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Sample records for nadh-diaphorase positive myenteric

  1. Alteration of NADH-diaphorase and cytochrome b5 reductase activities of erythrocytes, platelets, and leucocytes in hereditary methaemoglobinaemia with and without mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, M; Matsuki, T; Tanishima, K; Yubisui, T; Yoneyama, Y; Kurata, K; Hara, N; Igarashi, T

    1982-01-01

    NADH-diaphorase and cytochrome b5 reductase activities of platelets and leucocytes, as well as erythrocytes, were found to be deficient in a patient with hereditary methaemoglobinaemia associated with moderate mental retardation and non-progressive neurological disturbance, in which hyperactive reflexes and involuntary movements were notable. In another methaemoglobinaemic patient with no mental or neurological abnormalities, these enzyme activities were defective in erythrocytes but normal in platelets and leucocytes. The first case was a generalised cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency with non-progressive encephalopathy. It is suggested that the detection of cytochrome b5 reductase activity in platelets, in addition to that in leucocytes, is useful for the assessment of a generalised enzyme defect. Genetical involvement of the present cases is discussed in association with the diaphorase gene loci in humans. PMID:6896729

  2. Long pulse gastric electrical stimulation induces regeneration of myenteric plexus synaptic vesicles in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Liu, S; Guan, Y; Qian, W; du, F; Hou, X

    2010-04-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) may improve delayed gastric emptying in diabetic gastroparesis, but whether enteric nervous system (ENS) is directly involved in its mechanism of improvement in gastric motility is unclear. The aims were to investigate the correlation between the changes in ENS and effects of long pulse GES on them in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate changes of myenteric plexus neurons and synaptic vesicles in different stages of the diabetic rats. The effects of GES were detected by same methods after pacing wires were implanted and then diabetes was induced and followed by long pulse GES. Since 6 weeks after STZ injection, the nerve fibres were incompact and synaptic vesicles in myenteric neurons reduced. Furthermore, the myenteric neurons showed severe damage such as partial depletion of the axon, swelling of mitochondria and seriously decreased synaptic vesicles in 12 weeks after STZ injection. The synaptophysin and PGP9.5-positive area and expressions of synaptophysin mRNA and protein decreased with the duration of diabetes. Long pulse GES could induce increase of myenteric neuronal synaptic vesicles, synaptophysin and PGP9.5-positive area and in myenteric plexus. The synaptophysin mRNA and protein expression rose after GES, whatever GES beginning early or late, short-term or long-term. The longer duration of diabetes, the more significant damages to myenteric neurons and synaptic vesicles of diabetic rats; long pulse GES could induce regeneration of myenteric plexus synaptic vesicles, thereby reform gastric motility.

  3. ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons: co-existence and co-absence.

    PubMed

    Beck, Martin; Schlabrakowski, Anne; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2009-10-01

    Most myenteric neurons contain one of the two generating enzymes for major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Two minor groups of myenteric neurons contain either both enzymes or neither. Our study had two aims: (1) to compare the proportions of neurons stained for ChAT and/or NOS in human small and large intestinal whole-mounts by co-staining with an antibody against the human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU); (2) to characterize these neurons morphologically by co-staining with a neurofilament (NF) antibody. In small intestinal whole-mounts co-stained with HU, we counted more ChAT-positive (ChAT+) than NOS+ neurons (52% vs. 38%), whereas the large intestine exhibited fewer ChAT+ than NOS+ neurons (38% vs. 50%). Neurons co-reactive for both ChAT and NOS accounted for about 3% in both regions, whereas neurons negative for both enzymes accounted for 7% in the small intestine and 8% in the large intestine. Co-staining with NF revealed that, in both small and large intestine, ChAT+/NOS+ neurons were either spiny (type I) neurons or displayed smaller perikarya that were weakly or not NF-stained. Of all spiny neurons, almost one third was co-reactive for ChAT and NOS, whereas nearly two thirds were positive only for NOS. Neurons negative for both ChAT and NOS were heterogeneous in size and NF reactivity. Thus, neither the co-existence nor the co-absence of ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons is indicative for particular neuron types, with several qualitative and quantitative parameters showing a wide range of interindividual variability.

  4. Mechanical stress activates neurites and somata of myenteric neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Eva M.; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E.; Ceyhan, Güralp O.; Schemann, Michael; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The particular location of myenteric neurons, sandwiched between the 2 muscle layers of the gut, implies that their somata and neurites undergo mechanical stress during gastrointestinal motility. Existence of mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) is undoubted but many of their basic features remain to be studied. In this study, we used ultra-fast neuroimaging to record activity of primary cultured myenteric neurons of guinea pig and human intestine after von Frey hair evoked deformation of neurites and somata. Independent component analysis was applied to reconstruct neuronal morphology and follow neuronal signals. Of the cultured neurons 45% (114 out of 256, 30 guinea pigs) responded to neurite probing with a burst spike frequency of 13.4 Hz. Action potentials generated at the stimulation site invaded the soma and other neurites. Mechanosensitive sites were expressed across large areas of neurites. Many mechanosensitive neurites appeared to have afferent and efferent functions as those that responded to deformation also conducted spikes coming from the soma. Mechanosensitive neurites were also activated by nicotine application. This supported the concept of multifunctional MEN. 14% of the neurons (13 out of 96, 18 guinea pigs) responded to soma deformation with burst spike discharge of 17.9 Hz. Firing of MEN adapted rapidly (RAMEN), slowly (SAMEN), or ultra-slowly (USAMEN). The majority of MEN showed SAMEN behavior although significantly more RAMEN occurred after neurite probing. Cultured myenteric neurons from human intestine had similar properties. Compared to MEN, dorsal root ganglion neurons were activated by neurite but not by soma deformation with slow adaptation of firing. We demonstrated that MEN exhibit specific features very likely reflecting adaptation to their specialized functions in the gut. PMID:26441520

  5. Effects of oxaliplatin on mouse myenteric neurons and colonic motility

    PubMed Central

    Wafai, Linah; Taher, Mohammadali; Jovanovska, Valentina; Bornstein, Joel C.; Dass, Crispin R.; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2013-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, an anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, commonly causes gastrointestinal side-effects such as constipation, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. Damage to enteric neurons may underlie some of these gastrointestinal side-effects, as the enteric nervous system (ENS) controls functions of the bowel. In this study, neuronal loss and changes to the structure and immunoreactivity of myenteric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) neurons were examined in colonic segments from mice following exposure to oxaliplatin ex vivo and following repeated intraperitoneal injections of oxaliplatin over 3 weeks in vivo, using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Significant morphological alterations and increases in the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were associated with both short-term oxaliplatin exposure and long-term oxaliplatin administration, confirming that oxaliplatin causes changes to the myenteric neurons. Long-term oxaliplatin administration induced substantial neuronal loss that was correlated with a reduction in both the frequency and propagation speed of colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) in vitro. Similar changes probably produce some symptoms experienced by patients undergoing oxaliplatin treatment. PMID:23486839

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of calcium binding proteins and some neurotransmitters in myenteric plexus of goat stomach

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Young Sam

    2006-01-01

    To understand the neurochemical properties of the gastric myenteric plexus of ruminants, the expression patterns of calbindin D-28k (CB), calretinin (CR), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were explored in the Korean native goat. In gastric myenteric plexus, CB and SP immunoreactivity were observed in round- or oval-shaped neurons. CR and CGRP immunoreactivity were detected only in the nerve fibers. This immunohistochemical localization of CB, CR, CGRP and SP in the myenteric plexus of the goat stomach exhibited species-specific patterns. These findings suggest that these substances may be directly or indirectly related to the gastric functions of the goat stomach. PMID:17106220

  7. Myenteric ganglia from the adult guinea-pig small-intestine in tissue-culture.

    PubMed

    Hanani, M; Xia, Y; Wood, J D

    1994-06-01

    Myenteric ganglia dissociated from the small intestine of adult guinea-pigs survived in long-term culture (1-2 months) and progressed to structural organization resembling the myenteric plexus in situ. Developmental changes were similar to cultures derived from neonatal intestine. After one week, the neurons gathered into clusters on a glial cell carpet. Processes from the neurons branched and ramified over the glial substrate. As the cultures matured, the processes joined into tracts and the neurons and glia formed compact aggregates reminiscent of ganglia interconnected by fibre bundles. Injection of dye revealed characteristic Dogiel I and II neuronal morphology. Electrical recording identified electrical and synaptic behaviour comparable to intact myenteric plexus, longitudinal muscle preparations, except slow synaptic excitation was absent. Pharmacological responses to forskolin and 5-hydroxytryptamine were essentially the same as in freshly dissected preparations. Lucifer yellow injected into single glial cells spread to a broad population indicative of the dye coupling found among glia in the myenteric plexus in situ. The results suggest that adult myenteric ganglia in culture are a useful model for investigation of aspects of enteric neurobiology including: (a) formation of connections in microcircuits; (b) cellular neurophysiology of enteric neurons; (c) neuropharmacology; and (4) cell biology of neuronal-glial interactions in the myenteric plexus.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide provokes acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, M.; Tsai, L.H.; Taniyama, K.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from longitudinal muscle strips with myenteric plexus (LM) preparations were examined in the guinea pig small intestine. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of LM preparation. The VIP-induced contractions seem to be related to three components, the scopolamine-sensitive, the scopolamine-insensitive, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, and the tetrodotoxin-insensitive contractions. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the release of (TH)ACh from LM preparations preloaded with (TH)choline. The VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was inhibited by removal of CaS from the perfusion medium and by treatmentmore » with tetrodotoxin but not by scopolamine and hexamethonium. The spontaneous and VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was not affected by phentolamine, propranolol, methysergide, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, bicuculline, or (D-ProS, D-Trp/sup 7,9/)substance P. The result demonstrates that VIP induces contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle directly and indirectly by the stimulation of both cholinergic neurons and noncholinergic excitatory neurons.« less

  9. Luteinizing hormone receptors are expressed in rat myenteric neurons and mediate neuronal loss.

    PubMed

    Sand, Elin; Voss, Ulrikke; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ekblad, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Clinical observations have suggested repeated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) exposure to cause intestinal dysfunction and loss of enteric neurons. This has been further studied and confirmed in a rat in vivo model involving iterated GnRH treatments. Mechanisms behind are enigmatic since no GnRH receptors are found to be expressed in enteric neurons neither in man nor rat. Both species, however, harbor substantial subpopulations of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor-immunoreactive myenteric neurons which suggests that intestinal GnRH-induced neuropathy may be mediated by LH release. To reveal if exposures of GnRH or LH to rat myenteric neurons in vitro cause neuronal loss. Primary cultured adult rat myenteric neurons were exposed to single or repeated treatments of the GnRH analog buserelin or the LH analog lutrotropin alpha, and neuronal survival was determined by cell counting. Possible presence of GnRH- or LH receptor -immunoreactive neurons was determined by immunocytochemistry. Exposure to the LH, but not the GnRH, analog caused significantly reduced neuronal survival. LH, but not GnRH, receptors were found to be expressed on cultured myenteric neurons. Myenteric neurons express LH receptors in vitro and LH exposure causes reduced neuronal survival. This suggests that GnRH-induced enteric neuropathy in vivo is mediated by way of LH release and activation of enteric neuronal LH receptors.

  10. Myenteric ganglionitis as a cause of recurrent colic in an adult horse.

    PubMed

    Blake, Karen R; Affolter, Verena K; Lowenstine, Linda J; Vilches-Moure, Jose G; le Jeune, Sarah S

    2012-06-15

    A 10-year-old Lipizzaner stallion was evaluated over the course of 1.5 years because of intermittent, recurrent colic. The horse was initially treated medically for gastric ulcers; dietary changes were made, and a deworming protocol was instituted, without resolution of colic episodes. Subsequently, the horse underwent exploratory celiotomy and a large colon volvulus was identified with diffuse colonic wall thickening. A pelvic flexure biopsy sample was submitted for histologic examination, which revealed lymphocytic (CD3-positive T cells) myenteric ganglionitis (MG). The horse developed a cecal impaction after surgery, which did not resolve, despite aggressive medical management; subsequently a complete cecal bypass was performed. Cecal and colonic wall biopsy samples were evaluated histologically and confirmed the diagnosis of MG. After surgery, the horse developed a large colon impaction, which initially responded to aggressive medical treatment, and the horse was discharged. Despite rigorous feed restrictions and prokinetic and corticosteroid treatment, the horse continued to have signs of colic and was euthanized 3 weeks after discharge from the hospital because of a recurrent large colon impaction. Intestinal biopsy samples obtained at the time of death revealed chronic changes in intramural ganglia consistent with generalized MG. MG is a rare disease in horses, causing gastrointestinal motility dysfunction and signs of colic, which is challenging to diagnose and treat successfully. Further studies are needed to identify the etiology of this disease and to explore treatment options.

  11. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Megacolon Illustrates How Myenteric Neurons Modulate the Risk for Colon Cancer in Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kannen, Vinicius; de Oliveira, Enio C.; Motta, Bruno Zene; Chaguri, Annuar Jose; Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Garcia, Sérgio B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infected patients and rats. Methods Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards. Results No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas’ megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research. PMID:25884710

  12. Submucous rather than myenteric neurons are activated by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Buhner, S; Li, Q; Berger, T; Vignali, S; Barbara, G; De Giorgio, R; Stanghellini, V; Schemann, M

    2012-12-01

    We previously showed that colonic mucosal biopsy supernatants from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) activate neurons of the human submucous plexus, an area with densely packed immune cells. Based on the concept that mucosa-nerve signaling is altered in IBS, we tested in this study whether the nerve sensitizing effect of IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants is more prominent in the submucous than myenteric plexus. Fast neuroimaging with the voltage-sensitive dye Di-8-ANEPPS was used to record activity of guinea-pig submucous and myenteric neurons after application of constipation (C)- and diarrhea (D)-IBS supernatants (three each) and four supernatants from healthy control subjects. Results are based on recordings from 4731 neurons. Control supernatants did not evoke significant responses in submucous or myenteric neurons. In contrast, all IBS supernatants evoked a significant spike discharge (median 3.6 Hz) in 46% of submucous neurons. This activation was significantly stronger than in the myenteric plexus where even twice the amount of supernatants evoked a lower spike frequency (median 2.1Hz) in only 8.5% of neurons. Pharmacological studies revealed serotonin, histamine, and proteases as components mediating neuronal activation. Individual application of these components revealed that only serotonin evoked a significantly stronger activation of submucous compared with myenteric neurons. Direct neuronal activation by IBS mucosal biopsy supernatants is primarily a feature of submucous rather than myenteric neurons. This is associated with a stronger excitation of submucous neurons by serotonin. The plexus-specific effects support the concept that altered mucosa-nerve signaling underlies disturbances in IBS. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii: myenteric neurons of intraperitoneally inoculated rats show quantitative and morphometric alterations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lilia Simeire; Sartori, Ana Lúcia; Zaniolo, Larissa Marchi; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales; Araújo, Eduardo José de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the myenteric plexus experiences quantitative and morphometric changes in rats inoculated orally with Toxoplasma gondii. This paper aims to verify if these alterations are also seen when the same animals are inoculated intraperitoneally with the parasite. In order to do that, six Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) 60 days of age were infected intraperitoneally with 10(6) tachyzoites of a genotype I T. gondii strain (BTU IV). After 60 days, the animals were anaesthetised and underwent laparotomy. All organs from the small and large intestines were removed, measured, dissected and underwent whole-mount Giemsa technique to stain the neurons in the myenteric plexus. A quantitative and morphometric analysis of these cells was made, and it showed that the parasite causes the death of myenteric neurons in the jejunum and morphometric alterations in these cells throughout the intestine. However, the cellular response of myenteric neurons to T. gondii is heterogeneous compared the different organs from the gut. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leptin excites enteric neurons of guinea-pig submucous and myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, F; Krueger, D; Schemann, M

    2011-04-01

    Leptin, one of the most prominent mediators released from adipocytes, influences neuronal activity in the central nervous system. The enteric nervous system (ENS) expresses leptin receptors but consequence of activation of these receptors on enteric neuron activity has not been systematically studied. An adipocyte-ENS axis is suggested by close apposition between enteric nerves and adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of leptin on guinea-pig submucous and myenteric neurons. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we recorded neural responses to application of leptin (0.0625 nmol L(-1)) in myenteric and submucous neurons, nicotine (10 μmol L(-1)) served as a reference for neuronal excitation. Mucosal ion secretion and muscle activity were measured in vitro with Ussing and organ bath techniques, respectively. Leptin induced spike discharge in 13.6% of submucous neurons and in 8.2% of myenteric neurons (1.1 ± 0.9 and 1.2 ± 1.0 Hz, respectively). Although there was an overlap of nicotine and leptin responses, 38.5% of submucous and 25% of myenteric neurons activated by leptin did not respond to nicotine. Leptin did not inhibit ongoing spike discharge or fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Leptin (0.0625 nmol L(-1)) did not affect mucosal secretion or muscle activity suggesting a subtle modulatory action of leptin at the level of the ENS. Leptin activates submucous and myenteric neurons indicating relevance for adipocyte-ENS signaling. These results set the basis for further studies to reveal the functional correlate of the neural action of leptin in the ENS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Annette J; Stamp, Lincon A; Gonsalvez, David G; Allison, Margaret B; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R; Young, Heather M

    2014-02-15

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at embryonic day [E]12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5), and calretinin neurons (postnatal day [P]0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected, as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker Ki67 revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small subpopulation of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-01-01

    Background Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Objectives Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. Methods We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Results Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. Conclusions In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26668745

  17. Myenteric plexitis: A frequent feature in patients undergoing surgery for colonic diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Sidoni, Angelo; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Dore, Maria P; Binda, Gian A; Bandelloni, Roberto; Salemme, Marianna; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cadei, Moris; Manca, Alessandra; Bernardini, Nunzia; Maurer, Christoph A; Cathomas, Gieri

    2015-12-01

    Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in clinical practice, and a large number of patients each year undergo surgical procedures worldwide for their symptoms. Thus, there is a need for better knowledge of the basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of this disease entity. Because patients with colonic diverticular disease have been shown to display abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, we assessed the frequency of myenteric plexitis (i.e. the infiltration of myenteric ganglions by inflammatory cells) in patients undergoing surgery for this condition. We analyzed archival resection samples from the proximal resection margins of 165 patients undergoing left hemicolectomy (60 emergency and 105 elective surgeries) for colonic diverticulitis, by histology and immunochemistry. Overall, plexitis was present in almost 40% of patients. It was subdivided into an eosinophilic (48%) and a lymphocytic (52%) subtype. Plexitis was more frequent in younger patients; and it was more frequent in those undergoing emergency surgery (50%), compared to elective (28%) surgery (p = 0.007). All the severe cases of plexitis displayed the lymphocytic subtype. In conclusion, myenteric plexitis is frequent in patients with colonic diverticular disease needing surgery, and it might be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  18. Calcimimetic R568 inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive colonic electrolyte secretion and reduces c-fos expression in myenteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangrong; Tang, Lieqi; Winesett, Steven; Chang, Wenhan; Cheng, Sam Xianjun

    2018-02-01

    Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed on neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the CaSR agonist R568 inhibited Cl - secretion in intestine. The purpose of this study was to localize the primary site of action of R568 in the ENS and to explore how CaSR regulates secretion through the ENS. Two preparations of rat proximal and distal colon were used. The full-thickness preparation contained both the submucosal and myenteric plexuses, whereas for the "stripped" preparation the myenteric plexus with the muscle layers was removed. Both preparations were mounted onto Ussing chambers and Cl - secretory responses were compared by measuring changes in short circuit current (I sc ). Two tissue-specific CaSR knockouts (i.e., neuron-specific vs. enterocyte-specific) were generated to compare the effect of R568 on expression of c-fos protein in myenteric neurons by immunocytochemistry. In full-thickness colons, tetrodotoxin (TTX) inhibited I sc , both in proximal and distal colons. A nearly identical inhibition was produced by R568. However, in stripped preparations, while the effect of TTX on I sc largely remained, the effect of R568 was nearly completely eliminated. In keeping with this, R568 reduced c-fos protein expression only in myenteric neurons of wild type mice and mutant mice that contained CaSR in neurons (i.e., villin Cre/Casr flox/flox mice), but not in myenteric neurons of nestin Cre/Casr flox/flox mice in which neuronal cell CaSR was eliminated. These results indicate that R568 exerts its anti-secretory effects predominantly via CaSR-mediated inhibition of neuronal activity in the myenteric plexus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Myenteric plexitis is a risk factor for endoscopic and clinical postoperative recurrence after ileocolonic resection in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Decousus, Stéphanie; Boucher, Anne-Laure; Joubert, Juliette; Pereira, Bruno; Dubois, Anne; Goutorbe, Felix; Déchelotte, Pierre J; Bommelaer, Gilles; Buisson, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    As surgical resection is not curative in Crohn's disease, postoperative recurrence remains a crucial issue. The selection of patients, according to available risk factors, remains disappointing in clinical practice highlighting the need for better criteria, such as histologic features. To investigate whether submucosal and myenteric plexitis increase the risk of endoscopic, clinical and surgical postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease. From the pathology department database, we retrospectively retrieved the data of all the patients who have undergone ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease. Two pathologists, blinded from clinical data, reviewed all specimens to evaluate the presence of plexitis at the proximal resection margin. Of the 75 included CD patients, 19 (25.3%) had histological involvement of resection margin. Inflammatory cells count for myenteric and submucosal plexus were performed in 56 patients. In multivariate analysis, the myenteric plexitis was a risk factor for endoscopic postoperative recurrence (HR 8.83 CI95% [1.6-48.6], p=0.012), and the presence of at least one myenteric lymphocyte (HR 4.02 CI95% [1.4-11.2], p=0.008) was predictive of clinical postoperative recurrence. We observed no histologic predictor for surgical postoperative recurrence. Myenteric plexitis in proximal margins of ileocolonic resection specimens is independently associated with endoscopic and clinical postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Activation of Myenteric Glia during Acute Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Corinna; Schick, Martin Alexander; Wollborn, Jakob; Heider, Andreas; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Cecil, Alexander; Niesler, Beate; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Walles, Heike; Metzger, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Enteric glial cells (EGCs) are the main constituent of the enteric nervous system and share similarities with astrocytes from the central nervous system including their reactivity to an inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies on EGC pathophysiology have specifically focused on mucosal glia activation and its contribution to mucosal inflammatory processes observed in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In contrast knowledge is scarce on intestinal inflammation not locally restricted to the mucosa but systemically affecting the intestine and its effect on the overall EGC network. In this study, we analyzed the biological effects of a systemic LPS-induced hyperinflammatory insult on overall EGCs in a rat model in vivo, mimicking the clinical situation of systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS). Tissues from small and large intestine were removed 4 hours after systemic LPS-injection and analyzed on transcript and protein level. Laser capture microdissection was performed to study plexus-specific gene expression alterations. Upon systemic LPS-injection in vivo we observed a rapid and dramatic activation of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)-expressing glia on mRNA level, locally restricted to the myenteric plexus. To study the specific role of the GFAP subpopulation, we established flow cytometry-purified primary glial cell cultures from GFAP promotor-driven EGFP reporter mice. After LPS stimulation, we analyzed cytokine secretion and global gene expression profiles, which were finally implemented in a bioinformatic comparative transcriptome analysis. Enriched GFAP+ glial cells cultured as gliospheres secreted increased levels of prominent inflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulation. Additionally, a shift in myenteric glial gene expression profile was induced that predominantly affected genes associated with immune response. Our findings identify the myenteric GFAP-expressing glial subpopulation as particularly susceptible and

  1. Evidence for a non-opioid sigma binding site din the guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, F.; Pascaud, X.; Vauche, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a binding site to (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 was demonstrated in a guinea-pig myenteric plexus (MYP) membrane preparation. Specific binding to this receptor was saturable, reversible, linear with protein concentration and consisted of two components, a high affinity site and a low affinity site. Morphine and naloxone 10/sup -4/M were unable to displace (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047 binding. Haloperidol, imipramine, ethylketocyclazocine and propranolol were among the most potent compounds to inhibit this specific binding. These results suggest the presence of a non-opioid haloperidol sensitive sigma receptor in the MYP of the guinea-pig.

  2. Nitric oxide regulation of colonic epithelial ion transport: a novel role for enteric glia in the myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    MacEachern, Sarah J; Patel, Bhavik A; McKay, Derek M; Sharkey, Keith A

    2011-07-01

    Enteric glia are increasingly recognized as important in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions.Here we tested the hypothesis that nicotinic signalling in the myenteric plexus results in the release of nitric oxide (NO) from neurons and enteric glia to modulate epithelial ion transport. Ion transport was assessed using full-thickness or muscle-stripped segments of mouse colon mounted in Ussing chambers. The cell-permeant NO-sensitive dye DAR-4M AM and amperometry were utilized to identify the cellular sites of NO production within the myenteric plexus and the contributions from specific NOS isoforms. Nicotinic receptors were localized using immunohistochemistry. Nicotinic cholinergic stimulation of colonic segments resulted in NO-dependent changes in epithelial active electrogenic ion transport that were TTX sensitive and significantly altered in the absence of the myenteric plexus. Nicotinic stimulation of the myenteric plexus resulted in NO production and release from neurons and enteric glia, which was completely blocked in the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) I and NOS II inhibitors. Using the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO), neuronal and enteric glial components of NO production were demonstrated. Nicotinic receptors were identified on enteric neurons, which express NOS I, and enteric glia, which express NOS II. These data identify a unique pathway in the mouse colon whereby nicotinic cholinergic signalling in myenteric ganglia mobilizes NO from NOS II in enteric glia, which in coordinated activity with neurons in the myenteric plexus modulates epithelial ion transport, a key component of homeostasis and innate immunity.

