and its applications on constraining the source of Cenozoic ultra-potassic rocks in the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Ca isotope analytical technique for mafic rocks has been recently developed and set up at our lab. About mg level of a mafic rock sample was digested, and then a sub portion of the solution contains about 100ug Ca was spiked with a 42Ca-43Ca double spike and went through the column chemistry. Generally the Ca recovery is almost 100% and the procedure blank is about 50-150ng. Finally, about 5-10ug of the collected Ca cut was measured on our Triton TIMS. The precision of the data was around 0.1 per mil and the data we collected for standards are consistent with those reported by previous studies. There are two groups of Cenozoic ultra-potassic rocks that are widespread in Tibetan Plateau: a northern group in Songpan-Ganzi and Qiangtang Terranes and a southern group in Lhasa Terrane. Previous petrology evidence, such as a relative enrichment in large ion lithophile element (LILE); negative Ta,Nb and Ti anomalies and high LREE/HREE ratio, support that those rocks are both derived from sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). However, differences between these two groups of rocks do exist: the southern group has higher K2O, Rb, Zr, Th, contents and a higher Rb/Ba, coupled with lower Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, Sr; the southern 87Sr/86Sr ratios are higher while the 143Nd/144Nd ratios are lower, etc. These suggest that the rocks could be derived from different mantle sources or produced by different geological processes. Ca isotope is chosen in this study to better understand the source of the ultra-potassic rocks because Ca isotope has been a great tracer of different geological reservoirs and the isotopic compositions of Ca may represent different genesic processes. We propose that the ultra-potassic rocks in the Tibet should have significant 40Ca enrichments due to the decay from 40K to 40Ca, therefore the variation of Ca isotopic compositions among these ultra-potassic rocks could be obvious. We believe that based on our calcium data together with earlier Sr, Nd, Pb data

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of granitoids from Kinnaur region, Himachal Higher Himalaya, India: Implication on the nature of felsic magmatism in the collision tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Brajesh; Kumar, Santosh; Ban, Masao; Nakashima, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Felsic magmatism in the southern part of Himachal Higher Himalaya is constituted by Neoproterozoic granite gneiss (GGn), Early Palaeozoic granitoids (EPG) and Tertiary tourmaline-bearing leucogranite (TLg). Magnetic susceptibility values (<3 ×10-3 SI), molar Al2 O 3/(CaO + Na2 O + K 2O) (≥1.1), mineral assemblage (bt-ms-pl-kf-qtz ± tur ± ap), and the presence of normative corundum relate these granitoids to peraluminous S-type, ilmenite series (reduced type) granites formed in a syncollisional tectonic setting. Plagioclase from GGn (An10-An31) and EPG (An15-An33) represents oligoclase to andesine and TLg (An2-An15) represents albite to oligoclase, whereas compositional ranges of K-feldspar are more-or-less similar (Or88 to Or95 in GGn, Or86 to Or97 in EPG and Or87 to Or94 in TLg). Biotites in GGn (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.34-0.45), EPG (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.27-0.47), and TLg (Mg/Mg + Fet= 0.25-0.30) are ferribiotites enriched in siderophyllite, which stabilised between FMQ and HM buffers and are characterised by dominant 3Ferightleftharpoons 2Al, 3Mgrightleftharpoons 2Al substitutions typical of peraluminous (S-type), reducing felsic melts. Muscovite in GGn (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.58-0.66), EPG (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.31-0.59), and TLg (Mg/Mg + Fet=0.29-0.42) represent celadonite and paragonite solid solutions, and the tourmaline from EPG and TLg belongs to the schorl-elbaite series, which are characteristics of peraluminous, Li-poor, biotite-tourmaline granites. Geochemical features reveal that the GGn and EPG precursor melts were most likely derived from melting of biotite-rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources, whereas TLg melt appears to have formed from biotite-muscovite rich metapelite and metagraywacke sources. Major and trace elements modelling suggest that the GGn, EPG and TLg parental melts have experienced low degrees (˜13, ˜17 and ˜13%, respectively) of kf-pl-bt fractionation, respectively, subsequent to partial melting. The GGn and EPG melts are the results of a pre

  4. Northernmost Known Outcrop in North America of Lower Cretaceous Porphyritic Ocoite Facies (Ocoa, Chile) at Western Mexico: the Talpa Ocoite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-del Valle, P. F.; Demant, A.

    2003-04-01

    At Talpa de Allende region in Western Mexico is located the northernmost known outcrop of ocoite facies (andesite): the Talpa ocoite (TO). The ocoite facies consists of an calk-alkaline andesitic rock rich in K and characterized by the presence of megacrysts of plagioclase (An48-65). TO belongs to the so-called Guerrero Terrane composed of plutono-volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Alisitos-Teloloapan arc that was accreted to the North American craton at the end of the early Cretaceous (Lapierre et al., 1992, Can. J. Earth Sci. 29. 2478--2489). Geodynamically TO belongs to lithological sequence number IV or "Tecoman" of Tardy et al. (1994, Tectonophysics 230, 49--73). TO in hand-sample shows typical megacrysts (>1 cm) of plagioclase and clinopyroxene in a dark green aphanitic matrix. This andesitic lava has a shoshonitic character as evidenced by chemical composition: SiO_2 TiO_2 Al_2O_3 Fe_2O_3 MnO MgO CaO Na_2O K_2O P_2O_5 LOI % Ba Sr (ppm) 55.64 0.73 16.61 8.39 0.13 3.59 6.40 3.55 2.85 0.36 1.84% 1093 880 Under microscope TO is characterized by a porphyritic texture made of large labradorite phenocrysts (up to 3 cm) and clinopyroxene with a matrix made of plagioclase microlites; TO has been affected by a low grade metamorphism process belonging to the prehnite-pumpellite facies as it happens in Chile (Levi, 1969, Contr. Mineral. and Petrol. 24-1, p. 30--49). Electron microprobe analysis shows that plagioclase (An55-57) is partly transformed into albite (An7-9); clinopyroxene shows a variation in composition from Wo33En41Fs17 to Wo40En44Fs24 and it is transformed towards the margin first into amphibole and then into biotite. TO outcrops located at East of Talpa river are affected by a deep rubefaction process. TO is not characterized by the presence of bitumen as it occurs in Northern Chile (Nova-Muñoz et al., 2001, EUG XI Meeting, OS09 Supo09 PO, 606); TO is related in time with albian-cenomanian volcanogenic massive sulphides of Western Mexico

  5. Geochemistry of K/T-boundary Chicxulub ejecta of NE-Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harting, M.; Deutsch, A.; Rickers, K.

    2003-12-01

    Many K/T sections all over the world contain impact spherules supposed related to the Chicxulub event. This study focus on ejecta layers in NE-Mexican profiles. We carried out systematic XRF and synchrotron radiation measurements on such spherules at the HASYLAB and ANKA facilities as well as microprobe analyses (CAMECA SX50). Area scans on tektite-like material of the Bochil section reveal a pronounced zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr whereas secondary CaCO3 dominates in the altered margin. The composition of the spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section differ significantly from the Beloc (Haiti) and Bochil tektite glasses. At Mesa-Juan Perez, spherules are either extremely rich in Fe and Ca or consist of smectite, some of those carry carbonate inclusions. Yttrium, La and Ce are zoned within the smectite with concentrations below the detection limit and up to 20 æg/g The Ca-rich inclusions are enriched in Y (up to 35 æg/g) and La (18 æg/g) and, compared to the surrounding smectite, also in Ce (up to 34 æg/g). The Ce enrichment in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates impact-melted carbonates of the Yucatan carbonate platform as possible precursor rocks. Recent investigations focus on the chemistry of melt rock samples from the PEMEX wells Yucatan-6 and Chicxulub-1: Their average composition (mean of 250 data points in wt-percent ) is 61.6 for SiO2, 0.16 for TiO2, 18.07 for Al2O3, 0.01 for Cr2O3, 1.98 for Na2O, 1.5 for FeO, 0.05 for MnO, 0.01 for NiO, 0.31 for MgO, 9.14 for K2O, 3.44 for CaO, and 0.01 for SO2. These results are in some cases comparable to the geochemistry of ejecta glasses, e.g. from Beloc (Haiti).

  6. Reprint of "Geochemistry and petrogenetic significance of natrocarbonatites at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania: Composition of lavas from 1988 to 2007"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J.; Zaitsev, A. N.

