Science.gov

Sample records for nadh-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase

  1. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development.

  2. Characterization of a NADH-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Mutant of Arabidopsis Demonstrates the Key Role of this Enzyme in Root Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism[W

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Armengaud, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23054470

  3. Characterization of a NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant of Arabidopsis demonstrates the key role of this enzyme in root carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Armengaud, Patrick; Clément, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frédéric

    2012-10-01

    The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

  4. Two Isoenzymes of NADH-dependent Glutamate Synthase in Root Nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng-Ling; Cullimore, Julie V.

    1988-01-01

    The specific activity of plant NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. is over threefold higher than the specific activity of ferredoxin-dependent GOGAT. The NADH-GOGAT is composed of two distinct isoenzymes (NADH-GOGAT I and NADH-GOGAT II) which can be separated from crude nodule extracts by ion-exchange chromatography. Both NADH-GOGAT isoenzymes have been purified to apparent homogeneity and shown to be monomeric proteins with similar Mrs of about 200,000. They are both specific for NADH as reductant. An investigation of their kinetic characteristics show slight differences in their Kms for l-glutamine, 2-oxoglutarate, and NADH, and they have different pH optima, with NADH-GOGAT I exhibiting a broad pH optimum centering at pH 8.0 whereas NADH-GOGAT II has a much narrower pH optimum of 8.5. The specific activity of NADH-GOGAT in roots is about 27-fold lower than in nodules and consists almost entirely of NADH-GOGAT I. During nodulation both isoenzymes increase in activity but the major increase is due to NADH-GOGAT II which increases over a time course similar to the increase in nitrogenase activity. This isoenzyme is twice as active as NADH-GOGAT I in mature nodules. The roles and regulation of these two isoenzymes in the root nodule are discussed. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16666475

  5. NADH-dependent decavanadate reductase, an alternative activity of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Ramasarma, T

    2000-05-01

    The well known NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) obtained from pig heart was found to oxidize NADH with accompanying consumption of oxygen (NADH:O(2)=1:1) in presence of polyvanadate. This activity of the soluble IDH-protein has the following features common with the previously described membrane-enzymes: heat-sensitive, active only with NADH but not NADPH, increased rates in acidic pH, dependence on concentrations of the enzyme, NADH, decavanadate and metavanadate (the two constituents of polyvanadate), and sensitivity to SOD and EDTA. Utilizing NADH as the electron source the IDH protein was able to reduce decavanadate but not metavanadate. This reduced form of vanadyl (V(IV)) was similar in its eight-band electron spin resonance spectrum to vanadyl sulfate but had a 20-fold higher absorbance at its 700 nm peak. This decavanadate reductase activity of the protein was sensitive to heat and was not inhibited by SOD and EDTA. The IDH protein has the additional enzymic activity of NADH-dependent decavanadate reductase and is an example of "one protein--many functions".

  6. NADH-dependent glutamate synthase participated in ammonium assimilation in Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Soichi; Konishi, Noriyuki; Beier, Marcel Pascal; Ishiyama, Keiki; Maru, Ikumi; Hayakawa, Toshihiko; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants have 2 GOGAT species, Fd-GOGAT and NADH-GOGAT. While Fd-GOGAT mainly assimilates ammonium in leaves, which is derived from photorespiration, the function of NADH-GOGAT, which is highly expressed in roots,1 needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of NADH-GOGAT in Arabidopsis roots. The supply of ammonium to the roots caused an accumulation of NADH-GOGAT, while Fd-GOGAT 1 and Fd-GOGAT 2 showed no response. A promoter–GUS fusion analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that NADH-GOGAT was located in non-green tissues like vascular bundles, shoot apical meristem, pollen, stigma, and roots. The localization of NADH-GOGAT and Fd-GOGAT was not overlapped. NADH-GOGAT T-DNA insertion lines showed a reduction of glutamate and biomass under normal CO2 conditions. These data emphasizes the importance of NADH-GOGAT in the ammonium assimilation of Arabidopsis roots. PMID:25763622

  7. Effects of Metmyoglobin Reducing Activity and Thermal Stability of NADH-Dependent Reductase and Lactate Dehydrogenase on Premature Browning in Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Djimsa, Blanchefort A; Abraham, Anupam; Mafi, Gretchen G; VanOverbeke, Deborah L; Ramanathan, Ranjith

    2017-02-01

    Premature browning is a condition wherein ground beef exhibits a well-done appearance before reaching the USDA recommended internal cooked meat temperature of 71.1 °C; however, the mechanism is unclear. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effects of packaging and temperature on metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) of cooked ground beef patties and (2) to assess the effects of temperature and pH on thermal stability of NADH-dependent reductase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) in-vitro. Beef patties (lean: fat = 85:15) were packaged in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (HiOX-MAP) or vacuum (VP) and cooked to either 65 or 71 °C. Internal meat color and MRA of both raw and cooked patties were determined. Purified NADH-dependent reductase and LDH were used to determine the effects of pH and temperature on enzyme activity. MRA of cooked patties was temperature and packaging dependent (P < 0.05). Vacuum packaged patties cooked to 71 °C had greater (P < 0.05) MRA than HiOX-MAP counterparts. Thermal stability of OxyMb, NADH-dependent reductase, and LDH were different and pH-dependent. LDH was able to generate NADH at 84 °C; whereas NADH-dependent reductase was least stable to heat. The results suggest that patties have MRA at cooking temperatures, which can influence cooked meat color.

  8. Purification and characterization of an NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida maris for the synthesis of optically active 1-(pyridyl)ethanol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shigeru; Yano, Miho; Hasegawa, Junzo; Yasohara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    A novel (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (AFPDH) produced by Candida maris IFO10003 was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Toyopearl, and Phenyl-Toyopearl, and characterized. The relative molecular mass of the native enzyme was found to be 59,900 by gel filtration, and that of the subunit was estimated to be 28,900 on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the enzyme is a homodimer. It required NADH as a cofactor and reduced various kinds of carbonyl compounds, including ketones and aldehydes. AFPDH reduced acetylpyridine derivatives, β-keto esters, and some ketone compounds with high enantioselectivity. This is the first report of an NADH-dependent, highly enantioselective (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from a yeast. AFPDH is a very useful enzyme for the preparation of various kinds of chiral alcohols.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Transcriptional Analysis of adhE2, the Gene Encoding the NADH-Dependent Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Butanol Production in Alcohologenic Cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Lisa; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Girbal, Laurence; Yang, Xinghong; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The adhE2 gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AADH), was characterized from molecular and biochemical points of view. The 2,577-bp adhE2 codes for a 94.4-kDa protein. adhE2 is expressed, as a monocistronic operon, in alcohologenic cultures and not in solventogenic cultures. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 160 and 215 bp upstream of the adhE2 start codon. The expression of adhE2 from a plasmid in the DG1 mutant of C. acetobutylicum, a mutant cured of the pSOL1 megaplasmid, restored butanol production and provided elevated activities of NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenases. The recombinant AdhE2 protein expressed in E. coli as a Strep-tag fusion protein and purified to homogeneity also demonstrated NADH-dependent butyraldehyde and butanol dehydrogenase activities. This is the second AADH identified in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and to our knowledge this is the first example of a bacterium with two AADHs. It is noteworthy that the two corresponding genes, adhE and adhE2, are carried by the pSOL1 megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. PMID:11790753

  10. Gene transcript accumulation and in situ mRNA hybridization of two putative glutamate dehydrogenase genes in etiolated Glycine max seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dimou, M; Tsaniklidis, G; Aivalakis, G; Katinakis, P

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.2) is a multimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible amination of α-ketoglutarate to form glutamate. We characterized cDNA clones of two Glycine max sequences, GmGDH1 and GmGDH2, that code for putative α- and β-subunits, respectively, of the NADH dependent enzyme. Temporal and spatial gene transcript accumulation studies using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization have shown an overlapping gene transcript accumulation pattern with differences in relative gene transcript accumulation in the organs examined. Detection of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity in situ using a histochemical method showed concordance with the spatial gene transcript accumulation patterns. Our findings suggest that although the two gene transcripts are co-localized in roots of etiolated soybean seedlings, the ratio of the two subunits of the active holoenzyme may vary among tissues.

  11. Cloning and overexpression of an NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Candida maris involved in (R)-selective reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shigeru; Yano, Miho; Hasegawa, Junzo; Yasohara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    5-((R)-1-Hydroxyethyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine ((R)-FPH) is a useful chiral building block in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. An NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (AFPDH) isolated from Candida maris catalyzed the reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine (AFP) to (R)-FPH with 100% enantiomeric excess. The gene encoding AFPDH was cloned and sequenced. The AFPDH gene comprises 762 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 27,230 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. The AFPDH gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter. One L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant coexpressing AFPDH and the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) gene reduced 250 g of AFP to (R)-FPH in an organic solvent two-phase system. Under coupling with NADH regeneration using 2-propanol, 1 L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant expressing the AFPDH gene reduced 150 g of AFP to (R)-FPH. The optical purity of the (R)-FPH formed was 100% enantiomeric excess under both reaction conditions.

  12. Production of (R)-3-Quinuclidinol by E. coli Biocatalysts Possessing NADH-Dependent 3-Quinuclidinone Reductase (QNR or bacC) from Microbacterium luteolum and Leifsonia Alcohol Dehydrogenase (LSADH)

    PubMed Central

    Isotani, Kentaro; Kurokawa, Junji; Itoh, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We found two NADH-dependent reductases (QNR and bacC) in Microbacterium luteolum JCM 9174 (M. luteolum JCM 9174) that can reduce 3-quinuclidinone to optically pure (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol. Alcohol dehydrogenase from Leifsonia sp. (LSADH) was combined with these reductases to regenerate NAD+ to NADH in situ in the presence of 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor. The reductase and LSADH genes were efficiently expressed in E. coli cells. A number of constructed E. coli biocatalysts (intact or immobilized) were applied to the resting cell reaction and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol was synthesized from 3-quinuclidinone (15% w/v, 939 mM) giving a conversion yield of 100% for immobilized QNR. The optical purity of the (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol produced by the enzymatic reactions was >99.9%. Thus, E. coli biocatalysis should be useful for the practical production of the pharmaceutically important intermediate, (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol. PMID:23202966

  13. Kinetic studies of dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Electricwala, A H; Dickinson, F M

    1979-01-01

    Initial-rate studies were made of the oxidation of L-glutamate by NAD+ and NADP+ catalysed by highly purified preparations of dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase. With NAD+ as coenzyme the kinetics show the same features of coenzyme activation as seen with the bovine liver enzyme [Engel & Dalziel (1969) Biochem. J. 115, 621--631]. With NADP+ as coenzyme, initial rates are much slower than with NAD+, and Lineweaver--Burk plots are linear over extended ranges of substrate and coenzyme concentration. Stopped-flow studies with NADP+ as coenzyme give no evidence for the accumulation of significant concentrations of NADPH-containing complexes with the enzyme in the steady state. Protection studies against inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate indicate that NAD+ and NADP+ give the same degree of protection in the presence of sodium glutarate. The results are used to deduce information about the mechanism of glutamate oxidation by the enzyme. Initial-rate studies of the reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate by NADH and NADPH catalysed by dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase showed that the kinetic features of the reaction are very similar with both coenzymes, but reactions with NADH are much faster. The data show that a number of possible mechanisms for the reaction may be discarded, including the compulsory mechanism (previously proposed for the enzyme) in which the sequence of binding is NAD(P)H, NH4+ and 2-oxoglutarate. The kinetic data suggest either a rapid-equilibrium random mechanism or the compulsory mechanism with the binding sequence NH4+, NAD(P)H, 2-oxoglutarate. However, binding studies and protection studies indicate that coenzyme and 2-oxoglutarate do bind to the free enzyme. PMID:35153

  14. Spectra of glutamate dehydrogenase with diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Hillar, M

    1978-02-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase displays hyperchromicity at 256 nm and at 276 nm upon binding of diethylstilbestrol. Increase in absorbancy is linear at both regions up to 250 micrometer DES, and becomes parabolic at higher concentration of DES. ADP in the presence of DES causes decrease in absorbancy at 256 nm; absorbancy at 276 nm increased by DES is not affected by ADP. DES prevents spectral effects produced by GTP (decrease in absorbancy at 254 nm and at 276 nm). ADP still decreases absorbancy at 254 nm, leaving the 276 nm region unchanged. ADP enhances spectral effects produced by GTP. GTP, however, prevents changes produced by ADP.

  15. Glucose replaces glutamate as energy substrate to fuel glutamate uptake in glutamate dehydrogenase-deficient astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nissen, Jakob D; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-07-01

    Cultured astrocytes treated with siRNA to knock down glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were used to investigate whether this enzyme is important for the utilization of glutamate as an energy substrate. By incubation of these cells in media containing different concentrations of glutamate (range 100-500 µM) in the presence or in the absence of glucose, the metabolism of these substrates was studied by using tritiated glutamate or 2-deoxyglucose as tracers. In addition, the cellular contents of glutamate and ATP were determined. The astrocytes were able to maintain physiological levels of ATP regardless of the expression level of GDH and the incubation condition, indicating a high degree of flexibility with regard to regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining an adequate energy level in the cells. Glutamate uptake was found to be increased in these cells when exposed to increasing levels of extracellular glutamate independently of the GDH expression level. Moreover, increased intracellular glutamate content was observed in the GDH-deficient cells after a 2-hr incubation in the presence of 100 µM glutamate. It is significant that GDH-deficient cells exhibited an increased utilization of glucose in the presence of 250 and 500 µM glutamate, monitored as an increase in the accumulation of tritiated 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate. These findings underscore the importance of the expression level of GDH for the ability to utilize glutamate as an energy source fueling its own energy-requiring uptake.

  16. Effects of deletion of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes on glycerol and ethanol metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline worldwide. For economic production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of a main by-product, glycerol, should be prevented or minimized in order to reduce a separation cost of ethanol from fermentation broth. In this study, S. cerevisiae was engineered to investigate the effects of the sole and double disruption of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and NADPH-requiring glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) on the production of glycerol and ethanol from glucose. Even though sole deletion of GPD1 or GDH1 reduced glycerol production, double deletion of GPD1 and GDH1 resulted in the lowest glycerol concentration of 2.31 g/L, which was 46.4% lower than the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the recombinant S. cerevisiae ∆GPD1∆GDH1 strain showed a slight improvement in ethanol yield (0.414 g/g) compared with the wild-type strain (0.406 g/g). Genetic engineering of the glycerol and glutamate metabolic pathways modified NAD(P)H-requiring metabolic pathways and exerted a positive effect on glycerol reduction without affecting ethanol production.

  17. Further insights into the isoenzyme composition and activity of glutamate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bouton, Sophie; Pageau, Karine; Lea, Peter J.; Dubois, Frédéric; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Following the discovery that in Arabidopsis, a third isoenzyme of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, we have re-examined the GDH isoenzyme composition. By analyzing the NADH-GDH isoenzyme composition of single, double and triple mutants deficient in the expression of the three genes encoding the enzyme, we have found that the α, β and γ polypeptides that comprise the enzyme can be assembled into a complex combination of heterohexamers in roots. Moreover, we observed that when one or two of the three root isoenzymes were missing from the mutants, the remaining isoenzymes compensated for this deficiency. The significance of such complexity is discussed in relation to the metabolic and signaling function of the NADH-GDH enzyme. Although it has been shown that a fourth gene encoding a NADPH-dependent enzyme is present in Arabidopsis, we were not able to detect corresponding enzyme activity, even in the triple mutant totally lacking NADH-GDH activity. PMID:23299333

  18. A mechanism of sulfite neurotoxicity: direct inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Vincent, Annette Shoba; Halliwell, Barry; Wong, Kim Ping

    2004-10-08

    Exposure of Neuro-2a and PC12 cells to micromolar concentrations of sulfite caused an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in ATP. Likewise, the biosynthesis of ATP in intact rat brain mitochondria from the oxidation of glutamate was inhibited by micromolar sulfite. Glutamate-driven respiration increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and this was abolished by sulfite but the MMP generated by oxidation of malate and succinate was not affected. The increased rate of production of NADH from exogenous NAD+ and glutamate added to rat brain mitochondrial extracts was inhibited by sulfite, and mitochondria preincubated with sulfite failed to reduce NAD+. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in rat brain mitochondrial extract was inhibited dose-dependently by sulfite as was the activity of a purified enzyme. An increase in the Km (glutamate) and a decrease in Vmax resulting in an attenuation in Vmax/Km (glutamate) at 100 microm sulfite suggest a mixed type of inhibition. However, uncompetitive inhibition was noted with decreases in both Km (NAD+) and Vmax, whereas Vmax/Km (NAD+) remained relatively constant. We propose that GDH is one target of action of sulfite, leading to a decrease in alpha-ketoglutarate and a diminished flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle accompanied by a decrease in NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain, a decreased MMP, and a decrease in ATP synthesis. Because glutamate is a major metabolite in the brain, inhibition of GDH by sulfite could contribute to the severe phenotype of sulfite oxidase deficiency in human infants.

  19. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids.

  20. Regional development of glutamate dehydrogenase in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Leong, S F; Clark, J B

    1984-07-01

    The development of glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rat brain regions has been followed from the late foetal stage to the adult and through to the aged (greater than 2 years) adult. In the adult brain the enzyme activity was greatest in the medulla oblongata and pons greater than midbrain = hypothalamus greater than cerebellum = striatum = cortex. In the aged adult brain, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in the medulla oblongata and pons when compared to the 90-day-old adult value, but not in other regions. The enzyme-specific activity of nonsynaptic (free) mitochondria purified from the medulla oblongata and pons of 90-day-old animals was about twice that of mitochondria purified from the striatum and the cortex. The specific activity of the enzyme in synaptic mitochondria purified from the above three brain regions, however, remained almost constant.

  1. Glutamate dehydrogenases: the why and how of coenzyme specificity.

    PubMed

    Engel, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    NAD(+) and NADP(+), chemically similar and with almost identical standard oxidation-reduction potentials, nevertheless have distinct roles, NAD(+) serving catabolism and ATP generation whereas NADPH is the biosynthetic reductant. Separating these roles requires strict specificity for one or the other coenzyme for most dehydrogenases. In many organisms this holds also for glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH), NAD(+)-dependent for glutamate oxidation, NADP(+)-dependent for fixing ammonia. In higher animals, however, GDH has dual specificity. It has been suggested that GDH in mitochondria reacts only with NADP(H), the NAD(+) reaction being an in vitro artefact. However, contrary evidence suggests mitochondrial GDH not only reacts with NAD(+) but maintains equilibrium using the same pool as accessed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Another complication is the presence of an energy-linked dehydrogenase driving NADP(+) reduction by NADH, maintaining the coenzyme pools at different oxidation-reduction potentials. Its coexistence with GDH makes possible a futile cycle, control of which is not yet properly explained. Structural studies show NAD(+)-dependent, NADP(+)-dependent and dual-specificity GDHs are closely related and a few site-directed mutations can reverse specificity. Specificity for NAD(+) or for NADP(+) has probably emerged repeatedly during evolution, using different structural solutions on different occasions. In various GDHs the P7 position in the coenzyme-binding domain plays a key role. However, whereas in other dehydrogenases an acidic P7 residue usually hydrogen bonds to the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyls, dictating NAD(+) specificity, among GDHs, depending on detailed conformation of surrounding residues, an acidic P7 may permit binding of NAD(+) only, NADP(+) only, or in higher animals both.

  2. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2016-05-23

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)+as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD+versusNADP+, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP+cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  3. The role of glutamate dehydrogenase in mammalian ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. High levels of GDH activity is found in mammalian liver, kidney, brain, and pancreas. In the liver, GDH reaction appears to be close-to-equilibrium, providing the appropriate ratio of ammonia and amino acids for urea synthesis in periportal hepatocytes. In addition, GDH produces glutamate for glutamine synthesis in a small rim of pericentral hepatocytes. Hence, hepatic GDH can be either a source for ammonia or an ammonia scavenger. In the kidney, GDH function produces ammonia from glutamate to control acidosis. In the human, the presence of two differentially regulated isoforms (hGDH1 and hGDH2) suggests a complex role for GDH in ammonia homeostasis. Whereas hGDH1 is sensitive to GTP inhibition, hGDH2 has dissociated its function from GTP control. Furthermore, hGDH2 shows a lower optimal pH than hGDH1. The hGDH2 enzyme is selectively expressed in human astrocytes and Sertoli cells, probably facilitating metabolic recycling processes essential for their supportive role. Here, we report that hGDH2 is also expressed in the epithelial cells lining the convoluted tubules of the renal cortex. As hGDH2 functions more efficiently under acidotic conditions without the operation of the GTP energy switch, its presence in the kidney may increase the efficacy of the organ to maintain acid base equilibrium.

  4. Amperometric L-glutamate biosensor based on bacterial cell-surface displayed glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bo; Zhang, Shu; Lang, Qiaolin; Song, Jianxia; Han, Lihui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-07-16

    A novel L-glutamate biosensor was fabricated using bacteria surface-displayed glutamate dehydrogenase (Gldh-bacteria). Here the cofactor NADP(+)-specific dependent Gldh was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using N-terminal region of ice nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif. The cell fractionation assay and SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the majority of INP-Gldh fusion proteins were located on the surface of cells. The biosensor was fabricated by successively casting polyethyleneimine (PEI)-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), Gldh-bacteria and Nafion onto the glassy carbon electrode (Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE). The MWNTs could not only significantly lower the oxidation overpotential towards NAPDH, which was the product of NADP(+) involving in the oxidation of glutamate by Gldh, but also enhanced the current response. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the current-time curve of the Nafion/Gldh-bacteria/PEI-MWNTs/GCE was performed at +0.52 V (vs. SCE) by amperometry varying glutamate concentration. The current response was linear with glutamate concentration in two ranges (10 μM-1 mM and 2-10 mM). The low limit of detection was estimated to be 2 μM glutamate (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible and simple, which can be applied to real samples detection.

  5. Fate of glutamate carbon and nitrogen in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. Evidence for involvement of glutamate dehydrogenase in glutamine sythesis from glutamate.

    PubMed

    Baverel, G; Genoux, C; Forissier, M; Pellet, M

    1980-06-15

    1. The pathways and the fate of glutamate carbon and nitrogen were investigated in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. 2. At low glutamate concentration (1 mM), the glutamate carbon skeleton was either completely oxidized or converted into glutamine. At high glutamate concentration (5 mM), glucose, lactate and alanine were additional products of glutamate metabolism. 3. At neither concentration of glutamate was there accumulation of ammonia. 4. Nitrogen-balance calculations and the release of 14CO2 from L-[1-14C]glutamate (which gives an estimation of the flux of glutamate carbon skeleton through alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) clearly indicated that, despite the absence of ammonia accumulation, glutamate metabolism was initiated by the action of glutamate dehydrogenase and not by transamination reactions as suggested by Klahr, Schoolwerth & Bourgoignie [(1972) Am. J. Physiol. 222, 813-820] and Preuss [(1972) Am. J. Physiol. 222, 1395-1397]. Additional evidence for this was obtained by the use of (i) amino-oxyacetate, an inhibitor of transaminases, which did not decrease glutamate removal, or (ii) L-methionine DL-sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, which caused an accumulation of ammonia from glutamate. 5. Addition of NH4Cl plus glutamate caused an increase in both glutamate removal and glutamine synthesis, demonstrating that the supply of ammonia via glutamate dehydrogenase is the rate-limiting step in glutamine formation from glutamate. NH4Cl also inhibited the flux of glutamate through glutamate dehydrogenase and the formation of glucose, alanine and lactate. 6. The activities of enzymes possibly involved in the glutamate conversion into pyruvate were measured in guinea-pig renal cortex. 7. Renal arteriovenous-difference measurements revealed that in vivo the guinea-pig kidney adds glutamine and alanine to the circulating blood.

  6. Desensitization of glutamate dehydrogenase by reaction of tyrosne residues.

    PubMed

    Price, N C; Radda, G K

    1969-09-01

    1. The reaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with N-acetylimidazole and with tetranitromethane leads to modification of tyrosine residues. 2. Modification of 1 tyrosine residue/subunit does not affect the enzymic activity but decreases the response of the enzyme to the allosteric inhibitor, GTP. 3. The physical properties of the enzyme (sedimentation coefficient and optical rotatory dispersion) remain unaltered. 4. GTP partially protects against desensitization. 5. The diminished responses of the modified enzymes to GTP are also detected by using the fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate as a conformational probe. 6. Difficulties that generally arise in chemical modifications from inhomogeneous distributions of products are discussed.

  7. ¹³C-metabolic enrichment of glutamate in glutamate dehydrogenase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yijin; Sieg, Alex; Trotter, Pamela J

    2011-10-20

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) interconvert α-ketoglutarate and glutamate. In yeast, NADP-dependent enzymes, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3, are reported to synthesize glutamate from α-ketoglutarate, while an NAD-dependent enzyme, encoded by GDH2, catalyzes the reverse. Cells were grown in acetate/raffinose (YNAceRaf) to examine the role(s) of these enzymes during aerobic metabolism. In YNAceRaf the doubling time of wild type, gdh2Δ, and gdh3Δ cells was comparable at ∼4 h. NADP-dependent GDH activity (Gdh1p+Gdh3p) in wild type, gdh2Δ, and gdh3Δ was decreased ∼80% and NAD-dependent activity (Gdh2p) in wild type and gdh3Δ was increased ∼20-fold in YNAceRaf as compared to glucose. Cells carrying the gdh1Δ allele did not divide in YNAceRaf, yet both the NADP-dependent (Gdh3p) and NAD-dependent (Gdh2p) GDH activity was ∼3-fold higher than in glucose. Metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]-acetate and analysis of carbon NMR spectra were used to examine glutamate metabolism. Incorporation of (13)C into glutamate was nearly undetectable in gdh1Δ cells, reflecting a GDH activity at <15% of wild type. Analysis of (13)C-enrichment of glutamate carbons indicates a decreased rate of glutamate biosynthesis from acetate in gdh2Δ and gdh3Δ strains as compared to wild type. Further, the relative complexity of (13)C-isotopomers at early time points was noticeably greater in gdh3Δ as compared to wild type and gdh2Δ cells. These in vivo data show that Gdh1p is the primary GDH enzyme and Gdh2p and Gdh3p play evident roles during aerobic glutamate metabolism.

  8. Computational design of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Li; Wang, Jia-Le; Hu, Yu; Qian, Bing-Jun; Yao, Xiao-Min; Wang, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis natto is widely used in industry to produce natto, a traditional and popular Japanese soybean food. However, during its secondary fermentation, high amounts of ammonia are released to give a negative influence on the flavor of natto. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme for the ammonia produced and released, because it catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate using NAD(+) or NADP(+) as co-factor during carbon and nitrogen metabolism processes. To solve this problem, we employed multiple computational methods model and re-design GDH from Bacillus subtilis natto. Firstly, a structure model of GDH with cofactor NADP(+) was constructed by threading and ab initio modeling. Then the substrate glutamate were flexibly docked into the structure model to form the substrate-binding mode. According to the structural analysis of the substrate-binding mode, Lys80, Lys116, Arg196, Thr200, and Ser351 in the active site were found could form a significant hydrogen bonding network with the substrate, which was thought to play a crucial role in the substrate recognition and position. Thus, these residues were then mutated into other amino acids, and the substrate binding affinities for each mutant were calculated. Finally, three single mutants (K80A, K116Q, and S351A) were found to have significant decrease in the substrate binding affinities, which was further supported by our biochemical experiments.

  9. An NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase from cyanobacteria. Identification and properties.

    PubMed

    Chávez, S; Candau, P

    1991-07-08

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 presents a hexameric NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase with a molecular mass of 295 kDa. The enzyme differs from the NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase found in the same strain and is coded by a different gene. NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase shows a high coenzyme specificity, catalyzes preferentially glutamate formation and presents Km values for ammonium, NADH and 2-oxoglutarate of 4.5 mM, 50 microM and 1.8 mM respectively. An animating role for the enzyme is discussed.

  10. Role of NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1990-01-01

    We cloned GDH2, the gene that encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by purifying the enzyme, making polyclonal antibodies to it, and using the antibodies to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic library. A yeast strain with a deletion-disruption allele of GDH2 which replaced the wild-type gene grew very poorly with glutamate as a nitrogen source, but growth improved significantly when the strain was also provided with adenine or other nitrogenous compounds whose biosynthesis requires glutamine. Our results indicate that the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the major, but not sole, pathway for generation of ammonia from glutamate. We also isolated yeast mutants that lacked glutamate synthase activity and present evidence which shows that normally NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase is not involved in glutamate biosynthesis, but that if the enzyme is overexpressed, it may function reversibly in intact cells. PMID:1975578

  11. Biochemical and structural characterization of Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase 2.

    PubMed

    Zocher, Kathleen; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Kehr, Sebastian; Fischer, Marina; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2012-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) play key roles in cellular redox, amino acid, and energy metabolism, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we studied the functional network provided by the three known glutamate dehydrogenases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The recombinant production of the previously described PfGDH1 as hexahistidyl-tagged proteins was optimized. Additionally, PfGDH2 was cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized. Like PfGDH1, PfGDH2 is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme with a specific activity comparable to PfGDH1 but with slightly higher K(m) values for its substrates. The three-dimensional structure of hexameric PfGDH2 was solved to 3.1 Å resolution. The overall structure shows high similarity with PfGDH1 but with significant differences occurring at the subunit interface. As in mammalian GDH1, in PfGDH2 the subunit-subunit interactions are mainly assisted by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas in PfGDH1 these contacts are mediated by networks of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In accordance with this, the known bovine GDH inhibitors hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol were more effective on PfGDH2 than on PfGDH1. Subcellular localization was determined for all three plasmodial GDHs by fusion with the green fluorescent protein. Based on our data, PfGDH1 and PfGDH3 are cytosolic proteins whereas PfGDH2 clearly localizes to the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle specific for apicomplexan parasites. This study provides new insights into the structure and function of GDH isoenzymes of P. falciparum, which represent potential targets for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.

  12. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and SIRT4 regulate glial development.

    PubMed

    Komlos, Daniel; Mann, Kara D; Zhuo, Yue; Ricupero, Christopher L; Hart, Ronald P; Liu, Alice Y-C; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2013-03-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is caused by an activation mutation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the reversible interconversion between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate. The syndrome presents clinically with hyperammonemia, significant episodic hypoglycemia, seizures, and frequent incidences of developmental and learning defects. Clinical research has implicated that although some of the developmental and neurological defects may be attributed to hypoglycemia, some characteristics cannot be ascribed to low glucose and as hyperammonemia is generally mild and asymptomatic, there exists the possibility that altered GDH1 activity within the brain leads to some clinical changes. GDH1 is allosterically regulated by many factors, and has been shown to be inhibited by the ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin 4 (SIRT4), a mitochondrially localized sirtuin. Here we show that SIRT4 is localized to mitochondria within the brain. SIRT4 is highly expressed in glial cells, specifically astrocytes, in the postnatal brain and in radial glia during embryogenesis. Furthermore, SIRT4 protein decreases in expression during development. We show that factors known to allosterically regulate GDH1 alter gliogenesis in CTX8 cells, a novel radial glial cell line. We find that SIRT4 and GDH1 overexpression play antagonistic roles in regulating gliogenesis and that a mutant variant of GDH1 found in HI/HA patients accelerates the development of glia from cultured radial glia cells.

  13. Asparaginyl deamidation in two glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    DeLuna, Alexander; Quezada, Héctor; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; González, Alicia

    2005-03-25

    The non-enzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous damage of several proteins under physiological conditions. In many cases, deamidation and isoaspartyl formation alters the biological activity or stability of the native polypeptide. Rates of deamidation of particular residues depend on many factors including protein structure and solvent exposure. Here, we investigated the spontaneous deamidation of the two NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have different kinetic properties and are differentially expressed in this yeast. Our results show that Asn54, present in Gdh3p but missing in the GDH1-encoded homologue, is readily deamidated in vitro under alkaline conditions. Relative to the native enzyme, deamidated Gdh3p shows reduced protein stability. The different deamidation rates of the two isoenzymes could explain to some extent, the relative in vivo instability of the allosteric Gdh3p enzyme, compared to that of Gdh1p. It is thus possible that spontaneous asparaginyl modification could play a role in the metabolic regulation of ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis.

  14. Calcium regulates glutamate dehydrogenase and poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis in Bacillus natto.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yonghong; Dong, Guiru; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan; Qu, Yuling; Chen, Weifeng

    2016-04-01

    To study the effect of Ca(2+) on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and its role in poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) synthesis in Bacillus natto HSF 1410. When the concentration of Ca(2+) varied from 0 to 0.1 g/l in the growth medium of B. natto HSF 1410, γ-PGA production increased from 6.8 to 9.7 g/l, while GDH specific activity and NH4Cl consumption improved from 183 to 295 U/mg and from 0.65 to 0.77 g/l, respectively. GDH with α-ketoglutarate as substrate primarily used NADPH as coenzyme with a K m of 0.08 mM. GDH was responsible for the synthesis of endogenous glutamate. The specific activity of GDH remained essentially unchanged in the presence of CaCl2 (0.05-0.2 g/l) in vitro. However, the specific activity of GDH and its expression was significantly increased by CaCl2 in vivo. Therefore, the regulation of GDH and PGA synthesis by Ca(2+) is an intracellular process. Calcium regulation may be an effective approach for producing γ-PGA on an industrial scale.

  15. [Glutamate dehydrogenase activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the presence of phytoregulators].

    PubMed

    Leonova, N O; Tytova, L V; Tantsiurenko, O V; Antypchuk, A F

    2006-01-01

    Influence of plant growth regulators ivin and emistim C, and flavonoids daidzein and quercetin on the glutamate dehydrogenase activity of soybean nodule bacteria, with contrasting symbiotic properties, were studied. It was shown that all used phytoregulators stimulated glutamate dehydrogenase activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 71t (the strain with highly efficient symbiotic properties) 1.2-4.9 times. Bradyrhizobium japonicum 21110 (the strain with inefficient symbiotic properties) diminished the enzyme activity in the presence of all phythoregulators except for ivin.

  16. Regulation by ammonium of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bogonez, E; Satrústegui, J; Machado, A

    1985-06-01

    The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.4.1.4; NADP-GDH) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is decreased under conditions in which intracellular ammonia concentrations increases. A high internal ammonia concentration can be obtained (a) by increasing the ammonium sulphate concentration in the culture medium, and (b) by growing the yeast either in acetate + ammonia media, where the pH of the medium rises during growth, or in heavily buffered glucose + ammonia media at pH 7.5. Under these conditions cellular oxoglutarate concentrations do not vary and changes in NADP-GDH activity appear to provide a constant rate of oxoglutarate utilization. The following results suggest that the decrease in NADP-GDH activity in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells is brought about by repression of synthesis: (i) after a shift to high ammonium sulphate concentrations, the number of units of activity per cell decreased as the inverse of cell doubling; and (ii) the rate of degradation of labelled NADP-GDH was essentially the same in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells and in controls, whereas the synthesis constant was much lower in the ammonia-accumulating cells than in the controls.

  17. Green tea polyphenols modulate insulin secretion by inhibiting glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Allen, Aron; Kwagh, Jae; Doliba, Nicolai M; Qin, Wei; Najafi, Habiba; Collins, Heather W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2006-04-14

    Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and other metabolic fuels. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been shown to play a regulatory role in this process. The importance of GDH was underscored by features of hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia syndrome, where a dominant mutation causes the loss of inhibition by GTP and ATP. Here we report the effects of green tea polyphenols on GDH and insulin secretion. Of the four compounds tested, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate were found to inhibit GDH with nanomolar ED(50) values and were therefore found to be as potent as the physiologically important inhibitor GTP. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that EGCG inhibits BCH-stimulated insulin secretion, a process that is mediated by GDH, under conditions where GDH is no longer inhibited by high energy metabolites. EGCG does not affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion under high energy conditions where GDH is probably fully inhibited. We have further shown that these compounds act in an allosteric manner independent of their antioxidant activity and that the beta-cell stimulatory effects are directly correlated with glutamine oxidation. These results demonstrate that EGCG, much like the activator of GDH (BCH), can facilitate dissecting the complex regulation of insulin secretion by pharmacologically modulating the effects of GDH.

  18. Regulation of insulin release by factors that also modify glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Fahien, L A; MacDonald, M J; Kmiotek, E H; Mertz, R J; Fahien, C M

    1988-09-25

    Leucine and monomethyl succinate initiate insulin release, and glutamine potentiates leucine-induced insulin release. Alanine enhances and malate inhibits leucine plus glutamine-induced insulin release. The insulinotropic effect of leucine is at least in part secondary to its ability to activate glutamate oxidation by glutamate dehydrogenase (Sener, A., Malaisse-Lagae, F., and Malaisse, W. J. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78, 5460-5464). The effect of these other amino acids or Krebs cycle intermediates on insulin release also correlates with their effects on glutamate dehydrogenase and their ability to regulate inhibition of this enzyme by alpha-ketoglutarate. For example, glutamine enhances insulin release and islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity only in the presence of leucine. This could be because leucine, especially in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate, increases the Km of glutamate and converts alpha-ketoglutarate from a noncompetitive to a competitive inhibitor of glutamate. Thus, in the presence of leucine, this enzyme is more responsive to high levels of glutamate and less responsive to inhibition by alpha-ketoglutarate. Malate could decrease and alanine could increase insulin release because malate increases the generation of alpha-ketoglutarate in islet mitochondria via the combined malate dehydrogenase-aspartate aminotransferase reaction, and alanine could decrease the level of alpha-ketoglutarate via the alanine transaminase reaction. Monomethyl succinate alone is as stimulatory of insulin release as leucine alone, and glutamine enhances the action of both. Succinyl coenzyme A, leucine, and GTP are all bound in the same region on glutamate dehydrogenase, where GTP is a potent inhibitor and succinyl coenzyme A and leucine are comparable activators. Thus, the insulinotropic properties of monomethyl succinate could result from it increasing the level of succinyl coenzyme A and decreasing the level of GTP via the succinate thiokinase reaction.

  19. GDH3 encodes a glutamate dehydrogenase isozyme, a previously unrecognized route for glutamate biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, A; Deluna, A; Olivera, H; Valenzuela, L; Gonzalez, A

    1997-09-01

    It has been considered that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, like many other microorganisms, synthesizes glutamate through the action of NADP+-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+-GDH), encoded by GDH1, or through the combined action of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase (GOGAT), encoded by GLN1 and GLT1, respectively. A double mutant of S. cerevisiae lacking NADP+-GDH and GOGAT activities was constructed. This strain was able to grow on ammonium as the sole nitrogen source and thus to synthesize glutamate through an alternative pathway. A computer search for similarities between the GDH1 nucleotide sequence and the complete yeast genome was carried out. In addition to identifying its cognate sequence at chromosome XIV, the search found that GDH1 showed high identity with a previously recognized open reading frame (GDH3) of chromosome I. Triple mutants impaired in GDH1, GLT1, and GDH3 were obtained. These were strict glutamate auxotrophs. Our results indicate that GDH3 plays a significant physiological role, providing glutamate when GDH1 and GLT1 are impaired. This is the first example of a microorganism possessing three pathways for glutamate biosynthesis.

  20. Regulation of synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Pateman, J. A.

    1969-01-01

    1. Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa and Escherichia coli were grown on media containing a range of concentrations of nitrate, or ammonia, or urea, or l-glutamate, or l-glutamine as the sole source of nitrogen and the glutamate dehydrogenate and glutamine synthetase of the cells measured. 2. Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia coli cells, grown on l-glutamate or on high concentrations of ammonia or on high concentrations of urea, possessed low glutamate dehydrogenase activity compared with cells grown on other nitrogen sources. 3. Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia coli cells grown on l-glutamate possessed high glutamine synthetase activity compared with cells grown on other nitrogen sources. 4. The hypothesis is proposed that in Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia coli l-glutamate represses the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and l-glutamine represses the synthesis of glutamine synthetase. 5. A comparison of the glutamine-synthesizing activity and the γ-glutamyltransferase activity of glutamine synthetase in Aspergillus and Neurospora gave no indication that these fungi produce different forms of glutamine synthetase when grown on ammonia or l-glutamate as nitrogen sources. PMID:4901826

  1. Regulation of synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Pateman, J A

    1969-12-01

    1. Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa and Escherichia coli were grown on media containing a range of concentrations of nitrate, or ammonia, or urea, or l-glutamate, or l-glutamine as the sole source of nitrogen and the glutamate dehydrogenate and glutamine synthetase of the cells measured. 2. Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia coli cells, grown on l-glutamate or on high concentrations of ammonia or on high concentrations of urea, possessed low glutamate dehydrogenase activity compared with cells grown on other nitrogen sources. 3. Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia coli cells grown on l-glutamate possessed high glutamine synthetase activity compared with cells grown on other nitrogen sources. 4. The hypothesis is proposed that in Aspergillus, Neurospora and Escherichia colil-glutamate represses the synthesis of glutamate dehydrogenase and l-glutamine represses the synthesis of glutamine synthetase. 5. A comparison of the glutamine-synthesizing activity and the gamma-glutamyltransferase activity of glutamine synthetase in Aspergillus and Neurospora gave no indication that these fungi produce different forms of glutamine synthetase when grown on ammonia or l-glutamate as nitrogen sources.

  2. Structural relationship between the hexameric and tetrameric family of glutamate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Britton, K L; Baker, P J; Rice, D W; Stillman, T J

    1992-11-01

    The family of glutamate dehydrogenases include a group of hexameric oligomers with a subunit M(r) of around 50,000, which are closely related in amino acid sequence and a smaller group of tetrameric oligomers based on a much larger subunit with M(r) 115,000. Sequence comparisons have indicated a low level of similarity between the C-terminal portion of the tetrameric enzymes and a substantial region of the polypeptide chain for the more widespread hexameric glutamate dehydrogenases. In the light of the solution of the three-dimensional structure of the hexameric NAD(+)-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum, we have undertaken a detailed examination of the alignment of the sequence for the C-terminal domain of the tetrameric Neurospora crassa glutamate dehydrogenase against the sequence and the molecular structure of that from C. symbiosum. This analysis reveals that the residues conserved between these two families are clustered in the three-dimensional structure and points to a remarkably similar layout of the glutamate-binding site and the active-site pocket, though with some differences in the mode of recognition of the nucleotide cofactor.

  3. Structure of NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli: Reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Michael A.; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD+ and/or NADP+ as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding Domain I followed by a nucleotide binding Domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5Å resolution. Modelling of NADP+ in Domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine residue that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond to the 2’-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP+ recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD+ dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution toward the co-ordination of the 2’-ribose phosphate of NADP+. These studies clarify the sequence/structure relationships in bacterial glutamate dehydrogenases, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual specificity GDHs of animals. PMID:23879525

  4. Glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in Bacillus licheniformis WX-02: Enzymatic properties and specific functions in glutamic acid synthesis for poly-γ-glutamic acid production.

    PubMed

    Tian, Guangming; Wang, Qin; Wei, Xuetuan; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-04-01

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a natural biopolymer, is widely used in cosmetics, medicine, food, water treatment, and agriculture owing to its features of moisture sequestration, cation chelation, non-toxicity and biodegradability. Intracellular glutamic acid, the substrate of γ-PGA, is a limiting factor for high yield in γ-PGA production. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis are both important γ-PGA producing strains, and B. subtilis synthesizes glutamic acid in vivo using the unique GOGAT/GS pathway. However, little is known about the glutamate synthesis pathway in B. licheniformis. The aim of this work was to characterize the glutamate dehydrogenase (RocG) in glutamic acid synthesis from B. licheniformis with both in vivo and in vitro experiments. By re-directing the carbon flux distribution, the rocG gene deletion mutant WX-02ΔrocG produced intracellular glutamic acid with a concentration of 90ng/log(CFU), which was only 23.7% that of the wild-type WX-02 (380ng/log(CFU)). Furthermore, the γ-PGA yield of mutant WX-02ΔrocG was 5.37g/L, a decrease of 45.3% compared to the wild type (9.82g/L). In vitro enzymatic assays of RocG showed that RocG has higher affinity for 2-oxoglutarate than glutamate, and the glutamate synthesis rate was far above degradation. This is probably the first study to reveal the glutamic acid synthesis pathway and the specific functions of RocG in B. licheniformis. The results indicate that γ-PGA production can be enhanced through improving intracellular glutamic acid synthesis.

  5. Differential contribution of the proline and glutamine pathways to glutamate biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation in yeast lacking glutamate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Sieg, Alex G.; Trotter, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes play a pivotal role in glutamate biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation. It has been proposed that, in GDH-deficient yeast, either the proline utilization (PUT) or the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway serves as the alternative pathway for glutamate production and nitrogen assimilation to the exclusion of the other. Using a gdh-null mutant (gdh1Δ2Δ3Δ), this ambiguity was addressed using a combination of growth studies and pathway-specific enzyme assays on a variety of nitrogen sources (ammonia, glutamine, proline and urea). The GDH-null mutant was viable on all nitrogen sources tested, confirming that alternate pathways for nitrogen assimilation exist in the gdh-null strain. Enzyme assays point to GS/GOGAT as the primary alternative pathway on the preferred nitrogen sources ammonia and glutamine, whereas growth on proline required both the PUT and GS/GOGAT pathways. In contrast, growth on glucose-urea media elicited a decrease in GOGAT activity along with an increase in activity of the PUT pathway specific enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH). Together, these results suggest the alternative pathway for nitrogen assimilation in strains lacking the preferred GDH-dependent route is nitrogen source dependent and that neither GS/GOGAT nor PUT serves as the sole compensatory pathway. PMID:24629525

  6. Differential contribution of the proline and glutamine pathways to glutamate biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation in yeast lacking glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Alex G; Trotter, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes play a pivotal role in glutamate biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation. It has been proposed that, in GDH-deficient yeast, either the proline utilization (PUT) or the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway serves as the alternative pathway for glutamate production and nitrogen assimilation to the exclusion of the other. Using a gdh-null mutant (gdh1Δ2Δ3Δ), this ambiguity was addressed using a combination of growth studies and pathway-specific enzyme assays on a variety of nitrogen sources (ammonia, glutamine, proline and urea). The GDH-null mutant was viable on all nitrogen sources tested, confirming that alternate pathways for nitrogen assimilation exist in the gdh-null strain. Enzyme assays point to GS/GOGAT as the primary alternative pathway on the preferred nitrogen sources ammonia and glutamine, whereas growth on proline required both the PUT and GS/GOGAT pathways. In contrast, growth on glucose-urea media elicited a decrease in GOGAT activity along with an increase in activity of the PUT pathway specific enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH). Together, these results suggest the alternative pathway for nitrogen assimilation in strains lacking the preferred GDH-dependent route is nitrogen source dependent and that neither GS/GOGAT nor PUT serves as the sole compensatory pathway.

  7. Restricted feeding modulates the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase activity, expression, and histological location.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Méndez, Isabel; Turrubiate, Isaías; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Pérez-Mendoza, Moisés; García-Tejada, Paola; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats. Restricted feeding involved food access for 2 h each day for three weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum as well as acute fasting (21 h fasting) and refeeding (22 h fasting followed by 2 h of food access). Glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA, protein, activity, and histological location were measured every 3 h by qPCR, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to generate 24-h profiles. Restricted feeding promoted higher levels of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity, as well as a loss of 24-h rhythmicity, in comparison to ad libitum conditions. The rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase activity detected in serum was changed. The data demonstrated that daytime restricted feeding enhanced glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity levels in liver mitochondria, changed the rhythmicity of its mRNA and serum activity, but without effect in its expression in hepatocytes surrounding central and portal veins. These results could be related to the adaptation in nitrogen and energy metabolism that occurs in the liver during restricted feeding and the concomitant expression of the food entrainable oscillator. Impact statement For the first time, we are reporting the changes in daily rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) mRNA, protein and activity that occur in the liver during the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). These results are part of the metabolic adaptations

  8. Differential Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Nitrogen Metabolism of Maize Tissues 1

    PubMed Central

    Loyola-Vargas, Victor Manuel; de Jimenez, Estela Sanchez

    1984-01-01

    Both calli and plantlets of maize (Zea mays L. var Tuxpeño 1) were exposed to specific nitrogen sources, and the aminative (NADH) and deaminative (NAD+) glutamate dehydrogenase activities were measured at various periods of time in homogenates of calli, roots, and leaves. A differential effect of the nitrogen sources on the tissues tested was observed. In callus tissue, glutamate, ammonium, and urea inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. The amination and deamination reactions also showed different ratios of activity under different nitrogen sources. In roots, ammonium and glutamine produced an increase in GDH-NADH activity whereas the same metabolites were inhibitory of this activity in leaves. These data suggest the presence of isoenzymes or conformers of GDH, specific for each tissue, whose activities vary depending on the nutritional requirements of the tissue and the state of differentiation. PMID:16663876

  9. Nucleotide sequence of yeast GDH1 encoding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Moye, W S; Amuro, N; Rao, J K; Zalkin, H

    1985-07-15

    The yeast GDH1 gene encodes NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. This gene was isolated by complementation of an Escherichia coli glutamate auxotroph. NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase was overproduced 6-10-fold in Saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing GDH1 on a multicopy plasmid. The nucleotide sequence of the 1362-base pair coding region and 5' and 3' flanking sequences were determined. Transcription start sites were located by S1 nuclease mapping. Regulation of GDH1 was not maintained when the gene was present on a multicopy plasmid. Protein secondary structure predictions identified a region with potential to form the dinucleotide-binding domain. The amino acid sequences of the yeast and Neurospora crassa enzymes are 63% conserved. Unlike the N. crassa gene, yeast GDH1 has no introns.

  10. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Purification, kinetic properties, and physiological roles.

    PubMed

    DeLuna, A; Avendano, A; Riego, L; Gonzalez, A

    2001-11-23

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3 catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. The GDH2-encoded NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase degrades glutamate producing ammonium and alpha-ketoglutarate. Until very recently, it was considered that only one biosynthetic NADP-GDH was present in S. cerevisiae. This fact hindered understanding the physiological role of each isoenzyme and the mechanisms involved in alpha-ketoglutarate channeling for glutamate biosynthesis. In this study, we purified and characterized the GDH1- and GDH3-encoded NADP-GDHs; they showed different allosteric properties and rates of alpha-ketoglutarate utilization. Analysis of the relative levels of these proteins revealed that the expression of GDH1 and GDH3 is differentially regulated and depends on the nature of the carbon source. Moreover, the physiological study of mutants lacking or overexpressing GDH1 or GDH3 suggested that these genes play nonredundant physiological roles. Our results indicate that the coordinated regulation of GDH1-, GDH3-, and GDH2-encoded enzymes results in glutamate biosynthesis and balanced utilization of alpha-ketoglutarate under fermentative and respiratory conditions. The possible relevance of the duplicated NADP-GDH pathway in the adaptation to facultative metabolism is discussed.

  11. Importance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) in Clostridium difficile Colonization In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Girinathan, Brintha Parasumanna; Braun, Sterling; Sirigireddy, Apoorva Reddy; Lopez, Jose Espinola; Govind, Revathi

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Major metabolic requirements for colonization and expansion of C. difficile after microbiota disturbance have not been fully determined. In this study, we show that glutamate utilization is important for C. difficile to establish itself in the animal gut. When the gluD gene, which codes for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), was disrupted, the mutant C. difficile was unable to colonize and cause disease in a hamster model. Further, from the complementation experiment it appears that extracellular GDH may be playing a role in promoting C. difficile colonization and disease progression. Quantification of free amino acids in the hamster gut during C. difficile infection showed that glutamate is among preferred amino acids utilized by C. difficile during its expansion. This study provides evidence of the importance of glutamate metabolism for C. difficile pathogenesis. PMID:27467167

  12. Importance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) in Clostridium difficile Colonization In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Girinathan, Brintha Parasumanna; Braun, Sterling; Sirigireddy, Apoorva Reddy; Lopez, Jose Espinola; Govind, Revathi

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Major metabolic requirements for colonization and expansion of C. difficile after microbiota disturbance have not been fully determined. In this study, we show that glutamate utilization is important for C. difficile to establish itself in the animal gut. When the gluD gene, which codes for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), was disrupted, the mutant C. difficile was unable to colonize and cause disease in a hamster model. Further, from the complementation experiment it appears that extracellular GDH may be playing a role in promoting C. difficile colonization and disease progression. Quantification of free amino acids in the hamster gut during C. difficile infection showed that glutamate is among preferred amino acids utilized by C. difficile during its expansion. This study provides evidence of the importance of glutamate metabolism for C. difficile pathogenesis.

  13. Amino-Acid Sequence of NADP-Specific Glutamate Dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, John C.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Holder, Anthony A.; Baron, Andrew J.; Taylor, John G.; Fincham, John R. S.; Blumenthal, Kenneth M.; Moon, Kenneth; Smith, Emil L.

    1974-01-01

    A tentative primary structure of the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase [L-glutamate: NADP oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.1.4] from Neurospora crassa has been determined. The proposed sequence contains 452 amino-acid residues in each of the identical subunits of the hexameric enzyme. Comparison of the sequence with that of the bovine liver enzyme reveals considerable homology in the amino-terminal portion of the chain, including the vicinity of the reactive lysine, with only shorter stretches of homology within the carboxyl-terminal regions. The significance of this distribution of homologous regions is discussed. PMID:4155068

  14. Optical characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers chemisorbed on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Blasi, L.; Longo, L.; Cingolani, R.; Ciccarella, G.; Vasapollo, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Rizzello, A.; Storelli, C.; Maffia, M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the formation of glutamate dehydrogenase monolayers on silicon dioxide, and their characterization by means of physical techniques, i.e., fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Detailed investigations of the intrinsic stability of native proteins in solution were carried out to elucidate the occurrence of conformational changes induced by the immobilization procedure. The enzyme monolayers were deposited on SiO2 after preexposing silicon surfaces to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and reacting the silylated surfaces with glutaric dialdehyde. The optical characterization demonstrates that the immobilization does not interfere with the fold pattern of the native enzyme. In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, and quenching studies performed on the enzyme in solution well describe the folding and unfolding properties of glutamate dehydrogenase. The photophysical studies reported here are relevant for nanobioelectronics applications requiring protein immobilization on a chip.

  15. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. The tryptic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J C; Taylor, J G; Jackson, A A; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    The NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa was digested with trypsin, and peptides accounting for 441 out of the 452 residues of the polypeptide chain were isolated and substantially sequenced. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50052 (11 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1000

  16. Amino acid substitutions at glutamate-354 in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli lower the sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhentao; Do, Phi Minh; Rhee, Mun Su; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2012-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) of Escherichia coli is inhibited by NADH. This inhibition is partially reversed by mutational alteration of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) component of the PDH complex (E354K or H322Y). Such a mutation in lpd led to a PDH complex that was functional in an anaerobic culture as seen by restoration of anaerobic growth of a pflB, ldhA double mutant of E. coli utilizing a PDH- and alcohol dehydrogenase-dependent homoethanol fermentation pathway. The glutamate at position 354 in LPD was systematically changed to all of the other natural amino acids to evaluate the physiological consequences. These amino acid replacements did not affect the PDH-dependent aerobic growth. With the exception of E354M, all changes also restored PDH-dependent anaerobic growth of and fermentation by an ldhA, pflB double mutant. The PDH complex with an LPD alteration E354G, E354P or E354W had an approximately 20-fold increase in the apparent K(i) for NADH compared with the native complex. The apparent K(m) for pyruvate or NAD(+) for the mutated forms of PDH was not significantly different from that of the native enzyme. A structural model of LPD suggests that the amino acid at position 354 could influence movement of NADH from its binding site to the surface. These results indicate that glutamate at position 354 plays a structural role in establishing the NADH sensitivity of LPD and the PDH complex by restricting movement of the product/substrate NADH, although this amino acid is not directly associated with NAD(H) binding.