  3. Somatostatin inhibits cANP-mediated cholinergic transmission in the myenteric plexus

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.; Owyang, C.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which somatostatin acts to modulate cholinergic transmission is not clear. In this study the authors investigated the role of the adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) system in mediating cholinergic transmission in the guinea pig myenteric plexus and examined the ability of somatostatin to alter acetylcholine (ACh) release stimulated by various cAMP agonists. Forskolin, 8-bromo-cAMP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and cholera toxin each stimulated the release of ({sup 3}H)ACh in a dose-related manner. Addition of theophylline enhanced the release of ({sup 3}H)ACh stimulated by these cAMP agonists. The observations suggest that cAMP may serve as a physiological mediator formore » ACh release from myenteric neurons. Somatostatin inhibited release of ({sup 3}H)ACh evoked by various cAMP agonists in a dose-related manner. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin antagonized the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on the release of ({sup 3}H)ACh evoked by forskolin, VIP, or cholera toxin but had no effect on the inhibitory action of somatostatin on the release of ({sup 3}H)ACh evoked by 8-bromo-cAMP. This suggests that the principal mechanism by which somatostatin inhibits cAMP-mediated cholinergic transmission is via activation of the inhibitory regulatory protein (N{sub i} subunit) of adenyalte cyclase.« less

  4. Development of myenteric cholinergic neurons in ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Marlene M; Bornstein, Joel C; Young, Heather M

    2013-10-01

    Cholinergic neurons are the major excitatory neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS), and include intrinsic sensory neurons, interneurons, and excitatory motor neurons. Cholinergic neurons have been detected in the embryonic ENS; however, the development of these neurons has been difficult to study as they are difficult to detect prior to birth using conventional immunohistochemistry. In this study we used ChAT-Cre;R26R-YFP mice to examine the development of cholinergic neurons in the gut of embryonic and postnatal mice. Cholinergic (YFP+) neurons were first detected at embryonic day (E)11.5, and the proportion of cholinergic neurons gradually increased during pre- and postnatal development. At birth, myenteric cholinergic neurons comprised less than half of their adult proportions in the small intestine (25% of myenteric neurons were YFP+ at P0 compared to 62% in adults). The earliest cholinergic neurons appear to mainly project anally. Projections into the presumptive circular muscle were first observed at E14.5. A subpopulation of cholinergic neurons coexpress calbindin through embryonic and postnatal development, but only a small proportion coexpressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Our study shows that cholinergic neurons in the ENS develop over a protracted period of time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Impaired acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus of Trichinella-infected rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.M.; Blennerhassett, P.A.; Blennerhassett, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    We examined the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from jejunal longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations in noninfected control rats and in rats infected 6, 23, or 40 days previously with Trichinella spiralis. ACh release was assessed by preincubating the tissue with ({sup 3}H)choline and measuring the evoked release of tritium. The uptake of {sup 3}H was significantly less in tissue from T. spiralis-infected rats compared with control. In tissues from either infected or control animals, electrical field stimulation (30 V, 0.5 ms, 10 Hz for 1 min), or veratridine (6-30 microM) induced {sup 3}H release that was tetrodotoxin sensitive. Depolarization by KClmore » (25-75 mM) also caused {sup 3}H release, but this was only partially reduced by tetrodotoxin. Radiochromatographic analysis indicated evoked release of {sup 3}H to be almost entirely ({sup 3}H)ACh. In rats infected 6 days previously with T. spiralis, ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by KCl, veratridine, and field stimulation were decreased at least 80%. The suppression of ({sup 3}H)ACh release induced by veratridine or KCl was fully reversible after 40 days postinfection, but field-stimulated responses remained approximately 50% of control values. These results indicate that T. spiralis infection in the rat is accompanied by a reversible suppression of ACh release from the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the jejunum.« less

  7. Proof-of-concept: neonatal intravenous injection of adeno-associated virus vectors results in successful transduction of myenteric and submucosal neurons in the mouse small and large intestine.

    PubMed

    Buckinx, R; Van Remoortel, S; Gijsbers, R; Waddington, S N; Timmermans, J-P

    2016-02-01

    Despite the success of viral vector technology in the transduction of the central nervous system in both preclinical research and gene therapy, its potential in neurogastroenterological research remains largely unexploited. This study asked whether and to what extent myenteric and submucosal neurons in the ileum and distal colon of the mouse were transduced after neonatal systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs). Mice were intravenously injected at postnatal day one with AAV pseudotypes AAV8 or AAV9 carrying a cassette encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a reporter under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. At postnatal day 35, transduction of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the ileum and distal colon was evaluated in whole-mount preparations, using immunohistochemistry to neurochemically identify transduced enteric neurons. The pseudotypes AAV8 and AAV9 showed equal potential in transducing the enteric nervous system (ENS), with 25-30% of the neurons expressing eGFP. However, the percentage of eGFP-expressing colonic submucosal neurons was significantly lower. Neurochemical analysis showed that all enteric neuron subtypes, but not glia, expressed the reporter protein. Intrinsic sensory neurons were most efficiently transduced as nearly 80% of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive neurons expressed the transgene. The pseudotypes AAV8 and AAV9 can be employed for gene delivery to both the myenteric and the submucosal plexus, although the transduction efficiency in the latter is region-dependent. These findings open perspectives for novel preclinical applications aimed at manipulating and imaging the ENS in the short term, and in gene therapy in the longer term. © 2015 The Authors. Neurogastroenterology & Motility Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Balanced Caloric Restriction Minimizes Changes Caused by Aging on the Colonic Myenteric Plexus.

    PubMed

    Mari, Renata de Britto; Stabille, Sandra Regina; de Faria, Haroldo Garcia; Pereira, Joice Naiara Bertaglia; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Marinsek, Gabriela Pustiglione; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues

    2018-05-04

    Aging can promote significant morphofunctional changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Regulation of GIT motility is mainly controlled by the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Actions that aim at decreasing the aging effects in the GIT include those related to diet, with caloric restriction (CR). The CR is achieved by controlling the amount of food or by manipulating the components of the diet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different levels of CR on the plasticity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate- (NADPH-) reactive myenteric neurons in the colon of Wistar rats during the aging process using ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and morphoquantitative analysis. Wistar male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were distributed into 4 groups (n = 10/group): C, 6-month-old animals; SR, 18-month-old animals fed a normal diet; CRI, 18-month-old animals fed a 12% CR diet; CRII, 18-month-old animals fed a 31% CR diet. At 6 months of age, animals were transferred to the laboratory animal facility, where they remained until 18 months of age. Animals of the CRI and CRII groups were submitted to CR for 6 months. In the ultrastructural analysis, a disorganization of the periganglionar matrix with the aging was observed, and this characteristic was not observed in the animals that received hypocaloric diet. It was observed that the restriction of 12.5% and 31% of calories in the diet minimized the increase in density and cell profile of the reactive NADPH neurons, increased with age. This type of diet may be adapted against gastrointestinal disturbances that commonly affect aging individuals.

  9. Direct synaptic contacts on the myenteric ganglia of the rat stomach from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto

    2006-09-20

    The myenteric ganglia regulate not only gastric motility but also secretion, because a submucous plexus is sparsely developed in the rodent stomach. We have examined whether the neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) have direct synaptic contacts on the myenteric ganglia and the ultrastructure of the vagal efferent terminals by using wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). The myenteric ganglia of the rat were composed of four types of neurons, i.e., small, medium-sized, large, and elongated neurons. The average numbers of axosomatic terminals per profile were 2.0 on the small neurons, 3.1 on the medium-sized neurons, 1.2 on the large neurons, and 4.2 on the elongated neuron. More than half of the axosomatic terminals contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts on the small, medium-sized, and large neurons. About 80% of the axosomatic terminals on the elongated neurons contained pleomorphic vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts. When WGA-HRP was injected into the DMV, many anterogradely labeled terminals were found around the myenteric neurons. The labeled terminals were large (3.16 +/- 0.10 microm) and contacted exclusively the somata. Most of them (about 90%) contained round vesicles and formed asymmetric synaptic contacts. Serial ultrathin sections revealed that almost all neurons in a ganglion received projections from the DMV. The vagal axon terminals generally contacted the medium-sized or the elongated neurons, whereas a few labeled terminals contacted the small and the large neurons. The present results indicate that the DMV projects to all types of neurons and that their axon terminals contain mostly round synaptic vesicles and form asymmetric synaptic contacts.

  10. Enteric motor dysfunctions in experimental chronic pancreatitis: Alterations of myenteric neurons regulating colonic motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Yu, B; Luo, D; Lin, M

    2018-03-09

    The mechanism underlying gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP) has not been fully elucidated, and enteric nervous system (ENS) has an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ENS in the colonic hypomotility induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) infusion which mimics CP. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to CP which was induced by pancreatic infusion of 2% TNBS, or sham group with treatment of equal saline. Three weeks after induction of CP, we pathologically examined the inflammation of pancreas and counted the number of withdrawal events stimulated by Von Frey filaments to evaluate hyperalgesia. The gastrointestinal transit rate was measured using Carbon inkl driving test, and the contraction activities of colonic muscle strip were studied in an organ bath system. The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in colonic myenteric plexus (MP) of ENS were investigated by Western blotting and double immunofluorescence staining. In TNBS-treated group, rats had the signs of chronic pancreatitis 3 weeks after intraductal infusion and had increased sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the abdomen. For rats with CP, the gastrointestinal transit rate was reduced; in addition, the contractile activities of longitudinal muscle (LM) and circular muscle (CM) strips of distal colon in TNBS group were lower than those in sham group. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that the percentage of ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the MP was decreased, but the proportion of NOS-IR neurons in the MP was increased when compared with sham-operated group. Western blotting proved that TNBS infusion down-regulated ChAT but up-regulated NOS expression in the colon MP. Decreased ChAT-IR neurons and increased NOS-IR in the MP of colon ENS may contribute to the pathogenesis of colonic dysmotility in CP. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  11. Morphological Characterization of the Myenteric Plexus of the Ileum and Distal colon of Dogs Affected by Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    SchÄfer, Bárbara Tavares; Silveira, Mariana Póvoa; Palombit, Kelly; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Watanabe, Ii Sei; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Castelucci, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (canine dystrophinopathy) is a hereditary degenerative disease characterized by muscle changes similar to those described for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and by alterations in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. Some authors have suggested that these abnormalities may be associated with intestinal motility. This study analyzed the nitrergic and cholinergic neurons and P2X7 receptor expression in the myenteric plexus of the ileum and distal colon of dogs with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to detect nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) expression and to label all HuC/D- and P2X7 receptor-immunoreactive (IR) neurons. Transmission electron microscopy and basic histology were performed for further analysis. The results showed that nitrergic neurons exhibited a Dogiel type I morphology in the ileum and distal colon. The neuronal profile results showed that there were fewer NOS-, ChAT-, and HuC/D-IR neurons in the ileum than in the distal colon in the dystrophic (DT) dogs. Additionally, there were more NOS-, ChAT- and HuC/D-IR neurons per ganglion in the distal colon than in the ileum. The P2X7 receptor-expressing neurons colocalized with nitrergic and cholinergic neurons. Transmission and light microscopy revealed collagen between the muscle fibers, between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers and within the myenteric ganglia of dogs with muscular dystrophy. These findings provide a morphological description of the myenteric neurons in the ileum and distal colon of these DT dogs and may contribute to a better understanding of the gastrointestinal disorders found in patients with DMD. Anat Rec, 301:673-685, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Appearance of Cholinergic Myenteric Neurons during Enteric Nervous System Development: Comparison of Different ChAT Fluorescent Mouse Reporter Lines

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Christopher S.; Lee, Scott J.; Barlow-Anacker, Amanda J.; Druckenbrod, Noah R.; Epstein, Miles L.; Gosain, Ankush

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic neurons have been identified with the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). However, ChAT is difficult to localize in newly differentiated peripheral neurons making the study of cholinergic neuronal development problematic. Consequently researchers have used mouse reporter lines to indicate the presence of ChAT. Methods Our objective was to determine which ChAT reporter line was the most sensitive indicator of ChAT expression. We utilized two different fluorescent ChAT reporter lines (ChAT-GFP and ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato) together with immunolocalization of ChAT protein (ChAT-IR) to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of ChAT in myenteric neurons throughout ENS development. Key Results ChAT-IR cells were first seen in the intestine at E10.5, even within the migration wavefront of neural precursors. Myenteric neurons within the distal small intestine (dSI) and proximal colon were first labeled by ChAT-IR, then ChAT-GFP, and finally ChAT-Cre tdTomato. The percentage of ChAT-IR neurons is equivalent to adult levels in the dSI by E13.5 and proximal colon by P0. After these stages, the percentages remained relatively constant throughout development despite dramatic changes in neuronal density. Conclusions and Inferences These observations indicate that neurotransmitter expression occurs early and there is only a brief gap between neurogenesis and neurotransmitter expression. Our finding that the proportion of ChAT myenteric neurons reached adult levels during embryonic development suggests that the fate of cholinergic neurons is tightly regulated and that their differentiation might influence further neuronal development. ChAT-GFP is a more accurate indicator of early ENS cholinergic neuronal differentiation than the ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato reporter mouse. PMID:24712519

  13. Appearance of cholinergic myenteric neurons during enteric nervous system development: comparison of different ChAT fluorescent mouse reporter lines.

    PubMed

    Erickson, C S; Lee, S J; Barlow-Anacker, A J; Druckenbrod, N R; Epstein, M L; Gosain, A

    2014-06-01

    Cholinergic neurons have been identified with the acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). However, ChAT is difficult to localize in newly differentiated peripheral neurons making the study of cholinergic neuronal development problematic. Consequently, researchers have used mouse reporter lines to indicate the presence of ChAT. Our objective was to determine which ChAT reporter line was the most sensitive indicator of ChAT expression. We utilized two different fluorescent ChAT reporter lines (ChAT-GFP and ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato) together with immunolocalization of ChAT protein (ChAT-IR) to characterize the spatial and temporal expression of ChAT in myenteric neurons throughout enteric nervous system (ENS) development. ChAT-IR cells were first seen in the intestine at E10.5, even within the migration wavefront of neural precursors. Myenteric neurons within the distal small intestine (dSI) and proximal colon were first labeled by ChAT-IR, then ChAT-GFP, and finally ChAT-Cre tdTomato. The percentage of ChAT-IR neurons is equivalent to adult levels in the dSI by E13.5 and proximal colon by P0. After these stages, the percentages remained relatively constant throughout development despite dramatic changes in neuronal density. These observations indicate that neurotransmitter expression occurs early and there is only a brief gap between neurogenesis and neurotransmitter expression. Our finding that the proportion of ChAT myenteric neurons reached adult levels during embryonic development suggests that the fate of cholinergic neurons is tightly regulated and that their differentiation might influence further neuronal development. ChAT-GFP is a more accurate indicator of early ENS cholinergic neuronal differentiation than the ChAT-Cre;R26R:floxSTOP:tdTomato reporter mouse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prenatal Intestinal Obstruction Affects the Myenteric Plexus and Causes Functional Bowel Impairment in Fetal Rat Experimental Model of Intestinal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Sarnacki, Sabine; Victor, Anais; Grosos, Celine; Menard, Sandrine; Soret, Rodolphe; Goudin, Nicolas; Pousset, Maud; Sauvat, Frederique; Revillon, Yann; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Neunlist, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disorder with an incidence of 3/10 000 birth. About one-third of patients have severe intestinal dysfunction after surgical repair. We examined whether prenatal gastrointestinal obstruction might effect on the myenteric plexus and account for subsequent functional disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a rat model of surgically induced antenatal atresia, comparing intestinal samples from both sides of the obstruction and with healthy rat pups controls. Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze mRNAs for inflammatory markers. Functional motility and permeability analyses were performed in vitro. Phenotypic studies were also performed in 8 newborns with intestinal atresia. In the experimental model, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was similar in proximal and distal segments (6.7±4.6% vs 5.6±4.2%, p = 0.25), but proximal segments contained a higher proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons (13.2±6.2% vs 7.5±4.3%, p = 0.005). Phenotypic changes were associated with a 100-fold lower concentration-dependent contractile response to carbachol and a 1.6-fold higher EFS-induced contractile response in proximal compared to distal segments. Transcellular (p = 0.002) but not paracellular permeability was increased. Comparison with controls showed that modifications involved not only proximal but also distal segments. Phenotypic studies in human atresia confirmed the changes in ChAT expression. Conclusion Experimental atresia in fetal rat induces differential myenteric plexus phenotypical as well as functional changes (motility and permeability) between the two sides of the obstruction. Delineating these changes might help to identify markers predictive of motility dysfunction and to define guidelines for post-surgical care. PMID:23667464

  15. Actions of bradykinin on electrical and synaptic behavior of neurones in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Mostafa, Randa; Ren, Jun; Zafirov, Dimiter H; Wood, Jackie D

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiologic methods were used to study actions of bradykinin (BK) in neurones of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig small intestine in vitro. Exposure to BK depolarized the membrane potential and elevated excitability in AH- and S-type neurones. Neuronal input resistance associated with the depolarizing responses was either decreased or unchanged in S-type and increased in AH-type neurones. The selective B2 BK receptor antagonist HOE-140, but not the selective B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10-HOE-140, suppressed the BK-evoked responses. RT-PCR confirmed the expression of B2 receptor mRNA, but not B1 receptor mRNA. Binding of fluorescently- labeled HOE-140 (HOE741) was localized to ganglion cells in whole-mount preparations. BK B2 receptors were coexpressed with immunoreactivity for calbindin or nitric oxide synthase. Exposure to BK suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Depolarizing responses evoked by application of serotonin or substance P and nicotinic responses to acetylcholine were not reduced by BK. This suggested that BK action on neurotransmission was presynaptic suppression of neurotransmitter release. Presence of HOE-140 in the bathing solution suppressed or abolished the presynaptic inhibitory action of BK. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, suppressed both the direct excitatory action of BK and its presynaptic inhibitory action. Application of prostaglandin E2, D2, F2α or I2 mimicked the BK-evoked responses. The results suggest that BK acts at B2 BK receptors on myenteric neurones to stimulate the formation of prostaglandins. Once formed and released, the prostaglandins act to elevate the excitability of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus and to suppress the synaptic release of neurotransmitters. PMID:12711622

  16. Acute infection with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii causes decreasing and atrophy of nitrergic myenteric neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Débora de Mello Gonçales; Gois, Marcelo Biondaro; Hermes-Uliana, Catchia; Pereira-Severi, Letícia Sarturi; Baptista, Emily Martins; Mantovani, Luana Colognese; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2017-05-01

    In the enteric nervous system (ENS), nitrergic neurons produce and use nitric oxide (NO) as an inhibitory motor neurotransmitter in response to parasitic infections, including those caused by Toxoplasma gondii. However, damage to the host caused by NO has been reported by various authors, and the role of NO in protection or cytotoxicity continues to be extensively studied. In this study, nitrergic neurons were investigated in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum and the distal colon of rats infected with 500 oocysts of the M7741 strain of T. gondii. Ten rats were randomly assigned into a control group (CG) and infected group (IG; received 500 sporulated oocysts of T. gondii orally). After 24h, the rats were euthanized, and samples of the jejunum and distal colon were obtained and processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemical analysis. Quantitative and morphometric analysis of the nitrergic neurons in whole mounts containing the myenteric plexus was performed. There was a numeric reduction of nitrergic neurons per mm 2 in both jejunum and distal colon. The remaining nitrergic neurons suffered atrophy in the areas of the cell body and nucleus, which resulted in a decrease in cytoplasm. Thus, we conclude that an avirulent strain of T. gondii in a short time causes neuroplastic changes in the small and large intestine of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  18. Topographical and electrophysiological characteristics of highly excitable S neurones in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig ileum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terence K; Burke, Edmund P; Shuttleworth, C William

    1999-01-01

    Most intracellular electrical recordings from myenteric neurones have been made from the centre of large ganglia. In this study, we examined the electrophysiological properties of neurones at the corners of large ganglia close to internodal strands and in microganglia. Of 150 neurones in these locations: 111 were tonic S neurones; 9 were phasic S neurones and 30 were AH neurones. Tonic S neurones were characterized by: (i) low resting membrane potentials (−50 ± 1 mV, mean ± s.e.m.); (ii) high input impedance (522 ± 23 MΩ); (iii) low threshold for action potential (AP) generation (0.012 ± 0.004 nA); (iv) firing of APs throughout a depolarizing pulse (duration ≤ 1 s) and one to four APs following a hyperpolarizing pulse and (v) spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (FEPSPs). A substantial proportion of tonic S neurones (43 %) also fired APs spontaneously (7.6 ± 0.6 Hz; range, 0.3–19 Hz). All APs were blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 μm). Tonic S neurones were subclassified, according to their post-stimulus responses, as SAH or SAD neurones. Following a burst of APs, SAH neurones exhibited a prominent after-hyperpolarization (duration, 711 ± 10 ms) and SAD neurones an after-depolarization (duration, 170 ± 10 ms). The after-hyperpolarization was reduced in four of ten neurones by apamin (0.3 μm). FEPSPs were evoked in 20 of 38 S neurones by electrical stimulation applied both oral and anal to the recording site. Repetitive stimuli evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (SEPSPs) in some tonic S neurones. Three functional classes of S neurones were identified after injection of neurobiotin through the recording microelectrode: (i) longitudinal muscle motor neurones, (ii) short circular muscle motor neurones, and (iii) ascending interneurones. In conclusion, there appears to be topographical organization of highly excitable, tonic S neurones within the myenteric plexus, since, in contrast to other S neurones, they can be readily impaled in

  19. Histamine H2-receptors on guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus neurons mediate the release of contractile agents

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, L.A.; Ebersole, B.J.