    2012-11-01

    The natrocarbonatites of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, are unique in magmatic petrology. The historical activity of Oldoinyo Lengai has seen changes from nephelinitic to natrocarbonatitic character of the emitted magmas. Since 1983 the activity was characterized by the effusion of fluid natrocarbonatite lava from which we have collected and analyzed fresh samples in the summit crater from 1988 to 2007. The available compositional data set forms the basis for presenting and discussing the typical composition and variation of natrocarbonatites and their relationship to the silicate magmas of Oldoinyo Lengai. The "type" natrocarbonatite major and trace element composition is derived for an average of 25 samples with low standard deviation. Oldoinyo Lengai carbonatites are unique in almost all aspects of their petrological and geochemical characteristics and are characterized as extremely alkali-rich, with Na2O + K2O generally about 40 wt.%, and with high CaO contents of 14-18 wt.%. This composition results from the presence of phenocrysts of nyerereite (Na,K)2Ca(CO3)2 and gregoryite (Na,K,Cax)2-x(CO3) dominating the highly porphyritic natrocarbonatite lavas, with sylvite and fluorite as main groundmass minerals. The significance of particular trace element concentrations and ratios of equally incompatible elements (REE, Ba, Sr, Th/U, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf) is evaluated for models of liquid-liquid separation. In defining a "type" natrocarbonatite composition, we also distinguish special variations in chemical and/or mineralogical compositions as follows: (1) silicate-bearing natrocarbonatites, characterized by the occurrence of nephelinite spheroids, as in the 1993 and 2006 lavas; (2) residual melt compositions as described from the 1988 eruptive period as represented by the aphyric, filter-pressed interstitial melt of solidifying porphyritic lavas; (3) an interlude during 2000 when natrocarbonatites with sylvite and fluorite microcrysts were emitted. After 25 years of mostly mild

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  8. Explosive eruption of rhyodacitic magma at the Cordón-Caulle volcanic complex, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Schipper, C.

    2011-12-01

    After lying dormant for decades, the Cordón-Caulle volcanic complex (CCVC) reactivated again on 4 June, 2011 with an explosive eruption that produced a sustained vertical ash column reaching roughly 14,000 m a.s.l. This explosive phase produced a tephra plume that dispersed E-SE across the Chilean Patagonia into Argentina, and within a week encircled the globe prompting widespread disruption to air traffic and several airport closures. After about 3 weeks of fluctuating explosive activity, a lava flow began effusing from the same vent as the initial activity. We analyzed pumice and ash samples of the Plinian fall from 4 June for their major and trace element makeup, mineralogical characteristics, and 3D textural relationships within pyroclasts. The light beige, phenocryst-poor (<5 vol%) pumice contains plagioclase (~1mm) as its primary phase, and magnetite, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in sub-equal amounts. The crystals often form intergrowth clusters but may also be found separate and enclosed in highly vesicular microlite-free glass. As shown by XRF analyses on bulk pumice and ash samples collected from two localities southeast of the vent, the current eruptives comprise the following (in wt.%): SiO2 = 69.6, TiO2 = 0.70, Al2O3 = 14.3, Fe2O3 = 4.56, MnO = 0.11, MgO = 0.54, CaO = 2.3, Na2O = 5.14, K2O = 2.75, P2O5 = 0.11; and, (in ppm): Cr = 6.7, Ni = 2.3, Rb = 70.3, Sr = 163.3, Y = 51.7, Zr = 328, Ba = 702, Pb = 23.7. Interestingly, these compositions are virtually identical to those of magma erupted during 1960 and closely resemble rhyodacite erupted in 1921 from nearby vents. The primary difference between the present eruption and its recent predecessors is the much greater eruptive vigour of the current phase. Another distinction between the present and past historical eruptions is the presence of conspicuous mafic-felsic mingling textures in a small percentage (~0.5 vol%) of the current pumice. Textural and chemical analyses of the mafic blobs are

  9. Phase relations in the peridotite-carbonate-chloride system at 7.0-16.5 GPa and the role of chlorides in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, K. D.; Ohtani, E.

    2008-12-01

    Melting phase relations have been determined in a model chloride-carbonate-bearing peridotite (CaO-MgO- Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CO2-Cl) at 7.0-16.5 GPa and 1200-1800°C. The typical assemblage coexisting with partial melts is forsterite/wadsleyite - enstatite/clinoenstatite - garnet. In contrast to carbonated peridotite, clinopyroxene was absent in chloride-carbonate system. Also, carbonatite melt formed at low-degree of partial melting are enriched by CaO. We observed Ca- and Mg-bearing carbonatite melts in all experiments. The solidus temperature was adjusted by the stability of magnesite at 1300°C at 10.5 GPa and 1400°C at 16.5 GPa. Halides are stable 100-200°C above this 'apparent' solidus. This fact indicates that melt composition in chloride-carbonate peridotite can be effectively controlled by the presence of water. In the anhydrous environments a low-fraction of 'dry' Cl- and alkali-poor Ca-Mg-rich carbonatite melts can be formed and migrate from the source, whereas under the hydrous conditions, chloride can be dissolved into water to form alkali-rich chloride-carbonate brine-like melts. At higher temperatures (1400-1600°C) two immiscible carbonatite and chloride-carbonate liquids may coexist. The composition of carbonatite and chloride-carbonate melts is consistent with that of melt inclusions in fibrous/cloudy diamonds worldwide. In addition, the Na-rich composition of chloride-carbonate melts is in agreement with Na-enrichment in melt inclusions from peridotitic diamonds. Typical trends of melt evolution upon cooling and formation the melts included in diamonds may involve formation of immiscible Si-poor carbonatite and Si-poor chloride-carbonate melts from homogenous Cl-bearing kimberlite or carbonatite. Our results also applicable for carbonate and chloride stability and dynamics during deep subduction.

  10. Phase relations and melting of carbonated peridotite between 10 and 20 GPa: a proxy for alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melts in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Litasov, Konstantin; Ohtani, Eiji

    2014-02-01

    We determined the melting phase relations, melt compositions, and melting reactions of carbonated peridotite on two carbonate-bearing peridotite compositions (ACP: alkali-rich peridotite + 5.0 wt % CO2 and PERC: fertile peridotite + 2.5 wt % CO2) at 10-20 GPa and 1,500-2,100 °C and constrain isopleths of the CO2 contents in the silicate melts in the deep mantle. At 10-20 GPa, near-solidus (ACP: 1,400-1,630 °C) carbonatitic melts with < 10 wt % SiO2 and > 40 wt % CO2 gradually change to carbonated silicate melts with > 25 wt % SiO2 and < 25 wt % CO2 between 1,480 and 1,670 °C in the presence of residual majorite garnet, olivine/wadsleyite, and clinoenstatite/clinopyroxene. With increasing degrees of melting, the melt composition changes to an alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melt (Mg# = 83.7-91.6; ~ 26-36 wt % MgO; ~ 24-43 wt % SiO2; ~ 4-13 wt % CaO; ~ 0.6-3.1 wt % Na2O; and ~ 0.5-3.2 wt % K2O; ~ 6.4-38.4 wt % CO2). The temperature of the first appearance of CO2-rich silicate melt at 10-20 GPa is ~ 440-470 °C lower than the solidus of volatile-free peridotite. Garnet + wadsleyite + clinoenstatite + carbonatitic melt controls initial carbonated silicate melting at a pressure < 15 GPa, whereas garnet + wadsleyite/ringwoodite + carbonatitic melt dominates at pressure > 15 GPa. Similar to hydrous peridotite, majorite garnet is a liquidus phase in carbonated peridotites (ACP and PERC) at 10-20 GPa. The liquidus is likely to be at ~ 2,050 °C or higher at pressures of the present study, which gives a melting interval of more than 670 °C in carbonated peridotite systems. Alkali-rich carbonated silicate melts may thus be produced through partial melting of carbonated peridotite to 20 GPa at near mantle adiabat or even at plume temperature. These alkali- and CO2-rich silicate melts can percolate upward and may react with volatile-rich materials accumulate at the top of transition zone near 410-km depth. If these refertilized domains migrate upward and convect out of the

  11. Chaotic Mixing of Granitic and Basaltic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decampos, C.; Ingrisch, W. E.; Perugini, D.; Dingwell, D. B.; Poli, G.

    2008-12-01

    Chaotic mixing in magma chambers may play a central role in determining the timing and dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The dynamics of such chaotic mixing has been investigated solely in analog systems and in numerical simulations to date. Here we report the first experimental study of the dynamics of chaotic mixing in molten silicates of geological relevance. A newly developed device for the simulation of chaotic dynamics has been successfully employed for this purpose. Its development is based on the importance of chaotic dynamics for mixing processes; and previous studies evidencing that chaotic dynamics could equally control magma mixing processes in nature (Perugini et al., 2006. EPSL, 234: 669-680 and references therein). The special device for chaotic mixing silicate melts at high temperatures (up to 1700°C) has been built after the journal-bearing or eccentric-cylinder geometry for viscous fluids for the study of chaotic mixing in slow flows (Swanson and Ottino, 1990. J. Fluid Mech., 213:227-249). In order to generate chaos in a flow, the streamlines must be time dependent, resulting from alternating movements between the two cylinders. The mixing experiments were performed using end-members of: haplogranite [In wt.%: SiO2(71.6), Al2O3(12.4), Na2O(7.0), K2O(9.0)] and haplobasalt [SiO2(48.6), Al2O3(16.3), CaO(23.8), MgO (11.4)]. The haplogranite was doped with trace amounts of Rb, Sr, Ba, Zr and REE oxides. The experimental protocol started with a single run of alternating movements of spindle and crucible. It lasted for 110 minutes at a temperature of 1400°C. The experiment terminated by stopping all movement and letting the sample cool to room temperature. A cylinder of the resultant mixed glassy sample was recovered by drilling. Horizontal sections of this cylinder at varying heights were prepared for microprobe and ICP-MS- Laser Ablation analyses. Preliminary optical and microprobe studies reveal crystal-free filaments of intermediary compositions

