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Sample records for nadph oxidase activity

  1. Modification of plasma membrane NADPH oxidase activity in cucumber seedling roots in response to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Dagmara; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Migocka, Magdalena; Reda, Małgorzata

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cadmium on plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase activity in cucumber roots. Plants were treated with cadmium for 1, 3 or 6 days. Some of the plants after 3-day exposure to cadmium were transferred to a medium without the heavy metal for the next 3 days. Treatment of plants with cadmium for 6 days stimulated the activity of NADPH oxidase. The highest stimulation of O2(•-) production by NADPH oxidase was observed in post-stressed plants, which was correlated with the stimulation of activity of PM H(+)-ATPase in the same conditions. In order to examine the effects of cadmium stresses on the expression level of genes encoding NADPH oxidase, putative cucumber homologs encoding RBOH proteins were selected and a real-time PCR assay was performed. NADPH is a substrate for oxidase; thus alterations in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme under cadmium stress were studied. The activity of NADPH dehydrogenases was increased under cadmium stress. The results indicate that PM NADPH oxidase could be involved in plants' response to cadmium stress by affecting the activity of PM H(+)-ATPase, and NADPH-generating enzymes could play important roles in this process.

  2. Nox family NADPH oxidases: Molecular mechanisms of activation.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Ralf P; Weissmann, Norbert; Schröder, Katrin

    2014-11-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Numerous homologue-specific mechanisms control the activity of this enzyme family involving calcium, free fatty acids, protein-protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, and posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation. After a brief review on the classic pathways of Nox activation, this article will focus on novel mechanisms of homologue-specific activity control and on cell-specific aspects which govern Nox activity. From these findings of the recent years it must be concluded that the activity control of Nox enzymes is much more complex than anticipated. Moreover, depending on the cellular activity state, Nox enzymes are selectively activated or inactivated. The complex upstream signaling aspects of these events make the development of "intelligent" Nox inhibitors plausible, which selectively attenuate disease-related Nox-mediated ROS formation without altering physiological signaling ROS. This approach might be of relevance for Nox-mediated tissue injury in ischemia-reperfusion and inflammation and also for chronic Nox overactivation as present in cancer initiation and cardiovascular disease.

  3. NADPH Oxidase and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Marina S; Britto, Luiz R G

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) is a unique, multi-protein, electron transport system that produces large amounts of superoxide via the reduction of molecular oxygen. Nox-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in a variety of physiological processes, including host defense and signal transduction. However, over the past decade, the involvement of (Nox)-dependent oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases has been increasingly recognized. ROS produced by Nox proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases through distinct mechanisms, such as oxidation of DNA, proteins, lipids, amino acids and metals, in addition to activation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on Nox involvement in neurodegeneration, focusing on Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. PMID:23730256

  4. Complement-dependent NADPH oxidase enzyme activation in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Simone, S; Rascio, F; Castellano, G; Divella, C; Chieti, A; Ditonno, P; Battaglia, M; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F; Oortwijn, B; Stallone, G; Gesualdo, L; Pertosa, G; Grandaliano, G

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidase plays a central role in mediating oxidative stress during heart, liver, and lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, but limited information is available about NADPH oxidase in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our aim was to investigate the activation of NADPH oxidase in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion damage. We induced renal ischemia/reperfusion in 10 pigs, treating 5 of them with human recombinant C1 inhibitor, and we collected kidney biopsies before ischemia and 15, 30, and 60 min after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) expression at the tubular level, an upregulation of NOX-2 expression in infiltrating monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis along with a marked upregulation of NADPH-dependent superoxide generation. This burden of oxidative stress was associated with an increase in tubular and interstitial expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Interestingly, NOX-4 and NOX-2 expression and the overall NADPH oxidase activity as well as α-SMA expression and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis were strongly reduced in C1-inhibitor-treated animals. In vitro, when we incubated tubular cells with the anaphylotoxin C3a, we observed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and α-SMA protein expression, which were both abolished by NOX-4 silencing. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NADPH oxidase is activated during ischemia/reperfusion in a complement-dependent manner and may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal damage in this setting.

  5. Complement-dependent NADPH oxidase enzyme activation in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Simone, S; Rascio, F; Castellano, G; Divella, C; Chieti, A; Ditonno, P; Battaglia, M; Crovace, A; Staffieri, F; Oortwijn, B; Stallone, G; Gesualdo, L; Pertosa, G; Grandaliano, G

    2014-09-01

    NADPH oxidase plays a central role in mediating oxidative stress during heart, liver, and lung ischemia/reperfusion injury, but limited information is available about NADPH oxidase in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our aim was to investigate the activation of NADPH oxidase in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion damage. We induced renal ischemia/reperfusion in 10 pigs, treating 5 of them with human recombinant C1 inhibitor, and we collected kidney biopsies before ischemia and 15, 30, and 60 min after reperfusion. Ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant increase in NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4) expression at the tubular level, an upregulation of NOX-2 expression in infiltrating monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis along with a marked upregulation of NADPH-dependent superoxide generation. This burden of oxidative stress was associated with an increase in tubular and interstitial expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Interestingly, NOX-4 and NOX-2 expression and the overall NADPH oxidase activity as well as α-SMA expression and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine synthesis were strongly reduced in C1-inhibitor-treated animals. In vitro, when we incubated tubular cells with the anaphylotoxin C3a, we observed an enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and α-SMA protein expression, which were both abolished by NOX-4 silencing. In conclusion, our findings suggest that NADPH oxidase is activated during ischemia/reperfusion in a complement-dependent manner and may play a potential role in the pathogenesis of progressive renal damage in this setting. PMID:25017967

  6. Modulation of NADPH oxidase activation in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Tiziana; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2011-02-01

    NADPH oxidase is a major complex that produces reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during the ischemic period and aggravates brain damage and cell death after ischemic injury. Although many approaches have been tested for preventing production of ROSs by NADPH oxidase in ischemic brain injury, the regulatory mechanisms of NADPH oxidase activity after cerebral ischemia are still unclear. The aim of this study is identifying apocynin as a critical modulator of NADPH oxidase and elucidating its role as a neuroprotectant in an experimental model of brain ischemia in rat. Treatment of apocynin 5min before of reperfusion attenuated cerebral ischemia in rats. Administration of apocynin showed marked reduction in infarct size compared with that of control rats. Medial carotid artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced cerebral ischemia was also associated with an increase in, nitrotyrosine formation, as well as IL-1β expression, IκB degradation and ICAM expression in ischemic regions. These expressions were markedly inhibited by the treatment of apocynin. We also demonstrated that apocynin reduces levels of apoptosis (TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 expression) resulting in a reduction in the infarct volume in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. This new understanding of apocynin induced adaptation to ischemic stress and inflammation could suggest novel avenues for clinical intervention during ischemic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:21138737

  7. Activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase accelerates early glomerular injury in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Nagasu, Hajime; Satoh, Minoru; Kiyokage, Emi; Kidokoro, Kengo; Toida, Kazunori; Channon, Keith M; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common denominative pathogenic mechanism underlying vascular and renal complications in diabetes mellitus. Endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase is a major source of vascular ROS, and it has an important role in endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase initiates and worsens the progression of diabetic nephropathy, particularly in the development of albuminuria. We used transgenic mice with endothelial-targeted overexpression of the catalytic subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase, Nox2 (NOX2TG). NOX2TG mice were crossed with Akita insulin-dependent diabetic (Akita) mice that develop progressive hyperglycemia. We compared the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Akita versus NOX2TG-Akita mice. NOX2TG-Akita mice and Akita mice developed significant albuminuria above the baseline at 6 and 10 weeks of age, respectively. Compared with Akita mice, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited higher levels of NAD(P)H oxidase activity in glomeruli, developed glomerular endothelial perturbations, and attenuated expression of glomerular glycocalyx. Moreover, in contrast to Akita mice, the NOX2TG-Akita mice had numerous endothelial microparticles (blebs), as detected by scanning electron microscopy, and increased glomerular permeability. Furthermore, NOX2TG-Akita mice exhibited distinct phenotypic changes in glomerular mesangial cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin, and in podocytes expressing increased levels of desmin, whereas the glomeruli generated increased levels of ROS. In conclusion, activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase in the presence of hyperglycemia initiated and exacerbated diabetic nephropathy characterized by the development of albuminuria. Moreover, ROS generated in the endothelium compounded glomerular dysfunctions by altering the phenotypes of mesangial cells and compromising the integrity of the podocytes. PMID:26552047

  8. NADPH oxidase mediates β-amyloid peptide-induced activation of ERK in hippocampal organotypic cultures

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Faridis; Chang, Angela; Hernandez, Caterina; Pautler, Robia G; Sweatt, J David; Klann, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide triggers the activation of several signal transduction cascades in the hippocampus, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. In this study we sought to characterize the cellular localization of phosphorylated, active ERK in organotypic hippocampal cultures after acute exposure to either Aβ (1-42) or nicotine. Results We observed that Aβ and nicotine increased the levels of active ERK in distinct cellular localizations. We also examined whether phospho-ERK was regulated by redox signaling mechanisms and found that increases in active ERK induced by Aβ and nicotine were blocked by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. Conclusion Our findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling is required for Aβ-induced activation of ERK, and suggest a similar mechanism may occur during early stages of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19804648

  9. Molecular Interface of S100A8 with Cytochrome b558 and NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, Sylvie; Hograindleur, Marc-André; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Polack, Benoît; Morel, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    S100A8 and S100A9 are two calcium binding Myeloid Related Proteins, and important mediators of inflammatory diseases. They were recently introduced as partners for phagocyte NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the precise mechanism of their interaction remains elusive. We had for aim (i) to evaluate the impact of S100 proteins on NADPH oxidase activity; (ii) to characterize molecular interaction of either S100A8, S100A9, or S100A8/S100A9 heterocomplex with cytochrome b558; and (iii) to determine the S100A8 consensus site involved in cytochrome b558/S100 interface. Recombinant full length or S100A9-A8 truncated chimera proteins and ExoS-S100 fusion proteins were expressed in E. coli and in P. aeruginosa respectively. Our results showed that S100A8 is the functional partner for NADPH oxidase activation contrary to S100A9, however, the loading with calcium and a combination with phosphorylated S100A9 are essential in vivo. Endogenous S100A9 and S100A8 colocalize in differentiated and PMA stimulated PLB985 cells, with Nox2/gp91phox and p22phox. Recombinant S100A8, loaded with calcium and fused with the first 129 or 54 N-terminal amino acid residues of the P. aeruginosa ExoS toxin, induced a similar oxidase activation in vitro, to the one observed with S100A8 in the presence of S100A9 in vivo. This suggests that S100A8 is the essential component of the S100A9/S100A8 heterocomplex for oxidase activation. In this context, recombinant full-length rS100A9-A8 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 90 chimera proteins as opposed to rS100A9-A8 truncated 86 and rS100A9-A8 truncated 57 chimeras, activate the NADPH oxidase function of purified cytochrome b558 suggesting that the C-terminal region of S100A8 is directly involved in the molecular interface with the hemoprotein. The data point to four strategic 87HEES90 amino acid residues of the S100A8 C-terminal sequence that are involved directly in the molecular interaction with cytochrome b558 and then in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase activation

  10. Trimethyltin-Induced Microglial Activation via NADPH Oxidase and MAPKs Pathway in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da Jung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is known as a potent neurotoxicant that causes neuronal cell death and neuroinflammation, particularly in the hippocampus. Microglial activation is one of the prominent pathological features of TMT neurotoxicity. Nevertheless, it remains unclear how microglial activation occurs in TMT intoxication. In this study, we aimed to investigate the signaling pathways in TMT-induced microglial activation using BV-2 murine microglial cells. Our results revealed that TMT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the expression of CD11b and nuclear factor-κB- (NF-κB-) mediated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α in BV-2 cells. We also observed that NF-κB activation was controlled by p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Moreover, TMT-induced ROS generation occurred via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in BV-2 cells. Interestingly, treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed p38 and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation and ultimately the production of proinflammatory mediators upon TMT exposure. These findings indicate that NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation activated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which then stimulated NF-κB to release proinflammatory mediators in the TMT-treated BV-2 cells. PMID:26221064

  11. Microglial NADPH oxidase activation mediates rod cell death in the retinal degeneration in rd mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, H; Ding, M; Chen, X-X; Lu, Q

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase contributes to microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in the CNS neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies, including ours, suggest that microglial activation is involved in the retinal degeneration in the animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In the present study, we investigated the activation of NADPH oxidase in the rod degeneration in rd mice and further explored its role in the microglia-mediated photoreceptor apoptosis. Expression of gp91phox protein, a major subunit of NAPDH oxidase in the whole retina of rd mice at postnatal days (P) 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 was assessed by western blot analysis. Location of gp91phox in the rd retina at each age group and its cellular source were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and double labeling respectively. The generation of superoxide radicals in the rd retinas was demonstrated by intraperitoneal injection of hydroethidine. Apocynin was applied intraperitoneally in the rd mice from P8 to P14 to inhibit the activity of NAPDH oxidase and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was measured before and after apocynin treatment. Our results demonstrated that during the rod degenerative process, the expression of gp91phox started to increase in the outer part of rd retina at P10 and reached a peak at P14. Double labeling of gp91phox with CD11b showed co-localization of gp91phox in the retinal microglial cells. Increasing generation of superoxide radicals visualized by hydroethidine was noted at P8 and reached a peak at P14. Apocynin markedly reduced the production of superoxide radicals and preserved the rod cells. The results suggested that NADPH oxidase might play an important role in the rod degeneration in the rd mice. Inhibition of NAPDH oxidase could be a possible approach to treat RP in the early degenerative stage.

  12. Regulation of NADPH oxidases in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The only known function of NAD(P)H oxidases is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles express three isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4) that have been identified as critical modulators of redox homeostasis. Nox2 acts as the main source of skeletal muscle ROS during contractions, participates in insulin signaling and glucose transport, and mediates the myocyte response to osmotic stress. Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to skeletal muscle abnormalities elicited by angiotensin II, muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and high fat diet. Our review addresses the expression and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases with emphasis on aspects that are relevant to skeletal muscle. We also summarize: i) the most widely used NAD(P)H oxidases activity assays and inhibitors, and ii) studies that have defined Nox enzymes as protagonists of skeletal muscle redox homeostasis in a variety of health and disease conditions. PMID:27184955

  13. Electrochemistry and chemiluminescence techniques compared in the detection of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, A; Abu-Rabeah, K; Marks, R S

    2009-02-15

    Several methodologies have been used in clinical chemistry for real-time assessment of NADPH oxidase primary product superoxide anion which dismutases to hydrogen peroxide. Among these methodologies, isoluminol chemiluminescence (CL) is considered to be one of the more sensitive and reliable techniques for the assessment of NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils. The electrochemical technique was recently designed and also applied for real-time detection of NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophils but its reliability and sensitivity has not been investigated so far. In this study, isoluminol CL and electrochemical techniques were investigated and compared by monitoring the generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in both PLB 985 cell line differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and human neutrophils. The electrochemical technique was shown to be as sensitive as that of CL and able to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) release of as low as 500 cells. Thus, the electrochemical technique could be used as an alternative to optical techniques for the evaluation of extracellular ROS in phagocyte cells.

  14. Aldosterone increases kidney tubule cell oxidants through calcium-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Queisser, Nina; Schupp, Nicole; Stopper, Helga; Schinzel, Reinhard; Oteiza, Patricia I

    2011-12-01

    Chronic hyperaldosteronism has been associated with an increased cancer risk. We recently showed that aldosterone causes an increase in cell oxidants, DNA damage, and NF-κB activation. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying aldosterone-induced increase in cell oxidants in kidney tubule cells. Aldosterone caused an increase in both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen (RNS) species. The involvement of the activation of NADPH oxidase in the increase in cellular oxidants was demonstrated by the inhibitory action of the NADPH oxidase inhibitors DPI, apocynin, and VAS2870 and by the migration of the p47 subunit to the membrane. NADPH oxidase activation occurred as a consequence of an increase in cellular calcium levels and was mediated by protein kinase C. The prevention of RNS increase by BAPTA-AM, W-7, and L-NAME indicates a calcium-calmodulin activation of NOS. A similar pattern of effects of the NADPH oxidase and NOS inhibitors was observed for aldosterone-induced DNA damage and NF-κB activation, both central to the pathogenesis of chronic aldosteronism. In summary, this paper demonstrates that aldosterone, via the mineralocorticoid receptor, causes an increase in kidney cell oxidants, DNA damage, and NF-κB activation through a calcium-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase and NOS. Therapies targeting calcium, NOS, and NADPH oxidase could prevent the adverse effects of hyperaldosteronism on kidney function as well as its potential oncogenic action.

  15. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Yiqun; Wan Rong; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2009-04-15

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67{sup phox} siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox} and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67{sup phox} siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91{sup phox} knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly

  16. Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Song, Fang-Jiao; Wang, Ying-Hong; Li, Ning; Yu, Qian; Liao, Li-Xi; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-28

    As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway. PMID:25064608

  17. Suppression of NADPH Oxidase Activity May Slow the Expansion of Osteolytic Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F.; DiNicolantonio, James

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated in the microenvironment of cancer cells, can drive the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by activating G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Moreover, in cancer cells that have metastasized to bone, LPA signaling can promote osteolysis by inducing cancer cell production of cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, which can stimulate osteoblasts to secrete RANKL, a key promoter of osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, in cancers prone to metastasize to bone, LPA appears to be a major driver of the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases. Activation of NADPH oxidase has been shown to play a mediating role in the signaling pathways by which LPA, as well as RANKL, promote osteolysis. In addition, there is reason to suspect that Nox4 activation is a mediator of the feed-forward mechanism whereby release of TGF-beta from bone matrix by osteolysis promotes expression of PTHrP in cancer cells, and thereby induces further osteolysis. Hence, measures which can down-regulate NADPH oxidase activity may have potential for slowing the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases in cancer patients. Phycocyanin and high-dose statins may have utility in this regard, and could be contemplated as complements to bisphosphonates or denosumab for the prevention and control of osteolytic lesions. Ingestion of omega-3-rich flaxseed or fish oil may also have potential for controlling osteolysis in cancer patients. PMID:27571113

  18. Suppression of NADPH Oxidase Activity May Slow the Expansion of Osteolytic Bone Metastases.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated in the microenvironment of cancer cells, can drive the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by activating G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Moreover, in cancer cells that have metastasized to bone, LPA signaling can promote osteolysis by inducing cancer cell production of cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8, which can stimulate osteoblasts to secrete RANKL, a key promoter of osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, in cancers prone to metastasize to bone, LPA appears to be a major driver of the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases. Activation of NADPH oxidase has been shown to play a mediating role in the signaling pathways by which LPA, as well as RANKL, promote osteolysis. In addition, there is reason to suspect that Nox4 activation is a mediator of the feed-forward mechanism whereby release of TGF-beta from bone matrix by osteolysis promotes expression of PTHrP in cancer cells, and thereby induces further osteolysis. Hence, measures which can down-regulate NADPH oxidase activity may have potential for slowing the expansion of osteolytic bone metastases in cancer patients. Phycocyanin and high-dose statins may have utility in this regard, and could be contemplated as complements to bisphosphonates or denosumab for the prevention and control of osteolytic lesions. Ingestion of omega-3-rich flaxseed or fish oil may also have potential for controlling osteolysis in cancer patients. PMID:27571113

  19. NADPH oxidases promote apoptosis by activating ZNRF1 ubiquitin ligase in neurons treated with an exogenously applied oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Shuji; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in causing neuronal death in a number of neurological disorders. We recently reported that ROS serve as a signal to activate neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration by activating ZNRF1 (zinc- and RING-finger 1), a ubiquitin ligase that targets AKT for proteasomal degradation in neurons. In the present study, we showed that the NADPH oxidase family of molecules is required for ZNRF1 activation by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent phosphorylation in response to axonal injury. We herein demonstrate that NADPH oxidases promote apoptosis by activating ZNRF1, even in neurons treated with an exogenously applied oxidant. These results suggest an important role for NADPH oxidase in the initiation/promotion of neuronal degeneration by increasing ROS in close proximity to protein machineries, including those for ZNRF1 and EGFR, thereby promoting neuronal degeneration. PMID:27195063

  20. Wheat Germ Agglutinin Induces NADPH-Oxidase Activity in Human Neutrophils by Interaction with Mobilizable Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a lectin with specificity for N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid, was investigated with respect to its ability to activate the NADPH-oxidase of in vivo-exudated neutrophils (obtained from a skin chamber), and the activity was compared to that of peripheral blood neutrophils. The exudate cells responded to WGA, by both releasing reactive oxygen species into the extracellular milieu and producing oxygen metabolites intracellularly. The peripheral blood cells were unresponsive. To mimic the in vivo-exuded neutrophils with regards to receptor exposure, peripheral blood neutrophils were induced to mobilize their granules and vesicles to varying degrees (in vitro priming), prior to challenge with WGA. The oxidative response to WGA increased with increasing levels of granule mobilization, and the receptor(s) could be shown to reside in the secretory vesicles and/or the gelatinase granules in resting neutrophils. Several WGA-binding glycoproteins were detected in subcellular fractions containing these organelles. The extra- and intracellular NADPH-oxidase responses showed differences in sialic acid dependency, indicating that these two responses are mediated by different receptor structures. PMID:10377127

  1. Chloride channels activated by swell can regulate the NADPH oxidase generated membrane depolarisation in activated human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-01-11

    Chloride channels activated by swell have important functions in many physiological processes. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is essential for host defence and it generates superoxide by transferring electrons from the donor NADPH to the acceptor O{sub 2}. This electron current, induces a depolarisation of the plasma membrane. In this study, I report that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the depolarisation induced by the NADPH oxidase. When a chloride conductance was activated by swelling, its inhibition by either 50 {mu}M NPPB or removing external chloride, depolarised the plasma membrane potential to +26 mV {+-} 3.1 (n = 4) and +40 {+-} 1 mV (n = 4), respectively. These channels were partially inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor AEBSF (1 mM) and potently inhibited by ZnCl{sub 2} (3 mM). These currents were not activated by a phosphorylation step and elevations in intracellular calcium did not appear to activate chloride currents similar to those activated by swell.

  2. Sphingomyelinase promotes oxidant production and skeletal muscle contractile dysfunction through activation of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Loehr, James A.; Abo-Zahrah, Reem; Pal, Rituraj; Rodney, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sphingomyelinase (SMase) have been detected in a variety of diseases. SMase has been shown to increase muscle derived oxidants and decrease skeletal muscle force; however, the sub-cellular site of oxidant production has not been elucidated. Using redox sensitive biosensors targeted to the mitochondria and NADPH oxidase (Nox2), we demonstrate that SMase increased Nox2-dependent ROS and had no effect on mitochondrial ROS in isolated FDB fibers. Pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of Nox2 activity prevented SMase induced ROS production and provided protection against decreased force production in the diaphragm. In contrast, genetic overexpression of superoxide dismutase within the mitochondria did not prevent increased ROS production and offered no protection against decreased diaphragm function in response to SMase. Our study shows that SMase induced ROS production occurs in specific sub-cellular regions of skeletal muscle; however, the increased ROS does not completely account for the decrease in muscle function. PMID:25653619

  3. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  4. Endothelins and NADPH oxidases in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Sun, Zhongjie

    2008-01-01

    1. The endothelin (ET) system and NADPH oxidase play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. 2. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidases and thereby increase superoxide production, resulting in oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, NADPH oxidases may mediate the role of endothelins in some cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating ET-induced vasoconstriction and cardiovascular disease remains under debate, as evidenced by conflicting reports from different research teams. Conversely, activation of NADPH oxidase can stimulate ET secretion via ROS generation, which further enhances the cardiovascular effects of NADPH oxidase. However, little is known about how ROS activate the endothelin system. It seems that the relationship between ET-1 and ROS may vary with cardiovascular disorders. 3. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidase via the ET receptor-proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2)-Rac1 pathway. Rac1 is an important regulator of NADPH oxidase. There is ample evidence supporting direct stimulation by Rac1 of NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, Rac1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is mediated by the generation of ROS.

  5. Serotonin 2A and 2B receptor-induced phrenic motor facilitation: differential requirement for spinal NADPH oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, P.M.; Vinit, S.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) facilitates phrenic motor output by a mechanism that requires spinal serotonin (type 2) receptor activation, NADPH oxidase activity and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Episodic spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptor activation alone, without changes in oxygenation, is sufficient to elicit NADPH oxidase-dependent phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Here we investigated: 1) whether serotonin 2A and/or 2B (5-HT2a/b) receptors are expressed in identified phrenic motor neurons, and 2) which receptor subtype is capable of eliciting NADPH-oxidase-dependent pMF. In anesthetized, artificially ventilated adult rats, episodic C4 intrathecal injections (3 × 6µl injections, 5 min intervals) of a 5-HT2a (DOI) or 5-HT2b (BW723C86) receptor agonist elicited progressive and sustained increases in integrated phrenic nerve burst amplitude (i.e. pMF), an effect lasting at least 90 minutes post-injection for both receptor subtypes. 5-HT2a and 5-HT2b receptor agonist-induced pMF were both blocked by selective antagonists (ketanserin and SB206553, respectively), but not by antagonists to the other receptor subtype. Single injections of either agonist failed to elicit pMF, demonstrating a need for episodic receptor activation. Phrenic motor neurons retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin B fragment expressed both 5-HT2a and 5-HT2b receptors. Pre-treatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors (apocynin and DPI) blocked 5-HT2b, but not 5-HT2a-induced pMF. Thus, multiple spinal type 2 serotonin receptors elicit pMF, but they act via distinct mechanisms that differ in their requirement for NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:21223996

  6. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (P<0.05) reduced VEGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species by modulating NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox membrane translocation and the expression of Nox2 and Nox4. Moreover, the treatment of endothelial cells with serum obtained 4 h after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  7. NADPH Oxidase Promotes Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Röhm, Marc; Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Almyroudis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates. Aspergillus species are ubiquitous, filamentous fungi, which can cause invasive aspergillosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CGD, reflecting the critical role for NADPH oxidase in antifungal host defense. Activation of NADPH oxidase in neutrophils can be coupled to the release of proteins and chromatin that comingle in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which can augment extracellular antimicrobial host defense. NETosis can be driven by NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways. We therefore undertook an analysis of whether NADPH oxidase was required for NETosis in Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Oropharyngeal instillation of live Aspergillus hyphae induced neutrophilic pneumonitis in both wild-type and NADPH oxidase-deficient (p47phox−/−) mice which had resolved in wild-type mice by day 5 but progressed in p47phox−/− mice. NETs, identified by immunostaining, were observed in lungs of wild-type mice but were absent in p47phox−/− mice. Using bona fide NETs and nuclear chromatin decondensation as an early NETosis marker, we found that NETosis required a functional NADPH oxidase in vivo and ex vivo. In addition, NADPH oxidase increased the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils. Together, our results show that NADPH oxidase is required for pulmonary clearance of Aspergillus hyphae and generation of NETs in vivo. We speculate that dual modulation of NETosis and apoptosis by NADPH oxidase enhances antifungal host defense and promotes resolution of inflammation upon infection clearance. PMID:24549323

  8. Unchanged NADPH Oxidase Activity in Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 Triple Knockout Mice: What Do NADPH-Stimulated Chemiluminescence Assays Really Detect?

    PubMed

    Rezende, Flávia; Löwe, Oliver; Helfinger, Valeska; Prior, Kim-Kristin; Walter, Maria; Zukunft, Sven; Fleming, Ingrid; Weissmann, Norbert; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin

    2016-03-01

    NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are considered important sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This conclusion is, in part, based on the ability of NADPH to elicit a chemiluminescence signal in tissue/cell homogenates or membrane preparations in the presence of enhancers such as lucigenin, luminol, or L012. However, the ability of these particular assays to specifically detect Nox activity and Nox-derived ROS has not been proven. In this study, we demonstrate that combined knockout of the three main Nox enzymes of the mouse (Nox1-Nox2-Nox4 triple knockout) had no impact on NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence signals in the aorta, heart, and kidney homogenates. In the NADPH-stimulated membrane assays, no effect of in vivo angiotensin II pretreatment or deletion of Nox enzymes was observed. In in vitro studies in HEK293 cells, the overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 markedly increased ROS production in intact cells, whereas overexpression of Nox5 or Nox4 had no influence on the signal in membrane assays. In contrast, overexpression of nitric oxide synthase or cytochrome P450 enzymes resulted in an increased chemiluminescence signal in isolated membranes. On the basis of these observations, we propose the hypothesis that NADPH-stimulated chemiluminescence-based membrane assays, as currently used, do not reflect Nox activity. PMID:25906178

  9. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  10. Advanced glycation endproducts induce apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells by activating receptor RAGE and NADPH oxidase/JNK signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianfei; Jing, Jun; Yu, Shiyong; Song, Minbao; Tan, Hu; Cui, Bin; Huang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which is essential for re-endothelialization and neovascularization, is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether and how AGEs acts on EPCs to promote pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, EPCs were exposed to different concentrations of AGEs. The expression of NADPH and Rac1 was measured to investigate the involvement of NADPH oxidase pathway. ROS was examined to indicate the level of oxidative stress in EPCs. Total JNK and p-JNK were determined by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by both TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured by 3H thymidine uptake. The results showed that treatment of EPCs with AGEs increased the levels of ROS in EPCs. Mechanistically, AGEs increased the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of Rac1, a major component of NADPH. Importantly, treatment of EPCs with AGEs activated the JNK signaling pathway, which was closely associated with cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Our results suggest that the RAGE activation by AGEs in EPCs upregulates intracellular ROS levels, which contributes to increased activity of NADPH oxidase and expression of Rac1, thus promoting cellular apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Mechanistically, AGEs binding to the receptor RAGE in EPCs is associated with hyperactivity of JNK signaling pathway, which is downstream of ROS. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the AGEs/RAGE axis in EPCs may promote atherosclerosis and identify the NADPH/ROS/JNK signaling axis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27347324

  11. Zinc pyrithione salvages reperfusion injury by inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Viswanath; Bodiga, Sreedhar; Kommuguri, Upendra Nadh; Sankuru, Suneetha; Bodiga, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2011-07-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT), has a strong anti-apoptotic effect when administered just before reperfusion. Because oxidative stress has been proposed to contribute to myocardial reperfusion injury, we tested whether ZPT can reduce the production of reactive oxygen species during reoxygenation in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and evaluated the role of NADPH oxidase in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury. The cells were subjected to 8h of simulated ischemia, followed by either 30 min or 16 h of reoxygenation. ZPT when started just before reoxygenation significantly reduced superoxide generation, LDH release and improved cell survival compared to H/R. Attenuation of the ROS production by ZPT paralleled its capacity to prevent pyknotic nuclei formation. In addition, ZPT reversed the H/R-induced expression of NOX2 and p47(phox) phosphorylation indicating that ZPT directly protects cardiomyocytes from reperfusion injury by a mechanism that attenuates NADPH oxidase mediated intracellular oxidative stress. PMID:21651898

  12. Cisplatin induces production of reactive oxygen species via NADPH oxidase activation in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Terazawa, Riyako; Kojima, Keitaro; Nakane, Keita; Deguchi, Takashi; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Ito, Masafumi; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cisplatin treatment of human prostate cancer cells; hormone-sensitive LNCaP and hormone-refractory PC3 and DU145 cells. Intracellular levels of ROS and H(2)O(2) were measured and visualized using specific fluorescent probes. NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity was detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. Expression levels of NOX isoforms were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Cisplatin treatment increased the intracellular levels of ROS and H(2)O(2) in three prostate cancer cell lines. The increase was transient and robust in hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells compared with hormone-refractory PC3 and DU145 cells. Consistent with these findings, the NOX activity induced by cisplatin was higher in LNCaP cells than in PC3 and DU145 cells. Expression pattern of NOX isoforms varied among three cell lines and the NOX activity was independent of NOX expression. Taken together, we have shown that cisplatin induces production of ROS and H(2)O(2) via NOX activation in human prostate cancer cell lines, which is most prominent in hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells. PMID:21682664

  13. NADPH Oxidase-dependent Generation of Lysophosphatidylserine Enhances Clearance of Activated and Dying Neutrophils via G2A*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, S. Courtney; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Jin, Hyun-Sun; Leslie, Christina; Henson, Peter M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Bratton, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important ligand mediating apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes. Oxidation of PS fatty acyl groups (oxPS) during apoptosis reportedly mediates recognition through scavenger receptors. Given the oxidative capacity of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, we sought to identify oxPS signaling species in stimulated neutrophils. Using mass spectrometry analysis, only trace amounts of previously characterized oxPS species were found. Conversely, 18:1 and 18:0 lysophosphatidylserine (lyso-PS), known bioactive signaling phospholipids, were identified as abundant modified PS species following activation of the neutrophil oxidase. NADPH oxidase inhibitors blocked the production of lyso-PS in vitro, and accordingly, its generation in vivo by activated, murine neutrophils during zymosan-induced peritonitis was absent in mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase (gp91phox-/-). Treatment of macrophages with lyso-PS enhanced the uptake of apoptotic cells in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signaling via the macrophage G2A receptor. Similarly, endogenously produced lyso-PS also enhanced the G2A-mediated uptake of activated PS-exposing (but non-apoptotic) neutrophils, raising the possibility of non-apoptotic mechanisms for removal of inflammatory cells during resolution. Finally, antibody blockade of G2A signaling in vivo prolonged zymosan-induced neutrophilia in wild-type mice, whereas having no effect in gp91phox-/- mice where lyso-PS are not generated. Taken together, we show that lyso-PS are modified PS species generated following activation of the NADPH oxidase and lyso-PS signaling through the macrophage G2A functions to enhance existing receptor/ligand systems for optimal resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:18824544

  14. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  15. Flagellin-induced NADPH oxidase 4 activation is involved in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinoh; Seo, Misun; Kim, Su Kyung; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial infection-mediated inflammation facilitates development of atherosclerosis by activating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling system. We reasoned that NADPH oxidases (Nox), required for TLR-mediated inflammatory response, are involved in atherogenesis. Here, we show that the activation of Nox4 through TLR5 regulates the inflammation of the endothelium and in atherogenesis. Flagellin-induced interaction between the COOH region of Nox4 and the TIR domain of TLR5 led to H2O2 generation, which in turn promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, as well as the expression of ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Knockdown of the Nox4 in HAECs resulted in attenuated expressions of IL-8 and ICAM-1 leading to a reduction in the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Challenge of recombinant FliC (rFliC) to the ApoE KO mice with high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque sizes compared to the saline-injected mice. However, an injection of rFliC into the Nox4ApoE DKO mice with HFDs failed to generate atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting that Nox4 deficiency resulted in significant protections against rFliC-mediated atherogenesis. We conclude that TLR5-dependent Nox4 activation and subsequent H2O2 generation play critical roles for the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:27146088

  16. Flagellin-induced NADPH oxidase 4 activation is involved in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinoh; Seo, Misun; Kim, Su Kyung; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-05-05

    It is widely accepted that bacterial infection-mediated inflammation facilitates development of atherosclerosis by activating toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling system. We reasoned that NADPH oxidases (Nox), required for TLR-mediated inflammatory response, are involved in atherogenesis. Here, we show that the activation of Nox4 through TLR5 regulates the inflammation of the endothelium and in atherogenesis. Flagellin-induced interaction between the COOH region of Nox4 and the TIR domain of TLR5 led to H2O2 generation, which in turn promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, as well as the expression of ICAM-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Knockdown of the Nox4 in HAECs resulted in attenuated expressions of IL-8 and ICAM-1 leading to a reduction in the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Challenge of recombinant FliC (rFliC) to the ApoE KO mice with high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque sizes compared to the saline-injected mice. However, an injection of rFliC into the Nox4ApoE DKO mice with HFDs failed to generate atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting that Nox4 deficiency resulted in significant protections against rFliC-mediated atherogenesis. We conclude that TLR5-dependent Nox4 activation and subsequent H2O2 generation play critical roles for the development of atherosclerosis.