    1982-04-01

    Dimaprit, a highly selective H2-agonist, caused a multiphasic contraction of guinea-pig ileal segments and ileal myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations. The initial phase was characterized by a twitch which reached a maximum in 15 to 30 sec and was followed by a partial relaxation. The later phase was variable and consisted of a series of twitch responses or of a slowly developing contracture which sometimes was accompanied by oscillatory changes in tension. dose-response curves were generated for the initial response; for isolated ileal segments the EC50 was 5.1 +/- 1.8 micrometers (mean +/- S.D., N . 7) and the Hill coefficientmore » was 1.1 +/- 0.2 and for longitudinal muscle strips the EC50 was 5.8 +/- 1.2 micrometer and the Hill coefficient was 1.2 +/- 0.1 (N . 7). Both the initial and secondary components of the contractile responses to dimaprit were prevented by 0.2 micron tetrodotoxin or 10 microns mefenamic acid and by the production of tachphylaxis to either substance P or serotonin. Scopolamine, 0.001 to 0.1 micron, insurmountably antagonized only the initial component of the response. Mepyramine (1.0 micrometer), hexamethonium (100 microns), bromolysergic acid (0.25 microns) and p-(imidazol-1-yl)phenyl (10 microns) were without effect on the response to dimaprit. The histamine H2-receptor antagonist, tiotidine, produced parallel dextral shifts in the dose-response curve for dimaprit. The apparent pA2 value for tiotidine was 7.65. The results suggest that dimaprit acts on H2-receptors located on myenteric plexus neurons to cause the release of contractile substances. The mediators of the contractile response are tentatively identified as acetylcholine, substance P, serotonin and a product(s) of the arachadonic acid cascade.« less

  20. Western diet induces colonic nitrergic myenteric neuropathy and dysmotility in mice via saturated fatty acid- and lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signalling.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, François; Chassaing, Benoit; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Li, Ge; Tabatabavakili, Sahar; Mwangi, Simon; Uppal, Karan; Liang, Bill; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jones, Dean; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2017-03-01

    A high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) is associated with motility disorders inducing constipation and loss of nitrergic myenteric neurons in the proximal colon. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which occurs in response to HFD, contributes to endotoxaemia. High levels of lipopolysaccharide lead to apoptosis in cultured myenteric neurons that express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consumption of a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat) for 6 weeks leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with altered bacterial metabolites and increased levels of plasma free fatty acids. These disorders precede the nitrergic myenteric cell loss observed in the proximal colon. Mice lacking TLR4 did not exhibit WD-induced myenteric cell loss and dysmotility. Lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro enteric neurodegeneration requires the presence of palmitate and may be a result of enhanced NO production. The present study highlights the critical role of plasma saturated free fatty acids that are abundant in the WD with respect to driving enteric neuropathy and colonic dysmotility. The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with myenteric neurodegeneration, which in turn is associated with delayed colonic transit and constipation. We examined the hypothesis that an inherent increase in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD together with an HFD-induced alteration in gut microbiota contributes to the pathophysiology of these disorders. C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat enriched in palmitate) or a purified regular diet (16.9% kcal from fat) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Gut microbiota dysbiosis was investigated by fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) measurement and metabolomics (linear trap quadrupole-Fourier transform mass spectrometer) analysis. Plasma FFA and LPS levels were assessed, in addition to colonic and ileal nitrergic myenteric neuron quantifications and motility. Compared to regular diet-fed control mice, WD-fed mice gained significantly more weight

  1. P2X2 subunits contribute to fast synaptic excitation in myenteric neurons of the mouse small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jianhua; Bian, Xiaochun; DeVries, Matthew; Schnegelsberg, Birthe; Cockayne, Debra A; Ford, Anthony P D W; Galligan, James J

    2003-01-01

    P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels composed of one or more of seven different subunits. ATP acts at P2X receptors to contribute to fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in myenteric neurons but the subunit composition of enteric P2X receptors is unknown. These studies used tissues from P2X2 wild-type (P2X2+/+) and P2X2 gene knockout (P2X2-/-) mice to investigate the role of this subunit in enteric neurotransmission. Intracellular electrophysiological methods were used to record synaptic and drug-induced responses from ileal myenteric neurons in vitro. Drug-induced longitudinal muscle contractions and peristaltic contractions of ileal segments were also studied in vitro. Gastrointestinal transit was measured as the progression in 30 min of a liquid radioactive marker administered by gavage to fasted mice. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA from intestinal tissues and data from immunohistochemical studies verified P2X2 gene deletion. The fEPSPs recorded from S neurons in tissues from P2X2+/+ mice were reduced by mecamylamine (nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) and PPADS (P2X receptor antagonist). The fEPSPs recorded from S neurons from P2X2−/− mice were unaffected by PPADS but were blocked by mecamylamine. ATP depolarized S and AH neurons from P2X2+/+ mice. ATP depolarized AH but not S neurons from P2X2-/- mice. α,β-Methylene ATP (α,β-mATP)(an agonist at P2X3 subunit-containing receptors) did not depolarize S neurons but it did depolarize AH neurons in P2X2+/+ and P2X2-/- mice. Peristalsis was inhibited in ileal segments from P2X2-/- mice but longitudinal muscle contractions caused by nicotine and bethanechol were similar in segments from P2X2+/+ and P2X2-/- mice. Gastrointestinal transit was similar in P2X2+/+ and P2X2-/- mice. It is concluded that P2X2 homomeric receptors contribute to fEPSPs in neural pathways underlying peristalsis studied in vitro. PMID:12937291

  2. P2X7 receptors contribute to the currents induced by ATP in guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Morales, Eduardo; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Liñán-Rico, Andrómeda; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Zarazua-Guzman, Sergio; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2011-10-15

    The whole-cell configuration, several pharmacological tools, and single-cell RT-PCR were used to investigate the contribution of P2X7 subunits to the ATP-induced currents (I(ATP)) in guinea pig myenteric neurons. I(ATP) was recorded in the great majority of tested neurons. ATP concentration-response curve (0.01-10mM) showed two phases, the first mediated by high-sensitive P2X receptors (hsP2X receptors), observed between 0.01-0.3mM and the second mediated by low-sensitive P2X receptors (lsP2X receptors). The calculated EC(50) values of these phases were 38 and 1759 μM, respectively. 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) concentration-response curve was monophasic (0.01-1mM), and less potent (EC(50) 142 μM) than ATP to activate hsP2X receptors. A strong inward rectification was noticed when hsP2X receptors were activated with ATP (0.1mM) and for BzATP-induced currents (0.1mM; I(BzATP)) but a significant lower rectification was noticed when lsP2X receptors were activated (5mM). Brilliant blue G (BBG) at a concentration of 0.3 μM (known to inhibit only P2X7 receptors) reduced I(ATP) when lsP2X receptors contributed to it but neither affect hsP2X receptors nor I(BzATP). However, hsP2X receptors and I(BzATP) were both inhibited by concentrations ≥ 1 μM of this antagonist. BzATP inhibited hsP2X receptors and therefore, it behaves as partial agonist on these receptors. Using the single-cell RT-PCR technique P2X7 mRNA was detectable in 7 out of 13 myenteric neurons exhibiting P2X2 mRNA. Altogether, our results show that low-sensitive P2X receptors are likely P2X7, whereas, the high-sensitive P2X channels are probably constituted, at least in part, by P2X2 subunits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Irinotecan-Induced Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Is Associated with Enteric Neuropathy, but Increased Numbers of Cholinergic Myenteric Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McQuade, Rachel M.; Stojanovska, Vanesa; Donald, Elizabeth L.; Rahman, Ahmed A.; Campelj, Dean G.; Abalo, Raquel; Rybalka, Emma; Bornstein, Joel C.; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common side-effect of chemotherapy leading to dose reductions and treatment delays. These side-effects may persist up to 10 years post-treatment. A topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan (IRI), commonly used for the treatment of colorectal cancer, is associated with severe acute and delayed-onset diarrhea. The long-term effects of IRI may be due to damage to enteric neurons innervating the gastrointestinal tract and controlling its functions. Balb/c mice received intraperitoneal injections of IRI (30 mg/kg−1) 3 times a week for 14 days, sham-treated mice received sterile water (vehicle) injections. In vivo analysis of gastrointestinal transit via serial x-ray imaging, facal water content, assessment of gross morphological damage and immunohistochemical analysis of myenteric neurons were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days following the first injection and at 7 days post-treatment. Ex vivo colonic motility was analyzed at 14 days following the first injection and 7 days post-treatment. Mucosal damage and inflammation were found following both short and long-term treatment with IRI. IRI-induced neuronal loss and increases in the number and proportion of ChAT-IR neurons and the density of VAChT-IR fibers were associated with changes in colonic motility, gastrointestinal transit and fecal water content. These changes persisted in post-treatment mice. Taken together this work has demonstrated for the first time that IRI-induced inflammation, neuronal loss and altered cholinergic expression is associated with the development of IRI-induced long-term gastrointestinal dysfunction and diarrhea. PMID:28642718

  4. Differential effects in CGRPergic, nitrergic, and VIPergic myenteric innervation in diabetic rats supplemented with 2% L-glutamine.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata V F; Linden, David R; Miranda-Neto, Marcílio H; Zanoni, Jacqueline N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2% L-glutamine supplementation on myenteric innervation in the ileum of diabetic rats, grouped as follows: normoglycemic (N); normoglycemic supplemented with L-glutamine (NG); diabetic (D); and diabetic supplemented with L-glutamine (DG). The ileums were subjected to immunohistochemical techniques to localize neurons immunoreactive to HuC/D protein (HuC/D-IR) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS-IR) and to analyze varicosities immunoreactive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-IR). L-Glutamine in the DG group (i) prevented the increase in the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, (ii) prevented the increase in the area of VIP-IR varicosities, (iii) did not prevent the loss of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, and (iv) reduced the size of CGRP-IR varicosities. L-Glutamine in the NG group reduced (i) the number of HuC/D-IR and nNOS-IR neurons per ganglion, (ii) the cell body area of nNOS-IR neurons, and (iii) the size of VIP-IR and CGRP-IR varicosities. 2% L-glutamine supplementation exerted differential neuroprotective effects in experimental diabetes neuropathy that depended on the type of neurotransmitter analyzed. However, the effects of this dose of L-glutamine on normoglycemic animals suggests there are additional actions of this beyond its antioxidant capacity.

  5. Intrinsic myenteric denervation: a new model to increase the intestinal absorptive surface in short-bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, S B; Kawasaky, M C; Silva, J C; Garcia-Rodrigues, A C; Borelli-Bovo, T J; Iglesias, A C; Zucoloto, S

    1999-08-01

    Short-bowel syndrome (SBS) is caused by resection of massive portions of the small intestine and is characterized by symptoms related to malabsorption, of which severe weight loss is the most apparent. Surgical treatments for SBS are not yet satisfactory. In rats, the myenteric denervation by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) leads to development of megaileum with visceral dilatation and mucosal hyperplasia and increases the intestinal transit time. Such operation in the remaining intestinal segment after massive small bowel resection could increase the duration of contact between luminal nutrients and ileal mucosal epithelium, and furthermore, it could increase the superficial area of the mucosa. Thus, our aim in this study was to evaluate the epithelial morphology and body weight changes of animals after intrinsic ileal denervation associated with extensive small intestine resection. Wistar rats were submitted to resection of 80% of small intestinal length (Group R). Another group (B) of animals also received topical serosal application of BAC 0.3%. Control animals were submitted to simulated surgery (Group C). Animals were weighed weekly and sacrificed after 90 days. Intestinal walls were collected for histological procedure and morphometry. At the end of the experimental period all groups showed weight increase, which was reduced in the R group (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the denervated Group B showed a marked increase in weight, similar to the control animals. Morphometric analysis of the mucosal layer area showed a major increase in mucosal surface area, mainly in Group B. Our results showed that the ileal intrinsic denervation associated with massive intestinal resection induced an increase in the superficial absorptive area and was able to improve the postsurgical conditions for the animals, with accentuated weight increase. This procedure may be a useful model for further studies related to the role of the enteric nervous system on intestinal adaptations after

  6. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum.

    PubMed

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Nyavor, Yvonne E A; Kappmeyer, Adam J; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2015-08-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, with bias towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile, ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS.

  7. Spiny versus stubby: 3D reconstruction of human myenteric (type I) neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lindig, Tobias M.; Kumar, Vinod; Kikinis, Ron; Pieper, Steve; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried L.; Brehmer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    We have compared the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of stubby and spiny neurons derived from the human small intestine. After immunohistochemical triple staining for leu-enkephalin (ENK), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neurofilament (NF), neurons were selected and scanned based on their immunoreactivity, whether ENK (stubby) or VIP (spiny). For the 3D reconstruction, we focused on confocal data pre-processing with intensity drop correction, non-blind deconvolution, an additional compression procedure in z-direction, and optimizing segmentation reliability. 3D Slicer software enabled a semi-automated segmentation based on an objective threshold (interrater and intrarater reliability, both 0.99). We found that most dendrites of stubby neurons emerged only from the somal circumference, whereas in spiny neurons, they also emerged from the luminal somal surface. In most neurons, the nucleus was positioned abluminally in its soma. The volumes of spiny neurons were significantly larger than those of stubby neurons (total mean of stubbies 806 ± 128 μm3, of spinies 2,316 ± 545 μm3), and spiny neurons had more dendrites (26.3 vs. 11.3). The ratios of somal versus dendritic volumes were 1:1.2 in spiny and 1:0.3 in stubby neurons. In conclusion, 3D reconstruction revealed new differences between stubby and spiny neurons and allowed estimations of volumetric data of these neuron populations. PMID:18807064

  8. Hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the electrical twitch response in the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strip.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid; Holzer-Petsche, Ulrike

    2014-08-08

    Longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus strips of the guinea-pig ileum were used to investigate the nature of the hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the twitch response. All preparations were set up in Tyrode solution and intermittent longitudinal twitch contractions were evoked by single pulse electrical field stimulation. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, at 300 μmol/l and 1 mmol/l augmented the twitch contractions by 21% and 35%, respectively. First we tested for a possible nicotinic drive onto an inhibitory neuronal component to the longitudinal smooth muscle cells. However, guanethidine (5 μmol/l), naloxone (1 μmol/l), or l-NAME (300 μmol/l) were without effect on the hexamethonium-induced augmentation. The P2 purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2'-4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS), 25-100 μmol/l, without altering the control twitch responses, dose-dependently reduced the hexamethonium-induced augmentation; at 100 μmol/l a statistically significantly inhibition was observed. Based on these functional experiments we found no evidence that blocking nicotinic transmission removed a tonic adrenergic, opioidergic or nitrergic inhibitory input to the longitudinal muscle. However, we provide evidence for a hexamethonium-induced augmentation of the P2 purinergic input to cholinergic motoneurons of the guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle. The P2-nicotinic receptor interaction presents a novel modulatory mechanism to cholinergic myenteric motor neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ monitoring of myenteric neuron activity using acetylcholinesterase-modified AlGaN/GaN solution-gate field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Müntze, Gesche Mareike; Pouokam, Ervice; Steidle, Julia; Schäfer, Wladimir; Sasse, Alexander; Röth, Kai; Diener, Martin; Eickhoff, Martin

    2016-03-15

    The response characteristics of acetylcholinesterase-modified AlGaN/GaN solution-gate field-effect transistors (AcFETs) are quantitatively analyzed by means of a kinetic model. The characterization shows that the covalent enzyme immobilization process yields reproducible AcFET characteristics with a Michaelis constant KM of (122 ± 4) μM for the immobilized enzyme layer. The increase of KM by a factor of 2.4 during the first four measurement cycles is attributed to partial denaturation of the enzyme. The AcFETs were used to record the release of acetylcholine (ACh) by neuronal tissue cultivated on the gate area upon stimulation by rising the extracellular K(+) concentration. The neuronal tissue constituted of isolated myenteric neurons from four to 12 days old Wistar rats, or sections from the muscularis propria containing the myenteric plexus from adult rats. For both cases the AcFET response was demonstrated to be related to the activity of the immobilized acetylcholinesterase using the reversible acetylcholinesterase blocker donepezil. A concentration response curve of this blocking agent revealed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 40 nM which is comparable to values measured by complementary in vitro methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Different effects of reducing agents on ω-conotoxin GVIA inhibition of [3H]-acetylcholine release from rat cortical slices and guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    PubMed Central

    Casali, T A A; Gomez, R S; Moraes-Santos, T; Romano-Silva, M A; Prado, M A M; Gomez, M V

    1996-01-01

    The effect of reducing reagents on ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) inhibition of the release of [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) induced by tityustoxin, K+ 50 mM and electrical stimulation was investigated in rat brain cortical slices.In cortical slices the inhibition of tityustoxin or electrically-stimulated [3H]-ACh release by ω-CgTX was dramatically increased by reducing reagents ascorbate or β-mercaptoethanol. Dehydroascorbic acid did not substitute for ascorbateDepolarization induced by K+ 50 mM caused [3H]-ACh release from cortical slices which was not inhibited by ω-CgTX, even in the presence of ascorbate.In the guinea-pig myenteric plexus, ω-CgTX inhibition of the tityustoxin induced release of [3H]-ACh was independent of ascorbate.It is suggested that N-type-like calcium channels in guinea-pig myenteric plexus may have pharmacological/biochemical diversity from similar channels of rat cerebral cortex. PMID:9117104

  11. Neonatal lethality of neural crest cell-specific Rest knockout mice is associated with gastrointestinal distension caused by aberrations of myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Oomori, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yasutake; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2014-10-01

    RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), also known as NRSF (neuron-restrictive silencer factor), is a well-known transcriptional repressor of neural genes. Rest null mice have embryonic lethality which prevents further investigations of the functions of the Rest gene in vivo. We studied neonatal but not embryonic lethality that was characterized by gastrointestinal tract dilation in the neural crest cell (NCC)-specific Rest conditional knockout (CKO) mice. While no histological abnormalities except the thinning of the digestive tract as a consequence of the gas accumulation were found in the digestive tract of the mutant mice, they do not have proper gastric retention after oral dye administration and the reduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in NCC-derived myenteric plexus in the stomach was detected. High CO2 concentration in the dilated digestive tract of the Rest CKO mice indicates a failure of gut function by underdeveloped cholinergic transmission in the enteric nervous system. The observed gastrointestinal distension phenotype provides a model for understanding the genetic and molecular basis of NCC defects in humans. © 2014 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2014 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Relative contribution of ecto-ATPase and ecto-ATPDase pathways to the biphasic effect of ATP on acetylcholine release from myenteric motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Araújo, M; Nascimento, C; Timóteo, MA; Magalhães-Cardoso, MT; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The relative contribution of distinct ecto-nucleotidases to the modulation of purinergic signalling may depend on differential tissue distribution and substrate preference. Experimental approach: Extracellular ATP catabolism (assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography) and its influence on [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release were investigated in the myenteric plexus of rat ileum in vitro. Key results: ATP was primarily metabolized via ecto-ATPDase (adenosine 5′-triphosphate diphosphohydrolase) into AMP, which was then dephosphorylated into adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase. Alternative conversion of ATP into ADP by ecto-ATPase (adenosine 5′-triphosphatase) was more relevant at high ATP concentrations. ATP transiently increased basal [3H]ACh outflow in a 2′,3′-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine-5′-triphosphate (TNP-ATP)-dependent, tetrodotoxin-independent manner. ATP and ATPγS (adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate), but not α,β-methyleneATP, decreased [3H]ACh release induced by electrical stimulation. ADP and ADPβS (adenosine 5′[β-thio]diphosphate) only decreased evoked [3H]ACh release. Inhibition by ADPβS was prevented by MRS 2179 (2′-deoxy-N6-methyl adenosine 3′,5′-diphosphate diammonium salt, a selective P2Y1 antagonist); blockade of ADP inhibition required co-application of MRS 2179 plus adenosine deaminase (which inactivates endogenous adenosine). Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine enhanced ADPβS inhibition, indicating that P2Y1 stimulation is cut short by tonic adenosine A1 receptor activation. MRS 2179 facilitated evoked [3H]ACh release, an effect reversed by the ecto-ATPase inhibitor, ARL67156, which delayed ATP conversion into ADP without affecting adenosine levels. Conclusions and implications: ATP transiently facilitated [3H]ACh release from non-stimulated nerve terminals via prejunctional P2X (probably P2X2) receptors. Hydrolysis of ATP directly into AMP by

  13. Absence of peristalsis in the ileum of W/W(V) mutant mice that are selectively deficient in myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Tadashi; Misawa, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki; Takaki, Miyako

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that the enteric nervous system plays a key role in the generation of gastrointestinal peristaltic movements. Recently, the networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) have been found to be essential in the generation of spontaneous gastrointestinal movements. However, the role of ICC in the mechanisms involved in the generation of peristaltic movements is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to reveal how pacemaker myenteric ICC (ICC-MY) and the enteric nervous system contribute to the mechanisms involved in the generation of intestinal peristalsis. We compared spontaneous peristaltic movements of the ileum in wild type (WT) mice with those in W/W(V) mutant mice which are selectively deficient in ICC-MY. Simultaneous recordings were made from both the circular and longitudinal muscle of a 4-cm long segment of ileum under hydrostatic pressure of 0--0.5 cm H(2)O. Mechanical activity and continuous video-images of the ileum were compared between WT and W/W(V) mutant mice under control conditions, in the presence of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and after tetrodotoxin (TTX). In the WT mouse ileum, peristaltic waves to propagate from the oral to the anal end were frequently observed. The frequency of these peristaltic waves and their associated synchronous longitudinal and circular muscle contractions was increased by L-NAME. The peristaltic waves were abolished by TTX. In the W/W(V) mutant mouse ileum, no peristaltic waves to propagate from the oral to the anal end were observed in control and even after L-NAME, although the local spontaneously generated longitudinal and circular muscle contractions were enhanced by L-NAME. These local contractions were not abolished by TTX. The results presented here suggested that ICC-MY are essential for the generation of spontaneous intestinal peristaltic movements. It is conceivable that ICC-MY may determine the polarity of the excitation of the intestine such that longitudinal and

  14. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  15. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...

  16. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  17. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  18. Positive regard.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A; Doolin, Erin M

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews the research on the association between therapists' provision of positive regard and therapeutic outcome. Rogers' attempts to define the concept of positive regard are noted and two examples of positive regard are presented. A new meta-analysis, focusing on 18 studies, yielded an aggregate effect size of .27 (CI = .16, .38; p < .000; k = 18; N = 1067), indicating that positive regard has a moderate association with psychotherapy outcomes; like many other relational factors, it is a significant but not exhaustive part of the process-outcome equation. Therapists' provision of positive regard is strongly indicated in practice; at a minimum, it provides the basis for other mutative interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  20. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  1. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  2. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  3. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  4. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  5. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  6. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  7. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  8. Diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis is associated with loss of CD206-positive macrophages in the gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Grover, M; Bernard, C E; Pasricha, P J; Parkman, H P; Gibbons, S J; Tonascia, J; Koch, K L; McCallum, R W; Sarosiek, I; Hasler, W L; Nguyen, L A B; Abell, T L; Snape, W J; Kendrick, M L; Kellogg, T A; McKenzie, T J; Hamilton, F A; Farrugia, G

    2017-06-01

    Animal studies have increasingly highlighted the role of macrophages in the development of delayed gastric emptying. However, their role in the pathophysiology of human gastroparesis is unclear. Our aim was to determine changes in macrophages and other cell types in the gastric antrum muscularis propria of patients with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Full thickness gastric antrum biopsies were obtained from patients enrolled in the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium (11 diabetic, 6 idiopathic) and 5 controls. Immunolabeling and quantitative assessment was done for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) (Kit), enteric nerves protein gene product 9.5, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, tyrosine hydroxylase), overall immune cells (CD45) and anti-inflammatory macrophages (CD206). Gastric emptying was assessed using nuclear medicine scintigraphy and symptom severity using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index. Both diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis patients showed loss of ICC as compared to controls (Mean [standard error of mean]/hpf: diabetic, 2.28 [0.16]; idiopathic, 2.53 [0.47]; controls, 6.05 [0.62]; P=.004). Overall immune cell population (CD45) was unchanged but there was a loss of anti-inflammatory macrophages (CD206) in circular muscle (diabetic, 3.87 [0.32]; idiopathic, 4.16 [0.52]; controls, 6.59 [1.09]; P=.04) and myenteric plexus (diabetic, 3.83 [0.27]; idiopathic, 3.59 [0.68]; controls, 7.46 [0.51]; P=.004). There was correlation between the number of ICC and CD206-positive cells (r=.55, P=.008). Enteric nerves (PGP9.5) were unchanged: diabetic, 33.64 (3.45); idiopathic, 41.26 (6.40); controls, 46.80 (6.04). Loss of antral CD206-positive anti-inflammatory macrophages is a key feature in human gastroparesis and it is associates with ICC loss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Positive Deviance: Learning from Positive Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Gale, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume, each elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. The purpose of this paper is to delineate a methodology called positive deviance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an…

  10. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  11. Malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Alessandro; Kulamarva, Gautham; Dispenza, Francesco

    2012-08-01

    An insidious percentage of paroxysmal positional vertigo appears to be intractable with canalith repositioning maneuver and also is not self-limiting. This type of positional vertigo is sustained by the action of intracranial tumors that mimics the clinical aspects of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.Aim of this study is to clarify the features of these forms of positional vertigo, which we indicate as malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of all the patients who presented with vertigo spells and were managed at our tertiary care referral centre over a three years period. Two hundred and eleven patients with diagnosis of positional paroxysmal vertigo were included in the final study. Seven patients were affected by intracranial tumors causing a positional vertigo and were classified as malignant paroxysmal positional vertigo patients after radiological and histological diagnosis. These patients were affected by an internal auditory canal mass alone or with extension in the cerebello pontine angle that mimicked a benign positional vertigo. We can conclude that the clinician should keep in mind the differentiation between benign positional vertigo and malignant positional vertigo. When the patients with positional vertigo presents a strange behaviour of symptoms, nystagmus or response to the canalith repositioning maneuver a radiological investigation must be undertaken in every doubtful case. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  13. Reevaluating Support Staff Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project conducted by the Texas Tech University Library to review support staff positions, which led to salary increases, and an upgrade of one-third of the positions. Highlights include six examples of competencies required of support staff; six steps in the review process; and the position description questionnaire appended. (four…

  14. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  15. Change in the Interstitial Cells of Cajal and nNOS Positive Neuronal Cells with Aging in the Stomach of F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sun Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The gastric accommodation reflex is an important mechanism in gastric physiology. However, the aging-associated structural and functional changes in gastric relaxation have not yet been established. Thus, we evaluated the molecular changes of interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the function changes in the corpus of F344 rats at different ages (6-, 31-, 74-wk and 2-yr). The proportion of the c-Kit-positive area in the submucosal border (SMB) and myenteric plexus (MP) layer was significantly lower in the older rats, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. The density of the nNOS-positive immunoreactive area also decreased with age in the SMB, circular muscle (CM), and MP. Similarly, the percent of nNOS-positive neuronal cells per total neuronal cells and the proportion of nNOS immunoreactive area of MP also decreased in aged rats. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of c-Kit and nNOS significantly decreased with age. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and the pan-neuronal marker PGP 9.5 mRNA was significantly lower in the older rats than in the younger rats. Barostat studies showed no difference depending on age. Instead, the change of volume was significantly decreased by L-NG63-nitroarginine methyl ester in the 2-yr-old rats compared with the 6-wk-old rats (P = 0.003). Taken together, the quantitative and molecular nNOS changes in the stomach might play a role in the decrease of gastric accommodation with age. PMID:28045993

  16. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  18. Positioning With GPS: 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Benjamin W.; Hothem, Larry D.

    The First International Symposium on Precise Positioning With the Global Positioning System (GPS) was held in Rockville, Maryland from April 15 to April 19, 1985; 600 participants from 31 countries attended. Sponsors included the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Association of Geodesy, the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in cooperation with the American Society of Civil Engineers. GPS uses the NAVSTAR (an acronym for Navigation and Satellite Timing and Ranging) satellite system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD).Although this symposium was limited to precise positioning with GPS, the scope of precise positioning was left open. Without a doubt, precise relative positioning with L band carrier phase measurements was the most important topic. Also included were certain high-accuracy applications of pseudorange measurements, such as orbit determination, time transfer, and navigation. Administration, policy, hardware, software, processing, and applications in these areas were also covered. Intentionally left out were areas in which high positional accuracy was not important (e.g., commercial aviation). Attendees presented 89 papers, which were organized into 15 sessions covering nine subject areas: overview, status, and policy; GPS time and orbits; user equipment; user equipment testing; modeling and processing; applications; survey positioning results; practical aspects of geodesy; and dynamic positioning.

  19. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  20. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  1. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  2. Detecting Position Using ARKit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilek, Ufuk; Erol, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Developed by using ARKit, a novel app which can be used to detect position in physics experiments was introduced. The ARKit relies on a new technique. The result of the experiment presented in this study was satisfactory, suggesting that the new technique can be employed in position detection experiments/demonstrations that are conducted using…

  3. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  4. Global Positioning System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-08-01

    The article examines the international growth of Global Positioning System (GPS), the system that was originally developed more than 20 years ago and is now an $8 billion industry. Its uses include numerous civilian applications around the globe, inc...