  12. Formation and emplacement of two contrasting late-Mesoproterozoic magma types in the central Namaqua Metamorphic Complex (South Africa, Namibia): Evidence from geochemistry and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen H.; Frei, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The Namaqua Metamorphic Complex is a Mesoproterozoic low-pressure, granulite facies belt along the southern and western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton. The NMC has formed between ~ 1.3 and 1.0 Ga and its central part consists essentially of different types of granitoids intercalated with metapelites and calc-silicate rocks. The granitoids can be subdivided into three major groups: (i) mesocratic granitoids, (ii) leucocratic granitoids and (iii) leucogranites. The high-K, ferroan mesocratic granitoids (54-75 wt% SiO2) have a variable composition ranging from granitic to tonalitic, and contain biotite and/or hornblende or orthopyroxene. They are strongly enriched in REE and LILE, indicating A-type chemical characteristics, and are depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Nb, Ta and Ti. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites (68-76 wt% SiO2) differ from the other group in having a granitic or slightly syenitic composition containing biotite and/or garnet/sillimanite. They have lower REE and MgO, FeOt, CaO, TiO2, MnO concentrations, but higher Na2O and K2O contents. Compositional variations in mesocratic granitoids indicate their formation by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma. Leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites lack such trends, which suggests melting of a felsic crustal source without subsequent further evolution of the generated magmas. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the mesocratic granitoids are consistent magmatic differentiation of a mantle derived, hot (> 900 °C) parental magma. The leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites granites were formed from low-temperature magmas (< 730 °C), generated during fluid-present melting from metasedimentary sources. New U-Pb zircon ages reveal that both magma types were emplaced into the lower crust within a 30-40 million years interval between 1220-1180 Ma. In this time period the crust reached its thermal peak, which led to the formation of the leucocratic granitoids and leucogranites. A

  13. Experimental and Petrological Constraints on Lunar Differentiation from the Apollo 15 Green Picritic Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Grove, Timothy L.

    2003-01-01

    Phase equilibrium experiments on the most magnesian Apollo 15C green picritic glass composition indicate a multiple saturation point with olivine and orthopyroxene at 1520 C and 1.3 GPa (about 260 km depth in the moon). This composition has the highest Mg# of any lunar picritic glass and the shallowest multiple saturation point. Experiments on an Apollo 15A composition indicate a multiple saturation point with olivine and orthopyroxene at 1520 C and 2.2 GPa (about 440 km depth in the moon). The importance of the distinctive compositional trends of the Apollo 15 groups A, B, and C picritic glasses merits the reanalysis of NASA slide 15426,72 with modern electron microprobe techniques. We confirm the compositional trends reported by Delano (1979, 1986) in the major element oxides SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Cr2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, and CaO, and we also obtained data for the trace elements P2O5, K2O, Na2O, NiO, S, Cu, Cl, Zn, and F. Petrogenetic modeling demonstrates that the Apollo 15 A-B-C glass trends could not have been formed by fractional crystallization or any continuous assimilation/fractional crystallization (AFC) process. The B and C glass compositional trends could not have been formed by batch or incremental melting of an olivine + orthopyroxene source or any other homogeneous source, though the A glasses may have been formed by congruent melting over a small pressure range at depth. The B compositional trend is well modeled by starting with an intermediate A composition and assimilating a shallower, melted cumulate, and the C compositional trend is well modeled by a second assimilation event. The assimilation process envisioned is one in which heat and mass transfer were separated in space and time. In an initial intrusive event, a picritic magma crystallized and provided heat to melt magma ocean cumulates. In a later replenishment event, the picritic magma incrementally mixed with the melted cumulate (creating the compositional trends in the green glass data set

  14. Experimental study of liquid immiscibility in the Kiruna-type Vergenoeg iron-fluorine deposit, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tong; Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Schütte, Philip; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Zhang, Zhaochong; Holtz, Francois

    2017-04-01

    In this study we experimentally assess whether the bulk composition of the Kiruna-type iron-fluorine Vergenoeg deposit, South Africa (17 wt.% SiO2 and 55 wt.% FeOtot) could correspond to an immiscible Fe-rich melt paired with its host rhyolite. Synthetic powder of the host rhyolite was mixed with mafic end-members (ore rocks) in variable proportions. Experimental conditions were 1-2 kbar and 1010 °C, with a range of H2O and F contents in the starting compositions. Pairs of distinct immiscible liquids occur in experiments saturated with fluorite, under relatively dry conditions, and at oxygen fugacity conditions corresponding to FMQ-1.4 to FMQ+1.8 (FMQ = fayalite-magnetite-quartz solid buffer). The Si-rich immiscible liquids contain 60.9-73.0 wt.% SiO2, 9.1-12.5 wt.% FeOtot, 2.4-4.2 wt.% F, and are enriched in Na2O, K2O and Al2O3. The paired Fe-rich immiscible melts have 41.0-49.5 wt.% SiO2, 20.6-36.1 wt.% FeOtot and 4.5-6.0 wt.% F, and are enriched in MgO, CaO and TiO2. Immiscibility does not develop in experiments performed under water-rich (aH2O > 0.2; a = activity) and/or oxidized (>FMQ+1.8) conditions. In all experiments, solid phases are magnetite, ±fayalite, fluorite and tridymite. Our results indicate that the rocks from the Vergenoeg pipe crystallized in a magma chamber hosting two immiscible silicate melts. Crystallization of the pipe from the Fe-rich melt explains its extreme enrichment in Ca, F and Fe compared to the host rhyolitic rocks. However, its low bulk silica content compared to experimental Fe-rich melts indicates that the pipe formed by remobilization of a mafic crystal mush dominated by magnetite and fayalite. Segregation of evolved residual liquids as well as the conjugate immiscible Si-rich melt produced the host rhyolite. The huge amount of fluorine in Vergenoeg ores (∼12 wt.% F) can hardly be explained by simple crystallization of fluorite from the Fe-rich silicate melt (up to 6 wt.% F at fluorite saturation). Instead, we confirm a

  15. Neoarchean paleoweathering of tonalite and metabasalt: Implications for reconstructions of 2.69Ga early terrestrial ecosystems and paleoatmospheric chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driese, S.G.; Jirsa, M.A.; Ren, M.; Brantley, S.L.; Sheldon, N.D.; Parker, Dana C.; Schmitz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations of a 2690.83Ma (207Pb/206Pb age of Saganaga Tonalite) unconformity exposed in outcrop in northeastern Minnesota, USA, reveal evidence for development of a deep paleoweathering profile with geochemical biosignatures consistent with the presence of microbial communities and weakly oxygenated conditions. Weathering profiles are characterized by a 5-50m thick regolith that consists of saprolitized Saganaga Tonalite and Paulson Lake succession basaltic metavolcanic rocks retaining rock structure, which is cross-cut by a major unconformity surface marking development of a successor basin infilled with alluvial deposits. The regolith and unconformity are overlain by thick conglomerate deposits that contain both intrabasinal (saprock) as well as extrabasinal detritus. Thin-section microscopy and electron microprobe analyses reveal extensive hydrolysis and sericitization of feldspars, exfoliation and chloritization of biotite, and weathering of Fe-Mg silicates and Cu-Fe sulfides; weathering of Fe-Ti oxides was relatively less intense than for other minerals and evidence was found for precipitation of Fe oxides. Geochemical analyses of the tonalite, assuming immobile TiO2 during weathering (??Ti,j), show depletion of SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, CaO, MgO, and MnO, and to a lesser degree of K2O, relative to least-weathered parent materials. Significant Fe was lost from the tonalite. A paleoatmospheric pCO2 of 10-50 times PAL is estimated based on geochemical mass-balance of the tonalite profile and assuming a formation time of 50-500Kyr. Interpretations of metabasalt paleoweathering are complicated by additions of sediment to the profile and extensive diagenetic carbonate (dolomite) overprinting. Patterns of release of P and Fe and retention of Y and Cu in tonalite are consistent with recent laboratory experiments of granite weathering, and with the presence of acidic conditions in the presence of organic ligands (produced, for example, by a