  17. A NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase mutant of the petit-negative yeast Kluyveromyces lactis uses the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway for glutamate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, L; Guzmán-León, S; Coria, R; Ramírez, J; Aranda, C; González, A

    1995-10-01

    The activities of the enzymes involved in ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis were determined in wild-type and NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) null mutant strains of Kluyveromyces lactis. The specific NADP-GDH activity from K. lactis was fivefold lower than that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were similar to those reported in S. cerevisiae. The NADP-GDH null mutant was obtained by transforming the uraA strain MD2/1 with a linearized integrative yeast vector harbouring a 390 bp fragment of the NADP-GDH structural gene. This mutant grew as well as the parent strain on ammonium, but showed GS and GOGAT activities higher that those found in the wild-type strain, implying that the GS-GOGAT pathway could play a leading role in glutamate biosynthesis in K. lactis. Southern blotting analysis of K. lactis chromosomes separated by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, indicated that the NADP-GDH structural gene is localized on chromosome VI.

  18. Overexpression of NADH-dependent fumarate reductase improves D-xylose fermentation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Salusjärvi, Laura; Kaunisto, Sanna; Holmström, Sami; Vehkomäki, Maija-Leena; Koivuranta, Kari; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Deviation from optimal levels and ratios of redox cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H) is common when microbes are metabolically engineered. The resulting redox imbalance often reduces the rate of substrate utilization as well as biomass and product formation. An example is the metabolism of D-xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains expressing xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes from Scheffersomyces stipitis. This pathway requires both NADPH and NAD(+). The effect of overexpressing the glycosomal NADH-dependent fumarate reductase (FRD) of Trypanosoma brucei in D-xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae alone and together with an endogenous, cytosol directed NADH-kinase (POS5Δ17) was studied as one possible solution to overcome this imbalance. Expression of FRD and FRD + POS5Δ17 resulted in 60 and 23 % increase in ethanol yield, respectively, on D-xylose under anaerobic conditions. At the same time, xylitol yield decreased in the FRD strain suggesting an improvement in redox balance. We show that fumarate reductase of T. brucei can provide an important source of NAD(+) in yeast under anaerobic conditions, and can be useful for metabolic engineering strategies where the redox cofactors need to be balanced. The effects of FRD and NADH-kinase on aerobic and anaerobic D-xylose and D-glucose metabolism are discussed.

  19. Structure of NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli--reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Michael A; Oliveira, Tânia F; Engel, Paul C; Khan, Amir R

    2013-09-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs; EC 1.4.1.2-4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, using NAD(+) and/or NADP(+) as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding domain I followed by a nucleotide-binding domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the GDH family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5-Å resolution. Modelling of NADP(+) in domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond with the 2'-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP(+) recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution to the coordination of the 2'-ribose phosphate of NADP(+). These studies clarify the sequence-structure relationships in bacterial GDHs, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual-specificity GDHs of animals.

  20. Structure of NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli - reflections on the basis of coenzyme specificity in the family of glutamate dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Michael A.; Oliveira, Tânia F.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2013-09-05

    Glutamate dehydrogenases catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, using NAD+ and/or NADP+ as a cofactor. Subunits of homo-hexameric bacterial enzymes comprise a substrate-binding domain I followed by a nucleotide-binding domain II. The reaction occurs in a catalytic cleft between the two domains. Although conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domains of various dehydrogenases have been linked to cofactor preferences, the structural basis for specificity in the GDH family remains poorly understood. Here, the refined crystal structure of Escherichia coli GDH in the absence of reactants is described at 2.5-Å resolution. Modelling of NADP+ in domain II reveals the potential contribution of positively charged residues from a neighbouring α-helical hairpin to phosphate recognition. In addition, a serine that follows the P7 aspartate is presumed to form a hydrogen bond with the 2'-phosphate. Mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirms the importance of these residues in NADP+ recognition. Surprisingly, one of the positively charged residues is conserved in all sequences of NAD+-dependent enzymes, but the conformations adopted by the corresponding regions in proteins whose structure has been solved preclude their contribution to the coordination of the 2'-ribose phosphate of NADP+. These studies clarify the sequence–structure relationships in bacterial GDHs, revealing that identical residues may specify different coenzyme preferences, depending on the structural context. Primary sequence alone is therefore not a reliable guide for predicting coenzyme specificity. We also consider how it is possible for a single sequence to accommodate both coenzymes in the dual-specificity GDHs of animals.

  1. Enzymatic reduction of complex redox dyes using NADH-dependent reductase from Bacillus subtilis coupled with cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Mojca; Pricelius, Sina; Guebitz, Georg M; Kokol, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Conventional vat dyeing involves chemical reduction of dyes into their water-soluble leuco form generating considerable amounts of toxic chemicals in effluents. In the present study, a new beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide disodium salt (NADH)-dependent reductase isolated from Bacillus subtilis was used to reduce the redox dyes CI Acid Blue 74, CI Natural Orange 6, and CI Vat Blue 1 into their water-soluble leuco form. Enzymatic reduction was optimized in relation to pH and temperature conditions. The reductase was able to reduce Acid Blue 74 and Natural Orange 6 in the presence of the stoichiometrically consumed cofactor NADH; meanwhile, Vat Blue 1 required the presence of mediator 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone. Oxygen from air was used to reoxidize the dyes into their initial forms. The enzymatic reduction of the dyes was studied and the kinetic constants determined, and these were compared to the chemically-reduced leuco form. The enzyme responsible for the reduction showed homology to a NADH-dependent reductase from B. subtilis based on results from the MS/MS peptide mass mapping of the tryptically digested protein. Additionally, the reduction of Acid Blue 74 to its leuco form by reductase from B. subtilis was confirmed using NADH regenerated by the oxidation of formic acid with formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii in the same solution.

  2. NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity is impaired in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lack aconitase.

    PubMed

    González, A; Rodríguez, L; Olivera, H; Soberón, M

    1985-10-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking aconitase did not grow on minimal medium (MM) and had five- to tenfold less NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity than the wild-type, although its glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was still inducible. When this mutant was incubated with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, the 2-oxoglutarate content rose, and the NADP+-dependent GDH activity increased. Furthermore, carbon-limited cultures showed a direct relation between NADP+-dependent GDH activity and the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate content. We propose that the low NADP+-dependent GDH activity found in the mutant was due to the lack of 2-oxoglutarate or some other intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  3. Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome: insights into the regulatory role of glutamate dehydrogenase in ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Charles A

    2004-04-01

    The second most common form of congenital hyperinsulinism, the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HI/HA), is associated with dominantly expressed missense mutations of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate plus ammonia, using NAD or NADP as co-factor. HI/HA mutations impair GDH sensitivity to its allosteric inhibitor, GTP, resulting in a gain of enzyme function and increased sensitivity to its allosteric activator, leucine. The phenotype is dominated by hypoglycemia with post-prandial hypoglycemia following protein meals, as well as fasting hypoglycemia. Plasma ammonia levels are increased 3-5 times normal due to expression of mutant GDH in liver, probably reflecting increased ammonia release from glutamate as well as impaired synthesis of NAG, due to reduction of hepatic glutamate pools. Ammonia levels are unaffected by feeding or fasting and appear to cause no symptoms, perhaps due to a protective effect of increased GDH activity in brain. The clinical consequences of the HI/HA mutations imply that GDH plays a central role in overall control of amino acid catabolism and ammonia metabolism integrating responses to changes in intracellular energy potential and amino acid levels.

  4. Metabolic control of cell division in α-proteobacteria by a NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Beaufay, François; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prior to initiate energy-consuming processes, such as DNA replication or cell division, cells need to evaluate their metabolic status. We have recently identified and characterized a new connection between metabolism and cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We showed that an NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GdhZ) coordinates growth with cell division according to its enzymatic activity. Here we report the conserved role of GdhZ in controlling cell division in another α-proteobacterium, the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. We also discuss the importance of amino acids as a main carbon source for α-proteobacteria. PMID:27066186

  5. Identification of disulfide bond formation between MitoNEET and glutamate dehydrogenase 1.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Morgan E; Crail, Jacquelyn P; Laffoon, Megan M; Fernandez, William G; Menze, Michael A; Konkle, Mary E

    2013-12-17

    MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.

  6. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 signals through antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1 to regulate redox homeostasis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lingtao; Li, Dan; Alesi, Gina N; Fan, Jun; Kang, Hee-Bum; Lu, Zhou; Boggon, Titus J; Jin, Peng; Yi, Hong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Duong, Duc; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Egnatchik, Robert; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Magliocca, Kelly R; He, Chuan; Arellano, Martha L; Khoury, Hanna J; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Kang, Sumin

    2015-02-09

    How mitochondrial glutaminolysis contributes to redox homeostasis in cancer cells remains unclear. Here we report that the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) is commonly upregulated in human cancers. GDH1 is important for redox homeostasis in cancer cells by controlling the intracellular levels of its product alpha-ketoglutarate and subsequent metabolite fumarate. Mechanistically, fumarate binds to and activates a reactive oxygen species scavenging enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1. Targeting GDH1 by shRNA or a small molecule inhibitor R162 resulted in imbalanced redox homeostasis, leading to attenuated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  7. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 signals through antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1 to regulate redox homeostasis and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lingtao; Li, Dan; Alesi, Gina N.; Fan, Jun; Kang, Hee-Bum; Lu, Zhou; Boggon, Titus J.; Jin, Peng; Yi, Hong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Duong, Duc; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Egnatchik, Robert; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Magliocca, Kelly R.; He, Chuan; Arellano, Martha L.; Khoury, Hanna J.; Shin, Dong M.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kang, Sumin

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How mitochondrial glutaminolysis contributes to redox homeostasis in cancer cells remains unclear. Here we report that the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) is commonly upregulated in human cancers. GDH1 is important for redox homeostasis in cancer cells by controlling the intracellular levels of its product alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and subsequent metabolite fumarate. Mechanistically, fumarate binds to and activates a ROS scavenging enzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Targeting GDH1 by shRNA or a small molecule inhibitor R162 resulted in imbalanced redox homeostasis, leading to attenuated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:25670081

  8. Coimmobilization of urease and glutamate dehydrogenase in electrochemically prepared polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulfonate films.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, A; Gerard, M; Mulchandani, A K; Malhotra, B D

    2001-01-01

    Immobilization of urease and glutamate dehydrogenase enzymes in electrochemically prepared polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulfonate films (PPY-PVS) was carried out using physical adsorption and electrochemical entrapment techniques. Detailed studies on optimum pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy of the enzymes in the immobilized state were conducted. The value of the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was experimentally determined to be 2.5 and 2.7 for physically adsorbed and electrochemically entrapped urease in PPY-PVS films, respectively.

  9. Metabolic control of cell division in α-proteobacteria by a NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Beaufay, François; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Prior to initiate energy-consuming processes, such as DNA replication or cell division, cells need to evaluate their metabolic status. We have recently identified and characterized a new connection between metabolism and cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We showed that an NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GdhZ) coordinates growth with cell division according to its enzymatic activity. Here we report the conserved role of GdhZ in controlling cell division in another α-proteobacterium, the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. We also discuss the importance of amino acids as a main carbon source for α-proteobacteria.

  10. Exacerbation of NMDA, AMPA, and L-glutamate excitotoxicity by the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate.

    PubMed

    Greene, J G; Greenamyre, J T

    1995-05-01

    We report that a subtoxic dose of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitor malonate greatly enhances the neurotoxicity of three different excitatory amino acid agonists: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (S-AMPA), and L-glutamate. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, intrastriatal stereotaxic injection of malonate alone (0.6 mumol), NMDA alone (15 nmol), S-AMPA alone (1 nmol), or glutamate alone (0.6 mumol) produced negligible toxicity as assessed by measurement of lesion volume. Coinjection of subtoxic malonate with NMDA produced a large lesion (15.2 +/- 1.4 mm3), as did coinjection of malonate with S-AMPA (11.0 +/- 1.0 mm3) or glutamate (12.8 +/- 0.7 mm3). Administration of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 (5 mg/kg i.p.) completely blocked the toxicity of malonate plus NMDA (0.5 +/- 0.3 mm3). This dose of MK-801 had little effect on the lesion produced by malonate plus S-AMPA (9.0 +/- 0.7 mm3), but it attenuated the toxicity of malonate plus glutamate by approximately 40% (7.5 +/- 0.9 mm3). Coinjection of the AMPA antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)-quinoxaline (NBQX; 2 nmol) had no effect on malonate plus NMDA or malonate plus glutamate toxicity (12.3 +/- 1.8 and 14.0 +/- 0.9 mm3, respectively) but greatly attenuated malonate plus S-AMPA toxicity (1.5 +/- 0.9 mm3). Combination of the two antagonists conferred no additional neuroprotection in any paradigm. These results indicate that metabolic inhibition exacerbates both NMDA receptor- and non-NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Oxidation of Neurospora crassa NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase by activated oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, J; Rodríguez, R; Hansberg, W

    1989-01-01

    The glutamine synthetase and the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase activities of Neurospora crassa were lost in a culture without carbon source only when in the presence of air. Glutamine synthetase was previously reported to be liable to in vitro and in vivo inactivation by activated oxygen species. Here we report that NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase was remarkably stable in the presence of activated oxygen species but was rendered susceptible to oxidative inactivation when chelated iron was bound to the enzyme and either ascorbate or H2O2 reacted on the bound iron. This reaction gave rise to further modifications of the enzyme monomers by activated oxygen species, to partial dissociation of the oligomeric structure, and to precipitation and fragmentation of the enzyme. The in vitro oxidation reaction was affected by pH, temperature, and binding to the enzyme of NADPH. Heterogeneity in total charge was observed in the purified and immunoprecipitated enzymes, and the relative amounts of enzyme monomers with different isoelectric points changes with time of the oxidizing reaction. Images PMID:2530208

  12. Regulation of the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide- and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Roon, Robert J.; Even, Harvey L.

    1973-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two distinct l-glutamate dehydrogenases. These enzymes are affected in a reciprocal fashion by growth on ammonia or dicarboxylic amino acids as the nitrogen source. The specific activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) (anabolic) enzyme is highest in ammonia-grown cells and is reduced in cells grown on glutamate or aspartate. Conversely, the specific activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) (catabolic) glutamate dehydrogenase is highest in cells grown on glutamate or aspartate and is much lower in cells grown on ammonia. The specific activity of both enzymes is very low in nitrogen-starved yeast. Addition of the ammonia analogue methylamine to the growth medium reduces the specific activity of the NAD-dependent enzyme and increases the specific activity of the NADP-dependent enzyme. PMID:4147647

  13. Denaturation studies by fluorescence and quenching of thermophilic protein NAD+-glutamate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jose L; Ferrer, Juan; Pire, Carmen; Llorca, Francisco I; Bonete, Maria José

    2003-04-01

    Fluorescence techniques have been used to study the structural characteristics of many proteins. The thermophilic enzyme NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 is found to be a hexameric enzyme. Fluorescence spectra of native and denatured protein and effect of denaturants as urea and guanidine hydrochloride on enzyme activity of thermophilic glutamate dehydrogenase (t-GDH) have been analyzed. Native t-GDH presents the maximum emission at 338 nm. The denaturation process is accompanied by an exposure to the solvent of the tryptophan residues, as manifested by the red shift of the emission maximum. Fluorescence quenching by external quenchers, KI and acrylamide, has also been carried out.

  14. Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation.

    PubMed

    Melo-Oliveira, R; Oliveira, I C; Coruzzi, G M

    1996-05-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is ubiquitous to all organisms, yet its role in higher plants remains enigmatic. To better understand the role of GDH in plant nitrogen metabolism, we have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant (gdh1-1) defective in one of two GDH gene products and have studied GDH1 gene expression. GDH1 mRNA accumulates to highest levels in dark-adapted or sucrose-starved plants, and light or sucrose treatment each repress GDH1 mRNA accumulation. These results suggest that the GDH1 gene product functions in the direction of glutamate catabolism under carbon-limiting conditions. Low levels of GDH1 mRNA present in leaves of light-grown plants can be induced by exogenously supplied ammonia. Under such conditions of carbon and ammonia excess, GDH1 may function in the direction of glutamate biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis gdh-deficient mutant allele gdh1-1 cosegregates with the GDH1 gene and behaves as a recessive mutation. The gdh1-1 mutant displays a conditional phenotype in that seedling growth is specifically retarded on media containing exogenously supplied inorganic nitrogen. These results suggest that GDH1 plays a nonredundant role in ammonia assimilation under conditions of inorganic nitrogen excess. This notion is further supported by the fact that the levels of mRNA for GDH1 and chloroplastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) are reciprocally regulated by light.

  15. Inhibitory properties of nerve-specific human glutamate dehydrogenase isozyme by chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Min; Kim, Eun-A; Choi, Soo Young; Kim, Tae Ue; Cho, Sung-Woo; Yang, Seung-Ju

    2007-11-30

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase exists in hGDH1 (housekeeping isozyme) and in hGDH2 (nerve-specific isozyme), which differ markedly in their allosteric regulation. In the nervous system, GDH is enriched in astrocytes and is important for recycling glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter during neurotransmission. Chloroquine has been known to be a potent inhibitor of house-keeping GDH1 in permeabilized liver and kidney-cortex of rabbit. However, the effects of chloroquine on nerve-specific GDH2 have not been reported yet. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of chloroquine on hGDH2 at various conditions and showed that chloroquine could inhibit the activity of hGDH2 at dose-dependent manner. Studies of the chloroquine inhibition on enzyme activity revealed that hGDH2 was relatively less sensitive to chloroquine inhibition than house-keeping hGDH1. Incubation of hGDH2 was uncompetitive with respect of NADH and non-competitive with respect of 2-oxoglutarate. The inhibitory effect of chloroquine on hGDH2 was abolished, although in part, by the presence of ADP and L-leucine, whereas GTP did not change the sensitivity to chloroquine inhibition. Our results show a possibility that chloroquine may be used in regulating GDH activity and subsequently glutamate concentration in the central nervous system.

  16. Bacilli glutamate dehydrogenases diverged via coevolution of transcription and enzyme regulation.

    PubMed

    Noda-Garcia, Lianet; Romero Romero, Maria Luisa; Longo, Liam M; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Tawfik, Dan S

    2017-07-01

    The linkage between regulatory elements of transcription, such as promoters, and their protein products is central to gene function. Promoter-protein coevolution is therefore expected, but rarely observed, and the manner by which these two regulatory levels are linked remains largely unknown. We study glutamate dehydrogenase-a hub of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. In Bacillus subtilis, two paralogues exist: GudB is constitutively transcribed whereas RocG is tightly regulated. In their active, oligomeric states, both enzymes show similar enzymatic rates. However, swaps of enzymes and promoters cause severe fitness losses, thus indicating promoter-enzyme coevolution. Characterization of the proteins shows that, compared to RocG, GudB's enzymatic activity is highly dependent on glutamate and pH Promoter-enzyme swaps therefore result in excessive glutamate degradation when expressing a constitutive enzyme under a constitutive promoter, or insufficient activity when both the enzyme and its promoter are tightly regulated. Coevolution of transcriptional and enzymatic regulation therefore underlies paralogue-specific spatio-temporal control, especially under diverse growth conditions. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Modular coenzyme specificity: a domain-swopped chimera of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Michael A; Engel, Paul C

    2009-11-01

    Domain-swopped chimeras of the glutamate dehydrogenases from Clostridium symbiosum (CsGDH) (NAD(+)-specific) and Escherichia coli (EcGDH) (NADP(+)-specific) have been produced, with the aim of testing the localization of determinants of coenzyme specificity. An active chimera consisting of the substrate-binding domain (Domain I) of CsGDH and the coenzyme-binding domain (Domain II) of EcGDH has been purified to homogeneity, and a thorough kinetic analysis has been carried out. Results indicate that selectivity for the phosphorylated coenzyme does indeed reside solely in Domain II; the chimera utilizes NAD(+) at 0.8% of the rate observed with NADP(+), similar to the 0.5% ratio for EcGDH. Positive cooperativity toward L-glutamate, characteristic of CsGDH, has been retained with Domain I. An unforeseen feature of this chimera, however, is that, although glutamate cooperativity occurs only at higher pH values in the parent CsGDH, the chimeric protein shows it over the full pH range explored. Also surprising is that the chimera is capable of catalysing severalfold higher reaction rates (V(max)) in both directions than either of the parent enzymes from which it is constructed.

  18. The effect of pH and ADP on ammonia affinity for human glutamate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Zaganas, Ioannis; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Wendel Nielsen, Camilla; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) uses ammonia to reversibly convert α-ketoglutarate to glutamate using NADP(H) and NAD(H) as cofactors. While GDH in most mammals is encoded by a single GLUD1 gene, humans and other primates have acquired a GLUD2 gene with distinct tissue expression profile. The two human isoenzymes (hGDH1 and hGDH2), though highly homologous, differ markedly in their regulatory properties. Here we obtained hGDH1 and hGDH2 in recombinant form and studied their Km for ammonia in the presence of 1.0 mM ADP. The analyses showed that lowering the pH of the buffer (from 8.0 to 7.0) increased the Km for ammonia substantially (hGDH1: from 12.8 ± 1.4 mM to 57.5 ± 1.6 mM; hGDH2: from 14.7 ± 1.6 mM to 62.2 ± 1.7 mM), thus essentially precluding reductive amination. Moreover, lowering the ADP concentration to 0.1 mM not only increased the K0.5 [NH4 (+)] of hGDH2, but also introduced a positive cooperative binding phenomenon in this isoenzyme. Hence, intra-mitochondrial acidification, as occurring in astrocytes during glutamatergic transmission should favor the oxidative deamination of glutamate. Similar considerations apply to the handling of glutamate by the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney during systemic acidosis. The reverse could apply for conditions of local or systemic hyperammonemia or alkalosis.

  19. Redox engineering by ectopic expression of glutamate dehydrogenase genes links NADPH availability and NADH oxidation with cold growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2015-07-09

    Cold stress reduces microbial growth and metabolism being relevant in industrial processes like wine making and brewing. Knowledge on the cold transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests the need of a proper redox balance. Nevertheless, there are no direct evidence of the links between NAD(P) levels and cold growth and how engineering of enzymatic reactions requiring NAD(P) may be used to modify the performance of industrial strains at low temperature. Recombinant strains of S. cerevisiae modified for increased NADPH- and NADH-dependent Gdh1 and Gdh2 activity were tested for growth at low temperature. A high-copy number of the GDH2-encoded glutamate dehydrogenase gene stimulated growth at 15°C, while overexpression of GDH1 had detrimental effects, a difference likely caused by cofactor preferences. Indeed, neither the Trp(-) character of the tested strains, which could affect the synthesis of NAD(P), nor changes in oxidative stress susceptibility by overexpression of GDH1 and GDH2 account for the observed phenotypes. However, increased or reduced NADPH availability by knock-out or overexpression of GRE3, the NADPH-dependent aldose reductase gene, eliminated or exacerbated the cold-growth defect observed in YEpGDH1 cells. We also demonstrated that decreased capacity of glycerol production impairs growth at 15 but not at 30°C and that 15°C-grown baker's yeast cells display higher fermentative capacity than those cultivated at 30°C. Thus, increasing NADH oxidation by overexpression of GDH2 would help to avoid perturbations in the redox metabolism induced by a higher fermentative/oxidative balance at low temperature. Finally, it is shown that overexpression of GDH2 increases notably the cold growth in the wine yeast strain QA23 in both standard growth medium and synthetic grape must. Redox constraints limit the growth of S. cerevisiae at temperatures below the optimal. An adequate supply of NAD(P) precursors as well as a proper level of reducing

  20. Evaluation of two novel chemiluminescence immunoassays for the detection of Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin A&B.

    PubMed

    Blaich, Annette; Frei, Reno; Castellano, Carine; Kiessling, Christine; Geschke, Angelika; Rentsch, Katharina M; Egli, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    A novel immunoassay for Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A&B (LIAISON, DiaSorin) was compared to another GDH assay (Alere), PCR and toxigenic culture. The GDH-DiaSorin is slightly more sensitive than the GDH-Alere. Sensitivity of the Toxin-Diasorin test is in accordance to the sensitivity of other immunoassays in literature.

  1. A NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase coordinates metabolism with cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Beaufay, François; Coppine, Jérôme; Mayard, Aurélie; Laloux, Géraldine; De Bolle, Xavier; Hallez, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Coupling cell cycle with nutrient availability is a crucial process for all living cells. But how bacteria control cell division according to metabolic supplies remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism that coordinates central metabolism with cell division in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. This mechanism involves the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase GdhZ and the oxidoreductase-like KidO. While enzymatically active GdhZ directly interferes with FtsZ polymerization by stimulating its GTPase activity, KidO bound to NADH destabilizes lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments. Both GdhZ and KidO share the same regulatory network to concomitantly stimulate the rapid disassembly of the Z-ring, necessary for the subsequent release of progeny cells. Thus, this mechanism illustrates how proteins initially dedicated to metabolism coordinate cell cycle progression with nutrient availability. PMID:25953831

  2. Gene cloning, heterologous overexpression and optimized refolding of the NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase from Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Susana; Pérez-Pomares, Francisco; Pire, Carmen; Ferrer, Juan; Bonete, María-José

    2006-04-01

    The NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei has been cloned. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1323 bp that encodes a NAD-GDH. The amino acid sequence displayed high homology with those from other sources, especially the highly conserved residues involved in 2-oxoglutarate binding. The expression of this gene in Escherichia coli, the refolding and further characterization, yielded a fully active NAD-GDH with the same features than those found for the wild-type enzyme. This halophilic NAD-GDH showed a highly dependence on salts for both stability and activity, being essential for the refolding of the recombinant enzyme.

  3. Enzyme dynamics and activity: time-scale dependence of dynamical transitions in glutamate dehydrogenase solution.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R M; Finney, J L; Réat, V; Dunn, R; Ferrand, M; Smith, J C

    1999-10-01

    We have examined the temperature dependence of motions in a cryosolution of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and compared these with activity. Dynamic neutron scattering was performed with two instruments of different energy resolution, permitting the separate determination of the average dynamical mean square displacements on the sub-approximately 100 ps and sub-approximately 5 ns time scales. The results demonstrate a marked dependence on the time scale of the temperature profile of the mean square displacement. The lowest temperature at which anharmonic motion is observed is heavily dependent on the time window of the instrument used to observe the dynamics. Several dynamical transitions (inflexions of the mean squared displacement) are observed in the slower dynamics. Comparison with the temperature profile of the activity of the enzyme in the same solvent reveals dynamical transitions that have no effect on GDH function.

  4. Occurrence of cold-labile NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Jahns, T

    1992-09-15

    A nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GluDH; EC 1.4.1.3) inactivated by incubation at low temperatures was detected in several species of the genus Bacillus, including strains of B. cereus, B. laterosporus, B. lentus, B. panthotenicus, B. pasteurii, B. sphaericus, B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. Incubation of cell-free extracts of these strains at 0 degrees C resulted in an 80-100% inactivation of NAD-GluDH activity within 120 min. The addition of 20% glycerol protected the enzyme from this inactivation in the cold. Strains of B. fastidiosus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. megaterium and B. pumilus were found to lack NAD-GluDH activity.

  5. Quantitative determination of glycine in aqueous solution using glutamate dehydrogenase-immobilized glyoxal agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Semra Yilmazer; Keskin, Can Serkan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic procedure for the determination of glycine (Gly) was developed by using a column containing immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on glyoxal agarose beads. Ammonia is produced from the enzymatic reactions between Gly and GDH with NAD(+) in phosphate buffer medium. The indophenol blue method was used for ammonia detection based on the spectrophotometric measurements of blue-colored product absorbing at 640 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0.1-10 mM of Gly concentrations. The effect of pH, temperature, and time interval was studied to find column stability, and also the interference effects of other amino acids was investigated. The interaction between GDH and glyoxal agarose beads was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of the immobilized and non-immobilized agarose beads were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  6. Interaction between glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-leucine catabolic enzymes: intersecting metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Susan M; Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Zaganas, Ioannis

    2011-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolism follows sequential reactions and their metabolites intersect with other metabolic pathways. The initial enzymes in BCAA metabolism, the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which deaminates the BCAAs to branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKAs); and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), which oxidatively decarboxylates the BCKAs, are organized in a supramolecular complex termed metabolon. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1) is found in the metabolon in rat tissues. Bovine GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP)-form of human BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-BCATm in vitro. This protein interaction facilitates reamination of the α-ketoglutarate (αKG) product of the GDH1 oxidative deamination reaction. Human GDH1 appears to act like bovine GDH1 but human GDH2 does not show the same enhancement of BCKDC enzyme activities. Another metabolic enzyme is also found in the metabolon is pyruvate carboxylase (PC). Kinetic results suggest that PC binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC but does not effect BCAA catabolism. The protein interaction of BCATm and GDH1 promotes regeneration of PLP-BCATm which then binds to BCKDC resulting in channeling of the BCKA products from BCATm first half reaction to E1 and promoting BCAA oxidation and net nitrogen transfer from BCAAs. The cycling of nitrogen through glutamate via the actions of BCATm and GDH1 releases free ammonia. Formation of ammonia may be important for astrocyte glutamine synthesis in the central nervous system. In peripheral tissue association of BCATm and GDH1 would promote BCAA oxidation at physiologically relevant BCAA concentrations.

  7. Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    2000-04-01

    Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme.

  8. Expression of the human isoform of glutamate dehydrogenase, hGDH2, augments TCA cycle capacity and oxidative metabolism of glutamate during glucose deprivation in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Lykke, Kasper; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Stridh, Malin H; Zaganas, Ioannis; Skytt, Dorte M; Schousboe, Arne; Bak, Lasse K; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-03-01

    A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1 and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation and supports the TCA cycle during energy-demanding processes such as high intensity glutamatergic signaling. However, little is known about how expression of hGDH2 affects the handling of glutamate and TCA cycle metabolism in astrocytes. Therefore, we cultured astrocytes from cerebral cortical tissue of hGDH2-expressing transgenic mice. We measured glutamate uptake and metabolism using [(3) H]glutamate, while the effect on metabolic pathways of glutamate and glucose was evaluated by use of (13) C and (14) C substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry and determination of radioactively labeled metabolites including CO2 , respectively. We conclude that hGDH2 expression increases capacity for uptake and oxidative metabolism of glutamate, particularly during increased workload and aglycemia. Additionally, hGDH2 expression increased utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) during aglycemia and caused a general decrease in oxidative glucose metabolism. We speculate, that expression of hGDH2 allows astrocytes to spare glucose and utilize BCAAs during substrate shortages. These findings support the proposed role of hGDH2 in astrocytes as an important fail-safe during situations of intense glutamatergic activity. GLIA 2017;65:474-488.

  9. The Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pathway and Its Roles in Cell and Tissue Biology in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Plaitakis, Andreas; Kalef-Ezra, Ester; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human) that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1) is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth. In

  10. The Glutamate Dehydrogenase Pathway and Its Roles in Cell and Tissue Biology in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Plaitakis, Andreas; Kalef-Ezra, Ester; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe

    2017-02-08

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a hexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD(P)⁺ to NAD(P)H. It is found in all living organisms serving both catabolic and anabolic reactions. In mammalian tissues, oxidative deamination of glutamate via GDH generates α-ketoglutarate, which is metabolized by the Krebs cycle, leading to the synthesis of ATP. In addition, the GDH pathway is linked to diverse cellular processes, including ammonia metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, redox homeostasis (via formation of fumarate), lipid biosynthesis (via oxidative generation of citrate), and lactate production. While most mammals possess a single GDH1 protein (hGDH1 in the human) that is highly expressed in the liver, humans and other primates have acquired, via duplication, an hGDH2 isoenzyme with distinct functional properties and tissue expression profile. The novel hGDH2 underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation, acquiring unique properties that enable enhanced enzyme function under conditions inhibitory to its ancestor hGDH1. These are thought to provide a biological advantage to humans with hGDH2 evolution occurring concomitantly with human brain development. hGDH2 is co-expressed with hGDH1 in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs, but not in the liver. In human cerebral cortex, hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in astrocytes, the cells responsible for removing and metabolizing transmitter glutamate, and for supplying neurons with glutamine and lactate. In human testis, hGDH2 (but not hGDH1) is densely expressed in the Sertoli cells, known to provide the spermatids with lactate and other nutrients. In steroid producing cells, hGDH1/2 is thought to generate reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the mitochondria for the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones. Lastly, up-regulation of hGDH1/2 expression occurs in cancer, permitting neoplastic cells to utilize glutamine/glutamate for their growth. In

  11. Novel Inhibitors Complexed with Glutamate Dehydrogenase: ALLOSTERIC REGULATION BY CONTROL OF PROTEIN DYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J.; Walker, Matthew T.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-12-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P){sup +} as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.

  12. The structure of apo human glutamate dehydrogenase details subunit communication and allostery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas J; Schmidt, Timothy; Fang, Jie; Wu, Jane; Siuzdak, Gary; Stanley, Charles A

    2002-05-03

    The structure of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been determined in the absence of active site and regulatory ligands. Compared to the structures of bovine GDH that were complexed with coenzyme and substrate, the NAD binding domain is rotated away from the glutamate-binding domain. The electron density of this domain is more disordered the further it is from the pivot helix. Mass spectrometry results suggest that this is likely due to the apo form being more dynamic than the closed form. The antenna undergoes significant conformational changes as the catalytic cleft opens. The ascending helix in the antenna moves in a clockwise manner and the helix in the descending strand contracts in a manner akin to the relaxation of an extended spring. A number of spontaneous mutations in this antenna region cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome by decreasing GDH sensitivity to the inhibitor, GTP. Since these residues do not directly contact the bound GTP, the conformational changes in the antenna are apparently crucial to GTP inhibition. In the open conformation, the GTP binding site is distorted such that it can no longer bind GTP. In contrast, ADP binding benefits by the opening of the catalytic cleft since R463 on the pivot helix is pushed into contact distance with the beta-phosphate of ADP. These results support the previous proposal that purines regulate GDH activity by altering the dynamics of the NAD binding domain. Finally, a possible structural mechanism for negative cooperativity is presented.

  13. Novel inhibitors complexed with glutamate dehydrogenase: allosteric regulation by control of protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J; Walker, Matthew T; Smith, Thomas J

    2009-08-21

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.

  14. Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase is a secreted enzyme that confers resistance to H2O2.

    PubMed

    Girinathan, Brintha Prasummanna; Braun, Sterling E; Govind, Revathi

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile produces an NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which converts l-glutamate into α-ketoglutarate through an irreversible reaction. The enzyme GDH is detected in the stool samples of patients with C. difficile-associated disease and serves as one of the diagnostic tools to detect C. difficile infection (CDI). We demonstrate here that supernatant fluids of C. difficile cultures contain GDH. To understand the role of GDH in the physiology of C. difficile, an isogenic insertional mutant of gluD was created in strain JIR8094. The mutant failed to produce and secrete GDH as shown by Western blot analysis. Various phenotypic assays were performed to understand the importance of GDH in C. difficile physiology. In TY (tryptose yeast extract) medium, the gluD mutant grew slower than the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the growth defect in TY medium. The presence of extracellular GDH may have a functional role in the pathogenesis of CDI. In support of this assumption we found higher sensitivity to H2O2 in the gluD mutant as compared to the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the H2O2 sensitivity.

  15. Clostridium difficile glutamate dehydrogenase is a secreted enzyme that confers resistance to H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Girinathan, Brintha Prasummanna; Braun, Sterling E.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile produces an NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which converts l-glutamate into α-ketoglutarate through an irreversible reaction. The enzyme GDH is detected in the stool samples of patients with C. difficile-associated disease and serves as one of the diagnostic tools to detect C. difficile infection (CDI). We demonstrate here that supernatant fluids of C. difficile cultures contain GDH. To understand the role of GDH in the physiology of C. difficile, an isogenic insertional mutant of gluD was created in strain JIR8094. The mutant failed to produce and secrete GDH as shown by Western blot analysis. Various phenotypic assays were performed to understand the importance of GDH in C. difficile physiology. In TY (tryptose yeast extract) medium, the gluD mutant grew slower than the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the growth defect in TY medium. The presence of extracellular GDH may have a functional role in the pathogenesis of CDI. In support of this assumption we found higher sensitivity to H2O2 in the gluD mutant as compared to the parent strain. Complementation of the gluD mutant with the functional gluD gene reversed the H2O2 sensitivity. PMID:24145018

  16. A marriage full of surprises: forty-five years living with glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Engel, Paul C

    2011-09-01

    Detailed kinetic studies of bovine glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] from the 1960s revealed complexities that remain to be fully explained. In the absence of heterotropic nucleotide regulators the enzyme follows a random pathway of substrate addition but saturation with ADP enforces a compulsory-order mechanism in which glutamate is the leading substrate. The rate dependence on NAD(P)(+) concentration is complex and is probably only partly explained by negative binding cooperativity. Bovine GDH eluded successful analysis by crystallographers for 30 years but the final structural solution presented in this symposium at last provides a comprehensible framework for much of the heterotropic regulation, focussing attention on an antenna region in the C-terminal tail, a structure that is missing in the slightly smaller hexameric GDHs of lower organisms. Nonetheless, our studies with one such smaller (clostridial) GDH reveal that even without the antenna the underlying core structure still mediates homotropic cooperativity, and the ability to generate a variety of mutants has made it possible to start to dissect this machinery. In addition, this short personal review discusses a number of unresolved issues such as the significance of phospholipid inhibition and of specific interaction with mRNA, and above all the question of why it is necessary to regulate an enzyme reputedly maintaining its reactants at equilibrium and whether this might be in some way related to its coexistence with an energy-linked transhydrogenase.

  17. Characterization of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene and its regulation in a euryhaline copepod.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S; Burton, Ronald S

    2003-08-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays a key role in the metabolism of free amino acids (FAA) in crustaceans and other metazoans. Glutamate synthesized by GDH via reductive amination is the amino group donor for alanine synthesis and the precursor required for proline synthesis. Since both proline and alanine are important intracellular osmolytes in many marine invertebrates, GDH has been widely implicated as playing a central role in response to hyperosmotic stress in these organisms. We have isolated the gene encoding a GDH homolog from the euryhaline copepod Tigriopus californicus and examined the regulation of GDH under salinity stress. The gene encodes a protein of 557 residues with 76% amino acid identity with Drosophila melanogaster GDH. The gene encodes an N-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence peptide. Only a single intron of 71 bp was found in the GDH gene in T. californicus when genomic sequences and cDNA sequences were compared. The levels of GDH mRNA do not increase during hyperosmotic stress in this copepod. The effects of salt and hyperosmotic stress on GDH enzyme activity were also investigated. GDH activities decrease with increasing NaCl concentrations in in vitro enzyme assays, while live animals exposed to hyperosmotic stress showed no change in GDH enzyme activities. Combined, these results indicate that GDH transcription and enzyme activity do not appear to function in the regulation of alanine and proline accumulation during hyperosmotic stress in T. californicus. The manner in which this important physiological process is regulated remains unknown.

  18. Modulation of brain glutamate dehydrogenase as a tool for controlling seizures.

    PubMed

    Rasgado, Lourdes A Vega; Reyes, Guillermo Ceballos; Díaz, Fernando Vega

    2015-12-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in epilepsy. Glu is synthesized by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, E.C. 1.4.1.3) and dysfunction of the enzymatic activity of GDH is associated with brain pathologies. The main goal of this work is to establish the role of GDH in the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproate (VALP), diazepam (DIAZ) and diphenylhydantoin (DPH) and its repercussions on oxygen consumption. Oxidative deamination of Glu and reductive amination of αketoglutarate (αK) in mice brain were investigated. Our results show that AEDs decrease GDH activity and oxygen consumption in vitro. In ex vivo experiments, AEDs increased GDH activity but decreased oxygen consumption during Glu oxidative deamination. VALP and DPH reversed the increase in reductive amination of αK caused by the chemoconvulsant pentylenetetrazol. These results suggest that AEDs act by modulating brain GDH activity, which in turn decreased oxygen consumption. GDH represents an important regulation point of neuronal excitability, and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for metabolic treatment of epilepsy and for the development of new AEDs.

  19. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  20. Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase a is dispensable and not a drug target during erythrocytic development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum contains three genes encoding potential glutamate dehydrogenases. The protein encoded by gdha has previously been biochemically and structurally characterized. It was suggested that it is important for the supply of reducing equivalents during intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium and, therefore, a suitable drug target. Methods The gene encoding the NADP(H)-dependent GDHa has been disrupted by reverse genetics in P. falciparum and the effect on the antioxidant and metabolic capacities of the resulting mutant parasites was investigated. Results No growth defect under low and elevated oxygen tension, no up- or down-regulation of a number of antioxidant and NADP(H)-generating proteins or mRNAs and no increased levels of GSH were detected in the D10Δgdha parasite lines. Further, the fate of the carbon skeleton of [13C] labelled glutamine was assessed by metabolomic studies, revealing no differences in the labelling of α-ketoglutarate and other TCA pathway intermediates between wild type and mutant parasites. Conclusions First, the data support the conclusion that D10Δgdha parasites are not experiencing enhanced oxidative stress and that GDHa function may not be the provision of NADP(H) for reductive reactions. Second, the results imply that the cytosolic, NADP(H)-dependent GDHa protein is not involved in the oxidative deamination of glutamate but that the protein may play a role in ammonia assimilation as has been described for other NADP(H)-dependent GDH from plants and fungi. The lack of an obvious phenotype in the absence of GDHa may point to a regulatory role of the protein providing glutamate (as nitrogen storage molecule) in situations where the parasites experience a limiting supply of carbon sources and, therefore, under in vitro conditions the enzyme is unlikely to be of significant importance. The data imply that the protein is not a suitable target for future drug development against intra-erythrocytic parasite

  1. Human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase is expressed in neural and testicular supporting cells.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Zaganas, Ioannis; Kleopa, Kleopas A; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2010-05-28

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is an allosterically regulated enzyme that is expressed widely. Its activity is potently inhibited by GTP and thought to be controlled by the need of the cell for ATP. In addition to this housekeeping human (h) GDH1, humans have acquired (via a duplication event) a highly homologous isoenzyme (hGDH2) that is resistant to GTP. Although transcripts of GLUD2, the gene encoding hGDH2, have been detected in human neural and testicular tissues, data on the endogenous protein are lacking. Here, we developed an antibody specific for hGDH2 and used it to study human tissues. Western blot analyses revealed, to our surprise, that endogenous hGDH2 is more densely expressed in testis than in brain. At the subcellular level, hGDH2 localized to mitochondria. Study of testicular tissue using immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence methods revealed that the Sertoli cells were strongly labeled by our anti-hGDH2 antibody. In human cerebral cortex, a robust labeling of astrocytes was detected, with neurons showing faint hGDH2 immunoreactivity. Astrocytes and Sertoli cells are known to support neurons and germ cells, respectively, providing them with lactate that largely derives from the tricarboxylic acid cycle via conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate (GDH reaction). As hGDH2 is not subject to GTP control, the enzyme is able to metabolize glutamate even when the tricarboxylic acid cycle generates GTP amounts sufficient to inactivate the housekeeping hGDH1 protein. Hence, the selective expression of hGDH2 by astrocytes and Sertoli cells may provide a significant biological advantage by facilitating metabolic recycling processes essential to the supportive role of these cells.

  2. NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus: biochemical and molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Kersten, M A; Müller, Y; Baars, J J; Op den Camp, H J; van der Drift, C; Van Griensven, L J; Visser, J; Schaap, P J

    1999-04-01

    The NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of Agaricus bisporus, a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, was purified to homogeneity. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme is 474 kDa comprising four subunits of 116 kDa. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is about 7.0. Km values for ammonium, 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, glutamate and NAD+ were 6.5, 3.5, 0.06, 37.1 and 0.046 mM, respectively. The enzyme is specific for NAD(H). The gene encoding this enzyme (gdhB) was isolated from an A. bisporus H39 recombinant lambda phage library. The deduced amino acid sequence specifies a 1029-amino acid protein with a deduced molecular mass of 115,463 Da, which displays a significant degree of similarity with NAD-GDH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The ORF is interrupted by fifteen introns. Northern analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements suggest that NAD-GDH from A. bisporus is regulated by the nitrogen source. NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on glutamate were higher than NAD-GDH levels in mycelium grown on ammonium as a nitrogen source. Combined with the kinetic parameters, these results suggest a catabolic role for NAD-GDH. However, upon addition of ammonium to the culture transcription of the gene is not repressed as strongly as that of the gene encoding NADP-GDH (gdhA). To date, tetrameric NAD-GDHs with large subunits, and their corresponding genes, have only been isolated from a few species. This enzyme represents the first NAD-GDH of basidiomycete origin to be purified and is the first such enzyme from basidiomycetes whose sequence has been determined.

  3. Urease-glutamic dehydrogenase biosensor for screening heavy metals in water and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Belen Bello; Bolbot, John A; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2004-09-01

    A screen-printed three-electrode amperometric biosensor based on urease and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH)-glutamic dehydrogenase system was developed and applied to the screening of heavy metals in environmental samples. The development of an amperometric sensor for the monitoring of urease activity was feasible by coupling the urea breakdown reaction catalysed by urease to the reductive ammination of ketoglutarate catalysed by glutamic dehydrogenase (GLDH). The ammonia provided by the urea conversion is required for the conversion of ketoglutarate to glutamate with the concomitant oxidation of the NADH cofactor. NADH oxidation is monitored amperometrically at 0.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) after urease immobilization onto the screen-printed three-electrode configuration. Immobilization of urease on the surface of screen-printed electrodes was performed by entrapment in alginate gel and adsorption on the electrode in a nafion film. Low sensitivity to inactivation by metals was recorded after urease entrapment in alginate gel with detection limits of 2.9 and 29.8 mg L(-1) for Hg(II) and Cu(II), respectively. The use of the negatively charged nafion film created a more concentrated environment of cations in proximity to the enzyme, thus enhancing the urease inhibition when compared to gel entrapment. The calculated detection limits were 63.6 and 55.3 microg L(-1) for Hg(II) and Cu(II), respectively, and 4.3 mg L(-1) for Cd(II). A significant urease inactivation was recorded in the presence of trace amounts of metals (microg L(-1)) when the enzyme was used free in solution. Analysis of water and soil samples with the developed nafion-based sensor produced inhibition on urease activity according to their metal contents. The obtained results were in agreement with the standard methods employed for sample analysis. Nevertheless, the use of the amperometric assay (with free urease) proved more feasible for the screening of trace amounts of metals in polluted

  4. Use of a bioreactor consisting of sequentially aligned L-glutamate dehydrogenase and L-glutamate oxidase for the determination of ammonia by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Murachi, T; Tabata, M

    1987-08-01

    A chemiluminometric method for the automated flow injection analysis of ammonia is described. The essence of the invention is the use of a bioreactor consisting of both immobilized L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and L-glutamate oxidase (GLXD), which are sequentially aligned in this order in a minicolumn measuring 2.0 X 20 mm. The unidirectional constant flow of liquid through the column reactor minimizes the reversed diffusion of the solutes so that the following sequence of reactions is ensured. Thus, ammonia to be determined is first transformed by GLDH into L-glutamate, which then produces hydrogen peroxide by GLXD. Hydrogen peroxide in the effluent from the column is then determined by its chemiluminescence upon admixing with luminol and potassium ferricyanide. The present method gives linearity of the standard curve for ammonia up to 1.0 mM. It is at least 100 times more sensitive than the conventional method for ammonia assay using ultraviolet absorption measurement.

  5. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production.

    PubMed

    Thykaer, Jette; Rueksomtawin, Kanchana; Noorman, Henk; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-04-01

    The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA- and a penicillin-producing strain. The gdhA gene disruption caused a decrease in maximum specific growth rate of 26 % and 35 % for the adipoyl-7-ADCA-producing strain and the penicillin-producing strain, respectively, compared to the corresponding reference strains. Interestingly, no beta-lactam production was detected in either of the DeltagdhA strains. Supplementation with glutamate restored growth but no beta-lactam production was detected for the constructed strains. Cultures with high ammonium concentrations (repressing conditions) and with proline as nitrogen source (de-repressed conditions) showed continued beta-lactam production for the reference strains whereas the DeltagdhA strains remained non-productive under all conditions. By overexpressing the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, the specific growth rate could be restored, but still no beta-lactam production was detected. The results indicate that the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase may be directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of beta-lactam production in industrial strains of P. chrysogenum.

  6. Engineering of a functional human NADH-dependent cytochrome P450 system

    PubMed Central

    Döhr, Olaf; Paine, Mark J. I.; Friedberg, Thomas; Roberts, Gordon C. K.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2001-01-01

    A functional human NADH-dependent cytochrome P450 system has been developed by altering the cofactor preference of human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), the redox partner for P450s. This has been achieved by a single amino acid change of the conserved aromatic amino acid Trp-676, which covers the re-side of the FAD isoalloxazine ring in the nicotinamide-binding site. Of the mutations made, the substitution of Trp-676 with alanine (W676A) resulted in a functional NADH-dependent enzyme, which catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c and ferricyanide as well as facilitated the metabolism of 7-ethoxyresorufin by CYP1A2. Kinetic analysis measuring cytochrome c activity revealed that the NADH-dependent kcat of W676A is equivalent (90%) to the NADPH-dependent kcat of the wild-type enzyme, with W676A having an approximately 1,000-fold higher specificity for NADH. The apparent KMNADPH and KMNADH values of W676A are 80- and 150-fold decreased, respectively. In accordance with structural data, which show a bipartite binding mode of NADPH, substitution of Trp-676 does not affect 2′-AMP binding as seen by the inhibition of both wild-type CPR and the W676A mutant. Furthermore, NADPH was a potent inhibitor of the W676A NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction and CYP1A2 activity. Overall, the results show that Trp-676 of human CPR plays a major role in cofactor discrimination, and substitution of this conserved aromatic residue with alanine results in an efficient NADH-dependent cytochrome P450 system. PMID:11136248

  7. Subunit assembly and active site location in the structure of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Baker, P J; Britton, K L; Engel, P C; Farrants, G W; Lilley, K S; Rice, D W; Stillman, T J

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional crystal structure of the NAD(+)-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum has been solved to 1.96 A resolution by a combination of isomorphous replacement and molecular averaging and refined to a conventional crystallographic R factor of 0.227. Each subunit in this multimeric enzyme is organised into two domains separated by a deep cleft. One domain directs the self-assembly of the molecule into a hexameric oligomer with 32 symmetry. The other domain is structurally similar to the classical dinucleotide binding fold but with the direction of one of the strands reversed. Difference Fourier analysis on the binary complex of the enzyme with NAD+ shows that the dinucleotide is bound in an extended conformation with the nicotinamide moiety deep in the cleft between the two domains. Hydrogen bonds between the carboxyamide group of the nicotinamide ring and the side chains of T209 and N240, residues conserved in all hexameric GDH sequences, provide a positive selection for the syn conformer of this ring. This results in a molecular arrangement in which the A face of the nicotinamide ring is buried against the enzyme surface and the B face is exposed, adjacent to a striking cluster of conserved residues including K89, K113, and K125. Modeling studies, correlated with chemical modification data, have implicated this region as the glutamate/2-oxoglutarate binding site and provide an explanation at the molecular level for the B type stereospecificity of the hydride transfer of GDH during the catalytic cycle.

  8. Purification of Mitochondrial Glutamate Dehydrogenase from Dark-Grown Soybean Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Turano, F. J.; Dashner, R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Caldwell, C. R.

    1996-11-01

    Proteins in extracts from cotyledons, hypocotyls, and roots of 5-d-old, dark-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams) seedlings were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three isoforms of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were resolved and visualized in gels stained for GDH activity. Two isoforms with high electrophoretic mobility, GDH1 and GDH2, were in protein extracts from cotyledons and a third isoform with the lowest electrophoretic mobility, GDH3, was identified in protein extracts from root and hypocotyls. Subcellular fractionation of dark-grown soybean tissues demonstrated that GDH3 was associated with intact mitochondria. GDH3 was purified to homogeneity, as determined by native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The isoenzyme was composed of a single 42-kD subunit. The pH optima for the reductive amination and the oxidative deamination reactions were 8.0 and 9.3, respectively. At any given pH, GDH activity was 12- to 50-fold higher in the direction of reductive amination than in the direction of the oxidative deamination reaction. GDH3 had a cofactor preference for NAD(H) over NADP(H). The apparent Michaelis constant values for [alpha]-ketoglutarate, ammonium, and NADH at pH 8.0 were 3.6, 35.5, and 0.07 mM, respectively. The apparent Michaelis constant values for glutamate and NAD were 15.8 and 0.10 mM at pH 9.3, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical and physical characterization of a purified mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent GDH isoenzyme from soybean.

  9. Failure of glutamate dehydrogenase system to predict oxygenation state of human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Katz, A; Spencer, M K; Sahlin, K

    1990-07-01

    In a recent study, the total tissue contents of glutamate (Glu), ammonium (NH+4), and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) were used to estimate changes in the mitochondrial redox state ([NAD+]/[NADH]) of contracting skeletal muscle with intact circulation [Am. J. Physiol. 253 (Cell Physiol. 22): C263-C268, 1987]. These metabolites participate in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) reaction, which, based on a number of assumptions, theoretically enables calculation of the mitochondrial redox state as follows (brackets indicate concentrations): [NAD+]/[NADH] = ([NH+4] [2-OG])/[( Glu]Kapp), where Kapp is the apparent equilibrium constant for GDH. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in the total tissue contents of Glu, NH+4, and 2-OG could be used to predict a reduction of the mitochondrial redox state in anoxic skeletal muscle. Anoxia was induced in the quadriceps femoris muscle by 10 min of circulatory occlusion (low metabolic rate) and isometric contraction to fatigue (high metabolic rate). The mean (+/- SE) value for the metabolite ratio ([NH+4][2-OG]/[Glu]) at rest was 6 +/- 3 mmol/kg dry wt (x 10(-4]. No significant change occurred after circulatory occlusion (4 +/- 2 x 10(-4); P greater than 0.05), whereas an almost 60-fold increase was observed after isometric contraction (P less than 0.05). Because the muscle was anoxic under both conditions, a significant decrease in the metabolite ratio should have occurred. These data demonstrate that changes in total tissue contents of Glu, NH+4, and 2-OG cannot be used to estimate changes in the redox and oxygenation state of mitochondria in intact human skeletal muscle.

  10. Estrogen modification of human glutamate dehydrogenases is linked to enzyme activation state.

    PubMed

    Borompokas, Nikolas; Papachatzaki, Maria-Martha; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Zaganas, Ioannis; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a housekeeping enzyme central to the metabolism of glutamate. Its activity is potently inhibited by GTP (IC(50) = 0.1-0.3 μM) and thought to be controlled by the need of the cell in ATP. Estrogens are also known to inhibit mammalian GDH, but at relatively high concentrations. Because, in addition to this housekeeping human (h) GDH1, humans have acquired via a duplication event an hGDH2 isoform expressed in human cortical astrocytes, we tested here the interaction of estrogens with the two human isoenzymes. The results showed that, under base-line conditions, diethylstilbestrol potently inhibited hGDH2 (IC(50) = 0.08 ± 0.01 μM) and with ∼18-fold lower affinity hGDH1 (IC(50) = 1.67 ± 0.06 μM; p < 0.001). Similarly, 17β-estradiol showed a ∼18-fold higher affinity for hGDH2 (IC(50) = 1.53 ± 0.24 μM) than for hGDH1 (IC(50) = 26.94 ± 1.07 μM; p < 0.001). Also, estriol and progesterone were more potent inhibitors of hGDH2 than hGDH1. Structure/function analyses revealed that the evolutionary R443S substitution, which confers low basal activity, was largely responsible for sensitivity of hGDH2 to estrogens. Inhibition of both human GDHs by estrogens was inversely related to their state of activation induced by ADP, with the slope of this correlation being steeper for hGDH2 than for hGDH1. Also, the study of hGDH1 and hGDH2 mutants displaying different states of activation revealed that the affinity of estrogen for these enzymes correlated inversely (R = 0.99; p = 0.0001) with basal catalytic activity. Because astrocytes are known to synthesize estrogens, these hormones, by interacting potently with hGDH2 in its closed state, may contribute to regulation of glutamate metabolism in brain.