  17. Sildenafil Promotes eNOS Activation and Inhibits NADPH Oxidase in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. Aims We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Main Outcome Measures Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Results Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of P-eNOS (Ser-1177), eNOS/HSP90 interaction, P-AKT, protein expression of gp91(phox), and 4-HNE, in the sickle cell mouse penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. PMID:24251665

  18. Role of the Rho GTPase Rac in the activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of the membrane-associated cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox) and 4 cytosolic components: p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase, Rac, in complex with RhoGDI. Superoxide is produced by the NADPH-driven reduction of molecular oxygen, via a redox gradient located in Nox2. Electron flow in Nox2 is initiated by interaction with cytosolic components, which translocate to the membrane, p67phox playing the central role. The participation of Rac is expressed in the following sequence: (1) Translocation of the RacGDP-RhoGDI complex to the membrane; (2) Dissociation of RacGDP from RhoGDI; (3) GDP to GTP exchange on Rac, mediated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor; (4) Binding of RacGTP to p67phox; (5) Induction of a conformational change in p67phox, promoting interaction with Nox2. The particular involvement of Rac in NADPH oxidase assembly serves as a paradigm for signaling by Rho GTPases, in general. PMID:24598074

  19. The Role of NADPH Oxidases (NOXs) in Liver Fibrosis and the Activation of Myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuang; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Brenner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver injury, resulted from different etiologies (e.g., virus infection, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis) can lead to liver fibrosis characterized by the excess accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., type I collagen). Hepatic myofibroblasts that are activated upon liver injury are the key producers of ECM proteins, contributing to both the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to a lesser extent, portal fibroblast, are believed to be the precursor cells that give rise to hepatic myofibroblasts in response to liver injury. Although, much progress has been made toward dissecting the lineage origin of myofibroblasts, how these cells are activated and become functional producers of ECM proteins remains incompletely understood. Activation of myofibroblasts is a complex process that involves the interactions between parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells, which drives the phenotypic change of HSCs from a quiescent stage to a myofibroblastic and active phenotype. Accumulating evidence has suggested a critical role of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a multi-component complex that catalyzes reactions from molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the activation process of hepatic myofibroblasts. NOX isoforms, including NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4, and NOX-derived ROS, have all been implicated to regulate HSC activation and hepatocyte apoptosis, both of which are essential steps for initiating liver fibrosis. This review highlights the importance of NOX isoforms in hepatic myofibroblast activation and the progression of liver fibrosis, and also discusses the therapeutic potential of targeting NOXs for liver fibrosis and associated hepatic diseases. PMID:26869935

  20. Cobalt protoporphyrin induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells through regulation of cytoplasmic Ref-1-related NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Dong; Lee, Sang Kwon; Park, Si Eun; Kim, Kang Mi; Kim, Koanhoi; Park, Yeong Min; Park, Young Chul

    2011-11-01

    Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) is a potent and effective metalloporphyrin inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity in many tissues. Here, we report that CoPP induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. CoPP induced a marked growth inhibition with a slight reduction in viability, and increased adhesion and spreading of THP-1 cells. However, other protoporphyrins did not. CoPP also resulted in expression of CD11b, MMP9, MSR1, CD14 and ICAM-1, which are differentiation markers for macrophages. Interestingly, we observed a decrease of cytoplasmic redox factor-1 (Ref-1) levels in the process of CoPP-induced differentiation of THP-1 cells. In addition, knockdown of Ref-1 by siRNA enhanced cell adhesion induced by CoPP. Furthermore, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), completely abolished CoPP-induced adhesion of Ref-1-deficient cells using an siRNA. A cytosolic factor for NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox, was significantly increased in THP-1 cells by CoPP treatment. Κnockdown of Ref-1 increased CoPP-induced p47phox expression in THP-1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CoPP induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells, and that the CoPP-induced differentiation is associated with cytoplasmic Ref-1-related NADPH oxidase activity.

  1. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Rodiño-Janeiro, Bruno K; Paradela-Dobarro, Beatriz; Castiñeiras-Landeira, María Isabel; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; González-Juanatey, José R; Álvarez, Ezequiel

    2013-01-01

    The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility and oral bioavailability. However, other possibilities are not closed, with peptide inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies against NADPH oxidase isoforms continuing to be under investigation as well as the ongoing search for naturally occurring compounds. Likewise, some different approaches include inhibition of assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex, subcellular translocation, post-transductional modifications, calcium entry/release, electron transfer, and genetic expression. High-throughput screens for any of these activities could provide new

  2. NMDA Receptor-Mediated Activation of NADPH Oxidase and Glomerulosclerosis in Hyperhomocysteinemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Yi, Fan; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna M.; Zhu, Qing; Laperle, Laura A.; Abais, Justine M.; Brimson, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the role of NMDA receptor in hyperhomocyteinemia (hHcys)-induced NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation and glomerulosclerosis. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a folate-free (FF) diet to produce hHcys, and a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, was administrated. Rats fed the FF diet exhibited significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels, upregulated NMDA receptor expression, enhanced Nox activity and Nox-dependent O2.− production in the glomeruli, which were accompanied by remarkable glomerulosclerosis. MK-801 treatment significantly inhibited Nox-dependent O2.− production induced by hHcys and reduced glomerular damage index as compared with vehicle-treated hHcys rats. Correspondingly, glomerular deposition of extracellular matrix components in hHcys rats was ameliorated by the administration of MK-801. Additionally, hHcys induced an increase in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression and a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 activities, all of which were abolished by MK-801 treatment. In vitro studies showed that homocysteine increased Nox-dependent O2.− generation in rat mesangial cells, which was blocked by MK-801. Pretreatment with MK-801 also reversed homocysteine-induced decrease in MMP-1 activity and increase in TIMP-1 expression. These results support the view that the NMDA receptor may mediate Nox activation in the kidney during hHcys and thereby play a critical role in the development of hHcys-induced glomerulosclerosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 975–986. PMID:20406136

  3. Rotenone Activates Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase through Binding to Its Membrane Subunit gp91phox

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shih-heng; Zhang, Dan; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-shyong; Gao, Hui-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Rotenone, a widely used pesticide, reproduces Parkinsonism in rodents and associates with increased risk for Parkinson’s disease. We previously reported rotenone increased superoxide production through stimulating microglial phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX). The present study identified a novel mechanism by which rotenone activates PHOX. Ligand-binding assay revealed that rotenone directly bound to membrane gp91phox, the catalytic subunit of PHOX; such binding was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a PHOX inhibitor with a binding site on gp91phox. Functional studies showed both membrane and cytosolic subunits were required for rotenone-induced superoxide production in cell-free systems, intact phagocytes, and COS7 cells transfected with membrane subunits (gp91phox/p22phox) and cytosolic subunits (p67phox and p47phox). Rotenone-elicited extracellular superoxide release in p47phox-deficient macrophages suggested rotenone enabled to activate PHOX through a p47phox-independent mechanism. Increased membrane translocation of p67phox, elevated binding of p67phox to rotenone-treated membrane fractions, and co-immunoprecipitation of p67phox and gp91phox in rotenone-treated wild-type and p47phox-deficient macrophages indicated p67phox played a critical role in rotenone-induced PHOX activation via its direct interaction with gp91phox. Rac1, a Rho-like small GTPase, enhanced p67phox-gp91phox interaction; Rac1 inhibition decreased rotenone-elicited superoxide release. In conclusion, rotenone directly interacted with gp91phox; such an interaction triggered membrane translocation of p67phox, leading to PHOX activation and superoxide production. PMID:22094225

  4. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Podocytes Mediated by Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Cai-Xia; Abais, Justine M.; Li, Xiao-Xue; Laperle, Laura A.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) induces podocytes to undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox). It was found that increased homocysteine (Hcys) level suppressed the expression of slit diaphragm-associated proteins, P-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes, indicating the loss of their epithelial features. Meanwhile, Hcys remarkably increased the abundance of mesenchymal markers, such as fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). These phenotype changes in podocytes induced by Hcys were accompanied by enhanced superoxide (O2.−) production, which was substantially suppressed by inhibition of Nox activity. Functionally, Hcys significantly enhanced the permeability of the podocyte monolayer coupled with increased EMT, and this EMT-related increase in cell permeability could be restored by Nox inhibitors. In mice lacking gp91phox (gp91−/−), an essential Nox subunit gene, hHcys-enhanced podocyte EMT and consequent glomerular injury were examined. In wild-type (gp91+/+) mice, hHcys induced by a folate-free (FF) diet markedly enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers (FSP-1 and α-SMA) but decreased expression of epithelial markers of podocytes in glomeruli, which were not observed in gp91−/− mouse glomeruli. Podocyte injury, glomerular sclerotic pathology, and marked albuminuria observed in gp91+/+ mice with hHcys were all significantly attenuated in gp91−/− mice. These results suggest that hHcys induces EMT of podocytes through activation of Nox, which represents a novel mechanism of hHcys-associated podocyte injury. PMID:21647593

  5. NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Mediates Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatocyte Cell Death during Liver Fibrosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Patricia; Mainez, Jèssica; Crosas-Molist, Eva; Roncero, César; Fernández-Rodriguez, Conrado M.; Pinedo, Fernando; Huber, Heidemarie; Eferl, Robert; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Fabregat, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A role for the NADPH oxidases NOX1 and NOX2 in liver fibrosis has been proposed, but the implication of NOX4 is poorly understood yet. The aim of this work was to study the functional role of NOX4 in different cell populations implicated in liver fibrosis: hepatic stellate cells (HSC), myofibroblats (MFBs) and hepatocytes. Two different mice models that develop spontaneous fibrosis (Mdr2−/−/p19ARF−/−, Stat3Δhc/Mdr2−/−) and a model of experimental induced fibrosis (CCl4) were used. In addition, gene expression in biopsies from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients or non-fibrotic liver samples was analyzed. Results have indicated that NOX4 expression was increased in the livers of all animal models, concomitantly with fibrosis development and TGF-β pathway activation. In vitro TGF-β-treated HSC increased NOX4 expression correlating with transdifferentiation to MFBs. Knockdown experiments revealed that NOX4 downstream TGF-β is necessary for HSC activation as well as for the maintenance of the MFB phenotype. NOX4 was not necessary for TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but was required for TGF-β-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Finally, NOX4 expression was elevated in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-derived fibrosis, increasing along the fibrosis degree. In summary, fibrosis progression both in vitro and in vivo (animal models and patients) is accompanied by increased NOX4 expression, which mediates acquisition and maintenance of the MFB phenotype, as well as TGF-β-induced death of hepatocytes. PMID:23049784

  6. Contribution of NADPH Oxidase to Membrane CD38 Internalization and Activation in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K.; Abais, Justine M.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway importantly contributes to the vasomotor response in different arteries. Although there is evidence indicating that the activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase is associated with CD38 internalization, the molecular mechanism mediating CD38 internalization and consequent activation in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli remains poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that CD38 may sense redox signals and is thereby activated to produce cellular response and that the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX1, is a major resource to produce superoxide (O2·−) in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) in response to muscarinic receptor agonist, which uses CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase signaling pathway to exert its action in these CAMs. These findings led us hypothesize that NOX1-derived O2·− serves in an autocrine fashion to enhance CD38 internalization, leading to redox activation of CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in mouse CAMs. To test this hypothesis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and a membrane protein biotinylation assay were used in the present study. We first demonstrated that CD38 internalization induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1) was inhibited by silencing of NOX1 gene, but not NOX4 gene. Correspondingly, NOX1 gene silencing abolished ET-1-induced O2·− production and increased CD38-ADP-ribosylcyclase activity in CAMs, while activation of NOX1 by overexpression of Rac1 or Vav2 or administration of exogenous O2·− significantly increased CD38 internalization in CAMs. Lastly, ET-1 was found to markedly increase membrane raft clustering as shown by increased colocalization of cholera toxin-B with CD38 and NOX1. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence that Rac1-NOX1-dependent O2·− production mediates CD38 internalization in CAMs, which may represent an important mechanism linking receptor activation with CD38 activity in these cells. PMID:23940720

  7. Positive feedback regulation of maize NADPH oxidase by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in abscisic acid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fan; Ding, Haidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Aying; Zhang, Yun; Tan, Mingpu; Dong, Wen; Jiang, Mingyi

    2009-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), abscisic acid (ABA)-induced H2O2 production activates a 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase (p46MAPK), and the activation of p46MAPK also regulates the production of H2O2. However, the mechanism for the regulation of H2O2 production by MAPK in ABA signalling remains to be elucidated. In this study, four reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase (rboh) genes (ZmrbohA–D) were isolated and characterized in maize leaves. ABA treatment induced a biphasic response (phase I and phase II) in the expression of ZmrbohA–D and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Phase II induced by ABA was blocked by pretreatments with two MAPK kinase (MPKKK) inhibitors and two H2O2 scavengers, but phase I was not affected by these inhibitors or scavengers. Treatment with H2O2 alone also only induced phase II, and the induction was arrested by the MAPKK inhibitors. Furthermore, the ABA-activated p46MAPK was partially purified. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, the p46MAPK gene was cloned. Analysis of the tryptic peptides and the p46MAPK sequence indicate it is the known ZmMPK5. Treatments with ABA and H2O2 led to a significant increase in the activity of ZmMPK5, although ABA treatment only induced a slight increase in the expression of ZmMPK5. The data indicate that H2O2-activated ZmMPK5 is involved in the activation of phase II in ABA signalling, but not in phase I. The results suggest that there is a positive feedback loop involving NADPH oxidase, H2O2, and ZmMPK5 in ABA signalling. PMID:19592501

  8. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease-Implications for Prevention.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways-exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine-which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine-mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD-including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine-also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date. PMID:27417759

  9. NADPH Oxidase Activity in Cerebral Arterioles Is a Key Mediator of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease—Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), a common feature of brain aging, is characterized by lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, leukoaraiosis, and a leaky blood-brain barrier. Functionally, it is associated with cognitive decline, dementia, depression, gait abnormalities, and increased risk for stroke. Cerebral arterioles in this syndrome tend to hypertrophy and lose their capacity for adaptive vasodilation. Rodent studies strongly suggest that activation of Nox2-dependent NADPH oxidase activity is a crucial driver of these structural and functional derangements of cerebral arterioles, in part owing to impairment of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This oxidative stress may also contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier seen in SVD. Hypertension, aging, metabolic syndrome, smoking, hyperglycemia, and elevated homocysteine may promote activation of NADPH oxidase in cerebral arterioles. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with phycocyanobilin from spirulina, as well as high-dose statin therapy, may have potential for prevention and control of SVD, and high-potassium diets merit study in this regard. Measures which support effective eNOS activity in other ways—exercise training, supplemental citrulline, certain dietary flavonoids (as in cocoa and green tea), and capsaicin, may also improve the function of cerebral arterioles. Asian epidemiology suggests that increased protein intakes may decrease risk for SVD; conceivably, arginine and/or cysteine—which boosts tissue glutathione synthesis, and can be administered as N-acetylcysteine—mediate this benefit. Ameliorating the risk factors for SVD—including hypertension, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, smoking, and elevated homocysteine—also may help to prevent and control this syndrome, although few clinical trials have addressed this issue to date. PMID:27417759

  10. The antioxidant activity of soursop decreases the expression of a member of the NADPH oxidase family.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Cuevas, Y; Díaz-Sobac, R; Vázquez-Luna, A; Landa-Solís, C; Cruz-Ramos, M; Santamaría-Olmedo, M; Martínez-Flores, K; Fuentes-Gómez, A J; López-Reyes, A

    2014-02-01

    Cellular oxidative stress produced by an increase in free radicals is one of the factors that promote the development of chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, consuming natural antioxidants helps minimize their negative effects. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of the soursop extract (Annona muricata), its cytoprotective capacity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the inhibitory potential of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the molecular mechanism of its antioxidant action, and its capacity to repair cellular damage in the fibroblast cell line. The soursop extract proved not to be cytotoxic in fibroblast cultures and showed cytoprotective capacity against hydrogen peroxide-induced stress; in cell culture it reduced the generation of ROS significantly by inhibiting a sub-unit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (p47phox). The soursop extract can prevent damage caused by cellular oxidants.

  11. Antioxidant effect of imperatorin from Angelica dahurica in hypertension via inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation and MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanjun; Zhang, Yanmin; Wang, Nan; He, Langchong

    2014-08-01

    Imperatorin (IMP) is an active furocoumarin in the traditional Chinese medicine Angelica dahurica and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IMP on blood pressure (BP) and antioxidant effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. SHR were administered IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) or tempol (18 mg/kg/d) daily by gavage for 12 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proteinuria levels, and superoxide dismutase activity were evaluated with commercial kits. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits of the renal cortical tissues were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Twenty-four hour urinary 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by treatment with IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) in SHR. Meanwhile, we found that renal cortical superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in IMP-treated groups. Renal cortical and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances' levels, the 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α, and proteinuria in the IMP-treated group, were lower than SHR group. After that, we found the messenger RNA expressions and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were markedly reduced after IMP treated in SHR. IMP also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in renal cortical in SHR. In addition, H2O2-induced ROS production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was markedly attenuated by IMP. H2O2-induced activation of MAPK, protein kinase B, and expression of NADPH oxidase were also attenuated by pretreatment of IMP. In summary, IMP showed antihypertensive effect via prevention of renal injury not only by reducing NADPH

  12. NADPH oxidase deficiency in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hohn, D C; Lehrer, R I

    1975-01-01

    We measured the cyanide-insensitive pyridine nucleotide oxidase activity of fractionated resting and phagocytic neutrophils from 11 normal donors, 1 patient with hereditary deficiency of myeloperoxidase, and 7 patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). When measured under optimal conditions (at pH 5.5 and in the presence of 0.5 mM Mn++), NADPH oxidase activity increased fourfold with phagocytosis and was six-fold higher than with NADH. Phagocytic neutrophils from patients with CGD were markedly deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Images PMID:235560

  13. NecroX-7 prevents oxidative stress-induced cardiomyopathy by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joonghoon; Park, Eok; Ahn, Bong-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Park, Ji-hoon; Koo, Sun Young; Kwak, Hyo-Shin; Park, Heui Sul; Kim, Dong Wook; Song, Myoungsub; Yim, Hyeon Joo; Seo, Dong Ook; Kim, Soon Ha

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress is one of the causes of cardiomyopathy. In the present study, NecroXs, novel class of mitochondrial ROS/RNS scavengers, were evaluated for cardioprotection in in vitro and in vivo model, and the putative mechanism of the cardioprotection of NecroX-7 was investigated by global gene expression profiling and subsequent biochemical analysis. NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced death of H9C2 rat cardiomyocytes at EC{sub 50} = 0.057 μM. In doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy in rats, NecroX-7 significantly reduced the plasma levels of creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) which were increased by DOX treatment (p < 0.05). Microarray analysis revealed that 21 genes differentially expressed in tBHP-treated H9C2 cells were involved in ‘Production of reactive oxygen species’ (p = 0.022), and they were resolved by concurrent NecroX-7 treatment. Gene-to-gene networking also identified that NecroX-7 relieved cell death through Ncf1/p47phox and Rac2 modulation. In subsequent biochemical analysis, NecroX-7 inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity by 53.3% (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that NecroX-7, in part, provides substantial protection of cardiomyopathy induced by tBHP or DOX via NOX-mediated cell death. -- Highlights: ► NecroX-7 prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced in vitro cardiac cell death. ► NecroX-7 ameliorated doxorubicin-induced in vivo cardiomyopathy. ► NecroX-7 prevented oxidative stress and necrosis-enriched transcriptional changes. ► NecroX-7 effectively inhibited NADPH oxidase activation. ► Cardioprotection of Necro-7 was brought on by modulation of NADPH oxidase activity.

  14. D1-like receptors regulate NADPH oxidase activity and subunit expression in lipid raft microdomains of renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hewang; Han, Weixing; Villar, Van Anthony M; Keever, Lindsay B; Lu, Quansheng; Hopfer, Ulrich; Quinn, Mark T; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Yu, Peiying

    2009-06-01

    NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent reactive oxygen species production is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that oxidase subunits are differentially regulated in renal proximal tubules from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Basal Nox2 and Nox4, but not Rac1, in immortalized renal proximal tubule cells and brush border membranes were greater in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. However, more Rac1 was expressed in lipid rafts in cells from hypertensive rats than in cells from normotensive rats; the converse was observed with Nox4, whereas Nox2 expression was similar. The D(1)-like receptor agonist fenoldopam decreased Nox2 and Rac1 protein in lipid rafts to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. Basal oxidase activity was 3-fold higher in hypertensive than in normotensive rats but was inhibited to a greater extent by fenoldopam in normotensive (58+/-3.3%) than in hypertensive rats (31+/-5.2%; P<0.05; n=6 per group). Fenoldopam decreased the amount of Nox2 that coimmunoprecipitated with p67(phox) in cells from normotensive rats. D(1)-like receptors may decrease oxidase activity by disrupting the distribution and assembly of oxidase subunits in cell membrane microdomains. The cholesterol-depleting reagent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin decreased oxidase activity and cholesterol content to a greater extent in hypertensive than in normotensive rats. The greater basal levels of Nox2 and Nox4 in cell membranes and Nox2 and Rac1 in lipid rafts in hypertensive rats than in normotensive rats may explain the increased basal oxidase activity in hypertensive rats. PMID:19380616

  15. Fulvene-5 inhibition of Nadph oxidases attenuates activation of epithelial sodium channels in A6 distal nephron cells.

    PubMed

    Trac, David; Liu, Bingchen; Pao, Alan C; Thomas, Sheela V; Park, Michael; Downs, Charles A; Ma, He-Ping; Helms, My N

    2013-10-01

    Nadph oxidase 4 is an important cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the kidney. Novel antioxidant drugs, such as Nox4 inhibitor compounds, are being developed. There is, however, very little experimental evidence for the biological role and regulation of Nadph oxidase isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we show that Fulvene-5 is an effective inhibitor of Nox-generated ROS and report the role of Nox isoforms in activating epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells via oxidant signaling and cell stretch activation. Using single-channel patch-clamp analysis, we report that Fulvene-5 blocked the increase in ENaC activity that is typically observed with H2O2 treatment of A6 cells: average ENaC NPo values decreased from a baseline level of 1.04 ± 0.18 (means ± SE) to 0.25 ± 0.08 following Fulvene-5 treatment. H2O2 treatment failed to increase ENaC activity in the presence of Fulvene-5. Moreover, Fulvene-5 treatment of A6 cells blocked the osmotic cell stretch response of A6 cells, indicating that stretch activation of Nox-derived ROS plays an important role in ENaC regulation. Together, these findings indicate that Fulvene-5, and perhaps other classes of antioxidant inhibitors, may represent a novel class of compounds useful for the treatment of pathological disorders stemming from inappropriate ion channel activity, such as hypertension. PMID:23863470

  16. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  17. Impaired Pulmonary NF-κB Activation in Response to Lipopolysaccharide in NADPH Oxidase-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koay, M. Audrey; Christman, John W.; Segal, Brahm H.; Venkatakrishnan, Annapurna; Blackwell, Thomas R.; Holland, Steven M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be involved in intracellular signaling, including activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in the NF-κB activation pathway by utilizing knockout mice (p47phox−/−) lacking the p47phox component of NADPH oxidase. Wild-type (WT) controls and p47phox−/− mice were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 or 20 μg/g of body weight). LPS-induced NF-κB binding activity and accumulation of RelA in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissue were markedly increased in WT compared to p47phox−/− mice 90 min after treatment with 20 but not 5 μg of i.p. LPS per g. In another model of lung inflammation, RelA nuclear translocation was reduced in p47phox−/− mice compared to WT mice following treatment with aerosolized LPS. In contrast to NF-κB activation in p47phox−/− mice, LPS-induced production of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in the lungs and neutrophilic lung inflammation were not diminished in these mice compared to WT mice. We conclude that LPS-induced NF-κB activation is deficient in the lungs of p47phox−/− mice compared to WT mice, but this abnormality does not result in overt alteration in the acute inflammatory response. PMID:11553535

  18. Sustained activation of proton channels and NADPH oxidase in human eosinophils and murine granulocytes requires PKC but not cPLA2α activity

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V; Finnegan, Alison; Bollinger, James; Gelb, Michael H; DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing hypothesis that a signalling pathway involving cPLA2α is required to enhance the gating of the voltage-gated proton channel associated with NADPH oxidase was tested in human eosinophils and murine granulocytes. This hypothesis invokes arachidonic acid (AA) liberated by cPLA2α as a final activator of proton channels. In human eosinophils studied in the perforated-patch configuration, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation elicited NADPH oxidase-generated electron current (Ie) and enhanced proton channel gating identically in the presence or absence of three specific cPLA2α inhibitors, Wyeth-1, pyrrolidine-2 and AACOCF3 (arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone). In contrast, PKC inhibitors GFX (GF109203X) or staurosporine prevented the activation of either proton channels or NADPH oxidase. PKC inhibition during the respiratory burst reversed the activation of both molecules, suggesting that ongoing phosphorylation is required. This effect of GFX was inhibited by okadaic acid, implicating phosphatases in proton channel deactivation. Proton channel activation by AA was partially reversed by GFX or staurosporine, indicating that AA effects are due in part to activation of PKC. In granulocytes from mice with the cPLA2α gene disrupted (knockout mice), PMA or fMetLeuPhe activated NADPH oxidase and proton channels in a manner indistinguishable from the responses of control cells. Thus, cPLA2α is not essential to activate the proton conductance or for a normal respiratory burst. Instead, phosphorylation of the proton channel or an activating molecule converts the channel to its activated gating mode. The existing paradigm for regulation of the concerted activity of proton channels and NADPH oxidase must be revised. PMID:17185330

  19. Pigment epithelium-derived factor stimulates skeletal muscle glycolytic activity through NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Carlessi, Rodrigo; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a multifunctional serpin implicated in insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle to PEDF has profound metabolic consequences with predisposition towards chronic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Chronic inflammation shifts muscle metabolism towards increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative metabolism. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel effect of PEDF on cellular metabolism in mouse cell line (C2C12) and human primary skeletal muscle cells. PEDF addition to skeletal muscle cells induced enhanced phospholipase A2 activity. This was accompanied with increased production of reactive oxygen species in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner that triggered a shift towards a more glycolytic phenotype. Extracellular flux analysis and glucose consumption assays demonstrated that PEDF treatment resulted in enhanced glycolysis but did not change mitochondrial respiration. Our results demonstrate that skeletal muscle cells express a PEDF-inducible oxidant generating system that enhances glycolysis but is sensitive to antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibition. PMID:27343430

  20. Composition of partially purified NADPH oxidase from pig neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Bellavite, P; Jones, O T; Cross, A R; Papini, E; Rossi, F

    1984-01-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-forming enzyme NADPH oxidase from pig neutrophils was solubilized and partially purified by gel-filtration chromatography. The purification procedure allowed the separation of NADPH oxidase activity from NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase and 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol reductase activities. O2.-forming activity was co-purified with cytochrome b-245 and was associated with phospholipids. However, active fractions endowed with cytochrome b were devoid of ubiquinone and contained only little FAD. The cytochrome b/FAD ratio was 1.13:1 in the crude solubilized extract and increased to 18.95:1 in the partially purified preparations. Most of FAD was associated with fractions containing NADH-dependent oxidoreductases. These results are consistent with the postulated role of cytochrome b in O2.-formation by neutrophil NADPH oxidase, but raise doubts about the participation of flavoproteins in this enzyme activity. PMID:6439185

  1. [NADPH oxidases, Nox: new isoenzymes family].

    PubMed

    Chuong Nguyen, Minh Vu; Lardy, Bernard; Paclet, Marie-Hélène; Rousset, Francis; Berthier, Sylvie; Baillet, Athan; Grange, Laurent; Gaudin, Philippe; Morel, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases, Nox, are a family of isoenzymes, composed of seven members, whose sole function is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although Nox catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, they acquired from a common ancestor during evolution, specificities related to their tissue expression, subcellular localization, activation mechanisms and regulation. Their functions could vary depending on the pathophysiological state of the tissues. Indeed, ROS are not only bactericidal weapons in phagocytes but also essential cellular signaling molecules and their overproduction is involved in chronic diseases and diseases of aging. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the function of Nox and the emergence of Nox inhibitors, require a thorough knowledge of their nature and structure. The objectives of this review are to highlight, in a structure/function approach, the main similar and differentiated properties shared by the human Nox isoenzymes.

  2. Adverse cognitive effects of high-fat diet in a murine model of sleep apnea are mediated by NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, D; Ramesh, V; Gozal, D

    2012-12-27

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in sleep apnea (SA), induces increased NADPH oxidase activation and deficits in hippocampal learning and memory. Similar to IH, high fat-refined carbohydrate diet (HFD), a frequent occurrence in patients with SA, can also induce similar oxidative stress and cognitive deficits under normoxic conditions, suggesting that excessive NADPH oxidase activity may underlie CNS dysfunction in both conditions. The effect of HFD and IH during the light period on two forms of spatial learning in the water maze as well as on markers of oxidative stress was assessed in male mice lacking NADPH oxidase activity (gp91phox⁻/Y) and wild-type littermates fed on HFD. On a standard place training task, gp91phox⁻/Y displayed normal learning, and was protected from the spatial learning deficits observed in wild-type littermates exposed to IH. Moreover, anxiety levels were increased in wild-type mice exposed to HFD and IH as compared to controls, while no changes emerged in gp91phox⁻/Y mice. Additionally, wild-type mice, but not gp91phox⁻/Y mice, had significantly elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in hippocampal lysates following IH-HFD exposures. The cognitive deficits of obesity and westernized diets and those of sleep disorders that are characterized by IH during sleep are both mediated, at least in part, by excessive NADPH oxidase activity.

  3. Leptin Induces Oxidative Stress Through Activation of NADPH Oxidase in Renal Tubular Cells: Antioxidant Effect of L-Carnitine.

    PubMed

    Blanca, Antonio J; Ruiz-Armenta, María V; Zambrano, Sonia; Salsoso, Rocío; Miguel-Carrasco, José L; Fortuño, Ana; Revilla, Elisa; Mate, Alfonso; Vázquez, Carmen M

    2016-10-01

    Leptin is a protein involved in the regulation of food intake and in the immune and inflammatory responses, among other functions. Evidences demonstrate that obesity is directly associated with high levels of leptin, suggesting that leptin may directly link obesity with the elevated cardiovascular and renal risk associated with increased body weight. Adverse effects of leptin include oxidative stress mediated by activation of NADPH oxidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine (LC) in rat renal epithelial cells (NRK-52E) exposed to leptin in order to generate a state of oxidative stress characteristic of obesity. Leptin increased superoxide anion (O2 (•) -) generation from NADPH oxidase (via PI3 K/Akt pathway), NOX2 expression and nitrotyrosine levels. On the other hand, NOX4 expression and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels diminished after leptin treatment. Furthermore, the expression of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, was altered by leptin, and an increase in the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors was also found in leptin-treated cells. LC restored all changes induced by leptin to those levels found in untreated cells. In conclusion, stimulation of NRK-52E cells with leptin induced a state of oxidative stress and inflammation that could be reversed by preincubation with LC. Interestingly, LC induced an upregulation of NOX4 and restored the release of its product, hydrogen peroxide, which suggests a protective role of NOX4 against leptin-induced renal damage. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2281-2288, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A benzoxazine derivative induces vascular endothelial cell apoptosis in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 by elevating NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species levels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; He, Qiuxia; Cheng, Yizhe; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2009-09-01

    Previously, we found that 6,8-dichloro-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzoxazine (DBO) promoted apoptosis of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) deprived of growth factors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of DBO and its mechanism of action on angiogenesis and apoptosis of HUVECs in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which promotes angiogenesis and inhibits apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. DBO significantly inhibited capillary-like tube formation by promoting apoptosis of HUVECs in the presence of FGF-2 in vitro. Furthermore, DBO elevated the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and increased the activity of NADPH oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in promoting apoptosis under this condition. Moreover, when NADPH oxidase was inhibited by its specific inhibitor, dibenziodolium chloride (DPI), DBO could not elevate ROS and NO levels in HUVECs. The data suggest that DBO is a new modulator of apoptosis in vitro, and it might function by increasing the activity of NADPH oxidase and iNOS, subsequently elevating the levels of ROS and NO in HUVECs. The findings of this study provide a new small molecule for investigating the FGF-2/NADPH oxidase/iNOS signaling pathway in apoptosis.

  5. Inhibition of arsenic induced-rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xinjuan; Dai Yujie; Li Xing; Niu Nannan; Li Wenjie; Liu Fangli; Zhao Yang; Yu Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12 months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-{beta}1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-{beta}1-induced transactivation of the TGF-{beta}-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-{beta}1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and {alpha}-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-{beta}/Smad activation. - Research Highlights: > GSE attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and

  6. NADPH oxidases: new actors in thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a crucial substrate for thyroid peroxidase, a key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. However, as a potent oxidant, H2O2 might also be responsible for the high level of oxidative DNA damage observed in thyroid tissues, such as DNA base lesions and strand breakages, which promote chromosomal instability and contribute to the development of tumours. Although the role of H2O2 in thyroid hormone synthesis is well established, its precise mechanisms of action in pathological processes are still under investigation. The NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase family are the only oxidoreductases whose primary function is to produce reactive oxygen species. As such, the function and expression of these enzymes are tightly regulated. Thyrocytes express dual oxidase 2, which produces most of the H2O2 for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrocytes also express dual oxidase 1 and NADPH oxidase 4, but the roles of these enzymes are still unknown. Here, we review the structure, expression, localization and function of these enzymes. We focus on their potential role in thyroid cancer, which is characterized by increased expression of these enzymes. PMID:27174022

  7. NADPH oxidases in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Belmondo, Simone; Calcagno, Cristina; Genre, Andrea; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plant NADPH oxidases are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays key roles as both signal and stressor in several plant processes, including defense responses against pathogens. ROS accumulation in root cells during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development has raised the interest in understanding how ROS-mediated defense programs are modulated during the establishment of this mutualistic interaction. We have recently analyzed the expression pattern of 5 NADPH oxidase (also called RBOH) encoding genes in Medicago truncatula, showing that only one of them (MtRbohE) is specifically upregulated in arbuscule-containing cells. In line with this result, RNAi silencing of MtRbohE generated a strong alteration in root colonization, with a significant reduction in the number of arbusculated cells. On this basis, we propose that MtRBOHE-mediated ROS production plays a crucial role in the intracellular accommodation of arbuscules. PMID:27018627

  8. Inhibition of arsenic-induced rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinjuan; Dai, Yujie; Li, Xing; Niu, Nannan; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Fangli; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30ppm) with or without GSE (100mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-β1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1-induced transactivation of the TGF-β-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-β1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and α-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation. PMID:21605584

  9. Inhibition of arsenic-induced rat liver injury by grape seed exact through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinjuan; Dai, Yujie; Li, Xing; Niu, Nannan; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Fangli; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Zengli

    2011-08-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure induces oxidative damage to liver leading to liver fibrosis. We aimed to define the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), an antioxidant dietary supplement, on arsenic-induced liver injury. First, Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low level of arsenic in drinking water (30ppm) with or without GSE (100mg/kg, every other day by oral gavage) for 12months and the effect of GSE on arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity was examined. The results from this study revealed that GSE co-treatment significantly attenuated arsenic-induced low antioxidant defense, oxidative damage, proinflammatory cytokines and fibrogenic genes. Moreover, GSE reduced arsenic-stimulated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox2, Nox4 and p47phox). Next, we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying GSE inhibition of arsenic toxicity using cultured rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). From the in vitro study, we found that GSE dose-dependently reduced arsenic-stimulated ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities. Both NADPH oxidases flavoprotein inhibitor DPI and Nox4 siRNA blocked arsenic-induced ROS production, whereas Nox4 overexpression suppressed the inhibitory effects of GSE on arsenic-induced ROS production and NADPH oxidase activities, as well as expression of TGF-β1, type I procollagen (Coll-I) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA. We also observed that GSE dose-dependently inhibited TGF-β1-induced transactivation of the TGF-β-induced smad response element p3TP-Lux, and that forced expression of Smad3 attenuated the inhibitory effects of GSE on TGF-β1-induced mRNA expression of Coll-I and α-SMA. Collectively, GSE could be a potential dietary therapeutic agent for arsenic-induced liver injury through suppression of NADPH oxidase and TGF-β/Smad activation.