  16. Petrological constraints on magma storage and transfer beneath Volcán Cerro Machín (Colombia): A volcano showing signs of unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, D.; Caricchi, L.; Mendez, R.; Londoño, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Cerro Machín Volcano, located in the Central Cordillera (Colombia) is a dacitic volcano positioned along a large-scale fracture system. Past activity is characterised by explosions of varying intensities and by the effusion of lava domes, with 6 main eruptive cycles occurring over the last 10 kyrs. Currently, the volcano presents two central domes with a total diameter of about 3 km, where two fumarolic fields are located. The rest of the edifice is composed of a 600 m thick ring of pyroclastic flows. Recent seismic swarms, located at depths between 18 and 2 km, have prompted further investigation of this volcanic system. Erupted products are dacitic with similar bulk chemistries to Pinatubo (65.1 wt% SiO2, 2.1 wt% MgO, 2.1 wt% K2O, 4.3 wt% CaO and 4.4 wt% Na2O) apart from FeOT, which at 3.3 wt%, is lower by around 1 wt%. The mineralogical assemblage is composed of plagioclase, quartz, hornblende (two populations: high- and low-Mg) and biotite phenocrysts along with ilmenite, magnetite, and accessory apatite and zircon. All phases, both in products of explosive eruption and dome samples, appear to be at equilibrium with an absence of sieve textures in plagioclase and no dehydration reaction rims in the hydrous phases. Because of the similarities in bulk composition, phase equilibria experiments for Pinatubo (Scaillet et al., 2001) can be used to provide information on the storage conditions of Machín magmas prior to eruption. The presence of biotite suggests temperatures lower than 750°C with melt water contents of at least 5.7 wt % corresponding to water saturation pressures between 225 and 240 MPa. Analyses to determine the amount of sulphur present in the magma are currently being performed to assess its possible influence on the stability of biotite (Scaillet et al., 2001). The lack of evidence of mineral resorption in the eruptive products may imply relatively low magmatic temperatures or fast rates of magma transfer beneath Cerro Machín volcano. We are

  17. Late Eocene-Early Oligocene two-mica granites in NW Turkey (the Uludağ Massif): Water-fluxed melting products of a mafic metagreywacke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the petrogenesis of two-mica granites within the amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks in the Uludağ Massif (NW Turkey). The two-mica granites are represented by three different types (i) a 17 km long and 1.5 km-wide strongly foliated and lineated metagranite, (ii) a relatively younger circular granite, 11 km by 6.5 km, free of any penetrative fabric, and (iii) up to 5 m thick dikes of unfoliated granite-porphyries. Mineral constituents include quartz, plagioclase, microcline, biotite, muscovite and minor apatite, zircon, ilmenite and monazite. U-Pb zircon dating indicates that the metagranite was emplaced at 35 ± 1 Ma (2σ, latest Eocene) and the unfoliated granite at 28 ± 1 Ma (2σ) (Early-Late Oligocene boundary). Overall, the two-mica granites are characterized by (i) a restricted bulk composition (SiO2 70-76 wt.%), (ii) near-linear to linear inter-element variations, (iii) high concentrations of Al2O3, Sr, Ba, LREEs, and low abundances of Rb, Y, Sc and HREEs, comparable with adakitic rocks, (iv) variably pronounced concave-upward shape of HREEs and absent to feeble Eu anomaly, (v) relatively high Na2O, CaO and Sr, and lower K2O and Rb contents at identical silica contents relative to the classical S-type granites. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i) values range from 0.7052 to 0.7080, and 0.7 to - 3.6, respectively. The 206Pb/204Pb(i) values range from 18.23 to 18.69, 207Pb/204Pb(i) from 15.63 to 15.70 and 208Pb/204Pb(i) from 38.48 to 38.77. 87Sr/86Sr(i) and εNd(i), and εNd(i) and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values are negatively correlated. Isotopic variation and negative correlations can best be explained by a heterogeneous source, including an older crustal component and a more juvenile basic component. Magma temperatures are estimated as 754-790 °C based on zircon and monazite saturation. All these features such as (i) relatively Na-, Ca- and Sr-rich compositions, (ii) isotopically heterogeneous source with inferred residual phases such as garnet and

  18. Ultrapotassic dykes in the Moldanubian Zone and their significance for understanding of the post-collisional mantle dynamics during Variscan orogeny in the Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubínová, Šárka; Faryad, Shah Wali; Verner, Kryštof; Schmitz, Mark; Holub, František

    2017-02-01

    We report mineral textures, geochemistry and age relations of two ultrapotassic dykes from a dyke swarm in the Western part of the Moldanubian Zone at contact to the Teplá-Barrandian Block. The dykes have orientation almost perpendicular to the NNE-SSW trending Central Bohemian plutonic complex and cross cut metamorphic foliation in basement gneisses and migmatites. Based on mineral compositions and geochemistry, the dykes show close relations to Mg-K syenite plutons in the Moldanubian Zone. The two dykes are vaugnerite and syenite in compositions and contain talc pseudomorphs after olivine within a fine-grained matrix that consists of K-feldspar, phlogopite with small amounts of clinopyroxene and accessory quartz, apatite, titanite and sulphides of Fe, Cu, Ni. The syenite porphyry dyke cross cuts the vaugnerite. It contains quartz phenocrysts and comparing to vaugnerite has lower modal content of talc pseudomorphs. The vaugnerite and syenite porphyry have high K2O (6 to 7 wt.%) and mg-number (0.66-0.74), but low CaO and Na2O contents. The vaugnerite is markedly rich in P2O5 (> 2 wt.%) and comparing to syenite porphyry has higher amount of mantle-incompatible elements (e.g. Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, U), V and Cr. ID-TIMS analyses on titanite in vaugnerite and on zircon in syenite porphyry yielded 338.59 ± 0.68 and 337.87 ± 0.21 Ma, respectively. Mineral and bulk rock chemistry of the dykes indicates that the source magma was formed by a low degree of partial melting of a highly anomalous domain in the upper mantle which subsequently fractionated and was contaminated with crustal material during its ascent. Formation of ultrapotassic magma is explained by transcurrent shear zones in the mantle lithosphere that occurred due to block rotation and post-collisional mantle dynamics initiated by slab break-off and asthenosphere upwelling into the Moldanubian accretionary complex during the Variscan Orogeny.

  19. Magmatic sulfides in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Laurette; Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfides within 17 porphyritic chondrules of the Sahara 97096 EH3 enstatite chondrite have been studied by backscattered electron microscopy and electron microprobe in order to investigate the role of gas-melt interactions in the chondrule sulfide formation. Troilite (FeS) is systematically present and is the most abundant sulfide within the EH3 chondrite chondrules. It is found either poikilitically enclosed in low-Ca pyroxenes or scattered within the glassy mesostasis. Oldhamite (CaS) and niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] are present in ≈60% of the chondrules studied. While oldhamite is preferentially present in the mesostasis, niningerite associated with silica is generally observed in contact with troilite and low-Ca pyroxene. The Sahara 97096 chondrule mesostases contain high abundances of alkali and volatile elements (average Na2O = 8.7 wt.%, K2O = 0.8 wt.%, Cl = 7100 ppm and S = 3700 ppm) as well as silica (average SiO2 = 62.8 wt.%). Our data suggest that most of the sulfides found in EH3 chondrite chondrules are magmatic minerals that formed after the dissolution of S from a volatile-rich gaseous environment into the molten chondrules. Troilite formation occurred via sulfur solubility within Fe-poor chondrule melts followed by sulfide saturation, which causes an immiscible iron sulfide liquid to separate from the silicate melt. The FeS saturation started at the same time as or prior to the crystallization of low-Ca pyroxene during the high temperature chondrule forming event(s). Protracted gas-melt interactions under high partial pressures of S and SiO led to the formation of niningerite-silica associations via destabilization of the previously formed FeS and low-Ca pyroxene. We also propose that formation of the oldhamite occurred via the sulfide saturation of Fe-poor chondrule melts at moderate S concentration due to the high degree of polymerization and the high Na-content of the chondrule melts, which allowed the activity of CaO

  20. Geochemistry and geodynamics of a Late Cretaceous bimodal volcanic association from the southern part of the Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Northern Croatia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pamic, J.; Belak, M.; Bullen, T.D.; Lanphere, M.A.; McKee, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present petrological and geochemical information on a bimodal basaltrhyolite suite associated with A-type granites of Late Cretaceous age from the South Pannonian Basin in Slavonija (Croatia). Basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites, associated in some places with ignimbrites, occur in volcanic bodies that are interlayered with pyroclastic and fossiliferous Upper Cretaceus sedimentary rocks. The petrology and geochemistry of the basalts and alkali-feldspar rhyolites are constrained by microprobe analyses, major and trace element analyses including REE, and radiogenic and stable isotope data. Basalts that are mostly transformed into metabasalts (mainly spilites), are alkalic to subalkalic and their geochemical signatures, particularly trace element and REE patterns, are similar to recent back-arc basalts. Alkali-feldspar rhyolites have similar geochemical features to the associated cogenetic A-type granites, as shown by their large variation of Na2O and K2O (total 8-9%), very low MgO and CaO, and very high Zr contents ranging between 710 and 149ppm. Geochemical data indicate an amphibole lherzolite source within a metasomatized upper mantle wedge, with the influence of upper mantle diapir with MORB signatures and continental crust contamination. Sr incorporated in the primary basalt melt had an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7039 indicating an upper mantle origin, whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for the alkalifeldspar rhyolites and associated A-type granites is 0.7073 indicating an apparent continental crust origin. However, some other geochemical data favour the idea that they might have mainly originated by fractionation of primary mafic melt coupled with contamination of continental crust. Only one rhyolite sample appears to be the product of melting of continental crust. Geological and geodynamic data indicate that the basalt-rhyolite association was probably related to Alpine subduction processes in the Dinaridic Tethys which can be correlated with

  1. New soil composition data for Europe and Australia: demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude. Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements. The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

  2. Geochemical signatures of bedded cherts of the upper La Luna Formation in Táchira State, western Venezuela: Assessing material provenance and paleodepositional setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbán, G.; Martínez, M.; Márquez, G.; Rey, O.; Escobar, M.; Esquinas, N.