  5. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  6. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  7. Position Measurement Standard Evaluation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-02-01

    The objectives of the Position Measurement Standard Program were to collect navigation data from three DME receivers and a low-frequency GLOBAL Navigation system, and evaluate their relative performance against a reference radar. Flight test data dur...

  8. Detecting position using ARKit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilek, Ufuk; Erol, Mustafa

    2018-03-01

    Developed by using ARKit, a novel app which can be used to detect position in physics experiments was introduced. The ARKit relies on a new technique. The result of the experiment presented in this study was satisfactory, suggesting that the new technique can be employed in position detection experiments/demonstrations that are conducted using mobile technology. This technique has several promising advantages over video analysis.

  9. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  10. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  11. Positive psychology. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M

    2000-01-01

    A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

  12. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  13. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  14. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  15. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  16. Massive Galileon positivity bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.

  17. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  18. Position and momentum tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kiukas, Jukka; Lahti, Pekka; Schultz, Jussi

    2009-05-15

    We illustrate the use of the statistical method of moments for determining the position and momentum distributions of a quantum object from the statistics of a single measurement. The method is used for three different, though related, models: the sequential measurement model, the Arthurs-Kelly model, and the eight-port homodyne detection model. In each case, the method of moments gives the position and momentum distributions for a large class of initial states, the relevant condition being the exponential boundedness of the distributions.

  19. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  20. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  1. Positive airway pressure treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and depression and a better mood Normal sleep patterns Lower blood pressure (in people with high blood pressure) Your health care provider will prescribe the type of PAP machine that ... patterns. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP or BIPAP) has ...

  2. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  3. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  4. A Positive Report Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Sally G.

    A high school English teacher found that one easy way to keep the idea of positive reinforcement foremost in her mind when she works with students was to use writing portfolios. A Portfolio Assessment project was designed in which portfolios were used in two sophomore and two junior regular English classes. A flexible plan was developed for using…

  5. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  6. POSITIONAL TOLERANCE TRAINING AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Nicovich, P A; Dell, R O

    1961-08-01

    An introduction is given to a method using training aids to implement a program on positional tolerancing, a modification in the dimensioning of engineering drawings. The training aids were designed for drafting personnel and can be equally effective in teaching the system to designers, machinists, and inspectors. (B.O.G.)

  7. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief recurrent episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is the most common etiology of recurrent vertigo and is caused by abnormal stimulation of the cupula by free-floating otoliths (canalolithiasis) or otoliths that have adhered to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) within any of the three semicircular canals. Typical symptoms and signs of BPPV are evoked when the head is positioned so that the plane of the affected semicircular canal is spatially vertical and thus aligned with gravity. Paroxysm of vertigo and nystagmus develops after a brief latency during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior-canal BPPV, and during the supine roll test in horizontal-canal BPPV. Positioning the head in the opposite direction usually reverses the direction of the nystagmus. The duration, frequency, and symptom intensity of BPPV vary depending on the involved canals and the location of otolithic debris. Spontaneous recovery may be expected even with conservative treatments. However, canalithrepositioning maneuvers usually provide an immediate resolution of symptoms by clearing the canaliths from the semicircular canal into the vestibule. PMID:20607044

  8. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  9. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  10. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  11. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  12. Global Positioning System Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    Waterways Experiment Station. Technical Monitors for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were Messrs. Robert H . Campbell, Glenn Drummond, Gerald...comprehensive listing of publications and papers dealing with the Global Positioning System. Aarons, J., H . E. Whitney, and R. S. Allen (1971). "Global...Report, Department of Surveying Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. Abidin, H . Z. (1988). "Real-time marine differential kinematic

  13. Membrane position control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.

  14. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  15. Position paper: periodontal maintenance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert E

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the role of periodontal maintenance procedures in the treatment of periodontal diseases. Reliance on this position paper in patient management will not guarantee a successful outcome, as periodontal diseases typically involve complex causes and symptoms. Ultimately, decisions regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disease, as well as subsequent preventive therapy, must be made by the treating practitioner based on specific circumstances presented by the patient.

  16. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-08-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  17. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  18. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  19. Position reconstruction in LUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  20. Position reconstruction in LUX

    DOE PAGES

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; ...

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessedmore » with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β - with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV). Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. Lastly, the reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.« less

  1. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  2. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  3. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  4. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  5. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  6. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  7. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  8. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Positioning Service (SPS) consists of space-based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) signals delivered free of direct user fees for peaceful civil, commercial, and scientific uses worldwide. Th...

  9. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  10. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  11. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  12. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  13. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  14. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  15. Friction drive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waclawik, Ronald E.; Cayer, James L.; Lapointe, Kenneth M.

    1991-10-01

    A spring force loaded contact wheel mounted in a stationary position relative to a reciprocating shaft is disclosed. The apparatus of the present invention includes a tensioning assembly for maintaining absolute contact between the contact wheel and the reciprocating shaft wherein the tensioning assembly urges the contact wheel against the shaft to maintain contact therebetween so that the wheel turns as the shaft is linearly displaced. A rotary encoding device is coupled to the wheel for translating the angular and rotational movement thereof into an electronic signal for providing linear displacement information and derivative data with respect to displacement of the shaft. Absolute friction contact and cooperative interaction between the shaft and the contact wheel is further enhanced in the preferred embodiment by advantageously selecting the types of surface finish and the amount of surface area of the contact wheel relative to the surface condition of the shaft as well as by reducing the moment of inertia of the contact wheel.

  16. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  17. Intrauterine position effects.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Bryce C; Vandenbergh, John G

    2002-10-01

    A review of the literature suggests that individual variability in sex-related traits may be influenced by variations in hormonal exposure during fetal development. In litter-bearing mammals, fetuses develop in utero and may be subjected to differing hormonal environments based upon the sex of neighboring fetuses. Female fetuses developing between two males tend to show masculinized anatomical, physiological and behavioral traits as adults. Female fetuses developing without adjacent males, on the other hand, tend to show more feminized traits as adults. These traits include permanently altered hormone levels, reproductive organs, aggressive behaviors, secondary sex ratios and susceptibility to endocrine disruption. This intrauterine effect is due to the transfer of testosterone from male fetuses to adjacent fetuses. While these effects have been most clearly demonstrated in mice, other rodents and swine also show intrauterine position (IUP) effects. Some of these effects are similar to the influence of prenatal stress on adult phenotypes. A few reports on human twins suggest that variability in some masculine and feminine traits may be due to intrauterine hormonal signals. IUP effects may impact a number of scientific fields of research such as endocrine disruption, toxicology, population biology, animal production and health.

  18. Positive Technologies for Understanding and Promoting Positive Emotions.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa María; Carrillo, Alba; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-26

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become increasingly present in our lives, and their use has spread considerably. This paper presents a review of the way ICTs can help practitioners and researchers to study, promote, and train positive emotions. It is framed within the field of Positive Technologies: the applied scientific approach to the study of the use of technology to improve the quality of personal experience, with the goal of increasing wellbeing. First, the article presents an introduction to the topic of technologies and positive emotions. Then, it describes how ICTs can aid in monitoring, assessing, promoting, modifying, and training positive emotions. Finally, implications and future directions of the role of Positive Technologies in positive emotions are discussed. The authors conclude that, in the near future, Positive Technologies and the field of positive emotions will interact synergistically, producing an exponential growth in the understanding and promotion of positive emotions.

  19. Guideline Implementation: Positioning the Patient.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, Byron L

    2017-09-01

    Every surgical procedure requires positioning the patient; however, all surgical positions are associated with the potential for the patient to experience a positioning injury. The locations and types of potential injuries (eg, stretching, compression, pressure injury) depend on the position. Factors that may increase the patient's risk for an injury are the length of the procedure and risk factors inherent to the patient (eg, weight, age, frailty). AORN's updated "Guideline for positioning the patient" provides guidance on injury prevention practices for all surgical positions including supine, Trendelenburg, reverse Trendelenburg, lateral, lithotomy, prone, and sitting positions and modifications of these positions. This article focuses on the key points of the guideline covering the use of prophylactic dressings, neurophysiological monitoring, and safely positioning the patient in the supine and prone positions. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  1. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  2. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  3. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  4. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  5. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas [Berkeley, CA; Schaff, Oliver [Berlin, DE

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  6. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas [Berkeley, CA; Schaff, Oliver [13355 Berlin, DE

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  7. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  8. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  9. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  10. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  11. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  12. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  13. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  14. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  15. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  16. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  17. A survey of position trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kenneth; Applewhite, Hugh L.; Biocca, Frank A.

    This paper is a survey of position-tracking technologies and their use in virtual reality (VR) applications. A framework is established to evaluate the suitability of a position-tracking implementation for virtual reality use. Mechanical, optical, magnetic, and acoustic implementations are discussed with examples of each. Also, the effect of position tracking on a virtual reality user is discussed, especially with regard to the position tracker's role as a cause of simulation sickness. A catalog of implementations and uses is included in an appendix.

  18. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  19. A Blueprint for Positive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Saf Lerman

    1991-01-01

    With support and education from various sources, parents can be introduced to positive, nonhurtful, constructive approaches to child rearing that permit children to grow in an environment which nurtures the body, soul, and mind. The article presents guidelines for positive parenting that teach children to look to adults for support. (SM)

  20. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  1. Kepler Certified False Positive Table

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Batalha, Natalie Marie; Colon, Knicole Dawn; Coughlin, Jeffrey Langer; Haas, Michael R.; Henze, Chris; Huber, Daniel; Morton, Tim; Rowe, Jason Frank; Mullally, Susan Elizabeth; hide

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the Kepler Certied False Positive table hosted at the Exoplanet Archive1, herein referred to as the CFP table. This table is the result of detailed examination by the Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) of declared false positives in the Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) tables (see, for example, Batalha et al. (2012); Burke et al.(2014); Rowe et al. (2015); Mullally et al. (2015); Coughlin et al. (2015b)) at the Exoplanet Archive. A KOI is considered a false positive if it is not due to a planet orbiting the KOI's target star. The CFP table contains all KOIs in the Exoplanet Archive cumulative KOI table. The purpose of the CFP table is to provide a list of certified false positive KOIs. A KOI is certified as a false positive when, in the judgement of the FPWG, there is no plausible planetary interpretation of the observational evidence, which we summarize by saying that the evidence for a false positive is compelling. This certification process involves detailed examination using all available data for each KOI, establishing a high-reliability ground truth set. The CFP table can be used to estimate the reliability of, for example, the KOI tables which are created using only Kepler photometric data, so the disposition of individual KOIs may differ in the KOI and CFP tables. Follow-up observers may find the CFP table useful to avoid observing false positives.

  2. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / The Power of Positive Emotions ... español El poder de las emociones positivas All Emotions Are Natural Let's say you start to brainstorm ...

  3. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aulthouse, Michelle; Kolbert, Jered B.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Crothers, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    The article details how school counselors can use principles of positive psychology to promote students' career development by facilitating students' pursuit of purpose and meaning. Specifically, the publication identifies how school counselors can actively employ with their students five constructs of positive psychology--namely strengths,…

  4. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  5. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  6. Analysis Of Light Spot Position Using Semiconductor Position Sensitive Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronowska, Irena; Strupczewska, Krystyna

    1986-11-01

    Output signal from a position sensitive detector illuminated by means of an optical fiber was measured. Light sources were light emitting diode CQYP 06W or CQDP 42 W. Linear characteristics of the signal height as a function of light spot positions were obtained. Output signal from the detector was also measured using two optical fibers with a fixed distance between them. The measured slope of the linear characteristic for one optical fiber was a1 = [10,49 +/- 0,14] mV/mm and for two optical fibers: a2 = [20,07 +/- 0,20] mV/mm Use of two optical fibers causes a rapid change of the output signal and results in a sudden jump of the characteristic slope. The results point to a possibility of an application of position sensitive detectors for an analysis of light spot position using one or more optical fibers.

  7. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages ofmore » maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.« less

  8. False positives in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joseph K; Tarone, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    A recent attempt to estimate the false-positive rate for cancer epidemiology studies is based on agents in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) category 3 (agent not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans) in the IARC Monographs Program. The estimation method is critiqued regarding biases caused by its reliance on the IARC classification criteria for assessing carcinogenic potential. The privileged position given to epidemiologic studies by the IARC criteria ensures that the percentage of positive epidemiologic studies for an agent will depend strongly on the IARC category to which the agent is assigned. Because IARC category 3 is composed of agents with the lowest-assessed carcinogenic potential to which the estimation approach in question could be applied, a spuriously low estimated false-positive rate was necessarily the outcome of this approach. Tendentious estimation approaches like that employed will by necessity produce spuriously low and misleading false positive rates. The recently reported estimates of the false-positive rate in cancer epidemiology are seriously biased and contribute nothing substantive to the literature on the very real problems related to false-positive findings in epidemiology.

  9. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  10. Positive geometries and canonical forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex

  11. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  12. PHOTOELECTRIC CONTROL FOR TAPE POSITIONING

    DOEpatents

    Woody, J.W. Jr.

    1961-07-25

    A control system is described for producing control impulses which may be used to start, stop, and position a magnetic tape with respect to a transducer, and to locate discrete areas on the tape. Means are provided for positive identification of data blocks, exact positioning of the tape under the magnetic head, drive in either direction, accurate skip-over of imperfect regions of the tape, stopping the tape if equipment malfunction results in a failure to detect the block-identifying signals, and starting and stopping those parts of the tape between of the tape drive clutches.

  13. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  14. WHO position on measles vaccines.

    PubMed

    2009-12-09

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of measles vaccines excerpted from the recently published measles vaccines: WHO position paper. This revised WHO position paper on measles vaccines replaces the corresponding paper published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in March 2004. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international impact on public health. These papers, which are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes, summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with the current WHO position concerning their use in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization.

  15. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  16. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  17. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools position is presented on dental school curriculum and administration, peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, ionizing radiation in dental education facilities, and due process. (MSE)

  18. Positive train control shared network.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-05-01

    The Interoperable Train Control (ITC) Positive : Train Control (PTC) Shared Network (IPSN) : project investigated anticipated industry benefits : and the level of support for the development of : a hosted technological platform for PTC : messaging ac...

  19. Positivity of the English Language

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  20. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Management iv Abstract This research is aimed at improving the state of the art of GPS algorithms, namely, the development of a closed...form positioning algorithm for a stand-alone user and the development of a novel differential GPS algorithm for a network of users. The stand-alone...user GPS algorithm is a direct, closed-form, and efficient new position determination algorithm that exploits the closed-form solution of the GPS

  1. Three-Position Cryogenic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.; White, James

    1989-01-01

    Linear actuator set at one of three positions by supplying gas at suitable pressure. Designed for use as part of relief valve in system storing liquid oxygen. Stops at any of three positions, depending on pressure at supply port. Seals made of polytetrafluorethylene for low friction at low temperatures. Use of polytetrafluoroethylene and large clearances reduces friction and makes possible operating over range of temperatures from -420 to 250 degree F (-251 to 121 degree C).

  2. Positive empathy: a therapeutic skill inspired by positive psychology.

    PubMed

    Conoley, Collie W; Pontrelli, Marla E; Oromendia, Mercedes Fernández; Del Carmen Bello, Beatriz; Nagata, Chelsea M

    2015-06-01

    Positive empathy (PE), a type of empathy response that focuses on a client's hidden message of desire for a better life, was hypothesized to increase the expression of positive emotions, approach goals, and strengths, and to communicate equivalent understanding when compared to traditional empathy (TE). We examined 4 hypotheses in 2 studies. In study 1, college participants read therapy session vignettes incorporating PE or TE and then listed the client's strengths and goals and rated the therapist and how well they imagined themselves as the client in the vignettes. In study 2, therapist-client dyads attended 6 weekly sessions that incorporated both PE and TE, after which clients rated therapists' level of empathic understanding and session observers rated clients' emotional responses, revelations of strengths, and goals in response to empathy. In both studies, the results of PE and TE were similar, while PE elicited a greater number of approach goals. In study 2, clients expressed more strengths and positive emotions after PE responses than TE. Our results support PE for enhancing client growth (i.e., when a client pursues approach goals, enlists strengths, and experiences positive emotions), which is consistent with the process of positive psychology-informed psychotherapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Positioning diagnosis of benign positional paroxysmal vertigo by VNG].

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Chen, Taisheng; Lin, Peng; Song, Wei; Dong, Hong

    2009-07-01

    To analyze the value of positioning diagnosis of VNG (Videonystagmograph) in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). One hundred and twenty-six patients with BPPV were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their positional nystagmus recorded by VNG in Dix-Hallpike and roll tests were analyzed to summarize the characteristics of nystagmus on nystagmography of various BPPV. Of 126 patients with BPPV diagnosed in our center, the posterior semicircular canals (PSC) were involved in 98 patients (77.8%), whereas the horizontal semicircular canal (HSC) and anterior semicircular canal (ASC) were involved in 17 (13.5%) and 5 (3.9%), respectively. Six patients (4.8%) confirmed combined-BPPV had HSC-BPPV and ipsilateral PSC-BPPV. Twenty-eight patients with PSC-BPPV had reversal phase on nystagmography. The nystagmus of patients with P/ASC-canalithiasis showed upward/downward on the vertical phase of nystagmography and orientated the opposite side on horizontal phase in the head hanging position, and the nystagmus reversed when returned to sit. Nystagmus on horizontal phase could be provoked when the head turned to both sides of the roll tests in patients with HSC-BPPV. If the nystagmus and the head-turning shared the same direction, then HSC-canalithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the stronger nystagmus indicates the lesion side. If the nystagmus and the head-turning had the opposite direction, then HSC-cupulolithiasis was confirmed, and the direction of the head-turning which provoked the weaker nystagmus indicates the lesion side. Positional nystagmus can be recorded objectively using VNG, According to which positioning the semicircular canal involved would be easier and more accurate. The recording conserved also could be helpful for clinical diagnosis and repositioning of BPPV.

  4. Aircraft positioning using Global Positioning System carrier phase data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, William B.; Martin, Chreston F.

    1987-01-01

    Results from a flight test of a GPS carrier phase tracking receiver operated on a NASA Orion P-3 aircraft are presented. The trajectory of the aircraft relative to a second, fixed receiver has been determined. The test was made over water, and the GPS vertical trajectory is compared to airborne lidar measured altitude data from the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar. The two data sets compare with a relative accuracy of 12 centimeters rms, under poor GPS satellite geometry for vertical positioning. Analysis indicates that 1 to 2 centimeters relative vertical positioning is achievable with carrier phase tracking receivers and good GPS geometry.

  5. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  6. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  7. Position-Numeral Equivalences and Delayed Position Recognition Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Harry A.; Ratti, Carla A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of equivalence class formation in delayed position recognition span performance was examined with three mentally retarded adults. Matching-to-sample training established equivalence classes. In subsequent span tests, subject-produced numeral names led to dramatic increases in span scores. The equivalences provided precursors of verbal…

  8. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  9. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  10. [Positional obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Vat, S; Haba-Rubio, J; Heinzer, R

    2013-11-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) tends to worsen on the supine posture due to the effect of gravity on tongue position. In some cases, OSA is present exclusively on the supine posture (exclusive postural OSA). These patients may benefit from positional therapy (PT), which aim is to prevent sleep in the supine posture using different types of devices. Before opting for this therapeutic option, a sleep study with PT should be perform in order to confirm its efficacy and assess the patients' tolerance. Because the efficacy of PT is inferior to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the latter treatment remains the first line of therapy. Also, the discomfort of the existing devices appears to limit the long term use of PT. Further studies assessing the long term effects of PT on metabolic and neurocognitive outcomes are needed.

  11. INTEGRAL POSITIONING AND INDICATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.; Warnick, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A variable capacitor which may be used as an integral positioning and indicating device is descried. The apparatus comprises a hollow metal cylinder with a metal rod mounted fixedly along the axis thereof and insulated therefrom. A hollow shaft is slidably mounted between the cylinder and the rod in electrical connection with the cylinder and insulated from the rod. One end of the shaft is disposed between the cylinder and the rod and the other end extends therefrom and may be connected to an object whose position is to be monitored. Means are provided to move the hollow shaft by pressure fluid in the cylinder whereby the capacitance between the rod and the cylinder is varied and measurement of which is a function of the position of the hollow shaft.

  12. The future of positive therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel

    2006-01-01

    Responds to commentary by S. J. Lopez and B. A. Kerr (see record 2006-07640-002) on the current author's original article (see record 2006-07640-001). In their commentary on strength-centered therapy (ST), Lopez and Kerr (2006) called for an open-source approach to developing positive psychological practices. In this rejoinder, the author responds to their comments, provides clarifications on ST, and discusses the future of positive therapy. Specifically, the author calls for future scholarship to address (1) the contributions of social constructionist therapies, (2) positive systemic influences in psychotherapy, and (3) diverse conceptualizations of strengths and optimal human functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Sleep position and shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Zenian, John

    2010-04-01

    The overuse theory for musculoskeletal joint pain cannot explain adequately the occurrence of shoulder pain in those who do not engage in activities that involve repeated and stressful use of the shoulder since the percentage of the painful right shoulders usually does not match the percentage of dominant right arms in such individuals. An alternative hypothesis is presented to propose that shoulder pain is caused by postural immobility in the decubitus or side position during sleep. Prolonged pressure on the shoulder caused by the weight of the thorax can produce enough damage to cause subsequent shoulder pain. In order to test this hypothesis, a preliminary study was carried out to compare the laterality of shoulder pain with the laterality of sleep position. The calculated laterality ratios for sleep position and shoulder pain were found to be strikingly similar, suggesting a causal relationship between the two phenomena. However, the prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population was found to be smaller than the percentage of the time people would spend sleeping in the decubitus position. This discrepancy could be explained by the idea that in order for shoulder pain to develop subjects may have to spend longer times in the same decubitus position before changing to another position than the average person would. Additional evidence from published clinical studies also supports the postural theory of shoulder pain. More studies can be done to test this hypothesis by focusing on the sleep habits of patients with shoulder pain. According to the present hypothesis shoulder pain should for the most part occur on the side that the patient preferred to sleep on before the onset of shoulder pain. The postural theory of shoulder pain provides the possibility for a new and noninvasive method to treat shoulder pain by the modification of posture during sleep. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  15. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  16. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  17. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  18. Remote electrically passive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Markos, Constantine T.; Rieder, R. J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.

    1999-02-01

    We will report on the design and testing of a precision, remote, via fiber optics position transducer suitable for incorporation in a closed loop fly-by-light positioning system. The design is based on Visidyne developed technology for an ultra high resolution optical radar based on Continuous Wave modulated light at a frequency of 1 GHz. It produces digital position data with 12 bit precision e.g., for a travel distance, stroke of 6 inches or greater at a bandwidth, update rate of 1 KHz. The passive nature of the transducer at the actuator location and the high operating frequency makes it highly tolerant to even extreme levels of Electro Magnetic Interference and when constructed from high temperature material is can operate at temperatures well in excess of 300 degrees C. We will discuss transducer performance, precision and position stability with particular emphasis on the effects of length changes within the multi-mode optical fibers used to deliver and collect the light to and from the transducer. We will also discuss cost aspects of the design and their effect on overcoming market entry barriers.

  19. Creating a Positive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author believes happy staff make for happy classrooms and happy classrooms make for happy children. However, with all the pressures facing child care programs--from the economy to state requirements--creating and maintaining a positive work environment becomes tougher and tougher. In this article, the author discusses the importance of…

  20. Collective irrationality and positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Nicolis, Stamatios C; Zabzina, Natalia; Latty, Tanya; Sumpter, David J T

    2011-04-26

    Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent "irrationalities". We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions.

  1. Collective Irrationality and Positive Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Zabzina, Natalia; Latty, Tanya; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments on ants and slime moulds have assessed the degree to which they make rational decisions when presented with a number of alternative food sources or shelter. Ants and slime moulds are just two examples of a wide range of species and biological processes that use positive feedback mechanisms to reach decisions. Here we use a generic, experimentally validated model of positive feedback between group members to show that the probability of taking the best of options depends crucially on the strength of feedback. We show how the probability of choosing the best option can be maximized by applying an optimal feedback strength. Importantly, this optimal value depends on the number of options, so that when we change the number of options the preference of the group changes, producing apparent “irrationalities”. We thus reinterpret the idea that collectives show "rational" or "irrational" preferences as being a necessary consequence of the use of positive feedback. We argue that positive feedback is a heuristic which often produces fast and accurate group decision-making, but is always susceptible to apparent irrationality when studied under particular experimental conditions. PMID:21541321

  2. Work zone positive protection guidelines.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this project was to develop implementation guidance that the Texas Department of : Transportation (TxDOT) can use to make better decisions regarding when and where to use positive : protection in work zones and when to consider exposure c...

  3. Position Papers on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    This document contains position papers presented at a 3-day conference dealing with the implications of career education for minority groups. Texts of these papers are included: (1) "Career Education Improves the Self Concept" by D.R. Baylor, (2) "Career Education and Black Americans" by W.F. Brazziel, (3) "Career Education: Expanded Options for…

  4. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  5. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  6. Teaching Persuasion: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary C.