  11. The role of chloroplast and cytoplasm in the NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase synthesis in Ankistrodesmus cells.

    PubMed

    Shatilov, V R; Sof'in, A V; Zabrodina, T M; Kretovich, W L

    1982-12-10

    The effects of transcription and translation inhibitors on NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase synthesis in nitrogen-starving Ankistrodesmus braunii cells have been studied. Considering the results obtained one can suggest that both enzymes are coded in the chloroplast genome and that during nitrogen starvation specific mRNA's are partly transferred from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm and can be translated there on 80S ribosomes.

  12. The role of chloroplast and cytoplasm in the NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase synthesis in Ankistrodesmus cells.

    PubMed

    Shatilov, V R; Sof'in, A V; Zabrodina, T M; Kretovich, W L

    1982-09-03

    The effects of transcription and translation inhibitors on NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase synthesis in nitrogen-starving Ankistrodesmus braunii cells have been studied. Considering the results obtained one can suggest that both enzymes are coded in a chloroplast genome and that during nitrogen starvation specific mRNA's are partly transferred from chloroplast into cytoplasm and can be translated there on 80S ribosomes.

  13. Determination of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Kinetics in Mouse Tissues using Metabolic Mapping (Quantitative Enzyme Histochemistry)

    PubMed Central

    Botman, Dennis; Tigchelaar, Wikky

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible conversion of glutamate into α-ketoglutarate with the concomitant reduction of NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H or vice versa. GDH activity is subject to complex allosteric regulation including substrate inhibition. To determine GDH kinetics in situ, we assessed the effects of various glutamate concentrations in combination with either the coenzyme NAD+ or NADP+ on GDH activity in mouse liver cryostat sections using metabolic mapping. NAD+-dependent GDH Vmax was 2.5-fold higher than NADP+-dependent Vmax, whereas the Km was similar, 1.92 mM versus 1.66 mM, when NAD+ or NADP+ was used, respectively. With either coenzyme, Vmax was determined at 10 mM glutamate and substrate inhibition was observed at higher glutamate concentrations with a Ki of 12.2 and 3.95 for NAD+ and NADP+ used as coenzyme, respectively. NAD+- and NADP+-dependent GDH activities were examined in various mouse tissues. GDH activity was highest in liver and much lower in other tissues. In all tissues, the highest activity was found when NAD+ was used as a coenzyme. In conclusion, GDH activity in mice is highest in the liver with NAD+ as a coenzyme and highest GDH activity was determined at a glutamate concentration of 10 mM. PMID:25124006

  14. The role of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in restoring growth on glucose of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoglucose isomerase mutant.

    PubMed

    Boles, E; Lehnert, W; Zimmermann, F K

    1993-10-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase pgi1-deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot grow on glucose as the sole carbon source and are even inhibited by glucose. These growth defects could be suppressed by an over-expression on a multi-copy plasmid of the structural gene GDH2 coding for the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. GDH2 codes for a protein with 1092 amino acids which is located on chromosome XII and shows high sequence similarity to the Neurospora crassa NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase. Suppression of the pgi1 deletion by over-expression of GDH2 was abolished in strains with a deletion of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ZWF1 or gene GDH1 coding for the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase. Moreover, this suppression required functional mitochondria. It is proposed that the growth defect of pgi1 deletion mutants on glucose is due to a rapid depletion of NADP which is needed as a cofactor in the oxidative reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway. Over-expression of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase leads to a very efficient conversion of glutamate with NADH generation to 2-oxoglutarate which can be converted back to glutamate by the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase with the consumption of NADPH. Consequently, over-expression of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase causes a substrate cycling between 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate which restores NADP from NADPH through the coupled conversion of NAD to NADH which can be oxidized in the mitochondria. Furthermore, the requirement for an increase in NADPH consumption for the suppression of the phosphoglucose isomerase defect could be met by addition of oxidizing agents which are known to reduce the level of NADPH.

  15. Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans lacking nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, J R; Pateman, J A

    1976-01-01

    Ten mutants of Aspergillus nidulans lacking nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) have been isolated, and their mutations (gdhB1 through gdhB10) have been shown to lie in the gdhB gene. In addition, a temperature-sensitive gdhB mutant (gdhB11) has been isolated. A revertant (designated R-5) of the mutant gdhB1 bears an additional lesion in the gdhB gene and has altered NAD-GDH activity with altered Km values for ammonia or ammonium ions and for alpha-ketoglutarate. These results suggest that gdhB specifies a structural component for NAD-GDH. The growth characteristics of gdhB mutants indicate the routes by which amino acids are utilized as nitrogen and carbon energy sources. The properties are described of the double mutants bearing the mutations gdhB1 and gdhA1 or tamA119, which have low NADP-GDH activity. PMID:173707

  16. Surface Induced Dissociation Yields Quaternary Substructure of Refractory Noncovalent Phosphorylase B and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Zhou, Mowei; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2014-03-01

    Ion mobility (IM) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with native MS are useful for studying noncovalent protein complexes. Collision induced dissociation (CID) is the most common MS/MS dissociation method. However, some protein complexes, including glycogen phosphorylase B kinase (PHB) and L-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) examined in this study, are resistant to dissociation by CID at the maximum collision energy available in the instrument. Surface induced dissociation (SID) was applied to dissociate the two refractory protein complexes. Different charge state precursor ions of the two complexes were examined by CID and SID. The PHB dimer was successfully dissociated to monomers and the GDH hexamer formed trimeric subcomplexes that are informative of its quaternary structure. The unfolding of the precursor and the percentages of the distinct products suggest that the dissociation pathways vary for different charge states. The precursors at lower charge states (+21 for PHB dimer and +27 for GDH hexamer) produce a higher percentage of folded fragments and dissociate more symmetrically than the precusors at higher charge states (+29 for PHB dimer and +39 for GDH hexamer). The precursors at lower charge state may be more native-like than the higher charge state because a higher percentage of folded fragments and a lower percentage of highly charged unfolded fragments are detected. The combination of SID and charge reduction is shown to be a powerful tool for quaternary structure analysis of refractory noncovalent protein complexes, as illustrated by the data for PHB dimer and GDH hexamer.

  17. Expression of root glutamate dehydrogenase genes in tobacco plants subjected to boron deprivation.

    PubMed

    Beato, Víctor M; Teresa Navarro-Gochicoa, M; Rexach, Jesús; Begoña Herrera-Rodríguez, M; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Kempa, Stefan; Weckwerth, Wolfram; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2011-11-01

    Recently it has been reported that boron (B) deficiency increases the expression of Nicotiana tabacum asparagine synthetase (AS) gene in roots, and that AS might play a main role as a detoxifying mechanism to convert ammonium into asparagine. Interestingly, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes, Ntgdh-NAD;A1 and Ntgdh-NAD;B2, were up-regulated when tobacco roots were subjected to B deprivation for 8 and 24 h. In addition, aminating and deaminating GDH (EC 1.4.1.2) activities were higher in B-deficient than in B-sufficient plants after 24 h of B deficiency. Ammonium concentrations were kept sufficiently low and with similar values in B-deficient roots when compared to control. Glucose and fructose contents decreased after 24 h of B deprivation. This drop in hexoses, which was corroborated by metabolomic analysis, correlated with higher GDH gene expression. Furthermore, metabolomic profiling showed that concentrations of several organic acids, phenolics, and amino acids increased after 24 h of B deficiency. Our results suggest that GDH enzyme plays an important role in metabolic acclimation of tobacco roots to B deprivation. A putative model to explain these results is proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple Forms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Animals: Structural Determinants and Physiological Implications.

    PubMed

    Bunik, Victoria; Artiukhov, Artem; Aleshin, Vasily; Mkrtchyan, Garik

    2016-12-14

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of animal cells is usually considered to be a mitochondrial enzyme. However, this enzyme has recently been reported to be also present in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. These extramitochondrial localizations are associated with moonlighting functions of GDH, which include acting as a serine protease or an ATP-dependent tubulin-binding protein. Here, we review the published data on kinetics and localization of multiple forms of animal GDH taking into account the splice variants, post-translational modifications and GDH isoenzymes, found in humans and apes. The kinetic properties of human GLUD1 and GLUD2 isoenzymes are shown to be similar to those published for GDH1 and GDH2 from bovine brain. Increased functional diversity and specific regulation of GDH isoforms due to alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are also considered. In particular, these structural differences may affect the well-known regulation of GDH by nucleotides which is related to recent identification of thiamine derivatives as novel GDH modulators. The thiamine-dependent regulation of GDH is in good agreement with the fact that the non-coenzyme forms of thiamine, i.e., thiamine triphosphate and its adenylated form are generated in response to amino acid and carbon starvation.

  19. Ethylene-Regulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase Fine-Tunes Metabolism during Anoxia-Reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Jin; Lin, Chih-Yu; Ting, Chen-Yun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-11-01

    Ethylene is an essential hormone in plants that is involved in low-oxygen and reoxygenation responses. As a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) activates targets that trigger various responses. However, most of these targets are still poorly characterized. Through analyses of our microarray data and the published Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EIN3 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data set, we inferred the putative targets of EIN3 during anoxia-reoxygenation. Among them, GDH2, which encodes one subunit of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), was chosen for further studies for its role in tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment. We demonstrated that both GDH1 and GDH2 are induced during anoxia and reoxygenation and that this induction is mediated via ethylene signaling. In addition, the results of enzymatic assays showed that the level of GDH during anoxia-reoxygenation decreased in the ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3eil1 Global metabolite analysis indicated that the deamination activity of GDH might regenerate 2-oxoglutarate, which is a cosubstrate that facilitates the breakdown of alanine by alanine aminotransferase when reoxygenation occurs. Moreover, ineffective tricarboxylic acid cycle replenishment, disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, reduced phytosterol biosynthesis, and delayed energy regeneration were found in gdh1gdh2 and ethylene mutants during reoxygenation. Taken together, these data illustrate the essential role of EIN3-regulated GDH activity in metabolic adjustment during anoxia-reoxygenation.

  20. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Schwanniomyces occidentalis NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, P A; Connerton, I F; Watson, D C; Johnston, J R

    1991-08-01

    The cloned NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes of Aspergillus nidulans (gdhA) and Neurospora crassa (am) have been shown to hybridize under reduced stringency conditions to genomic sequences of the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Using 5' and 3' gene-specific probes, a unique 5.1 kb BclI restriction fragment that encompasses the entire Schwanniomyces sequence has been identified. A recombinant clone bearing the unique BclI fragment has been isolated from a pool of enriched clones in the yeast/E. coli shuttle vector pWH5 by colony hybridization. The identity of the plasmid clone was confirmed by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gdh-1 mutation. The nucleotide sequence of the Schw. occidentalis GDH gene, which consists of 1380 nucleotides in a continuous reading frame of 459 amino acids, has been determined. The predicted amino acid sequence shows considerable homology with GDH proteins from other fungi and significant homology with all other available GDH sequences.

  1. Selection and characterization of DNA aptamers for detection of glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Yin, Qingxin; Brennan, John D; Li, Yingfu

    2017-09-04

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is crucial for patient treatment, infection control and epidemiological monitoring. As an important antigen, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been proposed as a preliminary screening test target for CDI. However, current assays based on GDH activity or GDH immunoassays have suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we described the selection and characterization of single-stranded DNA aptamers that specifically targeted GDH. After 10 rounds of selection, high-throughput sequencing was used to identify enriched aptamer candidates. Of 10 candidates, three aptamers for GDH were identified. Gel shift assays showed that these aptamers exhibited low nanomolar affinities. One aptamer was optimized based on structural analysis and further engineered into a structure-switching fluorescence signaling aptamer, wherein desorption from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) upon binding of GDH led to an increase in fluorescence emission. This method allowed for quantitative detection of GDH with a detection limit of 1 nM, providing great potential for its further application in CDI diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. The NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi: sequence, genomic organization and expression.

    PubMed Central

    Barderi, P; Campetella, O; Frasch, A C; Santomé, J A; Hellman, U; Pettersson, U; Cazzulo, J J

    1998-01-01

    NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+-GluDH, EC 1.4.1.4) has been purified to homogeneity from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi by an improved procedure, and the amino acid sequences of 11 internal peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin, endopeptidase Lys-C, endopeptidase Arg-C or CNBr have been obtained. Using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the mature enzyme and to the nucleotide sequence of a clone corresponding to the C-terminus, obtained by immunological screening of an expression library, two complete open reading frames (TcGluDH1 and TcGluDH2) were isolated and sequenced. The sequences obtained are most similar to that of the NADP+-GluDH of Escherichia coli (70-72% identity), and less similar (50-56%) to those of lower eukaryotes. Using TcGluDH1 as a probe, evidence for the presence of several genes and developmental regulation of the expression of NADP+-GluDH in different parasite stages was obtained. TcGluDH1 encodes an enzymically active protein, since its expression in E. coli resulted in the production of a GluDH activity with kinetic parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme. PMID:9480915

  3. Diagnostic test accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase for Clostridium difficile: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto, Jun; Horita, Nobuyuki; Kato, Shingo; Fuyuki, Akiko; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Endo, Hiroki; Takashi, Nonaka; Kaneko, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of detecting glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) based on the hierarchical model. Two investigators electrically searched four databases. Reference tests were stool cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) and stool toxigenic culture (TC). To assess the overall accuracy, we calculated the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) using a DerSimonian-Laird random-model and area the under hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics (AUC) using Holling’s proportional hazard models. The summary estimate of the sensitivity and the specificity were obtained using the bivariate model. According to 42 reports consisting of 3055 reference positive comparisons, and 26188 reference negative comparisons, the DOR was 115 (95%CI: 77–172, I2 = 12.0%) and the AUC was 0.970 (95%CI: 0.958–0.982). The summary estimate of sensitivity and specificity were 0.911 (95%CI: 0.871–0.940) and 0.912 (95%CI: 0.892–0.928). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 10.4 (95%CI 8.4–12.7) and 0.098 (95%CI 0.066–0.142), respectively. Detecting GDH for the diagnosis of CDI had both high sensitivity and specificity. Considering its low cost and prevalence, it is appropriate for a screening test for CDI. PMID:27418431

  4. The discovery of four distinct glutamate dehydrogenase genes in a strain of Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Ingoldsby, Lorna M; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Hayden, Bronagh M; Engel, Paul C

    2005-04-11

    In earlier work, two glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) proteins were purified from a strain of the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum (NRC-36014). One of these, an NAD+-specific enzyme, was matched to a cloned gene from H. salinarum (GenBank accession number: X63837 S75579) by sequencing peptide fragments. Analysis of enzymatic digests of the NADP+-GDH and database searching have now established that a gene encoding this protein exists in the full genomic sequence of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 as gdhA1, together with two other distinct gdh genes, gdhA2 and gdhB. From N-terminal sequence, it is clear that the genomic listing incorrectly assigns the start codon for gdhA1 and the corresponding protein is 43 amino acids longer than previously indicated. The three genes could be amplified by PCR either from NRC-1, as expected, or from NRC-36014 (GenBank accession numbers: YA840085-AY840087). A gene encoding the previously purified NAD+-GDH, is absent from the NRC-1 genome but can be successfully amplified from genomic DNA of NRC-36014 (GenBank accession number: AY840088). This establishes that NRC-36014 contains four gdh genes.

  5. Multiple Forms of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Animals: Structural Determinants and Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bunik, Victoria; Artiukhov, Artem; Aleshin, Vasily; Mkrtchyan, Garik

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of animal cells is usually considered to be a mitochondrial enzyme. However, this enzyme has recently been reported to be also present in nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. These extramitochondrial localizations are associated with moonlighting functions of GDH, which include acting as a serine protease or an ATP-dependent tubulin-binding protein. Here, we review the published data on kinetics and localization of multiple forms of animal GDH taking into account the splice variants, post-translational modifications and GDH isoenzymes, found in humans and apes. The kinetic properties of human GLUD1 and GLUD2 isoenzymes are shown to be similar to those published for GDH1 and GDH2 from bovine brain. Increased functional diversity and specific regulation of GDH isoforms due to alternative splicing and post-translational modifications are also considered. In particular, these structural differences may affect the well-known regulation of GDH by nucleotides which is related to recent identification of thiamine derivatives as novel GDH modulators. The thiamine-dependent regulation of GDH is in good agreement with the fact that the non-coenzyme forms of thiamine, i.e., thiamine triphosphate and its adenylated form are generated in response to amino acid and carbon starvation. PMID:27983623

  6. Expression, purification and characterization of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) allosteric regulatory mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Hsu, Betty Y L; MacMullen, Courtney M; Poncz, Mortimer; Smith, Thomas J; Stanley, Charles A

    2002-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, this enzyme is highly regulated by allosteric effectors. The major allosteric activator and inhibitor are ADP and GTP, respectively; allosteric activation by leucine may play an important role in amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion. The physiological significance of this regulation has been highlighted by the identification of children with an unusual hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome associated with dominant mutations in GDH that cause a loss in GTP inhibition. In order to determine the effects of these mutations on the function of the human GDH homohexamer, we studied the expression, purification and characterization of two of these regulatory mutations (H454Y, which affects the putative GTP-binding site, and S448P, which affects the antenna region) and a mutation designed to alter the putative binding site for ADP (R463A). The sensitivity to GTP inhibition was impaired markedly in the purified H454Y (ED(50), 210 microM) and S448P (ED(50), 3.1 microM) human GDH mutants compared with the wild-type human GDH (ED(50), 42 nM) or GDH isolated from heterozygous patient cells (ED(50), 290 and 280 nM, respectively). Sensitivity to ADP or leucine stimulation was unaffected by these mutations, confirming that they interfere specifically with the inhibitory GTP-binding site. Conversely, the R463A mutation completely eliminated ADP activation of human GDH, but had little effect on either GTP inhibition or leucine activation. The effects of these three mutations on ATP regulation indicated that this nucleotide inhibits human GDH through binding of its triphosphate tail to the GTP site and, at higher concentrations, activates the enzyme through binding of the nucleotide to the ADP site. These data confirm the assignment of the GTP and ADP allosteric regulatory sites on GDH based on X-ray crystallography and provide

  7. Characterization and dietary regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in different ploidy fishes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Shaojun; Zhong, Huan; Zhang, Chun; kang, Xuewei; Liu, Yun

    2012-12-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays a crucial role in amino acid deamination and has been used as an inductor of nutrients metabolism. In this study, we cloned and analyzed the GDH cDNAs in diploids (red crucian carp), triploids and tetraploids and characterized their expression profiles upon dietary treatments. Results showed a high sequence similarity of GDH among the three kinds of ploidy fishes and other vertebrates. Expression analysis revealed that GDH exhibited a distinct spatial pattern of expression in different types of fishes. The triploids and tetraploids had higher levels of expression than diploids in heart, liver, gill, muscle, fore-gut and mid-gut. The GDH expression was also developmentally regulated with a stronger expression around blastula stage. The maternal GDH transcripts were first detected from eggs and their expression dropped down from the gastrula stage to heart beat stage. Adult triploids showed the highest levels of GDH expression in liver during breeding season which may contribute to the good appetite and fast growth. In addition, triploids exhibited high growth rates and excess GDH expression compared with other two types of fishes. The liver GDH enzyme activities were also higher in triploids than red crucian carp and tetraploids. Moreover, GDH expression is regulated by dietary protein levels. Fish fed with either high or low protein diets showed higher levels of GDH expression. In summary, our results demonstrated for the first time that the different ploidy fishes had different patterns of GDH mRNA expression during development, breeding and non-breeding seasons, and as well dietary effects from different protein levels in diet. These data indicate that abundant GDH expression may play an important role in growth rates in triploids.

  8. Glutamate dehydrogenase requirement for apoptosis induced by aristolochic acid in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry; Bonala, Radha; Johnson, Francis; Grollman, Arthur

    2011-12-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AA) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adduct formation, is well-documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. Epithelial cell death is a critical characteristic of these pathological conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms of AA-induced cytotoxicity, we explored AA-interacting proteins in tubular epithelial cells (TEC). We found that AA interacts with a mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and moderately inhibits its activity. We report that AA induces cell death in GDH-knockdown TEC preferentially via non-apoptotic means, whereas in GDH-positive cells, death was executed by both the non-apoptotic and apoptotic mechanisms. Apoptosis is an energy-reliant process and demands higher adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) consumption than does the non-apoptotic cell death. We found that, after AAI treatment, the ATP depletion is more pronounced in GDH-knockdown cells. When we reduced ATP in TEC cells by inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, cell death mode switched from apoptosis and necrosis to necrosis only. In addition, in cells incubated at low glucose and no glutamine conditions, oxaloacetate and pyruvate reduced AAI-induced apoptosis our data suggest that AAI-GDH interactions in TEC are critical for the induction of apoptosis by direct inhibition of GDH activity. AA binding may also induce changes in GDH conformation and promote interactions with other molecules or impair signaling by GDH metabolic products, leading to apoptosis.

  9. Characterization and expression of NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Turano, F J; Thakkar, S S; Fang, T; Weisemann, J M

    1997-04-01

    Two distinct cDNA clones encoding NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD[H]-GDH) in Arabidopsis thaliana were identified and sequenced. The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated GDH1 and GDH2. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences suggest that both gene products contain putative mitochondrial transit polypeptides and NAD(H)- and alpha-ketoglutarate-binding domains. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the mitochondrial location of the NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. In addition, a putative EF-hand loop, shown to be associated with Ca2+ binding, was identified in the GDH2 gene product but not in the GDH1 gene product. GDH1 encodes a 43.0-kD polypeptide, designated alpha, and GDH2 encodes a 42.5-kD polypeptide, designated beta. The two subunits combine in different ratios to form seven NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. The slowest-migrating isoenzyme in a native gel, GDH1, is a homohexamer composed of alpha subunits, and the fastest-migrating isoenzyme, GDH7, is a homohexamer composed of beta subunits. GDH isoenzymes 2 through 6 are heterohexamers composed of different ratios of alpha and beta subunits. NAD(H)-GDH isoenzyme patterns varied among different plant organs and in leaves of plants irrigated with different nitrogen sources or subjected to darkness for 4 d. Conversely, there were little or no measurable changes in isoenzyme patterns in roots of plants treated with different nitrogen sources. In most instances, changes in isoenzyme patterns were correlated with relative differences in the level of alpha and beta subunits. Likewise, the relative difference in the level of alpha or beta subunits was correlated with changes in the level of GDH1 or GDH2 transcript detected in each sample, suggesting that NAD(H)-GDH activity is controlled at least in part at the transcriptional level.

  10. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  11. Purification and side chain selective chemical modifications of glutamate dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yinyun; Wang, Jiale; Qian, Bingjun; Song, Guangyan; Yao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Jian-hua

    2014-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, and hydroxyapatite (HA) affinity chromatography. The GDH was purified 34-fold, with a yield of 41 % of total activity and a specific activity of 34.29 U/mg proteins. The molecular weight (Mr) of was measured at 47 kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 264 kDa with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum pH and temperature for the deammoniation reaction were measured to be 7.5 and 30 °C, respectively. The active-site amino acid residues of GDH were investigated by chemical modification. The compounds 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), phenylglyoxal (PG), and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) were used to modify lysine, arginine, and serine active site residues, respectively. After treatment with modifying reagents at concentrations of 1 mM, GDH activity fell to 10.7 % with TNBS, 83.3 % with PG, and 12.8 % with PMSF. However, with substrate protection, there was almost no loss in GDH activity following treatment with any modifying reagent. The kinetic parameters K m and V max were determined in each case. K m values for native GDH, 50 % TNBS-inactivated GDH, and 50 % PMSF-inactivated GDH were 0.037, 0.104, and 0.017 mM, respectively. V max values were 0.048, 0.022, and 0.031 mM/s, respectively. These results suggest that the active site contains one or more lysine residues that play a role in substrate binding and one or more serine residues that may maintain the enzyme conformation. However, arginine residues played less of a role in the activity of GDH.

  12. α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Work in Tandem To Modulate the Antioxidant α-Ketoglutarate during Oxidative Stress in Pseudomonas fluorescens▿

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Singh, Ranji; Brewer, Guy; Auger, Christopher; Lemire, Joseph; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2009-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (KG) is a crucial metabolite in all living organisms, as it participates in a variety of biochemical processes. We have previously shown that this keto acid is an antioxidant and plays a key role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In an effort to further confirm this intriguing phenomenon, Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to menadione-containing media, with various amino acids as the sources of nitrogen. Here, we demonstrate that KG dehydrogenase (KGDH) and NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) work in tandem to modulate KG homeostasis. While KGDH was sharply decreased in cells challenged with menadione, GDH was markedly increased in cultures containing arginine (Arg), glutamate (Glu), and proline (Pro). When ammonium (NH4) was utilized as the nitrogen source, both KGDH and GDH levels were diminished. These enzymatic profiles were reversed when control cells were incubated in menadione media. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography studies revealed how KG was utilized to eliminate ROS with the concomitant formation of succinate. The accumulation of KG in the menadione-treated cells was dependent on the redox status of the lipoic acid residue in KGDH. Indeed, the treatment of cellular extracts from the menadione-exposed cells with dithiothreitol, a reducing agent, partially restored the activity of KGDH. Taken together, these data reveal that KG is pivotal to the antioxidative defense strategy of P. fluorescens and also point to the ROS-sensing role for KGDH. PMID:19376872

  13. Branched-chain amino acid metabolon: interaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm).

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Nautiyal, Manisha; Wynn, R Max; Mobley, James A; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain alpha-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain alpha-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5'-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate.

  14. Inhibition by N'-nitrosonornicotine of the catalytic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase in alpha-ketoglutarate amination.

    PubMed

    Mao, You-An; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Wei, Wan-Zhi; Wei, Xin-Liang; Lu, Hong-Bing

    2005-02-01

    The effect of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), one of the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, on the catalytic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in the alpha-ketoglutarate amination, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme, was studied by a chronoamperometric method. The maximum reaction rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the Michaelis-Menten constant, or the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, were determined in the absence and presence of NNN. NNN remarkably inhibited the bio-catalysis activity of GLDH, and was a reversible competitive inhibitior with K(i), estimated as 199 micromol l(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 8.0.

  15. Differential levels of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1) in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice and the effects of overexpression of the Glud1 gene on glutamate release in striatum

    PubMed Central

    Hascup, Kevin N; Bao, Xiaodong; Hascup, Erin R; Hui, Dongwei; Xu, Wenhao; Pomerleau, Francois; Huettl, Peter; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that overexpression of the Glud1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) gene in neurons of C57BL/6 mice results in increased depolarization-induced glutamate release that eventually leads to selective neuronal injury and cell loss by 12 months of age. However, it is known that isogenic lines of Tg (transgenic) mice produced through back-crossing with one strain may differ in their phenotypic characteristics from those produced using another inbred mouse strain. Therefore, we decided to introduce the Glud1 transgene into the Balb/c strain that has endogenously lower levels of GLUD1 (glutamate dehydrogenase 1) enzyme activity in the brain as compared with C57BL/6. Using an enzyme-based MEA (microelectrode array) that is selective for measuring glutamate in vivo, we measured depolarization-induced glutamate release. Within a discrete layer of the striatum, glutamate release was significantly increased in Balb/c Tg mice compared with wt (wild-type) littermates. Furthermore, Balb/c mice released approx. 50–60% of the amount of glutamate compared with C57BL/6 mice. This is similar to the lower levels of endogenous GLUD1 protein in Balb/c compared with C57BL/6 mice. The development of these Glud1-overexpressing mice may allow for the exploration of key molecular events produced by chronic exposure of neurons to moderate, transient increases in glutamate release, a process hypothesized to occur in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21446915

  16. NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase is essential for the survival of Arabidopsis thaliana during dark-induced carbon starvation.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yo; Good, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Interconversion between glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate, which can be catalysed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), is a key reaction in plant carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism. However, the physiological role of plant GDH has been a controversial issue for several decades. To elucidate the function of GDH, the expression of GDH in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied. Results suggested that the expression of two Arabidopsis GDH genes was differently regulated depending on the organ/tissue types and cellular C availability. Moreover, Arabidopsis mutants defective in GDH genes were identified and characterized. The two isolated mutants, gdh1-2 and gdh2-1, were crossed to make a double knockout mutant, gdh1-2/gdh2-1, which contained negligible levels of NAD(H)-dependent GDH activity. Phenotypic analysis on these mutants revealed an increased susceptibility of gdh1-2/gdh2-1 plants to C-deficient conditions. This conditional phenotype of the double knockout mutant supports the catabolic role of GDH and its role in fuelling the TCA cycle during C starvation. The reduced rate of glutamate catabolism in the gdh2-1 and gdh1-2/gdh2-1 plants was also evident by the growth retardation of these mutants when glutamate was supplied as the alternative N source. Furthermore, amino acid profiles during prolonged dark conditions were significantly different between WT and the gdh mutant plants. For instance, glutamate levels increased in WT plants but decreased in gdh1-2/gdh2-1 plants, and aberrant accumulation of several amino acids was detected in the gdh1-2/gdh2-1 plants. These results suggest that GDH plays a central role in amino acid breakdown under C-deficient conditions.

  17. Disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase affects the morphology of two industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Thykaer, Jette; Rueksomtawin, Kanchana; Noorman, Henk; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-02-23

    New morphological aspects of Penicillium chrysogenum were found during physiological characterisation of two NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant strains. A morphological characterisation of the previously constructed strains, together with the two beta-lactam producing industrial recipient strains, was conducted. The reference strains showed a compact structure with highly branched hyphal elements whereas the morphology of the DeltagdhA strains consisting of long elongated hyphal elements with few branches. On solid medium, the hyphal growth unit (length) increased from an average of 47 microm tip(-1) in the reference strains to 117 microm tip(-1) in the DeltagdhA strains and in submerged cultures a decrease of 18% in branching frequency was measured due to the gdhA deletion. P. chrysogenum Wis 54-1255, the ancestor of most production strains was also characterised and this strain showed morphology similar to the industrial strains. Interestingly, the constructed strains showed morphology similar to wild type Aspergillus nidulans another species carrying the penicillin biosynthetic cluster. Thus, the results showed that elimination of glutamate dehydrogenase activity in high producing strains of P. chrysogenum has a radical impact on morphology.

  18. Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Houssein; Limami, Anis M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of climatic change, more heavy precipitation and more frequent flooding and waterlogging events threaten the productivity of arable farmland. Furthermore, crops were not selected to cope with flooding- and waterlogging-induced oxygen limitation. In general, low oxygen stress, unlike other abiotic stresses (e.g., cold, high temperature, drought and saline stress), received little interest from the scientific community and less financial support from stakeholders. Accordingly, breeding programs should be developed and agronomical practices should be adapted in order to save plants’ growth and yield—even under conditions of low oxygen availability (e.g., submergence and waterlogging). The prerequisite to the success of such breeding programs and changes in agronomical practices is a good knowledge of how plants adapt to low oxygen stress at the cellular and the whole plant level. In the present paper, we summarized the recent knowledge on metabolic adjustment in general under low oxygen stress and highlighted thereafter the major changes pertaining to the reconfiguration of amino acids syntheses. We propose a model showing (i) how pyruvate derived from active glycolysis upon hypoxia is competitively used by the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate synthase cycle, leading to alanine accumulation and NAD+ regeneration. Carbon is then saved in a nitrogen store instead of being lost through ethanol fermentative pathway. (ii) During the post-hypoxia recovery period, the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate dehydrogenase cycle mobilizes this carbon from alanine store. Pyruvate produced by the reverse reaction of alanine aminotransferase is funneled to the TCA cycle, while deaminating glutamate dehydrogenase regenerates, reducing equivalent (NADH) and 2-oxoglutarate to maintain the cycle function. PMID:27258319

  19. Diversification of the kinetic properties of yeast NADP-glutamate-dehydrogenase isozymes proceeds independently of their evolutionary origin.

    PubMed

    Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Quezada, Héctor; Riego-Ruíz, Lina; Márquez, Dariel; Rojas, Erendira; González, James; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; González, Alicia

    2016-11-19

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ScGDH1 and ScGDH3 encoded glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDHs) catalyze the synthesis of glutamate from ammonium and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Previous kinetic characterization showed that these enzymes displayed different allosteric properties and respectively high or low rate of α-KG utilization. Accordingly, the coordinated action of ScGdh1 and ScGdh3, regulated balanced α-KG utilization for glutamate biosynthesis under either fermentative or respiratory conditions, safeguarding energy provision. Here, we have addressed the question of whether there is a correlation between the regulation and kinetic properties of the NADP-GDH isozymes present in S. cerevisiae (ScGdh1 and ScGdh3), Kluyveromyces lactis (KlGdh1), and Lachancea kluyveri (LkGdh1) and their evolutionary history. Our results show that the kinetic properties of K. lactis and L. kluyveri single NADP-GDHs are respectively similar to either ScGDH3 or ScGDH1, which arose from the whole genome duplication event of the S. cerevisiae lineage, although, KlGDH1 and LkGDH1 originated from a GDH clade, through an ancient interspecies hybridization event that preceded the divergence between the Saccharomyces clade and the one containing the genera Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, and Eremothecium. Thus, the kinetic properties which determine the NADP-GDHs capacity to utilize α-KG and synthesize glutamate do not correlate with their evolutionary origin.

  20. Resolving the role of plant glutamate dehydrogenase: II. Physiological characterization of plants overexpressing the two enzyme subunits individually or simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Bedu, Magali; Dargel-Grafin, Céline; Dubois, Frédéric; Gibon, Yves; Restivo, Francesco M; Hirel, Bertrand

    2013-10-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is able to carry out the deamination of glutamate in higher plants. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of GDH in leaves, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants were constructed that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (GDHA and GDHB under the control of the Cauliflower mosiac virus 35S promoter), which encode the α- and β-subunits of GDH individually or simultaneously. In the transgenic plants, the GDH protein accumulated in the mitochondria of mesophyll cells and in the mitochondria of the phloem companion cells (CCs), where the native enzyme is normally expressed. Such a shift in the cellular location of the GDH enzyme induced major changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolite accumulation and a reduction in growth. These changes were mainly characterized by a decrease in the amount of sucrose, starch and glutamine in the leaves, which was accompanied by an increase in the amount of nitrate and Chl. In addition, there was an increase in the content of asparagine and a decrease in proline. Such changes may explain the lower plant biomass determined in the GDH-overexpressing lines. Overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB individually or simultaneously induced a differential accumulation of glutamate and glutamine and a modification of the glutamate to glutamine ratio. The impact of the metabolic changes occurring in the different types of GDH-overexpressing plants is discussed in relation to the possible physiological function of each subunit when present in the form of homohexamers or heterohexamers.

  1. Transgenic Expression of Glud1 (Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1) in Neurons: In Vivo Model of Enhanced Glutamate Release, Altered Synaptic Plasticity, and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaodong; Pal, Ranu; Hascup, Kevin N.; Wang, Yongfu; Wang, Wen-Tung; Xu, Wenhao; Hui, Dongwei; Agbas, Abdulbaki; Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Mary L.; Choi, In-Young; Belousov, Andrei B.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Michaelis, Elias K.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of lifelong, moderate excess release of glutamate (Glu) in the CNS have not been previously characterized. We created a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release in the CNS by introducing the gene for glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (Glud1) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Glud1 is, potentially, an important enzyme in the pathway of Glu synthesis in nerve terminals. Increased levels of GLUD protein and activity in CNS neurons of hemizygous Tg mice were associated with increases in the in vivo release of Glu after neuronal depolarization in striatum and in the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Despite overexpression of Glud1 in all neurons of the CNS, the Tg mice suffered neuronal losses in select brain regions (e.g., the CA1 but not the CA3 region). In vulnerable regions, Tg mice had decreases in MAP2A labeling of dendrites and in synaptophysin labeling of presynaptic terminals; the decreases in neuronal numbers and dendrite and presynaptic terminal labeling increased with advancing age. In addition, the Tg mice exhibited decreases in long-term potentiation of synaptic activity and in spine density in dendrites of CA1 neurons. Behaviorally, the Tg mice were significantly more resistant than wild-type mice to induction and duration of anesthesia produced by anesthetics that suppress Glu neurotransmission. The Glud1 mouse might be a useful model for the effects of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release on CNS neurons and for age-associated neurodegenerative processes. PMID:19890003

  2. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 3 (GDH3) of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a combined effect of nitrogen and cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Laura; Degola, Francesca; Polverini, Eugenia; Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Dubois, Frédéric; Hirel, Bertrand; Restivo, Francesco Maria

    2013-12-01

    In higher plants, NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is an abundant enzyme that exists in different isoenzymic forms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes (Gdh1, Gdh2 and Gdh3) encode three different GDH subunits (β, α and γ) that randomly associate to form a complex array of homo- and heterohexamers. The modification of the GDH isoenzyme pattern and its regulation was studied during the development of A. thaliana in the gdh1, gdh2 single mutants and the gdh1-2 double mutant, with particular emphasis on GDH3. Investigations showed that the GDH3 isoenzyme could not be detected in closely related Arabidopsis species. The induction and regulation of GDH3 activity in the leaves and roots was investigated following nitrogen deprivation in the presence or absence of sucrose or kinetin. These experiments indicate that GDH3 is likely to play an important role during senescence and nutrient remobilization.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of the GDH gene coding for the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nagasu, T; Hall, B D

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene for NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) by cross hybridization to the Neurospora crassa am gene, known to encode for NADP-GDH is described. Two DNA fragments selected from a yeast genomic library in phage lambda gt11 were shown by restriction analysis to share 2.5 kb of common sequence. A yeast shuttle vector (CV13) carrying either to the cloned fragments complements the gdh- strain of S. cerevisiae and directs substantial overproduction of NADP-GDH. One of the cloned fragments was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of the yeast NADP-GDH is 64% homologous to N. crassa, 51% to Escherichia coli and 24% to bovine NADP-GDHs.

  4. A novel mutation in the glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1) of a patient with congenital hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia (HI/HA).

    PubMed

    Fang, Chen; Ding, Xin; Huang, Yun; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Pengjun; Hu, Ji

    2016-03-01

    Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome, often characterized by recurrent symptomatic hypoglycemia and persistent hyperammonemia, is the second most frequent cause of the congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). Here, we reported a patient with normal birth weight, repeated seizures, untreatable hypoglycemia, and persistent, mild hyperammonemia. The genetic diagnosis revealed that the patient carried a heterozygous, de novo missense mutation (N410I, c.1401A>T) in the glutamate dehydrogenase 1 gene (GLUD1). The patient was treated with diazoxide, which significantly alleviated the hypoglycemia. CT and MRI brain scanning at different developmental stages revealed large-scale brain damage in the front lobe. Severe neurodevelopment deficits were identified in the follow-up.

  5. Abiotic Stress Generates ROS That Signal Expression of Anionic Glutamate Dehydrogenases to Form Glutamate for Proline Synthesis in Tobacco and Grapevine[W

    PubMed Central

    Skopelitis, Damianos S.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Pliakonis, Eleni D.; Delis, Ioannis D.; Yakoumakis, Dimitris I.; Kouvarakis, Antonios; Papadakis, Anastasia K.; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2006-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) may be a stress-responsive enzyme, as GDH exhibits considerable thermal stability, and de novo synthesis of the α-GDH subunit is induced by exogenous ammonium and senescence. NaCl treatment induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular ammonia, expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) gdh-NAD;A1 encoding the α-subunit of GDH, increase in immunoreactive α-polypeptide, assembly of the anionic isoenzymes, and in vitro GDH aminating activity in tissues from hypergeous plant organs. In vivo aminating GDH activity was confirmed by gas chromatorgraphy–mass spectrometry monitoring of 15N-Glu, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Pro in the presence of methionine sulfoximine and amino oxyacetic acid, inhibitors of Gln synthetase and transaminases, respectively. Along with upregulation of α-GDH by NaCl, isocitrate dehydrogenase genes, which provide 2-oxoglutarate, are also induced. Treatment with menadione also elicits a severalfold increase in ROS and immunoreactive α-polypeptide and GDH activity. This suggests that ROS participate in the signaling pathway for GDH expression and protease activation, which contribute to intracellular hyperammonia. Ammonium ions also mimic the effects of salinity in induction of gdh-NAD;A1 expression. These results, confirmed in tobacco and grape (Vitis vinifera cv Sultanina) tissues, support the hypothesis that the salinity-generated ROS signal induces α-GDH subunit expression, and the anionic iso-GDHs assimilate ammonia, acting as antistress enzymes in ammonia detoxification and production of Glu for Pro synthesis. PMID:17041150

  6. Physiological and genetic analysis of the carbon regulation of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Coschigano, P W; Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-09-01

    We found that cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have an elevated level of the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH; encoded by the GDH2 gene) when grown with a nonfermentable carbon source or with limiting amounts of glucose, even in the presence of the repressing nitrogen source glutamine. This regulation was found to be transcriptional, and an upstream activation site (GDH2 UASc) sufficient for activation of transcription during respiratory growth conditions was identified. This UAS was found to be separable from a neighboring element which is necessary for the nitrogen source regulation of the gene, and strains deficient for the GLN3 gene product, required for expression of NAD-GDH during growth with the activating nitrogen source glutamate, were unaffected for the expression of NAD-GDH during growth with activating carbon sources. Two classes of mutations which prevented the normal activation of NAD-GDH in response to growth with nonfermentable carbon sources, but which did not affect the nitrogen-regulated expression of NAD-GDH, were found and characterized. Carbon regulation of GDH2 was found to be normal in hxk2, hap3, and hap4 strains and to be only slightly altered in a ssn6 strain; thus, in comparison with the regulation of previously identified glucose-repressed genes, a new pathway appears to be involved in the regulation of GDH2.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Glutamine Synthetase and NADP-Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria laccata 1

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Annick; Chalot, Michel; Botton, Bernard; Martin, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) and NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) play a key role in nitrogen assimilation in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr. Cke) strain S 238. The two enzymes were purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity by a three-step procedure involving diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Trisacryl and affinity chromatography, and DEAE-5PW fast protein liquid chromatography. This purification scheme resulted in a 23 and 62% recovery of the initial activity for GS and NADP-GDH, respectively. Purified GS had a specific activity of 713 nanomoles per second per milligram protein and a pH optimum of 7.2. Michaelis constants (millimolar) for the substrates were NH4+ (0.024), glutamate (3.2), glutamine (30), ATP (0.18), and ADP (0.002). The molecular weight (Mr) of native GS was approximately 380,000; it was composed of eight identical subunits of Mr 42,000. Purified NADP-GDH had a specific activity of 4130 nanomoles per second per milligram protein and a pH optimum of 7.2 (amination reaction). Michaelis constants (millimolar) for the substrates were NH4+ (5), 2-oxoglutarate (1), glutamate (26), NADPH (0.01), and NADP (0.03). Native NADP-GDH was a hexamer with a Mr of about 298,000 composed of identical subunits with Mr 47,000. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against purified GS and NADP-GDH. Immunoprecipitation tests and immunoblot analysis showed the high reactivity and specificity of the immune sera against the purified enzymes. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16669022

  8. Purification and Characterization of Glutamine Synthetase and NADP-Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria laccata.

    PubMed

    Brun, A; Chalot, M; Botton, B; Martin, F

    1992-07-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) and NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) play a key role in nitrogen assimilation in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata (Scop. ex Fr. Cke) strain S 238. The two enzymes were purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity by a three-step procedure involving diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Trisacryl and affinity chromatography, and DEAE-5PW fast protein liquid chromatography. This purification scheme resulted in a 23 and 62% recovery of the initial activity for GS and NADP-GDH, respectively. Purified GS had a specific activity of 713 nanomoles per second per milligram protein and a pH optimum of 7.2. Michaelis constants (millimolar) for the substrates were NH(4) (+) (0.024), glutamate (3.2), glutamine (30), ATP (0.18), and ADP (0.002). The molecular weight (M(r)) of native GS was approximately 380,000; it was composed of eight identical subunits of M(r) 42,000. Purified NADP-GDH had a specific activity of 4130 nanomoles per second per milligram protein and a pH optimum of 7.2 (amination reaction). Michaelis constants (millimolar) for the substrates were NH(4) (+) (5), 2-oxoglutarate (1), glutamate (26), NADPH (0.01), and NADP (0.03). Native NADP-GDH was a hexamer with a M(r) of about 298,000 composed of identical subunits with M(r) 47,000. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against purified GS and NADP-GDH. Immunoprecipitation tests and immunoblot analysis showed the high reactivity and specificity of the immune sera against the purified enzymes.

  9. Kinetics of NH(4) Assimilation in Zea mays: Preliminary Studies with a Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH1) Null Mutant.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, J R; Ju, G C; Rich, P J; Rhodes, D

    1990-10-01

    In higher plants it is now generally considered that glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) plays only a small or negligible role in ammonia assimilation. To test this specific point, comparative studies of (15)NH(4) (+) assimilation were undertaken with a GDH1-null mutant of Zea mays and a related (but not strictly isogenic) GDH1-positive wild type from which this mutant was derived. The kinetics of (15)NH(4) (+) assimilation into free amino acids and total reduced nitrogen were monitored in both roots and shoots of 2-week-old seedlings supplied with 5 millimolar 99% ((15)NH(4))(2)SO(4) via the aerated root medium in hydroponic culture over a 24-h period. The GDH1-null mutant, with a 10- to 15-fold lower total root GDH activity in comparison to the wild type, was found to exhibit a 40 to 50% lower rate of (15)NH(4) (+) assimilation into total reduced nitrogen. Observed rates of root ammonium assimilation were 5.9 and 3.1 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight for the wild type and mutant, respectively. The lower rate of (15)NH(4) (+) assimilation in the mutant was associated with lower rates of labeling of several free amino acids (including glutamate, glutamine-amino N, aspartate, asparagine-amino N, and alanine) in both roots and shoots of the mutant in comparison to the wild type. Qualitatively, these labeling kinetics appear consistent with a reduced flux of (15)N via glutamate in the GDH1-null mutant. However, the responses of the two genotypes to the potent inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, methionine sulfoximine, and differences in morphology of the two genotypes (particularly a lower shoot:root ratio in the GDH1-null mutant) urge caution in concluding that GDH1 is solely responsible for these differences in ammonia assimilation rate.

  10. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking catabolic NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Growth characteristics of the mutant and regulation of enzyme synthesis in the wild-type strain.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J; van Eijk, J; van Renesse, R; Blijham, J M

    1978-01-01

    NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-B) was induced in a wild-type strain derived of alpha-sigma 1278b by alpha-amino acids, the nitrogen of which according to known degradative pathways is transferred to 2-oxoglutarate. A recessive mutant (gdhB) devoid of GDH-B activity grew more slowly than the wild type if one of these amino acids was the sole source of nitrogen. Addition of ammonium chloride, glutamine, asparagine or serine to growth media with inducing alpha-amino acids as the main nitrogen source increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant to the wild-type level and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the wild type. Arginine, urea and allantoin similarly increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the presence of glutamate, but not in the presence of aspartate, alanine or proline as the main nitrogen source. These observations are consistent with the view that GDH-B in vivo deaminates glutamate. Ammonium ions are required for the biosynthesis of glutamine, asparagine, arginine, histidine and purine and pyrimidine bases. Aspartate and alanine apparently are more potent inducers of GDH-B than glutamate. Anabolic NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-A) can not fulfil the function of GDH-B in the gdhB mutant. This is concluded from the equal growth rates in glutamate, aspartate and proline media as observed with a gdhB mutant and with a gdhA, gdhB double mutant in which both glutamate dehydrogenases area lacking. The double mutant showed an anomalous growth behaviour, growth rates on several nitrogen sources being unexpectedly low.

  11. Characterization and Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Response to Acute Salinity Stress in the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueru; Li, Erchao; Yu, Na; Wang, Xiaodan; Cai, Chunfang; Tang, Boping; Chen, Liqiao; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme for the synthesis and catabolism of glutamic acid, proline and alanine, which are important osmolytes in aquatic animals. However, the response of GDH gene expression to salinity alterations has not yet been determined in macro-crustacean species. Methodology/Principal Findings GDH cDNA was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis. Then, GDH gene expression was analyzed in different tissues from normal crabs and the muscle of crabs following transfer from freshwater (control) directly to water with salinities of 16‰ and 30‰, respectively. Full-length GDH cDNA is 2,349 bp, consisting of a 76 bp 5′- untranslated region, a 1,695 bp open reading frame encoding 564 amino acids and a 578 bp 3′- untranslated region. E. sinensis GDH showed 64–90% identity with protein sequences of mammalian and crustacean species. Muscle was the dominant expression source among all tissues tested. Compared with the control, GDH expression significantly increased at 6 h in crabs transferred to 16‰ and 30‰ salinity, and GDH expression peaked at 48 h and 12 h, respectively, with levels approximately 7.9 and 8.5 fold higher than the control. The free amino acid (FAA) changes in muscle, under acute salinity stress (16‰ and 30‰ salinities), correlated with GDH expression levels. Total FAA content in the muscle, which was based on specific changes in arginine, proline, glycine, alanine, taurine, serine and glutamic acid, tended to increase in crabs following transfer to salt water. Among these, arginine, proline and alanine increased significantly during salinity acclimation and accounted for the highest proportion of total FAA. Conclusions E. sinensis GDH is a conserved protein that serves important functions in controlling osmoregulation. We observed that higher GDH expression after ambient salinity increase led to higher FAA metabolism, especially the synthesis of glutamic acid, which increased the synthesis of proline and

  12. Control of carbon flux to glutamate excretion in Klebsiella pneumoniae: the role of the indigenous plasmid and its encoded isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    El-Mansi, Mansi; Trappey, Francois; Clark, Ewan; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCTC, CL687/80) harbors a large indigenous plasmid (p(C3)), which in addition to encoding for citrate utilization, proline synthesis and glutamate excretion, it uniquely carries the structural gene (icd); encoding isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH). Flux analysis revealed that ICDH, despite its role in the generation of NADPH required for glutamate dehydrogenase, is not rate-limiting (controlling) in central metabolism as evidenced by a negative flux control coefficient and an adverse effect of overexpression (14-fold) on glutamate excretion. More significantly, however, this paper presents, for the first time, clear evidence that the accumulation of glutamate and its subsequent excretion is associated with the C3 plasmid-encoded regulatory elements, which trigger a shift-down in the activity of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, both in the K. pneumoniae parental strain as well as in the E. coli exconjugants strains. This finding opens the door for the exploitation of regulatory elements as a tool for manipulating flux in microbial cell factories.

  13. The significance of abrupt transitions in Lineweaver-Burk plots with particular reference to glutamate dehydrogenase. Negative and positive co-operativity in catalytic rate constants.

    PubMed

    Engel, P C; Ferdinand, W

    1973-01-01

    1. Lineweaver-Burk plots for glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and several other enzymes show one or more abrupt transitions between apparently linear sections. These transitions correspond to abrupt increases in the apparent K(m) and V(max.) with increasing concentration of the varied substrate. 2. The generalized reciprocal initial-rate equation for a multi-site enzyme requires several restrictions to be put on it in order to generate such plots. These mathematical conditions are explored. 3. It is shown that the effective omission of a term in the denominator of the reciprocal initial-rate equation represents a minimal requirement for generation of abrupt transitions. This corresponds in physical terms to negative co-operativity followed by positive co-operativity affecting the catalytic rate constant for the reaction. 4. Previous models for glutamate dehydrogenase cannot adequately account for the results. On the other hand, the model based on both negative and positive co-operativity gives a good fit to the experimental points. 5. The conclusions are discussed in relation to current knowledge of the structure and mechanism of glutamate dehydrogenase.

  14. Purification and properties of three NAD(P)+ isozymes of L-glutamate dehydrogenase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Moyano, E; Cárdenas, J; Muñoz-Blanco, J

    1992-02-13

    Three isozymes of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induced under different trophic and stress conditions, have been purified about 800-1000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. They are hexamers of Mr 266,000-269,000 as deduced from gel filtration and sedimentation coefficient data. GDH1 consisted of six identical subunits of 44 kDa each, whereas both GDH2 and GDH3 consisted of six similar-sized monomers (4 of 44 kDa and 2 of 46 kDa). Optimum pH for the three activities with each pyridine nucleotide was identical (8.5 with NADH; 7.7 with NADPH; and 9.0 with NAD+). The isozymes exhibited similar high optimum temperature values (60-62 degrees C) and isoelectric points (7.9-8.1). Activity was enhanced in vitro by Ca2+ ions and strongly inhibited by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, KCN, o-phenanthroline and EDTA, and to a lesser extent by pHMB and methylacetimidate. In the aminating reaction the three isozymes were inhibited in a concentration-dependent process by both NADH and NADPH, with apparent Km values for NH4+ ranging from 13-53 mM; 0.36-1.85 mM for 2-oxoglutarate and 0.07-0.78 mM for NADH and NADPH. In the deaminating reaction apparent Km values ranged from 0.64-3.52 mM for L-glutamate and 0.20-0.32 for NAD+. In addition, the three isozymes exhibited a non-hyperbolic kinetics for NAD+ with negative cooperativity (n = 0.8).

  15. Biochemical changes of the synovial liquid of corpses with regard to the cause of death. 2: Alkaline phosphatase, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT).

    PubMed

    More, D S; Arroyo, M C

    1985-04-01

    We studied the activity of various enzymes in the synovial liquid of 100 corpses with regard to the cause of death finding that the alkaline phospatase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) are increased in cranioencephalic trauma, possibly as a result of the important cellular lysis which goes with them; and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) is increased in the pulmonary processes, almost certainly with relation to the great quantity of this enzyme in the lung.

  16. Over-expression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase (fucO) for increasing furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Elliot N.; Zhang, Xueli; Yomano, Lorraine P.; Wang, Xuan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-13

    The subject invention pertains to the discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural. This allows for a new approach to improve furfural tolerance in bacterial and/or yeast cells used to produce desired products. Thus, novel biocatalysts (bacterial, fungal or yeast cells) exhibiting increased tolerance to furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are provided as are methods of making and using such biocatalysts for the production of a desired product.

  17. Transfer nuclear Overhauser effect study of coenzyme binding to distinct sites in binary and ternary complexes in glutamate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.; Levy, H.R.; Levy, G.C.; LiMuti, C.; Goldstein, B.M.; Bell, J.E.

    1987-12-15

    The oxidized coenzyme NAD binds to two sites per subunit of bovine liver glutamate dehydrogenase with equal affinity in the absence of dicarboxylic acid coligands. In the presence of glutarate or 2-oxoglutarate, the affinity to one site is unchanged, but the affinity to the other (presumed to be the active site) is considerably increased and now requires two dissociation constants to describe its saturation. A combination of transfer nuclear Overhauser effects (TRNOE) together with an examination of the slopes of TRNOE time dependence indicates that while NAD is bound in a syn conformation at both binding sites, NADP (which binds only to the active site) is bound in a syn-anti mixture. The existence of N6 to N3' and N6 and N2' and N1' to N3' NOE's with NAD suggest that the two coenzyme binding sites are located near enough to allow intermolecular NOE's. In the presence of 2-oxoglutarate where only binding to the active site is effectively observed, the conformation of either coenzyme is syn. Modeling studies using the distance estimates from the TRNOE results suggest that the nicotinamide ribose approximates a 3'-endo conformation. The absence of evidence for intermolecular NOE's under these conditions indicates that while the active and regulatory NAD sites per subunit are in close proximity, the six active sites per hexamer are located greater than 5 (A symbol) apart.

  18. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer.