    2017-01-01

    Here we undertook an inorganic geochemical study of Cenomanian-Campanian bedded cherts (the Táchira Ftanita Member of the La Luna Formation) in the western region of the Táchira State, Venezuela. The aim of this study was to determine the paleo-oceanographic and paleo-environmental conditions that governed the deposition of chert beds and put forward a sedimentation model for the Táchira Ftanita Member in the study area. Seventy-two chert samples were collected and trace/rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Rb, Cs, Th, U, Y, Co, and Sc) and major/trace elements (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, and V) were determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES, respectively. On the basis of the stratigraphic abundance and distribution of relatively immobile elements, as well as the distribution of rare earth elements, we established that the detrital sediments associated with the sequences studied have matching characteristics with distinct continental materials, with an intermediate composition, thus pointing to the Guayana Massif as the main source of sediments. In addition, we also determined the influence of hydrothermal input on the chemical composition of some cherts from La Molina Mine. On the basis of geochemistry, we found a biological influence regarding the uptake of dissolved silica for forming chert beds. The application of parameters for relatively immobile elements allowed us to establish a still proximal continental-margin (hemipelagic) for most samples from the Zorca River and a continental-margin for almost all the cherts from the Delicias-Villa Páez section and the remaining samples from La Molina Mine. Finally, we propose that the rhythmicity that accompanies the sequence of bedded cherts is related to changes in the intensity of upwelling patterns of water and/or to variability in the supply of silica dissolved in the Táchira sub-basin.

  3. A Paleoproterozoic paleosol horizon in the Lesser Himalaya and its regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, O. N.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Deb, M.

    2011-11-01

    A Paleoproterozoic paleosol horizon in the Himachal Himalaya along a basement-cover contact is identified on the basis of an integrated field-petrographic-geochemical studies. The paleosol horizon is exposed in a road section along the Sutlej River near Karcham. It is represented by a 2-5 m thick sericite schist unit along the contact of the 1866 ± 10 Ma Jeori-Wangtu-Bandal Gneissic Complex (JWBGC) and the overlying sericite quartzite of the Manikaran Formation (Rampur Group), which is interstratified with 1800 ± 13 Ma tholeiitic flows in its basal part. The geochemical studies reveal a sharp drop in the concentration of SiO 2, Fe 2O 3, MgO, CaO, Na 2O and a rise in concentration of Al 2O 3, TiO 2, K 2O and P 2O 5 at the contact of granite gneiss and sericite schist. REE plots of granite gneiss, sericite schist and quartzite samples of the Manikaran Formation display similarity of pattern, fractionation between the LREE and HREE and comparable negative Eu anomaly. The total REE of the sericite schist and sericitic quartzite is lower than those of the granite gneiss. Based on these studies the sericite schist is inferred to be a metamorphosed alumina-rich soil, which appears to have formed in a warm and humid climate in a waterlogged terrain of gentle relief, and is post-1866 Ma and pre-1800 Ma in age. Apparent gradation from the strongly deformed amphibolite facies JWBC to the sericite schist with diffused contact indicates that the JWBGC was already metamorphosed and deformed prior to the development of the paleosol; thereafter both together with the overlying Manikaran Formation were subjected to low-grade metamorphism during the Himalayan orogeny. The JWBC is involved in the crystalline thrust sheet and is present throughout the length of the Himalaya. Thus, it is inferred that the Paleoproterozoic metamorphism was a regional event in the Himalaya at a time when the Indian Plate was part of the Nuna Supercontinent.

  4. Osumilite-(Mg): Validation as a mineral species and new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Van, K. V.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.

    2013-12-01

    Osumilite-(Mg), the Mg-dominant analogue of osumilite, has been approved by the CNMNC IMA as a new mineral species. The holotype sample has been found at Bellerberg, Eifel volcanic area, Germany. Fluorophlogopite, sanidine, cordierite, mullite, sillimanite, topaz, pseudobrookite and hematite are associated minerals. Osumilite-(Mg) occurs as short prismatic or thick tabular hexagonal crystals reaching 0.5 × 1 mm in size in the cavities in basaltic volcanic glasses at their contact with thermally metamorphosed xenoliths of pelitic rocks. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hardness 6.5. Cleavage was not observed. Color is blue to brown. D meas = 2.59(1), D calc = 2.595 g/cm3. No bands corresponding to H2O and OH-groups are in the IR spectrum. Osumilite-(Mg) is uniaxial (+), ω = 1.539(2), ɛ = 1.547(2). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of 5 point analyses, wt %) is: 0.08 Na2O, 3.41 K2O, 0.04 CaO, 7.98 MgO, 0.28 MnO, 21.57 Al2O3, 3.59 Fe2O3, 62.33 SiO2, total 99.28. The empirical formula is: (K0.72Na0.03Ca0.01)(Mg1.97Mn0.04)[Al4.21Fe{0.45/3+}Si10.32]O30. The simplified formula is: KMg2Al3(Al2Si10)O10. The crystal structure was refined on a single crystal, R = 0.0294. Osumilite-(Mg) is hexagonal, space group P6/ mcc; a = 10.0959(1), c = 14.3282(2)Å, V = 1264.79(6) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å I %) ( hkl)] are: 7.21 (37) (002), 5.064 (85) (110), 4.137 (45) (112), 3.736 (43) (202), 3.234 (100) (211), 2.932 (42) (114), 2.767 (51) (204). A type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4174/1.

  5. Wound dressings composed of copper-doped borate bioactive glass microfibers stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shichang; Li, Le; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yadong; Cheng, Xiangguo; Zhou, Nai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Zhongtang; Huang, Wenhai; Zhang, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for better wound dressings that possess the requisite angiogenic capacity for rapid in situ healing of full-thickness skin wounds. Borate bioactive glass microfibers are showing a remarkable ability to heal soft tissue wounds but little is known about the process and mechanisms of healing. In the present study, wound dressings composed of borate bioactive glass microfibers (diameter = 0.4-1.2 μm; composition 6Na2O, 8K2O, 8MgO, 22CaO, 54B2O3, 2P2O5; mol%) doped with 0-3.0 wt.% CuO were created and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. When immersed in simulated body fluid, the fibers degraded and converted to hydroxyapatite within ∼7 days, releasing ions such as Ca, B and Cu into the medium. In vitro cell culture showed that the ionic dissolution product of the fibers was not toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts, promoted HUVEC migration, tubule formation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stimulated the expression of angiogenic-related genes of the fibroblasts. When used to treat full-thickness skin defects in rodents, the Cu-doped fibers (3.0 wt.% CuO) showed a significantly better capacity to stimulate angiogenesis than the undoped fibers and the untreated defects (control) at 7 and 14 days post-surgery. The defects treated with the Cu-doped and undoped fibers showed improved collagen deposition, maturity and orientation when compared to the untreated defects, the improvement shown by the Cu-doped fibers was not markedly better than the undoped fibers at 14 days post-surgery. These results indicate that the Cu-doped borate glass microfibers have a promising capacity to stimulate angiogenesis and heal full-thickness skin defects. They also provide valuable data for understanding the role of the microfibers in healing soft tissue wounds.

  6. Geochemical, Mineralogical, and Sedimentological Investigation of Phosphorite and its Clay-Rich Mine Tailings from a Phosphate Mine, Togo, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Ramirez, P. C.; Gnandi, K.