    The synthesis of four instructional models for argumentative writing--the Toulmin, Hiduke, Winder, and Crebbe-Debate approaches--with basic discourse theory produces a practical and positive method of teaching college students to write effective persuasive essays. A battery of questions based on a modified communication triangle--subject…

  7. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  8. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  9. Does Positive Affect Influence Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights consistent patterns in the literature associating positive affect (PA) and physical health. However, it also raises serious conceptual and methodological reservations. Evidence suggests an association of trait PA and lower morbidity and of state and trait PA and decreased symptoms and pain. Trait PA is also associated with…

  10. The neurobiology of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Panksepp, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Compared to the study of negative emotions such as fear, the neurobiology of positive emotional processes and the associated positive affect (PA) states has only recently received scientific attention. Biological theories conceptualize PA as being related to (i) signals indicating that bodies are returning to equilibrium among those studying homeostasis, (ii) utility estimation among those favoring neuroeconomic views, and (iii) approach and other instinctual behaviors among those cultivating neuroethological perspectives. Indeed, there are probably several distinct forms of positive affect, but all are closely related to ancient sub-neocortical limbic brain regions we share with other mammals. There is now a convergence of evidence to suggest that various regions of the limbic system, including especially ventral striatal dopamine systems are implemented in an anticipatory (appetitive) positive affective state. Dopamine independent mechanisms utilizing opiate and GABA receptors in the ventral striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex are important in elaborating consummatory PA (i.e. sensory pleasure) states, and various neuropeptides mediate homeostatic satisfactions.

  11. Positive Pedagogy for Sport Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The literature suggests that, despite some challenges in their implementation, player/athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches to teaching games and coaching team sport can improve game playing ability, increase player/athlete motivation and provide positive affective experiences of learning. A range of these approaches, including Teaching Games…

  12. Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricitymore » where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.« less

  13. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Determining Position Using Global Positioning Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite is presented. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i,e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudorandom code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor caters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite cede sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  15. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search English Español 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  16. Pharmacological characterization of the inhibitory effects of neurotensin on the rabbit ileum myenteric plexus preparation.

    PubMed Central

    Huidobro-Toro, J. P.; Yoshimura, K.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotensin in picomolar concentrations caused a concentration-related inhibition of the spontaneous contractile activity of the longitudinal muscle from the rabbit isolated ileum. Neurotensin was approximately 100 times more potent than adrenaline and about 10000 times as active as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in producing similar relaxations. The neurotensin-induced inhibitory effect did not follow activation of adrenoceptors or P1-purinoceptors since the effect of the neuropeptide was not antagonized by a combination of phentolamine plus (-)-propranolol, nor by pretreatment with theophylline. Tetrodotoxin did not reduce the potency of neurotensin in relaxing the rabbit ileum, suggesting that the neurotensin-induced inhibition is not neuronally mediated. The inhibitory responses of neurotensin were blocked non-competitively by apamin. The inhibitory effect of neurotensin was short-lived with the subsequent development of tachyphylaxis, which was not crossed to the inhibitory action of adrenaline or ATP. Similarly, when tachyphylaxis to adrenaline or to ATP was established, the inhibitory action of neurotensin was unaffected. Desensitization was characterized by a gradual shift of the neuropeptide concentration-response curve to the right and downwards. Preincubation of rabbit ileum strips with 10 nM dynorphin (1-13) significantly increased the inhibitory action of neurotensin. PMID:6152827

  17. System for precise position registration

    DOEpatents

    Sundelin, Ronald M.; Wang, Tong

    2005-11-22

    An apparatus for enabling accurate retaining of a precise position, such as for reacquisition of a microscopic spot or feature having a size of 0.1 mm or less, on broad-area surfaces after non-in situ processing. The apparatus includes a sample and sample holder. The sample holder includes a base and three support posts. Two of the support posts interact with a cylindrical hole and a U-groove in the sample to establish location of one point on the sample and a line through the sample. Simultaneous contact of the third support post with the surface of the sample defines a plane through the sample. All points of the sample are therefore uniquely defined by the sample and sample holder. The position registration system of the current invention provides accuracy, as measured in x, y repeatability, of at least 140 .mu.m.

  18. Positive Mental Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa; Marais, Ida; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Pettigrew, Simone

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a Rasch-derived short form of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale for use as a screening tool in the general population. Data from 2,005 18- to 69-year-olds revealed problematic discrimination at specific thresholds. Estimation of model fit also deviated from Rasch model expectations. Following deletion of 4 items, the 10 remaining items indicated the data fitted the model. No items showed differential item functioning, thereby making comparisons of overall positive mental well-being for the different age, gender, and income groups valid and accurate. Cronbach's alpha and Rasch Person Separation Index indicated a strong degree of reliability. Overall, the 10-item scale challenges researchers and clinicians to reconsider the assessment of positive mental well-being.

  19. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  20. Positive signs in massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. Furthermore, the high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small islandmore » in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. And while the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.« less

  1. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  2. Spacecraft Pointing and Position Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    without yaw reference. Because after damping of the mutation a yaw angle error only appears over the weak kinematic coup-Ing with the orbit rate in the... Europe ), more cost-effective provision of spare satellites, and avoidance of communications drop-outs due to Sun blinding of ground station receive... Kra (11) where K and Kr are real symmetric positive definite 9 x 9 proportional and rate gain matrices. It was proved in 8] that the closed-loop system

  3. Electronic Tag and Position Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    The intent of this study phase program was to adequately define the Electronic Tag and Position Sensor chip so as to be able to price and schedule the full design and development culminating in a silicon IC. Therefore, even though Hughes Aircraft Company feels that the approach submitted in this document is what should be developed, it is still considered preliminary and could change as the full design is developed.

  4. Capacitive Position Sensor For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Capacitive position sensor measures displacement of proof mass in prototype accelerometer described in "Single-Crystal Springs for Accelerometers" (NPO-18795). Sensor is ultrasensitive, miniature device operating at ultra-high frequency and described in more detail in "Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor," (NPO-18675). Advances in design and fabrication of prototype accelerometer also applicable to magnetometers and other sensors in which sensed quantities measured in terms of deflections of small springs.

  5. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  6. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in

  7. Helicopter Payload Position Sensor Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-01

    of the speed of propagation being constant (2.998 x 1010 cm/sec) and that the signal will indu.e an ac voltage into a receiving dipole whose ele...quency is approximately 300 MHz (I Ir) with receiving dipole antenna spac- ing of 1.155 meters. These parameters provide 360 degrees of phase dif...at known positions on the load, an alten- na system consisting of tour fixed dipoles mounted to the helicopter and an RF receiving system with phase

  8. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, R.J.

    1991-09-24

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection. 3 figures.

  9. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection.

  10. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  11. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  12. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

    2016-12-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

  13. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  14. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  16. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor....215 Equivalent position. (a) Equivalent position. An equivalent position is one that is virtually identical to the employee's former position in terms of pay, benefits and working conditions, including...

  17. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sensitive positions. 154.13 Section 154.13... positions. (a) Designation of sensitive positions. Certain civilian positions within the Department of... misconduct, malfeasance, or nonfeasance of an incumbent in any such position could result in an unacceptably...

  18. Ode to positive constructive daydreaming

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Singer, Jerome L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955, 1975, 2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999; Klinger, 1999, 2009). Here we review Singer’s enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer’s work, the adaptive nature of positive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest? PMID:24065936

  19. [Empathic leadership: shaping positive change].

    PubMed

    Wetterauer, U; Ruhl, S

    2011-12-01

    This paper explains the concept of empathic leadership in the setting of fundamental organisational changes. It deals with the question of how you can establish a culture of leadership, which motivates employees positively and enthuses them for the upcoming changes. It discusses the basics of empathic leadership and considers the question of how handling of emotions influences change processes and how different management styles can be used supportively during changes. With the help of a practical example the different phases of change are presented from a management point of view. Thereby the theory of different levels of employee motivation is explained inter alia. The article shows that empathic leadership also has a lasting economic effect. This can be seen particularly in the power of motivation for change, in addition to recruitment and long-term employee retention.

  20. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  1. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  2. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  3. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  4. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    PubMed

    Sahni, R; Wung, J T

    1998-01-01

    Progress in neonatal intensive care is closely linked to improvements in the management of respiratory failure in small infants. This applies to the care of the preterm infants with immature lungs, and also to treatment of the preterm or full term infants with specific diseases that are associated with respiratory failure. Respiratory distress of the newborn continues to account for significant morbidity in the intensive care unit. The spectrum of disease ranges from mild distress to severe respiratory failure requiring varying degrees of support. The current modalities of ventilatory assistance range from the more benign continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to conventional mechanical ventilation, and on to high frequency ventilation. It is a reasonable supposition that the type of ventilatory assistance provided to these infants should be graded according to the severity of the disease. However, the principal objective in selecting the mode of respiratory support should be to use a modality which results in minimal volo- or barotrauma to the infant. The following detailed description on CPAP explains its physiological effects, delivery system, indications for use, application, maintenance, and associated complications. The equipment described is simple to use, has a greater cost benefit, and has a more universal application, which is of help to smaller units including those in the developing parts of the world. We have also included our institutional clinical experience of CPAP usage in very low birth weight infants from the periods before and after commercial availability of surfactant in the United States.

  5. Positive interactions promote public cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Dreber, Anna; Ellingsen, Tore; Fudenberg, Drew; Nowak, Martin A

    2009-09-04

    The public goods game is the classic laboratory paradigm for studying collective action problems. Each participant chooses how much to contribute to a common pool that returns benefits to all participants equally. The ideal outcome occurs if everybody contributes the maximum amount, but the self-interested strategy is not to contribute anything. Most previous studies have found punishment to be more effective than reward for maintaining cooperation in public goods games. The typical design of these studies, however, represses future consequences for today's actions. In an experimental setting, we compare public goods games followed by punishment, reward, or both in the setting of truly repeated games, in which player identities persist from round to round. We show that reward is as effective as punishment for maintaining public cooperation and leads to higher total earnings. Moreover, when both options are available, reward leads to increased contributions and payoff, whereas punishment has no effect on contributions and leads to lower payoff. We conclude that reward outperforms punishment in repeated public goods games and that human cooperation in such repeated settings is best supported by positive interactions with others.

  6. Position Error Covariance Matrix Validation and Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Joe, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In order to calculate operationally accurate collision probabilities, the position error covariance matrices predicted at times of closest approach must be sufficiently accurate representations of the position uncertainties. This presentation will discuss why the Gaussian distribution is a reasonable expectation for the position uncertainty and how this assumed distribution type is used in the validation and correction of position error covariance matrices.

  7. Positionalities, Personal Epistemologies, and Instruction: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' sense of who they are and what their positions are in relation to others is known to be their positionality. Positionalities influence individuals' conception of the world, thus their epistemologies. A few of the positionalities that exist, and included in this paper, are gender, spirituality, race/ethnicity, and social class. All…

  8. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or flashing...

  9. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or flashing...

  10. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or flashing...

  11. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or flashing...

  12. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or flashing...

  13. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  14. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  15. [Evaluation of eyebrow position using angular measures].

    PubMed

    Matai, Olívia; Lavezzo, Marcelo Mendes; Schellini, Silvana Artioli; Padovani, Carlos Roberto Pereira; Padovani, Carlos Roberto

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the eyebrow position in children and elderly using angle measurements. The eyebrow position was evaluated by digital images in 4 to 6-year-old children (children group) and in patients with 50 years or more (elderly group), separated by age range. The images were taken in the primary gaze position with a Sony Lithium camera and then transferred to a MacIntosh G4 computer and processed by the NIH 1.58 program. The eyebrow position was evaluated using angle measures. Comparisons were done according to age, sex and laterality and the data were submitted to statistical analysis. The comparison of the angular measures showed that there was a significant difference in the position of eyebrow position between the studied groups with the same age. But comparing children and elderly there were differences in all performed measurements. The eyebrow external angle positions showed differences between children and elderly with a positive association between eyebrow position and age.

  16. Positive basis for surface skein algebras

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Dylan Paul

    2014-01-01

    We show that the twisted SL2 skein algebra of a surface has a natural basis (the bracelets basis) that is positive, in the sense that the structure constants for multiplication are positive integers. PMID:24982193

  17. Shoulder Arthroscopy in the Beach Chair Position.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John D; Frank, Rachel M; Hamamoto, Jason T; Provencher, Matthew T; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopic shoulder surgery can be performed in both the beach chair and lateral decubitus positions. The beach chair position is a reliable, safe, and effective position to perform nearly all types of shoulder arthroscopic procedures. The advantages of the beach chair position include the ease of setup, limited brachial plexus stress, increased glenohumeral and subacromial visualization, anesthesia flexibility, and the ability to easily convert to an open procedure. This position is most commonly used for rotator cuff repair, subacromial decompression, and superior labrum anterior-to-posterior repair procedures. To perform arthroscopy surgery in the beach chair position successfully, meticulous care during patient positioning and setup must be taken. In this Technical Note, we describe the necessary steps to safely and efficiently prepare patients in the beach chair position for arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

  18. Vehicle positioning trade study for ITS applications.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a detailed positioning study intended to evaluate various positioning technologies and their applicability to a suite of location dependent vehicle safety and mobility applications. The initial phases of the stud...

  19. Positive feelings reward and promote prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2018-04-01

    Humans are extraordinarily prosocial. What inspires and reinforces a willingness to help others? Here we focus on the role of positive feelings. Drawing on functional accounts of positive emotion, which suggest that positive emotional states serve to alert actors to positive experiences and encourage similar action in the future, we summarize evidence demonstrating that positive feelings promote and reward prosocial behavior throughout development. Specifically, we highlight new and classic evidence from both child and adult research showing first, that various positive states prompt prosocial behavior, and second, prosocial action leads to positive states. We also consider the possibility of a positive feedback loop, wherein the emotional rewards of giving promote future prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-calibrating solar position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2018-01-30

    A sun positioning sensor and method of accurately tracking the sun are disclosed. The sensor includes a position sensing diode and a disk having a body defining an aperture for accepting solar light. An extension tube having a body that defines a duct spaces the position sensing diode from the disk such that the solar light enters the aperture in the disk, travels through the duct in the extension tube and strikes the position sensing diode. The extension tube has a known length that is fixed. Voltage signals indicative of the location and intensity of the sun are generated by the position sensing diode. If it is determined that the intensity values are unreliable, then historical position values are used from a table. If the intensity values are deemed reliable, then actual position values are used from the position sensing diode.

  1. Self-calibrating solar position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2018-01-30

    A sun positioning sensor and method of accurately tracking the sun are disclosed. The sensor includes a position sensing diode and a disk having a body defining an aperture for accepting solar light. An extension tube having a body that defines a duct spaces the position sensing diode from the disk such that the solar light enters the aperture in the disk, travels through the duct in the extension tube and strikes the position sensing diode. The extension tube has a known length that is fixed. Voltage signals indicative of the location and intensity of the sun are generated bymore » the position sensing diode. If it is determined that the intensity values are unreliable, then historical position values are used from a table. If the intensity values are deemed reliable, then actual position values are used from the position sensing diode.« less

  2. The Supine Position for Shoulder Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iamsumang, Chonlathan; Chernchujit, Bancha

    2016-10-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is traditionally performed with the patient in either the beach chair position or the lateral decubitus position. Each position has its advantages and disadvantages. The main topics for consideration include ease of surgery, view into the surgical field, risks to the patient, and economics of the setup. In the lateral decubitus position, it is inconvenient to work through the anterior portal and it is difficult to convert to an open procedure. In the beach chair position, it is difficult to manage the airway and cerebral oxygenation and the patient's head and the beach chair frame obstruct the insertion of a scope into the superior and posterior portals. This technical note presents the supine position for shoulder arthroscopic surgery. The supine position does not have the disadvantages of the traditional positions. In addition, it is comparatively easy to set up and comfortable for the patient.

  3. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive. PMID:17273329

  4. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate...

  5. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  6. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, skip...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, skip...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, skip...

  12. Positive Psychology and Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts of positive psychology related to quality physical education. Positive psychology and the scientific study of happiness refer to three paths or pursuits: the pleasant life (positive emotion), the engaged life (engagement), and the meaningful life (meaning). When individuals are aware of, pursue,…

  13. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's education...

  14. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's education...

  15. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's education...

  16. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's education...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  18. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  1. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  2. Analysis of Naval Ammunition Stock Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    positioning system. The purpose of this project is to analyze the cost and delivery performance risk associated with either centralizing the Navys...ammunition stockpiles and positioning them at an inland Army depot or decentralizing the ammunition stockpiles and positioning them at coastal Navy

  3. A Survey of Mainstream Indoor Positioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fangzheng

    2017-10-01

    Indoor positioning problems have been one of the most challenging research topics in recent years, which comprise smartphone-based indoor localization, tracking, and navigation. Many positioning systems have been designed to provide such reliable indoor location-based services (LBS). In this paper, we have compared different indoor positioning systems, and discussed its future improvements.

  4. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate...

  5. 5 CFR 2634.307 - Outside positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Outside positions. 2634.307 Section 2634... positions. (a) In general. Each financial disclosure report filed pursuant to this subpart shall identify all positions held at any time by the filer during the reporting period, as an officer, director...

  6. 14 CFR 99.15 - Position reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position reports. 99.15 Section 99.15... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.15 Position reports. (a) The... make the position reports required in § 91.183; and (2) In uncontrolled airspace, must make the...

  7. 5 CFR 317.403 - General positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General positions. 317.403 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Qualifications Standards § 317.403 General positions. An agency may apply the criteria in § 317.402 when developing qualifications standards for general positions. If it does...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, skip...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage...

  10. 49 CFR 236.784 - Position, deenergized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position, deenergized. 236.784 Section 236.784 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Position, deenergized. The position assumed by the moving member of an electromagnetic device when the...

  11. 5 CFR 317.403 - General positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General positions. 317.403 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Qualifications Standards § 317.403 General positions. An agency may apply the criteria in § 317.402 when developing qualifications standards for general positions. If it does...

  12. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's education...

  13. 14 CFR 99.15 - Position reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position reports. 99.15 Section 99.15... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC General § 99.15 Position reports. (a) The... make the position reports required in § 91.183; and (2) In uncontrolled airspace, must make the...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage, skip...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator. An accurate and reliable indicator of the position of the cage...

  16. 49 CFR 236.784 - Position, deenergized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position, deenergized. 236.784 Section 236.784 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Position, deenergized. The position assumed by the moving member of an electromagnetic device when the...

  17. Position Analysis in Education. Team Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccuzzi, Anthony V.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of position analysis to administrative assignments in education, and to ascertain criteria to be used in adapting position analysis to public education. Position analysis techniques are used to determine the relative worth of jobs in an organization by placing their scope of…

  18. OI Positive: A Look at Unbreakable Spirits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the positive outlook of parents and children with OI (Osteogenesis Imperfecta or simply, brittle bones), who attended the 15th Biennial National OI Conference. The author believes that the attendees positive attitudes comes from the positive influences they have had from the beginning. One example of an…

  19. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries.

  20. Theoretical optimum of implant positional index design.

    PubMed

    Semper, W; Kraft, S; Krüger, T; Nelson, K

    2009-08-01

    Rotational freedom of the implant-abutment connection influences its screw joint stability; for optimization, influential factors need to be evaluated based on a previously developed closed formula. The underlying hypothesis is that the manufacturing tolerances, geometric pattern, and dimensions of the index do not influence positional stability. We used the dimensions of 5 commonly used implant systems with a clearance of 20 microm to calculate the extent of rotational freedom; a 3D simulation (SolidWorks) validated the analytical findings. Polygonal positional indices showed the highest degrees of rotational freedom. The polygonal profile displayed higher positional stability than the polygons, but less positional accuracy than the cam-groove connection. Features of a maximal rotation-safe positional index were determined. The analytical calculation of rotational freedom of implant positional indices is possible. Rotational freedom is dependent on the geometric design of the index and may be decreased by incorporating specific aspects into the positional index design.

  1. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Positive Psychiatry: Its Time Has Come

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.; Rettew, David C.; Boardman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit non-clinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (e.g., well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom - including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry Interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine, rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall healthcare of the population. PMID:26132670

  3. ERROR COMPENSATOR FOR A POSITION TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.

    1962-06-12

    A device is designed for eliminating the effect of leadscrew errors in positioning machines in which linear motion of a slide is effected from rotary motion of a leadscrew. This is accomplished by providing a corrector cam mounted on the slide, a cam follower, and a transducer housing rotatable by the follower to compensate for all the reproducible errors in the transducer signal which can be related to the slide position. The transducer has an inner part which is movable with respect to the transducer housing. The transducer inner part is coupled to the means for rotating the leadscrew such that relative movement between this part and its housing will provide an output signal proportional to the position of the slide. The corrector cam and its follower perform the compensation by changing the angular position of the transducer housing by an amount that is a function of the slide position and the error at that position. (AEC)

  4. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the Family Stress Model and the Family Resilience Framework. The study included 220 generation one (G1) parents, their target youth (generation two: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target’s child (generation three: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting which, in turn, was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children. PMID:26371448

  6. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  7. [The emergence of positive occupational health psychology].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.

  8. Target Acquisition and Positioning Study (TAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Scientific Instruments for the Large Space Telescope (LST) require a high degree of accuracy for positioning targets within their respective entrance apertures. The acquisition, verification of position, and guidance during an experiment must be accomplished with a minimum loss of observing time for the maximum effectiveness of the total mission. This study evaluates several viable concepts and modes of operation that are applicable for a Target Acquisition and Positioning System (TAPS) that is responsive to the LST instrument requirements.

  9. Position Request | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Staff Only - Use this form (NIH login required) to advertise open training or career positions. You are required to list information about the position, as well as contact information so that potential applicants may reach you. Mandatory fields are marked by an asterisk (*). A confirmation e-mail will be sent to the address listed in the "Contact E-mail" field upon completion and submission of the form. All position announcements are reviewed for accuracy and completeness before they are posted

  10. Quick Turnaround Positive Polarity Options for Mercury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    to field an ion-beam diode.[2] However, rotating the cells takes about 2 to 3 weeks and is very labor intensive. So, when we next needed to...operate in positive polarity, we considered two options to quickly turnaround Mercury to positive polarity; reverse charging the Marx and fielding a...vacuum convolute. Charging the Marx with the opposite polarity is the simplest way to operate Mercury in positive polarity. However, because the

  11. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  12. Extending family nursing: concepts from positive psychology.

    PubMed

    Skerrett, Karen

    2010-11-01

    This article identifies the burgeoning field of positive psychology as an important extension to the knowledge base of family nursing. Representing a new emphasis from the traditional social and human sciences, which have largely focused on problem- and deficit-based approaches, positive psychology focuses on optimal functioning and is an ideal complement to the strengths-based orientation of family nursing. Domains of positive psychology are presented and exemplars of supporting research offered. Finally, suggestions are given for ways to apply concepts from positive psychology to family nursing practice, research, and education.

  13. System characterization of positive real conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Q.; Speyer, J. L.; Weiss, H.

    1991-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for positive realness in terms of state space matrices are presented under the assumption of complete controllability and complete observability of square systems with independent inputs. As an alternative to the positive real lemma and to the s-domain inequalities, these conditions provide a recursive algorithm for testing positive realness which result in a set of simple algebraic conditions. By relating the positive real property to the associated variational problem, a unified derivation of necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of both singular and nonsingular problems is derived.

  14. Model Based Vision for Aircraft Position Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Chatterji, Gano B.; Soni, Tarun; Showman, Robert D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of imaging sensors to estimate the position of an aircraft with respect to the runway during landing. Passive vision techniques to estimate aircraft position during landing rely on the known runway model, images acquired by onboard imaging sensor, orientation information provided by the inertial navigation system and the position estimate provided by devices such as the global positioning system. Point features in the runway model are compared with the onboard sensor images of the features and the difference between the two is used to correct the aircraft position and orientation. In this paper the sensitivity of point features is examined as a means of determining the accuracy of such position estimation techniques. Expressions are derived for the sensitivity of image point to errors in the position and orientation of the sensor. Using these, the sensitivity of the image to aircraft position and orientation errors along a typical landing glide path is studied. A least squares technique based on this sensitivity analysis is described for the correction of position and orientation estimates. The final version of the paper will include results from the application of this analysis to real image sequences collected in flight.

  15. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  16. Facial Indicators of Positive Emotions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Kathryn; Lampe, Jessica Frances; Hintze, Sara; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats. Adolescent male Lister Hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus, N = 15) were individually subjected to a Positive and a mildly aversive Contrast Treatment over two consecutive days in order to induce contrasting emotional states and to detect differences in facial expression. The Positive Treatment consisted of playful manual tickling administered by the experimenter, while the Contrast Treatment consisted of exposure to a novel test room with intermittent bursts of white noise. The number of positive ultrasonic vocalisations was greater in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment, indicating the experience of differentially valenced states in the two treatments. The main findings were that Ear Colour became significantly pinker and Ear Angle was wider (ears more relaxed) in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment. All other quantitative and qualitative measures of facial expression, which included Eyeball height to width Ratio, Eyebrow height to width Ratio, Eyebrow Angle, visibility of the Nictitating Membrane, and the established Rat Grimace Scale, did not show differences between treatments. This study contributes to the exploration of positive emotional states, and thus good welfare, in rats as it identified the first facial indicators of positive emotions following a positive heterospecific play treatment. Furthermore, it provides improvements to the photography technique and image analysis for the

  17. Facial Indicators of Positive Emotions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Kathryn; Lampe, Jessica Frances; Hintze, Sara; Würbel, Hanno; Melotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, research in animal welfare science has mainly focused on negative experiences like pain and suffering, often neglecting the importance of assessing and promoting positive experiences. In rodents, specific facial expressions have been found to occur in situations thought to induce negatively valenced emotional states (e.g., pain, aggression and fear), but none have yet been identified for positive states. Thus, this study aimed to investigate if facial expressions indicative of positive emotional state are exhibited in rats. Adolescent male Lister Hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus, N = 15) were individually subjected to a Positive and a mildly aversive Contrast Treatment over two consecutive days in order to induce contrasting emotional states and to detect differences in facial expression. The Positive Treatment consisted of playful manual tickling administered by the experimenter, while the Contrast Treatment consisted of exposure to a novel test room with intermittent bursts of white noise. The number of positive ultrasonic vocalisations was greater in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment, indicating the experience of differentially valenced states in the two treatments. The main findings were that Ear Colour became significantly pinker and Ear Angle was wider (ears more relaxed) in the Positive Treatment compared to the Contrast Treatment. All other quantitative and qualitative measures of facial expression, which included Eyeball height to width Ratio, Eyebrow height to width Ratio, Eyebrow Angle, visibility of the Nictitating Membrane, and the established Rat Grimace Scale, did not show differences between treatments. This study contributes to the exploration of positive emotional states, and thus good welfare, in rats as it identified the first facial indicators of positive emotions following a positive heterospecific play treatment. Furthermore, it provides improvements to the photography technique and image analysis for the

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: role of positioning.