  19. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzyme 3 (GDH3) of Arabidopsis thaliana is less thermostable than GDH1 and GDH2 isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Laura; Polverini, Eugenia; Degola, Francesca; Baruffini, Enrico; Restivo, Francesco Maria

    2014-10-01

    NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.2) is an abundant and ubiquitous enzyme that may exist in different isoenzymic forms. Variation in the composition of the GDH isoenzyme pattern is observed during plant development and specific cell, tissue and organ localization of the different isoforms have been reported. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the isoenzymatic pattern are still obscure. Regulation may be exerted at several levels, i.e. at the level of transcription and translation of the relevant genes, but also when the enzyme is assembled to originate the catalytically active form of the protein. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three genes (GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3) encode three different GDH subunits (β, α and γ) that randomly associate to form a complex array of homo- and hetero-hexamers. In order to asses if the different Arabidopsis GDH isoforms may display different structural properties we have investigated their thermal stability. In particular the stability of GDH1 and GDH3 isoenzymes was studied using site-directed mutagenesis in a heterologous yeast expression system. It was established that the carboxyl terminus of the GDH subunit is involved in the stabilization of the oligomeric structure of the enzyme.

  20. The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptic and chymotryptic peptides and the complete sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Holder, A A; Wootton, J C; Baron, A J; Chambers, G K; Fincham, J R

    1975-01-01

    Peptic and chymotryptic peptides were isolated form the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa and substantially sequenced. Out of 452 residues in the polypeptide chain, 265 were recovered in the peptic and 427 in the chymotryptic peptides. Together with the tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J. G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 749-755], these establish the complete sequence of the chain, including the acid and amide assignments, except for seven places where overlaps are inadequate. These remaining alignments are deduced from information on the CNBr fragments obtained in another laboratory [Blumenthal, K. M., Moon, K. & Smith, E. L. (1975), J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3644-3654]. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50054 (17 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1002

  1. Prediction of the determinants of thermal stability by linear discriminant analysis: the case of the glutamate dehydrogenase protein family.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Angelo

    2014-09-21

    Little is known about the determinants of thermal stability in individual protein families. Most of the knowledge on thermostability comes, in fact, from comparative analyses between large, and heterogeneous, sets of thermo- and mesophilic proteins. Here, we present a multivariate statistical approach aimed to detect signature sequences for thermostability in a single protein family. It was applied to the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) family, which is a good model for investigating this peculiar process. The structure of GDH consists of six subunits, each of them organized into two domains. Formation of ion-pair networks on the surface of the protein subunits, or increase in the inter-subunit hydrophobic interactions, have been suggested as important factors for explaining stability at high temperatures. However, identification of the amino acid changes that are involved in this process still remains elusive. Our approach consisted of a linear discriminant analysis on a set of GDH sequences from Archaea and Bacteria (33 thermo- and 36 mesophilic GDHs). It led to detection of 3 amino acid clusters as the putative determinants of thermal stability. They were localized at the subunit interface or in close proximity to the binding site of the NAD(P)(+) coenzyme. Analysis within the clusters led to prediction of 8 critical amino acid sites. This approach could have a wide utility, in the ligth of the notion that each protein family seems to adopt its own strategy for achieving thermostability.

  2. Reduction of furan derivatives by overexpressing NADH-dependent Adh1 improves ethanol fermentation using xylose as sole carbon source with Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring XR-XDH pathway.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-03-01

    Several alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-related genes have been identified as enzymes for reducing levels of toxic compounds, such as, furfural and/or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), in hydrolysates of pretreated lignocelluloses. To date, overexpression of these ADH genes in yeast cells have aided ethanol production from glucose or glucose/xylose mixture in the presence of furfural or 5-HMF. However, the effects of these ADH isozymes on ethanol production from xylose as a sole carbon source remain uncertain. We showed that overexpression of mutant NADH-dependent ADH1 derived from TMB3000 strain in the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, into which xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway of Pichia stipitis has been introduced, improved ethanol production from xylose as a sole carbon source in the presence of 5-HMF. Enhanced furan-reducing activity is able to regenerate NAD(+) to relieve redox imbalance, resulting in increased ethanol yield arising from decreased xylitol accumulation. In addition, we found that overexpression of wild-type ADH1 prevented the more severe inhibitory effects of furfural in xylose fermentation as well as overexpression of TMB3000-derived mutant. After 120 h of fermentation, the recombinant strains overexpressing wild-type and mutant ADH1 completely consumed 50 g/L xylose in the presence of 40 mM furfural and most efficiently produced ethanol (15.70 g/L and 15.24 g/L) when compared with any other test conditions. This is the first report describing the improvement of ethanol production from xylose as the sole carbon source in the presence of furan derivatives with xylose-utilizing recombinant yeast strains via the overexpression of ADH-related genes.

  3. Glutamate dehydrogenase isoforms with N-terminal (His)6- or FLAG-tag retain their kinetic properties and cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Camilla Wendel; Hauge, Anne; Zaganas, Ioannis; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Plaitakis, Andreas; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a crucial enzyme on the crossroads of amino acid and energy metabolism and it is operating in all domains of life. According to current knowledge GDH is present only in one functional isoform in most animals, including mice. In addition to this housekeeping enzyme (hGDH1 in humans), humans and apes have acquired a second isoform (hGDH2) with a distinct tissue expression profile. In the current study we have cloned both mouse and human GDH constructs containing FLAG and (His)6 small genetically-encoded tags, respectively. The hGDH1 and hGDH2 constructs containing N-terminal (His)6 tags were successfully expressed in Sf9 cells and the recombinant proteins were isolated to ≥95 % purity in a two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and Ni(2+)-based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. To explore whether the presence of the FLAG and (His)6 tags affects the cellular localization and functionality of the GDH isoforms, we studied the subcellular distribution of the expressed enzymes as well as their regulation by adenosine diphosphate monopotassium salt (ADP) and guanosine-5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP). Through immunoblot analysis of the mitochondrial and cytosolic fraction of the HEK cells expressing the recombinant proteins we found that neither FLAG nor (His)6 tag disturbs the mitochondrial localization of GDH. The addition of the small tags to the N-terminus of the mature mitochondrial mouse GDH1 or human hGDH1 and hGDH2 did not change the ADP activation or GTP inhibition pattern of the proteins as compared to their untagged counterparts. However, the addition of FLAG tag to the C-terminus of the mouse GDH left the recombinant protein fivefold less sensitive to ADP activation. This finding highlights the necessity of the functional characterization of recombinant proteins containing even the smallest available tags.

  4. Identification of the molecular dysfunction caused by glutamate dehydrogenase S445L mutation responsible for hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Mariagrazia; Karaca, Melis; Latini, Livia; Brioudes, Estelle; Schalch, Thomas; Maechler, Pierre

    2017-09-15

    Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome gives rise to unregulated protein-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, fasting hypoglycemia and elevated plasma ammonia levels. Mutations associated with HI/HA were identified in the Glud1 gene, encoding for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We aimed at identifying the molecular causes of dysregulation in insulin secretion and ammonia production conferred by the most frequent HI/HA mutation Ser445Leu. Following transduction with adenoviruses carrying the human GDH-wild type or GDH-S445L-mutant gene, immunoblotting showed efficient expression of the transgenes in all the investigated cell types. Enzymatic activity tested in INS-1E beta-cells revealed that the mutant was much more sensitive to the allosteric activator ADP, rendering it highly responsive to substrates. INS-1E cells expressing either the wild type or mutant GDH responded similarly to glucose stimulation regarding mitochondrial activation and insulin secretion. However, at basal glucose glutamine stimulation increased mitochondrial activity and insulin release only in the mutant cells. In mouse and human islets, expression of mutant GDH resulted in robust elevation of insulin secretion upon glutamine stimulation, not observed in control islets. Hepatocytes expressing either the wild type or mutant GDH produced similar levels of ammonia when exposed to glutamine, although alanine response was strongly elevated with the mutant form. In conclusion, the GDH-S445L mutation confers hyperactivity to this enzyme due to higher sensitivity to ADP allosteric activation. This renders beta-cells responsive to amino acid stimulation, explaining protein-induced hypoglycemia secondary to non-physiological insulin release. Hepatocytes carrying mutant GDH produced more ammonia upon alanine exposure, which underscores hyperammonemia developed by the patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  5. Mixed Disulfide Formation at Cys141 Leads to Apparent Unidirectional Attenuation of Aspergillus niger NADP-Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walvekar, Adhish S.; Choudhury, Rajarshi; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2014-01-01

    NADP-Glutamate dehydrogenase from Aspergillus niger (AnGDH) exhibits sigmoid 2-oxoglutarate saturation. Incubation with 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide (2-HED, the disulfide of 2-mercaptoethanol) resulted in preferential attenuation of AnGDH reductive amination (forward) activity but with a negligible effect on oxidative deamination (reverse) activity, when monitored in the described standard assay. Such a disulfide modified AnGDH displaying less than 1.0% forward reaction rate could be isolated after 2-HED treatment. This unique forward inhibited GDH form (FIGDH), resembling a hypothetical ‘one-way’ active enzyme, was characterized. Kinetics of 2-HED mediated inhibition and protein thiol titrations suggested that a single thiol group is modified in FIGDH. Two site-directed cysteine mutants, C141S and C415S, were constructed to identify the relevant thiol in FIGDH. The forward activity of C141S alone was insensitive to 2-HED, implicating Cys141 in FIGDH formation. It was observed that FIGDH displayed maximal reaction rate only after a pre-incubation with 2-oxoglutarate and NADPH. In addition, compared to the native enzyme, FIGDH showed a four fold increase in K0.5 for 2-oxoglutarate and a two fold increase in the Michaelis constants for ammonium and NADPH. With no change in the GDH reaction equilibrium constant, the FIGDH catalyzed rate of approach to equilibrium from reductive amination side was sluggish. Altered kinetic properties of FIGDH at least partly account for the observed apparent loss of forward activity when monitored under defined assay conditions. In sum, although Cys141 is catalytically not essential, its covalent modification provides a striking example of converting the biosynthetic AnGDH into a catabolic enzyme. PMID:24987966

  6. Characterization and nitrogen-source regulation at the transcriptional level of the gdhA gene of Aspergillus awamori encoding an NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, R E; Moralejo, F J; Gutiérrez, S; Casqueiro, J; Fierro, F; Martín, J F

    1998-07-01

    A 28.7-kb DNA region containing the gdhA gene of Aspergillus awamori was cloned from a genomic DNA library. A fragment of 2570 nucleotides was sequenced that contained ORF1, of 1380 bp, encoding a protein of 460 amino acids (Mr 49.4 kDa). The encoded protein showed high similarity to the NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases of different organisms. The cloned gene was functional since it complemented two different Aspergillus nidulans gdhA mutants, restoring high levels of NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase to the transformants. The A. awamori gdhA gene was located by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in a 5.5-Mb band (corresponding to a doublet of chromosomes II and III), and was transcribed as a monocistronic transcript of 1.7 kb. Transcript levels of the gdhA gene were very high during the rapid growth phase and decreased drastically after 48 h of cultivation. Very high expression levels of the gdhA gene were observed in media with ammonium or asparagine as the nitrogen source, whereas glutamic acid repressed transcription of the gdhA gene. These results indicate that expression of the gdhA gene is subject to a strong nitrogen regulation at the transcriptional level.

  7. Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the upstream region of the GDH2 gene, which encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for elements important for the regulation of the gene by the nitrogen source. The levels of this enzyme are high in cells grown with glutamate as the sole source of nitrogen and low in cells grown with glutamine or ammonium. We found that this regulation occurs at the level of transcription and that a total of six sites are required to cause a CYC1-lacZ fusion to the GDH2 gene to be regulated in the same manner as the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase. Two sites behaved as upstream activation sites (UASs). The remaining four sites were found to block the effects of the two UASs in such a way that the GDH2-CYC1-lacZ fusion was not expressed unless the cells containing it were grown under conditions favorable for the activity of both UASs. This complex regulatory system appears to account for the fact that GDH2 expression is exquisitely sensitive to glutamine, whereas the expression of GLN1, coding for glutamine synthetase, is not nearly as sensitive. Images PMID:1682801

  8. Metabolism of hydroxypyruvate in a mutant of barley lacking NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase, an important photorespiratory enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.J.S.; Blackwell, R.D.; Lea, P.J. )

    1989-09-01

    A mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), LaPr 88/29, deficient in NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been isolated. The activities of both NADH (5%) and NADPH-dependent (19%) HPR were severely reduced in this mutant compared to the wild type. Although lacking an enzyme in the main carbon pathway of photorespiration, this mutant was capable of CO{sub 2} fixation rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type, in normal atmospheres and 50% O{sub 2}. There also appeared to be little disruption to the photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C)serine feeding were similar in both mutant and wild-type leaves. When leaves of LaPr 88/29 were fed either ({sup 14}C)serine or {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, the accumulation of radioactivity was in serine and not in hydroxypyruvate, although the mutant was still able to metabolize over 25% of the supplied ({sup 14}C)serine into sucrose. After 3 hours in air the soluble amino acid pool was almost totally dominated by serine and glycine. LaPr 88/29 has also been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-dependent HPR activity is due to the NADH-dependent enzyme. We also suggest that the alternative NADPH activity can metabolize a proportion, but not all, of the hydroxypyruvate produced during photorespiration and may thus form a useful backup to the NADH-dependent enzyme under conditions of maximal photorespiration.

  9. Involvement of GDH3-encoded NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in yeast cell resistance to stress-induced apoptosis in stationary phase cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kang, Hong Yong; Kim, Hye-Rim; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2012-12-28

    Glutamate metabolism is linked to a number of fundamental metabolic pathways such as amino acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, and glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glutamate is synthesized from α-ketoglutarate by two NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDH) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3. Here, we report the relationship between the function of the NADP-GDH and stress-induced apoptosis. Gdh3-null cells showed accelerated chronological aging and hypersusceptibility to thermal and oxidative stress during stationary phase. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Gdh3-null strains displayed a rapid loss in viability associated with typical apoptotic hallmarks, i.e. reactive oxygen species accumulation, nuclear fragmentation, DNA breakage, and phosphatidylserine translocation. In addition, Gdh3-null cells, but not Gdh1-null cells, had a higher tendency toward GSH depletion and subsequent reactive oxygen species accumulation than did WT cells. GSH depletion was rescued by exogenous GSH or glutamate. The hypersusceptibility of stationary phase Gdh3-null cells to stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by deletion of GDH2. Promoter swapping and site-directed mutagenesis of GDH1 and GDH3 indicated that the necessity of GDH3 for the resistance to stress-induced apoptosis and chronological aging is due to the stationary phase-specific expression of GDH3 and concurrent degradation of Gdh1 in which the Lys-426 residue plays an essential role.

  10. Involvement of GDH3-encoded NADP+-dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Yeast Cell Resistance to Stress-induced Apoptosis in Stationary Phase Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Kyung Jin; Kang, Hong Yong; Kim, Hye-Rim; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate metabolism is linked to a number of fundamental metabolic pathways such as amino acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, and glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glutamate is synthesized from α-ketoglutarate by two NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (NADP-GDH) encoded by GDH1 and GDH3. Here, we report the relationship between the function of the NADP-GDH and stress-induced apoptosis. Gdh3-null cells showed accelerated chronological aging and hypersusceptibility to thermal and oxidative stress during stationary phase. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Gdh3-null strains displayed a rapid loss in viability associated with typical apoptotic hallmarks, i.e. reactive oxygen species accumulation, nuclear fragmentation, DNA breakage, and phosphatidylserine translocation. In addition, Gdh3-null cells, but not Gdh1-null cells, had a higher tendency toward GSH depletion and subsequent reactive oxygen species accumulation than did WT cells. GSH depletion was rescued by exogenous GSH or glutamate. The hypersusceptibility of stationary phase Gdh3-null cells to stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed by deletion of GDH2. Promoter swapping and site-directed mutagenesis of GDH1 and GDH3 indicated that the necessity of GDH3 for the resistance to stress-induced apoptosis and chronological aging is due to the stationary phase-specific expression of GDH3 and concurrent degradation of Gdh1 in which the Lys-426 residue plays an essential role. PMID:23105103

  11. Influence of age, hexobarbital, and aniline on NADPH/NADH dependent hydrogen peroxide production in rat hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Klinger, W; Freytag, A; Schmitt, W

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic microsomal H2O2 production (oxidase function of microsomal cytochrome P-450) is strongly dependent on NADPH or NADH concentration. NADH increases H2O2 production after the addition of a supraoptimal concentration of NADPH to the incubation mixture in all age groups. Maximum activities are found in 60-day-old male Wistar rats. Hexobarbital increased in a dose dependent manner both NADPH, NADH, and NADPH/NADH dependent H2O2 production. Aniline had no effect or slightly decreased H2O2 production. Hexobarbital enhanced NADPH/NADH dependent H2O2 production in all age groups (5-240 days of age) to the same degree. Hence it is concluded that H2O2 production is due to the decay of the peroxycytochrome P-450 complex after the second reduction step via cytochrome b5 and that in all age groups reducibility of cytochrome P-450, which is enhanced by hexobarbital, is rate limiting. As the age course of H2O2 production is similar to that of ethylmorphine N-demethylation, it is concluded that the phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 subspecies predominantly catalyse H2O2 production.

  12. New insights from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy into the chemistry of covalent enzyme immobilization, with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on silicon dioxide as an example.

    PubMed

    Longo, Luigia; Vasapollo, Giuseppe; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Malitesta, Cosimino

    2006-05-01

    A three-step process for immobilization of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) on the surface of silicon dioxide has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The enzyme layer was deposited on the silicon dioxide surface after first exposing the surface to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTS) and reacting the silylated surface with glutaraldehyde (GA). Fine XPS analysis, performed after each step of the chemical procedure, revealed unknown details of the step-by-step construction of the enzyme layer under different experimental conditions.

  13. The relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Molina, E C; Lozano, S P; Barraca, A P

    2006-09-01

    The association between visual hepatic damage, burden of Fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the Philippines. In another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of F. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. The degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of F. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of GGT and GLDH. Red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were significantly inversely related to worm burden, but animals compensated for reduced numbers of red blood cells by increasing red cell haemoglobin content.

  14. Widening Spectrum of Cellular and Subcellular Expression of Human GLUD1 and GLUD2 Glutamate Dehydrogenases Suggests Novel Functions.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. 1.4.1.3) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood. There is however growing interest in a novel GDH2 isoenzyme that emerged via duplication in primates and underwent rapid evolutionary selection concomitant with prefrontal human cortex expansion. Also, the anaplerotic function of GDH1 and GDH2 is currently under sharp focus as this relates to the biology of glial tumors and other neoplasias. Here we used antibodies specific for human GDH1 (hGDH1) and human GDH2 (hGDH2) to study the expression of these isoenzymes in human tissues. Results revealed that both hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs. However, distinct hGDH1 and hGDH2 expression patterns emerged. Thus, while the Sertoli cells of human testis were strongly positive for hGDH2, they were negative for hGDH1. Conversely, hGDH1 showed very high levels of expression in human liver, but hepatocytes were virtually devoid of hGDH2. In human adrenals, both hGDHs were densely expressed in steroid-producing cells, with hGDH2 expression pattern matching that of the cholesterol side chain cleavage system involved in steroid synthesis. Similarly in human ovaries and placenta, both hGDH1 and hGDH2 were densely expressed in estrogen producing cells. In addition, hGDH1, being a housekeeping enzyme, was also expressed in cells that lack endocrine function. Regarding human brain, study of cortical sections using immunofluorescence (IF) with confocal microscopy revealed that hGDH1 and hGDH2 were both expressed

  15. Alpha helical structures in the leader sequence of human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase responsible for mitochondrial import.

    PubMed

    Kotzamani, Dimitra; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Human glutamate dehydrogenase (hGDH) exists in two highly homologous isoforms with a distinct regulatory and tissue expression profile: a housekeeping hGDH1 isoprotein encoded by the GLUD1 gene and an hGDH2 isoenzyme encoded by the GLUD2 gene. There is evidence that both isoenzymes are synthesized as pro-enzymes containing a 53 amino acid long N-terminal leader peptide that is cleaved upon translocation into the mitochondria. However, this GDH signal peptide is substantially larger than that of most nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial proteins, the leader sequence of which typically contains 17-35 amino acids and they often form a single amphipathic α-helix. To decode the structural elements that are essential for the mitochondrial targeting of human GDHs, we performed secondary structure analyses of their leader sequence. These analyses predicted, with 82% accuracy, that both leader peptides are positively charged and that they form two to three α-helices, separated by intermediate loops. The first α-helix of hGDH2 is strongly amphipathic, displaying both a positively charged surface and a hydrophobic plane. We then constructed GLUD2-EGFP deletion mutants and used them to transfect three mammalian cell lines (HEK293, COS 7 and SHSY-5Y). Confocal laser scanning microscopy, following co-transfection with pDsRed2-Mito mitochondrial targeting vector, revealed that deletion of the entire leader sequence prevented the enzyme from entering the mitochondria, resulting in its retention in the cytoplasm. Deletion of the first strongly amphipathic α-helix only was also sufficient to prevent the mitochondrial localization of the truncated protein. Moreover, truncated leader sequences, retaining the second and/or the third putative α-helix, failed to restore the mitochondrial import of hGDH2. As such, the first N-terminal alpha helical structure is crucial for the mitochondrial import of hGDH2 and these findings may have implications in understanding the evolutionary

  16. The gdhB gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an arginine-inducible NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase which is subject to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, C D; Abdelal, A T

    2001-01-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was purified, and its amino-terminal amino acid sequence was determined. This sequence information was used in identifying and cloning the encoding gdhB gene and its flanking regions. The molecular mass predicted from the derived sequence for the encoded NAD-GDH was 182.6 kDa, in close agreement with that determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified enzyme (180 kDa). Cross-linking studies established that the native NAD-GDH is a tetramer of equal subunits. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of NAD-GDH from P. aeruginosa with the GenBank database showed the highest homology with hypothetical polypeptides from Pseudomonas putida, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rickettsia prowazakii, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Shewanella putrefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Caulobacter crescentus. A moderate degree of homology, primarily in the central domain, was observed with the smaller tetrameric NAD-GDH (protomeric mass of 110 kDa) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Neurospora crassa. Comparison with the yet smaller hexameric GDH (protomeric mass of 48 to 55 kDa) of other prokaryotes yielded a low degree of homology that was limited to residues important for binding of substrates and for catalytic function. NAD-GDH was induced 27-fold by exogenous arginine and only 3-fold by exogenous glutamate. Primer extension experiments established that transcription of gdhB is initiated from an arginine-inducible promoter and that this induction is dependent on the arginine regulatory protein, ArgR, a member of the AraC/XyIS family of regulatory proteins. NAD-GDH was purified to homogeneity from a recombinant strain of P. aeruginosa and characterized. The glutamate saturation curve was sigmoid, indicating positive cooperativity in the binding of glutamate. NAD-GDH activity was subject to allosteric control by arginine and citrate, which

  17. Slow motion picture of protein inactivation during single-droplet drying: a study of inactivation kinetics of L-glutamate dehydrogenase dried in an acoustic levitator.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    A novel technique is presented to allow measurement of the kinetics of protein inactivation during drying of an acoustically levitated single droplet. Droplets/particles are removed from the acoustic field after various times during drying, and the state of the protein within them is analyzed. The influence of drying air temperature, relative humidity, buffer concentration, and the presence of a substrate on the inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase is described. The kinetics of inactivation showed three distinct phases. The first phase of constant drying rate demonstrated little protein inactivation in the solution droplet. After the critical point of drying, a second phase was distinguishable when the surface temperature has risen sharply, but there is still only little inactivation of the protein in the solid particle. An onset point of rapid inactivation of the protein marked the start of the third phase that proceeded with approximately first-order rate kinetics. In the case of L-glutamate dehydrogenase, the evidence suggests that the residual moisture content of the solid and not the temperature alone determines the point of onset of protein inactivation.

  18. The Presence of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Is a Selective Advantage for the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 under Nonexponential Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, S.; Lucena, J. M.; Reyes, J. C.; Florencio, F. J.; Candau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has two putative pathways for ammonium assimilation: the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase cycle, which is the main one and is finely regulated by the nitrogen source; and a high NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity (NADP-GDH) whose contribution to glutamate synthesis is uncertain. To investigate the role of the latter, we used two engineered mutants, one lacking and another overproducing NADP-GDH. No major disturbances in the regulation of nitrogen-assimilating enzymes or in amino acids pools were detected in the null mutant, but phycobiline content, a sensitive indicator of the nutritional state of cyanobacterial cells, was significantly reduced, indicating that NADP-GDH plays an auxiliary role in ammonium assimilation. This effect was already prominent in the initial phase of growth, although differences in growth rate between the wild type and the mutants were observed at this stage only at low light intensities. However, the null mutant was unable to sustain growth at the late stage of the culture at the point when the wild type showed the maximum NADP-GDH activity, and died faster in ammonium-containing medium. Overexpression of NADP-GDH improved culture proliferation under moderate ammonium concentrations. Competition experiments between the wild type and the null mutant confirmed that the presence of NADP-GDH confers a selective advantage to Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in late stages of growth. PMID:9922243

  19. The presence of glutamate dehydrogenase is a selective advantage for the Cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 under nonexponential growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Chávez, S; Lucena, J M; Reyes, J C; Florencio, F J; Candau, P

    1999-02-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has two putative pathways for ammonium assimilation: the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase cycle, which is the main one and is finely regulated by the nitrogen source; and a high NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity (NADP-GDH) whose contribution to glutamate synthesis is uncertain. To investigate the role of the latter, we used two engineered mutants, one lacking and another overproducing NADP-GDH. No major disturbances in the regulation of nitrogen-assimilating enzymes or in amino acids pools were detected in the null mutant, but phycobiline content, a sensitive indicator of the nutritional state of cyanobacterial cells, was significantly reduced, indicating that NADP-GDH plays an auxiliary role in ammonium assimilation. This effect was already prominent in the initial phase of growth, although differences in growth rate between the wild type and the mutants were observed at this stage only at low light intensities. However, the null mutant was unable to sustain growth at the late stage of the culture at the point when the wild type showed the maximum NADP-GDH activity, and died faster in ammonium-containing medium. Overexpression of NADP-GDH improved culture proliferation under moderate ammonium concentrations. Competition experiments between the wild type and the null mutant confirmed that the presence of NADP-GDH confers a selective advantage to Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in late stages of growth.

  20. Radiochemical assay for a NADP+-specific gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase extracted from mitochondrial membrane of rat intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.J.; Gooding, R.C.; Jones, M.E.

    1988-02-01

    A radiochemical assay has been developed for a NADP+-specific gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase from rat intestinal epithelial cells. The spectrophotometric assay utilized to measure the enzyme in bacterial cell homogenates is not sensitive enough for homogenates from rat mitochondria, which require an assay that can measure as little as 0.5 nmol NADPH formed/min/ml extract. The assay described here is sensitive to 0.1 nmol product formed/min/ml of extract and employs the use of (/sup 3/H)pyrroline 5-carboxylate which is phosphorylated and oxidized by the enzyme to gamma-(/sup 3/H)glutamyl phosphate, a product that decomposes to (/sup 3/H)pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate. The latter product is separated from the substrate by ion-exchange chromatography. In order to correct for any product loss during separation by ion-exchange (/sup 14/C)pyrrolidone 5-carboxylate is added as an internal standard to the deproteinized assay mixture. Under the assay conditions described mammalian gamma-glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity is linear with respect to time and protein concentration. Comparison between the kinetic parameters reported for the bacterial enzyme and those reported here for the mammalian enzyme indicate similarities in the pH optima as well as a requirement for phosphate. Kinetic studies on mammalian enzyme yield apparent Km values of 1.8 mM for pyrroline 5-carboxylate, 0.2 mM for NADP+, and 11.3 mM for phosphate.

  1. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis induces glutamate dehydrogenase-dependent ammonia fixation into alanine in co-cultures of astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Dadsetan, Sherry; Bak, Lasse K; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Ott, Peter; Leke, Renata; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that ammonia exposure of neurons and astrocytes in co-culture leads to net synthesis not only of glutamine but also of alanine. The latter process involves the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). In the present study it was investigated if the glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) would enhance alanine synthesis by blocking the GS-dependent ammonia scavenging process. Hence, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes were incubated for 2.5h with [U-(13)C]glucose to monitor de novo synthesis of alanine and glutamine in the absence and presence of 5.0 mM NH(4)Cl and 10 mM MSO. Ammonia exposure led to increased incorporation of label but not to a significant increase in the amount of these amino acids. However, in the presence of MSO, glutamine synthesis was blocked and synthesis of alanine increased leading to an elevated content intra- as well as extracellularly of this amino acid. Treatment with MSO led to a dramatic decrease in glutamine content and increased the intracellular contents of glutamate and aspartate. The large increase in alanine during exposure to MSO underlines the importance of the GDH and ALAT biosynthetic pathway for ammonia fixation, and it points to the use of a GS inhibitor to ameliorate the brain toxicity and edema induced by hyperammonemia, events likely related to glutamine synthesis.

  2. An enzymatic bridge between carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism: regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase by reversible phosphorylation in a severe hypoxia-tolerant crayfish.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neal J; Storey, Kenneth B

    2012-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EC 1.4.1.3) is a crucial enzyme involved in bridging two metabolic pathways, gating the use of glutamate for either amino acid metabolism, or carbohydrate metabolism. The present study investigated GDH from tail muscle of the freshwater crayfish Orconectes virilis exploring changes to kinetic properties, phosphorylation levels and structural stability between two forms of the enzyme (aerobic control and 20-h severe hypoxic). Evidence indicated that GDH was converted to a high phosphate form under oxygen limitation. ProQ Diamond phosphoprotein staining showed a 42% higher bound phosphate content on GDH from muscle of severely hypoxic crayfish compared with the aerobic form, and treatment of this GDH with commercial phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase), and treatments that stimulated the activities of different endogenous protein phosphatases (stimulating PP1 + PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C) yielded significant increases in the fold activation by ADP of GDH from both control and severe hypoxic conditions. By contrast, stimulation of the activities of endogenous protein kinases (AMPK, PKA or CaMK) significantly reduced the ADP fold activation from control animals. The physiological consequence of severe hypoxia-induced GDH phosphorylation may be to suppress GDH activity under low oxygen, shutting off this critical bridge point between two metabolic pathways.

  3. Biomolecular Interaction Assays Identified Dual Inhibitors of Glutaminase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase That Disrupt Mitochondrial Function and Prevent Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Fang, Jinzhang; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Yan; Ruan, Jennifer Jin; Chen, Zhao; Hou, Wei; Yang, Gensheng; Su, Weike; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    2017-02-07

    Glutaminase (KGA/isoenzyme GAC) is an emerging and important drug target for cancer. Traditional methods for assaying glutaminase activity are coupled with several other enzymes. Such coupled assays do not permit the direct and stringent characterization of specific glutaminase inhibitors. Ebselen was identified as a potent 9 nM KGA inhibitor in the KGA/glutamate oxidase (GO)/horse radish peroxidase (HRP) coupled assay but showed very weak activity in inhibiting the growth of glutamine-dependent cancer cells. For rigorous characterization, we developed a direct kinetic binding assay for KGA using bio-layer interferometry (BLI) as the detection method; Ebselen was identified as a GDH inhibitor but not a KGA inhibitor. Furthermore, we designed and synthesized several benzo[d][1,2]selenazol-3(2H)-one dimers which were subjected to SAR analysis by several glutaminolysis specific biochemical and cell based assays. Novel glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or dual KGA/GDH inhibitors were discovered from the synthetic compounds; the dual inhibitors completely disrupt mitochondrial function and demonstrate potent anticancer activity with a minimum level of toxicity.

  4. Insights into Flavin-based Electron Bifurcation via the NADH-dependent Reduced Ferredoxin:NADP Oxidoreductase Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, Julius K.; Huang, Haiyan; Wang, Shuning; Demmer, Ulrike; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Ermler, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP oxidoreductase (NfnAB) is found in the cytoplasm of various anaerobic bacteria and archaea. The enzyme reversibly catalyzes the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin with NADPH driven by the exergonic transhydrogenation from NADPH onto NAD+. Coupling is most probably accomplished via the mechanism of flavin-based electron bifurcation. To understand this process on a structural basis, we heterologously produced the NfnAB complex of Thermotoga maritima in Escherichia coli, provided kinetic evidence for its bifurcating behavior, and determined its x-ray structure in the absence and presence of NADH. The structure of NfnAB reveals an electron transfer route including the FAD (a-FAD), the [2Fe-2S] cluster of NfnA and the FAD (b-FAD), and the two [4Fe-4S] clusters of NfnB. Ferredoxin is presumably docked onto NfnB close to the [4Fe-4S] cluster distal to b-FAD. NAD(H) binds to a-FAD and NADP(H) consequently to b-FAD, which is positioned in the center of the NfnAB complex and the site of electron bifurcation. Arg187 is hydrogen-bonded to N5 and O4 of the bifurcating b-FAD and might play a key role in adjusting a low redox potential of the FADH•/FAD pair required for ferredoxin reduction. A mechanism of FAD-coupled electron bifurcation by NfnAB is proposed. PMID:26139605

  5. Glutamate dehydrogenase activator BCH stimulating reductive amination prevents high fat/high fructose diet-induced steatohepatitis and hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Jin; Choi, Sung-E; Yi, Sang-A; Jung, Jong Gab; Jung, Ik-Rak; Shin, Maureen; Kang, Seok; Oh, Hyunhee; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kwon, Ji Eun; Choi, Cheol Soo; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kang, Yup

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) induced by high calorie western diet are characterized by enhanced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Stimulation of reductive amination may shift tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis toward glutamate synthesis with increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and thus, ameliorate high calorie diet-induced fatty liver and hyperglycemia. Stimulation of reductive amination through glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activator 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) reduced both de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis but increased the activities of sirtuins and AMP-activated kinase in primary hepatocytes. Long-term BCH treatment improved most metabolic alterations induced by high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr) diet in C57BL/6J mice. BCH prevented HF/HFr-induced fat accumulation and activation of stress/inflammation signals such as phospho-JNK, phospho-PERK, phospho-p38, and phospho-NFκB in liver tissues. Furthermore, BCH treatment reduced the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in HF/HFr-fed mouse liver. BCH also reduced liver collagen and plasma levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase. On the other hand, BCH significantly improved fasting hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in HF/HFr-fed mice. In conclusion, stimulation of reductive amination through GDH activation can be used as a strategy to prevent high calorie western diet-induced NAFLD and T2D. PMID:27874078

  6. Catalytic reaction profile for NADH-dependent reduction of aromatic aldehydes by xylose reductase from Candida tenuis.

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Peter; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic substituent effects have been used to examine the catalytic reaction profile of xylose reductase from the yeast Candida tenuis, a representative aldo/keto reductase of primary carbohydrate metabolism. Michaelis-Menten parameters (k(cat) and K(m)) for NADH-dependent enzymic aldehyde reductions have been determined using a homologous series of benzaldehyde derivatives in which substituents in meta and para positions were employed to systematically perturb the properties of the reactive carbonyl group. Kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) for enzymic reactions with meta-substituted benzaldehydes have been obtained by using NADH (2)H-labelled in the pro-R C4-H position, and equilibrium constants for the conversion of these aldehydes into the corresponding alcohols (K(eq)) have been measured in the presence of NAD(H) and enzyme. Aldehyde dissociation constants (K(d)) and the hydride transfer rate constant (k(7)) have been calculated from steady-state rate and KIE data. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was used to factor the observed substituent dependence of k(cat)/K(m) into a major electronic effect and a productive positional effect of the para substituent. k(cat)/K(m) (after correction for substituent position) and K(eq) obeyed log-linear correlations over the substituent parameter, Hammett sigma, giving identical slope values (rho) of +1.4 to +1.7, whereas the same Hammett plot for logK(d) yielded rho=-1.5. This leads to the conclusion that electron-withdrawing substituents facilitate the reaction and increase binding to about the same extent. KIE values for k(cat) (1.8) and k(cat)/K(m) (2.7), and likewise k(7), showed no substituent dependence. Therefore, irrespective of the observed changes in reactivity over the substrate series studied no shift in the character of the rate-limiting transition state of hydride transfer occurred. The signs and magnitudes of rho values suggest this transition state to be product

  7. Three human glutamate dehydrogenase genes (GLUD1, GLUDP2, and GLUDP3) are located on chromosome 10q, but are not closely physically linked

    SciTech Connect

    Deloukas, P.; Loon, A.P.G.M. van ); Dauwerse, J.G.; Ommen, G.J.B. van ); Moschonas, N.K. )

    1993-09-01

    Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) of 340 and 370 kb that contain the functional human glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GLUD1) and the pseudogene GLUDP2, respectively, were isolated. These genes were not physically linked to each other nor to any other sequences homologous to the exons of GLUD1. No additional GLUD sequences were found within at least 70 kb of the 5[prime] and 175 kb of the 3[prime] end of GLUD1 or 150 kb of either end of GLUDP2. By in situ hybridization, GLUD1 was located at 10q23.3, GLUDP2 at 10q11.2, and another pseudogene of the GLUD gene family, GLUDP3, at 10q22.1. DNA fragments of these three genes showed cross-hybridization to the loci assigned to the other two genes, but not to any other chromosomal locus. Thus, these three genes are located at distinct positions on chromosome 10q. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Different rates of synthesis and degradation of two chloroplastic ammonium-inducible NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes during induction and deinduction in Chlorella sorokiniana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bascomb, N.F.; Prunkard, D.E.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics of accumulation (per milliliter of culture) of the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits, associated with chloroplast-localized ammonium inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) isoenzymes, were measured during a 3 hour induction of synchronized daughter cells of Chlorella sorokiniana in 29 millimolar ammonium medium under photoautotrophic conditions. The ..beta..-subunit holoenzyme(s) accumulated in a linear manner for 3 hours without an apparent induction lag. A 40 minute induction lag preceded the accumulation of the ..cap alpha..-subunit holoenzyme(s). After 120 minutes, the ..cap alpha..-subunit ceased accumulating and thereafter remained at a constant level. From pulse-chase experiments, using /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ and immunochemical procedures, the rate of synthesis of the ..cap alpha..-subunit was shown to be greater than the ..beta..-subunit during the first 80 minutes of induction. The ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-subunits had different rates of degradation during the induction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 50 versus 150 minutes, respectively) and during the deinduction period (t/sub 1/2/ = 5 versus 13.5 minutes) after removal of ammonium from the culture. During deinduction, total NADP-GDH activity decreased with a half-time of 9 minutes. Cycloheximide completely inhibited the synthesis and degradation of both subunits. A model for regulation of expression of the NADP-GDH gene was proposed.

  9. RATES OF GDP-INDUCED AND GTP-INDUCED DEPOLYMERIZATION AND ISOMERIZATION OF THE BOVINE LIVER GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE-COENZYME COMPLEX: A POSSIBLE CONTROLLING FACTOR IN METABOLIC REGULATION*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Charles Y.; Frieden, Carl

    1969-01-01

    The rate of the depolymerization of beef liver glutamate dehydrogenase induced by coenzyme and the purine nucleotides guanosine 5′-diphosphate and guanosine 5′-triphosphate, which are potent inhibitors of enzymatic activity, has been measured by rapid light scattering techniques and by absorbancy changes with stop flow. It is shown that the rate constant for this process may vary from several milliseconds to several seconds depending upon the nucleotides used. The widely varying rate constants for the nucleotide-induced depolymerization may serve a role in determining the nature of the regulation of enzyme activity by nucleotides. Depolymerization induced by guanosine 5′-diphosphate in the presence of diphosphopyridine nucleotide is slower than in the presence of triphosphopyridine nucleotide as coenzyme, and this difference is apparently due to the isomerization of the enzyme as a result of diphosphopyridine nucleotide binding to a second, nonactive site. This binding, as well as binding of the coenzyme to the active site, may be conveniently measured by a purine nucleotide-induced spectral shift in the coenzyme absorption spectrum. It is also shown that complete depolymerization of the enzyme in the presence of guanosine 5′-triphosphate is accomplished by about half saturation of the coenzyme active sites (6-8 active “monomer”). PMID:4312753

  10. The existence of a hexameric intermediate with molten-globule-like properties in the thermal denaturation of bovine-liver glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Liu, Z; Fisher, H F

    1996-12-10

    We have studied the thermal denaturation of hexameric beef-liver glutamate dehydrogenase by itself and in the presence of ADP and guanidine-HCl by a variety of techniques. In differential scanning calorimetry studies, the observed melting temperature and total enthalpy of denaturation show no dependence on protein concentration, but do show significant dependence on the scan rate. This suggests that the overall denaturation process is irreversible and kinetically controlled. Isothermal unfolding kinetics from spectrophotometry confirm this result. The size of the protein, as shown by quasi-elastic light scattering measurements, does not change during the denaturation process. We interpret these results in terms of the following model: N6 reversible N'6-->6U(-->F) where N6 and N'6 are, respectively, the native hexamer and a hexameric, highly folded high-enthalpy species, U is the unfolded monomer and F is some final aggregated state. The kinetic intermediate, N'6, possesses the properties of one definition of a molten globule, having a very high enthalpy and a hexameric compact structured form. This "molten globule" is an obligatory intermediate in the unfolding pathway of the protein. The stabilization of the protein by ADP is due to the modulation of the high-enthalpy two-state predenaturational E reversible E' transition, resulting in the lowering of the energy of the native state of the protein.

  11. Evidence for Chloroplastic Localization of an Ammonium-Inducible Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Synthesis of Its Subunit from a Cytosolic Precursor-Protein in Chlorella sorokiniana1

    PubMed Central

    Prunkard, Donna E.; Bascomb, Newell F.; Robinson, Ralph W.; Schmidt, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana cells, cultured for 12 hours in 30 millimolar ammonium medium, contained an ammonium inducible nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) isoenzyme with subunits having a molecular weight of 53,000. In vitro translation of total cellular poly(A)+ RNA, isolated from fully induced cells, resulted in synthesis of an NADP-GDH antigen with a molecular weight of 58,500. The 58,500 dalton antigen was processed in vitro, with a 100,000g supernatant prepared from broken fully induced Chlorella cells, to a protein with a molecular weight of 53,000. These data support the inference that the NADP-GDH subunit (Mr = 53,000) is initially synthesized as a larger precursor protein (Mr = 58,500). By use of a cytochemical staining procedure, dependent upon NADP-GDH catalytic activity, the holoenzyme was shown to be chloroplast-localized. An immunoelectron microscopy procedure, employing anti-NADP-GDH immunoglobulin G and Protein A-gold complex, showed that NADP-GDH antigen was absent from the nucleus but present in both the chloroplast and cytosol. Since synthesis of the enzyme can be inhibited by cycloheximide, the detection of NADP-GDH antigen in the cytosol was probably due to binding of the NADP-GDH antibody to nascent polypeptide chains of the precursor-protein being synthesized on cytosolic 80S ribosomes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16664819

  12. Overexpression in a non-native halophilic host and biotechnological potential of NAD+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum strain NRC-36014.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Nayla; Engel, Paul C

    2012-05-01

    Enzymes produced by halophilic archaea are generally heat resistant and organic solvent tolerant, and accordingly important for biocatalytic applications in 'green chemistry', frequently requiring a low-water environment. NAD(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from an extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum strain NRC-36014 was selected to explore the biotechnological potential of this enzyme and genetically engineered derivatives. Over-expression in a halophilic host Haloferax volcanii provided a soluble, active recombinant enzyme, not achievable in mesophilic Escherichia coli, and an efficient purification procedure was developed. pH and salt dependence, thermostability, organic solvent stability and kinetic parameters were explored. The enzyme is active up to 90 °C and fully stable up to 70 °C. It shows good tolerance of various miscible organic solvents. High concentrations of salt may be substituted with 30 % DMSO or betaine with good stability and activity. The robustness of this enzyme under a wide range of conditions offers a promising scaffold for protein engineering.

  13. Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH).

  14. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  15. Diagnosing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea using enzyme immunoassay: the clinical significance of toxin negativity in glutamate dehydrogenase-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuhashi, Kazuhito; Yagihara, Yuka; Misawa, Yoshiki; Sato, Tomoaki; Saito, Ryoichi; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has lower sensitivity for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B than the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Furthermore, toxin positivity with EIA performed on C. difficile isolates from stool cultures may be observed even in patients with EIA glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-positive and toxin-negative stool specimens. It is unclear whether such patients should be treated as having CDAD. Methods The present study retrospectively compared patient characteristics, treatment, and diarrhea duration among three groups of patients who underwent stool EIA testing for CDAD diagnosis: a toxin-positive stool group (positive stool group; n=39); a toxin-negative stool/toxin-positive isolate group (discrepant negative/positive group, n=14); and a dual toxin-negative stool and isolate group (dual negative group, n=15). All cases included were confirmed to be GDH positive on EIA test. Results Patients’ backgrounds and comorbidities were not significantly different among three groups. No difference was observed among the three groups with regard to antimicrobial drug use before diarrhea onset. Treatment was received by 82.1% of the positive stool group compared to 7.1% of the discrepant positive/negative group and 0% of the dual negative group, while mean diarrhea duration was 10.6 days compared to 7.9 days (P=0.6006) and 3.4 days (P=0.0312), respectively. Conclusion Even without treatment, patients with toxin-negative stool specimens had shorter diarrhea duration than those with toxin-positive stool specimens even with toxin-positive isolates. These findings may suggest a limited need for CDAD treatment for GDH-positive patients and toxin-negative stool specimens. PMID:27313472

  16. [Utility of a Simultaneous Detection Kit for Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Toxin A/B with Toxigenic Culture in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Akio; Suzuki, Hiroko; Shishido, Hiroko; Abe, Satomi; Nakajima, Mikako; Maeda, Junko; Tamura, Isao; Shiroishi, Mitsuru; Usui, Mariko

    2015-06-01

    We examined how doctors evaluate the results of C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE (COMPLETE) in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A total of 887 stool samples submitted from 2012 to 2013 were examined with COMPLETE. Requested specimens among samples with discrepant results were inoculated onto CCMA plates and incubated under anaerobic conditions for 48 h, then retested by COMPLETE if positive culture results were obtained. Of the 887 specimens, 198 (22.3%) were glutamate dehydrogenase-positive and 73(8.3%) were toxin-positive. Of the 125 specimens yielding discrepant results, 106 specimens were cultured and retested, with 46 (43.4%, 46/106) proving toxin-positive. As a result, the total number of toxin-positive results increased from 73 (8.3%, 73/887) to 119 (13.4%, 119/887). This change was significant (p<0.01). We analyzed the relationship between doctor's decision-making and timing of receiving CD test results in 81 specimens among the discrepant results. Twenty-four patients started treatment just after obtaining the first test result (29.6%, 24/81) and the toxin-positive ratio of the second test was 62.5% (15/24). The decision to start treatment was made after obtaining results of the second test in 48 patients, of whom 13 (16.0%, 13/81) started treatment, and the toxin-positive ratio was 37.5% (18/48). The difference in toxin ratio was significant (p < 0.05). The increase in toxin-positive ratio in the final report facilitates diagnosis in patients with CDL Many doctors, however, started treatment before obtaining results from the second test, suggesting that the 3-day delay in report results represents a drawback for this system.

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from two independent nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGA...

  18. H2O2 Production in Species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Group: a Central Role for a Novel NADH-Dependent Flavin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberger, Rosanne; Arents, Jos; Dekker, Henk L.; Pridmore, R. David; Gysler, Christof; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production is a well-known trait of many bacterial species associated with the human body. In the presence of oxygen, the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 excretes up to 1 mM H2O2, inducing growth stagnation and cell death. Disruption of genes commonly assumed to be involved in H2O2 production (e.g., pyruvate oxidase, NADH oxidase, and lactate oxidase) did not affect this. Here we describe the purification of a novel NADH-dependent flavin reductase encoded by two highly similar genes (LJ_0548 and LJ_0549) that are conserved in lactobacilli belonging to the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. The genes are predicted to encode two 20-kDa proteins containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase conserved domains. Reductase activity requires FMN, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), or riboflavin and is specific for NADH and not NADPH. The Km for FMN is 30 ± 8 μM, in accordance with its proposed in vivo role in H2O2 production. Deletion of the encoding genes in L. johnsonii led to a 40-fold reduction of hydrogen peroxide formation. H2O2 production in this mutant could only be restored by in trans complementation of both genes. Our work identifies a novel, conserved NADH-dependent flavin reductase that is prominently involved in H2O2 production in L. johnsonii. PMID:24487531

  19. Gene cloning and characterization of two NADH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductases from Microbacterium luteolum JCM 9174.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Kentaro; Kurokawa, Junji; Suzuki, Fumiko; Nomoto, Syunsuke; Negishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Michiko; Itoh, Nobuya

    2013-02-01

    We used the resting-cell reaction to screen approximately 200 microorganisms for biocatalysts which reduce 3-quinuclidinone to optically pure (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol. Microbacterium luteolum JCM 9174 was selected as the most suitable organism. The genes encoding the protein products that reduced 3-quinuclidinone were isolated from M. luteolum JCM 9174. The bacC gene, which consists of 768 nucleotides corresponding to 255 amino acid residues and is a constituent of the bacilysin synthetic gene cluster, was amplified by PCR based on homology to known genes. The qnr gene consisted of 759 nucleotides corresponding to 252 amino acid residues. Both enzymes belong to the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family. The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins which were His tagged at the N terminus, and the recombinant enzymes were purified and characterized. Both enzymes showed narrow substrate specificity and high stereoselectivity for the reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol.

  20. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity in nonstarter lactic acid bacteria: effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity and expression.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, M; Calasso, M; Di Cagno, R; Siragusa, S; Minervini, F; Gobbetti, M

    2010-11-01

    To screen the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) and to determine the effects of temperature, pH and NaCl values used for cheese ripening on enzyme activity and expression of GDH gene. A subcellular fractionation protocol and specific enzyme assays were used. The effect of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity was evaluated. The expression of GDH gene was monitored by real-time PCR. One selected strain was also used as adjunct starter for cheese making to evaluate the catabolism of free amino acids and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during cheese ripening. The cytoplasm fraction of all strains showed in vitro NADP-dependent GDH activity. NADP-GDH activity was markedly strain dependent and varied according to the interactions between temperature, pH and NaCl. Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA49 showed the highest NADP-GDH activity under temperature, pH and NaCl values found during cheese ripening. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GDH expression of Lact. plantarum DPPMA49 was down-expressed by low temperature (<13°C) and over-expressed by NaCl (1·87-5·62%). According to NADP-GDH activity, the highest level of VOC (alcohols, aldehydes, miscellaneous and carboxylic acids) was found in cheeses made with DPPMA49. The results of this study may be considered as an example of the influence of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity and expression of functional genes, such as GDH, in cheese-related bacteria. It focuses on the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the NADP-GDH in lactobacilli under cheese-ripening conditions. The findings of this study contribute to the knowledge about enzymes involved in the catabolism of amino acids, to be used as an important selection trait for cheese strains. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Gene Cloning and Characterization of Two NADH-Dependent 3-Quinuclidinone Reductases from Microbacterium luteolum JCM 9174

    PubMed Central

    Isotani, Kentaro; Kurokawa, Junji; Suzuki, Fumiko; Nomoto, Syunsuke; Negishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    We used the resting-cell reaction to screen approximately 200 microorganisms for biocatalysts which reduce 3-quinuclidinone to optically pure (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol. Microbacterium luteolum JCM 9174 was selected as the most suitable organism. The genes encoding the protein products that reduced 3-quinuclidinone were isolated from M. luteolum JCM 9174. The bacC gene, which consists of 768 nucleotides corresponding to 255 amino acid residues and is a constituent of the bacilysin synthetic gene cluster, was amplified by PCR based on homology to known genes. The qnr gene consisted of 759 nucleotides corresponding to 252 amino acid residues. Both enzymes belong to the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family. The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli as proteins which were His tagged at the N terminus, and the recombinant enzymes were purified and characterized. Both enzymes showed narrow substrate specificity and high stereoselectivity for the reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-(−)-3-quinuclidinol. PMID:23263947

  2. Molecular characterization of an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, R V; Bennett, G N; Papoutsakis, E T

    1994-01-01

    A gene (aad) coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) was identified immediately upstream of the previously cloned ctfA (J. W. Cary, D. J. Petersen, E. T. Papoutsakis, and G. N. Bennett, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1576-1583, 1990) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and sequenced. The 2,619-bp aad codes for a 96,517-Da protein. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 83 and 243 bp upstream of the aad start codon. The N-terminal section of AAD shows homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases of bacterial, fungal, mammalian, and plant origin, while the C-terminal section shows homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of bacterial (which includes three clostridial alcohol dehydrogenases) and yeast origin. AAD exhibits considerable amino acid homology (56% identity) over its entire sequence to the trifunctional protein encoded by adhE from Escherichia coli. Expression of aad from a plasmid in C. acetobutylicum showed that AAD, which appears as a approximately 96-kDa band in denaturing protein gels, provides elevated activities of NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and a small increase in NADH-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase. A 957-bp open reading frame that could potentially encode a 36,704-Da protein was identified upstream of aad. Images PMID:8300540

  3. Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms. PMID:21685167

  4. Increased furfural tolerance due to overexpression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli strains engineered for the production of ethanol and lactate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Miller, E N; Yomano, L P; Zhang, X; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low K(m) for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms.

  5. Ciprofloxacin triggered glutamate production by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-10-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a well-studied bacterium which naturally overproduces glutamate when induced by an elicitor. Glutamate production is accompanied by decreased 2-oxoglutatate dehydrogenase activity. Elicitors of glutamate production by C. glutamicum analyzed to molecular detail target the cell envelope. Ciprofloxacin, an inhibitor of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, was shown to inhibit growth of C. glutamicum wild type with concomitant excretion of glutamate. Enzyme assays showed that 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity was decreased due to ciprofloxacin addition. Transcriptome analysis revealed that this inhibitor of DNA gyrase increased RNA levels of genes involved in DNA synthesis, repair and modification. Glutamate production triggered by ciprofloxacin led to glutamate titers of up to 37 ± 1 mM and a substrate specific glutamate yield of 0.13 g/g. Even in the absence of the putative glutamate exporter gene yggB, ciprofloxacin effectively triggered glutamate production. When C. glutamicum wild type was cultivated under nitrogen-limiting conditions, 2-oxoglutarate rather than glutamate was produced as consequence of exposure to ciprofloxacin. Recombinant C. glutamicum strains overproducing lysine, arginine, ornithine, and putrescine, respectively, secreted glutamate instead of the desired amino acid when exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin induced DNA synthesis and repair genes, reduced 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity and elicited glutamate production by C. glutamicum. Production of 2-oxoglutarate could be triggered by ciprofloxacin under nitrogen-limiting conditions.

  6. Characterization of an NADH-dependent persulfide reductase from Shewanella loihica PV-4: implications for the mechanism of sulfur respiration via FAD-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Warner, Megan D; Lukose, Vinita; Lee, Kyu Hyun; Lopez, Karlo; H Sazinsky, Matthew; Crane, Edward J

    2011-01-18

    The NADH-dependent persulfide reductase (Npsr), a recently discovered member of the PNDOR family of flavoproteins that contains both the canonical flavoprotein reductase domain and a rhodanese domain, is proposed to be involved in the dissimilatory reduction of S(0) for Shewanella loihica PV-4. We have previously shown that polysulfide is a substrate for this enzyme, and a recently determined structure of a closely related enzyme (CoADR-Rhod from Bacillus anthracis) suggested the importance of a bound coenzyme A in the mechanism. The work described here shows that the in vivo oxidizing substrates of Npsr are the persulfides of small thiols such as CoA and glutathione. C43S, C531S, and C43,531S mutants were created to determine the role of the flavoprotein domain cysteine (C43) and the rhodanese domain cysteine (C531) in the mechanism. The absolute requirement for C43 in persulfide or DTNB reductase activity shows that this residue is involved in S-S bond breakage. C531 contributes to, but is not required for, catalysis of DTNB reduction, while it is absolutely required for reduction of any persulfide substrates. Titrations of the enzyme with NADH, dithionite, titanium(III), or TCEP demonstrate the presence of a mixed-disulfide between C43 and a tightly bound CoA, and structures of the C43 and C43,531S mutants confirm that this coenzyme A remains tightly bound to the enzyme in the absence of a C43-CoA S-S bond. The structure of Npsr suggests a likely site for binding and reaction with the persulfide substrate on the rhodanese domain. On the basis of kinetic, titration, and structural data, a mechanism for the reduction of persulfides by Npsr is proposed.