    2009-12-01

    Clay-rich mine tailings from phosphate mine operations in Togo West, Africa present major environmental and economic problems. Options for reclamation and restoration of the tailings are limited and are fundamentally restricted due to poorly executed waste management. The major control on the bulk physical properties of the tailings is the mineralogy of the materials. Clay samples from raw phosphate mined were obtained to investigate its sedimentological geochemical, and bulk properties Tailings were also analyzed for similar properties. The phosphatic deposits are Eocene in age, 1 to 10s of meters thick and consist mostly of moderately to poorly sorted phosphatized pellets, formanifera, and other bioclastic debris. Attapulgite occurs interstitially. Moisture contents of clays from the raw phosphate varies from 4.00 to 7.11 wt%. Francolite is the main mineral phase present in the samples analyzed. Geochemically, the rocks show significant enrichment in P2O5 and CaO. P2O5 concentrations vary from approximately 29 to 35.78 wt%. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.92) occurs between CaO and P2O5 abundances indicating that apatite is a major control on the phosphate. A number of heavy metal elements and trace elements occur. Cr, V, Ni, Cu, and Cd are interpreted to be in phosphate minerals, largely apatite. Mean oxide compositions (wt %) are 31.27% P2O5, 43.74% CaO, 9.50% SiO2, 4.30% Al2O3, 2.96% Fe2O3, 0.11 % K2O, 0.19% TiO2, 0.02% MnO, 0.02% MgO, 0.02 % Na2O, and 6.12 % LOI (loss of ignition). Our analysis shows that Cd, U, Th, and F are incorporated into the francolite. We conclude that the phosphorites in Togo formed under oxic, shallow-water conditions where microbial populations assimilated phosphorus primarily from seawater and mediated precipitation of calcium fluroapatite during early digenesis at the sediment-water interface. Analysis of the mine tailings show that the purification process leads to the enrichment of certain metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Sr, Fe, and

  7. Unravelling the complex interaction between mantle and crustal magmas encoded in the lavas of San Vincenzo (Tuscany, Italy). Part II: Geochemical overview and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, Filippo; Renzulli, Alberto; Perugini, Diego; Cesare, Bernardo; Braga, Roberto; Del Moro, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    This work reports a geochemical overview and modelling of the lavas erupted ~ 4.4 Ma ago at San Vincenzo (Tuscan Magmatic Province, TMP). Although these lavas cover a relatively small area (~ 10 km2), they show very large geochemical variations caused by the interaction of mantle-derived and crustal-anatectic magmas. The lavas consist of peraluminous rhyolites (87Sr/86Sr(i) up to 0.726) hosting primarily variably sized magmatic enclaves with shoshonite/latite compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) down to 0.708). New whole-rock data for a large shoshonite enclave show high concentrations of LREE, LILE, and tetravalent HFSE, coupled with pentavalent HFSE depletions and enrichments in compatible elements such as Cr and Co. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern is strongly fractionated and characterised by a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.79). Hybridisation and AFC models suggest that the shoshonite enclave is the result of 12% rhyolite contamination of a mantle-derived magma akin to the potassic trachybasalt/shoshonite lavas of Capraia Island (~ 4.6 Ma; TMP), following an 18.5% assimilation of Late Triassic metasediments (13% evaporite and 5.5% carbonate) and 56% fractionation of clinopyroxene (39%), plagioclase (10%), and biotite (7%). Each rhyolite sample is characterised by mineral-scale isotopic disequilibria (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.711-0.726), glass inclusions with large K2O/Na2O variations (1.1-3.4) and a poli-thermobarometric history of crustal melt production at eutectic conditions. A multi-parametric approach accounting for K2O/Na2O (1.3-2.2), 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.713-0.725), Sr (104-311 ppm) and Rb (294-403 ppm) whole-rock variations, allowed us to divide the anatectic (A) rhyolites into five groups (A1, A2.1, A2.2, A2.3, A3). Group A1 shows the highest 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios and the lowest values of Sr, K2O/Na2O and Rb. It is related to A2.1 and A3 rhyolites by positive K2O/Na2O-Rb and K2O/Na2O-FeO correlations. These three rhyolite groups crop out in the south of San

  8. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the intrusive rocks in the Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet: Constraints on its formation setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang-Liang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Zhang, Chang; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gang

    2016-08-01

    The Cretaceous Xigaze ophiolite is best exposed at the central part of the Yarlung-Zangbo Suture Zone, Tibet Plateau. It consists of a thick section of mantle peridotites, but a relatively thin mafic sequence. This study presents geochronological and geochemical data for intrusive dykes (both mafic and felsic) and basalts to revisit the formation setting of the Xigaze ophiolite. The rodingites are characterized by high CaO and low Na2O contents relative to mafic dykes and show big variations in trace element compositions. Both gabbros and diabases have similar geochemical compositions, with MgO contents of 6.42-11.48 wt% and Mg# of 0.56-0.71. They display REE patterns similar to N-MORB and are variably enriched in large ion lithophile elements. Basalts have fractionated compositions and display LREE-depleted patterns very similar to N-MORB. They do not show obvious enrichment in LILE and depletion in high-field-strength elements, but a negative Nb anomaly is present. The studied plagiogranites have compositions of trondhjemite to tonalite, with high Na2O and low K2O contents. They have low TiO2 contents less than 1 wt%, consistent with melts formed by anatexis of gabbros rather than by differentiation of basalts. Zircons from seven samples, including three rodingites, three plagiogranites, and one gabbro, have been dated and yielded U-Pb ages of 124.6 ~ 130.5 Ma, indicating the Xigaze ophiolite was formed during the Early Cretaceous. They have mantle-like δ18O values of + 4.92 ~ + 5.26‰ and very positive εHf(t) values of + 16 ~ + 13.3. Ages of the rodingites and less altered gabbros indicate that serpentinization was occurred at ~ 125 Ma. Occurrence of both gabbroic and diabase dykes within the serpentinites suggests that the mantle lithosphere of the Xigaze ophiolite was rapidly exhumed. Both mafic and felsic dykes have slightly more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to MORB, but depleted Hf-Nd isotpe compositions. They have a limited range of ε

  9. Melting and subsolidus phase relations in peridotite and eclogite systems with reduced Csbnd Osbnd H fluid at 3-16 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litasov, Konstantin D.; Shatskiy, Anton; Ohtani, Eiji

    2014-04-01

    Melting phase relations of peridotite and eclogite coexisting with reduced C-O-H fluid have been studied at 3-16 GPa and 1200-1600 °C. In order to perform these experiments the double-capsule technique with fO2 control by outer Mo-MoO2 or Fe-FeO buffer capsule was designed and developed for multianvil experiments at pressures 3-21 GPa. Silicate phase assemblages resemble those in volatile-free lithologies, i.e. olivine/wadsleyite-orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-garnet in peridotite and garnet-omphacite in eclogite. Melting was detected by the appearance of quenched crystals of pyroxene, feldspar and glassy silica. Estimated solidus temperatures for peridotite + C-O-H fluid with fO2=Fe-FeO are 1200 °C at 3 GPa and 1700 °C at 16 GPa. The solidus of the system with fO2=Mo-MoO2 was about 100 °C lower. Estimated solidus temperatures for eclogite + C-O-H fluid with fO2=Fe-FeO are 1100 °C at 3 GPa and 1600 °C at 16 GPa, and for eclogite at fO2=Mo-MoO2 solidus temperatures were 20-50 °C lower. These solidus temperatures are much higher (300-500 °C) than those for peridotite and eclogite systems with H2O and/or CO2, but are still 300-400 °C lower than the solidi of volatile-free peridotite and eclogite at studied pressures. The compositions of partial melt were estimated from mass-balance calculations: partial melts of peridotite have CaO-poor (6-9 wt.%) basaltic compositions with 44-47 wt.% SiO2 and 1.1-1.6 wt.% Na2O. Melts of eclogite contain more SiO2 (47-49 wt.%) and are enriched in CaO (9-15 wt.%), Na2O (9-14 wt.%), and K2O (1.3-2.2 wt.%). All runs contained graphite or diamond crystals along with porous carbon aggregate with micro-inclusions of silicates indicating that reduced fluid may dissolve significant amounts of silicate components. Analyses of carbon aggregates using a defocused electron microprobe beam reveal compositions similar to estimated partial melts. The diamonds formed from reduced C-O-H fluid may have natural analogues as polycrystalline

  10. An Approach to Geochemical and Protolith Features of the Mesozoic HP/LT Rocks in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Firat; Yiǧitbaş, Erdinç; Onur Tunç, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Anatolia is a tectonic mosaic comprised of different tectonic units which represented by continental and oceanic assemblages in different origin and ages. High-degree metamorphic rocks occur in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. HP eclogite/blueschists are associated with quartz-mica schist within the Çamli ca metamorphics. On the other hand, another HP eclogite/blueschist unit is associated with garnet-mica schist in the Çetmi Group. The host Çamli ca metamorphic rocks record only a single - stage greenschist - facies metamorphism and were juxtaposed with the high - grade metamorphic rocks along ductile - semi-brittle (?) strike - slip faults after the high degree metamorphism and during or after the low-grade metamorphism of the Çamli ca metamorphic unit. Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) compositions of HP eclogite/blueschist and associated metasedimentary rocks from the Biga Peninsula have been determined to reveal their protolith, source area and tectonic setting. Whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist suggests that their protoliths were basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. Most HP metabasite samples plot in the tholeiitic basalt field. ∑ REE abundances range from 47.55 to 107.4 ppm. Europium anomolies are variable (Eu/Eu*= 0.9-1.1) and generally small negative (average Eu/Eu*=1) which is implying weak plagioclase fractionation. REE pattern and trace element contents similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The relatively high concentrations of CaO and low concentrations of K2O suggest that the protoliths were derived from a depleted source. Metasedimentary rocks coexisting with HP metamorphic rocks have different SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 values in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. Those of the Çamli ca metamorphics have high SiO2 and low Al2O3 and TiO2 values. However, those of the Çetmi Group have low SiO2 and

  11. The composition of Yakutian diamond-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shatsky, V. S.; Araujo, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ragozin, A. L.