    PubMed

    Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Torres, Antoni

    2011-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung infection commonly acquired following tracheal intubation. This review assesses the role of the supine semirecumbent and the prone position as VAP preventive strategies and calls attention for further investigation on novel body positions that could potentially reduce risks of VAP. The most recent studies on the semirecumbent position failed to achieve an orientation of the head of the bed higher than 30° and did not corroborate any benefit of the semirecumbent position on VAP, as reported in earlier studies. To date, there is clear evidence that the supine horizontal body position increases risks of pulmonary aspiration and VAP, particularly when patients are enterally fed. Laboratory reports are emphasizing the importance of an endotracheal tube-oropharynx-trachea axis below horizontal to avoid VAP. The prone position potentially increases drainage of oropharyngeal and airways secretions and recent evidence is supporting its beneficial effects. However, several associated adverse effects preclude its regular use as a VAP preventive strategy for patients other than those with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Body position greatly affects several pathogenetic mechanisms of VAP. The current evidence recommends avoidance of supine horizontal position in order to prevent aspiration of colonized gastric contents. The semirecumbent position has proven benefits and should be routinely used but there is still limited evidence to recommend the lowest orientation of the bed at which the patient can be safely maintained. Results from pioneering laboratory investigation call attention to new possible positions, that is lateral Trendelenburg position, aimed to avoid pulmonary aspiration and to enhance mucus clearance in intubated patients.

  19. Precursors of Non-Positive Integer Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Philip M.

    An influential proposal about aquiring mathematical knowledge is that it entails linking instruction-based concepts to intuitions derived from informal activities. In the case of non-positive numbers, informal knowledge is unlikely to emanate from observing physical objects, because non-positive objects or sets of objects do not exist. However, it…

  20. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  1. Positive Peer Culture with German Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Children and youth develop the ability to surmount difficult life challenges through a combination of external supports and internal strengths. Positive peers can contribute substantially to growth in resilient coping and problem-solving skills. Positive Peer Culture (PPC) programs are designed to strengthen supportive social bonds, competence,…

  2. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  3. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  4. Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieberer-Nagler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article offers practical information for primary teachers to become more knowledgable, skilled and effective in their work. Aspects of positive teaching and learning are explored. Innovative methods for transforming common classroom management struggles into opportunities for positive change and for changing negative behaviors into positive…

  5. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At...

  6. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At...

  7. Teaching Positive Reinforcement on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of an Internet-based tutorial that teaches the concept of positive reinforcement. An experimental group of 50 students studied an online tutorial about positive reinforcement, and a control group of 50 students studied an online tutorial in biological psychology. Students in both groups took an 8-item pretest and…

  8. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  9. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  10. Memory for Chess Positions: Resistance to Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charness, Neil

    1976-01-01

    An information processing model, Memory-Aided Pattern Perceiver (MAPP), that simulates the recall of briefly presented chess positions, was subjected to a test of its assumption that such positions are encoded and stored as chunks in short-term memory. (Editor)

  11. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B.; Burleson, Robert R.; Pardue, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  12. Positive Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote a positive self-concept, character development, healthy behavior, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The curricula for elementary and middle school students each have seven units per kit, with nine kits per grade level. The high school curriculum…

  13. Simple circuit positions film frames in projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1965-01-01

    Individual frames on a photographic film strip in a projector are automatically positioned by a simple circuit. The circuit uses a photodiode that senses frame registry position and a relay that stops the film-advance motor to suspend the film at point of registry.

  14. The Position of Dance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattsson, Torun; Lundvall, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dance has been a part of the physical education (PE) curriculum in several countries for a long time. In spite of this, studies demonstrate that the position of dance in the subject of PE is contested and that little time is devoted to dance. The overall aim of this article is to examine the position of dance as a pedagogical discourse in Swedish…

  15. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  16. 17 CFR 151.6 - Position visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Position visibility. 151.6... FUTURES AND SWAPS § 151.6 Position visibility. (a) Visibility levels. A person holding or controlling... with the reporting requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section: (1) Visibility Levels for...

  17. 17 CFR 151.6 - Position visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Position visibility. 151.6... LIMITS FOR FUTURES AND SWAPS § 151.6 Position visibility. (a) Visibility levels. A person holding or... comply with the reporting requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section: (1) Visibility Levels...

  18. 17 CFR 151.6 - Position visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Position visibility. 151.6... FUTURES AND SWAPS § 151.6 Position visibility. (a) Visibility levels. A person holding or controlling... with the reporting requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section: (1) Visibility Levels for...

  19. Position Statements of the Arc. 1992 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This monograph presents 15 position statements of The Arc, a national organization for persons with mental retardation. A preamble presents the organization's Mission Statement. Principles and assumptions stressing the uniqueness of all people and the importance of a sense of control over one's destiny are listed. The position statements are then…

  20. Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Robert J

    2010-12-14

    A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.

  1. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  2. Positive Behavior Support: Sustainability and Continuous Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…

  3. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  8. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Steen, Tracy A.; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  9. Automatic Positioning System of Small Agricultural Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Natalchenko, A. S.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The present article discusses automatic positioning systems of agricultural robots used in field works. The existing solutions in this area have been analyzed. The article proposes an original solution, which is easy to implement and is characterized by high- accuracy positioning.

  10. Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Parsons, Marsha B.

    2007-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities' (AAIDD's) Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum," Second Edition" ("PBSTC"), is a curriculum for training direct support personnel and their supervisors in the values and practices of Positive Behavior Support. The curriculum is designed for direct support persons and…

  11. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ...-0028, Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad...-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system implementation on track segments that do not transport poison- or toxic-by-inhalation (PIH) hazardous materials traffic and are not used...

  12. Platform Architecture for Decentralized Positioning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    A platform architecture for positioning systems is essential for the realization of a flexible localization system, which interacts with other systems and supports various positioning technologies and algorithms. The decentralized processing of a position enables pushing the application-level knowledge into a mobile station and avoids the communication with a central unit such as a server or a base station. In addition, the calculation of the position on low-cost and resource-constrained devices presents a challenge due to the limited computing, storage capacity, as well as power supply. Therefore, we propose a platform architecture that enables the design of a system with the reusability of the components, extensibility (e.g., with other positioning technologies) and interoperability. Furthermore, the position is computed on a low-cost device such as a microcontroller, which simultaneously performs additional tasks such as data collecting or preprocessing based on an operating system. The platform architecture is designed, implemented and evaluated on the basis of two positioning systems: a field strength system and a time of arrival-based positioning system. PMID:28445414

  13. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... Limits 3. Proposed Sec. 150.5(b)--Requirements and Acceptable Practices for Commodity Derivative... fluctuations or unwarranted changes in the price of commodities. See discussion below. Position limits would... Parts 1, 15, 17, et al. Position Limits for Derivatives; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78...

  14. Precise Point Positioning in the Airborne Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for positioning in the airborne mode such as in navigation as a supplementary system and for geo-referencing of cameras in mapping and surveillance by aircrafts and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is an attractive positioning approach based on processing of un-differenced observations from a single GPS receiver. It employs precise satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections. These data can be obtained via the internet from several sources, e.g. the International GNSS Service (IGS). The data can also broadcast from satellites, such as via the LEX signal of the new Japanese satellite system QZSS. The PPP can achieve positioning precision and accuracy at the sub-decimetre level. In this paper, the functional and stochastic mathematical modelling used in PPP is discussed. Results of applying the PPP method in an airborne test using a small fixed-wing aircraft are presented. To evaluate the performance of the PPP approach, a reference trajectory was established by differential positioning of the same GPS observations with data from a ground reference station. The coordinate results from the two approaches, PPP and differential positioning, were compared and statistically evaluated. For the test at hand, positioning accuracy at the cm-to-decimetre was achieved for latitude and longitude coordinates and doubles that value for height estimation.

  15. Pole position studied with artificial earth satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Long-arc orbit computation of highest accuracy can provide pole positions. Optical Baker-Nunn and laser range observations of several satellites are combined. The accuracy of the pole position is comparable to that of the mean satellite-tracking station coordinates (plus or minus 5 m) when sufficient tracking data are available. Exploitation of the technique requires more accurate tracking data.

  16. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  17. Platform Architecture for Decentralized Positioning Systems.

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2017-04-26

    A platform architecture for positioning systems is essential for the realization of a flexible localization system, which interacts with other systems and supports various positioning technologies and algorithms. The decentralized processing of a position enables pushing the application-level knowledge into a mobile station and avoids the communication with a central unit such as a server or a base station. In addition, the calculation of the position on low-cost and resource-constrained devices presents a challenge due to the limited computing, storage capacity, as well as power supply. Therefore, we propose a platform architecture that enables the design of a system with the reusability of the components, extensibility (e.g., with other positioning technologies) and interoperability. Furthermore, the position is computed on a low-cost device such as a microcontroller, which simultaneously performs additional tasks such as data collecting or preprocessing based on an operating system. The platform architecture is designed, implemented and evaluated on the basis of two positioning systems: a field strength system and a time of arrival-based positioning system.

  18. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  19. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At...

  20. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  1. PUMA: The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Line, J. L. B.; Webster, R. L.; Pindor, B.; Mitchell, D. A.; Trott, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We present new software to cross-match low-frequency radio catalogues: the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm. The Positional Update and Matching Algorithm combines a positional Bayesian probabilistic approach with spectral matching criteria, allowing for confusing sources in the matching process. We go on to create a radio sky model using Positional Update and Matching Algorithm based on the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, and are able to automatically cross-match 98.5% of sources. Using the characteristics of this sky model, we create simple simulated mock catalogues on which to test the Positional Update and Matching Algorithm, and find that Positional Update and Matching Algorithm can reliably find the correct spectral indices of sources, along with being able to recover ionospheric offsets. Finally, we use this sky model to calibrate and remove foreground sources from simulated interferometric data, generated using OSKAR (the Oxford University visibility generator). We demonstrate that there is a substantial improvement in foreground source removal when using higher frequency and higher resolution source positions, even when correcting positions by an average of 0.3 arcmin given a synthesised beam-width of 2.3 arcmin.

  2. 32 CFR 1609.1 - Uncompensated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uncompensated positions. 1609.1 Section 1609.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.1 Uncompensated positions. Members of local boards, district appeal boards, and all other...

  3. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  4. 32 CFR 1609.1 - Uncompensated positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uncompensated positions. 1609.1 Section 1609.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM UNCOMPENSATED PERSONNEL § 1609.1 Uncompensated positions. Members of local boards, district appeal boards, and all other...

  5. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  6. The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, O. N.

    1973-01-01

    Two prototype systems of The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS) have been delivered to Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). The AAPS was developed to automate and expedite the determination of astronomic positions (latitude and longitude). This equipment is capable of defining astronomic positions to an accuracy sigma = 0.3 in each component within a two hour span of stellar observations which are acquired automatically. The basic concept acquires observations by timing stellar images as they cross a series of slits, comparing these observations to a stored star catalogue, and automatically deducing position and accuracy by least squares using pre-set convergence criteria. An exhaustive DMA operational test program has been initiated to evaluate the capabilities of the AAPS in a variety of environments (both climatic and positional). Status of the operational test is discussed.

  7. Absolute, high-resolution optical position encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Kai; Seitz, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Modern computer-controlled manufacturing machinery requires the absolute and highly accurate measurement of the linear position. Such an absolute, optical linear position encoder is described here. It is based on the transilluminance of a glass scale with an inexpensive light-emitting diode. The scale has two code tracks, one based on a pseudo-random binary sequence for the coarse determination of position and another periodic code for accurate fine-position measurement. A single-lens telecentric optical system images the code tracks in a mechanically insensitive way onto a custom photodetector. This special detector IC is capable of determining the components of the (complex) Fourier transform for the spatial frequency of the periodic code. The absolute optical position encoder shows a resolution of 10 nm andan absolute accuracy of better than 100 nm over short distances, verified with a commercial laser interferometer.

  8. Optically actuated two position mechanical mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Murphy, A. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An optically actuated mechanical mover adapted to be moved from an ambient position to an active position, is disclosed. The mechanical mover essentially comprises a piston/cylinder arrangement including a piston that is contained within an internal cylindrical chamber of a housing. The cylindrical chamber is configured to permit the piston to be moved for the length of the chamber as a work stroke. A lock pin extending through the piston, and diametrically opposed walls of the chamber housing, retain the piston in the ambient position at one end of the chamber. An actuator for producing a pressure or shock wave that drives the piston is positioned at the end of the chamber corresponding to the piston ambient position.

  9. Angular Positioning Sensor for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Nicolas; Chapuis, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Angular position sensors are used on various rotating mechanisms such as solar array drive mechanisms, antenna pointing mechanisms, scientific instruments, motors or actuators.Now a days, potentiometers and encoders are mainly used for angular measurement purposes. Both of them have their own pros and cons.As alternative, Ruag Space Switzerland Nyon (RSSN) is developing and qualifying two innovative technologies of angular position sensors which offer easy implementation, medium to very high lifetime and high flexibility with regards to the output signal shape/type.The Brushed angular position sensor uses space qualified processes which are already flying on RSSN's sliprings for many years. A large variety of output signal shape can be implemented to fulfill customer requirements (digital, analog, customized, etc.).The contactless angular position sensor consists in a new radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) based on the Hall effect and providing the angular position without complex processing algorithm.

  10. Local systematic differences in 2MASS positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We have found that positions in the 2MASS All-sky Catalog of Point Sources show local systematic differences with characteristic length-scales of ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 arcminutes when compared with several catalogs. We have observed that when 2MASS positions are used in the computation of proper motions, the mentioned systematic differences cause systematic errors in the resulting proper motions. We have developed a method to locally rectify 2MASS with respect to UCAC4 in order to diminish the systematic differences between these catalogs. The rectified 2MASS catalog with the proposed method can be regarded as an extension of UCAC4 for astrometry with accuracy ˜ 90 mas in its positions, with negligible systematic errors. Also we show that the use of these rectified positions removes the observed systematic pattern in proper motions derived from original 2MASS positions.

  11. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  12. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van Wensen, E; van Leeuwen, R B; van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; Masius-Olthof, S; Bloem, B R

    2013-12-01

    Dizziness is a frequent complaint of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and orthostatic hypotension (OH) is often thought to be the cause. We studied whether benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) could also be an explanation. To assess the prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in patients with Parkinson's disease, with and without dizziness. 305 consecutive outpatients with PD completed the Movement Disorders Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinsons' Disease Rating Scale-motor score, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and a test for orthostatic hypotension. When positive for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, a repositioning maneuver was performed. Patients were followed for three months to determine the clinical response. 305 patients responded (186 men (61%), mean age 70.5 years (Standard Deviation 9.5 years)), of whom 151 (49%) complained of dizziness. 57 (38%) of the dizzy patients appeared to have orthostatic hypotension; 12 patients (8%) had a classical but previously unrecognized benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. A further four patients (3%) had a more atypical presentation of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Three months after treatment, 11 (92%) of patients with classical benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were almost or completely without complaints. We found no 'hidden' benign paroxysmal positional vertigo among patients without dizziness. The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo among all patients with PD was 5.3%. Among Parkinson patients with symptoms of dizziness, up to 11% may have benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, which can be treated easily and successfully. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Affecting Extension Ladder Angular Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Simeonov, Peter; Hsiao, Hongwei; Kim, In-Ju; Powers, John R.; Kau, Tsui-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study objectives were to identify factors affecting extension ladders’ angular positioning and evaluate the effectiveness of two anthropometric positioning methods. Background A leading cause for extension ladder fall incidents is a slide-out event, usually related to suboptimal ladder inclination. An improved ladder positioning method or procedure could reduce the risk of ladder stability failure and the related fall injury. Method Participants in the study were 20 experienced and 20 inexperienced ladder users. A series of ladder positioning tests was performed in a laboratory environment with 4.88-m (16-ft) and 7.32-m (24-ft) ladders in extended and retracted positions. The setup methods included a no-instruction condition and two anthropometric approaches: the American National Standards Institute A14 and “fireman” methods. Performance measures included positioning angle and time. Results The results indicated that ladder setup method and ladder effective length, defined by size and extended state, affected ladder positioning angle. On average, both anthropometric methods were effective in improving extension ladder positioning; however, they required 50% more time than did the no-instruction condition and had a 9.5% probability of setting the ladder at a less-than-70° angle. Shorter ladders were consistently positioned at shallower angles. Conclusion Anthropometric methods may lead to safer ladder positioning than does no instruction when accurately and correctly performed. Workers tended to underperform as compared with their theoretical anthropometric estimates. Specific training or use of an assistive device may be needed to improve ladder users’ performance. Application The results provide practical insights for employers and workers to correctly set up extension ladders. PMID:22768637

  14. Factors affecting extension ladder angular positioning.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Peter; Hsiao, Hongwei; Kim, In-Ju; Powers, John R; Kau, Tsui-Ying

    2012-06-01

    The study objectives were to identify factors affecting extension ladders' angular positioning and evaluate the effectiveness of two anthropometric positioning methods. A leading cause for extension ladder fall incidents is a slide-out event, usually related to suboptimal ladder inclination. An improved ladder positioning method or procedure could reduce the risk of ladder stability failure and the related fall injury. Participants in the study were 20 experienced and 20 inexperienced ladder users. A series of ladder positioning tests was performed in a laboratory environment with 4.88-m (16-ft) and 7.32-m (24-ft) ladders in extended and retracted positions. The setup methods included a no-instruction condition and two anthropometric approaches: the American National Standards Institute A14 and "fireman" methods. Performance measures included positioning angle and time. The results indicated that ladder setup method and ladder effective length, defined by size and extended state, affected ladder positioning angle. On average, both anthropometric methods were effective in improving extension ladder positioning; however, they required 50% more time than did the no-instruction condition and had a 9.5% probability of setting the ladder at a less-than-70 degrees angle. Shorter ladders were consistently positioned at shallower angles. Anthropometric methods may lead to safer ladder positioning than does no instruction when accurately and correctly performed. Workers tended to underperform as compared with their theoretical anthropometric estimates. Specific training or use of an assistive device may be needed to improve ladder users' performance. The results provide practical insights for employers and workers to correctly set up extension ladders.

  15. Consequences of false-positive screening mammograms.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Fryback, Dennis G; Hammond, Cristina S; Hanna, Lucy G; Grove, Margaret R; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D

    2014-06-01

    False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the US Preventive Services Task Force. To measure the effect of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility, and attitudes toward future screening. The Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life substudy telephone survey was performed shortly after screening and 1 year later at 22 DMIST sites and included randomly selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. The 6-question short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state scale (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument with US scoring. Attitudes toward future screening as measured by women's self-report of future intention to undergo mammographic screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to undergo a hypothetical new type of mammography that would identify as many cancers with half the false-positive results. Among 1450 eligible women invited to participate, 1226 (84.6%) were enrolled, with follow-up interviews obtained in 1028 (83.8%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6, 35.2 vs 32.7), but health utility scores did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at 1 year. Future screening intentions differed by group (25.7% vs 14.2% more likely in false-positive vs negative groups); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (9.9% vs 10.5% in false-positive vs negative groups). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.54-2.93), younger age (2.78; 1.5-5.0), and poorer health (1.63; 1.09-2.43). Women's anticipated high-level anxiety regarding future false-positive mammograms was associated with willingness

  16. Longitudinal Relations Among Positivity, Perceived Positive School Climate, and Prosocial Behavior in Colombian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thartori, Eriona; Pastorelli, Concetta; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M; Gerbino, Maria; Caprara, Gian V

    2017-07-01

    Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; M age of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9% male) and their parents (N = 127) provided data in two waves (9 months apart). A model of bidirectional relations between positivity and perceived positive school climate emerged. In addition, adolescents with higher levels of perceived positive school climate at age 12 showed higher levels of prosocial behaviors in the following year. Positive school climate related positivity to adolescents' prosocial behavior over time. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss with positional vertigo: Initial findings of positional nystagmus and hearing outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hee; Shin, Jung Eun; Yang, Young Soo; Im, Donghyuk

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the initial findings of positional nystagmus in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and positional vertigo, and to compare hearing improvement among patients with different types of positional nystagmus. The characteristics of positional nystagmus upon initial examination were analysed, and the initial mean pure-tone audiometry (PTA) threshold was compared with that at three months after treatment. Forty-four SSNHL patients with concomitant positional vertigo were included. Positional nystagmus was classified into five subgroups; persistent geotropic direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN) in head-roll test (HRT) and negative Dix-Hallpike test (DHT), persistent apogeotropic DCPN in HRT and negative DHT, positive DHT and negative HRT, persistent geotropic DCPN in HRT and positive DHT, and persistent apogeotropic DCPN in HRT and positive DHT. PTA threshold improvement was significantly greater in SSNHL patients with negative DHT than with positive DHT (p = 0.027). When geotropic DCPN was elicited by HRT, the nystagmus was persistent, which suggests that alteration of specific gravity of the endolymph, rather than the lateral canal canalolithiasis, may be a cause of this characteristic positional nystagmus. Positive DTH may be a prognostic factor for worse hearing recovery among patients with SSNHL and positional vertigo.

  18. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and its variants.

    PubMed

    Nuti, D; Masini, M; Mandalà, M

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common labyrinthine disorder caused by a mechanic stimulation of the vestibular receptors within the semicircular canals. It is characterized by positional vertigo and positional nystagmus, both provoked by changes in the position of the head with respect to gravity. The social impact of the disease and its direct and indirect costs to healthcare systems are significant owing to impairment of daily activities and increased risk of falls. The first description of a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is from Robert Bárány in 1921, but the features of the syndrome and the diagnostic maneuver were well described by Dix and Hallpike in 1952. Since then, the gradually increasing interest of otolaryngologists and neurologists has led to a progressive advance in the knowledge of this labyrinthine disorder with regard to its epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. Despite the often effective diagnosis and treatment of most cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the physiopathologic explanations of the disease are mainly speculative. In this chapter, we describe the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  20. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    SciTech Connect

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander, E-mail: muellerh@ma.tum.de; Wolf, Michael M., E-mail: m.wolf@tum.de; Reeb, David, E-mail: reeb.qit@gmail.com

    2016-01-15

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transposemore » bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.« less

  1. Trial of Wireless 3-D Position Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Takashi; Uchiyama, Akihiko

    We developed wireless 3-D position sensor. Although we reported a wired position sensor, in order that the wire might affect movement of the sensor, we develop a wireless position sensor newly. For inspection of position measurement algorithm, we first developed a trial product of wireless capsule type sensor without regard to size. The position of the sensor was detected by using mutual induction. In order to maintain the electromotive force induced at secondary coils in the sensor constant, the current flowing into the primary coil was regulated using feedback control. The position of the sensor was measured stably using the feedback control, even when the sensor was relatively far from the primary coil. Induced electromotive forces are modulated to FM signals by using astable multivibrator and the FM signal is flowed into a living body directly with low current, and demodulated from electrode on body surface. The position of the sensor was determined from the current flowing into the primary coil. As a result of accuracy evaluation of the sensor in vitro, the error was 2.17±0.99 mm (Ave±S.D.) in a range of up to 1 m from the magnetic field generator. This sensor is applicable to medical capsule devices, such as capsule endoscope.

  2. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  3. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Claudia A [Pleasanton, CA; Dowla, Farid [Castro Valley, CA

    2008-06-03

    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  4. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  5. Solar Position Model for use in DIORAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan

    2016-03-01

    The DIORAMA code requires the solar position relative to earth in order to compute GPS satellite orientation. The present document describes two functions that compute the unit vector from either the center of the Earth to the Sun or from any observer’s position to the Sun at some specified time. Another function determines if a satellite lies within the Earth’s shadow umbra. Similarly, functions determine the position of the moon and whether a satellite lies within the Moon’s shadow umbra.

  6. Position and orientation determination system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.

    2017-06-14

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object atmore » incremental positions around the detector.« less

  7. Position-sensitive, fast ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, J.; Afanasieva, L.; Blackmon, J. C.; Deibel, C. M.; Gardiner, H. E.; Lauer, A.; Linhardt, L. E.; Macon, K. T.; Rasco, B. C.; Williams, C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Kuvin, S. A.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Baby, L. T.; Baker, J.; Belarge, J.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Need, E.; Avila, M. L.; Back, B. B.; DiGiovine, B.; Hoffman, C. R.

    2018-05-01

    A high-count-rate ionization chamber design with position-sensitivity has been developed and deployed at several accelerator facilities. Counting rates of ≥ 500 kHz with good Z-separation (up to 5% energy resolution) for particle identification have been demonstrated in a series of commissioning experiments. A position-sensitive capability, with a resolution of 3 mm, has been implemented for the first time to record position information and suppress pileup. The design and performance of the detectors are described.