  7. The steady-state kinetics of the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase from Escherichia coli K 12. Nitrite and hydroxylamine reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, R H; Cole, J A; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of both NO2- and hydroxylamine by the NADH-dependent nitrite reductase of Escherichia coli K 12 (EC 1.6.6.4) appears to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics over a wide range of NADH concentrations. Substrate inhibition can, however, be detected at low concentrations of the product NAD+. In addition, NAD+ displays mixed product inhibition with respect to NADH and mixed or uncompetitive inhibition with respect to hydroxylamine. These inhibition characteristics are consistent with a mechanism in which hydroxylamine binds during catalysis to a different enzyme form from that generated when NAD+ is released. The apparent maximum velocity with NADH as varied substrate increases as the NAD+ concentration increases from 0.05 to 0.7 mM with 1 mM-NO2- or 100 mM-hydroxylamine as oxidized substrate. This increase is more marked for hydroxylamine reduction than for NO2- reduction. Models incorporating only one binding site for NAD can account for the variation in the Michaelis-Menten parameters for both NADH and hydroxylamine with [NAD+] for hydroxylamine reduction. According to these models, activation of the reaction occurs by reversal of an over-reduction of the enzyme by NADH. If the observed activation of the enzyme by NAD+ derives both from activation of the generation of the enzyme-hydroxylamine complex from the enzyme-NO2- complex during NO2- reduction and from activation of the reduction of the enzyme-hydroxylamine complex to form NH4+, then the variation of Vapp. for NO2- or hydroxylamine with [NAD+] is consistent with the occurrence of the same enzyme-hydroxylamine complex as an intermediate in both reactions. PMID:6279095

  8. Biochemical and Structural Studies of NADH-Dependent FabG Used To Increase the Bacterial Production of Fatty Acids under Anaerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Javidpour, Pouya; Pereira, Jose H.; Goh, Ee-Been; McAndrew, Ryan P.; Ma, Suzanne M.; Friedland, Gregory D.; Keasling, Jay D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Major efforts in bioenergy research have focused on producing fuels that can directly replace petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel fuel through metabolic engineering of microbial fatty acid biosynthetic pathways. Typically, growth and pathway induction are conducted under aerobic conditions, but for operational efficiency in an industrial context, anaerobic culture conditions would be preferred to obviate the need to maintain specific dissolved oxygen concentrations and to maximize the proportion of reducing equivalents directed to biofuel biosynthesis rather than ATP production. A major concern with fermentative growth conditions is elevated NADH levels, which can adversely affect cell physiology. The purpose of this study was to identify homologs of Escherichia coli FabG, an essential reductase involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, that display a higher preference for NADH than for NADPH as a cofactor. Four potential NADH-dependent FabG variants were identified through bioinformatic analyses supported by crystallographic structure determination (1.3- to 2.0-Å resolution). In vitro assays of cofactor (NADH/NADPH) preference in the four variants showed up to ∼35-fold preference for NADH, which was observed with the Cupriavidus taiwanensis FabG variant. In addition, FabG homologs were overexpressed in fatty acid- and methyl ketone-overproducing E. coli host strains under anaerobic conditions, and the C. taiwanensis variant led to a 60% higher free fatty acid titer and 75% higher methyl ketone titer relative to the titers of the control strains. With further engineering, this work could serve as a starting point for establishing a microbial host strain for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels (e.g., methyl ketones) under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24212572

  9. Asymmetric oxidoreductions catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwald, J.; Wirz, B.; Scollar, M.P.; Klibanov, A.M.

    1986-10-15

    A methodology is developed for the use of alcohol dehydrogenase (and other NAD/sup +//NADH-dependent enzymes) as catalysts in organic solvents. The enzyme and the cofactor are deposited onto the surface of glass beads which are then suspended in a water-immiscible organic solvent containing the substrate. Both NADH and NAD/sup +/ are efficiently regenerated in such a system with alcohol dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol and reduction of isobutyraldehyde, respectively; cofactor turnover numbers of 10/sup 5/ to greater than 10/sup 6/ have been obtained. With use of asymmetric oxidoreductions catalyzed by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase in isopropyl ether, optically active (ee of 95 to 100%) alcohols and ketones have been prepared on a 1 to 10 mmol scale.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a modified two-step algorithm using a combined glutamate dehydrogenase/toxin enzyme immunoassay and real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Stevens, Jane; Portillo, Lena; Barza, Ruby; Schejbal, Debra; Wu, May May; Chancey, Christina; Singh, Kamaljit

    2014-02-01

    The analytical performance and cost-effectiveness of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, the C. Diff. Quik Chek Complete (CdQCC) (a combined glutamate dehydrogenase antigen/toxin enzyme immunoassay), two RT-PCR assays (Progastro Cd and BD GeneOhm) and a modified two-step algorithm using the CdQCC reflexed to RT-PCR for indeterminate results were compared. The sensitivity of the Wampole Toxin A/B EIA, CdQCC (GDH antigen), BD GeneOhm and Progastro Cd RT-PCR were 85.4%, 95.8%, 100% and 93.8%, respectively. The algorithm provided rapid results for 86% of specimens and the remaining indeterminate results were resolved by RT-PCR, offering the best balance of sensitivity and cost savings per test (algorithm ∼US$13.50/test versus upfront RT-PCR ∼US$26.00/test). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Clostridium difficile testing algorithms using glutamate dehydrogenase antigen and C. difficile toxin enzyme immunoassays with C. difficile nucleic acid amplification testing increase diagnostic yield in a tertiary pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kaede V; McGowan, Karin L

    2012-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of the rapid C. diff Quik Chek Complete's glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B (CDT) tests in two algorithmic approaches for a tertiary pediatric population: algorithm 1 entailed initial testing with GDH/CDT followed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and algorithm 2 entailed GDH/CDT followed by cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) for adjudication of discrepant GDH-positive/CDT-negative results. A true positive (TP) was defined as positivity by CCNA or positivity by LAMP plus another test (GDH, CDT, or the Premier C. difficile toxin A and B enzyme immunoassay [P-EIA]). A total of 141 specimens from 141 patients yielded 27 TPs and 19% prevalence. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 56%, 100%, 100%, and 90% for P-EIA and 81%, 100%, 100%, and 96% for both algorithm 1 and algorithm 2. In summary, GDH-based algorithms detected C. difficile infections with superior sensitivity compared to P-EIA. The algorithms allowed immediate reporting of half of all TPs, but LAMP or CCNA was required to confirm the presence or absence of toxigenic C. difficile in GDH-positive/CDT-negative specimens.

  12. Evaluation of the C.Diff Quik Chek Complete Assay, a new glutamate dehydrogenase and A/B toxin combination lateral flow assay for use in rapid, simple diagnosis of clostridium difficile disease.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Susan E; Ruden, Lila O; Pohl, Julie C; Hatcher, Patricia A; Jayne, Linda M; Ivie, W Michael

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection continues to be a challenge for many clinical microbiology laboratories. A new lateral flow assay, the C.Diff Quik Chek Complete assay, which tests for the presence of both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and C. difficile toxins A and B, was evaluated for its ability to diagnose C. difficile disease. The results of this assay were compared to those of both PCR and toxigenic culture. The results showed that this assay allows 88% of specimens to be accurately screened as either positive (both tests positive) or negative (both tests negative) for the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in less than 30 min and with minimal hands-on time. Use of a random-access PCR for the analysis of specimens with discrepant results (one test positive and the other negative) allows the easy, rapid, and highly sensitive (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6 to 100%) and specific (99.6%; 95% CI, 97.3 to 99.9%) diagnosis of C. difficile disease. The use of this algorithm would save institutional costs, curtail unnecessary isolation days, reduce the nosocomial transmission of disease, and increase the quality of care for patients.

  13. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5′ UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629 bp and a 3′ UTR of approximately 717 bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 6 days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  14. Woodward's reagent K inactivation of Escherichia coli L-threonine dehydrogenase: increased absorbance at 340-350 nm is due to modification of cysteine and histidine residues, not aspartate or glutamate carboxyl groups.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. R.; Dekker, E. E.

    1996-01-01

    L-Threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) from Escherichia coli is rapidly inactivated and develops a new absorbance peak at 347 nm when incubated with N-ethyl-5-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate (Woodward's reagent K, WRK). The cofactors, NAD+ or NADH (1.5 mM), provide complete protection against inactivation; L-threonine (60 mM) is approximately 50% as effective. Tryptic digestion of WRK-modified TDH followed by HPLC fractionation (pH 6.2) yields four 340-nm-absorbing peptides, two of which are absent from enzyme incubated with WRK and NAD+. Peptide I has the sequence TAICGTDVH (TDH residues 35-43), whereas peptide II is TAICGTDVHIY (residues 35-45). Peptides not protected are TMLDTMNHGGR (III, residues 248-258) and NCRGGRTHLCR (IV, residues 98-108). Absorbance spectra of these WRK-peptides were compared with WRK adducts of imidazole, 2-hydroxyethanethiolate, and acetate. Peptides III and IV have pH-dependent lambda max values (340-350 nm), consistent with histidine modification. Peptide I has pH-independent lambda max (350 nm) indicating that a thiol is modified. WRK, therefore, does not react specifically with carboxyl groups in this enzyme, but rather modifies Cys-38 in the active site of TDH; modification of His-105 and His-255 does not affect enzyme activity. These results are the first definitive proof of WRK modifying cysteine and histidine residues of a protein and show that enzyme inactivation by WRK associated with the appearance of new absorptivity at 340-350 nm does not establish modification of aspartate or glutamate residues, as has been assumed in numerous earlier reports. PMID:8745417

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) activates AMPK through the inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase in muscle and pancreatic ß-cells: A potential beneficial effect in the pre-diabetic state?

    PubMed

    Pournourmohammadi, Shirin; Grimaldi, Mariagrazia; Stridh, Malin H; Lavallard, Vanessa; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Wollheim, Claes B; Maechler, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Glucose homeostasis is determined by insulin secretion from the ß-cells in pancreatic islets and by glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and other insulin target tissues. While glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) senses mitochondrial energy supply and regulates insulin secretion, its role in the muscle has not been elucidated. Here we investigated the possible interplay between GDH and the cytosolic energy sensing enzyme 5'-AMP kinase (AMPK), in both isolated islets and myotubes from mice and humans. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was used to inhibit GDH. Insulin secretion was reduced by EGCG upon glucose stimulation and blocked in response to glutamine combined with the allosteric GDH activator BCH (2-aminobicyclo-[2,2,1] heptane-2-carboxylic acid). Insulin secretion was similarly decreased in islets of mice with ß-cell-targeted deletion of GDH (ßGlud1(-/-)). EGCG did not further reduce insulin secretion in the mutant islets, validating its specificity. In human islets, EGCG attenuated both basal and nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Glutamine/BCH-induced lowering of AMPK phosphorylation did not operate in ßGlud1(-/-) islets and was similarly prevented by EGCG in control islets, while high glucose systematically inactivated AMPK. In mouse C2C12 myotubes, like in islets, the inhibition of AMPK following GDH activation with glutamine/BCH was reversed by EGCG. Stimulation of GDH in primary human myotubes caused lowering of insulin-induced 2-deoxy-glucose uptake, partially counteracted by EGCG. Thus, mitochondrial energy provision through anaplerotic input via GDH influences the activity of the cytosolic energy sensor AMPK. EGCG may be useful in obesity by resensitizing insulin-resistant muscle while blunting hypersecretion of insulin in hypermetabolic states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Re-engineering the discrimination between the oxidized coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ in clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase and a thorough reappraisal of the coenzyme specificity of the wild-type enzyme.

    PubMed

    Capone, Marina; Scanlon, David; Griffin, Joanna; Engel, Paul C

    2011-07-01

    Clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase mutants, designed to accommodate the 2'-phosphate of disfavoured NADPH, showed the expected large specificity shifts with NAD(P)H. Puzzlingly, similar assays with oxidized cofactors initially revealed little improvement with NADP(+) , although rates with NAD(+) were markedly diminished. This article reveals that the enzyme's discrimination in favour of NAD(+) and against NADP(+) had been greatly underestimated and has indeed been abated by a factor of > 16,000 by the mutagenesis. Initially, stopped-flow studies of the wild-type enzyme showed a burst increase of A(340) with NADP(+) but not NAD(+), with amplitude depending on the concentration of the coenzyme, rather than enzyme. Amplitude also varied with the commercial source of the NADP(+). FPLC, HPLC and mass spectrometry identified NAD(+) contamination ranging from 0.04 to 0.37% in different commercial samples. It is now clear that apparent rates of NADP(+) utilization mainly reflected the reduction of contaminating NAD(+), creating an entirely false view of the initial coenzyme specificity and also of the effects of mutagenesis. Purification of the NADP(+) eliminated the burst. With freshly purified NADP(+), the NAD(+) : NADP(+) activity ratio under standard conditions, previously estimated as 300 : 1, is 11,000. The catalytic efficiency ratio is even higher at 80,000. Retested with pure cofactor, mutants showed marked specificity shifts in the expected direction, for example, 16 200 fold change in catalytic efficiency ratio for the mutant F238S/P262S, confirming that the key structural determinants of specificity have been successfully identified. Of wider significance, these results underline that, without purification, even the best commercial coenzyme preparations are inadequate for such studies.

  17. Impact of simultaneous glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B rapid immunoassay on Clostridium difficile diagnosis and treatment in hospitalized patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea in a university hospital of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Guilherme Grossi Lopes; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Nader, Amanda Pontes; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia

    2017-07-20

    Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision making. Conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin detection is currently the most frequently used technique for CDI diagnosis, but its low sensitivity makes the development of an alternative strategy necessary for improving the diagnosis in developing countries. Between years 2011 and 2015, 154 stool samples from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were examined by toxigenic culture (TC) and EIA for the diagnosis of CDI. In the year 2015, when glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) test was first available in Brazil, 53 of those fecal specimens were also tested by the C. diff Quik Chek Complete® rapid immunoassay. At this time, we prospectively assessed the impact of this test on CDI treatment rates before and after it was introduced in clinical practice. The GDH component of C. diff Quik Chek Complete® test had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95.1% compared to TC, with 89.8% concordance. The Tox A/B II EIA® and the toxin portion of C. diff Quik Chek Complete® yielded sensitivities between values of 50-58.3%, with 100% specificities. The introduction of GDH test increased the number of treated patients with CDI from 57.7% to 100%. GDH test is a reliable method for the diagnosis of CDI and greatly increases the number of properly treated patients with CDI. Therefore, this exam should be considered the mainstay for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  19. Use of the anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Leifsonia and Pseudomonas for producing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya

    2014-05-01

    The asymmetric reduction of ketones is one of the most promising processes for producing chiral alcohols. However, dehydrogenases or reductases that can catalyze the reduction of ketones to give anti-Prelog chiral alcohols have been limited to some NADP(+)/NADPH-dependent enzymes. Recently, we reported a novel NAD(+)/NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Leifsonia sp. and Pseudomonas ADH homologs from soil metagenomes. Moreover, we have established an efficient hydrogen-transfer bioreduction process with 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor using Leifsonia ADH. This review focuses on the recent development of novel ADHs for producing industrially useful anti-Prelog chiral alcohols from various ketones.

  20. Site-directed mutagenesis of two zinc-binding centers of the NADH-dependent phenylacetaldehyde reductase from styrene-assimilating Corynebacterium sp. strain ST-10.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Sakakibara, M; Matsuda, M; Itoh, N

    1999-12-01

    Phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR) with a unique and wide substrate range from styrene-assimilating Corynebacterium sp. strain ST-10, which is a useful biocatalyst producing chiral alcohols, has been found to belong to a family of zinc-containing, long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on the basis of the primary structure similarity. The enzyme contains 2 moles of zinc per mole of subunit. The amino acid residues assumed to be three catalytic and four structural zinc-binding ligands were characterized by site-directed mutagenesis, compared with other zinc-containing, long-chain ADHs. Sixteen PAR mutants gave measurable but rather low activities toward phenylacetaldehyde, n-hexyl aldehyde, and 2-heptanone, although they maintained the activities of 8 to 16% of that of wild-type PAR for an acetophenone substrate except that the D153N mutant showed quite low activity. The results suggested that the seven residues present in PAR were probably zinc-binding ligands, and mutation in these residues caused a change in activities for some substrates.

  1. The Km of NADH dehydrogenase is decreased in mitochondria of cystic fibrosis cells.

    PubMed

    Dechecchi, M C; Girella, E; Cabrini, G; Berton, G

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic properties of the NADH dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, assayed as NADH-dependent rotenone-sensitive cytochrome c reductase have been studied in mitochondria isolated from mononuclear white blood cells in patients affected by cystic fibrosis. Data reported here show that the apparent Km of the enzyme for NADH is significantly decreased in cystic fibrosis mitochondria. These findings are independent of the age or the clinical state of the disease and have also been obtained with mitochondria isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts. These observations support the notion that cystic fibrosis is possibly accompanied by alterations of intracellular membranes and these are evident also in circulating cells and cultured fibroblasts.

  2. Substitutions at the cofactor phosphate-binding site of a clostridial alcohol dehydrogenase lead to unexpected changes in substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Danielle J; Patrick, Wayne M; Gerth, Monica L

    2015-08-01

    Changing the cofactor specificity of an enzyme from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate (NADPH) to the more abundant NADH is a common strategy for increasing overall enzyme efficiency in microbial metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to switch the cofactor specificity of the primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Clostridium autoethanogenum, a bacterium with considerable promise for the bio-manufacturing of fuels and other petrochemicals, from strictly NADPH-dependent to NADH-dependent. We used insights from a homology model to build a site-saturation library focussed on residue S199, the position deemed most likely to disrupt binding of the 2'-phosphate of NADPH. Although the CaADH(S199X) library did not yield any NADH-dependent enzymes, it did reveal that substitutions at the cofactor phosphate-binding site can cause unanticipated changes in the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Using consensus-guided site-directed mutagenesis, we were able to create an enzyme that was stringently NADH-dependent, albeit with a concomitant reduction in activity. This study highlights the role that distal residues play in substrate specificity and the complexity of enzyme-cofactor interactions.

  3. Coenzyme Q releases the inhibitory effect of free fatty acids on mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rauchová, Hana; Drahota, Zdenek; Rauch, Pavel; Fato, Romana; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    Data presented in this paper show that the size of the endogenous coenzyme Q (CoQ) pool is not a limiting factor in the activation of mitochondrial glycerophosphate-dependent respiration by exogenous CoQ(3), since successive additions of succinate and NADH to brown adipose tissue mitochondria further increase the rate of oxygen uptake. Because the inhibition of glycerophosphate-dependent respiration by oleate was eliminated by added CoQ(3), our data indicate that the activating effect of CoQ(3) is related to the release of the inhibitory effect of endogenous free fatty acids (FFA). Both the inhibitory effect of FFA and the activating effect of CoQ(3) could be demonstrated only for glycerophosphate-dependent respiration, while succinate- or NADH-dependent respiration was not affected. The presented data suggest differences between mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and succinate or NADH dehydrogenases in the transfer of reducing equivalents to the CoQ pool.

  4. CONTROL OF GLUTAMATE OXIDATION IN BRAIN AND LIVER MITOCHONDRIAL SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    BALAZS, R

    1965-05-01

    1. Glutamate oxidation in brain and liver mitochondrial systems proceeds mainly through transamination with oxaloacetate followed by oxidation of the alpha-oxoglutarate formed. Both in the presence and absence of dinitrophenol in liver mitochondria this pathway accounted for almost 80% of the uptake of glutamate. In brain preparations the transamination pathway accounted for about 90% of the glutamate uptake. 2. The oxidation of [1-(14)C]- and [5-(14)C]-glutamate in brain preparations is compatible with utilization through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either after the formation of alpha-oxoglutarate or after decarboxylation to form gamma-aminobutyrate. There is no indication of gamma-decarboxylation of glutamate. 3. The high respiratory control ratio obtained with glutamate as substrate in brain mitochondrial preparations is due to the low respiration rate in the absence of ADP: this results from the low rate of formation of oxaloacetate under these conditions. When oxaloacetate is made available by the addition of malate or of NAD(+), the respiration rate is increased to the level obtained with other substrates. 4. When the transamination pathway of glutamate oxidation was blocked with malonate, the uptake of glutamate was inhibited in the presence of ADP or ADP plus dinitrophenol by about 70 and 80% respectively in brain mitochondrial systems, whereas the inhibition was only about 50% in dinitrophenol-stimulated liver preparations. In unstimulated liver mitochondria in the presence of malonate there was a sixfold increase in the oxidation of glutamate by the glutamate-dehydrogenase pathway. Thus the operating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is much less than the ;free' (non-latent) activity. 5. The following explanation is put forward for the control of glutamate metabolism in liver and brain mitochondrial preparations. The oxidation of glutamate by either pathway yields alpha-oxoglutarate, which is further metabolized. Since aspartate aminotransferase is

  5. Characterization of the mechanism of the NADH-dependent polysulfide reductase (Npsr) from Shewanella loihica PV-4: formation of a productive NADH-enzyme complex and its role in the general mechanism of NADH and FAD-dependent enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Hyun; Humbarger, Scott; Bahnvadia, Raj; Sazinsky, Matthew H; Crane, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    The NADH-dependent polysulfide reductase (Npsr) from Shewanella loihica PV-4 is a member of the single cysteine-containing subset of the family of disulfide reductases represented by glutathione reductase. We have determined the kinetics of the reductive half-reaction of the enzyme with NADH using stopped-flow spectroscopy and kinetic isotope effects, and these results indicate that the reductive and oxidative half-reactions are both partially rate-limiting for enzyme turnover. During reaction with NADH, the reduced nucleotide appears to bind rapidly in an unproductive conformation, followed by the formation of a productive E·NADH complex and subsequent electron transfer to FAD. F161 of Npsr fills the space in which the nicotinamide ring of NADH would be expected to bind. We have shown that while this residue is not absolutely required for catalysis, it does assist in the forward commitment to catalysis through its role in the reductive half reaction, where it appears to enhance hydride transfer in the productive E·NADH complex. While the fluorescence and absorbance spectra of the stable redox forms of the wild-type and F161A mutant enzymes are similar, intermediates formed during reduction and turnover have different characteristics and appear to indicate that the enzyme-NADH complex formed just prior to hydride transfer on the F161A enzyme has weaker FAD-NADH interactions than the wild-type enzyme, consistent with a "looser" enzyme-NADH complex. The 2.7Å crystal structure of the F161A mutant was determined, and shows that the nicotinamide ring of NADH would have the expected freedom of motion in the more open NADH binding cavity.

  6. A novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase with unusual stereoselectivity for (R)-specific reduction from an (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol-producing micro-organism: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Nie, Y; Xu, Y; Yang, M; Mu, X-Q

    2007-05-01

    To purify and characterize the (R)-specific carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis; to compare the enzyme with other stereospecific oxidoreductases; and to develop an available procedure producing optically active (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (PED). An (R)-specific carbonyl reductase was found and purified from C. parapsilosis through four steps, including blue-sepharose affinity chromatography. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 35 kDa on gel-filtration chromatography and 37.5 kDa on Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme catalysed the reduction of various ketones, including alkyl and aromatic ketones, and was specific to short-chain and medium-chain alkyl ketones. The enzyme activity was inhibited by divalent ion of CuSO(4) and FeSO(4), whereas zincum ion stimulated its activity. For catalysing reduction, the enzyme performed maximum activity at pH 6.0 and the optimum temperature was 45 degrees C. The carbonyl reductase catalysed asymmetric reduction of beta-hydroxyacetophenone to the corresponding (R)-PED with the optical purity of 100% enantiomeric excess (e.e.). By analysing its partial amino acid sequences, the enzyme was proposed to be a novel stereospecific carbonyl reductase. The purified carbonyl reductase showed unusual stereospecificity and catalysed the NADH-dependent reduction of beta-hydroxyacetophenone to (R)-PED. The enzyme was different from other stereoselective oxidoreductases in catalytic properties. The discovery of (R)-specific oxidoreductase exhibiting unusual stereospecificity towards hydroxyl ketone is valuable for the synthesis of both enantiomers of useful chiral alcohols, and provides research basis for the achievement of profound knowledge on the relationship between structure and catalytic function of (R)-specific enzymes, which is meaningful for the alteration of stereospecificity by molecular methods to obtain the enzymes with desired stereospecificity.

  7. Visible light-driven NADH regeneration sensitized by proflavine for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong Heon; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-06-18

    Harvest time: Proflavine drives the reduction of NAD(+) in the presence of a Rh-based electron mediator. Photoregenerated NADH was enzymatically active for oxidation by NADH-dependent L-glutamate dehydrogenase for the synthesis of L-glutamate. This work suggests that proflavine has the potential to become an efficient light-harvesting component in biocatalytic photosynthesis driven by solar energy.

  8. Enzyme-substrate complexes of the quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum enable new insights in substrate and cofactor binding, specificity, and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Astrid; Schomburg, Dietmar; Niefind, Karsten

    2013-11-01

    Quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of quinate to 3-dehydroquinate by nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and is involved in the catabolic quinate metabolism required for the degradation of lignin. The enzyme is a member of the family of shikimate/quinate dehydrogenases (SDH/QDH) occurring in bacteria and plants. We characterized the dual-substrate quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (QSDH) from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CglQSDH) kinetically and revealed a clear substrate preference of CglQSDH for quinate compared with shikimate both at the pH optimum and in a physiological pH range, which is a remarkable contrast to closely related SDH/QDH enzymes. With respect to the cosubstrate, CglQSDH is strictly NAD(H) dependent. These substrate and cosubstrate profiles correlate well with the details of three atomic resolution crystal structures of CglQSDH in different functional states we report here: with bound NAD+ (binary complex) and as ternary complexes with NADH plus either shikimate or quinate. The CglQSDH-NADH-quinate structure is the first complex structure of any member of the SDH/QDH family with quinate. Based on this novel structural information and systematic sequence and structure comparisons with closely related enzymes, we can explain the strict NAD(H) dependency of CglQSDH as well as its discrimination between shikimate and quinate.

  9. Glutamine-Glutamate Cycle Flux Is Similar in Cultured Astrocytes and Brain and Both Glutamate Production and Oxidation Are Mainly Catalyzed by Aspartate Aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Rothman, Douglas L

    2017-02-24

    The glutamine-glutamate cycle provides neurons with astrocyte-generated glutamate/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and oxidizes glutamate in astrocytes, and it returns released transmitter glutamate/GABA to neurons after astrocytic uptake. This review deals primarily with the glutamate/GABA generation/oxidation, although it also shows similarity between metabolic rates in cultured astrocytes and intact brain. A key point is identification of the enzyme(s) converting astrocytic α-ketoglutarate to glutamate and vice versa. Most experiments in cultured astrocytes, including those by one of us, suggest that glutamate formation is catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) and its degradation by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Strongly supported by results shown in Table 1 we now propose that both reactions are primarily catalyzed by AAT. This is possible because the formation occurs in the cytosol and the degradation in mitochondria and they are temporally separate. High glutamate/glutamine concentrations abolish the need for glutamate production from α-ketoglutarate and due to metabolic coupling between glutamate synthesis and oxidation these high concentrations render AAT-mediated glutamate oxidation impossible. This necessitates the use of GDH under these conditions, shown by insensitivity of the oxidation to the transamination inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Experiments using lower glutamate/glutamine concentration show inhibition of glutamate oxidation by AOAA, consistent with the coupled transamination reactions described here.

  10. Glutamine-Glutamate Cycle Flux Is Similar in Cultured Astrocytes and Brain and Both Glutamate Production and Oxidation Are Mainly Catalyzed by Aspartate Aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif; Rothman, Douglas L

    2017-01-01

    The glutamine-glutamate cycle provides neurons with astrocyte-generated glutamate/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and oxidizes glutamate in astrocytes, and it returns released transmitter glutamate/GABA to neurons after astrocytic uptake. This review deals primarily with the glutamate/GABA generation/oxidation, although it also shows similarity between metabolic rates in cultured astrocytes and intact brain. A key point is identification of the enzyme(s) converting astrocytic α-ketoglutarate to glutamate and vice versa. Most experiments in cultured astrocytes, including those by one of us, suggest that glutamate formation is catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) and its degradation by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Strongly supported by results shown in Table 1 we now propose that both reactions are primarily catalyzed by AAT. This is possible because the formation occurs in the cytosol and the degradation in mitochondria and they are temporally separate. High glutamate/glutamine concentrations abolish the need for glutamate production from α-ketoglutarate and due to metabolic coupling between glutamate synthesis and oxidation these high concentrations render AAT-mediated glutamate oxidation impossible. This necessitates the use of GDH under these conditions, shown by insensitivity of the oxidation to the transamination inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). Experiments using lower glutamate/glutamine concentration show inhibition of glutamate oxidation by AOAA, consistent with the coupled transamination reactions described here. PMID:28245547

  11. A specific radiochemical assay for pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Small, C; Jones, M E

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase have been conducted using a spectrophotometric method to monitor substrate-dependent NAD(P)H production. For the assay of the mammalian enzyme, the spectrophotometric assay was found to be unacceptable for kinetic studies as the production of NAD(P)H was nonlinear with time and protein concentration. An assay which measures radiolabeled glutamate production by this enzyme in the presence of NAD+ from radiolabeled pyrroline-5-carboxylate has been developed. Separation of substrate from product is achieved by column chromatography using Dowex 50 cation-exchange resin. The product isolated by this procedure was identified as glutamate. This new assay is linear with time and protein concentration and gives reproducible results. The assay is not influenced by competing enzyme activities, such as glutamate dehydrogenase, in a liver homogenate so that quantitative conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate is observed.

  12. Engineering of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase To Reduce Acetoin Formation by Glycerol-Overproducing, Low-Alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Fernández, Maria R.; Biosca, Josep A.; Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing GPD1, which codes for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lacking the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald6 display large-scale diversion of the carbon flux from ethanol toward glycerol without accumulating acetate. Although GPD1 ald6 strains have great potential for reducing the ethanol contents in wines, one major side effect is the accumulation of acetoin, having a negative sensory impact on wine. Acetoin is reduced to 2,3-butanediol by the NADH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Bdh1. In order to investigate the influence of potential factors limiting this reaction, we overexpressed BDH1, coding for native NADH-dependent Bdh1, and the engineered gene BDH1221,222,223, coding for an NADPH-dependent Bdh1 enzyme with the amino acid changes 221 EIA 223 to 221 SRS 223, in a glycerol-overproducing wine yeast. We have shown that both the amount of Bdh1 and the NADH availability limit the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase reaction. During wine fermentation, however, the major limiting factor was the level of synthesis of Bdh1. Consistent with this finding, the overproduction of native or engineered Bdh1 made it possible to redirect 85 to 90% of the accumulated acetoin into 2,3-butanediol, a compound with neutral sensory characteristics. In addition, the production of diacetyl, a compound causing off-flavor in alcoholic beverages, whose production is increased in glycerol-overproducing yeast cells, was decreased by half. The production of higher alcohols and esters, which was slightly decreased or unchanged in GPD1 ald6 cells compared to that in the control cells, was not further modified in BDH1 cells. Overall, rerouting carbons toward glycerol and 2,3-butanediol represents a new milestone in the engineering of a low-alcohol yeast with desirable organoleptic features, permitting the decrease of the ethanol contents in wines by up to 3°. PMID:19329666

  13. Engineering of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase to reduce acetoin formation by glycerol-overproducing, low-alcohol Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Fernández, Maria R; Biosca, Josep A; Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2009-05-01

    Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressing GPD1, which codes for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lacking the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald6 display large-scale diversion of the carbon flux from ethanol toward glycerol without accumulating acetate. Although GPD1 ald6 strains have great potential for reducing the ethanol contents in wines, one major side effect is the accumulation of acetoin, having a negative sensory impact on wine. Acetoin is reduced to 2,3-butanediol by the NADH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Bdh1. In order to investigate the influence of potential factors limiting this reaction, we overexpressed BDH1, coding for native NADH-dependent Bdh1, and the engineered gene BDH1(221,222,223), coding for an NADPH-dependent Bdh1 enzyme with the amino acid changes 221 EIA 223 to 221 SRS 223, in a glycerol-overproducing wine yeast. We have shown that both the amount of Bdh1 and the NADH availability limit the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase reaction. During wine fermentation, however, the major limiting factor was the level of synthesis of Bdh1. Consistent with this finding, the overproduction of native or engineered Bdh1 made it possible to redirect 85 to 90% of the accumulated acetoin into 2,3-butanediol, a compound with neutral sensory characteristics. In addition, the production of diacetyl, a compound causing off-flavor in alcoholic beverages, whose production is increased in glycerol-overproducing yeast cells, was decreased by half. The production of higher alcohols and esters, which was slightly decreased or unchanged in GPD1 ald6 cells compared to that in the control cells, was not further modified in BDH1 cells. Overall, rerouting carbons toward glycerol and 2,3-butanediol represents a new milestone in the engineering of a low-alcohol yeast with desirable organoleptic features, permitting the decrease of the ethanol contents in wines by up to 3 degrees.

  14. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn M; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-08-16

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  16. Central Role of Glutamate Metabolism in the Maintenance of Nitrogen Homeostasis in Normal and Hyperammonemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Jeitner, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is present in the brain at an average concentration—typically 10–12 mM—far in excess of those of other amino acids. In glutamate-containing vesicles in the brain, the concentration of glutamate may even exceed 100 mM. Yet because glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, the concentration of this amino acid in the cerebral extracellular fluid must be kept low—typically µM. The remarkable gradient of glutamate in the different cerebral compartments: vesicles > cytosol/mitochondria > extracellular fluid attests to the extraordinary effectiveness of glutamate transporters and the strict control of enzymes of glutamate catabolism and synthesis in well-defined cellular and subcellular compartments in the brain. A major route for glutamate and ammonia removal is via the glutamine synthetase (glutamate ammonia ligase) reaction. Glutamate is also removed by conversion to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) via the action of glutamate decarboxylase. On the other hand, cerebral glutamate levels are maintained by the action of glutaminase and by various α-ketoglutarate-linked aminotransferases (especially aspartate aminotransferase and the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of the branched-chain aminotransferases). Although the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction is freely reversible, owing to rapid removal of ammonia as glutamine amide, the direction of the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction in the brain in vivo is mainly toward glutamate catabolism rather than toward the net synthesis of glutamate, even under hyperammonemia conditions. During hyperammonemia, there is a large increase in cerebral glutamine content, but only small changes in the levels of glutamate and α-ketoglutarate. Thus, the channeling of glutamate toward glutamine during hyperammonemia results in the net synthesis of 5-carbon units. This increase in 5-carbon units is accomplished in part by the ammonia-induced stimulation of the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate

  17. The roles of threonine-136 and glutamate-137 of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in FAD binding and peptide folding using site-directed mutagenesis: creation of an FAD-dependent mutant, T136D.

    PubMed

    Saijo, T; Kim, J J; Kuroda, Y; Tanaka, K

    1998-10-01

    We studied the roles of Thr-136 (T136) and Glu-137 (E137) in the biogenesis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) by altering the former to Ser (T136S), Asp (T136D), or Leu (T136L) and the latter to Asp (E137D), Gln (E137Q), or Lys (E137K). After import into mitochondria, T136S and E137D were assembled into the native tetramer as efficiently as the wild-type. The tetrameric assembly of four other variants with a nonconservative substitution was severely impaired. When expressed in Escherichia coli as the mature subunit, the amounts of the catalytically active forms of T136S and E137D were comparable to wild-type, whereas four nonconservative variants were lost as aggregates. Of these nonconservative variants, only T136D formed catalytically active tetramer when the culture broth and buffers were supplemented with riboflavin and FAD, respectively. Culturing T136L or E137K at a lower temperature (28 degreesC) did not increase the yield at all, suggesting the severity of disruption of biogenesis. These results, together with the previous crystallographic findings, indicate that the T136 hydroxyl is a major FAD-binding site, and that E137 carboxyl plays a key role in the beta-domain folding, through salt bridge formation with K164. These findings also support the notion that the isoalloxazine ring plays a critical role in the MCAD folding, presumably exerting nucleating effects. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. Glutamate synthase in greening callus of Bouvardia ternifolia Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Murillo, E; Sánchez de Jiménez, E

    1985-04-01

    The distribution of the two glutamate-synthase (GOGAT) activities known to exist in higher plants (NADH dependent, EC 2.6.1.53; and ferredoxin dependent, EC 1.4.7.1) was studied in non-chlorophyllous and chlorophyllous cultured tissue as well as in young leaves of Bouvardia ternifolia. The NADH-GOGAT was present in all three tissues. Using a sucrose gradient we found it in both the soluble and the plastid fraction of non-chlorophyllous and chlorophyllous tissue, but exclusively in the chloroplast fraction of the leaves. Ferredoxin-GOGAT was found only in green tissues and was confined to the chloroplasts. Ferredoxin-GOGAT activity increased in parallel with the chlorophyll content of the callus during the greening process in Murashige-Skoog medium (nitrate and ammonium as the nitrogen sources), while NADH-GOGAT was not affected by the greening process in this medium. Furthermore, both activities were differentially affected by either nitrate or ammonium as the sole nitrogen source in the medium during this process. It is suggested that each GOGAT activity is a different entity or is differently regulated.

  19. Cloning and characterization of CmGPD1, the Candida magnoliae homologue of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) plays a central role in glycerol metabolism. A genomic CmGPD1 gene encoding NADH-dependent GPDH was isolated from Candida magnoliae producing a significant amount of glycerol. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 360 amino acids, which shows high homology with known NADH-dependent GPDHs of other species. The CmGPD1 gene was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion system and purified to homogeneity using simple affinity chromatography. The purified CmGpd1p without the MBP fusion displayed an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The CmGpd1p enzyme exhibited a K(cat)/K(m) value of 195 min(-1) mM(-1) for dihydroxyacetone phosphate whereas K(cat)/K(m) for glycerol-3-phosphate is 0.385 min(-1) mM(-1). In a complementation study, CmGpd1p rescued the ability of glycerol synthesis and salt tolerance in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPD1DeltaGPD2Delta mutant strain. The overall results indicated that CmGPD1 encodes a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae GPDH.

  20. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-08-15

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling.

  1. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-01-01

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling. Images Figure 1 PMID:8068002

  2. Mechanisms of glutamate transport.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Ryan, Renae M

    2013-10-01

    L-Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and plays important roles in a wide variety of brain functions, but it is also a key player in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. The control of glutamate concentrations is critical to the normal functioning of the central nervous system, and in this review we discuss how glutamate transporters regulate glutamate concentrations to maintain dynamic signaling mechanisms between neurons. In 2004, the crystal structure of a prokaryotic homolog of the mammalian glutamate transporter family of proteins was crystallized and its structure determined. This has paved the way for a better understanding of the structural basis for glutamate transporter function. In this review we provide a broad perspective of this field of research, but focus primarily on the more recent studies with a particular emphasis on how our understanding of the structure of glutamate transporters has generated new insights.

  3. Purification and partial kinetic and physical characterization of two NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes and their protein precursors, and measurement of the patterns of accumulation and rates of degradation of their nonidentical subunits in synchronized cells of Chlorella cultured in different concentrations of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Bascomb, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    Two ammonium-inducible, chloroplast-localized, NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenases were purified from Chlorella sorokiniana. They were homopolymers of either alpha or beta subunits with molecular weights of 55,500 and 53,000, respectively. These isoenzymes were separated by their differential binding to the substrate affinity column. Peptide mapping of purified alpha and beta subunits showed them to have a high degree of sequence homology. By use of SDS slab-gel electrophoresis and a Western blot/immunodetection procedure, patterns of accumulation of alpha and beta subunits (in their holoenzyme) were measured in cells cultured in media, containing different concentrations of ammonia. Pulse-chase experiments with (/sup 35/S)sulfate were performed to measured the rates of degradation of the two isoenzymes. When the culture medium contained 2 mM ammonia or lower, cells accumulated only the alpha holoenzyme. Above 2 mM ammonia, cells contained both enzymes; however, their patterns of accumulation and rates of degradation were very different. The physiological role of alpha and beta holoenzymes appears to be ammonia assimilation at low and high external ammonia concentrations, respectively. From in vitro-translation studies with total cellular poly(A)/sup +/RNA, isolated from cells engaged in synthesis of alpha or beta holoenzymes or both, it was concluded that alpha and beta subunits have protein precursor(s) or identical molecular weight (M/sub r/ = 58,500). When the putative protein-precursor(s) were incubated in vitro, with cell-free extracts from Chlorella cells, they were processed to proteins the size of alpha and beta subunits.

  4. Green tea catechins: inhibitors of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Cheng; Wu, Bo-Tsung; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Shih, Li-Jane; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2010-05-01

    Green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to regulate obesity and fat accumulation. We performed a kinetic analysis in a cell-free system to determine the mode of inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; EC 1.1.1.8) by EGCG. GPDH catalyzes the beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to yield glycerol-3-phosphate, which serves as one of the major precursors of triacylglycerols. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited GPDH activity at a concentration of approximately 20 muM for 50 % inhibition. The IC (50) values of other green tea catechins, such as (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin, were all above 100 microM. This suggests a catechin type-dependent effect. Based on double-reciprocal plots of the kinetic data, EGCG was a noncompetitive inhibitor of the GPDH substrates, NADH and DHAP, with respective inhibition constants (Ki) of 18 and 31 microM. Results of this study possibly support previous studies that EGCG mediates fat content. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  7. Effect of biotin on transcription levels of key enzymes and glutamate efflux in glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Duan, Zuoying; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-02-01

    Biotin is an important factor affecting the performance of glutamate fermentation by biotin auxotrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum and glutamate is over-produced only when initial biotin content is controlled at suitable levels or initial biotin is excessive but with Tween 40 addition during fermentation. The transcription levels of key enzymes at pyruvate, isocitrate and α-ketoglutarate metabolic nodes, as well as transport protein (TP) of glutamate were investigated under the conditions of varied biotin contents and Tween 40 supplementation. When biotin was insufficient, the genes encoding key enzymes and TP were down-regulated in the early production phase, in particular, the transcription level of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) which was only 2% of that of control. Although the cells' morphology transformation and TP level were not affected, low transcription level of ICDH led to lower final glutamate concentration (64 g/L). When biotin was excessive, the transcription levels of key enzymes were at comparable levels as those of control with ICDH as an exception, which was only 3-22% of control level throughout production phase. In this case, little intracellular glutamate accumulation (1.5 mg/g DCW) and impermeable membrane resulted in non glutamate secretion into broth, even though the quantity of TP was more than 10-folds of control level. Addition of Tween 40 when biotin was excessive stimulated the expression of all key enzymes and TP, intracellular glutamate content was much higher (10-12 mg/g DCW), and final glutamate concentration reached control level (75-80 g/L). Hence, the membrane alteration and TP were indispensable in glutamate secretion. Biotin and Tween 40 influenced the expression level of ICDH and glutamate efflux, thereby influencing glutamate production.

  8. SLC1 Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Grewer, Christof; Gameiro, Armanda; Rauen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the neurotransmitter glutamate belong to the solute carrier 1 (SLC1) family. They are secondary active transporters, taking up glutamate into the cell against a substantial concentration gradient. The driving force for concentrative uptake is provided by the cotransport of Na+ ions and the countertransport of one K+ in a step independent of the glutamate translocation step. Due to eletrogenicity of transport, the transmembrane potential can also act as a driving force. Glutamate transporters are expressed in many tissues, but are of particular importance in the brain, where they contribute to the termination of excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamate transporters can also run in reverse, resulting in glutamate release from cells. Due to these important physiological functions, glutamate transporter expression and, therefore, the transport rate, are tightly regulated. This review summarizes recent literature on the functional and biophysical properties, structure-function relationships, regulation, physiological significance, and pharmacology of glutamate transporters. Particular emphasis is on the insight from rapid kinetic and electrophysiological studies, transcriptional regulation of transporter expression, and reverse transport and its importance for pathophysiological glutamate release under ischemic conditions. PMID:24240778

  9. Alteration of coenzyme specificity of malate dehydrogenase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Y D; Song, P; Cao, Z Y; Wang, P; Zhu, G P

    2014-07-29

    We describe here for the first time the alteration of coenzyme specificity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (ScMDH). In the present study, we replaced four amino acid residues in the Rossmann fold (βB-αC) region of NADH-dependent ScMDH by site-directed mutagenesis with those of NADPH-dependent MDH (Glu42Gly, Ile43Ser, Pro45Arg, and Ala46Ser). The coenzyme specificity of the mutant enzyme (ScMDH-T4) was examined. Coenzyme specificity of ScMDH-T4 was shifted 2231.3-fold toward NADPH using kcat/Km(coenzyme) as the measurement of coenzyme specificity. Accordingly, the effect of the replacements on coenzyme specificity is discussed. Our work provides further insight into the coenzyme specificity of ScMDH.

  10. Mutations of the Corynebacterium glutamicum NCgl1221 gene, encoding a mechanosensitive channel homolog, induce L-glutamic acid production.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jun; Hirano, Seiko; Ito, Hisao; Wachi, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes L-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial L-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce L-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of L-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. It was recently reported that disruption of odhA, encoding a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, resulted in L-glutamic acid secretion without induction. In this study, we analyzed odhA disruptants and found that those which exhibited constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion carried additional mutations in the NCgl1221 gene, which encodes a mechanosensitive channel homolog. These NCgl1221 gene mutations lead to constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion even in the absence of odhA disruption and also render cells resistant to an L-glutamic acid analog, 4-fluoroglutamic acid. Disruption of the NCgl1221 gene essentially abolishes L-glutamic acid secretion, causing an increase in the intracellular L-glutamic acid pool under biotin-limiting conditions, while amplification of the wild-type NCgl1221 gene increased L-glutamate secretion, although only in response to induction. These results suggest that the NCgl1221 gene encodes an L-glutamic acid exporter. We propose that treatments that induce L-glutamic acid secretion alter membrane tension and trigger a structural transformation of the NCgl1221 protein, enabling it to export L-glutamic acid.

  11. High-level exogenous glutamic acid-independent production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) with organic acid addition in a new isolated Bacillus subtilis C10.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huili; Zhu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Cai, Jin; Zhang, Anyi; Hong, Yizhi; Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zhinan

    2012-07-01

    A new exogenous glutamic acid-independent γ-PGA producing strain was isolated and characterized as Bacillus subtilis C10. The factors influencing the endogenous glutamic acid supply and the biosynthesis of γ-PGA in this strain were investigated. The results indicated that citric acid and oxalic acid showed the significant capability to support the overproduction of γ-PGA. This stimulated increase of γ-PGA biosynthesis by citric acid or oxalic acid was further proved in the 10 L fermentor. To understand the possible mechanism contributing to the improved γ-PGA production, the activities of four key intracellular enzymes were measured, and the possible carbon fluxes were proposed. The result indicated that the enhanced level of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity caused by oxalic acid was important for glutamic acid synthesized de novo from glucose. Moreover, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were the positive regulators of glutamic acid biosynthesis, while 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was the negative one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Glutamate and Neurodegenerative Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Eric; Duplantier, Allen

    As the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate is critically involved in most aspects of CNS function. Given this critical role, it is not surprising that glutamatergic dysfunction is associated with many CNS disorders. In this chapter, we review the literature that links aberrant glutamate neurotransmission with CNS pathology, with a focus on neurodegenerative diseases. The biology and pharmacology of the various glutamate receptor families are discussed, along with data which links these receptors with neurodegenerative conditions. In addition, we review progress that has been made in developing small molecule modulators of glutamate receptors and transporters, and describe how these compounds have helped us understand the complex pharmacology of glutamate in normal CNS function, as well as their potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. [Interaction of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate].

    PubMed

    Kotliar, A B; Vinogradov, A D

    1984-04-01

    The equilibrium and rate constants for interaction of the reduced and oxidized membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1) with oxaloacetate were determined. The 10-fold decrease in the oxaloacetate affinity for the reduced enzyme was shown to be due to the 10-fold increase of the enzyme-inhibitor complex dissociation rate, which occurs upon its reduction. The rate of dissociation induced by succinate is 10 times higher than that induced by malonate in the submitochondrial particles, being equal in the soluble enzyme preparations. The rates of dissociation induced by malonate excess, or by the enzyme irreversibly utilizing oxaloacetate (transaminase in the presence of glutamate) are also equal. The data obtained suggest that succinate dehydrogenase interaction with succinate and oxaloacetate results from the competition for a single dicarboxylate-specific site. In submitochondrial particles all succinate dehydrogenase molecules are in redox equilibrium provided for by endogenous ubiquinone. No electronic equilibrium between the individual enzyme molecules exists, when succinate dehydrogenase is solubilized.

  14. Engineered ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase enable anaerobic 2-methylpropan-1-ol production at theoretical yield in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Sabine; Liu, Xiang; Meyerowitz, Joseph T; Snow, Christopher D; Chen, Mike M Y; Arnold, Frances H

    2011-05-01

    2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol) is a leading candidate biofuel for the replacement or supplementation of current fossil fuels. Recent work has demonstrated glucose to isobutanol conversion through a modified amino acid pathway in a recombinant organism. Although anaerobic conditions are required for an economically competitive process, only aerobic isobutanol production has been feasible due to an imbalance in cofactor utilization. Two of the pathway enzymes, ketol-acid reductoisomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase, require nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH); glycolysis, however, produces only nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we compare two solutions to this imbalance problem: (1) over-expression of pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase PntAB and (2) construction of an NADH-dependent pathway, using engineered enzymes. We demonstrate that an NADH-dependent pathway enables anaerobic isobutanol production at 100% theoretical yield and at higher titer and productivity than both the NADPH-dependent pathway and transhydrogenase over-expressing strain. Our results show how engineering cofactor dependence can overcome a critical obstacle to next-generation biofuel commercialization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing poly-γ-glutamic acid production in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by introducing the glutamate synthesis features from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Quan, Yufen; Gu, Yanyan; Liu, Fenghong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Shen, Haosheng; Dang, Yulei; Cao, Mingfeng; Gao, Weixia; Lu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2017-05-22

    Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a valuable polymer with glutamate as its sole precursor. Enhancement of the intracellular glutamate synthesis is a very important strategy for the improvement of γ-PGA production, especially for those glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing strains. Corynebacterium glutamicum has long been used for industrial glutamate production and it exhibits some unique features for glutamate synthesis; therefore introduction of these metabolic characters into the γ-PGA producing strain might lead to increased intracellular glutamate availability, and thus ultimate γ-PGA production. In this study, the unique glutamate synthesis features from C. glutamicum was introduced into the glutamate-independent γ-PGA producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 strain. After introducing the energy-saving NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) pathway, the NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain showed slightly increase (by 9.1%) in γ-PGA production. Moreover, an optimized metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ɑ-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) was introduced into the NK-1 strain, because it was previously shown that the ODHC in C. glutamicum was completely inhibited when glutamate was actively produced. The obtained NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain showed 66.2% higher γ-PGA production than the NK-1 strain. However, the further combination of these two strategies (introducing both NADPH-GDH pathway and the metabolic toggle switch) did not lead to further increase of γ-PGA production but rather the resultant γ-PGA production was even lower than that in the NK-1 strain. We proposed new metabolic engineering strategies to improve the γ-PGA production in B. amyloliquefaciens. The NK-1 (pHT315-gdh) strain with the introduction of NADPH-GDH pathway showed 9.1% improvement in γ-PGA production. The NK-PO1 (pHT01-xylR) strain with the introduction of a metabolic toggle switch for controlling the expression of ODHC showed 66.2% higher

  16. Glutamate and GABA-metabolizing enzymes in post-mortem cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease: phosphate-activated glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Burbaeva, G Sh; Boksha, I S; Tereshkina, E B; Savushkina, O K; Prokhorova, T A; Vorobyeva, E A

    2014-10-01

    Enzymes of glutamate and GABA metabolism in postmortem cerebellum from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been comprehensively studied. The present work reports results of original comparative study on levels of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoenzymes (GAD65/67) in autopsied cerebellum samples from AD patients and matched controls (13 cases in each group) as well as summarizes published evidence for altered levels of PAG and GAD65/67 in AD brain. Altered (decreased) levels of these enzymes and changes in links between amounts of these enzymes and other glutamate-metabolizing enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase-like protein) in AD cerebella suggest significantly impaired glutamate and GABA metabolism in this brain region, which was previously regarded as not substantially involved in AD pathogenesis.

  17. Improved production of 2,3-butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by over-expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD(+)-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms.

  18. Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe

  19. Purification and characterization of benzyl alcohol- and benzaldehyde- dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rahul; Basu, Aditya; Phale, Prashant S

    2011-08-01

    Pseudomonas putida CSV86 utilizes benzyl alcohol via catechol and methylnaphthalenes through detoxification pathway via hydroxymethylnaphthalenes and naphthaldehydes. Based on metabolic studies, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase (BADH) and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BZDH) were hypothesized to be involved in the detoxification pathway. BADH and BZDH were purified to apparent homogeneity and were (1) homodimers with subunit molecular mass of 38 and 57 kDa, respectively, (2) NAD(+) dependent, (3) broad substrate specific accepting mono- and di-aromatic alcohols and aldehydes but not aliphatic compounds, and (4) BADH contained iron and magnesium, while BZDH contained magnesium. BADH in the forward reaction converted alcohol to aldehyde and required NAD(+), while in the reverse reaction it reduced aldehyde to alcohol in NADH-dependent manner. BZDH showed low K (m) value for benzaldehyde as compared to BADH reverse reaction. Chemical cross-linking studies revealed that BADH and BZDH do not form multi-enzyme complex. Thus, the conversion of aromatic alcohol to acid is due to low K (m) and high catalytic efficiency of BZDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BADH is a novel enzyme and diverged during the evolution to gain the ability to utilize mono- and di-aromatic compounds. The wide substrate specificity of these enzymes enables strain to detoxify methylnaphthalenes to naphthoic acids efficiently.

  20. In situ Regeneration of NADH via Lipoamide Dehydrogenase-catalyzed Electron Transfer Reaction Evidenced by Spectroelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Tsz Kin; Chen, Baowei; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    NAD/NADH is a coenzyme found in all living cells, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. We report on characterizations of in situ regeneration of NADH via lipoamide dehydrogenase (LD)-catalyzed electron transfer reaction to regenerate NADH using UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of NADH regeneration were measured as 0.80 {+-} 0.15 mM and 1.91 {+-} 0.09 {micro}M s-1 in a 1-mm thin-layer spectroelectrochemical cell using gold gauze as the working electrode at the applied potential -0.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The electrocatalytic reduction of the NAD system was further coupled with the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase to examine the coenzymatic activity of the regenerated NADH. Although the reproducible electrocatalytic reduction of NAD into NADH is known to be difficult compared to the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH, our spectroelectrochemical results indicate that the in situ regeneration of NADH via LD-catalyzed electron transfer reaction is fast and sustainable and can be potentially applied to many NAD/NADH-dependent enzyme systems.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens type II NADH dehydrogenase. Characterization and interactions with bacterial and thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laetitia; Desplats, Carine; Mus, Florence; Cuiné, Stéphan; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2006-08-01

    Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) are monomeric enzymes that catalyse quinone reduction and allow electrons to enter the respiratory chain in different organisms including higher plant mitochondria, bacteria and yeasts. In this study, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene encoding a putative alternative NADH dehydrogenase (AtuNDH-2) was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli as a (His)6-tagged protein. The purified 46 kDa protein contains FAD as a prosthetic group and oxidizes both NADH and NADPH with similar Vmax values, but with a much higher affinity for NADH than for NADPH. AtuNDH-2 complements the growth (on a minimal medium) of an E. coli mutant strain deficient in both NDH-1 and NDH-2, and is shown to supply electrons to the respiratory chain when incubated with bacterial membranes prepared from this mutant. By measuring photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence on thylakoid membranes prepared from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we show that AtuNDH-2 is able to stimulate NADH-dependent reduction of the plastoquinone pool. We discuss the possibility of using heterologous expression of NDH-2 enzymes to improve nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones and H2 production in C. reinhardtii.