  10. An osteopontin-NADPH oxidase signaling cascade promotes pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 activation in aortic mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chung-Fang; Seshadri, Venkat; Huang, Kane; Shao, Jian-Su; Cai, Jun; Vattikuti, Radhika; Schumacher, Arwyn; Loewy, Arleen P; Denhardt, David T; Rittling, Susan R; Towler, Dwight A

    2006-06-23

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a cytokine upregulated in diabetic vascular disease. To better understand its role in vascular remodeling, we assessed how OPN controls metalloproteinase (MMP) activation in aortic adventitial myofibroblasts (AMFs) and A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). By zymography, OPN and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha preferentially upregulate pro-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pro-MMP9) activity. TNF-alpha upregulated pro-MMP9 in AMFs isolated from wild-type (OPN(+/+)) mice, but pro-MMP9 induction was abrogated in AMFs from OPN(-/-) mice. OPN treatment of VSMCs enhanced pro-MMP9 activity, and TNF-alpha induction of pro-MMP9 was inhibited by anti-OPN antibody and apocynin. Superoxide and the oxylipid product 8-isoprostaglandin F(2) alpha-isoprostane (8-IsoP) were increased by OPN treatment, and anti-OPN antibody suppressed 8-IsoP production. Like OPN and TNF-alpha, 8-IsoP preferentially activated pro-MMP9. Superoxide, 8-IsoP, and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) subunits were reduced in OPN(-/-) AMFs. Treatment of A7r5 VSMCs with OPN upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit accumulation. OPN structure/function studies mapped these activities to the SVVYGLR heptapeptide motif in the thrombin-liberated human OPN N-terminal domain (SLAYGLR in mouse OPN). Treatment of aortic VSMCs with SVVYGLR upregulated pro-MMP9 activity and restored TNF-alpha activation of pro-MMP9 in OPN(-/-) AMFs. Injection of OPN-deficient OPN(+/-) mice with SVVYGLR peptide upregulated pro-MMP9 activity, 8-IsoP levels, and Nox2 protein levels in aorta and increased panmural superoxide production (dihydroethidium staining). At equivalent hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, 8-IsoP levels and aortic pro-MMP9 were reduced with complete OPN deficiency in a model of diet-induced diabetes, achieved by comparing OPN(-/-)/LDLR(-/-) versus OPN(+/-)/LDLR(-/-) siblings. Thus, OPN provides a paracrine signal that augments vascular pro-MMP9 activity, mediated in part via superoxide generation and oxylipid

  11. Inorganic nitrite attenuates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation in activated macrophages via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Giulietti, Alessia; Terrando, Niccolo; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Carlström, Mattias

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Immune cells are major sources of superoxide (O2(∙-)) as part of the innate host defense system, but exaggerated and sustained O2(∙-) generation may lead to progressive inflammation and organ injuries. Previous studies have proven organ-protective effects of inorganic nitrite, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), in conditions manifested by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study aimed at investigating the potential role of nitrite in modulating NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity in immune cells. Mice peritoneal macrophages or human monocytes were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without coincubation with nitrite. O2(∙-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation were detected by lucigenin-based chemiluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. The intracellular NO production was measured by DAF-FM DA fluorescence. NOX isoforms and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were detected by qPCR. LPS increased both O2(∙-) and ONOO(-) production in macrophages, which was significantly reduced by nitrite (10µmol/L). Mechanistically, the effects of nitrite are (1) linked to increased NO generation, (2) similar to that observed with the NO donor DETA-NONOate, and (3) can be abolished by the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or by the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor febuxostat. Nox2 expression was increased in activated macrophages, but was not influenced by nitrite. However, nitrite attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of iNOS expression. Similar to that observed in mice macrophages, nitrite also reduced O2(∙-) generation in LPS-activated human monocytes. In conclusion, XO-mediated reduction of nitrite attenuates NOX activity in activated macrophages, which may modulate the inflammatory response. PMID:25724690

  12. Premature skin aging features rescued by inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in XPC-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Raad, Houssam; Harfouche, Ghida; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Mazurier, Frederic; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum type C (XP-C) is characterized mostly by a predisposition to skin cancers and accelerated photoaging, but little is known about premature skin aging in this disease. By comparing young and old mice, we found that the level of progerin and p16(INK4a) expression, β-galactosidase activity, and reactive oxygen species, which increase with age, were higher in young Xpc(-/-) mice than in young Xpc(+/+) ones. The expression level of mitochondrial complexes and mitochondrial functions in the skin of young Xpc(-/-) was as low as in control aged Xpc(+/+)animals. Furthermore, the metabolic profile in young Xpc(-/-) mice resembled that found in aged Xpc(+/+) mice. Furthermore, premature skin aging features in young Xpc(-/-) mice were mostly rescued by inhibition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1 (NOX1) activity by using a NOX1 peptide inhibitor, suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress due to overactivation of NOX1 has a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:25437426

  13. Graviola inhibits hypoxia-induced NADPH oxidase activity in prostate cancer cells reducing their proliferation and clonogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Gagan; Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K.; Dhar, Deepanshi; Panigrahi, Gati K.; Hussain, Anowar; Agarwal, Chapla; El-Elimat, Tamam; Sica, Vincent P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading malignancy among men. Importantly, this disease is mostly diagnosed at early stages offering a unique chemoprevention opportunity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and target signaling molecules with higher expression/activity in prostate tumors and play critical role in PCa growth and progression. Here we report that NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression is directly associated with PCa progression in TRAMP mice, suggesting NOX as a potential chemoprevention target in controlling PCa. Accordingly, we assessed whether NOX activity in PCa cells could be inhibited by Graviola pulp extract (GPE) that contains unique acetogenins with strong anti-cancer effects. GPE (1–5 μg/ml) treatment strongly inhibited the hypoxia-induced NOX activity in PCa cells (LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) associated with a decrease in the expression of NOX catalytic and regulatory sub-units (NOX1, NOX2 and p47phox). Furthermore, GPE-mediated NOX inhibition was associated with a strong decrease in nuclear HIF-1α levels as well as reduction in the proliferative and clonogenic potential of PCa cells. More importantly, GPE treatment neither inhibited NOX activity nor showed any cytotoxicity against non-neoplastic prostate epithelial PWR-1E cells. Overall, these results suggest that GPE could be useful in the prevention of PCa progression via inhibiting NOX activity. PMID:26979487

  14. Real-time imaging of NADPH oxidase activity in living cells using a novel fluorescent protein reporter.

    PubMed

    Pal, Rituraj; Basu Thakur, Poulami; Li, Shumin; Minard, Charles; Rodney, George G

    2013-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathology of many conditions, including cardiovascular, inflammatory and degenerative diseases, aging, muscular dystrophy, and muscle fatigue. NADPH oxidases (Nox) have recently gained attention as an important source of ROS involved in redox signaling. However, our knowledge of the source of ROS has been limited by the relatively impoverished array of tools available to study them and the limitations of all imaging probes to provide meaningful spatial resolution. By linking redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP) to the Nox organizer protein, p47(phox), we have developed a redox sensitive protein to specifically assess Nox activity (p47-roGFP). Stimulation of murine macrophages with endotoxin resulted in rapid, reversible oxidation of p47-roGFP. In murine skeletal muscle, both passive stretch and repetitive electrical stimulation resulted in oxidation of p47-roGFP. The oxidation of p47-roGFP in both macrophages and skeletal muscle was blocked by a Nox specific peptide inhibitor. Furthermore, expression of p47-roGFP in p47(phox) deficient cells restored Nox activity. As Nox has been linked to pathological redox signaling, our newly developed Nox biosensor will allow for the direct assessment of Nox activity and the development of therapeutic Nox inhibitors. PMID:23704967

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 activates NADPH oxidase to increase endoplasmic reticulum stress and human coronary artery smooth muscle cell calcification.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Marcel; Johnson, Rebecca C; Handy, Diane E; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A

    2011-09-30

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) increases oxidant stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of these signaling pathways in the transition of smooth muscle cells to a calcifying osteoblast-like phenotype remains incompletely characterized. We, therefore, treated human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCSMC) with BMP-2 (100ng/mL) and found an increase in NADPH oxidase activity and oxidant stress that occurred via activation of the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 and Smad 1 signaling. BMP-2-mediated oxidant stress also increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress demonstrated by increased expression of GRP78, phospho-IRE1α, and the transcription factor XBP1. Analysis of a 1kb segment of the Runx2 promoter revealed an XBP1 binding site; electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that XBP1 bound to the Runx2 promoter at this site in BMP-2-treated HCSMC. Inhibition of oxidant stress or ER stress decreased Runx2 expression, intracellular calcium deposition, and mineralization of BMP-2-treated HCSMC. Thus, in HCSMC, BMP-2 increases oxidant stress and ER stress to increase Runx2 expression and promote vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

  16. p21-activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R. John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca2+ handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1-/-) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca2+ transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1-/- VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1-/- VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca2+]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca2+ release events and waves. The Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1-/- VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47phox-/-) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1-/- VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca2+ overload in Pak1-/- VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca2+ overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident. PMID:24380729

  17. p21-Activated kinase1 (Pak1) is a negative regulator of NADPH-oxidase 2 in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    DeSantiago, Jaime; Bare, Dan J; Xiao, Lei; Ke, Yunbo; Solaro, R John; Banach, Kathrin

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic conditions reduce the activity of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) resulting in increased arrhythmic activity. Triggered arrhythmic activity during ischemia is based on changes in cellular ionic balance and the cells Ca(2+) handling properties. In the current study we used isolated mouse ventricular myocytes (VMs) deficient for the expression of Pak1 (Pak1(-/-)) to determine the mechanism by which Pak1 influences the generation of arrhythmic activity during simulated ischemia. The Ca(2+) transient amplitude and kinetics did not significantly change in wild type (WT) and Pak1(-/-) VMs during 15 min of simulated ischemia. However, Pak1(-/-) VMs exhibited an exaggerated increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which resulted in spontaneous Ca(2+) release events and waves. The Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be suppressed with a reverse mode blocker (KB-R7943) of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), a cytoplasmic scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS; TEMPOL) or a RAC1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Measurements of the cytoplasmic ROS levels revealed that decreased Pak1 activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs or VMs treated with the Pak1 inhibitor (IPA3) enhanced cellular ROS production. The Pak1 dependent increase in ROS was attenuated in VMs deficient for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2; p47(phox-/-)) or in VMs where NOX2 was inhibited (gp91ds-tat). Voltage clamp recordings showed increased NCX activity in Pak1(-/-) VMs that depended on enhanced NOX2 induced ROS production. The exaggerated Ca(2+) overload in Pak1(-/-) VMs could be mimicked by low concentrations of ouabain. Overall our data show that Pak1 is a critical negative regulator of NOX2 dependent ROS production and that a latent ROS dependent stimulation of NCX activity can predispose VMs to Ca(2+) overload under conditions where no significant changes in excitation-contraction coupling are yet evident.

  18. NADPH oxidase activity is essential for Keap1/Nrf2-mediated induction of GCLC in response to 2-indol-3-yl-methylenequinuclidin-3-ols.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, Konjeti R; Crooks, Peter A; Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Friedman, David B; Chan, Jeff Y; Meredith, Michael J; Starnes, Joseph H; Kelton, Kathy R; Summar, Samantha R; Sasi, Soumya; Freeman, Michael L

    2003-09-01

    Glutamate cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of glutathione, represents an important component of chemoprevention paradigms. GCLC and GCLM, the genes encoding glutamate cysteine ligase subunits, are induced by indoles, such as indomethacin. Novel functionalized indole analogues and other structurally related compounds were synthesized and used for a comparative structure analysis of GCLC induction. Use of mouse embryo fibroblasts null for Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2p45-related transcription factor) and HepG2 cells overexpressing Keap1 demonstrated that indole analogue-mediated GCLC expression was regulated by Nrf2-Keap1 interactions. Indole analogues capable of inducing GCLC were found to increase NADPH oxidase activity. Indole analogues unable to induce GCLC did not increase oxidase activity. HepG2 cells transfected with FLAG/Keap1 were exposed to indomethacin, and the redox state of Keap1 cysteine residues was assessed. The data indicated that Keap1 exhibited several oxidation states that were sensitive to indomethacin treatment. These indomethacin-mediated changes in thiol oxidation states were suppressed by diphenyleneiodonium, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Diphenyleneiodonium also suppressed indole analogue-mediated increases in GCLC mRNA. In summary, the use of the indole analogues identified NADPH oxidase activity as a novel upstream activity regulating Nrf2/Keap1 signaling of GCLC, provided data supporting the hypothesis that Keap1 is a downstream effector for oxidase activity, and afforded in vivo data to support the hypothesis that Keap1 thiols can act as molecular sensors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, the comparative structure analysis suggests that 2-indol-3-yl-methylenequinuclidin-3-ols may represent a prototype for the development of novel chemopreventative agents able to activate Keap1/Nrf2 signaling.

  19. NADPH oxidase of human dendritic cells: role in Candida albicans killing and regulation by interferons, dectin-1 and CD206.

    PubMed

    Donini, Marta; Zenaro, Elena; Tamassia, Nicola; Dusi, Stefano

    2007-05-01

    Human monocyte-derived DC express the enzyme NADPH oxidase, responsible for ROS production. We show that Candida albicans did not activate NADPH oxidase in DC, and was poorly killed by these cells. However, Candida-killing activity increased upon DC stimulation with the NADPH oxidase activator PMA and was further enhanced by DC treatment with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma. This fungicidal activity took place at high DC-to-Candida ratio, but decreased at low DC-to-yeast ratio, when Candida inhibited the NADPH oxidase by contrasting the assembly of the enzyme on DC plasma membrane. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium chloride abrogated the PMA-dependent DC candidacidal capacity. Engagement of beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 induced NADPH oxidase activation in DC that was depressed by mannose-binding receptor CD206 co-stimulation. Candida was internalized by DC through mannose-binding receptors, but not through dectin-1, thus explaining why Candida did not elicit NADPH oxidase activity. Our results indicate that NADPH oxidase is involved in DC Candida-killing activity, which is increased by IFN. However, Candida escapes the oxidative damage by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and by entering DC through receptors not involved in NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:17407098

  20. Nadph oxidase regulates alveolar epithelial sodium channel activity and lung fluid balance in vivo via O⁻₂ signaling.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Preston; Kumar, Amrita; Jain, Lucky; Kundu, Kousik; Murthy, Niren; Koval, Michael; Helms, My N

    2012-02-15

    To define roles for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in maintaining lung fluid balance in vivo, we used two novel whole animal imaging approaches. Live X-ray fluoroscopy enabled quantification of air space fluid content of C57BL/6J mouse lungs challenged by intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline; results were confirmed by using conventional lung wet-to-dry weight ratios and Evans blue as measures of pulmonary edema. Visualization and quantification of ROS produced in lungs was performed in mice that had been administered a redox-sensitive dye, hydro-Cy7, by IT instillation. We found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase with a Rac-1 inhibitor, NSC23766, resulted in alveolar flooding, which correlated with a decrease in lung ROS production in vivo. Consistent with a role for Nox2 in alveolar fluid balance, Nox2(-/-) mice showed increased retention of air space fluid compared with wild-type controls. Interestingly, fluoroscopic analysis of C57BL/6J lungs IT instilled with LPS showed an acute stimulation of lung fluid clearance and ROS production in vivo that was abrogated by the ROS scavenger tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO). Acute application of LPS increased the activity of 20 pS nonselective ENaC channels in rat type 1 cells; the average number of channel and single-channel open probability (NPo) increased from 0.14 ± 0.04 to 0.62 ± 0.23. Application of TEMPO to the same cell-attached recording caused an immediate significant decrease in ENaC NPo to 0.04 ± 0.03. These data demonstrate that, in vivo, ROS has the capacity to stimulate lung fluid clearance by increasing ENaC activity.

  1. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mechanism Explains How Arsenic and Other Oxidants Can Activate Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin; Vikström Bergander, Linda; Rannug, Ulf; Rannug, Agneta

    2015-12-21

    The mechanisms explaining arsenic toxicity are not well understood, but physiological consequences of stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling both directly and through cross-talk with other pathways have been indicated. The aim of this study was to establish how arsenic interacts with AHR-mediated transcription. The human hepatoma cell line (HepG2-XRE-Luc) carrying a luciferase reporter under the control of two AHR response elements (AHREs) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2; As(3+)), alone or in combination with the endogenous high affinity AHR ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Luciferase activity, cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) activity, oxidative stress-related responses, metabolic clearance of FICZ, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity as well as nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-dependent gene expression were measured. Arsenic inhibited CYP1A1 enzyme activity and reduced the metabolic clearance of FICZ. Arsenic also led to activated CYP1A1 transcription but only in cells grown in medium containing trace amounts of the endogenous ligand FICZ, pointing to an indirect mechanism of activation. Initially, arsenic caused dose-dependent inhibition of FICZ-activated AHR signaling, disturbed intracellular GSH status, and increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes. Silencing of NOX4, addition of N-acetylcystein, or pretreatment with arsenic itself attenuated the initial dose-dependent inhibition of AHR signaling. Arsenic pretreatment led to elevated GSH levels and sensitized the cells to ligand-dependent AHR signaling, while silencing of Nrf2 significantly reduced arsenic-mediated activation of the AHR. In addition, influence of NOX on AHR activation was also observed in cells treated with the SH-reactive metals cadmium, mercury, and nickel. Together, the results suggest that SH-reactive agents via a new and possibly general NOX/H2O2-dependent mechanism can interfere with

  2. NADPH Oxidases in Lung Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Hecker, Louise; Luckhardt, Tracy R.; Cheng, Guangjie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The evolution of the lungs and circulatory systems in vertebrates ensured the availability of molecular oxygen (O2; dioxygen) for aerobic cellular metabolism of internal organs in large animals. O2 serves as the physiologic terminal acceptor of mitochondrial electron transfer and of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of oxidoreductases to generate primarily water and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. Recent advances: The purposeful generation of ROS by Nox family enzymes suggests important roles in normal physiology and adaptation, most notably in host defense against invading pathogens and in cellular signaling. Critical issues: However, there is emerging evidence that, in the context of chronic stress and/or aging, Nox enzymes contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of lung diseases. Future Directions: Here, we review evolving functions of Nox enzymes in normal lung physiology and emerging pathophysiologic roles in lung disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2838–2853. PMID:24093231

  3. ROS signalling, NADPH oxidases and cancer.

    PubMed

    Landry, William D; Cotter, Thomas G

    2014-08-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) have long been regarded as a series of destructive molecules that have a detrimental effect on cell homoeostasis. In support of this are the myriad antioxidant defence systems nearly all eukaryotic cells have that are designed to keep the levels of ROS in check. However, research data emerging over the last decade have demonstrated that ROS can influence a range of cellular events in a manner similar to that seen for traditional second messenger molecules such as cAMP. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) appears to be the main ROS with such signalling properties, and this molecule has been shown to affect a wide range of cellular functions. Its localized synthesis by the Nox (NADPH oxidase) family of enzymes and how these enzymes are regulated is of particular interest to those who work in the field of tumour biology.

  4. Rac1-mediated NADPH oxidase release of O2- regulates epithelial sodium channel activity in the alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Yoshizumi; Goodson, Preston; Bao, Hui Fang; Jain, Lucky; Helms, My N

    2010-04-01

    We examine whether alveolar cells can control release of O(2)(-) through regulated NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 (NOX2) activity to maintain lung fluid homeostasis. Using FACS to purify alveolar epithelial cells, we show that type 1 cells robustly express each of the critical NOX components that catalyze the production of O(2)(-) (NOX2 or gp91(phox), p22(phox), p67(phox), p47(phox), and p40(phox) subunits) as well as Rac1 at substantially higher levels than type 2 cells. Immunohistochemical labeling of lung tissue shows that Rac1 expression is cytoplasmic and resides near the apical surface of type 1 cells, whereas NOX2 coimmunoprecipitates with epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Since Rac1 is a known regulator of NOX2, and hence O(2)(-) release, we tested whether inhibition or activation of Rac1 influenced ENaC activity. Indeed, 1 microM NSC23766 inhibition of Rac1 decreased O(2)(-) output in lung cells and significantly decreased ENaC activity from 0.87 +/- 0.16 to 0.52 +/- 0.16 [mean number of channels (N) and single-channel open probability (P(o)) (NP(o)) +/- SE, n = 6; P < 0.05] in type 2 cells. NSC23766 (10 microM) decreased ENaC NP(o) from 1.16 +/- 0.27 to 0.38 +/- 0.10 (n = 6 in type 1 cells). Conversely, 10 ng/ml EGF (a known stimulator of both Rac1 and O(2)(-) release) increased ENaC NP(o) values in both type 1 and 2 cells. NP(o) values increased from 0.48 +/- 0.21 to 0.91 +/- 0.28 in type 2 cells (P < 0.05; n = 10). In type 1 cells, ENaC activity also significantly increased from 0.40 +/- 0.15 to 0.60 +/- 0.23 following EGF treatment (n = 7). Sequestering O(2)(-) using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) compound prevented EGF activation of ENaC in both type 1 and 2 cells. In conclusion, we report that Rac1-mediated NOX2 activity is an important component in O(2)(-) regulation of ENaC.

  5. Role of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase in gibberellin biosynthesis during barley seed germination.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kyohei; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2016-05-01

    NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of the superoxide anion (O2(-)), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), and regulates the germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) chloride, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, delayed barley germination, and exogenous H2O2 (an ROS) partially rescued it. Six enzymes, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA3-oxidase (GA3ox), catalyze the transformation of trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate to active gibberellin, which promotes germination. Exogenous H2O2 promoted the expressions of HvKAO1 and HvGA3ox1 in barley embryos. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase are involved in gibberellin biosynthesis through the regulation of HvKAO1 and HvGA3ox1.

  6. Role of reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase in gibberellin biosynthesis during barley seed germination.

    PubMed

    Kai, Kyohei; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Watabe, Gaku; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2016-05-01

    NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of the superoxide anion (O2(-)), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), and regulates the germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) chloride, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, delayed barley germination, and exogenous H2O2 (an ROS) partially rescued it. Six enzymes, ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) and GA3-oxidase (GA3ox), catalyze the transformation of trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate to active gibberellin, which promotes germination. Exogenous H2O2 promoted the expressions of HvKAO1 and HvGA3ox1 in barley embryos. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase are involved in gibberellin biosynthesis through the regulation of HvKAO1 and HvGA3ox1. PMID:27110861

  7. Hypohalous acid-modified human serum albumin induces neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation, degranulation, and shape change.

    PubMed

    Gorudko, Irina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Kostevich, Valeria A; Sokolov, Alexey V; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Arnhold, Jürgen; Panasenko, Oleg M

    2014-03-01

    Halogenated lipids, proteins, and lipoproteins formed in reactions with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypobromous acid (HOBr) can contribute to the regulation of functional activity of cells and serve as mediators of inflammation. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the major plasma protein target of hypohalous acids. This study was performed to assess the potency of HSA modified by HOCl (HSA-Cl) and HOBr (HSA-Br) to elicit selected neutrophil responses. HSA-Cl/Br were found to induce neutrophil degranulation, generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, shape change, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Thus HSA-Cl/Br can initially act as a switch and then as a feeder of the "inflammatory loop" under oxidative stress. In HSA-Cl/Br-treated neutrophils, monoclonal antibodies against CD18, the β subunit of β2 integrins, reduced the production of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide as well as MPO exocytosis, suggesting that CD18 contributed to neutrophil activation. HSA-Cl/Br-induced neutrophil responses were also inhibited by genistein, a broad-specificity tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, supporting the notion that activation of both tyrosine kinase and PI3K may play a role in neutrophil activation by HSA modified in MPO-dependent reactions. These results confirm the hypothesis that halogenated molecules formed in vivo via MPO-dependent reactions can be considered as a new class of biologically active substances potentially able to contribute to activation of myeloid cells in sites of inflammation and serve as inflammatory response modulators. PMID:24384524

  8. NADPH oxidase signal transduces angiotensin II in hepatic stellate cells and is critical in hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bataller, Ramón; Schwabe, Robert F.; Choi, Youkyung H.; Yang, Liu; Paik, Yong Han; Lindquist, Jeffrey; Qian, Ting; Schoonhoven, Robert; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Lemasters, John J.; Brenner, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a pro-oxidant and fibrogenic cytokine. We investigated the role of NADPH oxidase in Ang II–induced effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a fibrogenic cell type. Human HSCs express mRNAs of key components of nonphagocytic NADPH oxidase. Ang II phosphorylated p47phox, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidase, and induced reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. Ang II phosphorylated AKT and MAPKs and increased AP-1 DNA binding in a redox-sensitive manner. Ang II stimulated DNA synthesis, cell migration, procollagen α1(I) mRNA expression, and secretion of TGF-β1 and inflammatory cytokines. These effects were attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Moreover, Ang II induced upregulation of genes potentially involved in hepatic wound-healing response in a redox-sensitive manner, as assessed by microarray analysis. HSCs isolated from p47phox–/– mice displayed a blunted response to Ang II compared with WT cells. We also assessed the role of NADPH oxidase in experimental liver fibrosis. After bile duct ligation, p47phox–/– mice showed attenuated liver injury and fibrosis compared with WT counterparts. Moreover, expression of smooth muscle α-actin and expression of TGF-β1 were reduced in p47phox–/– mice. Thus, NADPH oxidase mediates the actions of Ang II on HSCs and plays a critical role in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:14597764

  9. NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

  10. A Nonpolar Blueberry Fraction Blunts NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neuronal Cells Exposed to Tumor Necrosis Factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sally J.; Dunlap, Kriya L.; McGill, Colin M.; Kuhn, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are key to the progressive neuronal degeneration common to chronic pathologies, traumatic injuries, and aging processes in the CNS. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) orchestrates cellular stress by stimulating the production and release of neurotoxic mediators including reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidases (NOX), ubiquitously expressed in all cells, have recently emerged as pivotal ROS sources in aging and disease. We demonstrated the presence of potent NOX inhibitors in wild Alaska bog blueberries partitioning discretely into a nonpolar fraction with minimal antioxidant capacity and largely devoid of polyphenols. Incubation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with nonpolar blueberry fractions obstructed the coalescing of lipid rafts into large domains disrupting NOX assembly therein and abolishing ROS production characteristic for TNF-α exposure. These findings illuminate nutrition-derived lipid raft modulation as a novel therapeutic approach to blunt inflammatory and oxidative stress in the aging or diseased CNS. PMID:22530077

  11. DELETION MUTAGENESIS OF p22phox SUBUNIT OF FLAVOCYTOCHROME b558: IDENTIFICATION OF REGIONS CRITICAL FOR gp91phox MATURATION AND NADPH OXIDASE ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phagocyte NADPH oxidase is a multicomponent enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to generate the superoxide radical (O2-). The importance of this enzyme in innate immunity and inflammation is illustrated by chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a syndrome characterized by ab...

  12. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H(2)O(2) signals chloride channel activation in cell volume regulation and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe; Riveros, Ana; Jørgensen, Finn; Stutzin, Andrés

    2004-04-01

    Cellular swelling triggers the activation of Cl(-) channels (volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl(-) channels) in many cell types. Ensuing regulatory volume decrease has been considered the primary function of these channels. However, Cl(-) channels, which share functional properties with volume-sensitive Cl(-) channels, have been shown to be involved in other physiological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, raising the question of their physiological roles and the signal transduction pathways involved in their activation. Here we report that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) elicited VSOR Cl(-) channel activation. Furthermore, activation of these channels was found to be coupled to NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Also, epidermal growth factor, known to increase H(2)O(2) production, activated Cl(-) channels with properties identical to swelling-sensitive Cl(-) channels. It is concluded that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived H(2)O(2) is the common signal transducing molecule that mediates the activation of these ubiquitously expressed anion channels under a variety of physiological conditions.

  13. Role of TLR4/NADPH oxidase/ROS-activated p38 MAPK in VCAM-1 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in human renal mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In bacteria-induced glomerulonephritis, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a key component of the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria) can increase oxidative stress and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which recruits leukocytes to the glomerular mesangium. However, the mechanisms underlying VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS are still unclear in human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs). Results We demonstrated that LPS induced VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels associated with an increase in the promoter activity of VCAM-1, determined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and promoter assay. LPS-induced responses were inhibited by transfection with siRNAs of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, c-Src, p38 MAPK, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), and p300 or pretreatment with the inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS, edaravone), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], c-Src (PP1), p38 MAPK (SB202190), and p300 (GR343). LPS induced NADPH oxidase activation, ROS production, and p47phox translocation from the cytosol to the membrane, which were reduced by PP1 or c-Src siRNA. We observed that LPS induced TLR4, MyD88, c-Src, and p47phox complex formation determined by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot. We further demonstrated that LPS stimulated ATF2 and p300 phosphorylation and complex formation via a c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK pathway. Up-regulation of VCAM-1 led to enhancing monocyte adhesion to HRMCs challenged with LPS, which was inhibited by siRNAs of c-Src, p47phox, p38 MAPK, ATF2, and p300 or pretreatment with an anti-VCAM-1 neutralizing antibody. Conclusions In HRMCs, LPS-induced VCAM-1 expression was, at least in part, mediated through a TLR4/MyD88/ c-Src/NADPH oxidase/ROS/p38 MAPK-dependent p300 and ATF2 pathway associated with recruitment of monocyte adhesion to kidney. Blockade of these pathways may reduce monocyte

  14. APE1/Ref-1 promotes the effect of angiotensin II on Ca2+ -activated K+ channel in human endothelial cells via suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Sun; Ko, Eun A; Jung, In Duk; Son, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Nari; Park, So Youn; Hong, Ki Whan; Park, Yeong-Min; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Han, Jin

    2008-10-01

    The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on whole-cell large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) currents was investigated in control and Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1)-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ang II blocked the BK(Ca) current in a dose-dependent fashion, and this inhibition was greater in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs than in control HUVECs (half-inhibition values of 102.81+/-9.54 nM and 11.34+/-0.39 nM in control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs, respectively). Pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or knock down of NADPH oxidase (p22 phox) using siRNA increased the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) currents, similar to the effect of APE1/Ref-1 overexpression. In addition, application of Ang II increased the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels in the control HUVECs but not in APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. Furthermore, direct application of hydrogen peroxide increased BK(Ca) channel activity. Finally, the inhibitory effect of Ang II on the BK(Ca) current was blocked by an antagonist of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor in both control and APE1/Ref-1-overexpressing HUVECs. From these results, we conclude that the inhibitory effect of Ang II on BK(Ca) channel function is NADPH oxidase-dependent and may be promoted by APE1/Ref-1.

  15. Safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through inhibition of integrin beta4/SOD activity and elevation of ROS/NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Le; Zhao, BaoXiang; Lv, Xin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2007-02-20

    Neuronal apoptosis is a very important event in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that safrole oxide, a small molecule, induces integrin beta4 expression and promotes apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the effects of safrole oxide on cell growth and apoptosis have been examined in primary cultures of mouse neurons. Safrole oxide was found to significantly inhibit neuronal cell growth and to induce apoptosis. The inhibitory and apoptotic activities of safrole oxide followed a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the expression of integrin beta4 was significantly inhibited with safrole oxide treatment. Furthermore, safrole oxide dramatically increases the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Moreover, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity was decreased significantly with safrole oxide treatment. Our study thus demonstrates that safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through integrin beta4, ROS, NADPH, and MnSOD.

  16. Upregulation of NAD(P)H oxidase 1 in hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 via increase in reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Parag; Weissmann, Norbert; Grimminger, Friedrich; Hegel, Cornelia; Bader, Lucius; Rose, Frank; Fink, Ludger; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Seeger, Werner; Hänze, Jörg

    2004-05-15

    Hypoxia sensing and related signaling events, including activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), represent key features in cell physiology and lung function. Using cultured A549 cells, we investigated the role of NAD(P)H oxidase 1 (Nox1), suggested to be a subunit of a low-output NAD(P)H oxidase complex, in hypoxia signaling. Nox1 expression was detected on both the mRNA and protein levels. Upregulation of Nox1 mRNA and protein occurred during hypoxia, accompanied by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A549 cells, which were transfected with a Nox1 expression vector, revealed an increase in ROS generation accompanied by activation of HIF-1-dependent target gene expression (heme oxygenase 1 mRNA, hypoxia-responsive-element reporter gene activity). In A549 cells stably overexpressing Nox1, accumulation of HIF-1alpha in normoxia and an additional increase in hypoxia were noted. Interference with ROS metabolism by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase inhibited HIF-1 induction. This suggests that H2O2 links Nox1 and HIF-1 activation. We conclude that hypoxic upregulation of Nox1 and subsequently augmented ROS generation may activate HIF-1-dependent pathways.

  17. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Kai, Kyohei; Yuasa, Takashi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA) / abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. DPI significantly suppressed germination, and suppressed GA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism in embryos. GA, but not ABA, induced NADPH oxidase activity in aleurone cells. Additionally, DPI suppressed the early induction of α-amylase by GA in aleurone cells. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases promote GA biosynthesis in embryos, that GA induces and activates NADPH oxidases in aleurone cells, and that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce α-amylase in aleurone cells. We conclude that the ROS generated by NADPH oxidases regulate barley seed germination through GA / ABA metabolism and signaling in embryo and aleurone cells. PMID:26579718

  18. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Kai, Kyohei; Yuasa, Takashi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA) / abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. DPI significantly suppressed germination, and suppressed GA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism in embryos. GA, but not ABA, induced NADPH oxidase activity in aleurone cells. Additionally, DPI suppressed the early induction of α-amylase by GA in aleurone cells. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases promote GA biosynthesis in embryos, that GA induces and activates NADPH oxidases in aleurone cells, and that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce α-amylase in aleurone cells. We conclude that the ROS generated by NADPH oxidases regulate barley seed germination through GA / ABA metabolism and signaling in embryo and aleurone cells.

  19. A Role for Reactive Oxygen Species Produced by NADPH Oxidases in the Embryo and Aleurone Cells in Barley Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Kasa, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Masatsugu; Aoki, Nozomi; Kai, Kyohei; Yuasa, Takashi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the germination of several seeds, and antioxidants suppress it. However, questions remain regarding the role and production mechanism of ROS in seed germination. Here, we focused on NADPH oxidases, which produce ROS. After imbibition, NADPH oxidase mRNAs were expressed in the embryo and in aleurone cells of barley seed; these expression sites were consistent with the sites of ROS production in the seed after imbibition. To clarify the role of NADPH oxidases in barley seed germination, we examined gibberellic acid (GA) / abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and signaling in barley seeds treated with diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. DPI significantly suppressed germination, and suppressed GA biosynthesis and ABA catabolism in embryos. GA, but not ABA, induced NADPH oxidase activity in aleurone cells. Additionally, DPI suppressed the early induction of α-amylase by GA in aleurone cells. These results suggest that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases promote GA biosynthesis in embryos, that GA induces and activates NADPH oxidases in aleurone cells, and that ROS produced by NADPH oxidases induce α-amylase in aleurone cells. We conclude that the ROS generated by NADPH oxidases regulate barley seed germination through GA / ABA metabolism and signaling in embryo and aleurone cells. PMID:26579718

  20. NADPH oxidase 4-derived H2O2 promotes aberrant retinal neovascularization via activation of VEGF receptor 2 pathway in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingming; Wang, Joshua J; Zhang, Sarah X

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major isoform of NADPH oxidase in retinal endothelial cells. Our previous study suggests that upregulation of Nox4 in retinal endothelial cells contributes to retinal vascular leakage in diabetes. In the current study, we investigated the role and mechanism of Nox4 in regulation of retinal neovascularization (NV), a hallmark of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Our results confirmed that Nox4 was expressed predominantly in retinal vasculature of mouse retina. Retinal expression of Nox4 was markedly increased in OIR, in parallel with enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. In human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs), overexpression of Nox4 by adenovirus significantly increased extracellular H2O2 generation, resulting in intensified VEGFR2 activation and exacerbated angiogenesis upon VEGF stimulation. In contrast, silencing Nox4 expression or scavenging H2O2 by polyethylene glycol- (PEG-) conjugated catalase inhibited endothelial migration, tube formation, and VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 signaling. Importantly, knockdown of retinal Nox4 by adenovirus-delivered siRNA significantly reduced ERK activation and attenuated retinal NV formation in OIR. Taken together, our data indicate that Nox4 promotes retinal NV formation through H2O2/VEGFR2/ERK signaling pathway. Reducing retinal Nox4 expression may represent a promising therapeutic approach for neovascular retinal diseases such as PDR.

  1. NADPH oxidase-mediated Rac1 GTP activity is necessary for nongenomic actions of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kawakami-Mori, Fumiko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Mu, Shengyu; Wang, Hong; Ogura, Sayoko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-02-15

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in the central nervous system play important roles in spatial memory, fear memory, salt sensitivity, and hypertension. Corticosterone binds to MRs to induce presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor aggregation, which are necessary for induction of long-term potentiation under psychological stress. On the other hand, cognitive dysfunction is an important problem clinically in patients with hypertension, diabetes, and cerebral infarction, and all of these conditions are associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Oxidative stress has been shown to modify the genomic actions of MRs in the peripheral organs; however, there have been no reports until now about the relation between the nongenomic actions of MRs and ROS in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ROS and the nongenomic actions of MR. We examined the nongenomic actions of MR by measuring the slope of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials and found that ROS induced an additive increase of these potentials, which was accompanied by Rac1 GTP activation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, blocked the nongenomic actions of MRs. A Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766, was also found to block synaptic enhancement and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by NADPH and corticosterone. We concluded that NADPH oxidase activity and Rac1 GTP activity are indispensable for the nongenomic actions of MRs and that Rac1 GTP activation induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the brain.

  2. Growth arrest of lung carcinoma cells (A549) by polyacrylate-anchored peroxovanadate by activating Rac1-NADPH oxidase signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nirupama; Anwar, Tarique; Islam, Nashreen S; Ramasarma, T; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is often required in sublethal, millimolar concentrations to show its oxidant effects on cells in culture as it is easily destroyed by cellular catalase. Previously, we had shown that diperoxovanadate, a physiologically stable peroxovanadium compound, can substitute H2O2 effectively in peroxidation reactions. We report here that peroxovanadate when anchored to polyacrylic acid (PAPV) becomes a highly potent inhibitor of growth of lung carcinoma cells (A549). The early events associated with PAPV treatment included cytoskeletal modifications, increase in GTPase activity of Rac1, accumulation of the reactive oxygen species, and also increase in phosphorylation of H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA damage. These effects persisted even at 24 h after removal of the compound and culminated in increased levels of p53 and p21 together with growth arrest. The PAPV-mediated growth arrest was significantly abrogated in cells pre-treated with the N-acetylcysteine, Rac1 knocked down by siRNA and DPI an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our results show that polyacrylate derivative of peroxovanadate efficiently arrests growth of A549 cancerous cells by activating the axis of Rac1-NADPH oxidase leading to oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:27435854

  3. The effect of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on the eosinophilic differentiation and NADPH oxidase activation of human HL-60 clone 15 cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Juan A; Newburger, Peter E; Condino-Neto, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on NADPH oxidase activity and gp91-phox gene expression in HL-60 clone 15 cells as they differentiate along the eosinophilic lineage. The results were compared to the eosoniphilic inducers interleukin-5 (IL-5) and butyric acid. IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml) or IL-5 (200 pM) caused a significant increase in the expression of the eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and the major basic protein (MBP) genes. Similar results were observed when the cells were cultured with 0.5 mM butyric acid for 5 days. IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) and TNF-alpha (1000 U/ml) also caused a significant increase in superoxide release by HL-60 clone 15 cells after 2 days compared with control or with butyric acid-induced cells. After 5 days, these cytokines and butyric acid induced an even stronger release of superoxide. HL-60 clone 15 cells cultured with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha for 2 days showed a significant increase in gp91-phox gene expression. We conclude that IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha are sufficient to induce the differentiation of HL-60 clone 15 cells to the eosinophilic lineage and to upregulate gp91-phox gene expression and activity of the NADPH oxidase system.