  8. Positioning Fixtures For X-Ray Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jerry W.; Romo, Don B.

    1993-01-01

    Flanged fixtures designed to position x-ray source at fixed locations within welded parts inspected radiographically. Eliminates need for tedious measurements to find proper locations and alignments of x-ray source. Reduces setup time and eliminates waste of film occurring when x-radiographs taken at incorrect positions. Variability among parts, inspectors, and shifts eliminated. Each fixture essentially flanged plastic cylinder holding x-ray tube on its axis. Fixture designed to fit specific part to hold x-ray source at internal position from which x rays are required to emanate to illuminate region of interest.

  9. Position and orientation determination system and method

    DOEpatents

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Foley, Trevor Q.

    2017-06-14

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object at incremental positions around the detector.

  10. Indoor Positioning by Visual-Inertial Odometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, M.; Acharya, D.; Gu, F.; Khoshelham, K.

    2017-09-01

    Indoor positioning is a fundamental requirement of many indoor location-based services and applications. In this paper, we explore the potential of low-cost and widely available visual and inertial sensors for indoor positioning. We describe the Visual-Inertial Odometry (VIO) approach and propose a measurement model for omnidirectional visual-inertial odometry (OVIO). The results of experiments in two simulated indoor environments show that the OVIO approach outperforms VIO and achieves a positioning accuracy of 1.1 % of the trajectory length.

  11. Clinical skills: bed making and patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Providing a clean, comfortable bed and positioning a patient in the optimum posture for prevention of complications and to enable maximum independence are fundamental nursing skills. Bed-making is a daily routine that requires practical and technical skills. Selecting the correct posture for a patient in bed or in a chair is essential for physiological functioning and recovery. In this article bed-making is described, as are positioning and re-positioning in relation to patients in bed, armchairs and wheelchairs. Infection control and moving and handling issues are also considered.

  12. Genes under positive selection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Tianyin; Zhong, Yang; Jin, Qi

    2011-10-12

    We employed an evolutionary genomics approach to detect genes under lineage-specific positive selection for the two closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, the virulent H37Rv and the avirulent H37Ra, with the clinical isolate CDC1551 as the outgroup. We found six H37Rv-specific and six H37Ra-specific positively selected genes, among which the former comprised a flavoprotein, a RNA polymerase sigma factor SigM, two PPE family proteins, as well as two hypothetical proteins, while the latter consisted of a dehydrogenase, a (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase subunit HadA, a PPE family protein, and three PE-PGRS family proteins. Obviously, the PE/PPE/PE-PGRS family proteins were the main targets of positive selection. The functional discussion of our findings implied that those positively selected genes were highly involved in antigen variations and immune evasions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Classical and Quantum Spreading of Position Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farina, J. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates that the standard deviation of the position probability of a particle moving freely in one dimension is a function of the standard deviation of its velocity distribution and time in classical or quantum mechanics. (SL)

  14. Position, Navigation, and Timing: GPS Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and deployment of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This presentation also includes measuring space and time, GPS as a tool for science, development of high precision JPL GPS receivers, and technology and applications developments.

  15. Poetry, Computers, and Positive Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the benefits of combining poetic expression with computers in promoting positive mental health. Discuses prescriptive poetry, composition, computerized poetic exercises, computers and poetry for groups and families, computerized poetic records, and poetic communication. (JAC)

  16. Do Positive Reinforcement Programs Reduce Employee Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Loretta M.; Heneman, Herbert G., III

    1980-01-01

    Although they express some reservations, the authors report that a consistent pattern of evidence from 10 studies suggests that implementation of a positive reinforcement program is accompanied by some reduction in employee absenteeism. (Author/IRT)

  17. Positive Exchange of Flight Controls Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-03-10

    This advisory circular provides guidance for all pilots, especially student pilots, flight instructors, and pilot examiners, on the recommended procedure to use for the positive exchange of flight controls between pilots when operating an aircraft.

  18. Teacher Preferences for Various Positive Reinforcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Rose, Malcolm I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between applied behavioral training and reinforcement preferences of classroom teachers. Data obtained from the Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule, a paired comparison task, indicated minimal differential reinforcement preferences for classroom teachers with no training, limited training, or extensive…

  19. Positivity of Flux Vector Splitting Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressier, Jérémie; Villedieu, Philippe; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    1999-10-01

    Over the last ten years, robustness of schemes has raised an increasing interest among the CFD community. One mathematical aspect of scheme robustness is the positivity preserving property. At high Mach numbers, solving the conservative Euler equations can lead to negative densities or internal energy. Some schemes such as the flux vector splitting (FVS) schemes are known to avoid this drawback. In this study, a general method is detailed to analyze the positivity of FVS schemes. As an application, three classical FVS schemes (Van Leer's, Hänel's variant, and Steger and Warming's) are proved to be positively conservative under a CFL-like condition. Finally, it is proved that for any FVS scheme, there is an intrinsic incompatibility between the desirable property of positivity and the exact resolution of contact discontinuities.

  20. The department chair position in academic nursing.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, M K

    1994-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on the role of the department chairperson in the nursing literature. As defined in this article, a chairperson is the middle manager and interface between the dean and the faculty. Chairperson refers to the leader of an adult health, maternal/parent child, community, or mental health department who reports to the dean of the School of Nursing. Using transitional theories as the undergirding framework, this article describes the transition from faculty to a chairperson position and the roles and responsibilities of the position. The chairperson must facilitate positive relationships, increase faculty productivity, and empower faculty. This constitutes the foundation for chairperson to facilitate greater faculty development, teaching excellence, and relationships. Implications for ways that nursing leaders may improve this position through the evaluative process are explored.

  1. Work zone positive protection guidelines for Idaho.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    The Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Title 23 Part 630 Subpart K - Temporary Traffic Control (630.1102630.1110) rule states : that positive protection shall be considered where work zone conditions place workers at increased risk from motorized : ...

  2. Starbugs: focal plane fiber positioning technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Michael; Heijmans, Jeroen; Saunders, Ian; Brzeski, Jurek; Saunders, Will; Muller, Rolf; Haynes, Roger; Gilbert, James

    2010-07-01

    We report on the technological achievements of our latest Starbug prototypes and their implications for smart focal plane fiber positioning applications for wide-field astronomy. The Starbugs are innovative self-motile miniature robotic devices that can simultaneously and independently position fibers or payloads over a field plate located at the telescope's focal plane. The Starbugs concept overcomes many of the limitations associated with the traditional 'pick and place' positioners where a robot places fixed buttons onto the field plate. The new Starbug prototypes use piezoelectric actuators and have the following features: (i) new 'lift-and-step' method (discrete step) for accurate positioning over different surfaces; and (ii) operate in an inverted hanging position underneath a transparent field plate, removing the need for fibercable retractors. In this paper, we present aspects of the Starbug prototypes, including the theoretical model, mechanical design, experimental setup, algorithms, performance and applications for astronomical instrumentation.

  3. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Checkup Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at ... Family Center at the University of Oregon, highlight parenting skills that are important in preventing the initiation ...

  4. Diagnostic criteria in schizophrenia: accentuate the positive.

    PubMed

    David, A S; Appleby, L

    1992-01-01

    In a recent article, Andreasen and Flaum (Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1991) argued that greater emphasis should be placed on negative symptoms in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, leading to a less important role for positive symptoms. This article presents a counter-argument to this view. Positive symptoms are common and reliable and therefore highly useful diagnostically. First-rank symptoms, although not specific to schizophrenia, show good discriminability. No other type of symptom or investigative method can make such claims to usefulness. Although positive symptoms do not predict outcome, this is not a necessary function of diagnostic criteria. The predictive power of negative symptoms is, in any case, based largely on studies of patients with chronic disorder. Premorbidly impaired social development may interact with schizophrenia, worsening the prognosis. We believe positive symptoms have always been the essence of psychiatric disorder and should remain so. Increasing the diagnostic weight given to negative symptoms risks restricting the definition of schizophrenia excessively.

  5. Position of Curiosity for Drilling at Cumberland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-05

    This image produced from software used for planning drives of NASA Mars rover Curiosity depicts the location and size of the rover when it was driven into position for drilling into rock target Cumberland.

  6. Vehicle positioning based on UWB technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Siquan; Kang, Min; She, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase of the number of urban cars, the vehicle internet is becoming a trend of smart transportion. In such vehicle network, accurate location is very crucial in many new applications such as autopilot, semi-autopilot and Car-to-x communications. UWB technology has been used for indoor closed range positioning and ranging widely, while UWB outdoor positioning and ranging research is relatively less. This paper proposed UWB as the vehicle positioning technology and developed a method based on two-way-ranging (TWR) to solve the ranging problem between vehicles. At the same time, the improved TOA method was used to locate vehicles, which has higher precision compared with traditional GPS or LBS. A hardware module is introduced and the simulation results show that the modules are capable of precise positioning for vehicles in vehicle network.

  7. Developmental Aspects of Reaction to Positive Inducements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskold, Svenn; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Probes children's behavioral sensitivity to variation in reward probability and magnitude (bribes) and suggests that preadolescent children do respond to promises of positive inducements for cooperation in a mixed-motive situation. (WY)

  8. Color-coded radar plan position indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temes, Clifford L.; Linde, George J.

    1993-10-01

    A method to enhance target detectability on a radar plan position indicator is described which includes the receiving of coherent pulse-burst waveforms from a target so that at least one complete burst is included in each dwell of a scanning surveillance fan beam. A fast fourier transform is performed on each returned coherent burst to form Doppler channels in predetermined range cells. The largest signal of the Doppler channels in each range cell is then selected and color coded. The color coded signals are applied to a plan position indicator whereby target images are viewable. Preferably, the Doppler channels are color coded over a rainbow spectrum so that a white background is produced and target images appear as tracks on a microprocessor-based raster-type plan position indicator. A continuity test and threshold test are also utilized so that target velocity and position are determined.

  9. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  10. Appendix A: Policy Statements and Position Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. They cover peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, and use of ionizing radiation. (MLW)

  11. Analysis of Position Error Headway Protection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-07-01

    An analysis is developed to determine safe headway on PRT systems that use point-follower control. Periodic measurements of the position error relative to a nominal trajectory provide warning against the hazards of overspeed and unexpected stop. A co...

  12. Positive train control test bed interoperability upgrades.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-02-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) upgraded the Positive Train Control (PTC) Test Bed to support additional PTC testing configurations under Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Task Order 270. The scope of work provided additional PTC Co...

  13. Sex and Prevention Concerns for Positive People

    MedlinePlus

    ... a theoretical possibility. It must be considered when negotiating safer sex between positive partners. If you’re ... immune system weaken as a result of HIV. Negotiating and engaging in safer sex requires willing partners. ...

  14. Position Analysis of Planar Tensegrity Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    and 2 non-compliant members. Finding a simple solution approach for a closed form solution to the other two dimensional tensegrity structures...dimensional tensegrity structures, struts still do not touch. A tensegrity structure stands by itself in its equilibrium position and maintains its form ...equilibrium position when no external force or torque is applied. A closed- form solution of a two-spring, three-spring, and four- spring planar tensegrity

  15. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  17. Propagation Limitations of Navigation and Positioning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    QJ O UJ AGARD-CP-209 Propagation Limitations of Navigation and Positioning Systems D D C / ^ DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY ON BACK COVER...subjects including civilian requirements for sea, air and ground navigation systems both short and long range, and propagation study needs of Loran C ...POSITIONING SYSTEMS FULL WAVE SOLUTIONS *•- „Bahar 10 DISCUSSION OF REAL AND APPARENT LORAN- C PROPAGATION LIMITATIONS by R.H.Doherty

  18. DNA methylation, nucleosome formation and positioning.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Sari; Allan, James; Davey, Colin S

    2005-02-01

    Recent mapping of nucleosome positioning on several long gene regions subject to DNA methylation has identified instances of nucleosome repositioning by this base modification. The evidence for an effect of CpG methylation on nucleosome formation and positioning in chromatin is reviewed here in the context of the complex sequence-structure requirements of DNA wrapping around the histone octamer and the role of this epigenetic mark in gene repression.

  19. Practical position-based quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    We study a general family of quantum protocols for position verification and present a class of attacks based on the Clifford hierarchy. These attacks outperform current strategies based on port-based teleportation for a large class of practical protocols. We then introduce the interleaved product protocol, a scheme for position verification involving only the preparation and measurement of single qubit states for which the best available attacks have a complexity exponential in the number of classical bits transmitted.

  20. Automatic approach to deriving fuzzy slope positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-Jun; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Jun-Zhi

    2018-03-01

    Fuzzy characterization of slope positions is important for geographic modeling. Most of the existing fuzzy classification-based methods for fuzzy characterization require extensive user intervention in data preparation and parameter setting, which is tedious and time-consuming. This paper presents an automatic approach to overcoming these limitations in the prototype-based inference method for deriving fuzzy membership value (or similarity) to slope positions. The key contribution is a procedure for finding the typical locations and setting the fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type. Instead of being determined totally by users in the prototype-based inference method, in the proposed approach the typical locations and fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type are automatically determined by a rule set based on prior domain knowledge and the frequency distributions of topographic attributes. Furthermore, the preparation of topographic attributes (e.g., slope gradient, curvature, and relative position index) is automated, so the proposed automatic approach has only one necessary input, i.e., the gridded digital elevation model of the study area. All compute-intensive algorithms in the proposed approach were speeded up by parallel computing. Two study cases were provided to demonstrate that this approach can properly, conveniently and quickly derive the fuzzy slope positions.

  1. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  2. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    PubMed

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting—remembering the positive past—and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. PMID:28655195

  4. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  5. The costs and benefits of positive illusions

    PubMed Central

    Makridakis, Spyros; Moleskis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positive illusions are associated with unrealistic optimism about the future and an inflated assessment of one’s abilities. They are prevalent in normal life and are considered essential for maintaining a healthy mental state, although, there are disagreements to the extent to which people demonstrate these positive illusions and whether they are beneficial or not. But whatever the situation, it is hard to dismiss their existence and their positive and/or negative influence on human behavior and decision making in general. Prominent among illusions is that of control, that is “the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events.” This paper describes positive illusions, their potential benefits but also quantifies their costs in five specific fields (gambling, stock and other markets, new firms and startups, preventive medicine and wars). It is organized into three parts. First the psychological reasons giving rise to positive illusions are described and their likely harm and benefits stated. Second, their negative consequences are presented and their costs are quantified in five areas seriously affected with emphasis to those related to the illusion of control that seems to dominate those of unrealistic optimism. The costs involved are huge and serious efforts must be undertaken to understand their enormity and steps taken to avoid them in the future. Finally, there is a concluding section where the challenges related to positive illusions are noted and directions for future research are presented. PMID:26175698

  6. Positive autobiographical memory retrieval reduces temporal discounting.

    PubMed

    Lempert, Karolina M; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2017-10-01

    People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories. Moreover, individuals were more impulsive after imagining novel positive scenes that were not related to their memories, showing that positive imagery alone does not drive this effect. Activity in the striatum and temporo parietal junction during memory retrieval predicted more patient choice, suggesting that to the extent that memory recall is rewarding and involves perspective-taking, it influences decision-making. Furthermore, representational similarity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between memory recall and decision phases correlated with the behavioral effect across participants. Thus, we have identified a novel manipulation for reducing temporal discounting-remembering the positive past-and have begun to characterize the psychological and neural mechanisms behind it. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2011-03-16

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of pertussis vaccines excerpted from the recently published Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper. This document replaces the WHO position paper entitled Pertussis vaccines: WHO position paper published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in January 2005. Footnotes to this paper provide a limited number of core references; their abstracts as well as a more comprehensive list of references may be found at http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html. Grading tables which assess the quality of scientific evidence for key conclusions are also available through this link and are referenced in the position paper. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, or SAGE. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2010-10-18

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of rabies vaccines excerpted from the recently published Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper. This document replaces the WHO position paper entitled Rabies vaccines WHO position paper published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in December 2007. Footnotes to this paper provide a limited number of core references; their abstracts as well as a more comprehensive list of references may be found at http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html. Grading tables which assess the quality of scientific evidence for key conclusions are also available through this link and are referenced in the position paper. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, or SAGE. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive affect and sleep: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Kim, Sara; Young, Sarah; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    A sizeable literature has implicated sleep in the phenomenological experience of various mood disorders, vulnerability to psychopathology, and overall poor psychological functioning. By contrast, positive affective states (e.g., joy, happiness, vigor, positive mood) that may contribute to sleep have been understudied. This systematic review integrates findings from cross-sectional, longitudinal, ambulatory, and experimental studies that investigate the association between positive affect and sleep. A comprehensive search for all available research on the topic was performed in three electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL). Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics and quality. From 10,853 retrieved articles, 44 fulfilled inclusion criteria and formed the base of the review. The majority of studies (68.2%, n = 30) were classified as weak or having high risk of bias. In general, the pattern of findings suggests that aggregate or trait measures provide the most consistent evidence of an association between positive affect and sleep in healthy populations. More limited empirical data exist on the association between positive affect and sleep in clinical populations. We conclude that more rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the possible beneficial impact of positive affect on sleep outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EMI sensor positioning using a beacon approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Nicolas; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; George, David C.

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination of buried exploded ordnance by inversion of electromagnetic data requires accurate sensor positioning. There are many contaminated areas were dense forest or significant topographic variation reduces accuracy or precludes use of standard geo-location methods, such as satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) and laser tracking systems (e.g., Robotic Total Station, RTS), as these rely on line of sight. We propose an alternative positioning system that is based on a beacon principle. The system was developed to survey with the Man-Portable Vector (MPV) EMI sensor. The magnetic moment of the MPV transmitter can be detected at a relatively large distance. The primary field is measured from a portable base station comprised of two vector receivers rigidly attached to either ends of a 1.5 meter horizontal boom. Control tests showed that relative location and orientation could be recovered with centimeter positional and one degree angular accuracy within a 3-4-meter range and 60-degree aperture (relative to boom transverse direction), which is more than sufficient to cover any UXO anomaly. This accuracy level satisfies commonly accepted positional requirement for discrimination. The beacon positioning system can facilitate classification of munitions in any man-trafficable area and was successfully deployed at a field demonstration.

  12. Reading Gate Positions with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide many flow gates are built in water networks in order to direct water to appropriate locations. Most of these gates are adjusted manually by field operators of water management organizations and it is often centrally not known what the new position of the gate is. This makes centralized management of the entire water network difficult. One of the reasons why the measurement of the gate position is usually not executed, is that for certain gates it is not easy to do such a reading. Tilting weirs or radial gates are examples where operators need special equipment (measuring rod and long level) to determine the position and it could even be a risky procedure. Another issue is that once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. So the entire monitoring procedure is not real-time and prone to human errors. A new way of monitoring gate positions is introduced. It consists of a level that is attached to the gate and an app with which a picture can be taken from the level. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the gate position can be read by using the angle of the level versus reference points on the gate, the radius of that gate and the absolute level of the joint around which the gate turn. The method uses gps-localization of the smartphone to store the gate position in the right location in the central database.

  13. The costs and benefits of positive illusions.

    PubMed

    Makridakis, Spyros; Moleskis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positive illusions are associated with unrealistic optimism about the future and an inflated assessment of one's abilities. They are prevalent in normal life and are considered essential for maintaining a healthy mental state, although, there are disagreements to the extent to which people demonstrate these positive illusions and whether they are beneficial or not. But whatever the situation, it is hard to dismiss their existence and their positive and/or negative influence on human behavior and decision making in general. Prominent among illusions is that of control, that is "the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events." This paper describes positive illusions, their potential benefits but also quantifies their costs in five specific fields (gambling, stock and other markets, new firms and startups, preventive medicine and wars). It is organized into three parts. First the psychological reasons giving rise to positive illusions are described and their likely harm and benefits stated. Second, their negative consequences are presented and their costs are quantified in five areas seriously affected with emphasis to those related to the illusion of control that seems to dominate those of unrealistic optimism. The costs involved are huge and serious efforts must be undertaken to understand their enormity and steps taken to avoid them in the future. Finally, there is a concluding section where the challenges related to positive illusions are noted and directions for future research are presented.

  14. Longitudinal Relations among Positivity, Perceived Positive School Climate, and Prosocial Behavior in Colombian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thartori, Eriona; Pastorelli, Concetta; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.; Gerbino, Maria; Caprara, Gian V.

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; M[subscript age] of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9%…

  15. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  16. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular A-71...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular A-71...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular A-71...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular A-71...

  20. From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors: An Everyday Guide for the Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Aamidor, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    There are various opinions concerning the value of positive reinforcement when discussing modifying behaviors of young children. In some cases, individuals considered positive reinforcement difficult to implement and, in extreme cases, even felt it to be detrimental. Educators often use praise interchangeably with positive reinforcement when…

  1. A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Huanhuan; Xu, Zhaowen; Yu, Changyuan; Gurusamy, Mohan

    2017-08-01

    A novel indoor positioning system (IPS) with high positioning precision, based on visible light communication (VLC), is proposed and demonstrated with the dimensions of 100 cm×118.5 cm×128.7 cm. The average positioning distance error is 1.72 cm using the original 2-D positioning algorithm. However, at the corners of the test-bed, the positioning errors are relatively larger than other places. Thus, an error correcting algorithm (ECA) is applied at the corners in order to improve the positioning accuracy. The average positioning errors of four corners decrease from 3.67 cm to 1.55 cm. Then, a 3-D positioning algorithm is developed and the average positioning error of 1.90 cm in space is achieved. Four altitude levels are chosen and on each receiver plane with different heights, four points are picked up to test the positioning error. The average positioning errors in 3-D space are all within 3 cm on these four levels and the performance on each level is similar. A random track is also drawn to show that in 3-D space, the positioning error of random point is within 3 cm.

  2. Positive family relationships: Longitudinal network of relations.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kathleen S J; Gottfried, Allen W; Oliver, Pamella H; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Delany, Danielle E; Ibrahim, Sirena M

    2016-10-01

    The construct of positive family relationships (PFR), defined as family members getting along well and supporting each other, was investigated in a long-term prospective study. A newly constructed scale of positive family relationships developed using the nominal response model of item-response theory, was subject to a longitudinal network of relations analysis. The conceptualization for this research was founded on a positive psychology framework. Data derived from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study and spanned 20 years from middle childhood (age 9 years) to early adulthood (age 29 years). Evidence indicated both stability and change in PFR across time. Moderate to high stability of individual differences among families across 9 annual assessments was found from ages 9-17 years. Concomitantly across these years, there was a progressive decline in PFR. PFR proved to be independent of socioeconomic status. Specific conceptually based directional hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Multiple sources of information included intra- and cross-informant, as well as objective and ecologically valid data. The network of relations involved concurrent and predictive criterion-related variables. PFR had a pervasive relation to a variety of psychological domains across time. As predicted, PFR related (a) positively to family cohesion and inversely to family conflict, (b) positively to parental social support, (c) positively to children's self-concept, (d) positively to children's academic performance and educational attainment, and (e) inversely to children's behavior problems. The theoretical importance of the findings and the applicability of the PFR Scale for both researchers and practitioners in the field of family psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  4. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  5. A general framework for complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete positivity of quantum dynamics is often viewed as a litmus test for physicality; yet, it is well known that correlated initial states need not give rise to completely positive evolutions. This observation spurred numerous investigations over the past two decades attempting to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for complete positivity. Here, we describe a complete and consistent mathematical framework for the discussion and analysis of complete positivity for correlated initial states of open quantum systems. This formalism is built upon a few simple axioms and is sufficiently general to contain all prior methodologies going back to Pechakas (Phys Rev Lett 73:1060-1062, 1994). The key observation is that initial system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system must evolve under all admissible unitary operators to system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system, in order to ensure that the induced dynamical maps on the system are well defined. Once this consistency condition is imposed, related concepts such as the assignment map and the dynamical maps are uniquely defined. In general, the dynamical maps may not be applied to arbitrary system states, but only to those in an appropriately defined physical domain. We show that the constrained nature of the problem gives rise to not one but three inequivalent types of complete positivity. Using this framework, we elucidate the limitations of recent attempts to provide conditions for complete positivity using quantum discord and the quantum data processing inequality. In particular, we correct the claim made by two of us (Shabani and Lidar in Phys Rev Lett 102:100402-100404, 2009) that vanishing discord is necessary for complete positivity, and explain that it is valid only for a particular class of initial states. The problem remains open, and may require fresh perspectives and new mathematical tools. The formalism presented herein may be one step in that direction.

  6. Assessment of preschoolers’ positive empathy: concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and sympathy

    PubMed Central

    Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a new measure of children’s dispositional positive empathy (i.e., reactions to others’ positive emotions) and its concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. At Time 1, 192 3.5-year-olds (88 girls) participated; at Time 2, 1 year later, 168 4.5-year-olds (79 girls) participated. Children’s positive empathy was reported by mothers and observed in the laboratory at Time 2. Additionally, mothers, fathers, and non-parental caregivers completed questionnaires at Time 1 and Time 2 regarding children’s positive emotion, empathy/sympathy, and social competence. Children’s positive emotion was observed at both assessments. There was evidence of reliability of the new reported measure of positive empathy. Additionally, there were numerous positive relations between positive empathy and social competence and between positive empathy and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. This study provides unique insight into children’s positive empathy and relations to socio-emotional functioning. PMID:20011674

  7. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael [Livermore, CA; Lucas, Matthew [Pittsburgh, PA; Silveira, Joseph P [Tracy, CA; Groves, Scott E [Brentwood, CA

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  9. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    PubMed

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  10. Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper-Recommendations.