  2. Effect of phenylephrine on glutamate and glutamine metabolism in isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Häussinger, D; Sies, H

    1984-01-01

    Addition of phenylephrine to isolated perfused rat liver is followed by an increased 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glutamate, [1-14C]glutamine, [U-14C]proline and [3-14C]pyruvate, but by a decreased 14CO2 production from [1-14C]pyruvate. Simultaneously, there is a considerable decrease in tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and citrate. Stimulation of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glutamate is also observed in the presence of amino-oxyacetate, suggesting a stimulation of glutamate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase fluxes by phenylephrine. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase flux by phenylephrine is due to an increased 2-oxoglutarate dehydroxygenase flux. Phenylephrine stimulates glutaminase flux and inhibits glutamine synthetase flux to a similar extent, resulting in an increased hepatic glutamine uptake. Whereas the effects of NH4+ ions and phenylephrine on glutaminase flux were additive, activation of glutaminase by glucagon was considerably diminished in the presence of phenylephrine. The reported effects are largely overcome by prazosin, indicating the involvement of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the action of phenylephrine. It is concluded that stimulation of gluconeogenesis from various amino acids by phenylephrine is due to an increased flux through glutamate dehydrogenase and the citric acid cycle. PMID:6148074

  3. Immunochemical characterization of the brain glutamate binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A glutamate binding protein (GBP) was purified from bovine and rat brain to near homogeneity. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against this protein. An enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was used to quantify and determine the specificity of the antibody response. The antibodies were shown to strongly react with bovine brain GBP and the analogous protein from rat brain. The antibodies did not show any crossreactivity with the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamyl transpeptidase, however it crossreacted moderately with glutamate decarboxylase. The antibodies were also used to define the possible physiologic activity of GBP in synaptic membranes. The antibodies were shown: (i) to inhibit the excitatory amino-acid stimulation of thiocyanate (SCN)flux, (ii) had no effect on transport of L-Glutamic acid across the synaptic membrane, and (iii) had no effect on the depolarization-induced release of L-glutamate. When the anti-GBP antibodies were used to localize and quantify the GBP distribution in various subcellular fractions and in brain tissue samples, it was found that the hippocampus had the highest immunoreactivity followed by the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and caudate-putamen. The distribution of immunoreactivity in the subcellular fraction were as follows: synaptic membranes > crude mitochondrial fraction > homogenate > myelin. In conclusion these studies suggest that: (a) the rat brain GBP and the bovine brain GBP are immunologically homologous protein, (b) there are no structural similarities between the GBP and the glutamate metabolizing enzymes with the exception of glutamate decarboxylase and (c) the subcellular and regional distribution of the GBP immunoreactivity followed a similar pattern as observed for L-(/sup 3/H)-binding.

  4. History of glutamate production.

    PubMed

    Sano, Chiaki

    2009-09-01

    In 1907 Kikunae Ikeda, a professor at the Tokyo Imperial University, began his research to identify the umami component in kelp. Within a year, he had succeeded in isolating, purifying, and identifying the principal component of umami and quickly obtained a production patent. In 1909 Saburosuke Suzuki, an entrepreneur, and Ikeda began the industrial production of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG). The first industrial production process was an extraction method in which vegetable proteins were treated with hydrochloric acid to disrupt peptide bonds. l-Glutamic acid hydrochloride was then isolated from this material and purified as MSG. Initial production of MSG was limited because of the technical drawbacks of this method. Better methods did not emerge until the 1950s. One of these was direct chemical synthesis, which was used from 1962 to 1973. In this procedure, acrylonitrile was the starting material, and optical resolution of dl-glutamic acid was achieved by preferential crystallization. In 1956 a direct fermentation method to produce glutamate was introduced. The advantages of the fermentation method (eg, reduction of production costs and environmental load) were large enough to cause all glutamate manufacturers to shift to fermentation. Today, total world production of MSG by fermentation is estimated to be 2 million tons/y (2 billion kg/y). However, future production growth will likely require further innovation.

  5. Glutamate and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Blandini, F; Porter, R H; Greenamyre, J T

    1996-02-01

    Altered glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuronal metabolic dysfunction appear to be central to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). The substantia nigra pars compacta--the area where the primary pathological lesion is located--is particularly exposed to oxidative stress and toxic and metabolic insults. A reduced capacity to cope with metabolic demands, possibly related to impaired mitochondrial function, may render nigral highly vulnerable to the effects of glutamate, which acts as a neurotoxin in the presence of impaired cellular energy metabolism. In this way, glutamate may participate in the pathogenesis of PD. Degeneration of dopamine nigral neurons is followed by striatal dopaminergic denervation, which causes a cascade of functional modifications in the activity of basal ganglia nuclei. As an excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate plays a pivotal role in normal basal ganglia circuitry. With nigrostriatal dopaminergic depletion, the glutamatergic projections from subthalamic nucleus to the basal ganglia output nuclei become overactive and there are regulatory changes in glutamate receptors in these regions. There is also evidence of increased glutamatergic activity in the striatum. In animal models, blockade of glutamate receptors ameliorates the motor manifestations of PD. Therefore, it appears that abnormal patterns of glutamatergic neurotransmission are important in the symptoms of PD. The involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis and symptomatology of PD provides potential new targets for therapeutic intervention in this neurodegenerative disorder.

  6. Discovery of a potentially new subfamily of ELFV dehydrogenases effective for L-arginine deamination by enzyme mining.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Ye; Huang, Jinhai; Wu, Yao; Liu, Dehua; Chen, Zhen

    2017-10-12

    Discovery of enzymes with new functions is very important for de novo pathway design in synthetic biology. Amino acid dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative deamination of an amino acid to its keto acid, which have been widely used for the production of various valuable chemicals. To discover amino acid dehydrogenases with new functions, we reevaluated the sequence variability and substrate diversity of ELFV dehydrogenases superfamily in this study. With insights gained from structural and sequential studies, we developed an in silico strategy and discovered a new category of proteins which are originally annotated as glutamate dehydrogenase but show altered conservation pattern of specificity determined motifs and completely different substrate spectrum. These proteins cannot catalyze the deamination of glutamate and other canonical amino acids except the positively charged amino acid L-arginine, representing a potentially new subfamily of ELFV dehydrogenases. The strategy utilized in this study can also be applied for discovering other useful enzymes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed Central

    Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192

  8. A novel point mutation in a 3{prime} splice site of the NADH-cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase gene results in immunologically undetectable enzyme and impaired NADH-dependent ascorbate regeneration in cultured fibroblasts of a patient with type II hereditary methemoglobinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shirabe, Komie; Takeshita, Masazumi; Landi, M.T.

    1995-08-01

    Hereditary methemoglobinemia with generalized deficiency of NADH-cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase (b{sub 5}R) (type II) is a rare disease characterized by severe developmental abnormalities, which often lead to premature death. Although the molecular relationship between the symptoms of this condition and the enzyme deficit are not understood, it is thought that an important cause is the loss of the lipid metabolizing activities of the endoplasmic reticulum-located reductase. However, the functions of the form located on outer mitochondrial membranes have not been considered previously. In this study, we have analyzed the gene of an Italian patient and identified a novel G{r_arrow}T transversion at the splice-acceptor site of the 9th exon, which results in the complete absence of immunologically detectable b{sub 5}R in blood cells and skin fibroblasts. In cultured fibroblasts of the patient, NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase, ferricyanide reductase, and semidehydroascorbate reductase activities were severely reduced. The latter activity is known to be due to b{sub 5}R located on outer mitochondrial membranes. Thus, our results demonstrate that the reductase in its two membrane locations, endoplasmic reticulum and outer mitochondrial membranes, is the product of the same gene and suggest that a defect in ascorbate regeneration may contribute to the phenotype of hereditary methemoglobinemia of generalized type. 37 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  10. Effect of an Oxygen-Tolerant Bifurcating Butyryl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase/Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Complex from Clostridium difficile on Butyrate Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aboulnaga, El-Hussiny; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Schiffels, Johannes; El-Refai, Ahmed; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The butyrogenic genes from Clostridium difficile DSM 1296T have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, phosphate butyryltransferase, and butyrate kinase and the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex composed of the dehydrogenase and two electron-transferring flavoprotein subunits were individually produced in E. coli and kinetically characterized in vitro. While most of these enzymes were measured using well-established test systems, novel methods to determine butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activities with respect to physiological function were developed. Subsequently, the individual genes were combined to form a single plasmid-encoded operon in a plasmid vector, which was successfully used to confer butyrate-forming capability to the host. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that C. difficile possesses a bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of ferredoxin coupled to the reduction of crotonyl-CoA also by NADH. Since the reoxidation of ferredoxin by a membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD+-oxidoreductase enables electron transport phosphorylation, additional ATP is formed. The butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. difficile is oxygen stable and apparently uses oxygen as a co-oxidant of NADH in the presence of air. These properties suggest that this enzyme complex might be well suited to provide butyryl-CoA for solventogenesis in recombinant strains. The central role of bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases and membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductases (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation [RNF]), which affect the energy yield of butyrate fermentation in the clostridial metabolism, is discussed. PMID:23772070

  11. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L; Frago, Laura M; Dickson, Suzanne L; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2016-03-30

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons.

  12. Ghrelin Regulates Glucose and Glutamate Transporters in Hypothalamic Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Granado, Miriam; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Castro-González, David; Ceballos, María L.; Frago, Laura M.; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic astrocytes can respond to metabolic signals, such as leptin and insulin, to modulate adjacent neuronal circuits and systemic metabolism. Ghrelin regulates appetite, adiposity and glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the response of astrocytes to this orexigenic hormone. We have used both in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that acylated ghrelin (acyl-ghrelin) rapidly stimulates glutamate transporter expression and glutamate uptake by astrocytes. Moreover, acyl-ghrelin rapidly reduces glucose transporter (GLUT) 2 levels and glucose uptake by these glial cells. Glutamine synthetase and lactate dehydrogenase decrease, while glycogen phosphorylase and lactate transporters increase in response to acyl-ghrelin, suggesting a change in glutamate and glucose metabolism, as well as glycogen storage by astrocytes. These effects are partially mediated through ghrelin receptor 1A (GHSR-1A) as astrocytes do not respond equally to desacyl-ghrelin, an isoform that does not activate GHSR-1A. Moreover, primary astrocyte cultures from GHSR-1A knock-out mice do not change glutamate transporter or GLUT2 levels in response to acyl-ghrelin. Our results indicate that acyl-ghrelin may mediate part of its metabolic actions through modulation of hypothalamic astrocytes and that this effect could involve astrocyte mediated changes in local glucose and glutamate metabolism that alter the signals/nutrients reaching neighboring neurons. PMID:27026049

  13. The Markers of Glutamate Metabolism in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Neurological Complications in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosius, Wojciech; Gazdulska, Joanna; Gołda-Gocka, Iwona; Kozubski, Wojciech; Ramlau, Rodryg

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the involvement of glutamate metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the development of neurological complications in lung cancer and during chemotherapy. Methods. The prospective study included 221 lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutics. Neurological status and cognitive functions were evaluated at baseline and after 6-month follow-up. Glutamate level, the activities of glutaminase- (GLS-) glutamate synthetizing enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and glutamate decarboxylase catalyzing glutamate degradation were analyzed in PBMC and in sera of lung cancer patients by means of spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods. Results. Chemotherapy of lung neoplasms induced increase of glutamate content in PBMC and its concentration in serum increased the activity of GDH in PBMC and decreased activity of glutaminase in PBMC. The changes in glutamate metabolism markers were associated with initial manifestation of neurological deficit in lung cancer patients and with new symptoms, which appear as a complication of chemotherapy. Moreover, the analyzed parameters of glutamate control correlated with a spectrum of cognitive functions measures in lung cancer patients. Conclusion. We have demonstrated dysregulation in glutamate and glutamate metabolism controlling enzymes as promising indicators of risk for chemotherapy-induced neurological complications in lung cancer patients with particular emphasis on cognitive impairment. PMID:28044066

  14. NADH-Glutamate Synthase in Alfalfa Root Nodules. Genetic Regulation and Cellular Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Trepp, Gian B.; van de Mortel, Martijn; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Miller, Susan S.; Samac, Deborah A.; Gantt, J. Stephen; Vance, Carroll P.

    1999-01-01

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) is a key enzyme in primary nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules. Here we report that in alfalfa, a single gene, probably with multiple alleles, encodes for NADH-GOGAT. In situ hybridizations were performed to assess the location of NADH-GOGAT transcript in alfalfa root nodules. In wild-type cv Saranac nodules the NADH-GOGAT gene is predominantly expressed in infected cells. Nodules devoid of bacteroids (empty) induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti 7154 had no NADH-GOGAT transcript detectable by in situ hybridization, suggesting that the presence of the bacteroid may be important for NADH-GOGAT expression. The pattern of expression of NADH-GOGAT shifted during root nodule development. Until d 9 after planting, all infected cells appeared to express NADH-GOGAT. By d 19, a gradient of expression from high in the early symbiotic zone to low in the late symbiotic zone was observed. In 33-d-old nodules expression was seen in only a few cell layers in the early symbiotic zone. This pattern of expression was also observed for the nifH transcript but not for leghemoglobin. The promoter of NADH-GOGAT was evaluated in transgenic alfalfa plants carrying chimeric β-glucuronidase promoter fusions. The results suggest that there are at least four regulatory elements. The region responsible for expression in the infected cell zone contains an 88-bp direct repeat. PMID:10069821

  15. Determinants of substrate specificity in the superfamily of amino acid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Baker, P J; Waugh, M L; Wang, X G; Stillman, T J; Turnbull, A P; Engel, P C; Rice, D W

    1997-12-23

    The subunit of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase comprises two domains separated by a cleft harboring the active site. One domain is responsible for dinucleotide binding and the other carries the majority of residues which bind the substrate. During the catalytic cycle a large movement between the two domains occurs, closing the cleft and bringing the C4 of the nicotinamide ring and the Calpha of the substrate into the correct positioning for hydride transfer. In the active site, two residues, K89 and S380, make interactions with the gamma-carboxyl group of the glutamate substrate. In leucine dehydrogenase, an enzyme belonging to the same superfamily, the equivalent residues are L40 and V294, which create a more hydrophobic specificity pocket and provide an explanation for their differential substrate specificity. In an attempt to change the substrate specificity of glutamate dehydrogenase toward that of leucine dehydrogenase, a double mutant, K89L,S380V, of glutamate dehydrogenase has been constructed. Far from having a high specificity for leucine, this mutant appears to be devoid of any catalytic activity over a wide range of substrates tested. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the mutant enzyme has shown that the loss of function is related to a disordering of residues linking the enzyme's two domains, probably arising from a steric clash between the valine side chain, introduced at position 380 in the mutant, and a conserved threonine residue, T193. In leucine dehydrogenase the steric clash between the equivalent valine and threonine side chains (V294, T134) does not occur owing to shifts of the main chain to which these side chains are attached. Thus, the differential substrate specificity seen in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily arises from both the introduction of simple point mutations and the fine tuning of the active site pocket defined by small but significant main chain rearrangements.

  16. Diabetes and the control of pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria by concentration ratios of adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate, of reduced/oxidized nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide and of acetyl-coenzyme A/coenzyme A.

    PubMed Central

    Kerbey, A L; Radcliffe, P M; Randle, P J

    1977-01-01

    1. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase in rat heart mitochondria was correlated with total concentration ratios of ATP/ADP, NADH/NAD+ and acetyl-CoA/CoA. These metabolites were measured with ATP-dependent and NADH-dependent luciferases. 2. Increase in the concentration ratio of NADH/NAD+ at constant [ATP]/[ADP] and [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA] was associated with increased phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. This was based on comparison between mitochondria incubated with 0.4mM- or 1mM-succinate and mitochondria incubated with 0.4mM-succinate+/-rotenone. 3. Increase in the concentration ratio acetyl-CoA/CoA at constant [ATP]/[ADP] and [NADH][NAD+] was associated with increased phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase. This was based on comparison between incubations in 50 micrometer-palmitotoyl-L-carnitine and in 250 micrometer-2-oxoglutarate +50 micrometer-L-malate. 4. These findings are consistent with activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction by high ratios of [NADH]/[NAD+] and of [acetyl-CoA]/[CoA]. 5. Comparison between mitochondria from hearts of diabetic and non-diabetic rats shows that phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase is enhanced in alloxan-diabetes by some factor other than concentration ratios of ATP/ADP, NADH/NAD+ or acetyl-CoA/CoA. PMID:196589

  17. Structure-Guided Engineering of Lactococcus lactis Alcohol Dehydrogenase LlAdhA for Improved Conversion of Isobutyraldehyde to Isobutanol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang; Bastian, Sabine; Snow, Christopher D.; Brustad, Eric M.; Saleski, Tatyana E.; Xu, Jian-He; Meinhold, Peter; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhARE1 at 1.9 Å and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhARE1, which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhARE1 indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein’s active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ~17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ~160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources. PMID:22974724

  18. Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Bastian, Sabine; Snow, Christopher D; Brustad, Eric M; Saleski, Tatyana E; Xu, Jian-He; Meinhold, Peter; Arnold, Frances H

    2012-12-15

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhA(RE1) at 1.9Å and 2.5Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhA(RE1), which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhA(RE1) indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein's active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ∼17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ∼160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase in Saccharina japonica: evidence for a new polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhanru; Zhang, Pengyan; Li, Qiuying; Wang, Xiuliang; Duan, Delin

    2014-01-01

    Mannitol plays a crucial role in brown algae, acting as carbon storage, organic osmolytes and antioxidant. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharina japonica revealed that the relative genes involved in the mannitol cycle are existent. Full-length sequence of mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (M2DH) gene was obtained, with one open reading frame of 2,007 bp which encodes 668 amino acids. Cis-regulatory elements for response to methyl jasmonic acid, light and drought existed in the 5'-upstream region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SjM2DH has an ancient prokaryotic origin, and is probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer event. Multiple alignment and spatial structure prediction displayed a series of conserved functional residues, motifs and domains, which favored that SjM2DH belongs to the polyol-specific long-chain dehydrogenases/reductase (PSLDR) family. Expressional profiles of SjM2DH in the juvenile sporophytes showed that it was influenced by saline, oxidative and desiccative factors. SjM2DH was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the cell-free extracts with recombinant SjM2DH displayed high activity on D-fructose reduction reaction. The analysis on SjM2DH gene structure and biochemical parameters reached a consensus that activity of SjM2DH is NADH-dependent and metal ion-independent. The characterization of SjM2DH showed that M2DH is a new member of PSLDR family and play an important role in mannitol metabolism in S. japonica.

  20. Region-specific neuroprotective effect of ZM 241385 towards glutamate uptake inhibition in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Ferretti, Roberta; Martire, Alberto; Popoli, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    Active uptake by neurons and glial cells is the main mechanism for maintaining extracellular glutamate at low, non-toxic concentrations. Adenosine A(2A) receptors regulate extracellular glutamate levels by acting on both the release and the uptake of glutamate. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the inhibition of the effects of glutamate uptake blockers by adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists resulted in neuroprotection. In cortical and striatal neuronal cultures, the application of l-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC, a transportable competitive inhibitor of glutamate uptake), induced a dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, an index of cytotoxicity. Such an effect of PDC was significantly reduced by pre-treatment with the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (50 nM) in striatal, but not cortical, cultures. The protective effects of ZM 241385 were specifically due to a counteraction of PDC effects, since ZM 241385 was totally ineffective in preventing the cytotoxicity induced by direct application of glutamate to cultures. These results indicate that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists prevent the toxic effects induced by a transportable competitive inhibitor of glutamate uptake, that such an effect specifically occurs in the striatum and that it does not depend on a direct blockade of glutamate-induced toxicity.

  1. Downregulation of postsynaptic density-95-interacting regulator of spine morphogenesis reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by differentially regulating glutamate receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Luo, Peng; Yang, Yuefan; Liu, Wei; Rao, Wei; Bian, Huan; Li, Xin; Chen, Tao; Liu, Mengdong; Zhao, Yongbo; Dai, Shuhui; Yan, Xu; Fei, Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is involved in many neurological diseases. Preso, a novel postsynaptic scaffold protein, mediates excitatory synaptic transmission and various synaptic functions. In this study, we investigated the role of Preso in the regulation of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Knockdown of Preso with small interfering RNA improved neuronal viability and attenuated the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Preso also inhibited an increase in the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Although the expression and distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1/5, NR1, NR2A and NR2B were not changed by knockdown of Preso, downregulation of Preso protected neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by inhibiting mGluR and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. However, downregulation of Preso neither affected the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 nor influenced the function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor after glutamate treatment. Furthermore, intracellular Ca(2+) was an important downstream effector of Preso in the regulation of excitotoxicity. These results suggest that expression of Preso promotes the induction of excitotoxicity by facilitating different glutamate receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Preso might be a potential pharmacological target for preventing and treating neurological diseases.

  2. Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    PubMed

    Kang, ChulHee; Hayes, Robert; Sanchez, Emiliano J; Webb, Brian N; Li, Qunrui; Hooper, Travis; Nissen, Mark S; Xun, Luying

    2012-01-01

    FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn(2+) coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn(2+) coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD(+) dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD(+) to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    PubMed Central

    Kang, ChulHee; Hayes, Robert; Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Webb, Brian N.; Li, Qunrui; Hooper, Travis; Nissen, Mark S.; Xun, Luying

    2012-01-01

    Summary FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn2+ coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn2+ coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD+ dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD+ to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction. PMID:22081946

  4. Alcohol dehydrogenases from Scheffersomyces stipitis involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Xianxian

    2013-09-01

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are generated from biomass pretreatment. Scheffersomyces stipitis is able to reduce furfural and HMF to less toxic furanmethanol and furan-2,5-dimethanol; however, the enzymes involved in the reductive reaction still remain unknown. In this study, transcription responses of two known and five putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from S. stipitis were analyzed under furfural and HMF stress conditions. All the seven alcohol dehydrogenase genes were also cloned and overexpressed for their activity analyses. Our results indicate that transcriptions of SsADH4 and SsADH6 were highly induced under furfural and HMF stress conditions, and the proteins encoded by them exhibited NADH- and/or NADPH-dependent activities for furfural and HMF reduction, respectively. For furfural reduction, NADH-dependent activity was also observed in SsAdh1p and NAD(P)H-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. For HMF reduction, NADPH-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. SsAdh4p displayed the highest NADPH-dependent specific activity and catalytic efficiency for reduction of both furfural and HMF among the seven alcohol dehydrogenases. Enzyme activities of all SsADH proteins were more stable under acidic condition. For most SsADH proteins, the optimum temperature for enzyme activities was 30 °C and more than 50 % enzyme activities remained at 60 °C. Reduction activities of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde were also observed in some SsADH proteins. Our results indicate that multiple alcohol dehydrogenases in S. stipitis are involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

  5. Visualization of glutamate as a volume transmitter.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2011-02-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Although glutamate mediates synaptically confined point-to-point transmission, it has been suggested that under certain conditions glutamate may escape from the synaptic cleft (glutamate spillover), accumulate in the extrasynaptic space, and mediate volume transmission to regulate important brain functions. However, the inability to directly measure glutamate dynamics around active synapses has limited our understanding of glutamatergic volume transmission. The recent development of a family of fluorescent glutamate indicators has enabled the visualization of extrasynaptic glutamate dynamics in brain tissues. In this topical review, we examine glutamate as a volume transmitter based on novel results of glutamate imaging in the brain.

  6. Two Pathways of Glutamate Fermentation by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Buckel, Wolfgang; Barker, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate to acetate, butyrate, carbon dioxide, and ammonia—the methylaspartate and the hydroxyglutarate pathways which are used by Clostridium tetanomorphum and Peptococcus aerogenes, respectively. Although these pathways give rise to the same products, they are easily distinguished by different labeling patterns of the butyrate when [4-14C]glutamate is used as substrate. Schmidt degradation of the radioactive butyrate from C. tetanomorphum yielded equally labeled propionate and carbon dioxide, whereas nearly all the radioactivity of the butyrate from P. aerogenes was recovered in the corresponding propionate. This procedure was used as a test for the pathway of glutamate fermentation by 15 strains (9 species) of anaerobic bacteria. The labeling patterns of the butyrate indicate that glutamate is fermented via the methylaspartate pathway by C. tetani, C. cochlearium, and C. saccarobutyricum, and via the hydroxyglutarate pathway by Acidaminococcus fermentans, C. microsporum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and F. fusiformis. Enzymes specific for each pathway were assayed in crude extracts of the above organisms. 3-Methylaspartase was found only in clostridia which use the methylaspartate pathway, including Clostridium SB4 and C. sticklandii, which probably degrade glutamate to acetate and carbon dioxide by using a second amino acid as hydrogen acceptor. High levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase were found exclusively in organisms that use the hydroxyglutarate pathway. The data indicate that only two pathways are involved in the fermentation of glutamate by the bacteria analyzed. The methylaspartate pathway appears to be used only by species of Clostridium, whereas the hydroxyglutarate pathway is used by representatives of several genera. PMID:4813895

  7. Effect of L-glutamate on 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed Central

    Shigeoka, S; Hanaoka, T; Kishi, N; Nakano, Y

    1992-01-01

    The effect of tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates and related compounds on 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase activity was investigated. The addition of L-glutamate to Euglena cells grown on glucose/(NH4)2SO4 medium resulted in an increase in 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase activity, which was abolished by the simultaneous addition of cycloheximide. Immunochemical titration, immunoblot analysis and labelling in vivo with antibody raised against 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase showed that the increase in 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase activity was due to synthesis of new protein and not to activation of pre-existing protein. The experimental results reported here demonstrate that L-glutamate is assimilated by the pathway, via 2-oxoglutarate, that consists of L-glutamate-oxaloacetate aminotransferase, 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, rather than by the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt, consisting of L-glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1347680

  8. Isolation and characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with impaired glutamate synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Folch, J L; Antaramián, A; Rodríguez, L; Bravo, A; Brunner, A; González, A

    1989-12-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lacks glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity has been isolated. This mutant was obtained after chemical mutagenesis of a NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase-less mutant strain. The gdh gus mutant is a glutamate auxotroph. The genetic analysis of the gus mutant showed that the GOGAT-less phenotype is due to the presence of two loosely linked mutations. Evidence is presented which suggests the possibility that S. cerevisiae has two GOGAT activities, designated GOGAT A and GOGAT B. These activities can be distinguished by their pH optima and by their regulation by glutamate. Furthermore, one of the mutations responsible for the GOGAT-less phenotype affected GOGAT A activity, while the other mutation affected GOGAT B activity.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with impaired glutamate synthase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Folch, J L; Antaramián, A; Rodríguez, L; Bravo, A; Brunner, A; González, A

    1989-01-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lacks glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity has been isolated. This mutant was obtained after chemical mutagenesis of a NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase-less mutant strain. The gdh gus mutant is a glutamate auxotroph. The genetic analysis of the gus mutant showed that the GOGAT-less phenotype is due to the presence of two loosely linked mutations. Evidence is presented which suggests the possibility that S. cerevisiae has two GOGAT activities, designated GOGAT A and GOGAT B. These activities can be distinguished by their pH optima and by their regulation by glutamate. Furthermore, one of the mutations responsible for the GOGAT-less phenotype affected GOGAT A activity, while the other mutation affected GOGAT B activity. PMID:2687252

  10. [Imbalance of system of glutamin - glutamic acid in the placenta and amniotic fluid at placental insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pogorelova, T N; Gunko, V O; Linde, V A

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism of glutamine and glutamic acid has been investigated in the placenta and amniotic fluid under conditions of placental insufficiency. The development of placental insufficiency is characterized by the increased content of glutamic acid and a decrease of glutamine in both placenta and amniotic fluid. These changes changes were accompanied by changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these amino acids. There was a decrease in glutamate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutaminase activity with the simultaneous decrease of glutamine synthetase activity. The compensatory decrease in the activity of glutamine keto acid aminotransferase did not prevent a decrease in the glutamine level. The impairments in the system glutamic acid-glutamine were more pronounced during the development of premature labor.

  11. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, James; Franks, Christopher J.; Murray, Caitriona; Edwards, Richard J.; Calahorro, Fernando; Ishihara, Takeshi; Katsura, Isao; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission is evolutionarily conserved across animal phyla. A major class of glutamate receptors consists of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In C. elegans, three mGluR genes, mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3, are organized into three subgroups, similar to their mammalian counterparts. Cellular reporters identified expression of the mgls in the nervous system of C. elegans and overlapping expression in the pharyngeal microcircuit that controls pharyngeal muscle activity and feeding behavior. The overlapping expression of mgls within this circuit allowed the investigation of receptor signaling per se and in the context of receptor interactions within a neural network that regulates feeding. We utilized the pharmacological manipulation of neuronally regulated pumping of the pharyngeal muscle in the wild-type and mutants to investigate MGL function. This defined a net mgl-1-dependent inhibition of pharyngeal pumping that is modulated by mgl-3 excitation. Optogenetic activation of the pharyngeal glutamatergic inputs combined with electrophysiological recordings from the isolated pharyngeal preparations provided further evidence for a presynaptic mgl-1-dependent regulation of pharyngeal activity. Analysis of mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3 mutant feeding behavior in the intact organism after acute food removal identified a significant role for mgl-1 in the regulation of an adaptive feeding response. Our data describe the molecular and cellular organization of mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3. Pharmacological analysis identified that, in these paradigms, mgl-1 and mgl-3, but not mgl-2, can modulate the pharyngeal microcircuit. Behavioral analysis identified mgl-1 as a significant determinant of the glutamate-dependent modulation of feeding, further highlighting the significance of mGluRs in complex C. elegans behavior. PMID:25869139

  12. Deletion of genes involved in glutamate metabolism to improve poly-gamma-glutamic acid production in B. amyloliquefaciens LL3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; He, Yulian; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Mingfeng; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2015-02-01

    Here, we attempted to elevate poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by modifying genes involved in glutamate metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Products of rocR, rocG and gudB facilitate the conversion from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in Bacillus subtillis. The gene odhA is responsible for the synthesis of a component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A. In-frame deletions of these four genes were performed. In shake flask experiments the gudB/rocG double mutant presented enhanced production of γ-PGA, a 38 % increase compared with wild type. When fermented in a 5-L fermenter with pH control, the γ-PGA yield of the rocR mutant was increased to 5.83 g/L from 4.55 g/L for shake flask experiments. The gudB/rocG double mutant produced 5.68 g/L γ-PGA compared with that of 4.03 g/L for the wild type, a 40 % increase. Those results indicated the possibility of improving γ-PGA production by modifying glutamate metabolism, and identified potential genetic targets to improve γ-PGA production.

  13. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  14. Activity of select dehydrogenases with Sepharose-immobilized N6-carboxymethyl-NAD

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N6-carboxymethyl-NAD (N6-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N6-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N6-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N6-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N6-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N6-amine group on NAD. PMID:25611453

  15. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD.

  16. 2-Methylcitric acid impairs glutamate metabolism and induces permeability transition in brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA) is observed in methylmalonic and propionic acidemias, which are clinically characterized by severe neurological symptoms. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of brain abnormalities in these diseases are poorly established and very little has been reported on the role of 2MCA. In the present work we found that 2MCA markedly inhibited ADP-stimulated and uncoupled respiration in mitochondria supported by glutamate, with a less significant inhibition in pyruvate plus malate respiring mitochondria. However, no alterations occurred when α-ketoglutarate or succinate was used as respiratory substrates, suggesting a defect on glutamate oxidative metabolism. It was also observed that 2MCA decreased ATP formation in glutamate plus malate or pyruvate plus malate-supported mitochondria. Furthermore, 2MCA inhibited glutamate dehydrogenase activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Kinetic studies revealed that this inhibitory effect was competitive in relation to glutamate. In contrast, assays of osmotic swelling in non-respiring mitochondria suggested that 2MCA did not significantly impair mitochondrial glutamate transport. Finally, 2MCA provoked a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and induced swelling in Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria supported by different substrates. These effects were totally prevented by cyclosporine A plus ADP or ruthenium red, indicating induction of mitochondrial permeability transition. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that 2MCA behaves as a potent inhibitor of glutamate oxidation by inhibiting glutamate dehydrogenase activity and as a permeability transition inducer, disturbing mitochondrial energy homeostasis. We presume that 2MCA-induced mitochondrial deleterious effects may contribute to the pathogenesis of brain damage in patients affected by methylmalonic and propionic acidemias. We propose that brain glutamate oxidation is disturbed by 2-methylcitric acid (2MCA), which

  17. Altered acetylation and succinylation profiles in Corynebacterium glutamicum in response to conditions inducing glutamate overproduction.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuta; Nagano-Shoji, Megumi; Kubo, Shosei; Kawamura, Yumi; Yoshida, Ayako; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Nishiyama, Makoto; Yoshida, Minoru; Kosono, Saori

    2016-02-01

    The bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum is utilized during industrial fermentation to produce amino acids such as L-glutamate. During L-glutamate fermentation, C. glutamicum changes the flux of central carbon metabolism to favor L-glutamate production, but the molecular mechanisms that explain these flux changes remain largely unknown. Here, we found that the profiles of two major lysine acyl modifications were significantly altered upon glutamate overproduction in C. glutamicum; acetylation decreased, whereas succinylation increased. A label-free semi-quantitative proteomic analysis identified 604 acetylated proteins with 1328 unique acetylation sites and 288 succinylated proteins with 651 unique succinylation sites. Acetylation and succinylation targeted enzymes in central carbon metabolic pathways that are directly related to glutamate production, including the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC), a key enzyme regulating glutamate overproduction. Structural mapping revealed that several critical lysine residues in the ODHC components were susceptible to acetylation and succinylation. Furthermore, induction of glutamate production was associated with changes in the extent of acetylation and succinylation of lysine, suggesting that these modifications may affect the activity of enzymes involved in glutamate production. Deletion of phosphotransacetylase decreased the extent of protein acetylation in nonproducing condition, suggesting that acetyl phosphate-dependent acetylation is active in C. glutamicum. However, no effect was observed on the profiles of acetylation and succinylation in glutamate-producing condition upon disruption of acetyl phosphate metabolism or deacetylase homologs. It was considered likely that the reduced acetylation in glutamate-producing condition may reflect metabolic states where the flux through acid-producing pathways is very low, and substrates for acetylation do not accumulate in the cell. Succinylation would occur more

  18. GDH-Dependent Glutamate Oxidation in the Brain Dictates Peripheral Energy Substrate Distribution.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Melis; Frigerio, Francesca; Migrenne, Stephanie; Martin-Levilain, Juliette; Skytt, Dorte M; Pajecka, Kamilla; Martin-del-Rio, Rafael; Gruetter, Rolf; Tamarit-Rodriguez, Jorge; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Magnan, Christophe; Maechler, Pierre

    2015-10-13

    Glucose, the main energy substrate used in the CNS, is continuously supplied by the periphery. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, is foreseen as a complementary energy contributor in the brain. In particular, astrocytes actively take up glutamate and may use it through oxidative glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity. Here, we investigated the significance of glutamate as energy substrate for the brain. Upon glutamate exposure, astrocytes generated ATP in a GDH-dependent way. The observed lack of glutamate oxidation in brain-specific GDH null CnsGlud1(-/-) mice resulted in a central energy-deprivation state with increased ADP/ATP ratios and phospho-AMPK in the hypothalamus. This induced changes in the autonomous nervous system balance, with increased sympathetic activity promoting hepatic glucose production and mobilization of substrates reshaping peripheral energy stores. Our data reveal the importance of glutamate as necessary energy substrate for the brain and the role of central GDH in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Availability of neurotransmitter glutamate is diminished when beta-hydroxybutyrate replaces glucose in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Lund, Trine M; Risa, Oystein; Sonnewald, Ursula; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2009-07-01

    Ketone bodies serve as alternative energy substrates for the brain in cases of low glucose availability such as during starvation or in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. The ketone bodies are metabolized via a distinct pathway confined to the mitochondria. We have compared metabolism of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate to that of [1,6-(13)C]glucose in cultured glutamatergic neurons and investigated the effect of neuronal activity focusing on the aspartate-glutamate homeostasis, an essential component of the excitatory activity in the brain. The amount of (13)C incorporation and cellular content was lower for glutamate and higher for aspartate in the presence of [2,4-(13)C]beta-hydroxybutyrate as opposed to [1,6-(13)C]glucose. Our results suggest that the change in aspartate-glutamate homeostasis is due to a decreased availability of NADH for cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and thus reduced malate-aspartate shuttle activity in neurons using beta-hydroxybutyrate. In the presence of glucose, the glutamate content decreased significantly upon activation of neurotransmitter release, whereas in the presence of only beta-hydroxybutyrate, no decrease in the glutamate content was observed. Thus, the fraction of the glutamate pool available for transmitter release was diminished when metabolizing beta-hydroxybutyrate, which is in line with the hypothesis of formation of transmitter glutamate via an obligatory involvement of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  20. Curcumin-Protected PC12 Cells Against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Hua-Xin; Yü, George

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter present in the central nervous system. The glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc– connects the antioxidant defense with neurotransmission and behaviour. Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces neuronal death, a pathway called excitotoxicity. Glutamate-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases including cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. Curcuma has a wide spectrum of biological activities regarding neuroprotection and neurocognition. By reducing the oxidative damage, curcumin attenuates a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury, seizures and hippocampal neuronal loss. The rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line exhibits many characteristics useful for the study of the neuroprotection and neurocognition. This investigation was carried out to determine whether the neuroprotective effects of curcumin can be observed via the glutamate-PC12 cell model. Results indicate that glutamate (20 mM) upregulated glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione disulphide, Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide production, cytochrome c release, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and downregulated glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, resulting in enhanced cell apoptosis. Curcumin alleviates all these adverse effects. Conclusively, curcumin can effectively protect PC12 cells against the glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity. Its mode of action involves two pathways: the glutathione-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway and the mitochondria-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway. PMID:27904320

  1. Concerted modulation of alanine and glutamate metabolism in young Medicago truncatula seedlings under hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Limami, Anis M; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Ricoult, Claudie; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Planchet, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The modulation of primary nitrogen metabolism by hypoxic stress was studied in young Medicago truncatula seedlings. Hypoxic seedlings were characterized by the up-regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (mAlaAT), and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase 1b (GS1b), NADH-glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase 3 (GDH3), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) gene expression. Hypoxic stress severely inhibited GS activity and stimulated NADH-GOGAT activity. GDH activity was lower in hypoxic seedlings than in the control, however, under either normoxia or hypoxia, the in vivo activity was directed towards glutamate deamination. (15)NH(4) labelling showed for the first time that the adaptive reaction of the plant to hypoxia consisted of a concerted modulation of nitrogen flux through the pathways of both alanine and glutamate synthesis. In hypoxic seedlings, newly synthesized (15)N-alanine increased and accumulated as the major amino acid, asparagine synthesis was inhibited, while (15)N-glutamate was synthesized at a similar rate to that in the control. A discrepancy between the up-regulation of GDH1 expression and the down-regulation of GDH activity by hypoxic stress highlighted for the first time the complex regulation of this enzyme by hypoxia. Higher rates of glycolysis and ethanol fermentation are known to cause the fast depletion of sugar stores and carbon stress. It is proposed that the expression of GDH1 was stimulated by hypoxia-induced carbon stress, while the enzyme protein might be involved during post-hypoxic stress contributing to the regeneration of 2-oxoglutarate via the GDH shunt.

  2. Concerted modulation of alanine and glutamate metabolism in young Medicago truncatula seedlings under hypoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Limami, Anis M.; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Ricoult, Claudie; Cliquet, Jean-Bernard; Planchet, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The modulation of primary nitrogen metabolism by hypoxic stress was studied in young Medicago truncatula seedlings. Hypoxic seedlings were characterized by the up-regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (mAlaAT), and down-regulation of glutamine synthetase 1b (GS1b), NADH-glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase 3 (GDH3), and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) gene expression. Hypoxic stress severely inhibited GS activity and stimulated NADH-GOGAT activity. GDH activity was lower in hypoxic seedlings than in the control, however, under either normoxia or hypoxia, the in vivo activity was directed towards glutamate deamination. 15NH4 labelling showed for the first time that the adaptive reaction of the plant to hypoxia consisted of a concerted modulation of nitrogen flux through the pathways of both alanine and glutamate synthesis. In hypoxic seedlings, newly synthesized 15N-alanine increased and accumulated as the major amino acid, asparagine synthesis was inhibited, while 15N-glutamate was synthesized at a similar rate to that in the control. A discrepancy between the up-regulation of GDH1 expression and the down-regulation of GDH activity by hypoxic stress highlighted for the first time the complex regulation of this enzyme by hypoxia. Higher rates of glycolysis and ethanol fermentation are known to cause the fast depletion of sugar stores and carbon stress. It is proposed that the expression of GDH1 was stimulated by hypoxia-induced carbon stress, while the enzyme protein might be involved during post-hypoxic stress contributing to the regeneration of 2-oxoglutarate via the GDH shunt. PMID:18508812

  3. Biosynthesis of the tetrapyrrole pigment precursor,. delta. -aminolevulinic acid, from glutamate

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.I. )

    1990-08-01

    {delta}-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the common biosynthetic precursor of hemes, chlorophylls, and bilins, is synthesized by two distinct routes. Among phototrophic species, purple nonsulfur bacteria form ALA by condensation of glycine with succinyl-CoA, catalyzed by ALA synthase, in a reaction identical to that occurring in the mitochondria of animals, yeast, and fungi. Most or all other phototrophic species form ALA exclusively from the intact carbon skeleton of glutamic acid in a reaction sequence that begins with activation of the {alpha}-carboxyl group of glutamate by an ATP-dependent ligation to tRNA{sup Glu}, catalyzed by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase. Glutamyl-tRNA is the substrate for a pyridine nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenase reaction whose product is glutamate-1-semialdehyde or a similar reduced compound. Glutamate-1-semialdehyde is then transaminated to form ALA. Regulation of ALA formation from glutamate is exerted at the dehydrogenase step through end product feedback inhibition and induction/repression. In some species, end product inhibition of the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase step and developmental regulation of tRNA{sup Glu} level may also occur.

  4. Effect of free malonate on the utilization of glutamate by rat brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koeppen, A H; Riley, K M

    1987-05-01

    Malonate is an effective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase in preparations from brain and other organs. This property was reexamined in isolated rat brain mitochondria during incubation with L-glutamate. The biosynthesis of aspartate was determined by a standard spectrofluorometric method and a radiometric technique. The latter was suitable for aspartate assay after very brief incubations of mitochondria with glutamate. At a concentration of 1 mM or higher, malonate totally inhibited aspartate biosynthesis. At 0.2 mM, the inhibitory effect was still present. It is thus possible that the natural concentration of free malonate in adult rat brain of 192 nmol/g wet weight exerts an effect on citric acid cycle reactions in vivo. The inhibition of glutamate utilization by malonate was readily overcome by the addition of malate which provided oxaloacetate for the transamination of glutamate. The reaction was accompanied by the accumulation of 2-oxoglutarate. The metabolism of glutamate was also blocked by inclusion of arsenite and gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid but again added malate allowed transamination to resume. When arsenite and gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid were present, the role of malonate as an inhibitor of malate entry into the mitochondrial interior could be determined without considering the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase. The apparent Km and Vmax values for uninhibited malate entry were 0.01 mM and 100 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively. Malonate was a competitive inhibitor of malate transport (Ki = 0.75 mM).

  5. Asymmetric reduction of ketones and β-keto esters by (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase from denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Dudzik, A; Snoch, W; Borowiecki, P; Opalinska-Piskorz, J; Witko, M; Heider, J; Szaleniec, M

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed enantioselective reductions of ketones and keto esters have become popular for the production of homochiral building blocks which are valuable synthons for the preparation of biologically active compounds at industrial scale. Among many kinds of biocatalysts, dehydrogenases/reductases from various microorganisms have been used to prepare optically pure enantiomers from carbonyl compounds. (S)-1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase (PEDH) was found in the denitrifying bacterium Aromatoleum aromaticum (strain EbN1) and belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. It catalyzes the stereospecific oxidation of (S)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone during anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization, but also the reverse reaction, i.e., NADH-dependent enantioselective reduction of acetophenone to (S)-1-phenylethanol. In this work, we present the application of PEDH for asymmetric reduction of 42 prochiral ketones and 11 β-keto esters to enantiopure secondary alcohols. The high enantioselectivity of the reaction is explained by docking experiments and analysis of the interaction and binding energies of the theoretical enzyme-substrate complexes leading to the respective (S)- or (R)-alcohols. The conversions were carried out in a batch reactor using Escherichia coli cells with heterologously produced PEDH as whole-cell catalysts and isopropanol as reaction solvent and cosubstrate for NADH recovery. Ketones were converted to the respective secondary alcohols with excellent enantiomeric excesses and high productivities. Moreover, the progress of product formation was studied for nine para-substituted acetophenone derivatives and described by neural network models, which allow to predict reactor behavior and provides insight on enzyme reactivity. Finally, equilibrium constants for conversion of these substrates were derived from the progress curves of the reactions. The obtained values matched very well with theoretical predictions.

  6. The action of antidepressants on the glutamate system: regulation of glutamate release and glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Treccani, Giulia; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2013-06-15

    Recent compelling evidence has suggested that the glutamate system is a primary mediator of psychiatric pathology and also a target for rapid-acting antidepressants. Clinical research in mood and anxiety disorders has shown alterations in levels, clearance, and metabolism of glutamate and consistent volumetric changes in brain areas where glutamate neurons predominate. In parallel, preclinical studies with rodent stress and depression models have found dendritic remodeling and synaptic spines reduction in corresponding areas, suggesting these as major factors in psychopathology. Enhancement of glutamate release/transmission, in turn induced by stress/glucocorticoids, seems crucial for structural/functional changes. Understanding mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity may allow identification of new targets for drugs and therapies. Interestingly, traditional monoaminergic-based antidepressants have been repeatedly shown to interfere with glutamate system function, starting with modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Subsequently, it has been shown that antidepressants reduce glutamate release and synaptic transmission; in particular, it was found antidepressants prevent the acute stress-induced enhancement of glutamate release. Additional studies have shown that antidepressants may partly reverse the maladaptive changes in synapses/circuitry in stress and depression models. Finally, a number of studies over the years have shown that these drugs regulate glutamate receptors, reducing the function of NMDA receptors, potentiating the function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors, and, more recently, exerting variable effects on different subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The development of NMDA receptor antagonists has opened new avenues for glutamatergic, rapid acting, antidepressants, while additional targets in the glutamate synapse await development of new compounds for better, faster antidepressant action

  7. POLYOL DEHYDROGENASES OF AZOTOBACTER AGILIS

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Leon; Marr, Allen G.

    1961-01-01

    Marcus, Leon (University of California, Davis), and Allen G. Marr. Polyol dehydrogenases of Azotobacter agilis. J. Bacteriol. 82:224–232. 1961.—Two soluble diphosphopyridine-linked polyol dehydrogenases are formed by Azotobacter agilis (A. vinelandii). The first, d-mannitol dehydrogenase is induced by d-mannitol and all of the pentitols except l-arabitol. Ribitol is an excellent inducer of mannitol dehydrogenase although it is not metabolized, nor does the enzyme act upon it. This allows study of the gratuitous induction of mannitol dehydrogenase. Of the polyols tested, mannitol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-mannitol, d-arabitol, d-rhamnitol, and perseitol, demonstrating its requirement for substrates bearing the d-manno configuration. The corresponding 2-ketoses, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and presumably d-rhamnulose, and perseulose are reduced. The second enzyme, l-iditol dehydrogenase is induced only by polyols containing the d-xylo configuration, i.e., sorbitol and xylitol. l-Iditol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-xylo polyols seven times faster than it does d-ribo polyols. Substrates oxidized include l-iditol, sorbitol, xylitol, and ribitol. The corresponding 2-ketoses, l-sorbose, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and d-ribulose, are reduced. The two polyol dehydrogenases have been separated and purified by chromatography on a modified cellulose ion exchanger. PMID:13766585

  8. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  9. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and glutamate signaling in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Jin; Shin, Seung-Shick; Lee, Hwa Jin; Marín, Yarí E; Wall, Brian A; Goydos, James S; Chen, Suzie

    2007-03-01

    Recently, several laboratories have started to investigate the involvement of glutamate signaling in cancer. In previous studies, we reported on a transgenic mouse model that develops melanoma spontaneously. Subsequent studies in these mice identified that the aberrant expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1) in melanocytes played a critical role in the onset of melanoma. Confirmation of the etiologic role of GRM1 in melanoma development was shown in a second transgenic line with GRM1 expression under the regulation of a melanocyte-specific dopachrome tautomerase promoter. Ectopic expression of GRM1 was also detected in a subset of human melanoma cell lines and biopsies, suggesting that aberrant expression of GRM1 in melanocytes may contribute to the development of human melanoma. GRM1, a seven-transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptor, is normally expressed and functional in neuronal cells, and its ligand, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter. Human melanoma cells are shown here to release elevated levels of glutamate, implying a possible autocrine loop. Treatment of GRM1-expressing human melanoma cells with a GRM1 antagonist (LY367385 or BAY36-7620) or a glutamate release inhibitor (riluzole) leads to a suppression of cell proliferation as well as a decrease in levels of extracellular glutamate. Treatment of human melanoma cell xenografts with riluzole for 18 days via p.o. gavage or i.v. injection leads to inhibition of tumor growth by 50% in comparison with controls. These data suggest the importance of glutamate signaling in human melanoma and imply that the suppression of glutamate signaling may be a new target for melanoma therapy.

  10. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed. PMID:24227952

  11. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents. Besides these emphases are given especially for two endogenous derivatives of glutamic acid such as glutamine and glutamate. Glutamine is a derivative of glutamic acid and is formed in the body from glutamic acid and ammonia in an energy requiring reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthase. It also possesses anticancer activity. So the transportation and metabolism of glutamine are also discussed for better understanding the role of glutamic acid. Glutamates are the carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid. Here the roles of various enzymes required for the metabolism of glutamates are also discussed.

  12. The pathways of glutamate and glutamine oxidation by tumor cell mitochondria. Role of mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    Little evidence has been available on the oxidative pathways of glutamine and glutamate, the major respiratory substrates of cancer cells. Glutamate formed from glutamine by phosphate-dependent glutaminase undergoes quantitative transamination by aerobic tumor mitochondria to yield aspartate. However, when malate is also added there is a pronounced decrease in aspartate production and a large formation of citrate and alanine, in both state 3 and 4 conditions. In contrast, addition of malate to normal rat heart, liver, or kidney mitochondria oxidizing glutamate causes a marked increase in aspartate production. Further analysis showed that extramitochondrial malate is oxidized almost quantitatively to pyruvate + CO2 by NAD(P)+-linked malic enzyme, present in the mitochondria of all tumors tested, but absent in heart, liver, and kidney mitochondria. On the other hand intramitochondrial malate generated from glutamate is oxidized quantitatively to oxalacetate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of tumors. Acetyl-CoA derived from extramitochondrial malate via pyruvate and oxalacetate derived from glutamate via intramitochondrial malate are quantitatively converted into citrate, which is extruded. No evidence was found that malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria converts glutamate-derived malate into pyruvate as postulated in other reports. Possible mechanisms for the integration of mitochondrial malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase activities in tumors are discussed.

  13. Computational Studies of Glutamate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Setiadi, Jeffry; Heinzelmann, Germano; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain whose binding to receptors on neurons excites them while excess glutamate are removed from synapses via transporter proteins. Determination of the crystal structures of bacterial aspartate transporters has paved the way for computational investigation of their function and dynamics at the molecular level. Here, we review molecular dynamics and free energy calculation methods used in these computational studies and discuss the recent applications to glutamate transporters. The focus of the review is on the insights gained on the transport mechanism through computational methods, which otherwise is not directly accessible by experimental probes. Recent efforts to model the mammalian glutamate and other amino acid transporters, whose crystal structures have not been solved yet, are included in the review. PMID:26569328

  14. Glutamate pays its own way in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Mary C

    2013-12-16

    In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glutamate can be oxidized for energy by brain astrocytes. The ability to harvest the energy from glutamate provides astrocytes with a mechanism to offset the high ATP cost of the uptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft. This brief review focuses on oxidative metabolism of glutamate by astrocytes, the specific pathways involved in the complete oxidation of glutamate and the energy provided by each reaction.

  15. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-01-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states. PMID:22016442

  16. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  17. Genotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Nazmiye; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Keskin, Ayten Çelebi; Ünal, Fatma

    2016-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most widely used flavor enhancers throughout the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the genotoxic potential of MSG by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN), and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polimerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) in cultured human lymphocytes and alkaline comet assays in isolated human lymphocytes, which were incubated with six concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 μg/mL) of MSG. The result of this study indicated that MSG significantly and dose dependently increased the frequencies of CAs, SCE and MN in all treatments and times, compared with control. However, the replication (RI) and nuclear division indices (NDI) were not affected. In this paper, in vitro genotoxic effects of the MSG was also investigated on human peripheral lymphocytes by analysing the RAPD-PCR with arbitrary 10-mer primers. The changes occurring in RAPD profiles after MSG treatment include increase or decrease in band intensity and gain or loss of bands. In the comet assay, this additive caused DNA damage at all concentrations in isolated human lymphocytes after 1-h in vitro exposure. Our results demonstrate that MSG is genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

  18. Bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Weckert, Edgar; Frahm, August Wilhelm

    2006-05-15

    For the second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, the cyanide addition as the key stereodifferentiating step produces mixtures of diastereomeric alpha-amino nitrile esters the composition of which is independent of the reaction temperature and the type of the solvent, respectively. The subsequent hydrolysis is exclusively achieved with concentrated H(2)SO(4) yielding diastereomeric mixtures of three secondary alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters and two diastereomeric cis-fused angular alpha-carbamoyl gamma-lactams as bicyclic glutamic acid derivatives, gained from in situ stereomer differentiating cyclisation of the secondary cis-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters. Separation was achieved by CC. The pure secondary trans-alpha-amino alpha-carbamoyl-gamma-esters cyclise on heating and treatment with concentrated H(2)SO(4), respectively, to diastereomeric cis-fused angular secondary alpha-amino imides. Their hydrogenolysis led to the enantiomeric cis-fused angular primary alpha-amino imides. The configuration of all compounds was completely established by NMR methods, CD-spectra, and by X-ray analyses of the (alphaR,1R,5R)-1-carbamoyl-2-(1-phenylethyl)-2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-3-one and of the trans-alphaS,1S,2R-2-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-1-(1-phenylethylamino)cyclopentanecarboxamide.

  19. Ammonia Fixation via Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase in the CAM Plant Cissus quadrangularis L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael G.; Sprengart, Michael L.; Kusnan, Misri; Fock, Heinrich P.