  4. Involvement of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Kalachova, Tetiana; Iakovenko, Oksana; Kretinin, Sergii; Kravets, Volodymyr

    2013-05-01

    Salicylic acid is associated with the primary defense responses to biotic stress and formation of systemic acquired resistance. However, molecular mechanisms of early cell reactions to phytohormone application are currently undisclosed. The present study investigates the participation of phospholipase D and NADPH-oxidase in salicylic acid signal transduction cascade. The activation of lipid signaling enzymes within 15 min of salicylic acid application was shown in Arabidopsis thaliana plants by measuring the phosphatidic acid accumulation. Adding of primary alcohol (1-butanol) to the incubation medium led to phosphatidylbutanol accumulation as a result of phospholipase D (PLD) action in wild-type and NADPH-oxidase RbohD deficient plants. Salicylic acid induced rapid increase in NADPH-oxidase activity in histochemical assay with nitroblue tetrazolium but the reaction was not observed in presence of 1-butanol and NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodide (DPI). The further physiological effect of salicylic acid and inhibitory analysis of the signaling cascade were made in the guard cell model. Stomatal closure induced by salicylic acid was inhibited by 1-butanol and DPI treatment. rbohD transgenic plants showed impaired stomatal reaction upon phytohormone effect, while the reaction to H2O2 did not differ from that of wild-type plants. Thus a key role of NADPH-oxidase D-isoform in the process of stomatal closure in response to salicylic acid has been postulated. It has enabled to predict a cascade implication of PLD and NADPH oxidase to salicylic acid signaling pathway.

  5. Inhaled birch pollen extract induces airway hyperresponsiveness via oxidative stress but independently of pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity, or the TLR4-TRIF pathway.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Karim H; Allard-Coutu, Alexandra; O'Sullivan, Michael J; Nakada, Emily; Qureshi, Salman T; Day, Brian J; Martin, James G

    2013-07-15

    Oxidative stress in allergic asthma may result from oxidase activity or proinflammatory molecules in pollens. Signaling via TLR4 and its adaptor Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β (TRIF) has been implicated in reactive oxygen species-mediated acute lung injury and in Th2 immune responses. We investigated the contributions of oxidative stress and TLR4/TRIF signaling to experimental asthma induced by birch pollen exposure exclusively via the airways. Mice were exposed to native or heat-inactivated white birch pollen extract (BPEx) intratracheally and injected with the antioxidants, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dimethylthiourea, prior to sensitization, challenge, or all allergen exposures, to assess the role of oxidative stress and pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity in allergic sensitization, inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Additionally, TLR4 signaling was antagonized concomitantly with allergen exposure, or the development of allergic airway disease was evaluated in TLR4 or TRIF knockout mice. N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited BPEx-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and AHR except when given exclusively during sensitization, whereas dimethylthiourea was inhibitory even when administered with the sensitization alone. Heat inactivation of BPEx had no effect on the development of allergic airway disease. Oxidative stress-mediated AHR was also TLR4 and TRIF independent; however, TLR4 deficiency decreased, whereas TRIF deficiency increased BPEx-induced airway inflammation. In conclusion, oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic sensitization to pollen via the airway mucosa, but the pollen-intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity and TLR4 or TRIF signaling are unnecessary for the induction of allergic airway disease and AHR. Pollen extract does, however, activate TLR4, thereby enhancing airway inflammation, which is restrained by the TRIF-dependent pathway.

  6. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Nynke E; Musters, René J P; Fritz, Jan M; Pagano, Patrick J; Vonk, Alexander B A; Paulus, Walter J; van Rossum, Albert C; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

  7. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Nynke E.; Musters, René J.P.; Fritz, Jan M.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Vonk, Alexander B.A.; Paulus, Walter J.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W.M.; Krijnen, Paul A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48 h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4 h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4 h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48 h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells. PMID:24794531

  8. Expression of NADPH oxidase by trophoblast cells: potential implications for the postimplanting mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sara Z; Lorenzon, Aline R; Vieira, Juliana S; Rocha, Clarissa R R; Bandeira, Clara; Hoshida, Mara S; Lopes, Lucia Rosseti; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2012-02-01

    Cytochemical localization of hydrogen peroxide-generating sites suggests NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate [reduced form]) oxidase expression at the maternal-fetal interface. To explore this possibility, we have characterized the expression and activity of the NADPH oxidase complex in trophoblast cells during the postimplantation period. Implantation sites and ectoplacental cones (EPCs) from 7.5-gestational day embryos from CD1 mice were used as a source for expression analyses of NADPH oxidase catalytic and regulatory subunits. EPCs grown in primary culture were used to investigate the production of superoxide anion through dihydroxyethidium oxidation in confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical assays. NADPH subunits Cybb (gp91phox), Cyba (p22phox), Ncf4 (p40phox), Ncf1 (p47phox), Ncf2 (p67phox), and Rac1 were expressed by trophoblast cells. The fundamental subunits of membrane CYBB and cytosolic NCF2 were markedly upregulated after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) treatment, as detected by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed colocalization of cytosolic and plasma membrane NADPH oxidase subunits mainly after PMA treatment, suggesting assembly of the complex after enzyme activation. Cultured EPCs produced superoxide in a NADPH-dependent manner, associating the NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production with postimplantation trophoblast physiology. NADPH-oxidase cDNA subunit sequencing showed a high degree of homology between the trophoblast and neutrophil isoforms of the oxidase, emphasizing a putative role for reactive oxygen species production in phagocytic activity and innate immune responses. PMID:22075471

  9. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sae Mi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-10-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-α1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-α1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation.

  10. Analysis of DHE-derived oxidation products by HPLC in the assessment of superoxide production and NADPH oxidase activity in vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise C; Wosniak, João; Pescatore, Luciana A; Bertoline, Maria A; Liberman, Marcel; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Santos, Célio X C

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroethidium (DHE) is a widely used sensitive superoxide (O2(*-)) probe. However, DHE oxidation yields at least two fluorescent products, 2-hydroxyethidium (EOH), known to be more specific for O2(*-), and the less-specific product ethidium. We validated HPLC methods to allow quantification of DHE products in usual vascular experimental situations. Studies in vitro showed that xanthine/xanthine oxidase, and to a lesser degree peroxynitrite/carbon dioxide system led to EOH and ethidium formation. Peroxidase/H2O2 but not H2O2 alone yielded ethidium as the main product. In vascular smooth muscle cells incubated with ANG II (100 nM, 4 h), we showed a 60% increase in EOH/DHE ratio, prevented by PEG-SOD or SOD1 overexpression. We further validated a novel DHE-based NADPH oxidase assay in vascular smooth muscle cell membrane fractions, showing that EOH was uniquely increased after ANG II. This assay was also adapted to a fluorescence microplate reader, providing results in line with HPLC results. In injured artery slices, shown to exhibit increased DHE-derived fluorescence at microscopy, there was approximately 1.5- to 2-fold increase in EOH/DHE and ethidium/DHE ratios after injury, and PEG-SOD inhibited only EOH formation. We found that the amount of ethidium product and EOH/ethidium ratios are influenced by factors such as cell density and ambient light. In addition, we indirectly disclosed potential roles of heme groups and peroxidase activity in ethidium generation. Thus HPLC analysis of DHE-derived oxidation products can improve assessment of O2(*-) production or NADPH oxidase activity in many vascular experimental studies.

  11. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway.

  12. Rap1 GTPase Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Choroidal Endothelial Migration via NADPH Oxidase- and NF-κB-Dependent Activation of Rac1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Fotheringham, Lori; Wittchen, Erika S; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been found in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) surgically removed from patients with age-related macular degeneration. However, the role of TNF-α in CNV development remains unclear. In a murine laser-induced CNV model, compared with un-lasered controls, TNF-α mRNA was increased in retinal pigment epithelial and choroidal tissue, and TNF-α colocalized with lectin-stained migrating choroidal endothelial cells (CECs). Inhibition of TNF-α with a neutralizing antibody reduced CNV volume and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level around CNV. In CECs, pretreatment with the antioxidant apocynin or knockdown of p22phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase, inhibited TNF-α-induced ROS generation. Apocynin reduced TNF-α-induced NF-κB and Rac1 activation, and inhibited TNF-α-induced CEC migration. TNF-α-induced Rac1 activation and CEC migration were inhibited by NF-κB inhibitor Bay11-7082. Overexpression of Rap1a prevented TNF-α-induced ROS generation and reduced NF-κB and Rac1 activation. Activation of Rap1 by 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine-2'-O-Me-cAMP prevented TNF-α-induced CEC migration and reduced laser-induced CNV volume, ROS generation, and activation of NF-κB and Rac1. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1a inhibits TNF-α-induced CEC migration by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-dependent NF-κB and Rac1 activation and suggests that Rap1a de-escalates CNV development by interfering with ROS-dependent signaling in several steps of the pathogenic process. PMID:26476350

  13. EquiNox2: A new method to measure NADPH oxidase activity and to study effect of inhibitors and their interactions with the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Franck, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Excessive neutrophil stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in numerous human or horse pathologies. The modulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX) has a great therapeutic potential since this enzyme produces superoxide anion whose most of the other ROS derive. The measurement of NOX activity by cell-free systems is often used to test potential inhibitors of the enzyme. A major drawback of this technique is the possible interferences between inhibitors and the probe, ferricytochrome c, used to measure the activity. We designed the "EquiNox2", a new pharmacological tool, to determine the direct interaction of potential inhibitors with equine phagocytic NOX and their effect on the enzyme activity or assembly. This method consists in binding the membrane fractions of neutrophils containing flavocytochrome b558 or the entire complex, reconstituted in vitro from membrane and cytosolic fractions of PMNs, onto the wells of a microplate followed by incubation with potential inhibitors or drugs. After incubation, the excess of the drug is simply eliminated or washed prior measuring the activity of the reconstituted complex. This latter step avoid the risk of interference between the inhibitor and the revelation solution and can distinguish if inhibitors, strongly bound or not, could interfere with the assembly of the enzymatic complex or with its activity. The EquiNox2 was validated using diphenyliodonium chloride and Gp91ds-tat, two well-known inhibitors largely described for human NADPH oxidase. The present technique was used to study and understand better the effect of curcumin and its water-soluble derivative, NDS27, on the assembly and activity of NOX. We demonstrated that curcumin and NDS27 can strongly bind to the enzyme and prevents its assembly making these molecules good candidates for the treatment of horse or human pathologies implying an excessive activation of neutrophils.

  14. EquiNox2: A new method to measure NADPH oxidase activity and to study effect of inhibitors and their interactions with the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Derochette, Sandrine; Serteyn, Didier; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Ceusters, Justine; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Neven, Philippe; Franck, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    Excessive neutrophil stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in numerous human or horse pathologies. The modulation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX) has a great therapeutic potential since this enzyme produces superoxide anion whose most of the other ROS derive. The measurement of NOX activity by cell-free systems is often used to test potential inhibitors of the enzyme. A major drawback of this technique is the possible interferences between inhibitors and the probe, ferricytochrome c, used to measure the activity. We designed the "EquiNox2", a new pharmacological tool, to determine the direct interaction of potential inhibitors with equine phagocytic NOX and their effect on the enzyme activity or assembly. This method consists in binding the membrane fractions of neutrophils containing flavocytochrome b558 or the entire complex, reconstituted in vitro from membrane and cytosolic fractions of PMNs, onto the wells of a microplate followed by incubation with potential inhibitors or drugs. After incubation, the excess of the drug is simply eliminated or washed prior measuring the activity of the reconstituted complex. This latter step avoid the risk of interference between the inhibitor and the revelation solution and can distinguish if inhibitors, strongly bound or not, could interfere with the assembly of the enzymatic complex or with its activity. The EquiNox2 was validated using diphenyliodonium chloride and Gp91ds-tat, two well-known inhibitors largely described for human NADPH oxidase. The present technique was used to study and understand better the effect of curcumin and its water-soluble derivative, NDS27, on the assembly and activity of NOX. We demonstrated that curcumin and NDS27 can strongly bind to the enzyme and prevents its assembly making these molecules good candidates for the treatment of horse or human pathologies implying an excessive activation of neutrophils. PMID:26452955

  15. A low temperature-inducible protein AtSRC2 enhances the ROS-producing activity of NADPH oxidase AtRbohF.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Tomoko; Kimura, Sachie; Iizuka, Ayako; Hanamata, Shigeru; Nibori, Hitomi; Michikawa, Masataka; Imai, Aya; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play critical roles in plant environmental responses. Arabidopsis thaliana NADPH oxidase AtRbohF-mediated ROS-production is involved in abiotic stress responses. Because overproduction of ROS is highly toxic to cells, the activity of AtRbohF needs to be tightly regulated in response to diverse stimuli. The ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF is activated by Ca(2+) and protein phosphorylation, but other regulatory factors for AtRbohF are mostly unknown. In this study, we screened for proteins that interact with the N-terminal cytosolic region of AtRbohF by a yeast two-hybrid screen, and isolated AtSRC2, an A. thaliana homolog of SRC2 (soybean gene regulated by cold-2). A co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed that AtSRC2 interacts with the N-terminal region of AtRbohF in plant cells. Intracellular localization of GFP-tagged AtSRC2 was partially overlapped with that of GFP-tagged AtRbohF at the cell periphery. Co-expression of AtSRC2 enhanced the Ca(2+)-dependent ROS-producing activity of AtRbohF in HEK293T cells, but did not affect its phosphorylation-dependent activation. Low-temperature treatment induced expression of the AtSRC2 gene in Arabidopsis roots in proportion to levels of ROS production that was partially dependent on AtRbohF. Our findings suggest that AtSRC2 is a novel activator of Ca(2+)-dependent AtRbohF-mediated ROS production and may play a role in cold responses.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 secretion and chondrocyte cell death via Nox4 NADPH oxidase activity in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22(phox) heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. PMID:23840483

  17. Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Matrix Metalloproteinase MMP-1 Secretion and Chondrocyte Cell Death via Nox4 NADPH Oxidase Activity in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rousset, Francis; Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Grange, Laurent; Morel, Françoise; Lardy, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) activates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of MMPs as well as chondrocyte apoptosis. Those events lead to matrix breakdown and are key features of osteoarthritis (OA). We confirmed that in human C-20/A4 chondrocytes the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is the main source of ROS upon IL-1β stimulation. Since heme molecules are essential for the NADPH oxidase maturation and activity, we therefore investigated the consequences of the modulation of Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, on the IL-1β signaling pathway and more specifically on Nox4 activity. Induction of HO-1 expression decreased dramatically Nox4 activity in C-20/A4 and HEK293 T-REx™ Nox4 cell lines. Unexpectedly, this decrease was not accompanied by any change in the expression, the subcellular localization or the maturation of Nox4. In fact, the inhibition of the heme synthesis by succinylacetone rather than heme catabolism by HO-1, led to a confinement of the Nox4/p22phox heterodimer in the endoplasmic reticulum with an absence of redox differential spectrum highlighting an incomplete maturation. Therefore, the downregulation of Nox4 activity by HO-1 induction appeared to be mediated by carbon monoxide (CO) generated from the heme degradation process. Interestingly, either HO-1 or CO caused a significant decrease in the expression of MMP-1 and DNA fragmentation of chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1β. These results all together suggest that a modulation of Nox4 activity via heme oxygenase-1 may represent a promising therapeutic tool in osteoarthritis. PMID:23840483

  18. The intimate and controversial relationship between voltage-gated proton channels and the phagocyte NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    DeCoursey, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    One of the most fascinating and exciting periods in my scientific career entailed dissecting the symbiotic relationship between two membrane transporters, the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (NADPH) oxidase complex and voltage-gated proton channels (HV 1). By the time I entered this field, there had already been substantial progress toward understanding NADPH oxidase, but HV 1 were known only to a tiny handful of cognoscenti around the world. Having identified the first proton currents in mammalian cells in 1991, I needed to find a clear function for these molecules if the work was to become fundable. The then-recent discoveries of Henderson, Chappell, and colleagues in 1987-1988 that led them to hypothesize interactions of both molecules during the respiratory burst of phagocytes provided an excellent opportunity. In a nutshell, both transporters function by moving electrical charge across the membrane: NADPH oxidase moves electrons and HV 1 moves protons. The consequences of electrogenic NADPH oxidase activity on both membrane potential and pH strongly self-limit this enzyme. Fortunately, both consequences specifically activate HV 1, and HV 1 activity counteracts both consequences, a kind of yin-yang relationship. Notwithstanding a decade starting in 1995 when many believed the opposite, these are two separate molecules that function independently despite their being functionally interdependent in phagocytes. The relationship between NADPH oxidase and HV 1 has become a paradigm that somewhat surprisingly has now extended well beyond the phagocyte NADPH oxidase - an industrial strength producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - to myriad other cells that produce orders of magnitude less ROS for signaling purposes. These cells with their seven NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms provide a vast realm of mechanistic obscurity that will occupy future studies for years to come. PMID:27558336

  19. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21853253

  20. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

  1. Neovascularization in an arterio-venous loop-containing tissue engineering chamber: role of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, F; Zhang, G; Hashimoto, I; Kumar, B S; Bortolotto, S; Morrison, W A; Dusting, G J

    2008-01-01

    Using an in vivo arterio-venous loop-containing tissue-engineering chamber, we have created a variety of vascularized tissue blocks, including functional myocardium. The viability of the transplanted cells is limited by the rate of neovascularization in the chamber. A Nox2-containing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is thought to have a critical role in ischaemic angiogenesis. In this study we investigated whether NADPH oxidase is involved in the neovascularization process in the tissue-engineering chamber. New blood vessels originating from the venous and the arterial ends of the loop could be identified after 3 days, and the vessel density (by lectin staining) peaked after 7 days and was maintained for at least 14 days. This was accompanied by granulation tissue formation and concomitant increase in the mRNA level of Nox4 NADPH oxidase. Although the total level of Nox2 mRNA in the chamber tissue decreased from day 3 to day 7, immunohistochemistry identified a strong expression of Nox2 in the endothelial cells of the new vessels. In human microvascular endothelial cells, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reduced NADPH oxidase activity and inhibited the angiogenic responses in vitro. Local treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin or gp91ds-tat peptide significantly suppressed the vessel growth in the chamber. In conclusion, NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signalling is important for neovascularization in this novel tissue-engineering chamber in vivo, and boosting this signalling might be a new approach to extending vascularization and tissue growth. PMID:19012731

  2. Female mice lacking active nadph-oxidase enzymes are protected against “western diet”--induced obesity and metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and inflammation in a variety of tissues. We examined the effects of feeding AIN-93G or a “Western diet” (WD) (45% fat, 0.5% cholesterol) on development of obesity and “metabolic syndrome” in wild type (WT) m...

  3. Nicotine- and tar-free cigarette smoke induces cell damage through reactive oxygen species newly generated by PKC-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Mai, Yosuke; Sawada, Osamu; Fujii, Shunsuke; Nishiya, Tadashi; Minami, Masabumi; Katayama, Takahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Terada, Koji; Miwa, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    We examined cytotoxic effects of nicotine/tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on C6 glioma cells. The CSE induced plasma membrane damage (determined by lactate dehydrogenase leakage and propidium iodide uptake) and cell apoptosis {determined by MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] reduction activity and DNA fragmentation}. The cytotoxic activity decayed with a half-life of approximately 2 h at 37°C, and it was abolished by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione. The membrane damage was prevented by catalase and edaravone (a scavenger of (•)OH) but not by superoxide dismutase, indicating involvement of (•)OH. In contrast, the CSE-induced cell apoptosis was resistant to edaravone and induced by authentic H(2)O(2) or O(2)(-) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, indicating involvement of H(2)O(2) or O(2)(-) in cell apoptosis. Diphenyleneiodonium [NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor] and bisindolylmaleimide I [BIS I, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor] abolished membrane damage, whereas they partially inhibited apoptosis. These results demonstrate that 1) a stable component(s) in the CSE activates PKC, which stimulates NOX to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing membrane damage and apoptosis; 2) different ROS are responsible for membrane damage and apoptosis; and 3) part of the apoptosis is caused by oxidants independently of PKC and NOX. PMID:22302021

  4. Protein Disulfide Isomerase Is Required for Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration, Nox1 NADPH Oxidase Expression, and RhoGTPase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pescatore, Luciana A.; Bonatto, Diego; Forti, Fábio L.; Sadok, Amine; Kovacic, Hervé; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell (VSMC) migration into vessel neointima is a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and postinjury restenosis. Nox1 NADPH oxidase-derived oxidants synergize with growth factors to support VSMC migration. We previously described the interaction between NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum redox chaperone protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in many cell types. However, physiological implications, as well as mechanisms of such association, are yet unclear. We show here that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promoted subcellular redistribution of PDI concomitant to Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species production and that siRNA-mediated PDI silencing inhibited such reactive oxygen species production, while nearly totally suppressing the increase in Nox1 expression, with no change in Nox4. Furthermore, PDI silencing inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration assessed by distinct methods, whereas PDI overexpression increased spontaneous basal VSMC migration. To address possible mechanisms of PDI effects, we searched for PDI interactome by systems biology analysis of physical protein-protein interaction networks, which indicated convergence with small GTPases and their regulator RhoGDI. PDI silencing decreased PDGF-induced Rac1 and RhoA activities, without changing their expression. PDI co-immunoprecipitated with RhoGDI at base line, whereas such association was decreased after PDGF. Also, PDI co-immunoprecipitated with Rac1 and RhoA in a PDGF-independent way and displayed detectable spots of perinuclear co-localization with Rac1 and RhoGDI. Moreover, PDI silencing promoted strong cytoskeletal changes: disorganization of stress fibers, decreased number of focal adhesions, and reduced number of RhoGDI-containing vesicular recycling adhesion structures. Overall, these data suggest that PDI is required to support Nox1/redox and GTPase-dependent VSMC migration. PMID:22773830

  5. Marinobufagenin and cyclic strain may activate endothelial NADPH oxidase, contributing to the adverse impact of salty diets on vascular and cerebral health.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-02-01

    Limited but provocative ecologic epidemiology suggests that dietary salt may play a central role in the genesis of not only of stroke, but also dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of nitric oxide bioactivity in the cerebral microvasculature is a likely mediator of this effect. Salted diets evoke increased adrenal secretion of the natriuretic steroid marinobufagenin (MBG), which promotes natriuresis via inhibition of renal tubular Na+/K+-ATPase; this effect is notably robust in salt-sensitive rodent strains in which other compensatory natriuretic mechanisms are subnormally efficient. MBG-mediated inhibition of sodium pumps in vascular smooth muscle likely plays a role in the hypertension induced by salty diets in these rodents. However, salt sensitivity in humans is associated with increased vascular mortality and ventricular hypertrophy independent of blood pressure; this suggests that MBG may be pathogenic via mechanisms unrelated to blood pressure control. Indeed, recent evidence indicates that MBG, via interaction with alpha1 isoforms of the sodium pump, can activate various intracellular signaling pathways at physiological concentrations too low to notably inhibit pump activity. An overview of current evidence suggests the hypothesis that MBG - as well as the cyclic strain induced by hypertension per se - may induce endothelial oxidative stress by activating NADPH oxidase. If so, this could rationalize the increase in vascular and systemic oxidative stress observed in salt-sensitive rodents fed salty diets, or in rodents infused with MBG; moreover, if this effect is a particularly prominent determinant of oxidative stress in cerebrovascular endothelium, it might help to explain the virtual absence of stroke and dementia in low-salt societies. As a corollary of this hypothesis, it can be predicted that spirulina-derived phycobilins, which appear to mimic the physiological role of bilirubin as an inhibitor of NAPDH oxidase complexes, may have

  6. Caveolin-1-dependent activation of the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 by TGF-β in hepatocytes requires activation of Src and the NADPH oxidase NOX1.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Càceres, Joaquim; Mainez, Jèssica; Mayoral, Rafael; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Egea, Gustavo; Fabregat, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a dual role in hepatocytes, inducing both pro- and anti-apoptotic responses, the balance between which decides cell fate. Survival signals are mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, which is activated by TGF-β. We have previously shown that caveolin-1 (CAV1) is required for activation of the metalloprotease tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-converting enzyme/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (TACE/ADAM17), and hence transactivation of the EGFR pathway. The specific mechanism by which TACE/ADAM17 is activated has not yet been determined. Here we show that TGF-β induces phosphorylation of sarcoma kinase (Src) in hepatocytes, a process that is impaired in Cav1(-/-) hepatocytes, coincident with a decrease in phosphorylated Src in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. TGF-β-induced activation of TACE/ADAM17 and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked using the Src inhibitor PP2. Cav1(+/+) hepatocytes showed early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by TGF-β, which was not seen in Cav1(-/-) cells. Production of ROS was inhibited by both the NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) inhibitor STK301831 and NOX1 knock-down, which also impaired TACE/ADAM17 activation and thus EGFR phosphorylation. Finally, neither STK301831 nor NOX1 silencing impaired Src phosphorylation, but PP2 blocked early ROS production, showing that Src is involved in NOX1 activation. As expected, inhibition of Src or NOX1 increased TGF-β-induced cell death in Cav1(+/+) cells. In conclusion, CAV1 is required for TGF-β-mediated activation of TACE/ADAM17 through a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Src and NOX1-mediated ROS production.

  7. NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chuen-Mao; Lee, I-Ta; Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der

    2013-10-15

    TNF-α plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-α in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-α induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-α-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-κB (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-α markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-α-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-α-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-α-stimulated MAPKs and NF-κB activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-κB cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-α-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-α on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: • TNF-α induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. • TNF-α induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. • TNF

  8. The NADPH oxidase Nox4 and aging in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ago, Tetsuro; Matsushima, Shouji; Kuroda, Junya; Zablocki, Daniela; Kitazono, Takanari; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2010-12-01

    Oxidative stress in mitochondria is believed to promote aging. Although passive leakage of electron from the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been considered as a major source of oxidative stress in the heart and the cardiomyocytes therein, enzymes actively producing reactive oxygen species may also exist in mitochondria. We have shown recently that Nox4, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is localized on intracellular membranes, primarily at mitochondria, in cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial expression of Nox4 is upregulated by cardiac stress and aging in the heart, where Nox4 could become a major source of oxidative stress. This raises an intriguing possibility that Nox4 may play an important role in mediating aging of the heart. Here we discuss the potential involvement of Nox4 in mitochondrial oxidative stress and aging in the heart.

  9. Prevention of salt-induced renal injury by activation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, associated with NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Noh, Jung-Ran; Gang, Gil-Tae; Tadi, Surendar; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Kim, Jin-Man; Shong, Minho; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2012-03-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a predominant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activity of NOX, which uses NADPH as a common rate-limiting substrate, is upregulated by prolonged dietary salt intake. β-Lapachone (βL), a well-known substrate of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), decreases the cellular NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio via activation of NQO1. In this study, we evaluated whether NQO1 activation by βL modulates salt-induced renal injury associated with NOX-derived ROS regulation in an animal model. Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats fed a high-salt (HS) diet were used to investigate the renoprotective effect of NQO1 activation. βL treatment significantly lowered the cellular NAD(P)H:NAD(P)(+) ratio and dramatically reduced NOX activity in the kidneys of HS diet-fed DS rats. In accordance with this, total ROS production and expression of oxidative adducts also decreased in the βL-treated group. Furthermore, HS diet-induced proteinuria and glomerular damage were markedly suppressed, and inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptotic cell death were significantly diminished by βL treatment. This study is the first to demonstrate that activation of NQO1 has a renoprotective effect that is mediated by NOX activity via modulation of the cellular NAD(P)H:NAD(P)(+) ratio. These results provide strong evidence that NQO1 might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of salt-induced renal injury.

  10. Calcineurin Aβ regulates NADPH oxidase (Nox) expression and activity via nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in response to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clintoria R; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-02-21

    Hypertrophy is an adaptive response that enables organs to appropriately meet increased functional demands. Previously, we reported that calcineurin (Cn) is required for glomerular and whole kidney hypertrophy in diabetic rodents (Gooch, J. L., Barnes, J. L., Garcia, S., and Abboud, H. E. (2003). Calcineurin is activated in diabetes and is required for glomerular hypertrophy and ECM accumulation. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 284, F144-F154; Reddy, R. N., Knotts, T. L., Roberts, B. R., Molkentin, J. D., Price, S. R., and Gooch, J. L. (2011). Calcineurin Aβ is required for hypertrophy but not matrix expansion in the diabetic kidney. J. Cell Mol. Med. 15, 414-422). Because studies have also implicated the reactive oxygen species-generating enzymes NADPH oxidases (Nox) in diabetic kidney responses, we tested the hypothesis that Nox and Cn cooperate in a common signaling pathway. First, we examined the role of the two main isoforms of Cn in hypertrophic signaling. Using primary kidney cells lacking a catalytic subunit of Cn (CnAα(-/-) or CnAβ(-/-)), we found that high glucose selectively activates CnAβ, whereas CnAα is constitutively active. Furthermore, CnAβ but not CnAα mediates hypertrophy. Next, we found that chronic reactive oxygen species generation in response to high glucose is attenuated in CnAβ(-/-) cells, suggesting that Cn is upstream of Nox. Consistent with this, loss of CnAβ reduces basal expression and blocks high glucose induction of Nox2 and Nox4. Inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), a CnAβ-regulated transcription factor, decreases Nox2 and Nox4 expression, whereas NFAT overexpression increases Nox2 and Nox4, indicating that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway modulates Nox. These data reveal that the CnAβ/NFAT pathway regulates Nox and plays an important role in high glucose-mediated hypertrophic responses in the kidney.

  11. Characterisation of electron currents generated by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2008-04-11

    Electron transport by the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase is an important microbicidal weapon for phagocytes. The electron current (I{sub e}) generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is poorly characterised due to the lack of appropriate electrophysiological data. In this study, I fully characterise the neutrophil generated I{sub e} when the NADPH oxidase is activated by NADPH and GTP{gamma}S. The neutrophil I{sub e} was markedly voltage-dependent in the entire voltage range in comparison to those electron currents measured after chloride was removed from the external bath solution. The difference in I{sub e} measured in chloride free conditions was not due to a change in the activation kinetics of voltage-gated proton channels. The I{sub e} depolarises the neutrophil plasma membrane at a rate of 2.3 V s{sup -1} and this depolarisation was opposed when voltage-gated proton channels are activated. 3 mM ZnCl{sub 2} depolarised the membrane potential to +97.8 {+-} 2.5 mV (n = 4), and this depolarisation was abolished after NADPH oxidase inhibition.

  12. NOX3 NADPH oxidase couples transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated inflammation and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2011-03-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss.

  13. NOX3 NADPH Oxidase Couples Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 to Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1-Mediated Inflammation and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 999–1010. PMID:20712533

  14. NOX3 NADPH oxidase couples transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 to signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-mediated inflammation and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2011-03-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24 h, which recovered by 72 h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. PMID:20712533

  15. A subset of N-substituted phenothiazines inhibits NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Seredenina, Tamara; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Filippova, Aleksandra; Nayernia, Zeynab; Mahiout, Zahia; Fioraso-Cartier, Laetitia; Plastre, Olivier; Scapozza, Leonardo; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Jaquet, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) constitute a family of enzymes generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are increasingly recognized as interesting drug targets. Here we investigated the effects of 10 phenothiazine compounds on NOX activity using an extensive panel of assays to measure production of ROS (Amplex red, WST-1, MCLA) and oxygen consumption. Striking differences between highly similar phenothiazines were observed. Two phenothiazines without N-substitution, including ML171, did not inhibit NOX enzymes, but showed assay interference. Introduction of an aliphatic amine chain on the N atom of the phenothiazine B ring (promazine) conferred inhibitory activity toward NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 but not NOX1 and NOX3. Addition of an electron-attracting substituent in position 2 of the C ring extended the inhibitory activity to NOX1 and NOX3, with thioridazine being the most potent inhibitor. In contrast, the presence of a methylsulfoxide group at the same position (mesoridazine) entirely abolished NOX-inhibitory activity. A cell-free NOX2 assay suggested that inhibition by N-substituted phenothiazines was not due to competition with NADPH. A functional implication of NOX-inhibitory activity of thioridazine was demonstrated by its ability to block redox-dependent myofibroblast differentiation. Our results demonstrate that NOX-inhibitory activity is not a common feature of all antipsychotic phenothiazines and that substitution on the B-ring nitrogen is crucial for the activity, whereas that on the second position of the C ring modulates it. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of NOX pharmacology and might pave the path to discovery of more potent and selective NOX inhibitors.

  16. A wheat superoxide dismutase gene TaSOD2 enhances salt resistance through modulating redox homeostasis by promoting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Xunhao; Xing, Tian; Xia, Guangmin

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to enhance abiotic stress resistance by converting superoxide radical (O2 (-)) to H2O2 to lower ROS level and maintain redox homeostasis. ROS level is controlled via biphasic machinery of ROS production and scavenging. However, whether the role of SOD in abiotic stress resistance is achieved through influencing the biophasic machinery is not well documented. Here, we identified a wheat copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD gene, TaSOD2, who was responsive to NaCl and H2O2. TaSOD2 overexpression in wheat and Arabidopsis elevated SOD activities, and enhanced the resistance to salt and oxidative stress. TaSOD2 overexpression reduced H2O2 level but accelerated O2 (-) accumulation. Further, it improved the activities of H2O2 metabolic enzymes, elevated the activity of O2 (-) producer NADPH oxidase (NOX), and promoted the transcription of NOX encoding genes. The inhibition of NOX activity and the mutation of NOX encoding genes both abolished the salt resistance of TaSOD2 overexpression lines. These data indicate that Cu/Zn SOD enhances salt resistance, which is accomplished through modulating redox homeostasis via promoting NOX activity. PMID:26869262

  17. A wheat superoxide dismutase gene TaSOD2 enhances salt resistance through modulating redox homeostasis by promoting NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Zhen; Yin, Xunhao; Xing, Tian; Xia, Guangmin

    2016-05-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is believed to enhance abiotic stress resistance by converting superoxide radical (O2 (-)) to H2O2 to lower ROS level and maintain redox homeostasis. ROS level is controlled via biphasic machinery of ROS production and scavenging. However, whether the role of SOD in abiotic stress resistance is achieved through influencing the biophasic machinery is not well documented. Here, we identified a wheat copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD gene, TaSOD2, who was responsive to NaCl and H2O2. TaSOD2 overexpression in wheat and Arabidopsis elevated SOD activities, and enhanced the resistance to salt and oxidative stress. TaSOD2 overexpression reduced H2O2 level but accelerated O2 (-) accumulation. Further, it improved the activities of H2O2 metabolic enzymes, elevated the activity of O2 (-) producer NADPH oxidase (NOX), and promoted the transcription of NOX encoding genes. The inhibition of NOX activity and the mutation of NOX encoding genes both abolished the salt resistance of TaSOD2 overexpression lines. These data indicate that Cu/Zn SOD enhances salt resistance, which is accomplished through modulating redox homeostasis via promoting NOX activity.

  18. NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Tonon, Thierry; Collén, Jonas; Corre, Erwan; Boyen, Catherine

    2006-03-01

    The red macro-alga Chondrus crispus is known to produce superoxide radicals in response to cell-free extracts of its green algal pathogenic endophyte Acrochaete operculata. So far, no enzymes involved in this metabolism have been isolated from red algae. We report here the isolation of a gene encoding a homologue of the respiratory burst oxidase gp91(phox) in C. crispus, named Ccrboh. This single copy gene encodes a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. Search performed in available genome and EST algal databases identified sequences showing common features of NADPH oxidases in other algae such as the red unicellular Cyanidioschyzon merolae, the economically valuable red macro-alga Porphyra yezoensis and the two diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Domain organization and phylogenetic relationships with plant, animal, fungal and algal NADPH oxidase homologues were analyzed. Transcription analysis of the C. crispus gene revealed that it was over-transcribed during infection of C. crispus gametophyte by the endophyte A. operculata, and after incubation in presence of atrazine, methyl jasmonate and hydroxyperoxides derived from C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results also illustrate the interest of exploring the red algal lineage for gaining insight into the deep evolution of NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes.