    PubMed

    2010-07-05

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of cholera vaccines excerpted from the recently published Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper. This document replaces the WHO position paper on Cholera vaccines published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in April 2001. Footnotes to this paper provide a limited number of core references; their abstracts as well as a more comprehensive list of references may be found at http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html. Grading tables which assess the quality of scientific evidence for key conclusions are also available through this link and are referenced in the position paper. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE). Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  12. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  13. Positive psychology and war: an oxymoron.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    The author was deeply disturbed by the January 2011 issue of the American Psychologist, which engendered a series of emotions in the author: first dismay, then anger, and finally a sense of shame about the current state of the profession. This was ostensibly an exposition of "positive psychology" principles and how they are to be applied in a colossal experiment designed to support our military in their fight against the ideology of jihadist Islam. The author found it hard to see what was positive in the presentation. Not one of the authors in this special issue discussed applying positive psychology principles to the reduction of conflict between nations, to the prevention of war, or to the promotion of peace. How about a positive psychology that questions the wisdom of leaders who tell us that the use of force is unavoidable, and seeks instead to help them find alternative, peaceful solutions? A true positive psychology should be primarily addressed to eradicating the disease of war, not to supporting those who fight it.

  14. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  15. A Study of Vicon System Positioning Performance

    PubMed Central

    Merriaux, Pierre; Dupuis, Yohan; Boutteau, Rémi; Vasseur, Pascal; Savatier, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Motion capture setups are used in numerous fields. Studies based on motion capture data can be found in biomechanical, sport or animal science. Clinical science studies include gait analysis as well as balance, posture and motor control. Robotic applications encompass object tracking. Today’s life applications includes entertainment or augmented reality. Still, few studies investigate the positioning performance of motion capture setups. In this paper, we study the positioning performance of one player in the optoelectronic motion capture based on markers: Vicon system. Our protocol includes evaluations of static and dynamic performances. Mean error as well as positioning variabilities are studied with calibrated ground truth setups that are not based on other motion capture modalities. We introduce a new setup that enables directly estimating the absolute positioning accuracy for dynamic experiments contrary to state-of-the art works that rely on inter-marker distances. The system performs well on static experiments with a mean absolute error of 0.15 mm and a variability lower than 0.025 mm. Our dynamic experiments were carried out at speeds found in real applications. Our work suggests that the system error is less than 2 mm. We also found that marker size and Vicon sampling rate must be carefully chosen with respect to the speed encountered in the application in order to reach optimal positioning performance that can go to 0.3 mm for our dynamic study. PMID:28686213

  16. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    PubMed Central

    Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved. PMID:29064417

  17. Positions of Uranus and Its Main Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Carlos H.; Vieira Martins, Roberto; Andrei, Alexandre H.

    2003-05-01

    We present astrometric positions of Uranus and its satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, determined in the International Celestial Reference System, from 1758 frames observed over 105 nights between 1982 and 1998. All the positions of the satellites were reduced using secondary frames referred to the Tycho-2 Catalogue from photographic plates and CCD frames obtained with the 1.6 m reflector at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica in Brazil. The images of Uranus were overexposed and thus not were measured in the frames. Its positions were instead calculated from the satellites, with the exception of Miranda, using their differential positions as given by the ephemeris GUST86. The positions of the planet were compared with the planetary ephemeris DE403, and the residuals have a mean and standard deviation, respectively, of -0.09" and 0.14" for (O-C)α and -0.01" and 0.15" for (O-C)δ. The results are similar for the satellites. Based on observations made at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, MCT, Itajubá, Brazil.

  18. More creative through positive mood? Not everyone!

    PubMed Central

    Akbari Chermahini, S.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that positive mood improves human creativity and that the neurotransmitter dopamine might mediate this association. However, given the non-linear relation between dopamine and flexibility in divergent thinking (Akbari Chermahini and Hommel, 2010), the impact of mood on divergent kinds of creativity might depend on a given individual's tonic dopamine level. We tested this possibility in adults by assessing mood, performance in a divergent thinking task [the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)], and eye blink rates (EBRs), a well-established clinical marker of the individual dopamine level, before and after positive mood or negative mood induction. As expected, the association between flexibility in divergent thinking performance and EBR followed an inverted U-shape function (with best performance for medium levels), positive mood induction raised EBRs and only individuals with below-median EBRs, but not those with above-median EBRs, benefited from positive mood. These observations provide support for dopamine-based approaches to the impact of mood on creativity and challenge the generality of the widely held view that positive mood facilitates creativity. PMID:23189050

  19. Gamma flicker elicits positive affect without awareness.

    PubMed

    Heerebout, Bram T; Tap, A E Yoram; Rotteveel, Mark; Phaf, R Hans

    2013-03-01

    High-frequency oscillations emerged as a neural code for both positive affect and fluent attentional processing from evolutionary simulations with artificial neural networks. Visual 50 Hz flicker, which entrains neural oscillations in the gamma band, has been shown to foster attentional switching, but can it also elicit positive affect? A three-faces display (2-female/1-male or 2-male/1-female) was preceded by a 50, 25, or 0 Hz flicker on the position of the odd-one-out (i.e., the target). Participants decided on the gender (Block 1) or on the subjective valence (Block 2) of this neutral target in an approach-avoidance task, which served as an implicit affective measure. Only the detection of 25 Hz flicker, but not of 50 Hz flicker, was above chance (Block 3). Faces primed by invisible 50 Hz flicker were explicitly evaluated more positively than with 25 Hz or 0 Hz. This gamma flicker also facilitated approach reactions, and inhibited avoidance reactions relative to 25 Hz and 0 Hz flicker in Blocks 1 and 2. Attentional switching was, moreover, enhanced by the 50 Hz flicker. According to the Affect-Gamma hypothesis, also in biological neural networks, high-frequency gamma oscillations may code for positive affect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  1. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaño, Tadeo E.; Monzon, Alexander M.; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  2. Age-Based Positivity Effects in Imagining and Recalling Future Positive and Negative Autobiographical Events

    PubMed Central

    García-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen; Aizpurua, Alaitz

    2017-01-01

    Thoughts about the future reflect personal goals, and projections into the future enrich our emotional life. Researchers have taken an interest in determining whether the tendency to remember more positive than negative emotional events observed when recalling past events also appears when remembering imagined future events. The objective of this study was to examine the age-based positivity effect of recall for future positive and negative autobiographical events in young and older adults. Representative future events were first established to develop the cues used to prompt personal future events. In the production task, the participants were presented with eight positive and eight negative random future events of young or older adults as a model and the corresponding cues to generate their own positive and negative future autobiographical events. In the recall task, the participants recovered as many experiences as they could of the model and the positive and negative events produced by themselves. The participants correctly recalled more positive than negative events and committed more errors for negative than positive events, showing a clear tendency in both young and older adults to recall future imagined events as positive. Regarding age, the young adults recalled more events than the older participants whilst the older participants in particular showed better recall of their own imagined future events than the model’s events, and committed more errors when recalling the model’s events than their own imagined events. Regarding the positivity effect in incorrect recall, more than half of the errors were valence changes, most of these being from negative to positive events, and these valence changes were more pronounced in the older than in the younger adults. In general, there were fewer differences between young and older adults in the recall of positive events in comparison with negative events. Our findings suggest that people are well disposed toward

  3. Age-Based Positivity Effects in Imagining and Recalling Future Positive and Negative Autobiographical Events.

    PubMed

    García-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen; Aizpurua, Alaitz

    2017-01-01

    Thoughts about the future reflect personal goals, and projections into the future enrich our emotional life. Researchers have taken an interest in determining whether the tendency to remember more positive than negative emotional events observed when recalling past events also appears when remembering imagined future events. The objective of this study was to examine the age-based positivity effect of recall for future positive and negative autobiographical events in young and older adults. Representative future events were first established to develop the cues used to prompt personal future events. In the production task, the participants were presented with eight positive and eight negative random future events of young or older adults as a model and the corresponding cues to generate their own positive and negative future autobiographical events. In the recall task, the participants recovered as many experiences as they could of the model and the positive and negative events produced by themselves. The participants correctly recalled more positive than negative events and committed more errors for negative than positive events, showing a clear tendency in both young and older adults to recall future imagined events as positive. Regarding age, the young adults recalled more events than the older participants whilst the older participants in particular showed better recall of their own imagined future events than the model's events, and committed more errors when recalling the model's events than their own imagined events. Regarding the positivity effect in incorrect recall, more than half of the errors were valence changes, most of these being from negative to positive events, and these valence changes were more pronounced in the older than in the younger adults. In general, there were fewer differences between young and older adults in the recall of positive events in comparison with negative events. Our findings suggest that people are well disposed toward

  4. Infant position in neonates receiving mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Fernandez, May; Roqué I Figuls, Marta; Diez-Izquierdo, Ana; Escribano, Joaquin; Balaguer, Albert

    2016-11-07

    In patients of various ages undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV), it has been observed that positions other than the standard supine position, such as the prone position, may improve respiratory parameters. The benefits of these positions have not been clearly defined for critically ill newborns receiving MV.This is an update of a review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2013. Primary objectiveTo assess the effects of different positioning of newborn infants receiving MV (supine vs prone, lateral decubitus or quarter turn from prone) in improving short-term respiratory outcomes. Secondary objectiveTo assess the effects of different positioning of newborn infants receiving MV on mortality and neuromotor and developmental outcomes over the long term, and on other complications of prematurity. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 22 August 2016), Embase (1980 to 22 August 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 22 August 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials comparing different positions in newborns receiving mechanical ventilation. Three unblinded review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion in the review and extracted study data. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. If the meta-analysis was not appropriate owing to substantial clinical heterogeneity between trials, we presented review findings in narrative format. We included in this review 19 trials involving 516 participants. Seven of the included studies (N = 222) had not been evaluated in the

  5. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  6. GDOP minimum in multi-GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bi; Teng, Yunlong; Huang, Qi

    2017-10-01

    In positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) applications with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) offers an important index for selecting satellites from all tracked satellites for positioning calculation. In general, the lower the GDOP values are, the more accurate the PNT solution is. Therefore, the GDOP minimum should be pursued. In this paper, we mainly focused on the GDOP minimum when the single-point positioning is based on the integration of three GNSSs. The GDOP minimum for any number of tracked satellites is theoretically derived in this paper. In addition, when the number of the satellites is equal to that of the unknown parameters, the correctness of GDOP minimum obtained has also been validated from two different perspectives.

  7. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Levitation Linear Motors for Precision Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumper, David L.

    The author has been active in the development of levitation devices for precision positioning during the last 18 years. Principal among the techniques studied has been the use of two-force or levitation linear motors. These motors have been designed into stages for precision positioning in lithography, scanned probe microscopy, and other precision measurement systems. In such devices, the use of levitation linear motors allows the control of six stage degrees of freedom to nanometer resolution with a single moving part. This paper presents an overview of the operating principles, electromagnetic configurations, and system level performance of levitation linear motors for precision applications. The configuration of such motors is most commonly an iron-free permanent magnet array in the Halbach configuration which is driven by an iron-free multiphase coil set. By properly choosing the phase drive currents, forces in levitation and translation can be controlled. This opens possibilities for novel positioning system configurations and performance capabilities.

  9. Prescribing happiness: positive psychology and family medicine.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Paul J

    2005-10-01

    Although mental health promotion is consistent with the philosophy of family medicine, it is largely unclear what behaviors or interventions comprise mental health promotion in practice. A recent effort in psychology, known as "positive psychology," has endeavored to better understand happiness, meaning in life, character strengths, and how these all can be developed. Because happiness is associated with multiple benefits, including better health, it behooves family physicians to become familiar with and incorporate positive psychology into their practices. This article reviews examples of the work in positive psychology, including gratitude, capitalization, "satisficing," character strengths, and learned optimism. Potential applications of each area in medical education, physician well-being, and patient care are described.

  10. Accentuating the positive in adult attachments.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pat

    2007-12-01

    This paper proposes that attachment theory, with its emphasis on stability and security, accentuates the positive aspects of affectional relationships and suggests a way to look at the process of adult psychotherapy. Attachment-based research has shown that positive attachment experiences are related to feelings of joy, comfort, and contentment throughout life. In contrast, experiences that are hurtful or traumatic, and especially if they are chronic or repeated, can have negative effects on thoughts and emotions as well as the body. In applying these findings to psychotherapy, the role of the therapist can be seen as providing a positive emotional experience within which to examine and gain a new perspective on the origins and development of distress. Through therapy, the opportunity to experience a relationship of secure attachment enhances psychological and physical well-being and the capacity to make and maintain lasting affectional bonds with others.

  11. Recall memory for visually presented chess positions.

    PubMed

    Frey, P W; Adesman, P

    1976-09-01

    A series of three experiments replicated and extended earlier research reported by Chase and Simon (1973), de Groot (1965), and Charness (Note 1). The first experiment demonstrated that the relationship between memory for chess positions and chess skill varies directly with the amount of chess-specific information in the stimulus display. The second experiment employed tachistoscopic displays to incrementally "build" tournament chess positions by meaningful or nonmeaningful chunks and demonstrated that meaningful piece groupings during presentation markedly enhance subsequent recall performance. The third experiment tested memory for one of two positions presented in immediate sequence and demonstrated that explanations based on a limited-capacity short-term memory (Chase & Simon, 1973) are not adequate for explaining performance on this memory task.

  12. Orthogonal Chirp-Based Ultrasonic Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Khyam, Mohammad Omar; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Li, Xinde; Pickering, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a chirp based ultrasonic positioning system (UPS) using orthogonal chirp waveforms. In the proposed method, multiple transmitters can simultaneously transmit chirp signals, as a result, it can efficiently utilize the entire available frequency spectrum. The fundamental idea behind the proposed multiple access scheme is to utilize the oversampling methodology of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and orthogonality of the discrete frequency components of a chirp waveform. In addition, the proposed orthogonal chirp waveforms also have all the advantages of a classical chirp waveform. Firstly, the performance of the waveforms is investigated through correlation analysis and then, in an indoor environment, evaluated through simulations and experiments for ultrasonic (US) positioning. For an operational range of approximately 1000 mm, the positioning root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) &90% error were 4.54 mm and 6.68 mm respectively. PMID:28448454

  13. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  14. Gravitational positive energy theorems from information inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkari, Nima; Lin, Jennifer; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we argue that classical asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes that arise as states in consistent ultraviolet completions of Einstein gravity coupled to matter must satisfy an infinite family of positive energy conditions. To each ball-shaped spatial region B of the boundary spacetime we can associate a bulk spatial region Σ between B and the bulk extremal surface \\Btilde with the same boundary as B. We show that there exists a natural notion of a gravitational energy for every such region that is non-negative, and non-increasing as one makes the region smaller. The results follow from identifying this gravitational energy with a quantum relative entropy in the associated dual conformal field theory state. The positivity and monotonicity properties of the gravitational energy are implied by the positivity and monotonicity of relative entropy, which holds universally in all quantum systems.

  15. Organelles maintain spindle position in plant meiosis.

    PubMed

    Brownfield, Lynette; Yi, Jun; Jiang, Hua; Minina, Elena A; Twell, David; Köhler, Claudia

    2015-03-11

    Accurate positioning of spindles is a critical aspect of cell division as it ensures that each daughter cell contains a single nucleus. In many flowering plants, two meiotic chromosome separations occur without intervening cytokinesis, resulting in two spindles in one cell during the second division. Here we report a detailed examination of two mutants, jason (jas) and parallel spindle1 (ps1), in which disturbed spindle position during male meiosis II results in the incorporation of previously separated chromosome groups into a single cell. Our study reveals that an organelle band provides a physical barrier between the two spindles. The loss of a single protein, JAS, from this organelle band leads to its disruption and a random movement of the spindles. JAS is largely associated with vesicles in the organelle band, revealing a role for vesicles in plant meiosis and that cytoplasmic events maintain spindle position during the chromosome division.

  16. Physics behind the mechanical nucleosome positioning code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuiddam, Martijn; Everaers, Ralf; Schiessel, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    The positions along DNA molecules of nucleosomes, the most abundant DNA-protein complexes in cells, are influenced by the sequence-dependent DNA mechanics and geometry. This leads to the "nucleosome positioning code", a preference of nucleosomes for certain sequence motives. Here we introduce a simplified model of the nucleosome where a coarse-grained DNA molecule is frozen into an idealized superhelical shape. We calculate the exact sequence preferences of our nucleosome model and find it to reproduce qualitatively all the main features known to influence nucleosome positions. Moreover, using well-controlled approximations to this model allows us to come to a detailed understanding of the physics behind the sequence preferences of nucleosomes.

  17. Parafoveal letter-position coding in reading.

    PubMed

    Snell, Joshua; Bertrand, Daisy; Grainger, Jonathan

    2018-01-08

    The masked-priming lexical decision task has been the paradigm of choice for investigating how readers code for letter identity and position. Insight into the temporal integration of information between prime and target words has pointed out, among other things, that readers do not code for the absolute position of letters. This conception has spurred various accounts of the word recognition process, but the results at present do not favor one account in particular. Thus, employing a new strategy, the present study moves out of the arena of temporal- and into the arena of spatial information integration. We present two lexical decision experiments that tested how the processing of six-letter target words is influenced by simultaneously presented flanking stimuli (each stimulus was presented for 150 ms). We manipulated the orthographic relatedness between the targets and flankers, in terms of both letter identity (same/different letters based on the target's outer/inner letters) and letter position (intact/reversed order of letters and of flankers, contiguous/noncontiguous flankers). Target processing was strongly facilitated by same-letter flankers, and this facilitatory effect was modulated by both letter/flanker order and contiguity. However, when the flankers consisted of the target's inner-positioned letters alone, letter order no longer mattered. These findings suggest that readers may code for the relative position of letters using words' edges as spatial points of reference. We conclude that the flanker paradigm provides a fruitful means to investigate letter-position coding in the fovea and parafovea.

  18. Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper - 2012 - recommendations.

    PubMed

    2012-07-06

    This article presents the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on the use of pneumococcal vaccines excerpted from the Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper - 2012 recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. The current document replaces the position paper on the use 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine published in 2007. Incorporating the most recent developments in the field of pneumococcal vaccines this position paper focuses on the currently available 10-valent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines and their introduction and use in national immunization programmes. It also deals with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine, though in less detail than provided in the April 2008 position paper which remains valid. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of scientific evidence for a few key conclusions. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines worldwide. This paper reflects the recommendations of the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. Recommendations on the use of pneumococcal vaccines were discussed by SAGE at its meetings in November 2006 (conjugate vaccine) and April 2008 (polysaccharide vaccine) and most recently in November 2011. Evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying Position-Dependent Codon Usage Bias

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Adam J.; Sirer, M. Irmak; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the mapping of codon to amino acid is conserved across nearly all species, the frequency at which synonymous codons are used varies both between organisms and between genes from the same organism. This variation affects diverse cellular processes including protein expression, regulation, and folding. Here, we mathematically model an additional layer of complexity and show that individual codon usage biases follow a position-dependent exponential decay model with unique parameter fits for each codon. We use this methodology to perform an in-depth analysis on codon usage bias in the model organism Escherichia coli. Our methodology shows that lowly and highly expressed genes are more similar in their codon usage patterns in the 5′-gene regions, but that these preferences diverge at distal sites resulting in greater positional dependency (pD, which we mathematically define later) for highly expressed genes. We show that position-dependent codon usage bias is partially explained by the structural requirements of mRNAs that results in increased usage of A/T rich codons shortly after the gene start. However, we also show that the pD of 4- and 6-fold degenerate codons is partially related to the gene copy number of cognate-tRNAs supporting existing hypotheses that posit benefits to a region of slow translation in the beginning of coding sequences. Lastly, we demonstrate that viewing codon usage bias through a position-dependent framework has practical utility by improving accuracy of gene expression prediction when incorporating positional dependencies into the Codon Adaptation Index model. PMID:24710515

  20. Plain Language Summary: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Mahoney, Kathryn; O'Connor, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, abbreviated BPPV. This summary applies to patients ≥18 years old with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update)." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing BPPV by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  1. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  2. Chronic Wasting Disease Positive Tissue Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center entered into an agreement with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Department of Veterinary Sciences at the University of Wyoming to produce a collection of positive tissues from cervids intentionally infected with chronic wasting disease. This agreement was facilitated through the University of Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit. Also, the investigators on this project sampled the animals incrementally over 2 years to show changes over time, and examined tissues from the animals by immunohistochemistry. CWD positive tissues are catalogued by species, sample site and time of infection. These data and more will soon be published.

  3. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  4. Are humanistic and positive psychology really incommensurate?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Harris

    2014-01-01

    Comments on the article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" by Waterman (see record 2013-12501-001). Waterman has provided some broad-brush generalizations about differences between humanistic psychology and positive psychology, many of which do not hold in all cases, and he has pointed out some difficulties that would be involved in reconciling them. However, he has not presented any convincing argument that the two are irreconcilable. Essentially, Waterman has confounded difficulties with impossibilities by concluding these are incommensurate. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Nursing ethics and power in position.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    Power in positions of authority and responsibility may be manifested in myriad ways in management positions, with all businesses and disciplines, including the discipline of nursing. From the nursing disciplinary theoretical perspective of humanbecoming, this column begins a discussion regarding the obligations of healthcare disciplines to address the ethical questions of what should and ought members of healthcare disciplines be doing to enhance the quality and integrity for healthcare recipients' experiences. Exercising power judiciously and with transparency will be defined and emphasized as important for members of healthcare disciplines, for preserving and protecting the legacy of future healthcare leaders.

  6. Global positioning system recorder and method

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, D.W.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Eakle, R.F. Jr.; Reeves, G.E.

    1998-12-22

    A global positioning system recorder (GPSR) is disclosed in which operational parameters and recorded positional data are stored on a transferable memory element. Through this transferrable memory element, the user of the GPSR need have no knowledge of GPSR devices other than that the memory element needs to be inserted into the memory element slot and the GPSR must be activated. The use of the data element also allows for minimal downtime of the GPSR and the ability to reprogram the GPSR and download data therefrom, without having to physically attach it to another computer. 4 figs.

  7. Organelle biogenesis and positioning in plants.

    PubMed

    Evans, David E; Hawes, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The biogenesis and positioning of organelles involves complex interacting processes and precise control. Progress in our understanding is being made rapidly as advances in analysing the nuclear and organellar genome and proteome combine with developments in live-cell microscopy and manipulation at the subcellular level. This paper introduces the collected papers resulting from Organelle Biogenesis and Positioning in Plants, the 2009 Biochemical Society Annual Symposium. Including papers on the nuclear envelope and all major organelles, it considers current knowledge and progress towards unifying themes that will elucidate the mechanisms by which cells generate the correct complement of organelles and adapt and change it in response to environmental and developmental signals.

  8. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  9. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  10. High dynamic global positioning system receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver having a number of channels, receives an aggregate of pseudorange code time division modulated signals. The aggregate is converted to baseband and then to digital form for separate processing in the separate channels. A fast fourier transform processor computes the signal energy as a function of Doppler frequency for each correlation lag, and a range and frequency estimator computes estimates of pseudorange, and frequency. Raw estimates from all channels are used to estimate receiver position, velocity, clock offset and clock rate offset in a conventional navigation and control unit, and based on the unit that computes smoothed estimates for the next measurement interval.

  11. Positive Pressure for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Arijit; Kwon, Jeff S.; Wolff, Armand John; Manthous, Constantine A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is increasing world-wide; obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), formerly Pickwickian syndrome, has increased in parallel. Despite its prevalence, OHS has not been studied well, but there is abundant evidence that it is tightly linked with sleep-disordered breathing, most commonly obstructive sleep apnea. This article reviews the pathophysiology of OHS as well as the literature regarding the benefits of treating this disorder with positive airway pressure. We also emphasize that while positive pressure treatments may temporize cardiopulmonary disease progression, simultaneous pursuit of weight reduction is central to long-term management of this condition. PMID:23094151

  12. Intelligence and Semen Quality Are Positively Correlated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey; Pierce, Arand

    2009-01-01

    Human cognitive abilities inter-correlate to form a positive matrix, from which a large first factor, called "Spearman's g" or general intelligence, can be extracted. General intelligence itself is correlated with many important health outcomes including cardio-vascular function and longevity. However, the important evolutionary question of…

  13. Bullying Prevention in Schools. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSisto, Marie C.; Smith, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is a crucial member of the team participating in the prevention of bullying in schools. School nurses are the experts in pediatric health in schools and, therefore, can have an impact on the…

  14. Medication Administration in Schools. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkson, Elizabeth; Mauter, Elaine; Wilson, Louise; Johansen, Annette; Maughan, Erin D.

    2017-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) be responsible for medication administration in the school setting, leading the development of written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient…

  15. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Development or approval of war plans, plans or particulars of future major or special operations of war, or critical and extremely important items of war. (D) Investigative and certain investigative support duties... safeguarding of DoD personnel and property. (C) Category II automated data processing positions. (D) Duties...

  16. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Development or approval of war plans, plans or particulars of future major or special operations of war, or critical and extremely important items of war. (D) Investigative and certain investigative support duties... safeguarding of DoD personnel and property. (C) Category II automated data processing positions. (D) Duties...

  17. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Development or approval of war plans, plans or particulars of future major or special operations of war, or critical and extremely important items of war. (D) Investigative and certain investigative support duties... safeguarding of DoD personnel and property. (C) Category II automated data processing positions. (D) Duties...

  18. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  19. Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Linda M.; Knoster, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, concise, and easy-to-read reference for school teams, providers, students, and parents to understand, design, and evaluate positive behavior support (PBS) plans for students with developmental disabilities. It provides a clear conceptual framework on PBS to think critically about how to approach a student's problem…

  20. Action Literacy: Position, Movement, and Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses action literacy, and suggests that identifying literacy as political, ideological, and connected to power structures and abuses of power is not enough for a proponent of active literacy and critical pedagogy. Action literacy is a literacy of positionality that highlights the importance of movement and flux. It…