    1986-01-01

    Succulent stems of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) contain glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. The CO2 and water gas exchanges of detached internodes were typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. During three physiological phases, e.g. in the dark, in the early illumination period after stomata closure, and during the late light phase with the stomata wide open, 15NH4Cl was injected into the central pith of stem sections. The kinetics of 15N labeling in glutamate and glutamine suggested that glutamine synthetase was involved in the initial ammonia fixation. In the presence of methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, the incorporation of 15N derived from 15NH4Cl was almost completely inhibited. Injections of amido-15N glutamine demonstrated a potential for 15N transfer from the amido group of glutamine into glutamate which was suppressed by the glutamate synthase inhibitor, azaserine. The evidence indicates that glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase could assimilate ammonia and cycle nitrogen during all phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism. PMID:16664820

  20. Ammonia Fixation via Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase in the CAM Plant Cissus quadrangularis L.

    PubMed

    Berger, M G; Sprengart, M L; Kusnan, M; Fock, H P

    1986-06-01

    Succulent stems of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) contain glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. The CO(2) and water gas exchanges of detached internodes were typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. During three physiological phases, e.g. in the dark, in the early illumination period after stomata closure, and during the late light phase with the stomata wide open, (15)NH(4)Cl was injected into the central pith of stem sections. The kinetics of (15)N labeling in glutamate and glutamine suggested that glutamine synthetase was involved in the initial ammonia fixation. In the presence of methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, the incorporation of (15)N derived from (15)NH(4)Cl was almost completely inhibited. Injections of amido-(15)N glutamine demonstrated a potential for (15)N transfer from the amido group of glutamine into glutamate which was suppressed by the glutamate synthase inhibitor, azaserine. The evidence indicates that glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase could assimilate ammonia and cycle nitrogen during all phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

  1. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  2. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hazel; Eagon, R. G.

    1964-01-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25–30. 1964.—Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization. Images PMID:14197895

  3. Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. α-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (α-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

  4. Elevated systemic glutamic acid level in the non-obese diabetic mouse is Idd linked and induces beta cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Banday, Viqar Showkat; Lejon, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NOD×B6)F2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2(-/-) Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Glutamate ameliorates experimental vincristine neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Boyle, F M; Wheeler, H R; Shenfield, G M

    1996-10-01

    The dose-limiting toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine is peripheral neuropathy, for which there is no established therapy. The amino acid glutamate has been proposed as a neuroprotectant for vincristine, but a full preclinical evaluation of its efficacy, safety and mechanism of action has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. We report the development of a Dark Agouti rat model of sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, to investigate the neurotoxicity of cytotoxic drugs. Neuropathy was manifested as gait disturbance in 100% of vincristine-treated animals (n = 12), significant elevation of the tail-flick threshold (5.1 +/- 2 sec) and significantly impaired mean Rotarod times (55 +/- 41 sec) developing after administration of 1.5 mg/kg vincristine over 2 weeks. Among vincristine-treated animals supplemented p.o. with sodium glutamate (500 mg/kg/day in drinking water) from 24 hr before vincristine treatment, only one (8%, P = .01) developed gait disturbance, the tall-flick threshold was not significantly different from controls and the mean Rotarod score was 188 +/- 18 sec (P = .004). Glutamate thus significantly protected against both sensory and motor neuropathy. We observed no intrinsic neurotoxicity with glutamate and no interference with the cytotoxic efficacy of vincristine against a transplantable rat mammary adenocarcinoma grown s.c. in Dark Agouti rats. Our findings suggest that glutamate is likely to be a safe and effective neuroprotectant for patients receiving vincristine, and it warrants further clinical evaluation. The mechanism of this selective neuroprotection by glutamate remains to be elucidated. Our rat model may be of use in determining whether glutamate offers protection from other neurotoxic drugs.

  6. Abnormalities in glutamate metabolism and excitotoxicity in the retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    In the physiological condition, glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina. However, excessive glutamate can be toxic to retinal neurons by overstimulation of the glutamate receptors. Glutamate excess is primarily attributed to perturbation in the homeostasis of the glutamate metabolism. Major pathway of glutamate metabolism consists of glutamate uptake by glutamate transporters followed by enzymatic conversion of glutamate to nontoxic glutamine by glutamine synthetase. Glutamate metabolism requires energy supply, and the energy loss inhibits the functions of both glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the retinal glutamate metabolism under the physiological and pathological conditions.

  7. Physiological Regulation of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and the Role of 2-Oxoglutarate in Prochlorococcus sp. Strain PCC 9511

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Jesús; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol Alberto; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, to produce 2-oxoglutarate. The incompleteness of the tricarboxylic acids cycle in marine cyanobacteria confers a special importance to isocitrate dehydrogenase in the C/N balance, since 2-oxoglutarate can only be metabolized through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. The physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase was studied in cultures of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511, by measuring enzyme activity and concentration using the NADPH production assay and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme activity showed little changes under nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, or upon addition of the inhibitors DCMU, DBMIB and MSX. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, induced clear increases in the isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and icd gene expression after 24 h, and also in the 2-oxoglutarate concentration. Iron starvation had the most significant effect, inducing a complete loss of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, possibly mediated by a process of oxidative inactivation, while its concentration was unaffected. Our results suggest that isocitrate dehydrogenase responds to changes in the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate and to the redox status of the cells in Prochlorococcus. PMID:25061751

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lumeng J; Wall, Brian A; Wangari-Talbot, Janet; Chen, Suzie

    2016-02-16

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are widely known for their roles in synaptic signaling. However, accumulating evidence suggests roles of mGluRs in human malignancies in addition to synaptic transmission. Somatic cell homeostasis presents intriguing possibilities of mGluRs and glutamate signaling as novel targets for human cancers. More recently, aberrant glutamate signaling has been shown to participate in the transformation and maintenance of various cancer types, including glioma, melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, indicating that genes encoding mGluRs, GRMs, can function as oncogenes. Here, we provide a review on the interactions of mGluRs and their ligand, glutamate, in processes that promote the growth of tumors of neuronal and non-neuronal origins. Further, we discuss the evolution of riluzole, a glutamate release inhibitor approved for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but now fashioned as an mGluR1 inhibitor for melanoma therapy and as a radio-sensitizer for tumors that have metastasized to the brain. With the success of riluzole, it is not far-fetched to believe that other drugs that may act directly or indirectly on other mGluRs can be beneficial for multiple applications.

  9. Hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate: a metabolic imaging biomarker of IDH1 mutational status in glioma.

    PubMed

    Chaumeil, Myriam M; Larson, Peder E Z; Woods, Sarah M; Cai, Larry; Eriksson, Pia; Robinson, Aaron E; Lupo, Janine M; Vigneron, Daniel B; Nelson, Sarah J; Pieper, Russell O; Phillips, Joanna J; Ronen, Sabrina M

    2014-08-15

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are among the most prevalent in low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma, represent an early pathogenic event, and are associated with epigenetically driven modulations of metabolism. Of particular interest is the recently uncovered relationship between the IDH1 mutation and decreased activity of the branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) enzyme. Noninvasive imaging methods that can assess BCAT1 activity could therefore improve detection of mutant IDH1 tumors and aid in developing and monitoring new targeted therapies. BCAT1 catalyzes the transamination of branched-chain amino acids while converting α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to glutamate. Our goal was to use (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] α-KG to hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] glutamate as a readout of BCAT1 activity. We investigated two isogenic glioblastoma lines that differed only in their IDH1 status and performed experiments in live cells and in vivo in rat orthotopic tumors. Following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] α-KG, hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] glutamate production was detected both in cells and in vivo, and the level of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] glutamate was significantly lower in mutant IDH1 cells and tumors compared with their IDH1-wild-type counterparts. Importantly however, in our cells the observed drop in hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] glutamate was likely mediated not only by a drop in BCAT1 activity, but also by reductions in aspartate transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting additional metabolic reprogramming at least in our model. Hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] glutamate could thus inform on multiple mutant IDH1-associated metabolic events that mediate reduced glutamate production. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate: a metabolic imaging biomarker of IDH1 mutational status in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Woods, Sarah M.; Cai, Larry; Eriksson, Pia; Robinson, Aaron E.; Lupo, Janine M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Pieper, Russell O.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are among the most prevalent in low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma, represent an early pathogenic event, and are associated with epigenetically-driven modulations of metabolism. Of particular interest is the recently uncovered relationship between the IDH1 mutation and decreased activity of the branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) enzyme. Non-invasive imaging methods that can assess BCAT1 activity could therefore improve detection of mutant IDH1 tumors and aid in developing and monitoring new targeted therapies. BCAT1 catalyzes the transamination of branched-chain amino acids while converting α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to glutamate. Our goal was to use 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C] α-KG to hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate as a readout of BCAT1 activity. We investigated two isogenic glioblastoma lines that differed only in their IDH1 status, and performed experiments in live cells and in vivo in rat orthotopic tumors. Following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C] α-KG, hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate production was detected both in cells and in vivo, and the level of hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate was significantly lower in mutant IDH1 cells and tumors compared to their IDH1-wild-type counterparts. Importantly however, in our cells the observed drop in hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate was likely mediated not only by a drop in BCAT1 activity, but also by reductions in aspartate transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting additional metabolic reprogramming at least in our model. Hyperpolarized [1-13C] glutamate could thus inform on multiple mutant IDH1-associated metabolic events that mediate reduced glutamate production. PMID:24876103

  11. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  12. Glutamate receptors at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Mark L.

    2010-12-03

    At synapses throughout the brain and spinal cord, the amino-acid glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter. During evolution, a family of glutamate-receptor ion channels seems to have been assembled from a kit consisting of discrete ligand-binding, ion-channel, modulatory and cytoplasmic domains. Crystallographic studies that exploit this unique architecture have greatly aided structural analysis of the ligand-binding core, but the results also pose a formidable challenge, namely that of resolving the allosteric mechanisms by which individual domains communicate and function in an intact receptor.

  13. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  15. Valproate is neuroprotective against malonate toxicity in rat striatum: an association with augmentation of high-affinity glutamate uptake.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Boldingh, Karen Astrid; Iversen, Evy Grini; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2004-11-01

    The antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) may be neuroprotective. We treated rats with VPA for 14 days (300 mg/kg twice daily) before intrastriatal injection of 1.5 micromol (1 M) of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor malonate. VPA-treated animals developed smaller lesions than control animals: 10 +/- 2 mm(3) versus 26 +/- 8 mm(3) (means +/- SD; P = 10(-4). Injection of NaCl that was equiosmolar with 1 M malonate caused lesions of only 1.2 +/- 0.4 mm(3) in control animals, whereas physiologic saline produced no lesion. VPA pretreatment reduced the malonate-induced extracellular accumulation of glutamate. This effect paralleled an increase in the striatal level of the glutamate transporter GLT, which augmented high-affinity glutamate uptake by 25%, as determined from the uptake of [(3)H] glutamate into striatal proteoliposomes. Malonate caused a 76% reduction in striatal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, but the glial, ATP-dependent formation of glutamine from radiolabeled glucose or glutamate was intact, indicating that glial ATP production supported uptake of glutamate. Striatal levels of HSP-70 and fos were reduced, and the levels of bcl-2 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase remained unaffected, but histone acetylation was increased by VPA treatment. The results suggest that augmentation of glutamate uptake may contribute importantly to VPA-mediated neuroprotection in striatum.

  16. Reducing lactate secretion by ldhA Deletion in L-glutamate- producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Guan, Dan; Liang, Jingbo; Guo, Chunqian; Xie, Xixian; Zhang, Chenglin; Xu, Qingyang; Chen, Ning

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is one of main byproducts excreted in to the fermentation medium. To improve L-glutamate production and reduce L-lactate accumulation, L-lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene ldhA was knocked out from L-glutamate producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum GDK-9, designated GDK-9ΔldhA. GDK-9ΔldhA produced approximately 10.1% more L-glutamate than the GDK-9, and yielded lower levels of such by-products as α-ketoglutarate, L-lactate and L-alanine. Since dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of main factors affecting L-lactate formation during L-glutamate fermentation, we investigated the effect of ldhA deletion from GDK-9 under different DO conditions. Under both oxygen-deficient and high oxygen conditions, L-glutamate production by GDK-9ΔldhA was not higher than that of the GDK-9. However, under micro-aerobic conditions, GDK-9ΔldhA exhibited 11.61% higher L-glutamate and 58.50% lower L-alanine production than GDK-9. Taken together, it is demonstrated that deletion of ldhA can enhance L-glutamate production and lower the unwanted by-products concentration, especially under micro-aerobic conditions. PMID:25763057

  17. Glutamate: a truly functional amino acid.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E

    2013-09-01

    Glutamate is one of the most abundant of the amino acids. In addition to its role in protein structure, it plays critical roles in nutrition, metabolism and signaling. Post-translational carboxylation of glutamyl residues increases their affinity for calcium and plays a major role in hemostasis. Glutamate is of fundamental importance to amino acid metabolism, yet the great bulk of dietary glutamate is catabolyzed within the intestine. It is necessary for the synthesis of key molecules, such as glutathione and the polyglutamated folate cofactors. It plays a major role in signaling. Within the central nervous system, glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and its product, GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate interaction with specific taste cells in the tongue is a major component of umami taste. The finding of glutamate receptors throughout the gastrointestinal tract has opened up a new vista in glutamate function. Glutamate is truly a functional amino acid.

  18. 21 CFR 582.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1516 Monopotassium glutamate. (a) Product. Monopotassium glutamate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1500 Monoammonium glutamate. (a) Product. Monoammonium glutamate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  20. Imaging extrasynaptic glutamate dynamics in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hirokazu; Iinuma, Sho; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Hirose, Kenzo; Iino, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter in the brain, mediating point-to-point transmission across the synaptic cleft in excitatory synapses. Using a glutamate imaging method with fluorescent indicators, we show that synaptic activity generates extrasynaptic glutamate dynamics in the vicinity of active synapses. These glutamate dynamics had magnitudes and durations sufficient to activate extrasynaptic glutamate receptors in brain slices. We also observed crosstalk between synapses—i.e., summation of glutamate released from neighboring synapses. Furthermore, we successfully observed that sensory input from the extremities induced extrasynaptic glutamate dynamics within the appropriate sensory area of the cerebral cortex in vivo. Thus, the present study clarifies the spatiotemporal features of extrasynaptic glutamate dynamics, and opens up an avenue to directly visualizing synaptic activity in live animals. PMID:20308566

  1. Dynamics of glutamate synthesis and excretion fluxes in batch and continuous cultures of temperature-triggered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Uy, Davin; Delaunay, Stéphane; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Engasser, Jean-Marc

    2005-05-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum 2262 strain, when triggered for glutamate excretion, experiences a rapid decrease in growth rate and increase in glutamate efflux. In order to gain a better quantitative understanding of the factors controlling the metabolic transition, the fermentation dynamics was investigated for a temperature-sensitive strain cultivated in batch and glucose-limited continuous cultures. For non-excreting cells at 33 degrees C, increasing the growth rate resulted in strong increases in the central metabolic fluxes, but the intracellular glutamate level, the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) activity and the flux distribution at the oxoglutarate node remained essentially constant. When subjected to a temperature rise to 39 degrees C, at both high- and low-metabolic activities, the bacteria showed a rapid attenuation in ODHC activity and an increase from 28% to more than 90% of the isocitrate dehydrogenase flux split towards glutamate synthesis. Simultaneously to the reduction in growth rate, the cells activated a high capacity export system capable of expelling the surplus of synthesized glutamate.

  2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  3. MADP, a salidroside analog, protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xian, Hua; Zhao, Jing; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Meihong; Huang, Jun; Wu, Bingxin; Sun, Cheng; Yang, Yumin

    2014-05-08

    To investigate the anti-apoptotic effect of MADP, an analog of salidroside, against glutamate induced apoptosis in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT method and lactate dehydrogenase release to the medium. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33342 staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting was applied for detecting protein levels of cellular signaling molecules. Our results showed that glutamate exposure significantly induces cell apoptosis, whereas the pretreatment of salidroside or MADP remarkably improves cell viability. Most importantly, the anti-apoptotic effect of MADP against glutamate insult is superior to salidroside. To explore the involved mechanisms, we measured some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic protein levels, and several cell survival signaling pathways were analyzed as well. No visible alterations in Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels were observed by MADP or salidroside. Akt and JNK phosphorylation was robustly stimulated by MADP in the glutamate-treated neurons. Salidroside treatment results in a slight activation in Akt, while no significant alteration in JNK activity was observed. MADP exhibits higher capacity to attenuate glutamate induced cell apoptosis in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons, suggesting that MADP might be a better candidate than salidroside for developing novel drugs treating neuron loss associated disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Replication of the Shrimp Virus WSSV Depends on Glutamate-Driven Anaplerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Jan; Huang, Shiao-Wei; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Wang, Han-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Infection with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a metabolic shift in shrimp that resembles the "Warburg effect" in mammalian cells. This effect is triggered via activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, and it is usually accompanied by the activation of other metabolic pathways that provide energy and direct the flow of carbon and nitrogen. Here we show that unlike the glutamine metabolism (glutaminolysis) seen in most cancer cells to double deaminate glutamine to produce glutamate and the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), at the WSSV genome replication stage (12 hpi), although glutaminase (GLS) expression was upregulated, only glutamate was taken up by the hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp. At the same time, we observed an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert glutamate to α-KG, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT). α-ketoglutarate concentration was also increased. A series of inhibition experiments suggested that the up-regulation of GDH is regulated by mTORC2, and that the PI3K-mTORC1 pathway is not involved. Suppression of GDH and ASAT by dsRNA silencing showed that both of these enzymes are important for WSSV replication. In GDH-silenced shrimp, direct replenishment of α-KG rescued both ATP production and WSSV replication. From these results, we propose a model of glutamate-driven anaplerosis that fuels the TCA cycle via α-KG and ultimately supports WSSV replication.

  5. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) [Reserved] (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is generally recognized as...

  8. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1045 - Glutamic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid. 182.1045 Section 182.1045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1045 Glutamic acid. (a) Product. Glutamic acid. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  10. Modes of glutamate receptor gating

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Gabriela K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The time course of excitatory synaptic currents, the major means of fast communication between neurons of the central nervous system, is encoded in the dynamic behaviour of post-synaptic glutamate-activated channels. First-pass attempts to explain the glutamate-elicited currents with mathematical models produced reaction mechanisms that included only the most basic functionally defined states: resting vs. liganded, closed vs. open, responsive vs. desensitized. In contrast, single-molecule observations afforded by the patch-clamp technique revealed an unanticipated kinetic multiplicity of transitions: from microseconds-lasting flickers to minutes-long modes. How these kinetically defined events impact the shape of the synaptic response, how they relate to rearrangements in receptor structure, and whether and how they are physiologically controlled represent currently active research directions. Modal gating, which refers to the slowest, least frequently observed ion-channel transitions, has been demonstrated for representatives of all ion channel families. However, reaction schemes have been largely confined to the short- and medium-range time scales. For glutamate receptors as well, modal gating has only recently come under rigorous scrutiny. This article reviews the evidence for modal gating of glutamate receptors and the still developing hypotheses about the mechanism(s) by which modal shifts occur and the ways in which they may impact the time course of synaptic transmission. PMID:22106181

  11. Metabolic fate of unsaturated glucuronic/iduronic acids from glycosaminoglycans: molecular identification and structure determination of streptococcal isomerase and dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yukie; Oiki, Sayoko; Takase, Ryuichi; Mikami, Bunzo; Murata, Kousaku; Hashimoto, Wataru

    2015-03-06

    Glycosaminoglycans in mammalian extracellular matrices are degraded to their constituents, unsaturated uronic (glucuronic/iduronic) acids and amino sugars, through successive reactions of bacterial polysaccharide lyase and unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase. Genes coding for glycosaminoglycan-acting lyase, unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, and the phosphotransferase system are assembled into a cluster in the genome of pathogenic bacteria, such as streptococci and clostridia. Here, we studied the streptococcal metabolic pathway of unsaturated uronic acids and the structure/function relationship of its relevant isomerase and dehydrogenase. Two proteins (gbs1892 and gbs1891) of Streptococcus agalactiae strain NEM316 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 4-Deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate (Dhu) nonenzymatically generated from unsaturated uronic acids was converted to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate via 3-deoxy-d-glycero-2,5-hexodiulosonate through successive reactions of gbs1892 isomerase (DhuI) and gbs1891 NADH-dependent reductase/dehydrogenase (DhuD). DhuI and DhuD enzymatically corresponded to 4-deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate ketol-isomerase (KduI) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate dehydrogenase (KduD), respectively, involved in pectin metabolism, although no or low sequence identity was observed between DhuI and KduI or between DhuD and KduD, respectively. Genes for DhuI and DhuD were found to be included in the streptococcal genetic cluster, whereas KduI and KduD are encoded in clostridia. Tertiary and quaternary structures of DhuI and DhuD were determined by x-ray crystallography. Distinct from KduI β-barrels, DhuI adopts an α/β/α-barrel structure as a basic scaffold similar to that of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. The structure of DhuD is unable to accommodate the substrate/cofactor, suggesting that conformational changes are essential to trigger enzyme catalysis. This is the first report on the bacterial metabolism of

  12. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-09-01

    α-Iso-cubebenol is a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, and is reported to have beneficial bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we investigated the mechanisms of α-iso-cubebenol protection of mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells (HT22 cells) from apoptotic cell death induced by the major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. Pretreatment with α-iso-cubebenol markedly attenuated glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase), in a dose-dependent manner. α-Iso-cubebenol significantly reduced glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium accumulation. Strikingly, α-iso-cubebenol inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization, which releases apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria. α-Iso-cubebenol also suppressed glutamate-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases. Furthermore, α-iso-cubebenol induced CREB phosphorylation and Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation and increased the promoter activity of ARE and CREB in HT22 cells. α-Iso-cubebenol also upregulated the expression of phase-II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO1. Subsequent studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced apoptosis were abolished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CREB and Nrf-2. These findings suggest that α-iso-cubebenol prevents excitotoxin-induced oxidative damage to neurons by inhibiting apoptotic cell death, and might be a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloning of a yeast gene coding for the glutamate synthase small subunit (GUS2) by complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs.

    PubMed

    González, A; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Olivera, H; Aranda, C; Macino, G; Ballario, P

    1992-02-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate auxotroph, lacking NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, was complemented with a yeast genomic library. Clones were obtained which still lacked NADP-GDH but showed GOGAT activity. Northern analysis revealed that the DNA fragment present in the complementing plasmids coded for a 1.5kb mRNA. Since the only GOGAT enzyme so far purified from S. cerevisiae is made up of a small and a large subunit, the size of the mRNA suggested that the cloned DNA fragment could code for the GOGAT small subunit. Plasmids were purified and used to transform Escherichia coli glutamate auxotrophs. Transformants were only recovered when the recipient strain was an E. coli GDH-less mutant lacking the small GOGAT subunit. These data show that we have cloned the structural gene coding for the yeast small subunit (GUS2). Evidence is also presented indicating that the GOGAT enzyme which is synthesized in the E. coli transformants is a hybrid comprising the large E. coli subunit and the small S. cerevisiae subunit.

  14. Wiring of PQQ-dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Valdas; Razumiene, Julija; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ryabov, Alexander D

    2004-12-15

    The performance of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and two types of PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases in solution and when immobilized on the carbon paste electrodes modified with ferrocene derivatives is investigated. The immobilization of ADH consisting of PQQ and four hemes improves its stability up to 10 times. Both PQQ and heme moieties are involved in the electron transport from substrate to electrode. The ferrocene derivatives improve the electron transport 10-fold. Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter sp. 33, intracellular soluble glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus L.M.D. 79.41 (s-GDH), and the membrane-bound enzyme (m-GDH) from Erwinia sp. 34-1 were purified and investigated. Soluble and membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases display different behavior during the immobilization on the modified carbon electrodes. The immobilization of s-GDH leads to a decrease in both stability and substrate specificity of the enzyme. This suggests that PQQ dissociates from the enzyme active center and operates as a free-diffusing mediator. The rate-limiting step of the process is likely the loading of PQQ onto the apo-enzyme. The immobilization of m-GDH leads to its substantial stabilization and improves the substrate specificity. The nature of m-GDH binding to the electrode surface is presumably similar to the binding to the cell membrane through its anchor-subunit. The enzyme operates as an enzyme and mediator complex.

  15. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  16. Effect of ambient extracellular glutamate on Drosophila glutamate receptor trafficking and function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaiyun; Augustin, Hrvoje; Featherstone, David E

    2009-01-01

    Measurements suggest that the hemolymph glutamate concentrations in Drosophila are relatively high. This raises the possibility that extracellular glutamate could be an important regulator of glutamatergic transmission in vivo. Using voltage clamp electrophysiology, we found that synaptic currents in D. melanogaster larval neuromuscular junctions are reduced by extracellular glutamate (EC50: approximately 0.4 mM), such that only 10-30% of receptors were functionally available in 1 mM extracellular glutamate. The kinetics of synaptic currents were also slowed in a dose-dependent fashion (EC50: approximately 1 mM), consistent with the idea that extracellular glutamate preferentially removes the fastest-desensitizing receptors from the functional pool. Prolonged exposure (several hours) to extracellular glutamate also triggers loss of glutamate receptor immunoreactivity from neuromuscular junctions. To determine whether this receptor loss requires that glutamate bind directly to the lost receptors, we examined glutamate-dependent loss of receptor immunoreactivity in larvae with glutamate receptor ligand binding mutations. Our results suggest that glutamate-dependent receptor loss requires binding of glutamate directly to the lost receptors. To determine whether lost receptor protein is degraded or merely redistributed, we used immunoblots. Results suggest that glutamate receptor protein is redistributed, but not degraded, after prolonged exposure to high extracellular glutamate.

  17. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory syn-aptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  18. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19184587

  19. Downregualtion of dynamin-related protein 1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity via regulating mitochondrial function in a calcium dependent manner in HT22 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Xian-rui; Li, Hao-yu; Zhao, Zi-jin; Liao, Yi-wei; Wang, Xiang-yu; Su, Jun; Sang, Shu-shan; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Downregulation of Drp-1 attenuates glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. •Downregulation of Drp-1 inhibits glutamate-induced apoptosis. •Downregulation of Drp-1 reduces glutamate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. •Downregulation of Drp-1 preserves intracellular calcium homeostasis. -- Abstract: Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp-1), one of the GTPase family of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, is associated with apoptotic cell death in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigated the effect of downregulating Drp-1 on glutamate excitotoxicity-induced neuronal injury in HT22 cells. We found that downregulation of Drp-1 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Drp-1 also inhibited an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Drp-1 siRNA transfection preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reduced cytochrome c release, enhanced ATP production, and partly prevented mitochondrial swelling. In addition, Drp-1 knockdown attenuated glutamate-induced increases of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+}, and preserved the mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} buffering capacity after excitotoxicity. Taken together, these results suggest that downregulation of Drp-1 protects HT22 cells against glutamate-induced excitatory damage, and this neuroprotection may be dependent at least in part on the preservation of mitochondrial function through regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis.

  20. Conformational Changes and Catalysis by Alcohol Dehydrogenase§

    PubMed Central

    Plapp, Bryce V.

    2009-01-01

    As shown by X-ray crystallography, horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase undergoes a global conformational change upon binding of NAD+ or NADH, involving a rotation of the catalytic domain relative to the coenzyme binding domain and the closing up of the active site to produce a catalytically efficient enzyme. The conformational change requires a complete coenzyme and is affected by various chemical or mutational substitutions that can increase the catalytic turnover by altering the kinetics of the isomerization and rate of dissociation of coenzymes. The binding of NAD+ is kinetically limited by a unimolecular isomerization (corresponding to the conformational change) that is controlled by deprotonation of the catalytic zinc-water to produce a negatively-charged zinc-hydroxide, which can attract the positively-charged nicotinamide ring. The deprotonation is facilitated by His-51 acting through a hydrogen-bonded network to relay the proton to solvent. Binding of NADH also involves a conformational change, but the rate is very fast. After the enzyme binds NAD+ and closes up, the substrate displaces the hydroxide bound to the catalytic zinc; this exchange may involve a double displacement reaction where the carboxylate group of a glutamate residue first displaces the hydroxide (inverting the tetrahedral coordination of the zinc), and then the exogenous ligand displaces the glutamate. The resulting enzyme-NAD+-alcoholate complex is poised for hydrogen transfer, and small conformational fluctuations may bring the reactants together so that the hydride ion is transferred by quantum mechanical tunneling. In the process, the nicotinamide ring may become puckered, as seen in structures of complexes of the enzyme with NADH. The conformational changes of alcohol dehydrogenase demonstrate the importance of protein dynamics in catalysis. PMID:19583966

  1. Synthesis of cinnamyl alcohol from cinnamaldehyde with Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase as the isolated enzyme and in recombinant E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Angela; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis of the aroma chemical cinnamyl alcohol (CMO) by means of enzymatic reduction of cinnamaldehyde (CMA) was investigated using NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus both as an isolated enzyme, and in recombinant Escherichia coli whole cells. The influence of parameters such as reaction time and cofactor, substrate, co-substrate 2-propanol and biocatalyst concentrations on the bioreduction reaction was investigated and an efficient and sustainable one-phase system developed. The reduction of CMA (0.5 g/L, 3.8 mmol/L) by the isolated enzyme occurred in 3 h at 50 °C with 97% conversion, and yielded high purity CMO (≥98%) with a yield of 88% and a productivity of 50 g/genzyme. The reduction of 12.5 g/L (94 mmol/L) CMA by whole cells in 6 h, at 37 °C and no requirement of external cofactor occurred with 97% conversion, 82% yield of 98% pure alcohol and a productivity of 34 mg/gwet cell weight. The results demonstrate the microbial system as a practical and efficient method for larger-scale synthesis of CMO.

  2. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M. . E-mail: Elizabeth.ellis@strath.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V {sub max} of 2141 {+-} 500 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 11 {+-} 4 {mu}M. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K {sub I} of 3.1 {+-} 0.57 {mu}M. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V {sub max} of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 15 {+-} 2 {mu}M and was not inhibited by pyrazole.

  3. A Reagentless, Screen-Printed Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Glutamate in Food and Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G; Pemberton, R M; Fielden, P R; Hart, J P

    2017-01-01

    A reagentless biosensor has been successfully developed to measure glutamate in food and clinical samples. The enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and the cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) are fully integrated onto the surface of a Meldola's Blue screen-printed carbon electrode (MB-SPCE). The biological components are immobilized by utilizing unpurified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT's) mixed with the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT), which are drop-coated onto the surface of the MB-SPCE in a layer-by-layer fashion. Meldola's Blue mediator is also incorporated into the biosensor cocktail in order to increase and facilitate electron shuttling between the reaction layers and the surface of the electrode. The loadings of each component are optimized by using amperometry in stirred solution at a low fixed potential of +0.1 V. The optimum temperature and pH are also determined using this technique. Quantification of glutamate in real samples is performed using the method of standard addition. The method of standard addition involves the addition of a sample containing an unknown concentration of glutamate, followed by additions of known concentrations of glutamate to a buffered solution in the cell. The currents generated by each addition are then plotted and the resulting line is extrapolated in order to determine the concentration of glutamate in the sample (Pemberton et al., Biosens Bioelectron 24:1246-1252, 2009). This layer-by-layer approach holds promise as a generic platform for the fabrication of reagentless biosensors.

  4. Antisense inhibition of NADH glutamate synthase impairs carbon/nitrogen assimilation in nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Shishkova, Svetlana; Vance, Carroll P; Hernández, Georgina

    2003-03-01

    Legumes acquire significant amounts of nitrogen for growth from symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The glutamine synthetase (GS)/NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) cycle catalyzes initial nitrogen assimilation. This report describes the impact of specifically reducing nodule NADH-GOGAT activity on symbiotic performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Four independent transgenic alfalfa lines, designated GA89, GA87, GA88, and GA82 (for GOGATantisense), containing an antisense NADH-GOGAT cDNA fragment under the control of the soybean leghemoglobin (lbc3) promoter were evaluated. The GA plants were fertile and showed normal growth in non-symbiotic conditions. The NADH-GOGAT antisense transgene was heritable and the T1 plants showed phenotypic alterations - similar to primary transformants. Clonally propagated plants were inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti after rooting and the symbiotic phenotype was analyzed 21 days post-inoculation. Nodules of each GA line had reduced NADH-GOGAT activity, ranging from 33 to 87% of control plants, that was accompanied by comparable decreases in RNA and protein. Plants from the GA89 line, with the lowest NADH-GOGAT activity (c. 30%), presented a strikingly altered symbiotic phenotype: concomitantly activities of key enzyme for carbon and nitrogen assimilation decreased; nodule amino acids and amides were reduced while sucrose accumulated. Antisense GOGAT plants were chlorotic, reduced in fresh weight, and had a lower N content than control plants. Photosynthesis was also impaired in antisense plants. Specifically, reducing NADH-GOGAT in nodules resulted in plants having impaired nitrogen assimilation and altered carbon/nitrogen metabolic flux.

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and regulation of two different NADH-glutamate synthase cDNAs in bean nodules.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lourdes; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Silvente, Sonia; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Alvarado-Affantranger, Xochitl; Sánchez, Federico; Miller, Susan; Vance, Carroll; Lara-Flores, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) is a key enzyme in primary ammonia assimilation in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules. Two different types of cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT were isolated from the nodule cDNA libraries. The full-length cDNA clones of PvNADH-GOGAT-I (7.4 kb) and PvNADH-GOGAT-II (7.0 kb), which displayed an 83% homology between them, were isolated using cDNA library screening, 'cDNA library walking' and RT-PCR amplification. Southern analysis employing specific 5' cDNA probes derived from PvNADH-GOGAT-I and PvNADH-GOGAT-II indicated the existence of a single copy of each gene in the bean genome. Both these proteins contain approximately 100 amino acid sequences theoretically addressing each isoenzyme to different subcellular compartments. RT-PCR analysis indicated that PvNADH-GOGAT-II expression is higher than PvNADH-GOGAT-I during nodule development. Expression analysis by RT-PCR also revealed that both of these genes are differentially regulated by sucrose. On the other hand, the expression of PvNADH-GOGAT-I, but not PvNADH-GOGAT-II, was inhibited with nitrogen compounds. In situ hybridization and promoter expression analyses demonstrated that the NADH-GOGAT-I and -II genes are differentially expressed in bean root and nodule tissues. In silico analyses of the NADH-GOGAT promoters revealed the presence of potential cis elements in them that could mediate differential tissue-specific, and sugar and amino acid responsive expression of these genes.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  7. Extrasynaptic glutamate release through cystine/glutamate antiporter contributes to ischemic damage

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Federico N.; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Martin, Abraham; Gona, Kiran Babu; Llop, Jordi; Szczupak, Boguslaw; Chara, Juan Carlos; Matute, Carlos; Domercq, María

    2014-01-01

    During brain ischemia, an excessive release of glutamate triggers neuronal death through the overactivation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs); however, the underlying pathways that alter glutamate homeostasis and whether synaptic or extrasynaptic sites are responsible for excess glutamate remain controversial. Here, we monitored ischemia-gated currents in pyramidal cortical neurons in brain slices from rodents in response to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) as a real-time glutamate sensor to identify the source of glutamate release and determined the extent of neuronal damage. Blockade of excitatory amino acid transporters or vesicular glutamate release did not inhibit ischemia-gated currents or neuronal damage after OGD. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of the cystine/glutamate antiporter dramatically attenuated ischemia-gated currents and cell death after OGD. Compared with control animals, mice lacking a functional cystine/glutamate antiporter exhibited reduced anoxic depolarization and neuronal death in response to OGD. Furthermore, glutamate released by the cystine/glutamate antiporter activated extrasynaptic, but not synaptic, NMDARs, and blockade of extrasynaptic NMDARs reduced ischemia-gated currents and cell damage after OGD. Finally, PET imaging showed increased cystine/glutamate antiporter function in ischemic rats. Altogether, these data suggest that cystine/glutamate antiporter function is increased in ischemia, contributing to elevated extracellular glutamate concentration, overactivation of extrasynaptic NMDARs, and ischemic neuronal death. PMID:25036707

  8. Purification and characterization of pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from rat liver mitochondrial matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W.C.; Jones, M.E.

    1987-05-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase catalyzes the second step of the irreversible two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate or the oxidative second step of the two-step conversion of ornithine to glutamate in mitochondria. Activity was assayed by monitoring directly the conversion of (/sup 3/H) L-P5C to (/sup 3/H) L-glutamate. Using this assay, the authors find P5C dehydrogenase most prevalent in liver in rat, with kidney having 71%, heart 51%, and and spleen 15% of the specific activity of liver. Starting with a subcellular fraction enriched for mitochondria, they have isolated a protein fraction enriched in this activity. The soluble protein fraction of the mitochondrial isolate was subjected to (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ precipitation and successive chromatography on DE 52 anion exchange and Brown 10 dye ligand affinity resins. This procedure yielded a fraction purified more than 500-fold over whole liver homogenate. HPLC and 5'-AMP agarose fractionation experiments now in progress to achieve further purification show promise. Physical studies show a M/sub r/ of 105,000 upon sucrose density gradient centrifugation and 94,000 on molecular sieve HPLC for the activity. Flat bed gel isoelectric focusing of the protein indicates a pI of 5.7. The purified protein exhibits an apparent K/sub m/ of 0.1 mM for L-P5C.

  9. Differences in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase regulation in liver and kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B C; Clotfelter, L A; Cheung, J Y; LaNoue, K F

    1992-01-01

    In response to acidosis, renal ammoniagenesis is stimulated, enhancing urinary buffering power, while hepatic ammoniagenesis and ureagenesis decrease, so as to spare bicarbonate consumed in the urea cycle. 2-Oxoglutarate (2-OG) levels can regulate ammoniagenesis in kidney and gluconeogenesis in liver and kidney. Since the activity of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-OGDH) has an important influence on cellular levels of 2-OG, this study evaluated the effects of pH on 2-OGDH in liver and kidney and found that: (1) the isolated enzyme from both organs has the same pH-sensitivity; (2) 2-OGDH flux measured in intact mitochondria was inhibited by increasing H+ in liver, but stimulated in kidney; (3) transport of 2-OG into the mitochondria was not rate-limiting; (4) liver mitochondrial 2-OGDH exhibited a strong preference for 2-OG generated within the mitochondria from glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), suggesting that channelling between GOT and 2-OGDH occurs. Since complexation between 2-OGDH and GOT occurs in vitro, we propose that the degree of complexation is higher in liver than in kidney, such that most of the 2-OGDH may be complexed to GOT in liver. In the liver the inherent H(+)-sensitivity of 2-OGDH is masked by the pH-sensitivity of GOT and the glutamate-aspartate carrier. PMID:1352447

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Revisited

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jerome T.; Henderson, Alfred R.

    1984-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  11. Residues that influence coenzyme preference in the aldehyde dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    González-Segura, Lilian; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2015-06-05

    To find out the residues that influence the coenzyme preference of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), we reviewed, analyzed and correlated data from their known crystal structures and amino-acid sequences with their published kinetic parameters for NAD(P)(+). We found that the conformation of the Rossmann-fold loops participating in binding the adenosine ribose is very conserved among ALDHs, so that coenzyme specificity is mainly determined by the nature of the residue at position 195 (human ALDH2 numbering). Enzymes with glutamate or proline at 195 prefer NAD(+) because the side-chains of these residues electrostatically and/or sterically repel the 2'-phosphate group of NADP(+). But contrary to the conformational rigidity of proline, the conformational flexibility of glutamate may allow NADP(+)-binding in some enzymes by moving the carboxyl group away from the 2'-phosphate group, which is possible if a small neutral residue is located at position 224, and favored if the residue at position 53 interacts with Glu195 in a NADP(+)-compatible conformation. Of the residues found at position 195, only glutamate interacts with the NAD(+)-adenosine ribose; glutamine and histidine cannot since their side-chain points are opposite to the ribose, probably because the absence of the electrostatic attraction by the conserved nearby Lys192, or its electrostatic repulsion, respectively. The shorter side-chains of other residues-aspartate, serine, threonine, alanine, valine, leucine, or isoleucine-are distant from the ribose but leave room for binding the 2'-phosphate group. Generally, enzymes having a residue different from Glu bind NAD(+) with less affinity, but they can also bind NADP(+) even sometimes with higher affinity than NAD(+), as do enzymes containing Thr/Ser/Gln195. Coenzyme preference is a variable feature within many ALDH families, consistent with being mainly dependent on a single residue that apparently has no other structural or functional roles, and therefore can

  12. Calcium involved in the poly(γ-glutamic acid)-mediated promotion of Chinese cabbage nitrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Xianju; Liang, Jinfeng; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth can reportedly be promoted by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To reveal the mechanism of γ-PGA, we designed an experiment that investigated the effect of γ-PGA on the nitrogen metabolism of Chinese cabbage hydroponic cultured at different calcium (Ca) levels and varied exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors. The results showed that nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in leaves and roots were obviously enhanced by γ-PGA at the normal Ca(2+) level (4.0 mM). Meanwhile, γ-PGA increased the content of total nitrogen, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids in leaves. However, the promotional effect of γ-PGA on fresh weight weakened when Ca(2+) was inadequate. Moreover, γ-PGA not only induced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) in organelles into cytoplasm, but also increased the Ca(2+)-ATPase level to modify Ca(2+) homeostasis in plant cells. In addition, exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors significantly suppressed the γ-PGA-mediated promotion of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) level, calmodulin (CaM) content, GS and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. In summary, γ-PGA accelerated the nitrogen metabolism of plants through the Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathway, thereby improving the growth of the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutamate synthesis via photoreduction of NADP+ by photostable chlorophyllide coupled with polyethylene-glycol.

    PubMed

    Asada, H; Itoh, T; Kodera, Y; Matsushima, A; Hiroto, M; Nishimura, H; Inada, Y

    2001-01-01

    Chlorophyllide a was coupled with alpha-(3-aminopropyl)-omega-methoxypoly(oxyethylene) (PEG-NH2) to form a PEG-chlorophyllide conjugate through an acid-amide bond. The conjugate catalyzed the reduction of methylviologen in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. It also catalyzed the photoreduction of NADP+ or NAD+ in the presence of ascorbate as an electron donor and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase as the coupling enzyme. Utilizing the reducing power of NADPH generated by PEG-chlorophyllide conjugate under illumination, glutamate was synthesized from 2-oxoglutarate and NH4+ in the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase. PEG-chlorophyllide conjugate was quite stable toward light illumination compared with chlorophyll a. The increase in the molecular weight of PEG in the PEG-chlorophyllide conjugates was accompanied by the enhancement of photostability of the conjugate and also by the increased solubility in the aqueous solution.

  14. The Many Roles of Glutamate in Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid glutamate is a major metabolic hub in many organisms and as such is involved in diverse processes in addition to its role in protein synthesis. Nitrogen assimilation, nucleoside, amino acid, and cofactor biosynthesis, as well as secondary natural product formation all utilize glutamate in some manner. Glutamate also plays a role in the catabolism of certain amines. Understanding glutamate's role in these various processes can aid in genome mining for novel metabolic pathways or the engineering of pathways for bioremediation or chemical production of valuable compounds. PMID:26323613

  15. Deficient glutamate biosynthesis triggers a concerted upregulation of ribosomal protein genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Nortes, Tamara; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Sarmiento-Mañús, Raquel; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2017-07-21

    Biomass production requires the coordination between growth and metabolism. In a large-scale screen for mutants affected in leaf morphology, we isolated the orbiculata1 (orb1) mutants, which exhibit a pale green phenotype and reduced growth. The combination of map-based cloning and next-generation sequencing allowed us to establish that ORB1 encodes the GLUTAMATE SYNTHASE 1 (GLU1) enzyme, also known as FERREDOXIN-DEPENDENT GLUTAMINE OXOGLUTARATE AMINOTRANSFERASE 1 (Fd-GOGAT1). We performed an RNA-seq analysis to identify global gene expression changes in the orb1-3 mutant. We found altered expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid biosynthesis, such as glutamine synthetases, asparagine synthetases and glutamate dehydrogenases, showing that the expression of these genes depends on the levels of glutamine and/or glutamate. In addition, we observed a concerted upregulation of genes encoding subunits of the cytosolic ribosome. A gene ontology (GO) analysis of the differentially expressed genes between Ler and orb1-3 showed that the most enriched GO terms were 'translation', 'cytosolic ribosome' and 'structural constituent of ribosome'. The upregulation of ribosome-related functions might reflect an attempt to keep protein synthesis at optimal levels even when the pool of glutamate is reduced.

  16. Synaptic glutamate spillover due to impaired glutamate uptake mediates heroin relapse.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao-wei; Scofield, Michael D; Boger, Heather; Hensley, Megan; Kalivas, Peter W

    2014-04-16

    Reducing the enduring vulnerability to relapse is a therapeutic goal in treating drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction show a marked increase in extrasynaptic glutamate in the core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) during reinstated drug seeking. However, the synaptic mechanisms linking drug-induced changes in extrasynaptic glutamate to relapse are poorly understood. Here, we discovered impaired glutamate elimination in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration that leads to spillover of synaptically released glutamate into the nonsynaptic extracellular space in NAcore and investigated whether restoration of glutamate transport prevented reinstated heroin seeking. Through multiple functional assays of glutamate uptake and analyzing NMDA receptor-mediated currents, we show that heroin self-administration produced long-lasting downregulation of glutamate uptake and surface expression of the transporter GLT-1. This downregulation was associated with spillover of synaptic glutamate to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors within the NAcore. Ceftriaxone restored glutamate uptake and prevented synaptic glutamate spillover and cue-induced heroin seeking. Ceftriaxone-induced inhibition of reinstated heroin seeking was blocked by morpholino-antisense targeting GLT-1 synthesis. These data reveal that the synaptic glutamate spillover in the NAcore results from reduced glutamate transport and is a critical pathophysiological mechanism underling reinstated drug seeking in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration.

  17. Synaptic Glutamate Spillover Due to Impaired Glutamate Uptake Mediates Heroin Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Michael D.; Boger, Heather; Hensley, Megan; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the enduring vulnerability to relapse is a therapeutic goal in treating drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction show a marked increase in extrasynaptic glutamate in the core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) during reinstated drug seeking. However, the synaptic mechanisms linking drug-induced changes in extrasynaptic glutamate to relapse are poorly understood. Here, we discovered impaired glutamate elimination in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration that leads to spillover of synaptically released glutamate into the nonsynaptic extracellular space in NAcore and investigated whether restoration of glutamate transport prevented reinstated heroin seeking. Through multiple functional assays of glutamate uptake and analyzing NMDA receptor-mediated currents, we show that heroin self-administration produced long-lasting downregulation of glutamate uptake and surface expression of the transporter GLT-1. This downregulation was associated with spillover of synaptic glutamate to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors within the NAcore. Ceftriaxone restored glutamate uptake and prevented synaptic glutamate spillover and cue-induced heroin seeking. Ceftriaxone-induced inhibition of reinstated heroin seeking was blocked by morpholino-antisense targeting GLT-1 synthesis. These data reveal that the synaptic glutamate spillover in the NAcore results from reduced glutamate transport and is a critical pathophysiological mechanism underling reinstated drug seeking in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration. PMID:24741055

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of mutated Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase to illuminate the role of key residues.

    PubMed

    Ling, Baoping; Bi, Siwei; Sun, Min; Jing, Zhihong; Li, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rui

    2014-05-01

    L-Alanine dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (L-MtAlaDH) catalyzes the NADH-dependent interconversion of l-alanine and pyruvate, and it is considered to be a potential target for the treatment of tuberculosis. The experiment has verified that amino acid replacement of the conserved active-site residues which have strong stability and no great changes in biological evolutionary process, such as His96 and Asp270, could lead to inactive mutants [Ågren et al., J. Mol. Biol. 377 (2008) 1161-1173]. However, the role of these conserved residues in catalytic reaction still remains unclear. Based on the crystal structures, a series of mutant structures were constructed to investigate the role of the conserved residues in enzymatic reaction by using molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that whatever the conserved residues were mutated, the protein can still convert its conformation from open state to closed state as long as NADH is present in active site. Asp270 maintains the stability of nicotinamide ring and ribose of NADH through hydrogen bond interactions, and His96 is helpful to convert the protein conformation by interactions with Gln271, whereas, they would lead to the structural rearrangement in active site and lose the catalytic activity when they were mutated. Additionally, we deduce that Met301 plays a major role in catalytic reaction due to fixing the nicotinamide ring of NADH to prevent its rotation, and we propose that Met301 would be mutated to the hydrophobic residue with large steric hindrance in side chain to test the activity of the protein in future experiment.

  19. Structural basis of substrate selectivity of Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (ALDH4A1): semialdehyde chain length.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Travis A; Tanner, John J

    2013-10-01

    The enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase (aka P5CDH and ALDH4A1) is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of γ-glutamate semialdehyde to l-glutamate. The crystal structures of mouse P5CDH complexed with glutarate, succinate, malonate, glyoxylate, and acetate are reported. The structures are used to build a structure-activity relationship that describes the semialdehyde carbon chain length and the position of the aldehyde group in relation to the cysteine nucleophile and oxyanion hole. Efficient 4- and 5-carbon substrates share the common feature of being long enough to span the distance between the anchor loop at the bottom of the active site and the oxyanion hole at the top of the active site. The inactive 2- and 3-carbon semialdehydes bind the anchor loop but are too short to reach the oxyanion hole. Inhibition of P5CDH by glyoxylate, malonate, succinate, glutarate, and l-glutamate is also examined. The Ki values are 0.27 mM for glyoxylate, 58 mM for succinate, 30 mM for glutarate, and 12 mM for l-glutamate. Curiously, malonate is not an inhibitor. The trends in Ki likely reflect a trade-off between the penalty for desolvating the carboxylates of the free inhibitor and the number of compensating hydrogen bonds formed in the enzyme-inhibitor complex.

  20. Purification and Characterization of an NAD+-Dependent XylB-Like Aryl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Identified in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1

    PubMed Central

    Uthoff, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The gene xylBADP1 from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 (gene annotation number ACIAD1578), coding for a putative aryl alcohol dehydrogenase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The respective aryl alcohol dehydrogenase was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The predicted molecular weight of 39,500 per subunit was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. According to the native Mw as determined by gel filtration, the enzyme forms dimers and therefore seems to be XylB related. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 40°C. For both the reduction and the oxidation reactions, the pH for optimum activity was 6.5. The enzyme was NADH dependent and able to reduce medium- to long-chain n-alkylaldehydes, methyl-branched aldehydes, and aromatic aldehydes, with benzaldehyde yielding the highest activity. The oxidation reaction with the corresponding alcohols showed only 2.2% of the reduction activity, with coniferyl alcohol yielding the highest activity. Maximum activities for the reduction and the oxidation reaction were 104.5 and 2.3 U mg−1 of protein, respectively. The enzyme activity was affected by low concentrations of Ag+ and Hg2+ and high concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The gene xylBADP1 seems to be expressed constitutively and an involvement in coniferyl alcohol degradation is suggested. However, the enzyme is most probably not involved in the degradation of benzyl alcohol, anisalcohol, salicyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, or aliphatic and isoprenoid alcohols. PMID:23042182

  1. Purification and characterization of an NAD+-dependent XylB-like aryl alcohol dehydrogenase identified in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.

    PubMed

    Uthoff, Stefan; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    The gene xylB(ADP1) from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 (gene annotation number ACIAD1578), coding for a putative aryl alcohol dehydrogenase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The respective aryl alcohol dehydrogenase was purified by fast protein liquid chromatography to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The predicted molecular weight of 39,500 per subunit was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. According to the native M(w) as determined by gel filtration, the enzyme forms dimers and therefore seems to be XylB related. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 40°C. For both the reduction and the oxidation reactions, the pH for optimum activity was 6.5. The enzyme was NADH dependent and able to reduce medium- to long-chain n-alkylaldehydes, methyl-branched aldehydes, and aromatic aldehydes, with benzaldehyde yielding the highest activity. The oxidation reaction with the corresponding alcohols showed only 2.2% of the reduction activity, with coniferyl alcohol yielding the highest activity. Maximum activities for the reduction and the oxidation reaction were 104.5 and 2.3 U mg(-1) of protein, respectively. The enzyme activity was affected by low concentrations of Ag(+) and Hg(2+) and high concentrations of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+). The gene xylB(ADP1) seems to be expressed constitutively and an involvement in coniferyl alcohol degradation is suggested. However, the enzyme is most probably not involved in the degradation of benzyl alcohol, anisalcohol, salicyl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, or aliphatic and isoprenoid alcohols.

  2. Using glutamate homeostasis as a target for treating addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Reissner, Kathryn J; Kalivas, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    Well-developed cellular mechanisms exist to preserve glutamate homeostasis and regulate extrasynaptic glutamate levels. Accumulating evidence indicates that disruptions in glutamate homeostasis are associated with addictive disorders. The disruptions in glutamate concentrations observed after prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse are associated with changes in the function and activity of several key components within the homeostatic control mechanism, including the cystine/glutamate exchanger xc(-) and the glial glutamate transporter, EAAT2/GLT-1. Changes in the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate levels in turn influence signaling through presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate receptors, and thus affect synaptic plasticity and circuit-level activity. In this review, we describe the evidence for impaired glutamate homeostasis as a critical mediator of long-term drug-seeking behaviors, how chronic neuroadaptations in xc(-) and the glutamate transporter, GLT-1, mediate a disruption in glutamate homeostasis, and how targeting these components restores glutamate levels and inhibits drug-seeking behaviors.

  3. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland. PMID:18945893

  5. Glutamate Fermentation-2: Mechanism of L-Glutamate Overproduction in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Wachi, Masaaki

    The nonpathogenic coryneform bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was isolated as an L-glutamate-overproducing microorganism by Japanese researchers and is currently utilized in various amino acid fermentation processes. L-Glutamate production by C. glutamicum is induced by limitation of biotin and addition of fatty acid ester surfactants and β-lactam antibiotics. These treatments affect the cell surface structures of C. glutamicum. After the discovery of C. glutamicum, many researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism of L-glutamate overproduction with respect to the cell surface structures of this organism. Furthermore, metabolic regulation during L-glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum, particularly, the relationship between central carbon metabolism and L-glutamate biosynthesis, has been investigated. Recently, the role of a mechanosensitive channel protein in L-glutamate overproduction has been reported. In this chapter, mechanisms of L-glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum have been reviewed.

  6. Kanamycin ototoxicity in glutamate transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Hyodo, Jun; Taniguchi, Masafumi; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2005-06-03

    Glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST), a powerful glutamate uptake system, removes released glutamate from the synaptic cleft and facilitates the re-use of glutamate as a neurotransmitter recycling system. Aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss is mediated via a glutamate excitotoxic process. We investigated the effect of aminoglycoside ototoxicity in GLAST knockout mice using the recorded auditory brainstem response (ABR) and number of hair cells in the cochlea. Kanamycin (100 mg/mL) was injected directly into the posterior semicircular canal of mice. Before the kanamycin treatment, there was no difference in the ABR threshold average between the wild-type and knockout mice. Kanamycin injection aggravated the ABR threshold in the GLAST knockout mice compared with the wild-type mice, and the IHC degeneration was more severe in the GLAST knockout mice. These findings suggest that GLAST plays an important role in preventing the degeneration of inner hair cells in aminoglycoside ototoxicity.

  7. Glutamate-based antidepressants: preclinical psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pilc, Andrzej; Wierońska, Joanna M; Skolnick, Phil

    2013-06-15

    Over the past 20 years, converging lines of evidence have both linked glutamatergic dysfunction to the pathophysiology of depression and demonstrated that the glutamatergic synapse presents multiple targets for developing novel antidepressants. The robust antidepressant effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists ketamine and traxoprodil provide target validation for this family of ionotropic glutamate receptors. This article reviews the preclinical evidence that it may be possible to develop glutamate-based antidepressants by not only modulating ionotropic (N-methyl-D-aspartate and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid) and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, including mGlu2/3, mGLu5 and mGlu7 receptors, but also by altering synaptic concentrations of glutamate via specialized transporters such as glial glutamate transporter 1 (excitatory amino-acid transporter 2).