  19. Targeting NADPH Oxidase Decreases Oxidative Stress in the Transgenic Sickle Cell Mouse Penis

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Sezen, Sena F.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a state of chronic vasculopathy characterized by endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, but the sources and mechanisms responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are unknown. Aims We evaluated whether SCD activates NADPH oxidase, induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling, and decreases antioxidants in the SCD mouse penis. We further tested the hypothesis that targeting NADPH oxidase decreases oxidative stress in the SCD mouse penis. Methods SCD transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Hemizygous (hemi) mice served as controls. Mice received an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. Markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD]1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase-1 [GPx1]) were measured by Western blot in penes. Main Outcome Measures Sources of ROS, oxidative stress, and enzymatic antioxidants in the SCD penis. Results Relative to hemi mice, SCD increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox, 4-HNE-modified proteins, induced eNOS uncoupling, and reduced Gpx1 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of sickle mice reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of p47phox, gp91phox (but not p67phox) and 4-HNE, but only slightly (P > 0.05) prevented eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of hemi mice did not affect any of these parameters. Conclusion NADPH oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are sources of oxidative stress in the SCD penis; decreased GPx1 further contributes to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase upregulation decreases oxidative stress, implying a major role for NADPH oxidase as a ROS source and a

  20. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Increase Superoxide Anion Production by Acting on NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Trepout, Sylvain; Wien, Frank; Marco, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase nanoparticles (NPs) are metal oxide NPs commercialized for several uses of everyday life. However their toxicity has been poorly investigated. Cellular internalization of NPs has been shown to activate macrophages and neutrophils that contribute to superoxide anion production by the NADPH oxidase complex. Transmission electron micrososcopy images showed that the membrane fractions were close to the NPs while fluorescence indicated an interaction between NPs and cytosolic proteins. Using a cell-free system, we have investigated the influence of TiO2 NPs on the behavior of the NADPH oxidase. In the absence of the classical activator molecules of the enzyme (arachidonic acid) but in the presence of TiO2 NPs, no production of superoxide ions could be detected indicating that TiO2 NPs were unable to activate by themselves the complex. However once the NADPH oxidase was activated (i.e., by arachidonic acid), the rate of superoxide anion production went up to 140% of its value without NPs, this effect being dependent on their concentration. In the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the NADPH oxidase produces more superoxide ions, hence induces higher oxidative stress. This hyper-activation and the subsequent increase in ROS production by TiO2 NPs could participate to the oxidative stress development. PMID:26714308

  1. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Increase Superoxide Anion Production by Acting on NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Rawand; Bizouarn, Tania; Trepout, Sylvain; Wien, Frank; Baciou, Laura; Marco, Sergio; Houée Levin, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) anatase nanoparticles (NPs) are metal oxide NPs commercialized for several uses of everyday life. However their toxicity has been poorly investigated. Cellular internalization of NPs has been shown to activate macrophages and neutrophils that contribute to superoxide anion production by the NADPH oxidase complex. Transmission electron micrososcopy images showed that the membrane fractions were close to the NPs while fluorescence indicated an interaction between NPs and cytosolic proteins. Using a cell-free system, we have investigated the influence of TiO2 NPs on the behavior of the NADPH oxidase. In the absence of the classical activator molecules of the enzyme (arachidonic acid) but in the presence of TiO2 NPs, no production of superoxide ions could be detected indicating that TiO2 NPs were unable to activate by themselves the complex. However once the NADPH oxidase was activated (i.e., by arachidonic acid), the rate of superoxide anion production went up to 140% of its value without NPs, this effect being dependent on their concentration. In the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the NADPH oxidase produces more superoxide ions, hence induces higher oxidative stress. This hyper-activation and the subsequent increase in ROS production by TiO2 NPs could participate to the oxidative stress development. PMID:26714308

  2. Apocynin is not an inhibitor of vascular NADPH oxidases but an antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Heumüller, Sabine; Wind, Sven; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Busse, Rudi; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P

    2008-02-01

    A large body of literature suggest that vascular reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species. Many studies, however, relied on data obtained with the inhibitor apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'methoxyacetophenone). Because the mode of action of apocynin, however, is elusive, we determined its mechanism of inhibition on vascular NADPH oxidases. In HEK293 cells overexpressing NADPH oxidase isoforms (Nox1, Nox2, or Nox4), apocynin failed to inhibit superoxide anion generation detected by lucigenin chemiluminescence. In contrast, apocynin interfered with the detection of reactive oxygen species in assay systems selective for hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radicals. Importantly, apocynin interfered directly with the detection of peroxides but not superoxide, if generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase or nonenzymatic systems. In leukocytes, apocynin is a prodrug that is activated by myeloperoxidase, a process that results in the formation of apocynin dimers. Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells failed to form these dimers and, therefore, are not able to activate apocynin. Dimer formation was, however, observed in Nox-overexpressing HEK293 cells when myeloperoxidase was supplemented. As a consequence, apocynin should only inhibit NADPH oxidase in leukocytes, whereas in vascular cells, the compound could act as an antioxidant. Indeed, in vascular smooth muscle cells, the activation of the redox-sensitive kinases p38-mitogen-activate protein kinase, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 by hydrogen peroxide and by the intracellular radical generator menadione was prevented in the presence of apocynin. These observations indicate that apocynin predominantly acts as an antioxidant in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and should not be used as an NADPH oxidase inhibitor in vascular systems. PMID:18086956

  3. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss in female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous in vitro data suggest that ethanol (EtOH) activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This might be a mechanism underlying inhibition of bone formation and increased bone resorption obse...

  4. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in cardiac pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cave, Alison; Grieve, David; Johar, Sofian; Zhang, Min; Shah, Ajay M

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure, secondary to left ventricular hypertrophy or myocardial infarction, is a condition with increasing morbidity and mortality. Although the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this condition remain a subject of intense interest, there is now growing evidence that redox-sensitive pathways play an important role. This article focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from a family of superoxide-generating enzymes, termed NADPH oxidases (NOXs), in the pathophysiology of ventricular hypertrophy, the accompanying interstitial fibrosis and subsequent heart failure. In particular, the apparent ability of the different NADPH oxidase isoforms to define the response of a cell to a range of physiological and pathophysiological stimuli is reviewed. If confirmed, these data would suggest that independently targeting different members of the NOX family may hold the potential for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of cardiac disease. PMID:16321803

  5. NADPH oxidase-dependent acid production in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Christian; Machen, Terry E; Illek, Beate; Fischer, Horst

    2004-08-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of NADPH oxidase in H(+) secretion by airway epithelia. In whole cell patch clamp recordings primary human tracheal epithelial cells (hTE) and the human serous gland cell line Calu-3 expressed a functionally similar zinc-blockable plasma membrane H(+) conductance. However, the rate of H(+) secretion of confluent epithelial monolayers measured in Ussing chambers was 9-fold larger in hTE compared with Calu-3. In hTE H(+) secretion was blocked by mucosal ZnCl(2) and the NADPH oxidase blockers acetovanillone and 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF), whereas these same blockers had no effect in Calu-3. We determined levels of transcripts for the NADPH oxidase transmembrane isoforms (Nox1 through -5, Duox1 and -2, and p22(phox)) and found Duox1, -2, and p22(phox) to be highly expressed in hTE, as well as the intracellular subunits p40(phox), p47(phox), and p67(phox). In contrast, Calu-3 lacked transcripts for Duox1, p40(phox), and p47(phox). Anti-Duox antibody staining resulted in prominent apical staining in hTE but no significant staining in Calu-3. When treated with amiloride to block the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, intracellular pH in hTE acidified at significantly higher rates than in Calu-3, and treatment with AEBSF blocked acidification. These data suggest a role for an apically located Duox-based NADPH oxidase during intracellular H(+) production and H(+) secretion, but not in H(+) conduction.

  6. Diaphragm dysfunction caused by sphingomyelinase requires the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Bost, Elaina R.; Frye, Gregory S.; Ahn, Bumsoo; Ferreira, Leonardo F.

    2014-01-01

    Sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity is elevated in inflammatory states and may contribute to muscle weakness in these conditions. Exogenous SMase depresses muscle force in an oxidant-dependent manner. However, the pathway stimulated by SMase that leads to muscle weakness is unclear. In non-muscle cells, SMase activates the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase, which requires the p47phox subunit for enzyme function. We targeted p47phox genetically and pharmacologically (apocynin) to examine the role of NADPH oxidase on SMase-induced increase in oxidants and diaphragm weakness. SMase increased cytosolic oxidants (arbitrary units: control 203±15, SMase 276±22; P < 0.05) and depressed maximal force in wild type mice (N/cm2: control 20±1, SMase 16±0.6; P < 0.05). However, p47phox deficient mice were protected from increased oxidants (arbitrary units: control 217±27, SMase 224±17) and loss of force elicited by SMase (N/cm2: control 20±1, SMase 19±1). Apocynin appeared to partially prevent the decrease in force caused by SMase (n = 3 mice/group). Thus, our study suggests that NADPH oxidase plays an important role on oxidant-mediated diaphragm weakness triggered by SMase. These observations provide further evidence that NADPH oxidase modulates skeletal muscle function. PMID:25448394

  7. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones.

    PubMed

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J; Weisheit, Corinne E; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T; Suter, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-type complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91(phox) localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40(phox) . p40(phox) itself exhibited colocalization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91(phox) and p40(phox) with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in colocalization of p40(phox) with NOX2/gp91(phox) at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. We have previously shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for actin organization and dynamics in neuronal growth cones as well as neurite outgrowth. Here, we report that the cytosolic subunit p40(phox) of the NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex is partially associated with F-actin in neuronal growth cones, while ROS produced by this complex regulates F-actin dynamics and neurite growth. These findings provide evidence for a bidirectional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones. PMID:24702317

  8. Role of NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species in Podocyte Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shan; Meng, Xian-Fang; Zhang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Shankland, 2006). Recent studies highlighted the mechanisms of podocyte injury and implications for potential treatment strategies in proteinuric kidney diseases (Zhang et al., 2012). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals which are closely associated with the development and progression of glomerular sclerosis. NADPH oxidase is a district enzymatic source of cellular ROS production and prominently expressed in podocytes (Zhang et al., 2010). In the last decade, it has become evident that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction is a key trigger of podocyte injury, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation (Whaley-Connell et al., 2006), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Zhang et al., 2011), and inflammatory priming (Abais et al., 2013). This review focuses on the mechanism of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in podocyte injury under different pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we also reviewed the therapeutic perspectives of NADPH oxidase in kidney diseases related to podocyte injury. PMID:24319690

  9. Bidirectional interactions between NOX2-type NADPH oxidase and the F-actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Munnamalai, Vidhya; Weaver, Cory J.; Weisheit, Corinne E.; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Quinn, Mark T.; Suter, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important for neuronal function but detailed subcellular localization studies have not been performed. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of functional NOX2-type NADPH oxidase complex in neuronal growth cones and its bidirectional relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. NADPH oxidase inhibition resulted in reduced F-actin content, retrograde F-actin flow, and neurite outgrowth. Stimulation of NADPH oxidase via protein kinase C activation increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in the growth cone periphery. The main enzymatic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2/gp91phox localized to the growth cone plasma membrane and showed little overlap with the regulatory subunit p40phox. p40phox itself exhibited co-localization with filopodial actin bundles. Differential subcellular fractionation revealed preferential association of NOX2/gp91phox and p40phox with the membrane and the cytoskeletal fraction, respectively. When neurite growth was evoked with beads coated with the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, we observed a significant increase in co-localization of p40phox with NOX2/gp91phox at apCAM adhesion sites. Together, these findings suggest a bidirectional functional relationship between NADPH oxidase activity and the actin cytoskeleton in neuronal growth cones, which contributes to the control of neurite outgrowth. PMID:24702317

  10. NADPH oxidase deficiency underlies dysfunction of aged CD8+ Tregs

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhenke; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Li, Yinyin; Ju, Jihang; Yang, Zhen; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis. PMID:27088800

  11. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-encoded type III secretion system mediates exclusion of NADPH oxidase assembly from the phagosomal membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallois, A; Klein, J R; Allen, L A; Jones, B D; Nauseef, W M

    2001-05-01

    Salmonella typhimurium requires a type III secretion system encoded by pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 to survive and proliferate within macrophages. This survival implies that S. typhimurium avoids or withstands bactericidal events targeted to the microbe-containing vacuole, which include intraphagosomal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagosomal acidification, and delivery of hydrolytic enzymes to the phagosome via fusion with lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that S. typhimurium alters ROS production by murine macrophages in an SPI-2-dependent manner. To gain insights into the mechanism by which S. typhimurium inhibits intraphagosomal ROS production, we analyzed the subcellular distribution of NADPH oxidase components during infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by wild-type (WT) or several SPI-2 mutant strains of S. typhimurium. We found that the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase, flavocytochrome b(558), was actively excluded or rapidly removed from the phagosomal membrane of WT-infected monocyte-derived macrophages, thereby preventing assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and intraphagosomal production of superoxide anion. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase assembled on and generated ROS in phagosomes containing SPI-2 mutant S. typhimurium. Subversion of NADPH oxidase assembly by S. typhimurium was accompanied by increased bacterial replication relative to that of SPI-2 mutant strains, suggesting that the ability of WT S. typhimurium to prevent NADPH oxidase assembly at the phagosomal membrane represents an important virulence factor influencing its intracellular survival.

  12. Enhanced Depolarization-Induced Pulmonary Vasoconstriction Following Chronic Hypoxia Requires EGFR-Dependent Activation of NAD(P)H Oxidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Charles E.; Broughton, Brad R.S.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Walker, Benjimen R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Chronic hypoxia (CH) enhances depolarization-induced myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and resultant pulmonary arterial constriction through superoxide (O2−)-dependent stimulation of RhoA. Because NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) has been implicated in the development of pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) depolarization increases NOX-derived O2− production leading to myofilament Ca2+ sensitization and augmented vasoconstrictor reactivity following CH. As epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediates Rac1-dependent NOX activation in renal mesangial cells, we further sought to examine the role EGFR plays in this response. Results: Vasoconstrictor responses to depolarizing concentrations of KCl were greater in lungs isolated from CH (4 wk, 0.5 atm) rats compared to normoxic controls, and this effect of CH was abolished by the general NOX inhibitor, apocynin. CH similarly augmented KCl-induced vasoconstriction and O2− generation (assessed using the fluorescent indicator, dihydroethidium) in Ca2+-permeabilized, pressurized small pulmonary arteries. These latter responses to CH were prevented by general inhibition of NOX isoforms (apocynin, diphenylene iodonium), and by selective inhibition of NOX 2 (gp91ds-tat), Rac1 (NSC 23766), and EGFR (AG 1478). Consistent with these observations, CH increased KCl-induced EGFR phosphorylation, and augmented depolarization-induced Rac1 activation in an EGFR-dependent manner. Innovation: This study establishes a novel signaling axis in VSM linking membrane depolarization to contraction that is independent of Ca2+ influx, and which mediates myofilament Ca2+ sensitization in the hypertensive pulmonary circulation. Conclusion: CH augments membrane depolarization-induced pulmonary VSM Ca2+ sensitization and vasoconstriction through EGFR-dependent stimulation of Rac1 and NOX 2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1777–1788. PMID:22966991

  13. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  14. Biphasic Regulation of the NADPH Oxidase by HGF/c-Met Signaling Pathway in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Enriquez-Cortina, Cristina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Domínguez-Pérez, Mayra; Nuño, Natalia; Domínguez-Meraz, Marcela; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María Concepción; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis E.

    2013-01-01

    Redox signaling is emerging as an essential mechanism in the regulation of biological activities of the cell. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway has been implicated as a key regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. We previously demonstrated that genetic deletion of c-met in hepatocytes disrupts redox homeostasis by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase. Here, we were focused to address the mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation by HGF/c-Met signaling in primary mouse hepatocytes and its relevance. HGF induced a biphasic mechanism of NADPH oxidase regulation. The first phase employed the rapid increase in production of ROS as signaling effectors to activate the Nrf2-mediated protective response resulting in up-regulation of the antioxidant proteins, such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The second phase operated under a prolonged HGF exposure, caused a suppression of the NADPH oxidase components, including NOX2, NOX4, p22 and p67, and was able to abrogate the TGFβ-induced ROS production and improve cell viability. In conclusion, HGF/c-Met induces a Nrf2-mediated protective response by a double mechanism driven by NADPH oxidase. PMID:23333744

  15. Selective Rac1 inhibition protects renal tubular epithelial cells from oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative cell injury.

    PubMed

    Thamilselvan, Vijayalakshmi; Menon, Mani; Thamilselvan, Sivagnanam

    2012-08-01

    Oxalate-induced oxidative cell injury is one of the major mechanisms implicated in calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth of kidney stones. We previously demonstrated that oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals play a significant role in renal injury. Since NADPH oxidase activation requires several regulatory proteins, the primary goal of this study was to characterize the role of Rac GTPase in oxalate-induced NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative injury in renal epithelial cells. Our results show that oxalate significantly increased membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity of renal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. We found that NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1, blocked oxalate-induced membrane translocation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activity. In the absence of Rac1 inhibitor, oxalate exposure significantly increased hydrogen peroxide formation and LDH release in renal epithelial cells. In contrast, Rac1 inhibitor pretreatment, significantly decreased oxalate-induced hydrogen peroxide production and LDH release. Furthermore, PKC α and δ inhibitor, oxalate exposure did not increase Rac1 protein translocation, suggesting that PKC resides upstream from Rac1 in the pathway that regulates NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, our data demonstrate for the first time that Rac1-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase might be a crucial mechanism responsible for oxalate-induced oxidative renal cell injury. These findings suggest that Rac1 signaling plays a key role in oxalate-induced renal injury, and may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent calcium oxalate crystal deposition in stone formers and reduce recurrence.

  16. NADPH Oxidase and the Cardiovascular Toxicity Associated with Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mikyung; Han, Chang-ho

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most serious but preventable causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Key aspects of pathological process associated with smoking include endothelial dysfunction, a prothrombotic state, inflammation, altered lipid metabolism, and hypoxia. Multiple molecular events are involved in smokinginduced CVD. However, the dysregulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and metabolism mainly contribute to the development of diverse CVDs, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) has been established as a source of ROS responsible for the pathogenesis of CVD. NOX activation and resultant ROS production by cigarette smoke (CS) treatment have been widely observed in isolated blood vessels and cultured vascular cells, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells. NOX-mediated oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in animal studies. Of the various NOX isoforms, NOX2 has been reported to mediate ROS generation by CS, but other isoforms were not tested thoroughly. Of the many CS constituents, nicotine, methyl vinyl ketone, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as, acrolein and crotonaldehyde, appear to be primarily responsible for NOX-mediated cytotoxicity, but additional validation will be needed. Human epidemiological studies have reported relationships between polymorphisms in the CYBA gene encoding p22phox, a catalytic subunit of NOX and susceptibility to smoking-related CVDs. In particular, G allele carriers of A640G and -930A/G polymorphisms were found to be vulnerable to smoking-induced cardiovascular toxicity, but results for C242T studies are conflicting. On the whole, evidence implicates the etiological role of NOX in smoking-induced CVD, but the clinical relevance of NOX activation by smoking and its contribution to CVD require further validation in human studies. A detailed understanding of the role of NOX would be helpful to assess the risk of smoking to human health, to define high-risk subgroups, and to develop strategies to prevent or treat

  17. Identification and characterization of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-jin; Chen, Changbin; Kabbage, Mehdi; Dickman, Martin B

    2011-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown both the detrimental and beneficial effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals, plants, and fungi. These organisms utilize controlled generation of ROS for signaling, pathogenicity, and development. Here, we show that ROS are essential for the pathogenic development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an economically important fungal pathogen with a broad host range. Based on the organism's completed genome sequence, we identified two S. sclerotiorum NADPH oxidases (SsNox1 and SsNox2), which presumably are involved in ROS generation. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to examine the function of SsNox1 and SsNox2. Silencing of SsNox1 expression indicated a central role for this enzyme in both virulence and pathogenic (sclerotial) development, while inactivation of the SsNox2 gene resulted in limited sclerotial development, but the organism remained fully pathogenic. ΔSsnox1 strains had reduced ROS levels, were unable to develop sclerotia, and unexpectedly correlated with significantly reduced oxalate production. These results are in accordance with previous observations indicating that fungal NADPH oxidases are required for pathogenic development and are consistent with the importance of ROS regulation in the successful pathogenesis of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:21890677

  18. Cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NF-κB-MT1MMP in activating proMMP-2 by ET-1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused an increase in the expression and activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this scenario. We demonstrated that (i) pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin; PKC-α inhibitor, Go6976; p(38)MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by ET-1; (ii) ET-1 treatment to the cells stimulated NADPH oxidase and PKCα activity, p(38)MAPK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation by translocation of NF-κBp65 subunit from cytosol to the nucleus, and subsequently by increasing its DNA-binding activity; (iii) ET-1 increases MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin, Go6976, SB293580, and Bay 11-7082; (iv) ET-1 treatment to the cells downregulated TIMP-2 level. Although apocynin and Go6976 pretreatment reversed ET-1 effect on TIMP-2 level, yet pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay 11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by ET-1. Overall, our results suggest that ET-1-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NFκB-MT1MMP signaling pathways along with a marked decrease in TIMP-2 expression in the cells. PMID:26910780

  19. Cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NF-κB-MT1MMP in activating proMMP-2 by ET-1 in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chowdhury, Animesh; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused an increase in the expression and activation of proMMP-2 in the cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the underlying mechanisms involved in this scenario. We demonstrated that (i) pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin; PKC-α inhibitor, Go6976; p(38)MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and NF-κB inhibitor, Bay11-7082 inhibited the expression and activation of proMMP-2 induced by ET-1; (ii) ET-1 treatment to the cells stimulated NADPH oxidase and PKCα activity, p(38)MAPK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB activation by translocation of NF-κBp65 subunit from cytosol to the nucleus, and subsequently by increasing its DNA-binding activity; (iii) ET-1 increases MT1-MMP expression, which was inhibited upon pretreatment with apocynin, Go6976, SB293580, and Bay 11-7082; (iv) ET-1 treatment to the cells downregulated TIMP-2 level. Although apocynin and Go6976 pretreatment reversed ET-1 effect on TIMP-2 level, yet pretreatment of the cells with SB203580 and Bay 11-7082 did not show any discernible change in TIMP-2 level by ET-1. Overall, our results suggest that ET-1-induced activation of proMMP-2 is mediated via cross-talk between NADPH oxidase-PKCα-p(38)MAPK and NFκB-MT1MMP signaling pathways along with a marked decrease in TIMP-2 expression in the cells.

  20. NADPH Oxidase 1 and Its Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Tissue Injury and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiu-Jun; Peng, Ying-Bo; Hu, Yi-Ping; Shi, You-Zhen; Yao, Min; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are mostly viewed to cause oxidative damage to various cells and induce organ dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, they are also considered as crucial molecules for cellular signal transduction in biology. NADPH oxidase, whose only function is reactive oxygen species production, has been extensively investigated in many cell types especially phagocytes. The deficiency of NADPH oxidase extends the process of inflammation and delays tissue repair, which causes chronic granulomatous disease in patients. NADPH oxidase 1, one member of the NADPH oxidase family, is not only constitutively expressed in a variety of tissues, but also induced to increase expression in both mRNA and protein levels under many circumstances. NADPH oxidase 1 and its derived reactive oxygen species are suggested to be able to regulate inflammation reaction, cell proliferation and migration, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which contribute to the processes of tissue injury and repair. PMID:24669283

  1. Apocyanin, a Microglial NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Prevents Dopaminergic Neuronal Degeneration in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Nehru, Bimla

    2016-07-01

    Microglia-associated inflammatory processes have been strongly implicated in the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, microglia are activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and become chronic source of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is responsible for extracellular as well as intracellular production of ROS by microglia and its expression is upregulated in PD. Therefore, targeting NADPH oxidase complex activation using an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, i.e., apocyanin seems to be an effective approach. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of apocyanin in a LPS-induced PD model. LPS (5 μg) was injected intranigral and apocyanin was administered daily at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.) during the experiment. LPS when injected into the substantia nigra (SN) reproduced the characteristic hallmark features of PD in rats. It elicited an inflammatory response characterized by glial cell activation (Iba-1, GFAP). Furthermore, LPS upregulated the gene expression of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), iNOS, and gp91PHOX and resulted in an elevated total ROS production as well as NADPH oxidase activity. Subsequently, this resulted in dopaminergic loss as depicted by decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression with substantial loss in neurotransmitter dopamine and its metabolites, whereas treatment with apocyanin significantly reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1-positive cells in LPS-treated animals. It also mitigated microglial activation-induced inflammatory response and elevation in NADPH oxidase activity, thus reducing the extracellular as well as intracellular ROS production. The present study indicated that targeting NADPH oxidase can inhibit microglial activation and reduce a broad spectrum of toxic factors generation (i.e., cytokines, ROS, and reactive nitrogen species [RNS

  2. Cytotoxin-induced NADPH oxides activation: roles in regulation of cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongtao; Bi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Fan

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of cytotoxic agents can activate the NADPH oxidase system and induce redox-dependent regulation of cellular functions. Cytotoxin-induced NADPH oxidase activation may either exert cytoprotective actions (e.g., survival, proliferation, and stress tolerance) or cause cell death. Here we summarize the experimental evidence showing the context-dependent dichotomous effects of NADPH oxidase on cell fate under cytotoxic stress conditions and the potential redox signaling mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Clearly, it is difficult to create a unified paradigm on the toxicological implications of NADPH oxidase activation in response to cytotoxic stimuli. We suggest that interventional strategies targeting the NADPH oxidase system to prevent the adverse impacts of cytotoxins need to be contemplated in a stimuli- and cell type-specific manner.

  3. Traumatic brain injury and NADPH oxidase: a deep relationship.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Cristina; Prata, Cecilia; Dalla Sega, Francesco Vieceli; Piperno, Roberto; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents one of the major causes of mortality and disability in the world. TBI is characterized by primary damage resulting from the mechanical forces applied to the head as a direct result of the trauma and by the subsequent secondary injury due to a complex cascade of biochemical events that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the genesis of the delayed harmful effects contributing to permanent damage. NADPH oxidases (Nox), ubiquitary membrane multisubunit enzymes whose unique function is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been shown to be a major source of ROS in the brain and to be involved in several neurological diseases. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Nox is upregulated after TBI, suggesting Nox critical role in the onset and development of this pathology. In this review, we summarize the current evidence about the role of Nox enzymes in the pathophysiology of TBI.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury and NADPH Oxidase: A Deep Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Cecilia; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Piperno, Roberto; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents one of the major causes of mortality and disability in the world. TBI is characterized by primary damage resulting from the mechanical forces applied to the head as a direct result of the trauma and by the subsequent secondary injury due to a complex cascade of biochemical events that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the genesis of the delayed harmful effects contributing to permanent damage. NADPH oxidases (Nox), ubiquitary membrane multisubunit enzymes whose unique function is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been shown to be a major source of ROS in the brain and to be involved in several neurological diseases. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Nox is upregulated after TBI, suggesting Nox critical role in the onset and development of this pathology. In this review, we summarize the current evidence about the role of Nox enzymes in the pathophysiology of TBI. PMID:25918580

  5. NADPH oxidase 2 plays a role in experimental corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elsa C; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Chan, Elsie; Ngo, Darleen; Wang, Jiang-Hui; Peshavariya, Hitesh M; Dusting, Gregory J; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2016-05-01

    Corneal neovascularization, the growth of new blood vessels in the cornea, is a leading cause of vision impairment after corneal injury. Neovascularization typically occurs in response to corneal injury such as that caused by infection, physical trauma, chemical burns or in the setting of corneal transplant rejection. The NADPH oxidase enzyme complex is involved in cell signalling for wound-healing angiogenesis, but its role in corneal neovascularization has not been studied. We have now analysed the role of the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase in corneal neovascularization in mice following chemical injury. C57BL/6 mice aged 8-14 weeks were cauterized with an applicator coated with 75% silver nitrate and 25% potassium nitrate for 8 s. Neovascularization extending radially from limbal vessels was observed in corneal whole-mounts from cauterized wild type mice and CD31+ vessels were identified in cauterized corneal sections at day 7. In contrast, in Nox2 knockout (Nox2 KO) mice vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A), Flt1 mRNA expression, and the extent of corneal neovascularization were all markedly reduced compared with their wild type controls. The accumulation of Iba-1+ microglia and macrophages in the cornea was significantly less in Nox2 KO than in wild type mice. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that Nox2 is implicated in the inflammatory and neovascular response to corneal chemical injury in mice and clearly VEGF is a mediator of this effect. This work raises the possibility that therapies targeting Nox2 may have potential for suppressing corneal neovascularization and inflammation in humans. PMID:26814205

  6. Oxidation of NADPH by submitochondrial particles from beef heart in complete absence of transhydrogenase activity from NADPH to NAD.

    PubMed

    Djavadi-Ohaniance, L; Hatefi, H

    1975-12-25

    Treatment of submitochondrial particles (ETP) with trypsin at 0 degrees destroyed NADPH leads to NAD (or 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide, AcPyAD) transhydrogenase activity. NADH oxidase activity was unaffected; NADPH oxidase and NADH leads to AcPyAD transhydrogenase activities were diminished by less than 10%. When ETP was incubated with trypsin at 30 degrees, NADPH leads to NAD transhydrogenase activity was rapidly lost, NADPH oxidase activity was slowly destroyed, but NADH oxidase activity remained intact. The reduction pattern by NADPH, NADPH + NAD, and NADH of chromophores absorbing at 475 minus 510 nm (flavin and iron-sulfur centers) in complex I (NADH-ubiquinone reductase) or ETP treated with trypsin at 0 degrees also indicated specific destruction of transhydrogenase activity. The sensitivity of the NADPH leads to NAD transhydrogenase reaction to trypsin suggested the involvement of susceptible arginyl residues in the enzyme. Arginyl residues are considered to be positively charged binding sites for anionic substrates and ligands in many enzymes. Treatment of ETP with the specific arginine-binding reagent, butanedione, inhibited transhydrogenation from NADPH leads to NAD (or AcPyAD). It had no effect on NADH oxidation, and inhibited NADPH oxidation and NADH leads to AcPyAD transhydrogenation by only 10 to 15% even after 30 to 60 min incubation of ETP with butanedione. The inhibition of NADPH leads to NAD transhydrogenation was diminished considerably when butanedione was added to ETP in the presence of NAD or NADP. When both NAD and NADP were present, the butanedione effect was completely abolished, thus suggesting the possible presence of arginyl residues at the nucleotide binding site of the NADPH leads to NAD transhydrogenase enzyme. Under conditions that transhydrogenation from NADPH to NAD was completely inhibited by trypsin or butanedione, NADPH oxidation rate was larger than or equal to 220 nmol min-1 mg-1 ETP protein at pH 6.0 and 30 degrees

  7. The voltage dependence of NADPH oxidase reveals why phagocytes need proton channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.; Morgan, Deri; Cherny, Vladimir V.

    2003-04-01

    The enzyme NADPH oxidase in phagocytes is important in the body's defence against microbes: it produces superoxide anions (O2-, precursors to bactericidal reactive oxygen species). Electrons move from intracellular NADPH, across a chain comprising FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) and two haems, to reduce extracellular O2 to O2-. NADPH oxidase is electrogenic, generating electron current (Ie) that is measurable under voltage-clamp conditions. Here we report the complete current-voltage relationship of NADPH oxidase, the first such measurement of a plasma membrane electron transporter. We find that Ie is voltage-independent from -100mV to >0mV, but is steeply inhibited by further depolarization, and is abolished at about +190mV. It was proposed that H+ efflux mediated by voltage-gated proton channels compensates Ie, because Zn2+ and Cd2+ inhibit both H+ currents and O2- production. Here we show that COS-7 cells transfected with four NADPH oxidase components, but lacking H+ channels, produce O2- in the presence of Zn2+ concentrations that inhibit O2- production in neutrophils and eosinophils. Zn2+ does not inhibit NADPH oxidase directly, but through effects on H+ channels. H+ channels optimize NADPH oxidase function by preventing membrane depolarization to inhibitory voltages.

  8. Loss of functional NADPH oxidase-2 protects against alcohol-induced bone resorption in female p47phox-/- mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In bone, oxidant signaling through NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important stimulus for osteoclast differentiation and activity. We have previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol abuse produces bone loss through NOX-dependent mechanisms. In the current study, s...

  9. A prodigiosin analogue inactivates NADPH oxidase in macrophage cells by inhibiting assembly of p47phox and Rac.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takuji; Iwashita, Takashi; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Emiko; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Harada, Nobuyuki; Takeshita, Satoshi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    Prodigiosins are natural red pigments that have multi-biological activities. Recently, we discovered a marine bacterial strain, which produces a red pigment. Extensive two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis showed that the pigment is a prodigiosin analogue (PG-L-1). Here, we investigated the effect of PG-L-1 on NADPH oxidase activity in macrophage cells. PG-L-1 significantly inhibited superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. The ED(50) value was estimated to be approximately 0.3 microM. PG-L-1 had no direct scavenging effect on O(2)(-) generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system in electron spin resonance-spin trapping determinations, suggesting that this compound directly acts on the O(2)(-) production system, NADPH oxidase, in macrophage cells. We further investigated the effect of PG-L-1 on the behaviour of the cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase, p67(phox), p47(phox), p40(phox), Rac and protein kinase C (PKC), in PMA-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Although PG-L-1 showed no effect on the activation of PKC, the immunoblotting analysis using specific antibodies showed that PG-L-1 strongly inhibits the association of p47(phox) and Rac in the plasma membrane of PMA-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that PG-L-1 inactivates NADPH oxidase through the inhibition of the binding of p47(phox) and Rac to the membrane components of NADPH oxidase.

  10. fMLP-Induced IL-8 Release Is Dependent on NADPH Oxidase in Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, María A; Carretta, María D; Teuber, Stefanie E; Zárate, Cristian; Cárcamo, Leonardo; Concha, Ilona I; Burgos, Rafael A

    2015-01-01

    N-Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induce similar intracellular signalling profiles; but only fMLP induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase activity in neutrophils. Because the role of ROS on IL-8 release in neutrophils is until now controversial, we assessed if NADPH oxidase is involved in the IL-8 secretions and PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways activity induced by fMLP. Neutrophils were obtained from healthy volunteers. IL-8 was measured by ELISA, IL-8 mRNA by qPCR, and ROS production by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, reduction of ferricytochrome c, and FACS. Intracellular pH changes were detected by spectrofluorescence. ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation were analysed by immunoblotting and NF-κB was analysed by immunocytochemistry. Hydroxy-3-methoxyaceto-phenone (HMAP), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), and siRNA Nox2 reduced the ROS and IL-8 release in neutrophils treated with fMLP. HMAP, DPI, and amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger inhibitor) inhibited the Akt phosphorylation and did not affect the p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activity. DPI and HMAP reduced NF-κB translocation induced by fMLP. We showed that IL-8 release induced by fMLP is dependent on NADPH oxidase, and ROS could play a redundant role in cell signalling, ultimately activating the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways in neutrophils. PMID:26634216

  11. Over-inhibition of NADPH oxidase reduce the wound healing in liver of finfish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Nan, Fan-Hua; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Hsiao, Chien-Mei; Lai, Kam-Chiu; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Wound healing is a complex process involving soluble mediators, blood cells, extracellular matrix, and parenchymal cells in a response that occurs after surgical procedure or traumatic injury. The present study aims to investigate the ROS producing from the injury that involved in the wound healing using the ZFL (zebrafish liver cell) and tilapia partial hepatectomy model. In the ZFL, we observed that while over-inhibition of NADPH activity leading to reduce the wound healing moreover, experiment of the oxidative stress by the extracellular hydrogen peroxide exactly presented to increase the PCNA, BrdU and Ki-67 histopathological repair response of tilapia liver follow partial hepatectomy. We conclude that over inhibition of the NADPH oxidase by DPI may reduce the cell even the tissue in the progress of healing after the injury. PMID:25017371

  12. NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Neuroprotection against Ischaemic Stroke: Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sarah K; Roulston, Carli L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to contribute to stroke injury, particularly during reperfusion, and antioxidants targeting this process have resulted in improved outcomes experimentally. Unfortunately these improvements have not been successfully translated to the clinical setting. Targeting the source of oxidative stress may provide a superior therapeutic approach. The NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes dedicated solely to ROS production and pre-clinical animal studies targeting NADPH oxidases have shown promising results. However there are multiple factors that need to be considered for future drug development: There are several homologues of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase. All have differing physiological roles and may contribute differentially to oxidative damage after stroke. Additionally, the role of ROS in brain repair is largely unexplored, which should be taken into consideration when developing drugs that inhibit specific NADPH oxidases after injury. This article focuses on the current knowledge regarding NADPH oxidase after stroke including in vivo genetic and inhibitor studies. The caution required when interpreting reports of positive outcomes after NADPH oxidase inhibition is also discussed, as effects on long term recovery are yet to be investigated and are likely to affect successful clinical translation. PMID:24961415

  13. A Phaseolus vulgaris NADPH oxidase gene is required for root infection by Rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Nava, Noreide; Cárdenas, Luis; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Santana, Olivia; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases [respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs)] have emerged as key players in the regulation of plant-pathogen interactions. Nonetheless, their role in mutualistic associations, such as the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, is poorly understood. In this work, nine members of the Phaseolus vulgaris Rboh gene family were identified. The transcript of one of these, PvRbohB, accumulated abundantly in shoots, roots and nodules. PvRbohB promoter activity was detected in meristematic regions of P. vulgaris roots, as well as during infection thread (IT) progression and nodule development. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated PvRbohB down-regulation in transgenic roots reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lateral root density, and greatly impaired nodulation. Microscopy analysis revealed that progression of the ITs was impeded at the base of root hairs in PvRbohB-RNAi roots. Furthermore, the few nodules that formed in PvRbohB-down-regulated roots displayed abnormally wide ITs and reduced nitrogen fixation. These findings indicate that this common bean NADPH oxidase is crucial for successful rhizobial colonization and probably maintains proper IT growth and shape.