    2009-04-01

    Microinclusions in natural diamonds represent a bulk sample of fluids/melts from which they crystallized [e.g. Navon et al., 1988], and provide a unique opportunity to characterize diamond-forming liquids and to understand their origin and evolution within the mantle. Here we report the composition of microinclusions in Yakutian diamonds (fibrous, cloudy, coated). Diamonds were recovered from several major industrial kimberlite pipes (Udachnaya, Internatsionalnaya, Yubileinaya, Sytyksnskaya, Aikhal) and alluvial deposits (Ebelyakh area). The major-element compositions of the subsurface microinclusions have been determined using EDS. All analyses are normalized to 100% on a carbon free basis (with excess oxygen for chlorine). Major- and trace-element compositions of the bulk microinclusion populations have been quantitatively analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The abundances of carbonates, water and silicates in the diamonds were determined by FTIR. The major-element composition of microinclusions in Yakutian diamonds shows wide variations. Some important inter-element correlations between silica and chlorine content and the water/carbonate ratio of microinclusions are observed. In comparison with the worldwide database, the fluids in most of the studied diamonds define a continuous range of carbonatitic to silicic compositions and only a few fall into the starting interval of the carbonatitic to saline range. The silicic microinclusions are rich in water, SiO2, Al2O3, K2O and P2O5. The silicic end-member, constrained from combined EDS and FTIR data, carries ~80 wt % silicates, 11 wt % water, 6 wt % carbonates and 3 wt % apatite. Carbonatitic microinclusions are rich in carbonate, CaO, MgO and FeO. The carbonatitic end-member comprises 82 wt% carbonates, 12 wt% silicates, 2 wt% water, 2 wt% apatite and 1 wt% halides. Samples with saline components are slightly enriched in water, K2O, Na2O and Cl. The most saline inclusions in Yakutian diamonds consist of 49 wt% carbonates, 25

  12. The petrogenetic characterization of intermediate and silicic charnockites in high-grade terrains: a case study from southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.

    2007-11-01

    Large charnockite massifs occur in some of the Precambrian high-grade terrains like the southern Indian granulite terrain. The Cardamom Hill charnockite massif from the Madurai Block, southern India, consists of an intermediate type and silicic type, with the intermediate type showing similarities to high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios and the silicic type showing similarities to high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. Within the constraints imposed by near basaltic composition of the most mafic samples and their relatively high concentrations of both compatible and incompatible elements, comparison with recent experimental studies on various source compositions, and trace- and rare-earth-element modeling, the distinctive features of the intermediate charnockites can be best explained in terms of assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) models involving interaction between a mantle-derived basaltic magma and lower crustal materials. Silicic charnockites on the other hand are high temperature melts of moderately hydrous basaltic magmas. A two-stage model which involves an initial partial melting of hydrous basaltic magma and later fractionation explains the geochemical features of the silicic charnockites, with the fractionation stage most probably an open system AFC. It is suggested that for massifs showing spatial association of intermediate and silicic charnockites, a model taking into account their compositional difference in terms of the effect of variations in the conditions (e.g., temperature, water fugacity) that prevailed, can account for plausible petrogenetic scenarios.

  13. Effect of the Chemical Composition on The Pyroplastic Deformation of Sanitaryware Porcelain Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşim Tunçel, Derya; Kerim Kara, Mustafa; Özel, Emel

    2011-10-01

    Pyroplastic deformation is the bending of a ceramic specimen caused by gravity during heat treatment. It can be defined as the loss of shape of product during its firing. Pyroplastic deformation is related to properties of liquid phases formed during firing. Therefore, the effect of the chemical composition on the pyroplastic deformation of sanitaryware porcelain was investigated in this study. Systematical compositional arrangements were made according to different combinations of (SiO2/Al2O3) and (Na2O/K2O) ratios by using Seger formula approach. Pyroplastic deformation behaviour of compositions within a controlled firing regime was investigated by using fleximeter. The bodies were also prepared in a special form by slip casting method at laboratory scale in order to determine the pyroplastic deformation of the samples. The experimental results showed that a definite combination at SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 5 and Na2O/K2O ratio of 4 give the lowest pyroplastic deformation in the porcelain body formulations. The pyroplastic deformation value of this composition was determined as 25 mm which is 44% lower than that of the standard composition (45 mm).

  14. Compositional change of granitoids from Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) at ca. 84 Ma: Response to slab rollback of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Eyuboglu, Yener; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rızaoǧlu, Tamer; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Xu, Li-Juan

    2016-04-01

    Magma generation and evolution is a natural consequence of mantle dynamics and crust-mantle interaction. As a result, changes of magma compositions in time and space can be used, in turn, to infer these deep processes. In this paper we report new zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotope, whole-rock major and trace element, and Nd isotope data for the granitoids from Kürtün in Eastern Pontides. These data, together with the data in the literature, reveal the occurrence of magma compositional variations at ca. 84 Ma in the region, providing new insights into the mantle dynamics responsible for the generation of the extensive Late Cretaceous felsic magmatism in Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt (NE Turkey) (Eyuboglu et al., 2015). Group I samples (SiO2 = 77-62 wt.%) were concentrated in 91-86 Ma and are characterized by their low CaO (1.6-1.5 wt.%) and Th (8.2-3.0 ppm) contents and low K2O/Na2O (0.7-0.1) and Th/La (0.4-0.2) ratios. Group II samples (SiO2 = 71-63 wt.%) were concentrated in 82-72 Ma and include high concentrations of CaO (5.2-3.0 wt.%) and Th (29.6-14.3), high K2O/Na2O (1.5-1.1) and varying Th/La (1.0-0.5) ratios. Group I samples have positive zircon eHf(t) (+9.6 to +7.6) and whole-rock eNd(t) (+3.5 to +2.5), significantly differing from those of Group II samples with eHf(t) of +1.9 to -1.5 and whole-rock eNd(t) of -3.6 to -3.8. Modeling results indicate that the Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of Group I and II samples can be interpreted as having derived from partial melting of the low-K amphibolite within the juvenile lower crust beneath the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt that incorporated into 15-20% and 70-75% enriched components from the basement rocks represented by the Carboniferous granites exposed in the region, respectively. In combination with the geological observations that indicate the occurrence of regional thermal subsidence (Bektaş et al., 1999) and extensional structure (Bektaş et al., 1999, 2001) during the Campanian (83.6-72.1 Ma), the coeval

  15. Shlykovite KCa[Si4O9(OH)] · 3H2O and cryptophyllite K2Ca[Si4O10] · 5H2O, new mineral species from the Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Filinchuk, Ya. E.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.; Gobechiya, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    New minerals, shlykovite and cryptophyllite, hydrous Ca and K phyllosilicates, have been identified in hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mount Rasvumchorr, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. They are the products of low-temperature hydrothermal activity and are associated with aegirine, potassium feldspar, nepheline, lamprophyllite, eudialyte, lomonosovite, lovozerite, tisinalite, shcherbakovite, shafranovskite, ershovite, and megacyclite. Shlykovite occurs as lamellae up to 0.02 × 0.02 × 0.5 mm in size or fibers up to 0.5 mm in length usually combined in aggregates up to 3 mm in size, crusts, and parallel-columnar veinlets. Cryptophyllite occurs as lamellae up to 0.02 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size intergrown with shlykovite being oriented parallel to {001} or chaotically arranged. Separate crystals of the new minerals are transparent and colorless; the aggregates are beige, brownish, light cream, and pale yellowish-grayish. The cleavage is parallel to (001) perfect. The Mohs hardness of shlykovite is 2.5-3. The calculated densities of shlykovite and cryptophyllite are 2.444 and 2.185 g/cm3, respectively. Both minerals are biaxial; shlykovite: 2 V meas = -60(20)°; cryptophyllite: 2 V meas > 70°. The refractive indices are: shlykovite: α = 1.500(3), β = 1.509(2), γ = 1.515(2); cryptophyllite: α = 1.520(2), β = 1.523(2), γ = 1.527(2). The chemical composition of shlykovite determined by an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is as follows, wt %: 0.68 Na2O, 11.03 K2O, 13.70 CaO, 59.86 SiO2, 14.73 H2O; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 13 O atoms (OH/H2O calculated from the charge balance) is (K0.96Na0.09)Σ1.05Ca1.00Si4.07O9.32(OH)0.68 · 3H2O. The idealized formula is KCa[Si4O9(OH)] · 3H2O. The chemical composition of cryptophyllite determined by an electron microprobe (H2O determined from the total deficiency) is as follows, wt %: 1.12 Na2O, 17.73 K2O, 11.59 CaO, 0.08 Al2O3, 50.24 SiO2, 19.24 H2

  16. The Comparative Structural Study of Vitreous Matrices P{sub 2}O{sub 5}centre dotMeO [MeO ident to Li{sub 2}O (M{sub 1}) or CaO (M{sub 2})] Systems and {sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(100-x)[P{sub 2}O{sub 5}centre dotMeO] Glasses by Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andronache, C.