  8. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death. PMID:25775423

  9. Neuroprotective effect of 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol from Uncaria sinensis on glutamate-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Min; Kim, Ha Neui; Kim, Yu Ri; Oh, Eun Young; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2014-08-08

    We isolated a single compound, 1-methoxyoctadecan-1-ol (MOD), from dried hooks and stems of Uncaria sinensis, which is used in traditional Korean medicine to provide relief from various nervous related symptoms. Neuroprotective effects of MOD against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells were investigated by analyzing cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase, flow cytometry, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Western blot assays. Exposure to glutamate alone resulted in remarkable hippocampal neuronal cell death; however, pretreatment with MOD resulted in suppression of neuronal death and ROS accumulation in connection with cellular Ca2+ level after exposure to glutamate. Stimulation by glutamate also caused significant protein level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and dephosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), however, pretreatment with MOD resulted in inhibition of these changes in protein level. Treatment with glutamate alone led to suppressed protein level of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB); however, pretreatment with MOD resulted in significant enhancement of this level of protein. Anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and both Ca2+ inhibitors, BAPTA and EGTA, showed effects similar to those of MOD in all proteins examined, except mature BDNF. Our results suggest that MOD mainly exerted neuroprotective effects in suppression of ROS accumulation and up-regulation of mature BDNF in association with p38 MAPK and PI3K signaling in hippocampal neuronal cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  11. Using glutamate homeostasis as a target for treating addictive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reissner, Kathryn J.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Well-developed cellular mechanisms exist to preserve glutamate homeostasis and regulate extrasynaptic glutamate levels. Accumulating evidence indicates that disruptions in glutamate homeostasis are associated with addictive disorders. The disruptions in glutamate concentrations observed following prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse are associated with changes in the function and activity of several key components within the homeostatic control mechanism, including the cystine/glutamate exchanger xc− and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2/GLT-1. Changes in the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate levels in turn influence signaling through pre- and postsynaptic glutamate receptors, and thus affect synaptic plasticity and circuit-level activity. In this review we describe the evidence for impaired glutamate homestasis as a critical mediator of long-term drug-seeking behaviors, how chronic neuroadaptations in xc− and GLT-1 mediate a disruption in glutamate homeostasis, and how targeting these components restores glutamate levels and inhibits drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:20634691

  12. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency induces compensatory amino acid metabolism during fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoki; Yoshida, Yuma; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2016-11-01

    Glucose is used as an energy source in many organs and obtained from dietary carbohydrates. However, when the external energy supply is interrupted, e.g., during fasting, carbohydrates preserved in the liver and glycogenic precursors derived from other organs are used to maintain blood glucose levels. Glycerol and glycogenic amino acids derived from adipocytes and skeletal muscles are utilized as glycogenic precursors. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), an NAD(+)/NADH-dependent enzyme present in the cytosol, catalyzes the reversible conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Since G3P is one of the substrates utilized for gluconeogenesis in the liver, the conversion of G3P to DHAP by GPD1 is essential for maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting. We focused on GPD1 and examined its roles in gluconeogenesis during fasting. Using GPD1 null model BALB/cHeA mice (HeA mice), we measured gluconeogenesis from glycerol and the change of blood glucose levels under fasting conditions. We also measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis in the liver and protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. BALB/cBy mice (By mice) were used as a control. The blood glucose levels in the HeA mice were lower than that in the By mice after glycerol administration. Although lack of GPD1 inhibited gluconeogenesis from glycerol, blood glucose levels in the HeA mice after 1-4h of fasting were significantly higher than that in the By mice. Muscle protein synthesis in HeA mice was significantly lower than that in the By mice. Moreover, blood alanine levels and usage of alanine for gluconeogenesis in the liver were significantly higher in the HeA mice than that in the By mice. Although these data indicate that a lack of GPD1 inhibits gluconeogenesis from glycerol, chronic GPD1 deficiency may induce an adaptation that enhances gluconeogenesis from glycogenic amino acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Replication of the Shrimp Virus WSSV Depends on Glutamate-Driven Anaplerosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Jan; Huang, Shiao-Wei; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Wang, Han-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Infection with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) induces a metabolic shift in shrimp that resembles the “Warburg effect” in mammalian cells. This effect is triggered via activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, and it is usually accompanied by the activation of other metabolic pathways that provide energy and direct the flow of carbon and nitrogen. Here we show that unlike the glutamine metabolism (glutaminolysis) seen in most cancer cells to double deaminate glutamine to produce glutamate and the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), at the WSSV genome replication stage (12 hpi), although glutaminase (GLS) expression was upregulated, only glutamate was taken up by the hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp. At the same time, we observed an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert glutamate to α-KG, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT). α-ketoglutarate concentration was also increased. A series of inhibition experiments suggested that the up-regulation of GDH is regulated by mTORC2, and that the PI3K-mTORC1 pathway is not involved. Suppression of GDH and ASAT by dsRNA silencing showed that both of these enzymes are important for WSSV replication. In GDH-silenced shrimp, direct replenishment of α-KG rescued both ATP production and WSSV replication. From these results, we propose a model of glutamate-driven anaplerosis that fuels the TCA cycle via α-KG and ultimately supports WSSV replication. PMID:26751681

  14. Investigation of phosphorylation status of OdhI protein during penicillin- and Tween 40-triggered glutamate overproduction by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongpill; Hirasawa, Takashi; Saito, Masaki; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate overproduction by Corynebacterium glutamicum is triggered by treatment with penicillin or Tween 40 and is accompanied by a decrease in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (ODHC) activity. We have reported that de novo synthesis of OdhI, which inhibits ODHC activity by interacting specifically with the E1o subunit of ODHC (OdhA), is induced by penicillin, and that odhI overexpression induces glutamate overproduction in the absence of any triggers for glutamate overproduction. In this study, to determine the function of OdhI in glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum, changes in OdhI levels and phosphorylation status during penicillin- and Tween 40-induced glutamate overproduction were examined by western blot. The synthesis of both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated OdhI was increased by addition of Tween 40 or penicillin and the levels of unphosphorylated OdhI, which can inhibit ODHC activity, was significantly higher than those of phosphorylated OdhI, which is unable to inhibit ODHC activity. Meanwhile, the OdhA levels were maintained throughout the culture. These results indicate that OdhI synthesis is induced by additions of penicillin and Tween 40 and most synthesized OdhI is unphosphorylated, resulting in the decrease in ODHC activity and glutamate overproduction. Similarly, in the odhI-overexpressing strain, both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated OdhI were synthesized, while the levels of OdhA were nearly constant throughout culture. Our results suggest that high level of unphosphorylated OdhI regulates glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  16. Glutamate and Brain Glutaminases in Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Javier; Campos-Sandoval, José A; Peñalver, Ana; Matés, José M; Segura, Juan A; Blanco, Eduardo; Alonso, Francisco J; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of the glutamatergic hypothesis of addiction. Glutaminases are the main glutamate-producing enzymes in brain and dysregulation of their function have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders; however, the possible implication of these enzymes in drug addiction remains largely unknown. This mini-review focuses on brain glutaminase isozymes and their alterations by in vivo exposure to drugs of abuse, which are discussed in the context of the glutamate homeostasis theory of addiction. Recent findings from mouse models have shown that drugs induce changes in the expression profiles of key glutamatergic transmission genes, although the molecular mechanisms that regulate drug-induced neuronal sensitization and behavioral plasticity are not clear.

  17. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation constants (Kd) of the complexes of RALDH3 with octanal, NAD+ and NADH were determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The similarity of the Kd values for the complexes with NAD+ and with octanal suggests a random kinetic mechanism for RALDH3, in contrast with the ordered sequential mechanism often associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation. Mechanistic implications of the kinetically influential ionizations with macroscopic pKa values of 5.0 and 7.5 revealed by the pH-dependence of kcat are discussed. Analogies with data for non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans, together with the present modelled structure of the thioacyl RALDH3, suggest (a) that kcat characterizes deacylation of this intermediate for specific substrates and (b) the assignment of the pKa of the major ionization (approximating to 7.5) to the perturbed carboxy group of Glu280 whose conjugate base is envisaged as supplying general base catalysis to attack of a water molecule. The macroscopic pKa of the minor ionization (5.0) is considered to approximate to that of the carboxy group of Glu488. PMID:16241904

  18. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  19. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations in glutamate transmission

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Heath D.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that repeated exposure to cocaine leads to profound changes in glutamate transmission in limbic nuclei, particularly the nucleus accumbens. This review focuses on preclinical studies of cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity, including behavioral sensitization, self-administration, and the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Behavioral, pharmacological, neurochemical, electrophysiological, biochemical, and molecular biological changes associated with cocaine-induced plasticity in glutamate systems are reviewed. The ultimate goal of these lines of research is to identify novel targets for the development of therapies for cocaine craving and addiction. Therefore, we also outline the progress and prospects of glutamate modulators for the treatment of cocaine addiction. PMID:20201846

  20. Metabolic fate and function of dietary glutamate in the gut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as an additive in the form of monosodium glutamate. Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is a major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is extensively metabol...

  1. Emerging aspects of dietary glutamate metabolism in the developing gut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutamate is a major constituent of dietary protein and is also consumed in many prepared foods as a flavour additive in the form of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Evidence from human and animal studies indicates that glutamate is the major oxidative fuel for the gut and that dietary glutamate is exten...

  2. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  3. Changes in metabolic proteins in ex vivo rat retina during glutamate-induced neural progenitor cell induction.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Baron, Byron; Kitagawa, Takao; Tokuda, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how energy metabolism and related proteins influence neural progenitor cells in adult tissues is critical for developing new strategies in clinical tissue regeneration therapy. We have recently reported that a subtoxic concentration of glutamate-induced neural progenitor cells in the mature ex vivo rat retina. We herein explore changes in the metabolic pathways during the process. We firstly observed an increase in lactate and lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the glutamate-treated retina. We then investigated the levels of glycolytic enzymes and confirmed significant upregulation of pyruvate kinase M type (PKM), especially PKM2, enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), and inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH1) in the glutamate-treated retina compared to the untreated retina. An analysis of the subcellular localization of PKM2 revealed nuclear translocation in the treated retina, which has been reported to regulate cell cycle proliferation and glycolytic enzymes. Our findings indicate that the mature rat retina undergoes an increase in aerobic glycolysis. PKM2, both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, may thus play an important role during neural progenitor cell induction, as it does in other proliferating cells.

  4. Construction of a potentiometric glutamate biosensor for determination of glutamate in some real samples.

    PubMed

    Y Lmaz, Demet; Karaku, Emine

    2011-12-01

    The potentiometric glutamate biosensor based on ammonium-selective poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) membrane electrode was constructed by chemically immobilizing glutamate oxidase. Ammonium ions produced after an enzymatic reaction were determined potentiometrically. We determined the optimum working conditions of the biosensor such as buffer concentration, buffer pH, lifetime, response time, linear working range, kinetic constants (K(m) and V(max)) of glutamate oxidase enzyme used for biosensor construction values, and other response characteristics. Additionally, glutamate assay in some real samples such as chicken bullion, healthy human serum, and commercial multipower amino acid mixture were also successfully carried out. The results showed good agreement with previously reported values.

  5. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions.

    PubMed

    Plesa, C; van Loo, N; Dekker, C

    2015-08-28

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  6. Glutamate Receptor Dynamics in Dendritic Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Newpher, Thomas M.; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Among diverse factors regulating excitatory synaptic transmission, the abundance of postsynaptic glutamate receptors figures prominently in molecular memory and learning-related synaptic plasticity. To allow for both long-term maintenance of synaptic transmission and acute changes in synaptic strength, the relative rates of glutamate receptor insertion and removal must be tightly regulated. Interactions with scaffolding proteins control the targeting and signaling properties of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic membrane. In addition, extrasynaptic receptor populations control the equilibrium of receptor exchange at synapses and activate distinct signaling pathways involved in plasticity. Here, we review recent findings that have shaped our current understanding of receptor mobility between synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments at glutamatergic synapses, focusing on AMPA and NMDA receptors. We also examine the cooperative relationship between intracellular trafficking and surface diffusion of glutamate receptors that underlies the expression of learning-related synaptic plasticity. PMID:18498731

  7. Glutamate and dopamine components in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of schizophrenia for the last half century has been with dopamine (DA) D2 receptor blockers, implicating a hyperdopamine basis for psychosis. However, a 2007 report found that the glutamate agonist LY404039 was effective in schizophrenia, suggesting a hypoglutamate state for the illness. Although phencyclidine psychosis also supports a hypoglutamate cause, assessing the basic and clinical findings shows that phencyclidine has DA D2 agonist actions as well. Accurate Dreiding models of phencyclidine and the LY glutamate agonists precisely fit the known tetrahedral model of the D2 receptor that accommodates all DA agonists. A further view is that metabotropic glutamate agonists also exert D2 agonism, and their antipsychotic doses (about 100 mg/d) are predicted by their dissociation constants (about 20 nM) for D2. Hence, the clinical antipsychotic action of a glutamate agonist may depend on its ability to interfere with DA neurotransmission by its DA partial agonism. PMID:19270765

  8. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, C.; van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-08-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  9. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  10. [Glutamate neurotransmission, stress and hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Vigas, M

    1995-11-01

    Glutamate neurotransmission has been investigated in relation to several physiological processes (learning, memory) as well as to neurodegenerative and other disorders. Little attention has been paid to its involvement in neuroendocrine response during stress. Penetration of excitatory amino acids from blood to the brain is limited by the blood-brain barrier. As a consequence, several toxic effects but also bioavailability for therapeutic purposes are reduced. A free access to circulating glutamate is possible only in brain structures lacking the blood-brain barrier or under conditions of its increased permeability. Excitatory amino acids were shown to stimulate the pituitary hormone release, though the mechanism of their action is still not fully understood. Stress exposure in experimental animals induced specific changes in mRNA levels coding the glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The results obtained with the use of glutamate receptor antagonists indicate that a number of specific receptor subtypes contribute to the stimulation of ACTH release during stress. The authors provided also data on the role of NMDA receptors in the control of catecholamine release, particularly in stress-induced secretion of epinephrine. These results were the first piece of evidence on the involvement of endogenous excitatory amino acids in neuroendocrine activation during stress. Neurotoxic effects of glutamate in animals are well described, especially after its administration in the neonatal period. In men, glutamate toxicity and its use as a food additive are a continuous subject of discussions. The authors found an increase in plasma cortisol and norepinephrine, but not epinephrine and prolactin, in response to the administration of a high dose of glutamate. It cannot be excluded that these effects might be induced even by lower doses in situations with increased vulnerability to glutamate action (age, individual variability). (Tab. 1, Fig. 6, Ref. 44.).

  11. Tolerance of hyperammonemia in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis is supported by glutamate-glutamine cycle.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suman; Mishra, Rajnikant

    2017-03-01

    This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16h and 20h exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. After 20h of hyperammonemia glia were more degenerated than neurons. The expression of mRNA of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh), super oxide dismutase (Sod), catalase (Catalase), arginase-I (Arg I), inducible nitric oxide (iNos), glutaminase (GA), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) was up-regulated than the control. The levels of mRNA of Arg II, glutamate dehydrogenase (Gdh), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna) and S100β were down-regulated than control due to hyperammonemia. It appears first observation on impact of hyperammonemia on the status of neurons, myelination and glial cells in brain of Heteropneustes fossilis by Golgi staining, Nissl's and Luxol Fast Blue staining. The distribution of ammonia and glutamate metabolising enzymes in brain supports multi-centric mechanism (s) of regulation. The expression of Arg I and Arg II gets inversely regulated and glutamate-glutamine cycle also operates in Heteropneustes fossilis against hyperammonemia in brain.

  12. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate/Glutamate Biogenesis Is Required for Fungal Virulence and Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ziting; Zou, Chengwu; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Jinzi; Lu, Lidan; Li, Yang; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (Prodh) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5Cdh) are two key enzymes in the cellular biogenesis of glutamate. Recombinant Prodh and P5Cdh proteins of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica were investigated and showed activity in in vitro assays. Additionally, the C. parasitica Prodh and P5Cdh genes were able to complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae put1 and put2 null mutants, respectively, to allow these proline auxotrophic yeast mutants to grow on media with proline as the sole source of nitrogen. Deletion of the Prodh gene in C. parasitica resulted in hypovirulence and a lower level of sporulation, whereas deletion of P5Cdh resulted in hypovirulence though no effect on sporulation; both Δprodh and Δp5cdh mutants were unable to grow on minimal medium with proline as the sole nitrogen source. In a wild-type strain, the intracellular level of proline and the activity of Prodh and P5Cdh increased after supplementation of exogenous proline, though the intracellular Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) content remained unchanged. Prodh and P5Cdh were both transcriptionally down-regulated in cells infected with hypovirus. The disruption of other genes with products involved in the conversion of arginine to ornithine, ornithine and glutamate to P5C, and P5C to proline in the cytosol did not appear to affect virulence; however, asexual sporulation was reduced in the Δpro1 and Δpro2 mutants. Taken together, our results showed that Prodh, P5Cdh and related mitochondrial functions are essential for virulence and that proline/glutamate pathway components may represent down-stream targets of hypovirus regulation in C. parasitica. PMID:24039956

  13. Yeast nitrogen catabolite repression is sustained by signals distinct from glutamine and glutamate reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Feller, A; Bodo, E; Boeckstaens, M; Marini, A M; Dubois, E; Georis, I

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a wide transcriptional regulation program enabling baker's yeast to downregulate genes involved in the utilization of poor nitrogen sources when preferred ones are available. Nowadays, glutamine and glutamate, the major nitrogen donors for biosyntheses, are assumed to be key metabolic signals regulating NCR. NCR is controlled by the conserved TORC1 complex, which integrates nitrogen signals among others to regulate cell growth. However, accumulating evidence indicate that the TORC1-mediated control of NCR is only partial, arguing for the existence of supplementary regulatory processes to be discovered. In this work, we developed a genetic screen to search for new players involved in NCR signaling. Our data reveal that the NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity of Gdh1 negatively regulates NCR-sensitive gene transcription. By determining the total, cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools of amino acids, we show that there is no positive correlation between glutamine/glutamate reservoirs and the extent of NCR. While our data indicate that glutamine could serve as initial trigger of NCR, they show that it is not a sufficient signal to sustain repression and point to the existence of yet unknown signals. Providing additional evidence uncoupling TORC1 activity and NCR, our work revisits the dogmas underlying NCR regulation.

  14. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Mingchun; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Xiaonan; Huo, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1) and SOD2 activities; western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to investigate SOD2 protein expression; MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release and cell morphology were used to evaluate cell injury degree, and apoptotic rate and cleaved caspase-3 expression were taken to assess apoptosis; mitochondrial superoxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated by reagent kits. Results. Amifostine increased SOD2 activity and expression, decreased cell injury and apoptosis, reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and intracellular ROS generation, and restored intracellular GSH and CAT levels in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. SOD2-siRNA, however, significantly reversed the amifostine-induced cytoprotective and antioxidative actions. Conclusion. SOD2 mediates amifostine-induced protection in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. PMID:26770652

  15. [Effects of ginkgolide B against damage of cultured hippocampal neurons caused by glutamate].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Sun, Chang-kai; Fan, Ming; Ding, Ai-shi; Yin, Lin; Wang, Xiao-tong; Wu, Wei

    2007-05-01

    To investigate protective effects of ginkgolide B (GB) in different administration modes on glutamate-induced neuronal damage. Essential GB were obtained by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction. Glutamate excitotoxicity were examined in primary cultures from neonatal Wistar rat, by using of Trypan blue dye staining, testing the lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cultured neurons and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The protective effects of GB in different administration modes (pre-treatment and post-treatment) were adopted and compared with the NMDA receptor uncompetitive antagonist-MK-801 in acute-treatment. Treatment with GB in two administration modes both could increase ratio of surviving neuron, decrease LDH efflux and reduce ratio of neuron apoptosis in different degree, depended on dose in certain range. The protective effect of pre-treatment was superior to post-treatment, but inferior to MK-801. GB can protect neurons against glutamate damage, and preventive using has more efficiency. The potential mechanism of its neural protection may be not only related to PAF receptor. If the predominant protection effect of GB in pretreatment is considered, precautionary intervention to high-risk population could have more value.

  16. Activation of Pedunculopontine Glutamate Neurons Is Reinforcing.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Zell, Vivien; Wu, Johnathan; Punta, Cindy; Ramajayam, Nivedita; Shen, Xinyi; Faget, Lauren; Lilascharoen, Varoth; Lim, Byung Kook; Hnasko, Thomas S

    2017-01-04

    Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice. We used anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays to determine their patterns of connectivity and ascribe functional roles in reinforcement. We found that photoactivation of PPTg glutamate cell bodies could serve as a direct positive reinforcer on intracranial self-photostimulation assays. Further, PPTg glutamate neurons directly innervate VTA; photostimulation of this pathway preferentially excites VTA dopamine neurons and is sufficient to induce behavioral reinforcement. These results demonstrate that ascending PPTg glutamate projections can drive motivated behavior, and PPTg to VTA synapses may represent an important target relevant to drug addiction and other mental health disorders.

  17. Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors & CNS Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are complex disease states that represent a major challenge for modern medicine. Although etiology is often unknown, it is established that multiple factors such as defects in genetics and/or epigenetics, the environment as well as imbalance in neurotransmitter receptor systems are all at play in determining an individual’s susceptibility to disease. Gene therapy is currently not available and therefore, most conditions are treated with pharmacological agents that modify neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Here, I provide a review of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the roles they fulfill in numerous CNS disorders. Specifically, I argue that our understanding of iGluRs has reached a critical turning point to permit, for the first time, a comprehensive re-evaluation of their role in the cause of disease. I illustrate this by highlighting how defects in AMPA receptor trafficking are important to Fragile X mental retardation and ectopic expression of kainate (KA) receptor synapses contributes to the pathology of temporal lobe epilepsy. Finally, I discuss how parallel advances in studies of other neurotransmitter systems may allow pharmacologists to work towards a cure for many CNS disorders rather than developing drugs to treat their symptoms. PMID:18537642

  18. Intracellular synthesis of glutamic acid in Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001, a glutamate-independent poly(γ-glutamic acid)-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingyun; Zhang, Tao; Mu, Wanmeng; Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo

    2016-01-15

    Bacillus methylotrophicus SK19.001 is a glutamate-independent strain that produces poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA), a polymer of D- and L-glutamic acids that possesses applications in food, the environment, agriculture, etc. This study was undertaken to explore the synthetic pathway of intracellular L- and D-glutamic acid in SK19.001 by investigating the effects of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and different amino acids as metabolic precursors on the production of γ-PGA and analyzing the activities of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of L- and D-glutamate. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and amino acids could participate in the synthesis of γ-PGA via independent pathways in SK19.001. L-Aspartate aminotransferase, L-glutaminase and L-glutamate synthase were the enzymatic sources of L-glutamate. Glutamate racemase was responsible for the formation of D-glutamate for the synthesis of γ-PGA, and the synthetase had stereoselectivity for glutamate substrate. The enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were investigated for the first time in the glutamate-independent γ-PGA-producing strain, and multiple enzymatic sources of L-glutamate were verified in SK19.001, which will benefit efforts to improve production of γ-PGA with metabolic engineering strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Cephalopod alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Rosario Fernández, M; Jörnvall, H; Moreno, A; Kaiser, R; Parés, X

    1993-08-16

    Octopus, squid and cuttle-fish organs were examined for alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Only one form was detectable, with properties typical of mammalian class III alcohol dehydrogenase. The corresponding protein was purified from octopus and enzymatically characterized. Ion-exchange and affinity chromatography produced a pure protein in excellent yield (73%) after 1600-fold purification. Enzymatic parameters with several substrates were similar to those for the human class III alcohol dehydrogenase, demonstrating a largely conserved function of the enzyme through wide lines of divergence covering vertebrates, cephalopods and bacteria. The results establish the universal occurrence of class III alcohol dehydrogenase and its strictly conserved functional properties in separate living forms. The absence of other alcohol dehydrogenases in cephalopods is compatible with the emergence of the ethanol-active class I type at a later stage, in lineages leading to vertebrates.

  20. [The PQQ-dehydrogenases. A novel example of bacterial quinoproteins].

    PubMed

    Flores-Encarnación, Marcos; Sánchez-Cuevas, Mariano; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The word "quinoprotein" describes four groups of different enzymes which have cofactors containing o-quinones. Pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (PQQ) is not covalently attached. PQQ is the cofactor of several quinoprotein bacterial dehydrogenases including glucose dehydrogenase (G-DH), alcohol dehydrogenase (A-DH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AL-DH). These dehydrogenases are located in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. This report summarises the structural properties of quinoprotein dehydrogenases, such as the biological functions and biotechnological aspects more important.

  1. Glutamate formation via the leucine-to-glutamate pathway of rat pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schachter, David; Buteau, Jean

    2014-06-01

    The leucine-to-glutamate (Leu→Glu) pathway, which metabolizes the carbon atoms of l-leucine to form l-glutamate, was studied by incubation of rat tissue segments with l-[U-(14)C]leucine and estimation of the [(14)C]glutamate formed. Metabolism of the leucine carbon chain occurs in most rat tissues, but maximal activity of the Leu→Glu pathway for glutamate formation is limited to the thoracic aorta and pancreas. In rat aorta, the Leu→Glu pathway functions to relax the underlying smooth muscle; its functions in the pancreas are unknown. This report characterizes the Leu→Glu pathway of rat pancreas and develops methods to examine its functions. Pancreatic segments effect net formation of glutamate on incubation with l-leucine, l-glutamine, or a mix of 18 other plasma amino acids at their concentrations in normal rat plasma. Glutamate formed from leucine remains mainly in the tissue, whereas that from glutamine enters the medium. The pancreatic Leu→Glu pathway uses the leucine carbons for net glutamate formation; the α-amino group is not used; the stoichiometry is as follows: 1 mol of leucine yields 2 mol of glutamate (2 leucine carbons per glutamate) plus 2 mol of CO2. Comparison of the Leu→Glu pathway in preparations of whole pancreatic segments, isolated acini, and islets of Langerhans localizes it in the acini; relatively high activity is found in cultures of the AR42J cell line and very little in the INS-1 832/13 cell line. Pancreatic tissue glutamate concentration is homeostatically regulated in the range of ∼1-3 μmol/g wet wt. l-Valine and leucine ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters inhibit the Leu→Glu pathway without decreasing tissue total glutamate.

  2. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was

  3. Structure and mechanism of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633, a member of the Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Zahniser, Megan P D; Prasad, Shreenath; Kneen, Malea M; Kreinbring, Cheryl A; Petsko, Gregory A; Ringe, Dagmar; McLeish, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida (PpBADH) belongs to the Class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family. The Class 3 ALDHs are unusual in that they are generally dimeric (rather than tetrameric), relatively non-specific and utilize both NAD+ and NADP+. To date, X-ray structures of three Class 3 ALDHs have been determined, of which only two have cofactor bound, both in the NAD+ form. Here we report the crystal structure of PpBADH in complex with NADP+ and a thioacyl intermediate adduct. The overall architecture of PpBADH resembles that of most other members of the ALDH superfamily, and the cofactor binding residues are well conserved. Conversely, the pattern of cofactor binding for the rat Class 3 ALDH differs from that of PpBADH and other ALDHs. This has been interpreted in terms of a different mechanism for the rat enzyme. Comparison with the PpBADH structure, as well as multiple sequence alignments, suggest that one of two conserved glutamates, at positions 215 (209 in rat) and 337 (333 in rat), would act as the general base necessary to hydrolyze the thioacyl intermediate. While the latter is the general base in the rat Class 3 ALDH, site-specific mutagenesis indicates that Glu215 is the likely candidate for PpBADH, a result more typical of the Class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Finally, this study shows that hydride transfer is not rate limiting, lending further credence to the suggestion that PpBADH is more similar to the Class 1 and 2 ALDHs than it is to other Class 3 ALDHs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  5. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  10. BI-07HYPERPOLARIZED [1-13C] GLUTAMATE: A METABOLIC IMAGING BIOMARKER OF IDH1 MUTATIONAL STATUS IN GLIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Chaumeil, Myriam; Larson, Peder; Woods, Sarah; Cai, Larry; Eriksson, Pia; Robinson, Aaron; Lupo, Janine; Vigneron, Daniel; Nelson, Sarah; Pieper, Russell; Phillips, Joanna; Ronen, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene are among the most prevalent in low-grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma, represent an early pathogenic event and are being considered a promising therapeutic target. Consequently, non-invasive imaging methods are needed to monitor IDH1 status. Amongst these, we previously demonstrated the use of 13C MR spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C] α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to non-invasively assess IDH1 status through the detection of the conversion of hyperpolarized α-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) catalyzed by mutant IDH1. Importantly, in addition to its oncogenic role, IDH1 mutation is also associated with global modulations in metabolism. Interestingly, a study recently uncovered a relationship between presence of IDH1 mutation and decreased activity of the branched chained amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) enzyme, which transaminates amino acids while converting α-KG to glutamate. Given this new study, we decided to expand on our previous findings and investigated the potential of hyperpolarized α-KG as an imaging probe to monitor BCAT1-driven α-KG-to-glutamate conversion and its modulation in the presence of IDH1 mutation. We investigated two isogenic glioblastoma lines that differed only in their IDH1 status, and performed experiments in live cells and in vivo in rat orthotopic tumors. Following injection of hyperpolarized α-KG, hyperpolarized glutamate production was detected both in cells and in vivo, and the level of hyperpolarized glutamate was significantly lower in mutant IDH1 cells and tumors compared to their IDH1-wild-type counterparts. Importantly however, the observed drop in hyperpolarized glutamate was likely mediated not only by a drop in BCAT1 activity, but also by reductions in aspartate transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting additional metabolic reprogramming at least in our model. Hyperpolarized glutamate could thus inform on multiple

  11. The Degradation of 14C-Glutamic Acid by L-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Charles M; Dayan, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Describes procedures and semi-micro reaction apparatus (carbon dioxide trap) to demonstrate how a particular enzyme (L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase) may be used to determine the site or sites of labeling in its substrate (carbon-14 labeled glutamic acid). Includes calculations, solutions, and reagents used. (Author/SK)

  12. Analysis of l-glutamic acid fermentation by using a dynamic metabolic simulation model of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the process of amino acid fermentation as a comprehensive system is a challenging task. Previously, we developed a literature-based dynamic simulation model, which included transcriptional regulation, transcription, translation, and enzymatic reactions related to glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the anaplerotic pathway of Escherichia coli. During simulation, cell growth was defined such as to reproduce the experimental cell growth profile of fed-batch cultivation in jar fermenters. However, to confirm the biological appropriateness of our model, sensitivity analysis and experimental validation were required. Results We constructed an l-glutamic acid fermentation simulation model by removing sucAB, a gene encoding α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. We then performed systematic sensitivity analysis for l-glutamic acid production; the results of this process corresponded with previous experimental data regarding l-glutamic acid fermentation. Furthermore, it allowed us to predicted the possibility that accumulation of 3-phosphoglycerate in the cell would regulate the carbon flux into the TCA cycle and lead to an increase in the yield of l-glutamic acid via fermentation. We validated this hypothesis through a fermentation experiment involving a model l-glutamic acid-production strain, E. coli MG1655 ΔsucA in which the phosphoglycerate kinase gene had been amplified to cause accumulation of 3-phosphoglycerate. The observed increase in l-glutamic acid production verified the biologically meaningful predictive power of our dynamic metabolic simulation model. Conclusions In this study, dynamic simulation using a literature-based model was shown to be useful for elucidating the precise mechanisms involved in fermentation processes inside the cell. Further exhaustive sensitivity analysis will facilitate identification of novel factors involved in the metabolic regulation of amino acid fermentation. PMID

  13. A Novel Amperometric Glutamate Biosensor Based on Glutamate Oxidase Adsorbed on Silicalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Kasap, B. Ozansoy; Kucherenko, D. Yu.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Kurc, B. Akata; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we developed a new amperometric biosensor for glutamate detection using a typical method of glutamate oxidase (GlOx) immobilization via adsorption on silicalite particles. The disc platinum electrode ( d = 0.4 mm) was used as the amperometric sensor. The procedure of biosensor preparation was optimized. The main parameters of modifying amperometric transducers with a silicalite layer were determined along with the procedure of GlOx adsorption on this layer. The biosensors based on GlOx adsorbed on silicalite demonstrated high sensitivity to glutamate. The linear range of detection was from 2.5 to 450 μM, and the limit of glutamate detection was 1 μM. It was shown that the proposed biosensors were characterized by good response reproducibility during hours of continuous work and operational stability for several days. The developed biosensors could be applied for determination of glutamate in real samples.

  14. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  15. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria. Physical, chemical, and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1976-06-25

    Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have been obtained in homogeneous state from asparagus mitochondria. They are flavin enzymes with 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have s20,w of 6.22 S, 6.39 S, and 5.91 S, respectively, and molecular weights of 111,000, 110,000, and 95,000 (sedimentation equilibrium) or 112,000, 112,000, and 92,000 (gel filtration). They are slightly acidic proteins with isoelectric points of 6.75, 5.75, and 6.80. Both asparagusate dehydrogenases catalyzed the reaction Asg(SH)2 + NAD+ equilibrium AsgS2 + NADH + H+ and exhibit lipoyl dehydrogenase and diaphorase activities. Lipoyl dehydrogenase is specific for lipoate and has no asparagusate dehydrogenase activity. NADP cannot replace NAD in any case. Optimum pH for substrate reduction of the three enzymes are near 5.9. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II have Km values of 21.5 mM and 20.0 mM for asparagusate and 3.0 mM and 3.3 mM for lipoate, respectively. Lipoyl dehydrogenase activity of asparagusate dehydrogenases is enhanced by NAD and surfactants such as lecithin and Tween 80, but asparagusate dehydrogenase activity is not enhanced. Asparagusate dehydrogenases are strongly inhibited by mercuric ion, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. Amino acid composition of the three enzymes is presented and discussed.

  16. Na+ dependent glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2, and EAAT3) in primary astrocyte cultures: effect of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Miralles, V J; Martínez-López, I; Zaragozá, R; Borrás, E; García, C; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R

    2001-12-13

    The Na+ -dependent L-glutamate transporters EAAT1(GLAST), EAAT2 (GLT-1) and EAAT3 (EAAC1) are expressed in primary astrocyte cultures, showing that the EAAT3 transporter is not neuron-specific. The presence of these three transporters was evaluated by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunocytochemical techniques, and transport activity. When primary astrocyte cultures were incubated with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the GSH concentration was significantly lower than in control cultures, but the expression and amount of protein of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 and transport of L-glutamate was unchanged. Oxidative stress was created by adding H(2)O(2) or tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (t-bOOH) to the primary astrocyte cultures and cell damage was evaluated by measuring activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Under oxidative stress, GSH levels were significantly lower than in control astrocytes; but the expression and the amount of protein of the three transporters remained unchanged. However, L-glutamate uptake was significantly lower in astrocytes under oxidative conditions when compared to controls. L-Glutamate uptake was not changed in the presence of ascorbate, but was partially recovered in the presence of DTT and GSH ethyl ester. This report emphasizes that oxidative stress and not GSH depletion alters transporter activity without changing transporter expression.

  17. Modular pathway engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of the glutamate-derived compounds ornithine, proline, putrescine, citrulline, and arginine.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jaide V K; Eberhardt, Dorit; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-11-20

    The glutamate-derived bioproducts ornithine, citrulline, proline, putrescine, and arginine have applications in the food and feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Corynebacterium glutamicum is not only an excellent producer of glutamate but also of glutamate-derived products. Here, engineering targets beneficial for ornithine production were identified and the advantage of rationally constructing a platform strain for the production of the amino acids citrulline, proline, and arginine, and the diamine putrescine was demonstrated. Feedback alleviation of N-acetylglutamate kinase, tuning of the promoter of glutamate dehydrogenase gene gdh, lowering expression of phosphoglucoisomerase gene pgi, along with the introduction of a second copy of the arginine biosynthesis operon argCJB(A49V,M54V)D into the chromosome resulted in a C. glutamicum strain producing ornithine with a yield of 0.52 g ornithine per g glucose, an increase of 71% as compared to the parental ΔargFRG strain. Strains capable of producing 0.41 g citrulline per g glucose, 0.29 g proline per g glucose, 0.30 g arginine per g glucose, and 0.17 g putrescine per g glucose were derived from the ornithine-producing platform strain by plasmid-based overexpression of appropriate pathway modules with one to three genes.

  18. Glutamate Metabolism in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Chadi G.; Jiang, Lihong; De Feyter, Henk M.; Fasula, Madonna; Krystal, John H.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Mason, Graeme F.; Sanacora, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests abnormalities in amino acid neurotransmitter function and impaired energy metabolism contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). To test whether impairments in energetics and glutamate neurotransmitter cycling are present in MDD we used in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C MRS) to measure these fluxes in individuals diagnosed with MDD relative to non-depressed subjects. Method 1H MRS and 13C MRS data were collected on 23 medication-free MDD and 17 healthy subjects. 1H MRS provided total glutamate and GABA concentrations, and 13C MRS, coupled with intravenous infusion of [1-13C]-glucose, provided measures of the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle (VTCAN) for mitochondrial energy production, GABA synthesis, and glutamate/glutamine cycling, from voxels placed in the occipital cortex. Results Our main finding was that mitochondrial energy production of glutamatergic neurons was reduced by 26% in MDD subjects (t = 2.57, p = 0.01). Paradoxically we found no difference in the rate of glutamate/glutamine cycle (Vcycle). We also found a significant correlation between glutamate concentrations and Vcycle considering the total sample. Conclusions We interpret the reduction in mitochondrial energy production as being due to either mitochondrial dysfunction or a reduction in proper neuronal input or synaptic strength. Future MRS studies could help distinguish these possibilities. PMID:25073688

  19. Characterization of a plant glutamate receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Teardo, Enrico; Segalla, Anna; Formentin, Elide; Zanetti, Manuela; Marin, Oriano; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Zoratti, Mario; Szabò, Ildikò

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatic approaches have allowed the identification of twenty genes, grouped into three subfamilies, encoding for homologues of animal ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLRs) in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. Indirect evidence suggests that plant iGLRs function as non-selective cation channels. In the present work we provide biochemical and electrophysiological evidences for the chloroplast localization of glutamate receptor(s) of family 3 (iGLR3) in spinach. A specific antibody, recognizing putative receptors of family 3 locates iGLR3 to the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. In planar lipid bilayer experiments, purified inner envelope vesicles from spinach display a cation-selective electrophysiological activity which is inhibited by DNQX (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione), considered to act as an inhibitor on both animal and plant iGLRs. These results identify for the first time the intracellular localization of plant glutamate receptor(s) and a DNQX-sensitive, glutamate-gated activity at single channel level in native membrane with properties compatible with those predicted for plant glutamate receptors. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Prospects for robust biocatalysis: engineering of novel specificity in a halophilic amino acid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Nayla; Engel, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Heat- and solvent-tolerant enzymes from halophiles, potentially important industrially, offer a robust framework for protein engineering, but few solved halophilic structures exist to guide this. Homology modelling has guided mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Halobacterium salinarum to emulate conversion of a mesophilic GDH to a methionine dehydrogenase. Replacement of K89, A163 and S367 by leucine, glycine and alanine converted halophilic GDH into a dehydrogenase accepting L-methionine, L-norleucine and L-norvaline as substrates. Over-expression in the halophilic expression host Haloferax volcanii and three-step purification gave ~98 % pure protein exhibiting maximum activity at pH 10. This enzyme also showed enhanced thermostability and organic solvent tolerance even at 70 °C, offering a biocatalyst resistant to harsh industrial environments. To our knowledge, this is the first reported amino acid specificity change engineered in a halophilic enzyme, encouraging use of mesophilic models to guide engineering of novel halophilic biocatalysts for industrial application. Calibrated gel filtration experiments show that both the mutant and the wild-type enzyme are stable hexamers.

  1. Presynaptic glutamate receptors: physiological functions and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Mulle, Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Glutamate acts on postsynaptic glutamate receptors to mediate excitatory communication between neurons. The discovery that additional presynaptic glutamate receptors can modulate neurotransmitter release has added complexity to the way we view glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we review evidence of a physiological role for presynaptic glutamate receptors in neurotransmitter release. We compare the physiological roles of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in short- and long-term regulation of synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we discuss the physiological conditions that are necessary for their activation, the source of the glutamate that activates them, their mechanisms of action and their involvement in higher brain function.

  2. Monitoring of the velocity of high-affinity glutamate uptake by isolated brain nerve terminals using amperometric glutamate biosensor.

    PubMed

    Soldatkin, O; Nazarova, A; Krisanova, N; Borуsov, A; Kucherenko, D; Kucherenko, I; Pozdnyakova, N; Soldatkin, A; Borisova, T

    2015-04-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, which is involved in the main aspects of normal brain functioning. High-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters is key proteins, which transport extracellular glutamate to the cytoplasm of nerve cells, thereby preventing continuous activation of glutamate receptors, and thus the development of neurotoxicity. Disturbance in glutamate uptake is involved in the pathogenesis of major neurological disorders. Amperometric biosensors are the most promising and successful among electrochemical biosensors. In this study, we developed (1) amperometric glutamate biosensor, (2) methodological approach for the analysis of glutamate uptake in liquid samples of isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). The basal level of glutamate, the initial velocity of glutamate uptake and time-dependent accumulation of glutamate by synaptosomes were determined using developed glutamate biosensor. Comparative analysis of the data with those obtained by radioactive analysis, spectrofluorimetry and ion exchange chromatography was performed. Therefore, the methodological approach for monitoring of the velocity of glutamate uptake, which takes into consideration the definite level of endogenous glutamate in nerve terminals, was developed using glutamate biosensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Examination of Initial Amino Acid Oxidation and Glutamate Catabolism in the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis

    PubMed Central

    Yokooji, Yuusuke; Sato, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid catabolism in Thermococcales is presumed to proceed via three steps: oxidative deamination of amino acids by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) or aminotransferases, oxidative decarboxylation by 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases (KOR), and hydrolysis of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) by ADP-forming acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS). Here, we performed a genetic examination of enzymes involved in Glu catabolism in Thermococcus kodakarensis. Examination of amino acid dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of T. kodakarensis KUW1 (ΔpyrF ΔtrpE) revealed high NADP-dependent GDH activity, along with lower levels of NAD-dependent activity. NADP-dependent activities toward Gln/Ala/Val/Cys and an NAD-dependent threonine dehydrogenase activity were also detected. In KGDH1, a gene disruption strain of T. kodakarensis GDH (Tk-GDH), only threonine dehydrogenase activity was detected, indicating that all other activities were dependent on Tk-GDH. KGDH1 could not grow in a medium in which growth was dependent on amino acid catabolism, implying that Tk-GDH is the only enzyme that can discharge the electrons (to NADP+/NAD+) released from amino acids in their oxidation to 2-oxoacids. In a medium containing excess pyruvate, KGDH1 displayed normal growth, but higher degrees of amino acid catabolism were observed compared to those for KUW1, suggesting that Tk-GDH functions to suppress amino acid oxidation and plays an anabolic role under this condition. We further constructed disruption strains of 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and succinyl-CoA synthetase. The two strains displayed growth defects in both media compared to KUW1. Succinate generation was not observed in these strains, indicating that the two enzymes are solely responsible for Glu catabolism among the multiple KOR and ACS enzymes in T. kodakarensis. PMID:23435976

  4. Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-07-10

    Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP/sup +/, but also with NAD/sup +/. The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP/sup +/ and NAD/sup +/ are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skin on the palms and soles (hand-foot syndrome); shortness of breath; and hair loss may also ... dehydrogenase deficiency , with its early-onset neurological symptoms, is a rare disorder. Its prevalence is ...

  6. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  7. Towards a glutamate hypothesis of depression

    PubMed Central

    Sanacora, Gerard; Treccani, Giulia; Popoli, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Half a century after the first formulation of the monoamine hypothesis, compelling evidence implies that long-term changes in an array of brain areas and circuits mediating complex cognitive-emotional behaviors represent the biological underpinnings of mood/anxiety disorders. A large number of clinical studies suggest that pathophysiology is associated with dysfunction of the predominant glutamatergic system, malfunction in the mechanisms regulating clearance and metabolism of glutamate, and cytoarchitectural/morphological maladaptive changes in a number of brain areas mediating cognitive-emotional behaviors. Concurrently, a wealth of data from animal models have shown that different types of environmental stress enhance glutamate release/transmission in limbic/cortical areas and exert powerful structural effects, inducing dendritic remodeling, reduction of synapses and possibly volumetric reductions resembling those observed in depressed patients. Because a vast majority of neurons and synapses in these areas and circuits use glutamate as neurotransmitter, it would be limiting to maintain that glutamate is in some way ‘involved’ in mood/anxiety disorders; rather it should be recognized that the glutamatergic system is a primary mediator of psychiatric pathology and, potentially, also a final common pathway for the therapeutic action of antidepressant agents. A paradigm shift from a monoamine hypothesis of depression to a neuroplasticity hypothesis focused on glutamate may represent a substantial advancement in the working hypothesis that drives research for new drugs and therapies. Importantly, despite the availability of multiple classes of drugs with monoamine-based mechanisms of action, there remains a large percentage of patients who fail to achieve a sustained remission of depressive symptoms. The unmet need for improved pharmacotherapies for treatment-resistant depression means there is a large space for the development of new compounds with novel

  8. Hetero-oligomerization of neuronal glutamate transporters.

    PubMed

    Nothmann, Doreen; Leinenweber, Ariane; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Kovermann, Peter; Hotzy, Jasmin; Gameiro, Armanda; Grewer, Christof; Fahlke, Christoph

    2011-02-04

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) mediate the uptake of glutamate into neuronal and glial cells of the mammalian central nervous system. Two transporters expressed primarily in glia, EAAT1 and EAAT2, are crucial for glutamate homeostasis in the adult mammalian brain. Three neuronal transporters (EAAT3, EAAT4, and EAAT5) appear to have additional functions in regulating and processing cellular excitability. EAATs are assembled as trimers, and the existence of multiple isoforms raises the question of whether certain isoforms can form hetero-oligomers. Co-expression and pulldown experiments of various glutamate transporters showed that EAAT3 and EAAT4, but neither EAAT1 and EAAT2, nor EAAT2 and EAAT3 are capable of co-assembling into heterotrimers. To study the functional consequences of hetero-oligomerization, we co-expressed EAAT3 and the serine-dependent mutant R501C EAAT4 in HEK293 cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied glutamate/serine transport and anion conduction using electrophysiological methods. Individual subunits transport glutamate independently of each other. Apparent substrate affinities are not affected by hetero-oligomerization. However, polarized localization in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was different for homo- and hetero-oligomers. EAAT3 inserts exclusively into apical membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells when expressed alone. Co-expression with EAAT4 results in additional appearance of basolateral EAAT3. Our results demonstrate the existence of heterotrimeric glutamate transporters and provide novel information about the physiological impact of EAAT oligomerization.

  9. Combining Ca2+ imaging with -glutamate photorelease

    PubMed Central

    Canepari, Marco; De Waard, Michel; Ogden, David

    2013-01-01

    We describe simple configurations and methods to measure optical Ca2+ signals in response to photorelease of L-glutamate. This photostimulation allows activation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors without activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels permitting the separation and the analysis of different Ca2+ components. We give details of basic microscopy configurations and of tools to efficiently illuminate the preparation while preserving the healthy conditions of the tissues. We also suggest methodological procedures and we discuss protocols of linear optics to achieve simultaneous imaging and uncaging in relation to protocols using two photon illumination. PMID:24298028

  10. Arsenite release on enzymic transformation of arsonomethyl substrate analogues: a potentially lethal synthesis by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mutenda, E K; Sparkes, M J; Dixon, H B

    1995-09-15

    The isosteric arsenical analogue of glycerol 3-phosphate, 3,4-dihydroxybutylarsonic acid, is a good substrate for rabbit muscle glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Its oxidation is accompanied by release of arsenite. This release seems to be due to a spontaneous elimination of arsenite by 3-oxoalkylarsonic acids, as it is also observed in (1) the oxidation of 3-hydroxypropylarsonic acid by yeast alcohol dehydrogenase, (2) treatment of 3,4-dihydroxybutylarsonic acid with periodate and (3) nonenzymic transamination of the glutamate analogue 2-amino-4-arsonobutyric acid. Enzymic formation of 3-oxoalkylarsonic acids in cells can therefore be lethal, as arsenite is poisonous to most organisms because of its high affinity for dithiols such as dihydrolipoyl groups.

  11. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Ghishan, Fayez-K; Bai, Liqun

    2005-03-28

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas, skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestive system have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  12. Artifactual Depression of Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase by Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Rissing, J. Peter; Newman, Cheryl; Moore, William L.

    1978-01-01

    Eighteen patients developed abnormally low serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase values during metronidazole therapy. Metronidazole absorbs at 340 nm, simulating reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which is the final colorimetric product of the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase assay. PMID:214030

  13. Self-assembled CNTs/CdS/dehydrogenase hybrid-based amperometric biosensor triggered by photovoltaic effect.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longhua; Zhu, Yihua; Yang, Xiaoling; Sun, Jinjie; Li, Chunzhong

    2008-10-15

    A novel multi-components hybrid material, self-assembled quantum dots (CdS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) onto multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs), was designed for amperometric biosensing system. The zeta-potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses confirmed the uniform growth of the CdS/GDH onto carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. Compared with the single CdS, the resulting hybrid material showed more efficient generation of photocurrent upon illumination. The incident light excites CdS and generates charge carriers, and then CNTs facilitates the charge transfer. For dehydrogenase-based biosensor, normally, the cofactor of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) or beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+)) is necessary. Furthermore, we found the photovoltaic effect of CNTs/CdS/GDH can trigger the dehydrogenase enzymatic reaction in the absence of the NAD(+) or NADP(+) cofactors. The electrochemical experiment results also demonstrate that the cofactor-independent dehydrogenase biosensing system had series attractive characteristics, such as a good sensitivity (11.9 nA/microM), lower detection limit (up to 50 nM), an acceptable reproducibility and stability. These studies aid in understanding the combination of the semiconductor nanohybrids (CNTs/QDs, etc.) and biomolecules (enzymes, etc.), which has potential for the applications in biosensor, biofuel cell, biomedical and other bioelectronics field.

  14. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Reas; Krishnakumar, Amee; Paulose, C S

    2008-01-01

    The potential for antiepileptic drugs to negatively impact cognitive abilities has generated renewed interest in herbal drugs and formulations in the treatment of epilepsy. Bacopa monnieri is one such widely used revitalizing herb that purportedly strengthens nervous function and also possesses memory-enhancing, antioxidative, antiepileptic, and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in alteration of glutamate receptor binding and gene expression of NMDA R1 in hippocampus of temporal lobe epileptic rats. In association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy, there was significant downregulation of NMDA R1 gene expression and glutamate receptor binding without any change in its affinity. B. monnieri treatment of epileptic rats significantly reversed the expression of NMDA R1 and glutamate receptor binding alterations to near-control levels. Also, in the epileptic rats, we measured a significant increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which neared the control level after B. monnieri treatment. The therapeutic effect of B. monnieri was also observed in the Morris water maze experiment. These data together indicate the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity during seizures and cognitive damage occurring in association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

  15. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immobilization of Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles through thermal polymerization of acrylamide on glassy carbon electrode for highly stable and sensitive glutamate detection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huicheng; Ma, Zhenzhen; Wu, Zhaoyang

    2015-10-08

    The preparation of a persistently stable and sensitive biosensor is highly important for practical applications. To improve the stability and sensitivity of glutamate sensors, an electrode modified with glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles was developed using the thermal polymerization of acrylamide (AM) to immobilize the synthesized Ni-Pd/core-shell nanoparticles onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical data showed that the prepared biosensor had remarkably enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward glutamate. Moreover, superior reproducibility and excellent stability were observed (relative average deviation was 2.96% after continuous use of the same sensor for 60 times, and current responses remained at 94.85% of the initial value after 60 d). The sensor also demonstrated highly sensitive amperometric detection of glutamate with a low limit of detection (0.052 μM, S/N = 3), high sensitivity (4.768 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)), and a wide, useful linear range (0.1-500 μM). No interference from potential interfering species such as l-cysteine, ascorbic acid, and l-aspartate were noted. The determination of glutamate levels in actual samples achieved good recovery percentages.

  17. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  1. Ceftriaxone restores glutamate homeostasis and prevents relapse to cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, Lori A; Melendez, Roberto I; Kalivas, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    The cystine-glutamate exchanger is downregulated after chronic cocaine, resulting in reduced extracellular levels of nucleus accumbens glutamate. The importance of cocaine-induced loss of glutamate homeostasis is revealed by N-acetylcysteine restoring cystine-glutamate exchange and attenuating reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Another regulator of extracellular glutamate is the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1. We hypothesized that cocaine self-administration reduces GLT-1 and that GLT-1 upregulation inhibits cocaine seeking. We measured [(3)H] glutamate uptake and protein expression of GLT-1 and xCT, the catalytic subunit of the cystine-glutamate exchanger, following cocaine self-administration and 3 weeks of extinction training. We also examined the affect of ceftriaxone (previously shown to increase GLT-1) and N-acetylcysteine treatment on the expression of GLT-1 and xCT. Ceftriaxone was also tested for the capacity to inhibit cue- and cocaine-induced relapse. Cocaine self-administration reduced glutamate uptake and the expression of both GLT-1 and xCT. Ceftriaxone restored GLT-1 and xCT levels and prevented cue- and cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. N-acetylcysteine also restored GLT-1 and xCT levels. These results indicate that glutamate transport and cystine-glutamate exchange may be coregulated and provide further evidence that targeting glutamate homeostasis is a potential method for treating cocaine relapse.

  2. Localization of L-glutamate and glutamate-like receptors at the squid giant synapse.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, A; Nardi, G; Di Cristo, C; De Santis, A; Messenger, J B

    1999-08-28

    HPLC analysis of the amino acid contents of the second- and third-order giant fibres at the giant synapse in the stellate ganglion of the squid Loligo vulgaris shows that there are significantly higher amounts of L-glutamate and L-aspartate in the second-order (presynaptic) fibre than in the third-order (postsynaptic) fibre. Immunocytochemical staining of sections of the ganglion with an antibody raised against L-glutamate produces specific positive staining in the synaptic region of the second-order fibre. In contrast, staining with antibodies raised against glutamate-receptors (mammalian GluR1 with GluR2/3) produces positive staining in the third-order fibre at the postsynaptic region. These data provide further evidence for the hypothesis that L-glutamate is an excitatory transmitter at the giant synapse.

  3. 21 CFR 182.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 182.1500 Section 182.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 582.1516 Section 582.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 182.1516 Section 182.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1516 Monopotassium...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 182.1500 Section 182.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 582.1500 Section 582.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 582.1500 Section 582.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 582.1500 Section 582.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 182.1516 Section 182.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  11. 21 CFR 182.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 182.1500 Section 182.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 182.1516 Section 182.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 582.1516 Section 582.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monoammonium glutamate. 182.1500 Section 182.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monopotassium glutamate. 182.1516 Section 182.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 582.1516 Section 582.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 582.1500 Section 582.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  18. 21 CFR 182.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 182.1516 Section 182.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1516 - Monopotassium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monopotassium glutamate. 582.1516 Section 582.1516 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1500 - Monoammonium glutamate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monoammonium glutamate. 182.1500 Section 182.1500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1500 Monoammonium...