  14. Influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocytic bacterial clearance and enhances susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Keer; Metzger, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a leading contributor to mortality during recent influenza pandemics. The mechanism for this influenza-induced susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection is poorly understood. Here we show that innate antibacterial immunity was significantly suppressed during the recovery stage of influenza infection, despite the fact that MRSA super-infection had no significant effect on viral burdens. Compared to mice infected with bacteria alone, post-influenza MRSA infected mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance, which was not due to defective phagocyte recruitment, but rather coincided with reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. NADPH oxidase is responsible for ROS production during phagocytic bacterial killing, a process also known as oxidative burst. We found that gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages and neutrophils was essential for optimal bacterial clearance during respiratory MRSA infections. In contrast to WT animals, gp91phox−/− mice exhibited similar defects in MRSA clearance before and after influenza infection. Using gp91phox+/− mosaic mice, we further demonstrate that influenza infection inhibits a cell-intrinsic contribution of NADPH oxidase to phagocyte bactericidal activity. Together, our results establish that influenza infection suppresses NADPH oxidase-dependent bacterial clearance and leads to susceptibility to secondary MRSA infection. PMID:24563256

  15. The superoxide-generating oxidase of leucocytes. NADPH-dependent reduction of flavin and cytochrome b in solubilized preparations.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A R; Parkinson, J F; Jones, O T

    1984-01-01

    An NADPH-dependent O2.- -generating oxidase was solubilized from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated pig neutrophils by using a mixture of detergents. Recovery of oxidase was approx. 40%. The extract contained cytochrome b-245 (331 pmol/mg of protein) and FAD (421 pmol/mg of protein); approx. 30% of each was reduced within 60s when NADPH was added to anaerobic incubations. Three different additives, quinacrine, p-chloromercuribenzoate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, strongly inhibited O2.- generation; they also inhibited the reduction by NADPH of cytochrome b at the same low concentrations. In the presence of p-chloromercuribenzoate cytochrome b reduction was strongly inhibited and flavin reduction was less inhibited. A detergent extract prepared from non-stimulated neutrophils also contained flavin and cytochrome b, but its rate of O2.- production was less than 1% of that from activated cells; its initial rate of cytochrome b and flavin reduction was low, although the state of reduction at equilibrium was similar to that of extracts of activated cells. Even in the non-activated cell extract the reduction of flavin and cytochrome was made fast and complete when Methyl Viologen was added to the anaerobic incubations. The oxidase was temperature-sensitive, with a sharp maximum at 25 degrees C; temperatures above this caused loss of O2.- generation, and this coincided with loss of the characteristic cytochrome b spectrum, indicate of denaturation of the cytochrome. The cytochrome b formed a complex with butyl isocyanide (close to 100% binding at 10mM); butyl isocyanide also inhibited the oxidase activity of stimulated whole neutrophils (22.5% inhibition at 10mM). Photoreduced FMN stimulated O2 uptake by the oxidase. The results support a scheme of electron transport within the oxidase complex involving NADPH, FAD, cytochrome b-245 and O2 in that sequence. PMID:6497852

  16. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. PMID:23978445

  17. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages.

  18. Curcumin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy partially by inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Liao, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Wen-Xuan; He, Wan-You; Wang, Han-Bing; Yang, Cheng-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases are the main enzymes that produce oxidative stress, which plays an important role in painful diabetic neuropathy. Curcumin has been reported to exert an antinociceptive effect in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy by suppressing oxidative stress in the spinal cord. However, it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which curcumin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy can be attributed to spinal NADPH oxidases. This study was designed to determine the effect of curcumin on diabetic neuropathy and to investigate its precise mechanism in relation to NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord. Diabetic neuropathy was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection with 1% streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). After the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a subset of the diabetic rats received daily intragastric administrations of curcumin (200mg/kg) or intraperitoneal injections of apocynin (2.5mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days, whereas other diabetic rats received equivalent volumes of normal saline (NS). STZ resulted in diabetic neuropathy with hyperglycemia and a lower paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), accompanied by elevations in the expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and gp91(phox) and in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05) in the spinal cord. Both curcumin and apocynin ameliorated diabetic neuropathy. In conclusion, curcumin attenuated neuropathic pain in diabetic rats, at least partly by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediating oxidative stress in the spinal cord.

  19. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47(phox) subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  20. NADPH Oxidase-Derived ROS Induced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mediates Hypersensitivity of Lung Vagal C Fibers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang-Huan; Zhuang, Wei-Ling; Shen, Yan-Jhih; Lai, Ching Jung; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), manifested by exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases. ROS, particularly when created by NADPH oxidase, are known to sensitize lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs), which may contribute to airway hypersensitivity pathogenesis. We investigated whether CIH augments the reflex and afferent responses of LVCFs to chemical stimulants and the roles of ROS and NADPH oxidase in such airway hypersensitivity. Rats were exposed to room air (RA) or CIH with/without daily treatment with MnTMPyP (a superoxide anion scavenger), apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor), or vehicle. At 16 h after their last exposure, intravenous capsaicin, adenosine, or α,β-methylene-ATP evoked an augmented apneic response in anesthetized rats with 14-days CIH exposure, compared to anesthetized rats with 14-days RA exposure. The augmented apneic responses to these LVCF stimulants were abolished by bilateral vagotomy or perivagal capsaicin treatment, which block LVCFs neural conduction and were significantly suppressed by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin, but not vehicle. Electrophysiological studies revealed that 14-days CIH exposure potentiated the responses of LVCFs to these stimulants. This effect was inhibited by treatment with MnTMPyP or apocynin treatment and was not seen in rats who received 7-days of CIH exposure. Biochemical analysis indicated that 14-days CIH exposure increased both lung lipid peroxidation, which is indicative of oxidative stress, and expression of the p47phox subunit in the membrane fraction of lung tissue, which is an index of NADPH oxidase activation. The former was prevented by treatment with either MnTMPyP or apocynin, while the later was prevented by treatment with apocynin only. These results suggest that 14-days CIH exposure sensitizes LVCFs in rats, leading to an exaggerated reflex and afferent responses to

  1. NADPH oxidases: an overview from structure to innate immunity-associated pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Panday, Arvind; Sahoo, Malaya K; Osorio, Diana; Batra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen-derived free radicals, collectively termed reactive oxygen species (ROS), play important roles in immunity, cell growth, and cell signaling. In excess, however, ROS are lethal to cells, and the overproduction of these molecules leads to a myriad of devastating diseases. The key producers of ROS in many cells are the NOX family of NADPH oxidases, of which there are seven members, with various tissue distributions and activation mechanisms. NADPH oxidase is a multisubunit enzyme comprising membrane and cytosolic components, which actively communicate during the host responses to a wide variety of stimuli, including viral and bacterial infections. This enzymatic complex has been implicated in many functions ranging from host defense to cellular signaling and the regulation of gene expression. NOX deficiency might lead to immunosuppression, while the intracellular accumulation of ROS results in the inhibition of viral propagation and apoptosis. However, excess ROS production causes cellular stress, leading to various lethal diseases, including autoimmune diseases and cancer. During the later stages of injury, NOX promotes tissue repair through the induction of angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Therefore, a complete understanding of the function of NOX is important to direct the role of this enzyme towards host defense and tissue repair or increase resistance to stress in a timely and disease-specific manner. PMID:25263488

  2. Discovery of GSK2795039, a Novel Small Molecule NADPH Oxidase 2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Kazufumi; Chen, Woei Shin; Chueng, Adeline L.W.; Dunne, Angela A.; Seredenina, Tamara; Filippova, Aleksandra; Ramachandran, Sumitra; Bridges, Angela; Chaudry, Laiq; Pettman, Gary; Allan, Craig; Duncan, Sarah; Lee, Kiew Ching; Lim, Jean; Ma, May Thu; Ong, Agnes B.; Ye, Nicole Y.; Nasir, Shabina; Mulyanidewi, Sri; Aw, Chiu Cheong; Oon, Pamela P.; Liao, Shihua; Li, Dizheng; Johns, Douglas G.; Miller, Neil D.; Davies, Ceri H.; Browne, Edward R.; Matsuoka, Yasuji; Chen, Deborah W.; Jaquet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX enzymes not only have a key role in a variety of physiological processes but also contribute to oxidative stress in certain disease states. To date, while numerous small molecule inhibitors have been reported (in particular for NOX2), none have demonstrated inhibitory activity in vivo. As such, there is a need for the identification of improved NOX inhibitors to enable further evaluation of the biological functions of NOX enzymes in vivo as well as the therapeutic potential of NOX inhibition. In this study, both the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles of GSK2795039, a novel NOX2 inhibitor, were characterized in comparison with other published NOX inhibitors. Results: GSK2795039 inhibited both the formation of ROS and the utilization of the enzyme substrates, NADPH and oxygen, in a variety of semirecombinant cell-free and cell-based NOX2 assays. It inhibited NOX2 in an NADPH competitive manner and was selective over other NOX isoforms, xanthine oxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzymes. Following systemic administration in mice, GSK2795039 abolished the production of ROS by activated NOX2 enzyme in a paw inflammation model. Furthermore, GSK2795039 showed activity in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, reducing the levels of serum amylase triggered by systemic injection of cerulein. Innovation and Conclusions: GSK2795039 is a novel NOX2 inhibitor that is the first small molecule to demonstrate inhibition of the NOX2 enzyme in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 358–374. PMID:26135714

  3. Nutritional and therapeutic approaches to modulate NADPH oxidase-derived ROS signaling in platelets.

    PubMed

    Violi, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Carnevale, Roberto; Pignatelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies provided evidence that formation of intra-platelet reactive oxidant species (ROS) is implicated in the process of thrombosis. Animal models demonstrated that enhanced ROS formation was associated with serious thrombotic complications and death. In recent years, nutritional and therapeutic approaches were tested to modulate ROS mediated thrombus formation. The use of a nutritional approach stems from the observation that foods rich in antioxidant elements, such as polyphenols, were able to modulate ROS formation. Similarly, some drugs used for different diseases (i.e. statins) showed the ability to modulate oxidative stress. Aim of this review is to summarize current evidences supporting the role of nutrients rich in polyphenols, such as olive oil and cocoa, and of some drugs, such as statins as antiplatelet agents interfering with the Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) Oxidase signaling. Indeed, for nutrients and statins, the antiplatelet activity seems to be dependent, at least in part, upon the inhibition of platelet NADPH oxidase-derived ROS formation, resulting in down-regulation of isoprostanes, which are pro-aggregating molecules, and up-regulation of nitric oxide, which is a platelet inhibitor. PMID:26510431

  4. NADPH Oxidase as a Therapeutic Target for Oxalate Induced Injury in Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Ammon B.; Khan, Saeed R.

    2013-01-01

    A major role of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family of enzymes is to catalyze the production of superoxides and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, in turn, play a key role as messengers in cell signal transduction and cell cycling, but when they are produced in excess they can lead to oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress in the kidneys is now considered a major cause of renal injury and inflammation, giving rise to a variety of pathological disorders. In this review, we discuss the putative role of oxalate in producing oxidative stress via the production of reactive oxygen species by isoforms of NADPH oxidases expressed in different cellular locations of the kidneys. Most renal cells produce ROS, and recent data indicate a direct correlation between upregulated gene expressions of NADPH oxidase, ROS, and inflammation. Renal tissue expression of multiple NADPH oxidase isoforms most likely will impact the future use of different antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibitors to minimize OS and renal tissue injury in hyperoxaluria-induced kidney stone disease. PMID:23840917

  5. NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP−) to oxygen to make O2•−. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

  6. The superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of human neutrophils is electrogenic and associated with an H+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L M; Chappell, J B; Jones, O T

    1987-01-01

    The membrane potential of cytoplasts, derived from human neutrophils, was depolarized by the activation of the superoxide-generating NADPH-dependent oxidase. The extent of the depolarization was inhibited by diphenylene iodonium and was therefore due directly to the activity of the oxidase, which must be electrogenic. The extent of the depolarization was influenced by alteration of the delta pH across the cytoplast membrane, indicating that the outward translocation of H+ eventually compensates for superoxide generation. The depolarization of the potential is enhanced by Cd2+, a blocker of H+ currents, suggesting that the compensatory movement is via an H+ channel. PMID:2825632

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activate NADPH oxidase in adipocytes and raise the H2O2 pool to prevent cAMP-stimulated protein kinase a activation and inhibit lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) —aspirin, naproxen, nimesulide, and piroxicam— lowered activation of type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA-II) in isolated rat adipocytes, decreasing adrenaline- and dibutyryl cAMP (Bt2cAMP)-stimulated lipolysis. The molecular bases of insulin-like actions of NSAID were studied. Results Based on the reported inhibition of lipolysis by H2O2, catalase was successfully used to block NSAID inhibitory action on Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis. NSAID, at (sub)micromolar range, induced an H2O2 burst in rat adipocyte plasma membranes and in whole adipocytes. NSAID-mediated rise of H2O2 was abrogated in adipocyte plasma membranes by: diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX); the NOX4 antibody; and cytochrome c, trapping the NOX-formed superoxide. These three compounds prevented the inhibition of Bt2cAMP-stimulated lipolysis by NSAIDs. Inhibition of aquaporin-mediated H2O2 transport with AgNO3 in adipocytes allowed NOX activation but prevented the lipolysis inhibition promoted by NSAID: i.e., once synthesized, H2O2 must reach the lipolytic machinery. Since insulin inhibits adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis, the effect of aspirin on isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in rat adipocytes was studied. As expected, isoproterenol-mediated lipolysis was blunted by both insulin and aspirin. Conclusions NSAIDs activate NOX4 in adipocytes to produce H2O2, which impairs cAMP-dependent PKA-II activation, thus preventing isoproterenol-activated lipolysis. H2O2 signaling in adipocytes is a novel and important cyclooxygenase-independent effect of NSAID. PMID:23718778

  8. Deciphering the role of NADPH oxidase in complex interactions between maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-07-22

    Plant NADPH oxidases (NOXs) encompass a group of membrane-bound enzymes participating in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under physiological conditions as well as in response to environmental stressors. The purpose of the survey was to unveil the role of NADPH oxidase in pro-oxidative responses of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling leaves exposed to cereal aphids' infestation. The impact of apteral females of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) and grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) feeding on expression levels of all four NADPH oxidase genes (rbohA, rbohB, rbohC, rbohD) and total activity of NOX enzyme in maize plants were investigated. In addition, inhibitory effect of diphenylene iodonium (DPI) pre-treatment on NOX activity and hydrogen peroxide content in aphid-stressed maize seedlings was studied. Leaf infestation biotests were accomplished on 14-day-old seedlings representing two aphid-resistant varieties (Ambrozja and Waza) and two aphid-susceptible ones (Tasty Sweet and Złota Karłowa). Insects' attack led to profound upregulation of rbohA and rbohD genes in tested host plants, lower elevations were noted in level of rbohB mRNA, whereas abundance of rbohC transcript was not significantly altered. It was uncovered aphid-induced enhancement of NOX activity in examined plants. Higher increases in expression of all investigated rboh genes and activity of NADPH oxidase occurred in tissues of more resistant maize cultivars than in susceptible ones. Furthermore, DPI treatment resulted in strong reduction of NOX activity and H2O2 accumulation in aphid-infested Z. mays plants, thus evidencing circumstantial role of the enzyme in insect-elicited ROS generation. PMID:27178208

  9. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies.

  10. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update.

    PubMed

    Wan, Cheng; Su, Hua; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  11. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  12. Parasitic worms stimulate host NADPH oxidases to produce reactive oxygen species that limit plant cell death and promote infection.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Shahid; Matera, Christiane; Radakovic, Zoran S; Hasan, M Shamim; Gutbrod, Philipp; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Torres, Miguel Angel; Grundler, Florian M W

    2014-04-01

    Plants and animals produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to infection. In plants, ROS not only activate defense responses and promote cell death to limit the spread of pathogens but also restrict the amount of cell death in response to pathogen recognition. Plants also use hormones, such as salicylic acid, to mediate immune responses to infection. However, there are long-lasting biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions, such as the interaction between parasitic nematodes and plant roots during which defense responses are suppressed and root cells are reorganized to specific nurse cell systems. In plants, ROS are primarily generated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, and loss of NADPH oxidase activity compromises immune responses and cell death. We found that infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii activated the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF to produce ROS, which was necessary to restrict infected plant cell death and promote nurse cell formation. RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants exhibited larger regions of cell death in response to nematode infection, and nurse cell formation was greatly reduced. Genetic disruption of SID2, which is required for salicylic acid accumulation and immune activation in nematode-infected plants, led to the increased size of nematodes in RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants, but did not decrease plant cell death. Thus, by stimulating NADPH oxidase-generated ROS, parasitic nematodes fine-tune the pattern of plant cell death during the destructive root invasion and may antagonize salicylic acid-induced defense responses during biotrophic life stages.

  13. Endotoxin-induced vascular endothelial cell migration is dependent on TLR4/NF-κB pathway, NAD(P)H oxidase activation, and transient receptor potential melastatin 7 calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Daniela; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cáceres, Mónica; Echeverría, César; Fernández, Ricardo; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Cerda, Oscar; Tapia, Pablo; Simon, Felipe

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is decisive and leads to the development of several inflammatory diseases. Endotoxemia-derived sepsis syndrome exhibits a broad inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction. We reported previously that the endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces the conversion of endothelial cells (ECs) into activated fibroblasts, showing a myofibroblast-like protein expression profile. Enhanced migration is a hallmark of myofibroblast function. However, the mechanism involved in LPS-induced EC migration is no totally understood. Some studies have shown that the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) ion channel is involved in fibroblast and tumor cell migration through the regulation of calcium influx. Furthermore, LPS modulates TRPM7 expression. However, whether TRPM7 is involved in LPS-induced EC migration remains unknown. Here, we study the participation of LPS as an inducer of EC migration and study the mechanism underlying evaluating the participation of the TRPM7 ion channel. Our results demonstrate that LPS induced EC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, this migratory process was mediated by the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway and the generation of ROS through the PKC-activated NAD(P)H oxidase. In addition, LPS increased the intracellular calcium level and the number of focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-positive focal adhesions in EC. Finally, we demonstrate that using TRPM7 blockers or suppressing TRPM7 expression through siRNA successfully inhibits the calcium influx and the LPS-induced EC migration. These results point out TRPM7 as a new target in the drug design for several inflammatory diseases that impair vascular endothelium function.

  14. ANXUR Receptor-Like Kinases Coordinate Cell Wall Integrity with Growth at the Pollen Tube Tip Via NADPH Oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nestorova, Anna; Franck, Christina Maria; Thirugnanarajah, Sharme; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that the extracellular matrix (ECM), which in plants corresponds to the cell wall, can influence intracellular activities in ways that go far beyond their supposedly passive mechanical support. In plants, growing cells use mechanisms sensing cell wall integrity to coordinate cell wall performance with the internal growth machinery to avoid growth cessation or loss of integrity. How this coordination precisely works is unknown. Previously, we reported that in the tip-growing pollen tube the ANXUR receptor-like kinases (RLKs) of the CrRLK1L subfamily are essential to sustain growth without loss of cell wall integrity in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that over-expression of the ANXUR RLKs inhibits growth by over-activating exocytosis and the over-accumulation of secreted cell wall material. Moreover, the characterization of mutations in two partially redundant pollen-expressed NADPH oxidases coupled with genetic interaction studies demonstrate that the ANXUR RLKs function upstream of these NADPH oxidases. Using the H2O2-sensitive HyPer and the Ca2+-sensitive YC3.60 sensors in NADPH oxidase-deficient mutants, we reveal that NADPH oxidases generate tip-localized, pulsating H2O2 production that functions, possibly through Ca2+ channel activation, to maintain a steady tip-focused Ca2+ gradient during growth. Our findings support a model where ECM-sensing receptors regulate reactive oxygen species production, Ca2+ homeostasis, and exocytosis to coordinate ECM-performance with the internal growth machinery. PMID:24302886

  15. FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo is mediated by PKCδ, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Park, Edward; Mori, Yusaku; Haber, C Andrew; Han, Ping; Uchida, Toyoyoshi; Stavar, Laura; Oprescu, Andrei I; Koulajian, Khajag; Ivovic, Alexander; Yu, Zhiwen; Li, Deling; Bowman, Thomas A; Dewald, Jay; El-Benna, Jamel; Brindley, David N; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Lam, Tony K T; Najjar, Sonia M; McKay, Robert A; Bhanot, Sanjay; Fantus, I George; Giacca, Adria

    2014-07-01

    Fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although PKC and inflammatory pathways have been implicated in fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance, the sequence of events leading to impaired insulin signaling is unknown. We used Wistar rats to investigate whether PKCδ and oxidative stress play causal roles in this process and whether this occurs via IKKβ- and JNK-dependent pathways. Rats received a 7-h infusion of Intralipid plus heparin (IH) to elevate circulating free fatty acids (FFA). During the last 2 h of the infusion, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with tracer was performed to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), prevented IH-induced hepatic insulin resistance in parallel with prevention of decreased IκBα content, increased JNK phosphorylation (markers of IKKβ and JNK activation, respectively), increased serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2, and impaired insulin signaling in the liver without affecting IH-induced hepatic PKCδ activation. Furthermore, an antisense oligonucleotide against PKCδ prevented IH-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) (marker of NADPH oxidase activation) and hepatic insulin resistance. Apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, prevented IH-induced hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance similarly to NAC. These results demonstrate that PKCδ, NADPH oxidase, and oxidative stress play a causal role in FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance in vivo and suggest that the pathway of FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is FFA → PKCδ → NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress → IKKβ/JNK → impaired hepatic insulin signaling.

  16. The Lipidated Peptidomimetic Lau-((S)-Aoc)-(Lys-βNphe)6-NH2 Is a Novel Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Agonist That Activates Both Human and Mouse Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Holdfeldt, André; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael; Nielsen, Christina; Perez-Gassol, Iris; Larsen, Camilla Josephine; Wang, Ji Ming; Karlsson, Anna; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-09-16

    Neutrophils expressing formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) play key roles in host defense, immune regulation, and resolution of inflammation. Consequently, the search for FPR2-specific modulators has attracted much attention due to its therapeutic potential. Earlier described agonists for this receptor display potent activity for the human receptor (FPR2) but low activity for the mouse receptor orthologue (Fpr2), rendering them inapplicable in murine models of human disease. Here we describe a novel FPR2 agonist, the proteolytically stable α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Lau-((S)-Aoc)-(Lys-βNphe)6-NH2 (F2M2), showing comparable potency in activating human and mouse neutrophils by inducing a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and assembly of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. This FPR2/Fpr2 agonist contains a headgroup consisting of a 2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) residue acylated with lauric acid (C12 fatty acid), which is linked to a peptide/peptoid repeat ((Lys-βNphe)6-NH2). Both the fatty acid moiety and the (S)-Aoc residue were required for FPR2/Fpr2 activation. This type of proteolytically stable FPR2-specific peptidomimetics may serve as valuable tools for future analysis of FPR2 signaling as well as for development of prophylactic immunomodulatory therapy. This novel class of cross-species FPR2/Fpr2 agonists should enable translation of results obtained with mouse neutrophils (and disease models) into enhanced understanding of human inflammatory and immune diseases. PMID:27422818

  17. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  18. NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes function in ROS-dependent ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, June M; Mori, Izumi C; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Torres, Miguel Angel; Dangl, Jeffery L; Bloom, Rachel E; Bodde, Sara; Jones, Jonathan D G; Schroeder, Julian I

    2003-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as second messengers in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. However, the question whether ROS production is indeed required for ABA signal transduction in vivo has not yet been addressed, and the molecular mechanisms mediating ROS production during ABA signaling remain unknown. Here, we report identification of two partially redundant Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit genes, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, in which gene disruption impairs ABA signaling. atrbohD/F double mutations impair ABA-induced stomatal closing, ABA promotion of ROS production, ABA-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increases and ABA- activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels in guard cells. Exogenous H(2)O(2) rescues both Ca(2+) channel activation and stomatal closing in atrbohD/F. ABA inhibition of seed germination and root elongation are impaired in atrbohD/F, suggesting more general roles for ROS and NADPH oxidases in ABA signaling. These data provide direct molecular genetic and cell biological evidence that ROS are rate-limiting second messengers in ABA signaling, and that the AtrbohD and AtrbohF NADPH oxidases function in guard cell ABA signal transduction.

  19. Quinone compounds regulate the level of ROS production by the NADPH oxidase Nox4.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Lardy, Bernard; Rousset, Francis; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Zhang, Leilei; Trocmé, Candice; Serrander, Lena; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Morel, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    NADPH oxidase Nox4 is expressed in a wide range of tissues and plays a role in cellular signaling by providing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intracellular messengers. Nox4 oxidase activity is thought to be constitutive and regulated at the transcriptional level; however, we challenge this point of view and suggest that specific quinone derivatives could modulate this activity. In fact, we demonstrated a significant stimulation of Nox4 activity by 4 quinone derivatives (AA-861, tBuBHQ, tBuBQ, and duroquinone) observed in 3 different cellular models, HEK293E, T-REx™, and chondrocyte cell lines. Our results indicate that the effect is specific toward Nox4 versus Nox2. Furthermore, we showed that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) may participate in this stimulation. Interestingly, Nox4 activity is also stimulated by reducing agents that possibly act by reducing the disulfide bridge (Cys226, Cys270) located in the extracellular E-loop of Nox4. Such model of Nox4 activity regulation could provide new insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the electron transfer through the enzyme, i.e., its potential redox regulation, and could also define new therapeutic targets in diseases in which quinones and Nox4 are implicated. PMID:23583257

  20. Complementation of NADPH oxidase in p67-phox-deficient CGD patients p67-phox/p40-phox interaction.

    PubMed

    Vergnaud, S; Paclet, M H; El Benna, J; Pocidalo, M A; Morel, F

    2000-02-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is due to a functional defect of the O2- generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes. Epstein-Barr-virus-immortalized B lymphocytes express all the constituents of oxidase with activity 100 times less than that of neutrophils. As in neutrophils, oxidase activity of Epstein-Barr-virus-immortalized B lymphocytes was shown to be defective in the different forms of CGD; these cells were used as a model for the complementation studies of two p67-phox-deficient CGD patients. Reconstitution of oxidase activity was performed in vitro by using a heterologous cell-free assay consisting of membrane-suspended or solubilized and purified cytochrome b558 that was associated with cytosol or with the isolated cytosolic-activating factors (p67-phox, p47-phox, p40-phox) from healthy or CGD patients. In p67-phox-deficient CGD patients, two cytosolic factors are deficient or missing: p67-phox and p40-phox. Not more than 20% of oxidase activity was recovered by complementing the cytosol of p67-phox-deficient patients with recombinant p67-phox. On the contrary, a complete restoration of oxidase activity was observed when, instead of cytosol, the cytosolic factors were added in the cell-free assay after isolation in combination with cytochrome b558 purified from neutrophil membrane. Moreover, the simultaneous addition of recombinant p67-phox and recombinant p40-phox reversed the previous complementation in a p40-phox dose-dependent process. These results suggest that in the reconstitution of oxidase activity, p67-phox is the limiting factor; the efficiency of complementation depends on the membrane tissue and the cytosolic environment. In vitro, the transition from the resting to the activated state of oxidase, which results from assembling, requires the dissociation of p40-phox from p67-phox for efficient oxidase activity. In the process, p40-phox could function as a negative regulatory factor and stabilize the resting state.

  1. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Rafalowski, Meirav; Federman-Gross, Aya; Pick, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    The superoxide (O2.-)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O2.- generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: 1. Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; 2. Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; 3. Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; 4. Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; 5. A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; 6. p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two components.

  2. The dehydrogenase region of the NADPH oxidase component Nox2 acts as a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) resembling PDIA3 with a role in the binding of the activator protein p67phox

    PubMed Central

    Bechor, Edna; Dahan, Iris; Fradin, Tanya; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Zahavi, Anat; Federman Gross, Aya; Rafalowski, Meirav; Pick, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The superoxide (O·−2)-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes consists of a membrane component, cytochrome b558 (a heterodimer of Nox2 and p22phox), and four cytosolic components, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac. The catalytic component, responsible for O·−2 generation, is Nox2. It is activated by the interaction of the dehydrogenase region (DHR) of Nox2 with the cytosolic components, principally with p67phox. Using a peptide-protein binding assay, we found that Nox2 peptides containing a 369CysGlyCys371 triad (CGC) bound p67phox with high affinity, dependent upon the establishment of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines. Serially truncated recombinant Nox2 DHR proteins bound p67phox only when they comprised the CGC triad. CGC resembles the catalytic motif (CGHC) of protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). This led to the hypothesis that Nox2 establishes disulfide bonds with p67phox via a thiol-dilsulfide exchange reaction and, thus, functions as a PDI. Evidence for this was provided by the following: (1) Recombinant Nox2 protein, which contained the CGC triad, exhibited PDI-like disulfide reductase activity; (2) Truncation of Nox2 C-terminal to the CGC triad or mutating C369 and C371 to R, resulted in loss of PDI activity; (3) Comparison of the sequence of the DHR of Nox2 with PDI family members revealed three small regions of homology with PDIA3; (4) Two monoclonal anti-Nox2 antibodies, with epitopes corresponding to regions of Nox2/PDIA3 homology, reacted with PDIA3 but not with PDIA1; (5) A polyclonal anti-PDIA3 (but not an anti-PDIA1) antibody reacted with Nox2; (6) p67phox, in which all cysteines were mutated to serines, lost its ability to bind to a Nox2 peptide containing the CGC triad and had an impaired capacity to support oxidase activity in vitro. We propose a model of oxidase assembly in which binding of p67phox to Nox2 via disulfide bonds, by virtue of the intrinsic PDI activity of Nox2, stabilizes the primary interaction between the two

  3. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels as Novel Drug Targets: From NADPH Oxidase Regulation to Sperm Biology

    PubMed Central

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated proton channels are increasingly implicated in cellular proton homeostasis. Proton currents were originally identified in snail neurons less than 40 years ago, and subsequently shown to play an important auxiliary role in the functioning of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. Molecular identification of voltage-gated proton channels was achieved less than 10 years ago. Interestingly, so far, only one gene coding for voltage-gated proton channels has been identified, namely hydrogen voltage-gated channel 1 (HVCN1), which codes for the HV1 proton channel protein. Over the last years, the first picture of putative physiological functions of HV1 has been emerging. Recent Advances: The best-studied role remains charge and pH compensation during the respiratory burst of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX). Strong evidence for a role of HV1 is also emerging in sperm biology, but the relationship with the sperm NOX5 remains unclear. Probably in many instances, HV1 functions independently of NOX: for example in snail neurons, basophils, osteoclasts, and cancer cells. Critical Issues: Generally, ion channels are good drug targets; however, this feature has so far not been exploited for HV1, and hitherto no inhibitors compatible with clinical use exist. However, there are emerging indications for HV1 inhibitors, ranging from diseases with a strong activation of the phagocyte NOX (e.g., stroke) to infertility, osteoporosis, and cancer. Future Directions: Clinically useful HV1-active drugs should be developed and might become interesting drugs of the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 490–513. PMID:24483328

  4. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  5. NADPH Oxidases in Heart Failure: Poachers or Gamekeepers?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Hirsch, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure but clinical antioxidant trials have been unsuccessful. This may be because effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depend upon their source, location, and concentration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) proteins generate ROS in a highly regulated fashion and modulate several components of the heart failure phenotype. Recent Advances: Two Nox isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4, are expressed in the heart. Studies using gene-modified mice deficient in Nox2 activity indicate that Nox2 activation contributes to angiotensin II–induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, and the development of interstitial fibrosis but may also positively modulate physiological excitation-contraction coupling. Nox2 contributes to myocyte death under stress situations and plays important roles in postmyocardial infarction remodeling, in part by modulating matrix metalloprotease activity. In contrast to Nox2, Nox4 is constitutively active at a low level and induces protective effects in the heart under chronic stress, for example, by maintaining myocardial capillary density. However, high levels of Nox4 could have detrimental effects. Critical Issues: The effects of Nox proteins during the development of heart failure likely depend upon the isoform, activation level, and cellular distribution, and may include beneficial as well as detrimental effects. More needs to be learnt about the precise regulation of abundance and biochemical activity of these proteins in the heart as well as the downstream signaling pathways that they regulate. Future Directions: The development of specific approaches to target individual Nox isoforms and/or specific cell types may be important for the achievement of therapeutic efficacy in heart failure. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1024–1041. PMID:22747566

  6. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J; Traverso, José Á; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen-pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed.

  7. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J.; Traverso, José Á.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen–pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed. PMID:27066025

  8. NADPH oxidase 4 regulates homocysteine metabolism and protects against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Thomas V.A.; Dong, Xuebin; Sawyer, Greta J.; Caldwell, Anna; Halket, John; Sherwood, Roy; Quaglia, Alberto; Dew, Tracy; Anilkumar, Narayana; Burr, Simon; Mistry, Rajesh K.; Martin, Daniel; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P.; Hughes, Robin D.; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer in the liver and is critical for hepatic detoxification of xenobiotics and other environmental toxins. Hepatic glutathione is also a major systemic store for other organs and thus impacts on pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Sickle Cell Anaemia and chronic diseases associated with aging. Glutathione levels are determined in part by the availability of cysteine, generated from homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. The partitioning of homocysteine between remethylation and transsulfuration pathways is known to be subject to redox-dependent regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. An association between plasma Hcy and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NADPH oxidase 4 locus led us to investigate the involvement of this reactive oxygen species- generating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Here we demonstrate that NADPH oxidase 4 ablation in mice results in increased flux of homocysteine through the betaine-dependent remethylation pathway to methionine, catalysed by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase within the liver. As a consequence NADPH oxidase 4-null mice display significantly lowered plasma homocysteine and the flux of homocysteine through the transsulfuration pathway is reduced, resulting in lower hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels. Mice deficient in NADPH oxidase 4 had markedly increased susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury which could be corrected by administration of N-acetyl cysteine. We thus conclude that under physiological conditions, NADPH oxidase 4-derived reactive oxygen species is a regulator of the partitioning of the metabolic flux of homocysteine, which impacts upon hepatic cysteine and glutathione levels and thereby upon defence against environmental toxins. PMID:26472193

  9. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts induced by oxidized LDL and in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2011-09-01

    The present study demonstrated that oxidized LDL (oLDL) increased the generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the abundances of NADPH oxidase (NOX)4, NOX2, p22-phox and lectin-like oLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) in wild-type or heat shock factor-1 (HSF1)-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF). LOX-1 antibody inhibited LDL or oLDL-induced expression of NOX components in MEF. Abundance of HSF1 or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was increased by oLDL in wild-type, but not in HSF1-deficient MEF. Diphenyleneiodonium or siRNA for NOX or p22-phox inhibited oLDL-induced increases of HSF1, PAI-1 and H(2)O(2) in MEF. Increased NOX4, NOX2, LOX1, HSF1 and PAI-1 were detected in aortae and hearts of apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice compared to controls, which were associated with increased serum cholesterol or plasma PAI-1. The results suggest that NOX is required for oLDL-induced HSF1 or PAI-1 expression in MEF, which was supported by the up-regulation of NOX, LOX-1, HSF1 and PAI-1 in apoE-KO mice.

  10. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  11. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-κB activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-β, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1α, and α-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-κB and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-κB-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

  12. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  13. Endothelin-1 impairs coronary arteriolar dilation: Role of p38 kinase-mediated superoxide production from NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Hein, Travis W; Ren, Yi; Kuo, Lih

    2015-09-01

    Elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive peptide, are implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases by exerting vasoconstriction. The aim of this study was to address whether ET-1, at sub-vasomotor concentrations, elicits adverse effects on coronary microvascular function. Porcine coronary arterioles (50-100μm) were isolated, cannulated and pressurized without flow for in vitro study. Diameter changes were recorded using a videomicrometer. Arterioles developed basal tone (60±3μm) and dilated to the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilators serotonin (1nmol/L to 0.1μmol/L) and adenosine (1nmol/L to 10μmol/L). Treating the vessels with a clinically relevant sub-vasomotor concentration of ET-1 (10pmol/L, 60min) significantly attenuated arteriolar dilations to adenosine and serotonin but not to endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside. The arteriolar wall contains ETA receptors and the adverse effect of ET-1 was prevented by ETA receptor antagonist BQ123, the superoxide scavenger Tempol, the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and VAS2870, the NOX2-based NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91 ds-tat, or the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580. However, ETB receptor antagonist BQ788, H2O2 scavenger catalase, scrambled gp91 ds-tat, or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), PKC (Gö 6983), Rho kinase (Y27632), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) did not protect the vessel. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ET-1 elicited Tempol-, apocynin- and SB203580-sensitive superoxide productions in the arteriolar wall. Our results indicate that exposure of coronary arterioles to a pathophysiological, sub-vasomotor concentration of ET-1 leads to vascular dysfunction by impairing endothelium-dependent NO-mediated dilation via p38 kinase-mediated production of superoxide from NADPH oxidase following ETA receptor activation.