    2010-01-21

    For getting information about the way in which the structural units presented in glass matrices P{sub 2}O{sub 5}centre dotLi{sub 2}O (M{sub 1}) and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}centre dotCaO (M{sub 2}) are modifying with the substitutions Li{sub 2}O with CaO, these glasses where investigated by Raman spectroscopies. The absorption bands obtained and their assignments for each those two matrices are summarized. The influence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on the structure of M1 and M2 matrices was followed.

  17. Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of two episodes of granitoids from the northwestern Zhejiang Province, SE China: Implication for magmatic evolution and tectonic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Zhou, Jing; Mao, Jianren; Santosh, M.; Yu, Minggang; Li, Yinqi; Hu, Yizhou; Langmuir, Charles H.; Chen, Zhongxing; Cai, Xiongxiang; Hu, Yanhua

    2013-10-01

    Granitoids (175-80 Ma) representing a prominent Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) magmatic event in South China widely intrude the Precambrian crystalline basement and Paleozoic strata. Here we report zircon U-Pb age data, geochemical characteristics and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous granitoids from the northwestern Zhejiang Province (ZXB) of southeastern China. Our results reveal two distinct episodes for the Yanshanian magmatism. The Jiemeng and Datongkeng granodiorites formed at 148.6 ± 1.1 Ma, whereas the Huangshitan, Jiuligang and Ruhong aluminous A-type granites were generated between 129.0 ± 0.6 Ma and 126.1 ± 1.1 Ma. The two magmatic phases represent a tectonic transition from an active continental margin to post-orogenic setting during the Late Jurassic (ca. 150 Ma) to Early Cretaceous (ca. 128 Ma). Geochemically, these intrusions are granodioritic to granitic in composition and show an affinity of S-type and A-type granitoids, respectively. The S-type granodiorites of Jiemeng and Datongkeng are characterized by moderate SiO2 (65.0-69.6 wt.%), high K2O + Na2O (5.0-7.6 wt.%), K2O/Na2O (1.2-1.5), Zr (31-109 ppm), Sr (71-190 ppm) and high field strength elements, low to intermediate Mg#, and moderate Nb depletion. The A-type granites of Huangshitan, Jiuligang and Ruhong are characterized by high SiO2 (72.7-77.2 wt.%), K2O + Na2O (6.9-8.8 wt.%), K2O/Na2O (1.3-2.1), FeT/(FeT + Mg), Ga (17-29 ppm, > 20 ppm commonly), Zr (96-197 ppm) and Sr (8-45 ppm) with slight Nb depletion. The S-type granodiorites have higher Mg#, A/NK, Sr, Sr/Ba, Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N, and LREE/HREE, and lower SiO2, K2O + Na2O, Ga and Zr with weak negative Eu anomalies compared to those of the A-type granites with negative Eu anomalies. All these rocks show Y/Nb ratios > 1.2, high initial 87Sr/86Sr (ISr) ratios and low ɛNd(t), and are depleted in Nb, Ti and Sr, indicating crustal origin with subduction zone signatures. We suggested that the ZXB S-type granitic

  18. Palaeoweathering, composition and tectonics of provenance of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, Karnataka, southern India: Evidence from sandstone petrography and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukanta; Rai, A. K.; Chaki, Anjan

    2009-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical data on the sandstones of the Proterozoic intracratonic Kaladgi-Badami basin, southern India are presented to elucidate the palaeoweathering pattern, and composition and tectonics of their provenance. The Kaladgi-Badami basin, hosting the Kaladgi Supergroup, occupies an E-W trending area. The Supergroup unconformably overlies Archaean basement TTG gneisses, granites and greenstones, comprises a cyclic arenite-pelite-carbonate association and is divided into the Bagalkot and Badami Groups. The immature arkosic character of the basal Saundatti Quartzite Member (Bagalkot Group) containing fresh and angular feldspars, along the northern margin of the basin, suggests that during the initial stage of deposition, this part of the basin received sediments from a restricted, uplifted and less weathered source dominated by K-rich granites occurring to the north. In contrast, the Saundatti Quartzite along the southern margin displays a mostly mature, quartz-rich character with less abundant but severely weathered feldspars, and higher SiO 2 and CIA but lower Al 2O 3, TiO 2, Rb, Sr, Ba, K 2O, K 2O/Na 2O, Zr/Ni and Zr/Cr. This is interpreted in terms of a tectonically stable, considerably weathered mixed source (Archaean gneisses, granites and greenstones) along the southern fringe of the basin. The highly mature (quartz arenite) Muchkundi Quartzite Member (also of the Bagalkot Group), occurring higher up in the succession, exhibits minor but severely altered feldspars, and higher SiO 2, Na 2O, CIA, Cr and Ni with lower K 2O, Al 2O 3, TiO 2 and K 2O/Na 2O. This reflects that with the passage of time the source evolved to a uniform, extensively weathered, tectonically stable peneplained provenance which consisted of less evolved TTG gneisses and greenstones. This was followed by closure, deformation and upliftment of the basin hosting the Bagalkot Group and subsequent deposition of the Badami Group. Sandstone Members of this younger Group (Cave

  19. On the structure of biomedical silver-doped phosphate-based glasses from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Richard I; Christie, Jamieson K; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2014-10-21

    First-principles and classical molecular dynamics simulations of undoped and silver-doped phosphate-based glasses with 50 mol% P2O5, 0-20 mol% Ag2O, and varying amounts of Na2O and CaO have been carried out. Ag occupies a distorted local coordination with a mean Ag-O bond length of 2.5 Å and an ill-defined first coordination shell. This environment is shown to be distorted octahedral/trigonal bipyramidal. Ag-O coordination numbers of 5.42 and 5.54-5.71 are calculated for first-principles and classical methodologies respectively. A disproportionation in the medium-range phosphorus Q(n) distribution is explicitly displayed upon silver-doping via CaO substitution, approximating 2Q(2)→Q(1) + Q(3), but not on silver-doping via Na2O substitution. An accompanying increase in FWHM of the phosphorus to bridging oxygen partial pair-correlation function is strong evidence for a bulk structural mechanism associated with decreased dissolution rates with increased silver content. Experimentally, Ag2O ↔ Na2O substitution is known to decrease dissolution and we show this to be a result of Ag's local bonding.

  20. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  1. High-throughput and in situ EDXRD investigation on the formation of two new metal aminoethylphosphonates - Ca(O3PC2H4NH2) and Ca(OH)(O3PC2H4NH3)·2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Corinna; Feyand, Mark; Rothkirch, André; Stock, Norbert

    2012-04-01

    The system Ca2+/2-aminoethylphosphonic acid/H2O/NaOH was systematically investigated using high-throughput methods. The experiments led to one new compound Ca(O3PC2 H4NH2) (1) and the crystal structure was determined using in house X-ray powder diffraction data (monoclinic, P21/c, a=9.7753(3), b=6.4931(2), c=8.4473(2) Å, β=106.46(2)°, V=514.20(2) Å3, Z=4). The formation of 1 was investigated by in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements (EDXRD) at beamline F3 at HASYLAB (light source DORIS III), DESY, Hamburg. An intermediate, Ca(OH)(O3PC2H4NH3)·2H2O (2), was observed and could be isolated from the reaction mixture at ambient temperatures by quenching the reaction. The crystal structure of 2 was determined from XRPD data using synchrotron radiation (monoclinic, P21/m, a=11.2193(7), b=7.1488(3), c=5.0635(2) Å, β=100.13(4)°, V=399.78(3) Å3, Z=2).

  2. Retraction RETRACTION of "Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer" by Y. Ji, H.H. Jin, M.D. Wang, W.X. Cao, J.L. Bao - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028261 (2016) - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028261.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Jin, H H; Wang, M D; Cao, W X; Bao, J L

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Ji Y, Jin HH, Wang MD, Cao WX, et al. (2016). Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15028261. There are significant parts of this article (particularly, in the discussion section) that are copied from "Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome", by Jia Xu, Priya B Shetty, Weiwei Feng, Carol Chenault, Robert C Bast Jr, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Susan G Hilsenbeck and Yinhua Yu, published in BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 243. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-243. The first paragraphs of both discussions are identical. This is concerning. The abstract and introduction sections have much of their text plagiarized. Overall, there is high plagiarism detected. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  3. Petrography and Geochemistry of the Zamora Batholith in the south of the sub-Andean zone (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villares, F. M.

    2013-05-01

    -alkaline. They have affinities slightly peraluminous (ASI = 1,00 to 1,16). CaO is moderate to high (CaO ≈ 3.58), the alkalis have averaged of Na2O≈3,09 and K2O≈3,28. The concentrations of Na2O/K2O are moderate ranging between 0.7 and 1.7, with an average value of 1.04. The contents of Ba and Sr are moderate. The content of Zr is low (61 to 161 ppm). The multi-element diagrams normalized to chondritic values and to primitive