  14. Endothelin-1 Impairs Coronary Arteriolar Dilation: Role of p38 Kinase-mediated Superoxide Production from NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Hein, Travis W.; Ren, Yi; Kuo, Lih

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoactive peptide, are implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases by exerting vasoconstriction. The aim of this study was to address whether ET-1, at sub-vasomotor concentrations, elicits adverse effects on coronary microvascular function. Porcine coronary arterioles (50–100 μm) were isolated, cannulated and pressurized without flow for in vitro study. Diameter changes were recorded using a videomicrometer. Arterioles developed basal tone (60±3 μm) and dilated to the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilators serotonin (1 nmol/L to 0.1 μmol/L) and adenosine (1 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L). Treating the vessels with a clinically relevant sub-vasomotor concentration of ET-1 (10 pmol/L, 60 minutes) significantly attenuated arteriolar dilations to adenosine and serotonin but not to endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside. The arteriolar wall contains ETA receptors and the adverse effect of ET-1 was prevented by ETA receptor antagonist BQ123, the superoxide scavenger Tempol, the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and VAS2870, the NOX2-based NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91 ds-tat, or the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580. However, ETB receptor antagonist BQ788, H2O2 scavenger catalase, scrambled gp91 ds-tat, or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), PKC (Gö 6983), Rho kinase (Y27632), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) did not protect the vessel. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ET-1 elicited Tempol-, apocynin- and SB203580-sensitive superoxide production in the arteriolar wall. Our results indicate that exposure of coronary arterioles to a pathophysiological, sub-vasomotor concentration of ET-1 leads to vascular dysfunction by impairing endothelium-dependent NO-mediated dilation via p38 kinase-mediated production of superoxide from NADPH oxidase following ETA receptor activation. PMID:26211713

  15. Increased superoxide production in nitrate tolerance is associated with NAD(P)H oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Szöcs, Katalin; Lassègue, Bernard; Wenzel, Philip; Wendt, Maria; Daiber, Andreas; Oelze, Matthias; Meinertz, Thomas; Münzel, Thomas; Baldus, Stephan

    2007-06-01

    Chronic administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) induces nitrate tolerance. Among possible underlying mechanisms, increased vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as a principal mechanism. Using cell culture and animal models of nitrate tolerance, we aimed to assess the impact of nitrates on NAD(P)H oxidases and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) expression. Rats and vascular smooth muscle cells were treated with NTG. Vascular reactivity was assessed by isometric tension studies. Superoxide was detected by dihydroethidium staining. Gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. ALDH activity was measured biochemically, and NO consumption electrochemically. Nitrate tolerance was induced in rats by treatment with NTG for 3 days, and detected as impaired endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of aortic segments. Although superoxide production was increased in all aortic layers, expression of nox1, nox2 and nox4 was significantly decreased. Similarly, in vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to NTG for 6-24 h, NAD(P)H oxidase activity was increased, in spite of nox1 downregulation. In addition, expression and activity of ALDH-2 was decreased in nitrate-tolerant rings. Furthermore, exogenous addition of ALDH decreased superoxide generation in vitro and attenuated NO consumption in vascular smooth muscle cell homogenates. Our data suggest that in nitrate tolerance, activation of nox enzymes more than compensates for their downregulation, resulting in a net increase in superoxide and NO consumption. Furthermore, reduced ALDH-2 activity and expression leads to decreased NTG bioconversion. Therefore, both mechanisms reduce NO availability and impair vasorelaxation. PMID:17493633

  16. A novel pyrazole derivative protects from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis through the inhibition of NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jung Hee; Huh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jee Hyun; Park, Doo Ri; Lee, Yoonji; Lee, Seul Gee; Choi, Sun; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Song, Seong-Won; Jeong, Yongmi; Goo, Ja-Il; Choi, Yongseok; Baek, Hye Kyung; Yi, Sun Shin; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Ji Eun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Kee-In; Lee, Soo Young; Bae, Yun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclast cells (OCs) are differentiated from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) by activation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Activation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isozymes is involved in RANKL-dependent OC differentiation, implicating Nox isozymes as therapeutic targets for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we show that a novel pyrazole derivative, Ewha-18278 has high inhibitory potency on Nox isozymes. Blocking the activity of Nox with Ewha-18278 inhibited the responses of BMMs to RANKL, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and NF-κB, and OC differentiation. To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic function of Ewha-18278, the derivative was applied to estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) ddY mice. Oral administration of Ewha-18278 (10 mg/kg/daily, 4 weeks) into the mice recovered bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone length, number and thickness, compared to control OVX ddY mice. Moreover, treatment of OVX ddY mice with Ewha-18278 increased bone strength by increasing cortical bone thickness. We provide that Ewha-18278 displayed Nox inhibition and blocked the RANKL-dependent cell signaling cascade leading to reduced differentiation of OCs. Our results implicate Ewha-18278 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26975635

  17. NADPH oxidase-2 is a key regulator of human dermal fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-You; Wu, Liang-Cai; Dai, Tao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wang, An-Yuan; Lin, Kang; Lin, Da-Mu; Yang, Jing-Quan; Cheng, Biao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Wei-Yang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of human skin dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) is a critical step in skin fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) exerts pro-oxidant and fibrogenic effects on HDFs. In addition, the oxidative stress system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin disease. However, the role of NADPH oxidase as a mediator of TGF-β1-induced effects in HDFs remains unknown. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of NADPH in human skin dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblasts were cultured and pretreated with various stimulants. Real-time Q-PCR and Western blotting analyses were used for mRNA and protein detection. In addition, siRNA technology was applied for gene knock-down analysis. Hydrogen peroxide production and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) measurement assay were performed. Here, our findings demonstrated that HDFs express key components of non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase mRNA. TGF-β1 induced NOX2 and reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. In contrast, NOX3 was barely detectable, and other NOXs did not display significant changes. In addition, TGF-β1 phosphorylated MAPKs and increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) in a redox-sensitive manner, and NOX2 suppression inhibited baseline and TGF-β1-mediated stimulation of Smad2 phosphorylation. Moreover, TGF-β1 stimulated cell proliferation, migration, collagen I and fibronectin expression, and bFGF and PAI-1 secretion: these effects were attenuated by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and NOX2 siRNA. Importantly, NOX2 siRNA suppresses collagen production in primary keloid dermal fibroblasts. These findings provide the proof of concept for NADPH oxidase as a potential target for the treatment of skin fibrosis. PMID:24981855

  18. NADPH oxidase-2 is a key regulator of human dermal fibroblasts: a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-You; Wu, Liang-Cai; Dai, Tao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wang, An-Yuan; Lin, Kang; Lin, Da-Mu; Yang, Jing-Quan; Cheng, Biao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Wei-Yang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of human skin dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) is a critical step in skin fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) exerts pro-oxidant and fibrogenic effects on HDFs. In addition, the oxidative stress system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin disease. However, the role of NADPH oxidase as a mediator of TGF-β1-induced effects in HDFs remains unknown. Thus, our aim was to investigate the role of NADPH in human skin dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblasts were cultured and pretreated with various stimulants. Real-time Q-PCR and Western blotting analyses were used for mRNA and protein detection. In addition, siRNA technology was applied for gene knock-down analysis. Hydrogen peroxide production and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) measurement assay were performed. Here, our findings demonstrated that HDFs express key components of non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase mRNA. TGF-β1 induced NOX2 and reactive oxygen species formation via NADPH oxidase activity. In contrast, NOX3 was barely detectable, and other NOXs did not display significant changes. In addition, TGF-β1 phosphorylated MAPKs and increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) in a redox-sensitive manner, and NOX2 suppression inhibited baseline and TGF-β1-mediated stimulation of Smad2 phosphorylation. Moreover, TGF-β1 stimulated cell proliferation, migration, collagen I and fibronectin expression, and bFGF and PAI-1 secretion: these effects were attenuated by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and NOX2 siRNA. Importantly, NOX2 siRNA suppresses collagen production in primary keloid dermal fibroblasts. These findings provide the proof of concept for NADPH oxidase as a potential target for the treatment of skin fibrosis.

  19. Evolution of NADPH Oxidase Inhibitors: Selectivity and Mechanisms for Target Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Altenhöfer, Sebastian; Radermacher, Kim A.; Kleikers, Pamela W.M.; Wingler, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress, an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production versus consumption, may be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The only known enzymes solely dedicated to ROS generation are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases with their catalytic subunits (NOX). After the clinical failure of most antioxidant trials, NOX inhibitors are the most promising therapeutic option for diseases associated with oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Historical NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenylene iodonium, are un-specific and not isoform selective. Novel NOX inhibitors stemming from rational drug discovery approaches, for example, GKT137831, ML171, and VAS2870, show improved specificity for NADPH oxidases and moderate NOX isoform selectivity. Along with NOX2 docking sequence (NOX2ds)-tat, a peptide-based inhibitor, the use of these novel small molecules in animal models has provided preliminary in vivo evidence for a pathophysiological role of specific NOX isoforms. Critical Issues: Here, we discuss whether novel NOX inhibitors enable reliable validation of NOX isoforms' pathological roles and whether this knowledge supports translation into pharmacological applications. Modern NOX inhibitors have increased the evidence for pathophysiological roles of NADPH oxidases. However, in comparison to knockout mouse models, NOX inhibitors have limited isoform selectivity. Thus, their use does not enable clear statements on the involvement of individual NOX isoforms in a given disease. Future Directions: The development of isoform-selective NOX inhibitors and biologicals will enable reliable validation of specific NOX isoforms in disease models other than the mouse. Finally, GKT137831, the first NOX inhibitor in clinical development, is poised to provide proof of principle for the clinical potential of NOX inhibition. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 406–427. PMID:24383718

  20. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2 (•-) generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2 (•-) by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2 (•-) production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase.

  1. Hyperglycaemia promotes human brain microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of protein kinase C-ßI and prooxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Beili; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier disruption represents a key feature in hyperglycaemia-aggravated cerebral damage after an ischaemic stroke. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is thought to play a critical role. This study examined whether apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) might contribute to hyperglycaemia-evoked barrier damage and assessed the specific role of PKC in this phenomenon. Treatments with hyperglycaemia (25 mM) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator, 100 nM) significantly increased NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- generation, proapoptotic protein Bax expression, TUNEL-positive staining and caspase-3/7 activities. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase, PKC-a, PKC-ß or PKC-ßI via their specific inhibitors and neutralisation of O2•- by a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP normalised all the aforementioned increases induced by hyperglycaemia. Suppression of these PKC isoforms also negated the stimulatory effects of hyperglycaemia on the protein expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound components, Nox2 and p22-phox which determine the overall enzymatic activity. Silencing of PKC-ßI gene through use of specific siRNAs abolished the effects of both hyperglycaemia and PMA on endothelial cell NADPH oxidase activity, O2•- production and apoptosis and consequently improved the integrity and function of an in vitro model of human cerebral barrier comprising HBMEC, astrocytes and pericytes. Hyperglycaemia-mediated apoptosis of HBMEC contributes to cerebral barrier dysfunction and is modulated by sequential activations of PKC-ßI and NADPH oxidase. PMID:24936444

  2. The NADPH oxidase Cpnox1 is required for full pathogenicity of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Giesbert, Sabine; Schürg, Timo; Scheele, Sandra; Tudzynski, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in interactions between phytopathogenic fungi and their hosts is well established. An oxidative burst mainly caused by superoxide formation by membrane-associated NADPH oxidases is an essential element of plant defence reactions. Apart from primary effects, ROS play a major role as a second messenger in host response. Recently, NADPH oxidase (nox)-encoding genes have been identified in filamentous fungi. Functional analyses have shown that these fungal enzymes are involved in sexual differentiation, and there is growing evidence that they also affect developmental programmes involved in fungus-plant interactions. Here we show that in the biotrophic plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea deletion of the cpnox1 gene, probably encoding an NADPH oxidase, has impact on germination of conidia and pathogenicity: Deltacpnox1 mutants can penetrate the host epidermis, but they are impaired in colonization of the plant ovarian tissue. In the few cases where macroscopic signs of infection (honeydew) appear, they are extremely delayed and fully developed sclerotia have never been observed. C. purpurea Nox1 is important for the interaction with its host, probably by directly affecting pathogenic differentiation of the fungus.

  3. Phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase promotes cytokine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells: evidence for regulation by Rac1.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Wasanthi; Syed, Ismail; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of cellular signal transduction cascades such as proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Chronic exposure of isolated β-cells to proinflammatory cytokines elevates intracellular oxidative stress leading to the demise of pancreatic β-cells culminating in the onset of diabetes. Although the mitochondrial electron transport chain is felt to be the primary source of ROS, several lines of recent evidence suggest that phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase plays a central role in cytokine-mediated ROS generation and apoptosis of β-cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the regulation of NADPH oxidase remain unknown. To address this, insulin-secreting INS 832/13 cells were treated with cytomix (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α; 10 ng/ml each) for different time intervals (0-24 h). A significant, time-dependent increase in NADPH oxidase activation/intracellular ROS production, p47(phox) subunit, but not p67(phox) subunit, expression of the phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase were demonstrable under these conditions. Furthermore, siRNA-p47(phox) transfection or exposure of INS 832/13 cells to apocynin, a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, markedly attenuated cytomix-induced ROS generation in these cells. Cytomix-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in INS 832/13 cells was evident by a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulated caspase 3 activity. Cytomix treatment also caused a transient (within 15 min) activation of Rac1, a component of the NADPH oxidase holoenzyme. Furthermore, GGTI-2147 and NSC23766, known Rac1 inhibitors, not only attenuated the cytomix-induced Rac1 activation but also significantly prevented loss of MMP (NSC23766 > GGTI-2147). However, NSC23766 had no effect on cytomix-induced NO generation or caspase 3 activation, suggesting additional regulatory mechanisms might underlie these signaling steps. Together, these findings suggested that Rac1-mediated regulation of phagocyte

  4. Role of NADPH oxidases in the redox biology of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosas-Molist, Eva; Fabregat, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the pathological consequence of chronic liver diseases, where an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins occurs, concomitantly with the processes of repair and regeneration. It is characterized by increased production of matrix proteins, in particular collagens, and decreased matrix remodelling. The principal source of ECM accumulation is myofibroblasts (MFB). Most fibrogenic MFB are endogenous to the liver, coming from hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and portal fibroblasts. Dysregulated inflammatory responses have been associated with most (if not all) hepatotoxic insults and chronic oxidative stress play a role during the initial liver inflammatory phase and its progression to fibrosis. Redox-regulated processes are responsible for activation of HSC to MFB, as well as maintenance of the MFB function. Increased oxidative stress also induces hepatocyte apoptosis, which contributes to increase the liver injury and to transdifferentiate HSC to MFB, favouring the fibrogenic process. Mitochondria and other redox-active enzymes can generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide as a by-product in liver cells. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that NADPH oxidases (NOXs), which play a critical role in the inflammatory response, may contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during liver fibrosis, being important players in HSC activation and hepatocyte apoptosis. Based on the knowledge of the pathogenic role of ROS, different strategies to prevent or reverse the oxidative damage have been developed to be used as therapeutic tools in liver fibrosis. This review will update all these concepts, highlighting the relevance of redox biology in chronic fibrogenic liver pathologies. PMID:26204504

  5. Oxidative Stress in Atrial Fibrillation: An Emerging Role of NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Ji-Youn; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yixuan; Chen, Houzao; Liu, Depei; Ping, Peipei; Weiss, James N.; Cai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Patients with AF have up to seven-fold higher risk of suffering from ischemic stroke. Better understanding of etiologies of AF and its thromboembolic complications are required for improved patient care, as current anti-arrhythmic therapies have limited efficacy and off target effects. Accumulating evidence has implicated a potential role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AF. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is likely involved in the structural and electrical remodeling of the heart, contributing to fibrosis and thrombosis. In particular, NADPH oxidase (NOX) has emerged as a potential enzymatic source for ROS production in AF based on growing evidence from clinical and animal studies. Indeed, NOX can be activated by known upstream triggers of AF such as angiotensin II and atrial stretch. In addition, treatments such as Statins, antioxidants, ACEI or AT1RB have been shown to prevent post-operative AF; among which ACEI/AT1RB and Statins can attenuate NOX activity. On the other hand, detailed molecular mechanisms by which specific NOX isoform(s) are involved in the pathogenesis of AF and the extent to which activation of NOX plays a causal role in AF development remains to be determined. The current review discusses causes and consequences of oxidative stress in AF with a special focus on the emerging role of NOX pathways. PMID:23643589

  6. Reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria mediate angiotensin II-induced smooth muscle cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ching; Pan, Zih-Cian; Cheng, Hui-Pin; Liu, Chen-Hsiu; Lin, Bor-Tyng; Jiang, Meei Jyh

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence has emerged as an important player in both physiology and pathology. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to mediate cellular senescence. NADPH oxidases are major sources for ROS production in the vascular wall; the roles of different NADPH oxidase isoforms in cellular senescence remain unclear, however. We investigated the roles of two NADPH oxidase isoforms in mitochondrial dysfunction during angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cellular senescence of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Ang II (10(-7)M) stimulated ROS generation, exhibiting early increases between 30 and 60min and sustained increases between 24h and 72h, and induced VSMCs senescence after 48h or 72h treatment as assessed with senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the expression of two cell cycle inhibitors, p21 and p16. ROS scavengers and membrane-permeable catalase (catalase-PEG) reduced Ang II-stimulated cellular senescence. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit Nox1, but not that of another isoform Nox4, inhibited Ang II-induced cellular senescence. Nox1 siRNA inhibited both early and sustained ROS increases induced by Ang II. In addition, a mitochondrial-specific antioxidant, mitoQ10, effectively inhibited Ang II-induced ROS increases and cellular senescence. Ang II decreased ATP synthesis and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, which were attenuated by pre-treating cells with Nox1 siRNA, mitoQ10 or catalase-PEG. The effect of Ang II on the mitochondrial regulator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream genes was examined. Ang II stimulated S570 phosphorylation of PGC-1α with concomitant decreases in catalase and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) levels between 12h and 72h, which were inhibited by Nox1 siRNA. Knockdown of both catalase and UCP-2 mimicked Ang II-induced VSMC senescence. These results suggested that Ang II-stimulated Nox1

  7. NADPH oxidase inhibition ameliorates Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis during Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Monisha; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, invades nucleated mammalian cells including macrophages. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between T. cruzi-induced immune activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory responses, and their role in myocardial pathology. Splenocytes of infected mice (C3H/HeN) responded to Tc-antigenic stimulus by more than a two-fold increase in NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, ROS generation, cytokine production (IFN-γ > IL-4 > TNFα > IL1-β ≈ IL6), and predominant expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Inhibition of NOX, but not of myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase, controlled the ROS (>98%) and cytokine (70–89%) release by Tc-stimulated splenocytes of infected mice. Treatment of infected mice with apocynin (NOX inhibitor) in drinking water resulted in a 50–90% decline in endogenous NOX/ROS and cytokine levels, and splenic phagocytes’ proliferation. The splenic percentage of T cells was maintained, though more than a 40% decline in splenic index (spleen weight/body weight) indicated decreased T-cell proliferation in apocynin-treated/infected mice. The blood and tissue parasite burden were significantly increased in apocynin-treated/infected mice, yet acute myocarditis, ie inflammatory infiltrate consisting of macrophages, neutrophils, and CD8+ T cells, and tissue oxidative adducts (eg 8-isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxynonenal) were diminished in apocynin-treated/infected mice. Consequently, hypertrophy (increased cardiomyocytes’ size and β-MHC, BNP, and ANP mRNA levels) and fibrosis (increased collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and lipid contents) of the heart during the chronic phase were controlled in apocynin-treated mice. We conclude that NOX/ROS is a critical regulator of the splenic response (phagocytes, T cells, and cytokines) to T. cruzi infection, and bystander effects of heart-infiltrating phagocytes and CD8+ T cells resulting in cardiac remodelling in chagasic

  8. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  9. Optimization of important early ADME(T) parameters of NADPH oxidase-4 inhibitor molecules.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Gábor; Huszár, Ménika; Varga, Attila; Futosi, Krisztina; Mócsai, Attila; Orfi, László; Idei, Miklós; Mandl, József; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

    2012-03-01

    Through their reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing function, NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes have been linked to several oxidative stress related diseases. In our recently published paper [1] we have already shown the NOX4 inhibitory effect of diverse, molecule sub-libraries and their biological importance. We also presented our work connected to potential anti-tumour molecules and the relationship between their biological activity and physico-chemical properties [2]. As an extension of these studies further physico-chemical and biological investigation has been carried out on a molecule group included NOX4 inhibitory chromanone compounds. Here we describe the optimization of early ADME(T) parameters determining lipophilicity, phospholipophilicity and permeability linked to structure-activity relationship. We prove that optimal lipo- and phospholipophilicty can be also determined in case of NOX4 inhibitors and a comparison will be made between the chemically similar isochromanone and chromanone molecular libraries. It will be also shown how to predict the effect of different substituents on permeability, lipo- and phospholipophilicity and also the biological differences between anti-tumour molecules and NOX4 inhibitors according to their penetration ability.

  10. Matrix compliance regulates Rac1b localization, NADPH oxidase assembly, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KangAe; Chen, Qike K.; Lui, Cecillia; Cichon, Magdalena A.; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a form of epithelial plasticity implicated in fibrosis and tumor metastasis. Here we show that the mechanical rigidity of the microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the promotion of EMT by controlling the subcellular localization and downstream signaling of Rac GTPases. Soft substrata, with compliances comparable to that of normal mammary tissue, are protective against EMT, whereas stiffer substrata, with compliances characteristic of breast tumors, promote EMT. Rac1b, a highly activated splice variant of Rac1 found in tumors, localizes to the plasma membrane in cells cultured on stiff substrata or in collagen-rich regions of human breast tumors. At the membrane, Rac1b forms a complex with NADPH oxidase and promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, expression of Snail, and activation of the EMT program. In contrast, soft microenvironments inhibit the membrane localization of Rac1b and subsequent redox changes. These results reveal a novel mechanotransduction pathway in the regulation of epithelial plasticity via EMT. PMID:22918955

  11. Suppressive effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on intestinal tumorigenesis in obese KK-A(y) and Apc mutant Min mice.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Masami; Fujii, Gen; Miyamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Mami; Ishigamori, Rikako; Onuma, Wakana; Ishino, Kousuke; Totsuka, Yukari; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. The accumulation of abdominal fat tissue causes abundant reactive oxygen species production through the activation of NADPH oxidase due to excessive insulin stimulation. The enzyme NADPH oxidase catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species and evokes the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Apocynin is an NADPH oxidase inhibitor that blocks the formation of the NADPH oxidase complex (active form). In this study, we investigated the effects of apocynin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in obese KK-A(y) mice and on the development of intestinal polyps in Apc mutant Min mice. Six-week-old KK-A(y) mice were injected with azoxymethane (200 μg/mouse once per week for 3 weeks) and given 250 mg/L apocynin or 500 mg/L apocynin in their drinking water for 7 weeks. Six-week-old Min mice were also treated with 500 mg/L apocynin for 6 weeks. Treatment with apocynin reduced the number of colorectal aberrant crypt foci in KK-A(y) mice by 21% and the number of intestinal polyps in Min mice by 40% compared with untreated mice. Both groups of mice tended to show improved oxidation of serum low-density lipoprotein and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in their adipose tissues. In addition, the inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA levels in polyp tissues decreased. Moreover, apocynin was shown to suppress nuclear factor-κB transcriptional activity in vitro. These results suggest that apocynin and other NADPH oxidase inhibitors may be effective colorectal cancer chemopreventive agents.

  12. Astragaloside IV prevents damage to human mesangial cells through the inhibition of the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/NF‑κB pathway under high glucose conditions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Li, Weiping; Li, Weizu; Xiong, Li; Li, Guiping; Ma, Rong

    2014-07-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy and hyperfiltration are the two major pathological characteristics of the early stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which are respectively related to mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and a decrease in calcium influx conducted by canonical transient receptor potential cation channel 6 (TRPC6). The marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia is the main sponsor of multiple pathological pathways in DN. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is an important source of ROS production in MCs. Astragaloside IV (AS‑IV) is an active ingredient of Radix Astragali which has a potent antioxidative effect. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether high glucose (HG)‑induced NADPH oxidase activation and ROS production contribute to MC proliferation and the downregulation of TRPC6 expression; we also wished to determine the effects of AS‑IV on MCs under HG conditions. Using a human glomerular mesangial cell line, we found that treatment with AS‑IV for 48 h markedly attenuated HG‑induced proliferation and the hypertrophy of MCs in a dose‑dependent manner. The intracellular ROS level was also markedly reduced following treatment with AS‑IV. In addition, the enhanced activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression level of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) protein were decreased. Treatment with AS‑IV also inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt and IκBα in the MCs. In addition, TRPC6 protein expression and the intracellular free calcium concentration were also markedly reduced following treatment with AS‑IV under HG conditions. These results suggest that AS‑IV inhibits HG‑induced mesangial cell proliferation and glomerular contractile dysfunction through the NADPH oxidase/ROS/Akt/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway, providing a new perspective for the clinical treatment of DN. PMID:24718766

  13. New Insights Into the Roles of NADPH Oxidases in Sexual Development and Ascospore Germination in Sordaria macrospora

    PubMed Central

    Dirschnabel, Daniela Elisabeth; Nowrousian, Minou; Cano-Domínguez, Nallely; Aguirre, Jesus; Teichert, Ines; Kück, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling determinants that induce different cellular processes. To characterize NOX function during fungal development, we utilized the genetically tractable ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Genome sequencing of a sterile mutant led us to identify the NADPH oxidase encoding nox1 as a gene required for fruiting body formation, regular hyphal growth, and hyphal fusion. These phenotypes are shared by ∆nor1, lacking the NOX regulator NOR1. Further phenotypic analyses revealed a high correlation between increased ROS production and hyphal fusion deficiencies in ∆nox1 and other sterile mutants. A genome-wide transcriptional profiling analysis of mycelia and isolated protoperithecia from wild type and ∆nox1 revealed that nox1 inactivation affects the expression of genes related to cytoskeleton remodeling, hyphal fusion, metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration. Genetic analysis of ∆nox2, lacking the NADPH oxidase 2 gene, ∆nor1, and transcription factor deletion mutant ∆ste12, revealed a strict melanin-dependent ascospore germination defect, indicating a common genetic pathway for these three genes. We report that gsa3, encoding a G-protein α-subunit, and sac1, encoding cAMP-generating adenylate cyclase, act in a separate pathway during the germination process. The finding that cAMP inhibits ascospore germination in a melanin-dependent manner supports a model in which cAMP inhibits NOX2 activity, thus suggesting a link between both pathways. Our results expand the current knowledge on the role of NOX enzymes in fungal development and provide a frame to define upstream and downstream components of the NOX signaling pathways in fungi. PMID:24407906

  14. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Wang, Weixing; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  15. WRKY Transcription Factors Phosphorylated by MAPK Regulate a Plant Immune NADPH Oxidase in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Nakano, Takaaki; Miyagawa, Noriko; Ishihama, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Katou, Yuri; Yaeno, Takashi; Shirasu, Ken; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both the transient PTI ROS burst and the robust ETI ROS burst. Here, we show that RBOHB transactivation mediated by MAPK contributes to R3a/AVR3a-triggered ETI (AVR3a-ETI) ROS burst. RBOHB is markedly induced during the ETI and INF1-triggered PTI (INF1-PTI), but not flg22-tiggered PTI (flg22-PTI). We found that the RBOHB promoter contains a functional W-box in the R3a/AVR3a and INF1 signal-responsive cis-element. Ectopic expression of four phospho-mimicking mutants of WRKY transcription factors, which are MAPK substrates, induced RBOHB, and yeast one-hybrid analysis indicated that these mutants bind to the cis-element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated direct binding of the WRKY to the cis-element in plants. Silencing of multiple WRKY genes compromised the upregulation of RBOHB, resulting in impairment of AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts, but not the flg22-PTI ROS burst. These results suggest that the MAPK-WRKY pathway is required for AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts by activation of RBOHB. PMID:26373453

  16. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  17. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M.; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2016-01-01

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin−/− mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26861875

  18. NADPH Oxidase 1 and NADPH Oxidase 4 Have Opposite Prognostic Effects for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Yun; Paik, Yong-Han; Yang, Jung Wook; Lee, Min Ju; Bae, Hyunsik; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX)-mediated reactive oxygen species contribute to various liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Uncertainties remain regarding the prognostic relevance of NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression in HCC. Methods NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression was examined by using immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue from 227 HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy. Results High immunoreactivity for NOX1 was observed in 197 (86.8%) of the 227 HCC cases and low immunoreactivity for NOX4 in 112 (49.3%). NOX1 and NOX4 proteins had opposite prognostic effects. High NOX1 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p<0.01) and shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.01). Low NOX4 expression was an independent predictor of both shorter RFS (p<0.01) and shorter OS (p=0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that, among patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels, patients with tumor size ≤5.0 cm and patients in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A, high NOX1 expression had unfavorable effects on RFS, whereas low NOX4 expression had unfavorable effects on both RFS and OS. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that NOX1 and NOX4 protein expression had opposite prognostic effects for HCC patients. Moreover, both proteins had prognostic value in HCC patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels or with early-stage HCC. PMID:27282266

  19. NADPH Oxidase 1 Is Associated with Altered Host Survival and T Cell Phenotypes after Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Amelia R; De La Cruz, Juan A; Cao, Weiping; Patel, Jenish; Belser, Jessica A; McCoy, James; Liepkalns, Justine S; Amoah, Samuel; Cheng, Guangjie; Ranjan, Priya; Diebold, Becky A; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Katz, Jacqueline M; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lambeth, J David; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    The role of the reactive oxygen species-producing NADPH oxidase family of enzymes in the pathology of influenza A virus infection remains enigmatic. Previous reports implicated NADPH oxidase 2 in influenza A virus-induced inflammation. In contrast, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was reported to decrease inflammation in mice within 7 days post-influenza A virus infection. However, the effect of NADPH oxidase 1 on lethality and adaptive immunity after influenza A virus challenge has not been explored. Here we report improved survival and decreased morbidity in mice with catalytically inactive NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1*/Y) compared with controls after challenge with A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus. While changes in lung inflammation were not obvious between Nox1*/Y and control mice, we observed alterations in the T cell response to influenza A virus by day 15 post-infection, including increased interleukin-7 receptor-expressing virus-specific CD8+ T cells in lungs and draining lymph nodes of Nox1*/Y, and increased cytokine-producing T cells in lungs and spleen. Furthermore, a greater percentage of conventional and interstitial dendritic cells from Nox1*/Y draining lymph nodes expressed the co-stimulatory ligand CD40 within 6 days post-infection. Results indicate that NADPH oxidase 1 modulates the innate and adaptive cellular immune response to influenza virus infection, while also playing a role in host survival. Results suggest that NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitors may be beneficial as adjunct therapeutics during acute influenza infection.

  20. NADPH Oxidase 1 Is Associated with Altered Host Survival and T Cell Phenotypes after Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Amelia R.; De La Cruz, Juan A.; Cao, Weiping; Patel, Jenish; Belser, Jessica A.; McCoy, James; Liepkalns, Justine S.; Amoah, Samuel; Cheng, Guangjie; Ranjan, Priya; Diebold, Becky A.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Lambeth, J. David; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    The role of the reactive oxygen species-producing NADPH oxidase family of enzymes in the pathology of influenza A virus infection remains enigmatic. Previous reports implicated NADPH oxidase 2 in influenza A virus-induced inflammation. In contrast, NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) was reported to decrease inflammation in mice within 7 days post-influenza A virus infection. However, the effect of NADPH oxidase 1 on lethality and adaptive immunity after influenza A virus challenge has not been explored. Here we report improved survival and decreased morbidity in mice with catalytically inactive NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1*/Y) compared with controls after challenge with A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus. While changes in lung inflammation were not obvious between Nox1*/Y and control mice, we observed alterations in the T cell response to influenza A virus by day 15 post-infection, including increased interleukin-7 receptor-expressing virus-specific CD8+ T cells in lungs and draining lymph nodes of Nox1*/Y, and increased cytokine-producing T cells in lungs and spleen. Furthermore, a greater percentage of conventional and interstitial dendritic cells from Nox1*/Y draining lymph nodes expressed the co-stimulatory ligand CD40 within 6 days post-infection. Results indicate that NADPH oxidase 1 modulates the innate and adaptive cellular immune response to influenza virus infection, while also playing a role in host survival. Results suggest that NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitors may be beneficial as adjunct therapeutics during acute influenza infection. PMID:26910342

  1. Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2002-07-01

    Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this

  2. Small-molecule inhibitors of NADPH oxidase 4.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Gábor; Szabadkai, István; Horváth, Zoltán; Markó, Péter; Varga, Zoltán; Breza, Nóra; Baska, Ferenc; Vántus, Tibor; Huszár, Mónika; Geiszt, Miklós; Hunyady, László; Buday, László; Orfi, László; Kéri, György

    2010-09-23

    NOX enzymes are the major contributors in many oxidative damage related diseases. Unfortunately, at present no specific NOX inhibitor is available. Here, we describe the discovery and development of novel NOX4 inhibitors. Compound libraries were tested in a cell-based assay as a primary screen, monitoring H2O2 production. Twenty-four compounds inhibited Nox4 activity with low-micromolar IC(50) values of which three were selected for further drug development.

  3. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor suppresses NADPH Oxidase 4-Derived Redox Signalling and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Nora Y; Dusting, Gregory J; Peshavariya, Hitesh M

    2016-10-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to suppress abnormal development of blood vessels. Angiogenic activity in endothelial cells depends upon NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4)-dependent redox signalling. We set out to study whether the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) affects Nox4 expression and angiogenesis. Nox4 expression was measured by real time PCR and Western blot analysis in endothelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was measured by amplex(®) red assay in endothelial cells. Nox4 was knocked down by Nox4 shRNA. In vitro angiogenic activities such migration and tubulogenesis were assessed using wound healing and Matrigel assays, respectively. In vivo angiogenic activity was assessed using subcutaneous sponge assay in C57Bl/6 and Nox4-deficient mice. Trichostatin A reduced Nox4 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Both TSA and Nox4 silencing decreased Nox4 protein and H2 O2 . Mechanistically, TSA reduced expression of Nox4 via ubiquitination of p300- histone acetyltransferase (p300-HAT). Thus, blocking of the ubiquitination pathway using an inhibitor of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (PYR-41) prevented TSA inhibition of Nox4 expression. Trichostatin A also reduced migration and tube formation, and these effects were not observed in Nox4-deficient endothelial cells. Finally, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) enhanced angiogenesis in sponge model in C57BL/6 mice. This response to TGFβ1 was substantially reduced in Nox4-deficient mice. Similarly intraperitoneal infusion of TSA (1 mg/kg) also suppressed TGFβ1-induced angiogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. Trichostatin A reduces Nox4 expression and angiogenesis via inhibition of the p300-HAT-dependent pathway. This mechanism might be exploited to prevent aberrant angiogenesis in diabetic retinopathy, complicated vascular tumours and malformations. PMID:27297729

  4. ROLE OF RAC-1 DEPENDENT NADPH OXIDASE IN THE GROWTH OF PANCREATIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Du, Juan; Liu, Jingru; Smith, Brian J.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cullen, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    K-ras mutations occur in as high as 95% of patients with pancreatic cancer. K-ras activates Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase, a key source of superoxide. Superoxide plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and scavenging or decreasing the levels of superoxide inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. DNA microarray analysis and RT-PCR has demonstrated that Rac1 is also upregulated in pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if inhibiting Rac1 would alter pancreatic tumor cell behavior. Human pancreatic cancer cells with mutant K-ras (MIA PaCa-2), wild-type K-ras (BxPC-3), and the immortal H6c7 cell line (pancreatic ductal epithelium) expressing K-ras oncogene (H6c7eR-KrasT) that is tumorigenic, were infected with a dominant/negative Rac1 construct (AdN17Rac1). In cells with mutant K-ras, AdN17Rac1 decreased rac activity, decreased superoxide levels, and inhibited in vitro growth. However in the BxPC-3 cell line, AdN17Rac1 did not change rac activity, superoxide levels, or in vitro cell growth. Additionally, AdN17Rac1 decreased superoxide levels and inhibited in vitro growth in the KrasT tumorigenic cell line, but had no effect in the immortalized H6c7 cell line. In human pancreatic tumor xenografts, intratumoral injections of AdN17Rac1 inhibited tumor growth. These results suggest that activation of Rac1-dependent superoxide generation leads to pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. In pancreatic cancer inhibition of Rac1 may be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21037555

  5. Understanding the biology of reactive oxygen species and their link to cancer: NADPH oxidases as novel pharmacological targets.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian P; Selemidis, Stavros

    2014-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), the cellular products of myriad physiological processes, have long been understood to lead to cellular damage if produced in excess and to be a causative factor in cancer through the oxidation and nitration of various macromolecules. Reactive oxygen species influence various hallmarks of cancer, such as cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, through the promotion of cell signalling pathways intrinsic to these processes and can also regulate the function of key immune cells, such as macrophages and regulatory T cells, which promote angiogenesis in the tumour environment. Herein we emphasize the family of NADPH oxidase enzymes as the most likely source of ROS, which promote angiogenesis and tumourigenesis through signalling pathways within endothelial, immune and tumour cells. In this review we focus on the pharmacological inhibitors of NADPH oxidases and suggest that, compared with traditional anti-oxidants, they are likely to offer better alternatives for suppression of tumour angiogenesis. Despite the emerging enthusiasm towards the use of NADPH oxidase inhibitors for cancer therapy, this field is still in its infancy; in particular, there is a glaring lack of knowledge of the roles of NADPH oxidases in in vivo animal models and in human cancers. Certainly a clearer understanding of the relevant signalling pathways influenced by NADPH oxidases during angiogenesis in cancer is likely to yield novel therapeutic approaches.

  6. In vitro fructose exposure overactivates NADPH oxidase and causes oxidative stress in the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Camila C P; Mill, José G; Vassallo, Dalton V; Baldo, Marcelo P; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2015-12-01

    Fructose acutely interferes with cardiovascular function in humans and in animals, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we tested whether fructose can affect endothelial function without the interference of its metabolic effect by exposing the rat aorta to a high fructose concentration and then evaluate the vascular responses to vasoactive agents. We observed that fructose exposure causes overactivation of NADPH oxidase, which enhances superoxide anion production and increases NO degradation. Additionally, the enhanced vasoconstrictor action of hydrogen peroxide might exacerbate contractile responses. This vasoactive imbalance might be the key role by which fructose induces vascular dysfunction.

  7. C/EBP transcription factors regulate NADPH oxidase in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Todirita, Andra; Raicu, Monica; Manea, Adrian

    2014-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, oxidative stress-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) dysfunction is partially mediated by up-regulated NADPH oxidase (Nox); the mechanisms of enzyme regulation are not entirely defined. CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the expression of many inflammatory and immune genes. We aimed at elucidating the role of C/EBP in the regulation of Nox in SMCs exposed to pro-inflammatory conditions. Human aortic SMCs were treated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) for up to 24 hrs. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, Western blot, promoter-luciferase reporter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed to investigate Nox regulation. IFN-γ dose-dependently induced Nox activity and expression, nuclear translocation and up-regulation of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ protein expression levels. Silencing of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ reduced significantly but differentially the IFN-γ-induced up-regulation of Nox activity, gene and protein expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical C/EBP sites within Nox1, Nox4 and Nox5 promoters. Transient overexpression of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ or C/EBPδ enhanced the luciferase level directed by the promoters of the Nox subtypes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of C/EBPα, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ proteins with the Nox1/4/5 promoters. C/EBP transcription factors are important regulators of Nox enzymes in IFN-γ-exposed SMCs. Activation of C/EBP may induce excessive Nox-derived reactive oxygen species formation, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque development. Pharmacological targeting of C/EBP-related signalling pathways may be used to counteract the adverse effects of oxidative stress. PMID:24797079

  8. Pathophysiology and Treatments of Oxidative Injury in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on the Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Federico; Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Mach, François; Vuilleumier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Phagocytes play a key role in promoting the oxidative stress after ischemic stroke occurrence. The phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 is a membrane-bound enzyme complex involved in the antimicrobial respiratory burst and free radical production in these cells. Recent Advances: Different oxidants have been shown to induce opposite effects on neuronal homeostasis after a stroke. However, several experimental models support the detrimental effects of NOX activity (especially the phagocytic isoform) on brain recovery after stroke. Therapeutic strategies selectively targeting the neurotoxic ROS and increasing neuroprotective oxidants have recently produced promising results. Critical Issues: NOX2 might promote carotid plaque rupture and stroke occurrence. In addition, NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) released by resident and recruited phagocytes enhance cerebral ischemic injury, activating the inflammatory apoptotic pathways. The aim of this review is to update evidence on phagocyte-related oxidative stress, focusing on the role of NOX2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce ROS-related cerebral injury after stroke. Future Directions: Radical scavenger compounds (such as Ebselen and Edaravone) are under clinical investigation as a therapeutic approach against stroke. On the other hand, NOX inhibition might represent a promising strategy to prevent the stroke-related injury. Although selective NOX inhibitors are not yet available, nonselective compounds (such as apocynin and fasudil) provided encouraging results in preclinical studies. Whereas additional studies are needed to better evaluate this therapeutic potential in human beings, the development of specific NOX inhibitors (such as monoclonal antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors, or aptamers) might further improve brain recovery after stroke. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 460–489. PMID:24635113

  9. Negative Regulation of NADPH Oxidase 4 by Hydrogen Peroxide-inducible Clone 5 (Hic-5) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Leena P.; Zhou, Yong; Estrada, Aida V.; Ding, Qiang; Cheng, Guangjie; Collawn, James F.; Thannickal, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone 5 (Hic-5) is a focal adhesion adaptor protein induced by the profibrotic cytokine TGF-β1. We have demonstrated previously that TGF-β1 induces myofibroblast differentiation and lung fibrosis by activation of the reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4). Here we investigated a potential role for Hic-5 in regulating Nox4, myofibroblast differentiation, and senescence. In normal human diploid fibroblasts, TGF-β1 induces Hic-5 expression in a delayed manner relative to the induction of Nox4 and myofibroblast differentiation. Hic-5 silencing induced constitutive Nox4 expression and enhanced TGF-β1-inducible Nox4 levels. The induction of constitutive Nox4 protein in Hic-5-silenced cells was independent of transcription and translation and controlled by the ubiquitin-proteasomal system. Hic-5 associates with the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-c and the ubiquitin-binding protein heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). The interaction of these proteins is required for the ubiquitination of Nox4 and for maintaining low basal levels of this reactive oxygen species-generating enzyme. Our model suggests that TGF-β1-induced Hic-5 functions as a negative feedback mechanism to limit myofibroblast differentiation and senescence by promoting the ubiquitin-proteasomal system-mediated degradation of Nox4. Together, these studies indicate that endogenous Hic-5 suppresses senescence and profibrotic activities of myofibroblasts by down-regulating Nox4 protein expression. Additionally, these are the first studies, to our knowledge, to demonstrate posttranslational regulation of Nox4. PMID:24831009

  10. Ebselen and congeners inhibit NADPH-oxidase 2 (Nox2)-dependent superoxide generation by interrupting the binding of regulatory subunits

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.E.; Min, Jaeki; Ganesh, Thota; Diebold, Becky; Kawahara, Tsukasa; Zhu, Yerun; McCoy, James; Sun, Aiming; Snyder, James P.; Fu, Haian; Du, Yuhong; Lewis, Iestyn; Lambeth, J. David

    2012-01-01

    Summary NADPH-oxidases are a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which function in normal physiology and, when overproduced, in pathophysiology. Recent studies using mice deficient in Nox2 identify this isoform as a novel target against Nox2-implicated inflammatory diseases. Nox2 activation depends on the binding of the proline rich domain of its heterodimeric partner p22phox to p47phox. A high-throughput screen that monitored this interaction via fluorescence polarization identified ebselen and several of its analogs as inhibitors. Medicinal chemistry was performed to explore structure-activity relationships and to optimize potency. Ebselen and analogs potently inhibited Nox1 and Nox2 activity but were less effective against other isoforms. Ebselen also blocked translocation of p47phox to neutrophil membranes. Thus, ebselen and its analogs represent a class of compounds that inhibit ROS generation by interrupting the assembly of Nox2-activating regulatory subunits. PMID:22726689

  11. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  12. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-05-18

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

  13. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation.

    PubMed

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  14. Antimutagenic activity of oxidase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Agabeili, R.A.

    1986-11-01

    By means of a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in plant cells (Welsh onion, wheat) it was found that the cofactors nicotinamide adenine phosphate (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and riboflavin possess antimutagenic activity.

  15. NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, improves renal glutathione status in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with melatonin.

    PubMed

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz; Lewandowski, Krystian; Orlowska, Marta; Usarek, Michal

    2014-07-25

    Apocynin (4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyacetophenone) is the most commonly used NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. However, its application raises serious controversies, as the compound has been reported to reveal some prooxidative effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate apocynin action on glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, metabolism in kidneys of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, a well established model of diabetes type 2. Additionally, apocynin effects were compared with those of melatonin. The experiments were performed on five groups of animals: (1) untreated lean (?/+) ZDF rats, (2) ZDF ?/+ rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, (3) untreated obese diabetic (fa/fa) ZDF rats, (4) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with apocynin (2 g/l) in drinking water, and (5) ZDF fa/fa rats treated with melatonin (20 mg/l) in drinking water. After 8weeks of the treatment, the following parameters were measured in kidneys: NADPH oxidase activity, the rate of hydroxyl free radicals (HFR) production, GSH and GSSG content and the activities of the enzymes of glutathione metabolism: γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Compared to ?/+ controls, ZDF fa/fa rats exhibited increased Nox activity, accelerated HFR generation and dramatically lowered GSH/GSSG ratio accompanied by increased GPx and diminished GCS activities. In case of diabetic animals, apocynin treatment resulted in attenuation of both Nox activity and HFR production, restoration of control GSH/GSSG ratio (due to both an increase in GSH and a decline in GSSG content), normalization of GPx activity and a slight increase in GCS activity. Similar observations were made upon melatonin application to ZDF fa/fa rats. Thus, it is concluded that, in the diabetic model studied, apocynin extends a beneficial effect on renal glutathione homeostasis. The mechanism of this phenomenon involves attenuation of glutathione peroxidase activity, which is

  16. Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model.

    PubMed

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Wubben, Jacqueline A; Finsen, Bente; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, isolated as principal bioactive component from the medicinal plant Picrorhiza kurroa, in a marmoset MPTP model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The methoxy-substituted catechol apocynin has a similar structure as homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA). Apocynin acquires its selective inhibitory capacity of the reactive oxygen species generating NADPH oxidase via metabolic activation by myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is upregulated in activated brain microglia cells of PD patients and in MPTP animal models, the conditions for metabolic activation of apocynin and inhibition of microglia NADPH oxidase are in place. Marmoset monkeys received oral apocynin (100 mg/kg; p.o.) (n = 5) or Gum Arabica (controls; n = 5) three times daily until the end of the study, starting 1 week before PD induction with MPTP (1 mg/kg s.c. for 8 days). Parkinsonian symptoms, motor function, home-cage activity and body weight were monitored to assess the disease development and severity. Post-mortem numbers of the tyrosine hydroxylase expressing DA neurons in the substantia nigra were counted. During the MPTP injections, apocynin limited the body weight loss and relieved parkinsonian symptoms compared to controls (Linear regression, P < 0.05) indicating a reduction of disease progression. During the last test week, apocynin also improved the hand-eye coordination performance compared with vehicle treatment (resp. 39.3 ± 4.5 % and 17.7 ± 6.7 %; P = 0.048) and improved the home cage activity with 32 % (P = 0.029), indicating anti-Parkinson efficacy. Apocynin also increased the number of surviving DA neurons in MPTP-treated marmosets with 8.5 % (P = 0.059), indicating a tendency towards a neuroprotective efficacy. In conclusion, compensation for the loss of DA and its metabolite HVA by apocynin mitigates the PD progression and limits the parkinsonian signs

  17. Conformational States and Kinetics of the Calcium Binding Domain of NADPH Oxidase 5

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chin-Chuan; Motl, Nicole; Levek, Kelli; Chen, Liu Qi; Yang, Ya-Ping; Johnson, Tremylla; Hamilton, Lindsey; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2010-01-01

    Superoxide generated by human NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) is of growing importance for various physiological and pathological processes. The activity of NOX5 appears to be regulated by a self-contained Ca2+ binding domain (CaBD). Recently Bánfi et al. suggest that the conformational change of CaBD upon Ca2+ binding is essential for domain-domain interaction and superoxide production. The authors studied its structural change using intrinsic Trp fluorescence and hydrophobic dye binding; however, their conformational study was not thorough and the kinetics of metal binding was not demonstrated. Here we generated the recombinant CaBD and an E99Q/E143Q mutant to characterize them using fluorescence spectroscopy. Ca2+ binding to CaBD induces a conformational change that exposes hydrophobic patches and increases the quenching accessibilities of its Trp residues and AEDANS at Cys107. The circular dichroism spectra indicated no significant changes in the secondary structures of CaBD upon metal binding. Stopped-flow spectrometry revealed a fast Ca2+ dissociation from the N-terminal half, followed by a slow Ca2+ dissociation from the C-terminal half. Combined with a chemical stability study, we concluded that the C-terminal half of CaBD has a higher Ca2+ binding affinity, a higher chemical stability, and a slow Ca2+ dissociation. The Mg2+-bound CaBD was also investigated and the results indicate that its structure is similar to the apo form. The rate of Mg2+ dissociation was close to that of Ca2+ dissociation. Our data suggest that the N- and C-terminal halves of CaBD are not completely structurally independent. PMID:20648216

  18. NADPH Oxidases: A Perspective on Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Antony, Smitha; Wu, Yongzhong; Juhasz, Agnes; Liu, Han; Jiang, Guojian; Lu, Jiamo; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote genomic instability, altered signal transduction, and an environment that can sustain tumor formation and growth. The NOX family of NADPH oxidases, membrane-bound epithelial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide producers, plays a critical role in the maintenance of immune function, cell growth, and apoptosis. The impact of NOX enzymes in carcinogenesis is currently being defined and may directly link chronic inflammation and NOX ROS-mediated tumor formation. Recent Advances: Increased interest in the function of NOX enzymes in tumor biology has spurred a surge of investigative effort to understand the variability of NOX expression levels in tumors and the effect of NOX activity on tumor cell proliferation. These initial efforts have demonstrated a wide variance in NOX distribution and expression levels across numerous cancers as well as in common tumor cell lines, suggesting that much remains to be discovered about the unique role of NOX-related ROS production within each system. Progression from in vitro cell line studies toward in vivo tumor tissue screening and xenograft models has begun to provide evidence supporting the importance of NOX expression in carcinogenesis. Critical Issues: A lack of universally available, isoform-specific antibodies and animal tumor models of inducible knockout or over-expression of NOX isoforms has hindered progress toward the completion of in vivo studies. Future Directions: In vivo validation experiments and the use of large, existing gene expression data sets should help define the best model systems for studying the NOX homologues in the context of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2873–2889. PMID:24156355

  19. Role of mitochondria and NADPH oxidase derived reactive oxygen species in hyperoxaluria induced nephrolithiasis: therapeutic intervention with combinatorial therapy of N-acetyl cysteine and Apocynin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Minu; Kaur, Tanzeer; Singla, S K

    2016-03-01

    The interactions between the main cellular sources of ROS, such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidase, are known to play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of a combinatorial therapy based on the attenuation of oxidative stress with antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine), and NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin), that might be required to effectively eliminate hyperoxaluric manifestations. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Wistar rats by administering 0.4% ethylene glycol with 1% ammonium chloride in drinking water for 9 days. Hyperoxaluria accentuated renal oxidative stress in terms of increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial dysfunction, a central deleterious event in renal stone crystallization, was evident by decreased activities of electron transport chain complex I, II and IV, augmented mitochondrial ROS, reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, which resulted in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening as indicated by increased mitochondrial swelling in hyperoxaluric rats. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased, with raised expression of NOX1, NOX2, NOX4, p38MAPK and MnSOD, in the renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats compared to control. However, combinatorial therapy with N-acetyl cysteine (50mg/kg/day) and apocynin (200mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, significantly improved renal functions in hyperoxaluric rats and considerably ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction. NAC with apocynin was also found to be effective in reducing the redundant activity of NADPH oxidase in renal tissue of hyperoxaluric rats. Hence, our investigation provides novel mechanistic insights that combinatorial approaches using targeted modulators of ROS offer therapeutic benefits in hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis.

  20. Mild exposure of RIN-5F β-cells to human islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates upregulates antioxidant enzymes via NADPH oxidase-RAGE: An hormetic stimulus☆

    PubMed Central

    Borchi, Elisabetta; Bargelli, Valentina; Guidotti, Valentina; Berti, Andrea; Stefani, Massimo; Nediani, Chiara; Rigacci, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The presence of amyloid aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, contributes to pancreatic β-cell impairment, where oxidative stress plays a key role. A contribution of NADPH oxidase to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after cell exposure to micromolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates has been suggested. However, little is known about β-cells exposure to lower amounts of hIAPP aggregates, similar to those found in human pancreas. Thus, we aimed to investigate the events resulting from RIN-5F cells exposure to nanomolar concentrations of toxic hIAPP aggregates. We found an early and transient rise of NADPH oxidase activity resulting from increased Nox1 expression following the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) by hIAPP aggregates. Unexpectedly, NADPH oxidase activation was not accompanied by a significant ROS increase and the lipoperoxidation level was significantly reduced. Indeed, cell exposure to hIAPP aggregates affected the antioxidant defences, inducing a significant increase of the expression and activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. We conclude that exposure of pancreatic β-cells to nanomolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates for a short time induces an hormetic response via the RAGE-Nox1 axis; the latter stimulates the enzymatic antioxidant defences that preserve the cells against oxidative stress damage. PMID:24416718

  1. Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced vascular changes by inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Rocchina; Fornai, Matteo; Duranti, Emiliano; Antonioli, Luca; Rugani, Ilaria; Aydinoglu, Fatma; Ippolito, Chiara; Segnani, Cristina; Bernardini, Nunzia; Taddei, Stefano; Blandizzi, Corrado; Virdis, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose NAD(P)H oxidase and COX-1 participate in vascular damage induced by angiotensin II. We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin on endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, changes in extracellular matrix components and mechanical properties of small mesenteric arteries from angiotensin II-infused rats. Experimental Approach Male rats received angiotensin II (120 ng·kg−1·min−1, subcutaneously) for 14 days with or without rosuvastatin (10 mg·kg−1·day−1, oral gavage) or vehicle. Vascular functions and morphological parameters were assessed by pressurized myography. Key Results In angiotensin II-infused rats, ACh-induced relaxation was attenuated compared with controls, less sensitive to L-NAME, enhanced by SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or SQ-29548 (prostanoid TP receptor antagonist), and normalized by the antioxidant ascorbic acid or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. After rosuvastatin, relaxations to ACh were normalized, fully sensitive to L-NAME, and no longer affected by SC-560, SQ-29548 or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors. Angiotensin II enhanced intravascular superoxide generation, eutrophic remodelling, collagen and fibronectin depositions, and decreased elastin content, resulting in increased vessel stiffness. All these changes were prevented by rosuvastatin. Angiotensin II increased phosphorylation of NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox and its binding to subunit p67phox, effects inhibited by rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin down-regulated vascular Nox4/NAD(P)H isoform and COX-1 expression, attenuated the vascular release of 6-keto-PGF1α, and enhanced copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase expression. Conclusion and Implications Rosuvastatin prevents angiotensin II-induced alterations in resistance arteries in terms of function, structure, mechanics and composition. These effects depend on restoration of NO availability, prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived oxidant excess, reversal of COX-1 induction and its prostanoid production, and stimulation of

  2. NADPH oxidase is implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    García-Ruiz, Inmaculada; Solís-Muñoz, Pablo; Fernández-Moreira, Daniel; Grau, Montserrat; Muñoz-Yagüe, Teresa; Solís-Herruzo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) in the pathogenesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction as found in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were distributed in four groups: WT/SCD: six wild-type (WT) mice fed a standard chow diet (SCD); WT/HFD, six WT mice fed a HFD; NOX2−/−/SCD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a SCD; (4) NOX2−/−/HFD, six NADPHox-deficient mice on a HFD. After 32 weeks, we studied the liver for: histology; OXPHOS complex activity; fully assembled OXPHOS complexes and their subunits; gene expression of OXPHOS subunits; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and oxidative DNA damage. In the liver of WT/HFD mice, we found a significant decreased in the activity of all OXPHOS complexes, in fully assembled complexes, in the amount of OXPHOS subunits, and in gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine was only increased in mitochondrial DNA. The liver of NOX−/−/HFD mice showed mild steatosis but no non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) lesions were found. OXPHOS activity, OXPHOS subunits, and assembly of subunits into OXPHOS complexes were normal in these mice. We conclude that this study shows that NADPH deficiency protects mice from developing OXPHOS dysfunction and NASH caused by a HFD. PMID:27173483

  3. Race-specific elicitors of Cladosporium fulvum promote translocation of cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase to the plasma membrane of tomato cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, T; Higgins, V J; Blumwald, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of race-specific elicitors on NADPH oxidase was examined in vivo by treating tomato cells with elicitor-containing intercellular fluids prepared from infected tomato leaves inoculated with specific Cladosporium fulvum races. Treatment of Cf-4 or Cf-5 cells with intercellular fluids from incompatible but not from compatible races of C. fulvum increased oxidase activity and the amount of p67-phox, p47-phox, and rac2 in the plasma membrane. Comparison of these three components in the cytosol and plasma membrane indicated that elicitors promoted the translocation of cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase to the plasma membrane of tomato cells carrying the appropriate resistance gene. Protein kinase C activators and inhibitors did not affect enzyme activity or the binding of these three components to the plasma membrane. In contrast, staurosporine, calmodulin antagonists, and EGTA inhibited elicitor-induced oxidase activity and the translocation of the cytosolic components. The assembly process involves a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of p67-phox and p47-phox, facilitating their translocation to the plasma membrane. Our data suggest that although both plants and animals share common elements in eukaryotic signal transduction, the involvement of different protein kinases mediating the activation of phosphorylation of p67-phox and p47-phox may reflect the unique spatial and temporal distribution of signal transduction pathways in plants. PMID:9061955

  4. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting; Larsson, Erik; Wåhlin, Nils; Jensen, Boye L; G Persson, A Erik; Carlström, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies have suggested that increased sympathetic nerve activity and oxidative stress play important roles in hypertension and the modulation of salt sensitivity. The present study primarily aimed to examine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. In addition, we aimed to investigate if NADPH oxidase (NOX) function could be affected by renal denervation. Partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) was created in 3-wk-old rats to induce hydronephrosis. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high-, and low-salt diets. The renal excretion pattern, NOX activity, and expression as well as components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were characterized after treatment with the normal salt diet. On the normal salt diet, rats in the PUUO group had elevated blood pressure compared with control rats (115 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and displayed increased urine production and lower urine osmolality. The blood pressure change in response to salt loading (salt sensitivity) was more pronounced in the PUUO group compared with the control group (15 ± 2 vs. 5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Renal denervation in PUUO rats attenuated both hypertension (97 ± 3 mmHg) and salt sensitivity (5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and normalized the renal excretion pattern, whereas the degree of renal fibrosis and inflammation was not changed. NOX activity and expression as well as renin and ANG II type 1A receptor expression were increased in the renal cortex from PUUO rats and normalized by denervation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were elevated in PUUO rats and normalized after renal denervation. Finally, denervation in PUUO rats was also associated with reduced NOX expression, superoxide production, and fibrosis in the heart. In conclusion, renal denervation attenuates

  5. NADPH Oxidase-derived Reactive Oxygen Species Increases Expression of Monocyte Chemotactic Factor Genes in Cultured Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chang Yeop; Umemoto, Tomio; Omer, Mohamed; Den Hartigh, Laura J.; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; LeBoeuf, Renee; Buller, Carolyn L.; Sweet, Ian R.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abel, E. Dale; Chait, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Excess glucose and free fatty acids delivered to adipose tissue causes local inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Glucose and palmitate generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes, leading to monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. Docosahexaenoate (DHA) has the opposite effect. In this study, we evaluated the potential sources of ROS in the presence of excess nutrients. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were exposed to palmitate and DHA (250 μm) in either 5 or 25 mm glucose to evaluate the relative roles of mitochondrial electron transport and NADPH oxidases (NOX) as sources of ROS. Excess glucose and palmitate did not increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, glucose exposure increased glycolysis. Of the NOX family members, only NOX4 was expressed in adipocytes. Moreover, its activity was increased by excess glucose and palmitate and decreased by DHA. Silencing NOX4 inhibited palmitate- and glucose-stimulated ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression. NADPH, a substrate for NOX, and pentose phosphate pathway activity increased with glucose but not palmitate and decreased with DHA exposure. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors and siRNA suppressed ROS generation and monocyte chemotactic factor gene expression induced by both glucose and palmitate. Finally, both high glucose and palmitate induced NOX4 translocation into lipid rafts, effects that were blocked by DHA. Excess glucose and palmitate generate ROS via NOX4 rather than by mitochondrial oxidation in cultured adipocytes. NOX4 is regulated by both NADPH generated in the PPP and translocation of NOX4 into lipid rafts, leading to expression of monocyte chemotactic factors. PMID:22287546

  6. Resveratrol decreases fructose-induced oxidative stress, mediated by NADPH oxidase via an AMPK-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Ho, Wen-Yu; Su, Yu-Ting; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chen, Bo-Zone; Cheng, Wen-Han; Lu, Wen-Hsien; Sun, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tung-Chen; Hsiao, Michael; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in the development of hypertension. Resveratrol, the main antioxidant in red wine, improves NO bioavailability and prevents cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol decreases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby reducing BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Experimental Approach Rats were fed 10% fructose with or without resveratrol (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 1 week or for 4 weeks with resveratrol treatment beginning at week 2; systolic BP (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff method. Endogenous in vivo O2− production in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) was determined with dihydroethidium. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting analyses were used to quantify RNA and protein expression levels. Key Results In fructose-fed rats, ROS levels in the NTS were higher, whereas the NO level was significantly decreased. Also, RNA and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits (p67, p22-phox) were elevated, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) reduced and AMP-activated PK (AMPK) T172 phosphorylation levels in the NTS were lower in fructose-fed rats. Treatment with the AMPK activator resveratrol decreased levels of NADPH oxidase subunits and ROS, and increased NO and SOD2 levels in the NTS of fructose-fed rats. Administration of resveratrol, in combination with fructose at week 0 and later at week 2, significantly reduced the SBP of fructose-fed rats. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, resveratrol decreased BP through the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and neuronal NOS in fructose-fed rats. These novel findings suggest that resveratrol may be a potential pharmacological candidate for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:24547812

  7. Role of NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species in regulation of bone turnover and the skeletal toxicity of alcohol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies with genetically modified mice and dietary antioxidants have suggested an important role for superoxide derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide in regulation of normal bone turnover during development and also in the r...

  8. Nox/Duox Family of NADPH Oxidases: Lessons from Knockout Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Sirokmány, Gábor; Donkó, Ágnes; Geiszt, Miklós

    2016-04-01

    Nox/Duox NADPH oxidases are now considered the primary, regulated sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These enzymes are expressed in diverse cells and tissues, and their products are essential in several physiological settings. Knockout mouse models are instrumental in identifying the physiological functions of Nox/Duox enzymes as well as in exploring the impact of their pharmacological targeting on disease progression. The currently available data from experiments on knockout animals suggest that the lack of non-phagocytic Nox/Duox enzymes often modifies the course and phenotype in many disease models. Nevertheless, as illustrated by studies on Nox4-deficient animals, the absence of Nox-derived ROS can also lead to aggravated disease manifestation, reinforcing the need for a more balanced view on the role of ROS in health and disease.

  9. NADPH oxidases: key modulators in aging and age-related cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Meijles, Daniel N.; Pagano, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have long been linked to aging and diseases prominent in the elderly such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and atrial fibrillation (AF). NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a major source of ROS in the vasculature and are key players in mediating redox signalling under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on the Nox-mediated ROS signalling pathways involved in the regulation of ‘longevity genes’ and recapitulate their role in age-associated vascular changes and in the development of age-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This review is predicated on burgeoning knowledge that Nox-derived ROS propagate tightly regulated yet varied signalling pathways, which, at the cellular level, may lead to diminished repair, the aging process and predisposition to CVDs. In addition, we briefly describe emerging Nox therapies and their potential in improving the health of the elderly population. PMID:26814203

  10. Dysfunctional endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases: role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Bin; Ma, Qi-Lin; Luo, Xiu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in maintenance of the endothelial integrity and vascular homeostasis, as well as in neovascularization. Dysfunctional EPCs are believed to contribute to the endothelial dysfunction and are closely related to the development of various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of EPC dysfunction are complicated and remain largely elusive. Recent studies have demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key factors that involve in modulation of stem and progenitor cell function under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. It has been shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS are the major sources of ROS in cardiovascular system. Accumulating evidence suggests that NOX-mediated oxidative stress can modulate EPC bioactivities, such as mobilization, migration, and neovascularization, and that inhibition of NOX has been shown to improve EPC functions. This review summarized recent progress in the studies on the correlation between NOX-mediated EPC dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Detection of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by cellular NADPH oxidases

    PubMed Central

    Nauseef, William M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The recent recognition that isoforms of the cellular NADPH-dependent oxidases, collectively known as the NOX protein family, participate in a wide range of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes in both the animal and plant kingdoms has stimulated interest in the identification, localization, and quantitation of their products in biological settings. Although several tools for reassuring oxidants released extracellularly are available, the specificity and selectivity of the methods for reliable analysis of intracellular oxidants have not matched the enthusiasm for studying NOX proteins. SCOPE OF REVIEW Focusing exclusively on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide produced by NOX proteins, this review describes the ideal probe for analysis of O2· and H2O2 generated extracellularly and intracellularly by NOX proteins. An overview of the components, organization, and topology of NOX proteins provides a rationale for applying specific probes for use and a context in which to interpret results and thereby construct plausible models linking NOX-derived oxidants to biological responses. The merits and shortcomings of methods currently in use to assess NOX activity are highlighted, and those assays that provide quantitation of superoxide or H2O2 are contrasted with those intended to examine spatial and temporal aspects of NOX activity. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS Although interest in measuring the extracellular and intracellular products of the NOX protein family is great, robust analytical probes are limited. Several reliable methods for measurement of extracellular O2· and H2O2 by NOX proteins are available. Chemiluminescent probes for both extracellular and intracellular O2· and H2O2 detection have shortcomings that limit their use Options for quantitation of intracellular O2· and H2O2 are very limited However, non-redox sensitive probes and genetically encoded reporters promise to provide spatial and temporal detection of O2· and H2O2 GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE

  12. Which NADPH Oxidase Isoform Is Relevant for Ischemic Stroke? The Case for Nox 2

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance and Recent Advances: Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of disability and third in mortality in industrialized nations. Immediate restoration of cerebral blood flow is crucial to salvage brain tissue, but only few patients are eligible for recanalization therapy. Thus, the need for alternative neuroprotective strategies is huge, and antioxidant interventions have long been studied in this context. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) physiologically serve as signaling molecules, but excessive amounts of ROS, as generated during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), contribute to tissue injury. Critical Issues: Nevertheless and despite a strong rational of ROS being a pharmacological target, all antioxidant interventions failed to improve functional outcome in human clinical trials. Antioxidants may interfere with physiological functions of ROS or do not reach the crucial target structures of ROS-induced injury effectively. Future Directions: Thus, a potentially more promising approach is the inhibition of the source of disease-promoting ROS. Within recent years, NADPH oxidases (Nox) of the Nox family have been identified as mediators of neuronal pathology. As, however, several Nox homologs are expressed in neuronal tissue, and as many of the pharmacological inhibitors employed are rather unspecific, the concept of Nox as mediators of brain damage is far from being settled. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of Nox homologs to I/R injury at large as well as to neuronal damage in particular. We will illustrate that the current data provide evidence for Nox2 as the most important NADPH oxidase mediating cerebral injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1400–1417. PMID:22746273

  13. NADPH oxidase DUOX1 promotes long-term persistence of oxidative stress after an exposure to irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Talbot, Monique; de Souza Dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Hartl, Dana; Bidart, Jean-Michel; De Deken, Xavier; Miot, Françoise; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2015-04-21

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage, but also late effects in several cell generations after the initial exposure. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of IR, and we have recently highlighted that an oxidative stress is responsible for the chromosomal rearrangements found in radio-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma. Using both a human thyroid cell line and primary thyrocytes, we investigated the mechanism by which IR induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) several days after irradiation. We focused on NADPH oxidases, which are specialized ROS-generating enzymes known as NOX/DUOX. Our results show that IR induces delayed NADPH oxidase DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which is sustained for several days. We report that p38 MAPK, activated after IR, increased DUOX1 via IL-13 expression, leading to persistent DNA damage and growth arrest. Pretreatment of cells with catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, or DUOX1 down-regulation by siRNA abrogated IR-induced DNA damage. Analysis of human thyroid tissues showed that DUOX1 is elevated not only in human radio-induced thyroid tumors, but also in sporadic thyroid tumors. Taken together, our data reveal a key role of DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in long-term persistent radio-induced DNA damage. Our data also show that DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production, which induces DNA double-strand breaks, can cause genomic instability and promote the generation of neoplastic cells through its mutagenic effect. PMID:25848056

  14. NADPH oxidase DUOX1 promotes long-term persistence of oxidative stress after an exposure to irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Talbot, Monique; de Souza Dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Hartl, Dana; Bidart, Jean-Michel; De Deken, Xavier; Miot, Françoise; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage, but also late effects in several cell generations after the initial exposure. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of IR, and we have recently highlighted that an oxidative stress is responsible for the chromosomal rearrangements found in radio-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma. Using both a human thyroid cell line and primary thyrocytes, we investigated the mechanism by which IR induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) several days after irradiation. We focused on NADPH oxidases, which are specialized ROS-generating enzymes known as NOX/DUOX. Our results show that IR induces delayed NADPH oxidase DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in a dose-dependent manner, which is sustained for several days. We report that p38 MAPK, activated after IR, increased DUOX1 via IL-13 expression, leading to persistent DNA damage and growth arrest. Pretreatment of cells with catalase, a scavenger of H2O2, or DUOX1 down-regulation by siRNA abrogated IR-induced DNA damage. Analysis of human thyroid tissues showed that DUOX1 is elevated not only in human radio-induced thyroid tumors, but also in sporadic thyroid tumors. Taken together, our data reveal a key role of DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production in long-term persistent radio-induced DNA damage. Our data also show that DUOX1-dependent H2O2 production, which induces DNA double-strand breaks, can cause genomic instability and promote the generation of neoplastic cells through its mutagenic effect. PMID:25848056

  15. Hypercholesterolemia-induced erectile dysfunction: endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the mouse penis by NAD(P)H oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Strong, Travis D.; Sezen, Sena F.; Johnson, Justin M.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Hypercholesterolemia induces erectile dysfunction (ED) mostly by increasing oxidative stress and impairing endothelial function in the penis, but the mechanisms regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the penis are not understood. AIMS We evaluated whether hypercholesterolemia activates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase in the penis, providing an initial source of ROS to induce endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction resulting in ED. METHODS Low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)–null mice were fed Western diet for 4 weeks to induce early-stage hyperlipidemia. Wild type (WT) mice fed regular chow served as controls. Mice received NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 mM in drinking water) or vehicle. Erectile function was assessed in response to cavernous nerve electrical stimulation. Markers of endothelial function (phospho [P]-vasodilator-stimulated-protein [VASP]-Ser-239), oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]), sources of ROS (eNOS uncoupling and NAD[P]H oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox, and gp91phox), P-eNOS-Ser-1177, and eNOS were measured by Western blot in penes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Molecular mechanisms of ROS generation and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia-induced ED. RESULTS Erectile response was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in hypercholesterolemic LDLR-null mice compared to WT mice. Relative to WT mice, hypercholesterolemia increased (P<0.05) protein expressions of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits p67phox, p47phox and gp91phox, eNOS uncoupling, and 4-HNE-modified proteins, and reduced (P<0.05) P-VASP-Ser-239 expression in the penis. Apocynin treatment of LDLR-null mice preserved (P<0.05) maximal intracavernosal pressure, and reversed (P < 0.05) the abnormalities in protein expressions of gp67phox and gp47phox, 4-HNE, P-VASP-Ser-239, and eNOS uncoupling in the penis. Apocynin treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters

  16. The plasma membrane NADPH oxidase OsRbohA plays a crucial role in developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Mao-Mao; Wang, Ya-Jing; Gao, Yin-Tao; Li, Ri; Wang, Gang-Feng; Li, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Wen-Ting; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-04-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases are major producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells under normal growth and stress conditions. In the present study the total activity of rice NADPH oxidases and the transcription of OsRbohA, which encodes an Oryza sativa plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, were stimulated by drought. OsRbohA was expressed in all tissues examined throughout development. Its mRNA was upregulated by a number of factors, including heat, drought, salt, oxidative stress and methyl jasmonate treatment. Compared with wild-type (WT), the OsRbohA-knockout mutant osrbohA exhibited upregulated expression of other respiratory burst oxidase homolog genes and multiple abnormal agronomic traits, including reduced biomass, low germination rate and decreased pollen viability and seed fertility. However, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants showed no differences in these traits compared with WT. Although osrbohA leaves and roots produced more ROS than WT, the mutant had lesser intracellular ROS. In contrast, OsRbohA-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited higher ROS production at the intracellular level and in tissues. Ablation of OsRbohA impaired the tolerance of plants to various water stresses, whereas its overexpression enhanced the tolerance. In addition, a number of genes related to energy supply, substrate transport, stress response and transcriptional regulation were differentially expressed in osrbohA plants even under normal growth conditions, suggesting that OsRbohA has fundamental and broad functions in rice. These results indicate that OsRbohA-mediated processes are governed by complex signaling pathways that function during the developmental regulation and drought-stress response in rice. PMID:26400148

  17. NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species: A new mechanism for X-ray-induced HeLa cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qing; He Xiaoqing; Liu Yongsheng; Du Bingbing; Wang Xiaoyan; Zhang Weisheng; Jia Pengfei; Dong Jingmei; Ma Jianxiu; Wang Xiaohu; Li Sha; Zhang Hong

    2008-12-19

    Oxidative damage is an important mechanism in X-ray-induced cell death. Radiolysis of water molecules is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to X-ray-induced cell death. In this study, we showed by ROS detection and a cell survival assay that NADPH oxidase has a very important role in X-ray-induced cell death. Under X-ray irradiation, the upregulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91{sup phox} was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47{sup phox} was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with p22{sup phox} and gp91{sup phox} to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest, for the first time, that NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of ROS is an important contributor to X-ray-induced cell death. This suggests a new target for combined gene transfer and radiotherapy.

  18. Inhibitory effect of reinioside C on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ENK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dan; Bai, Yong-Ping; Shi, Rui-Zheng; Tan, Gui-Shan; Hu, Chang-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2014-09-01

    The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, the effect of reinioside C, a main active ingredient of Polygala fallax Hemsl, on proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II was investigated. It was found that Ang II (1 microM) markedly stimulated proliferation of VSMCs. Pretreatment of reinioside C (3, 10 or 30 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferative effect of Ang II. To determine the possible mechanism, NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox-1, Nox-4) mRNA expression, intracellular ROS level, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, NF-kappaB activity, and mRNA expression of AP-1 subunits (c-fos, c-jun) and c-myc were measured. The results demonstrated that reinioside C attenuated Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase mRNA expression, generation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, activation of NF-kappaB, and mRNA expression of AP-1 and c-myc in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of Ang II were also inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor), PD98059 (the ERK1/2 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, the NF-kappaB inhibitor). These results suggest reinioside C attenuates Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMCs by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ERK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway. PMID:25272943

  19. Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Gleason, Cynthia A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani.

  20. Modulation of NADPH-oxidase gene expression in rolB-transformed calli of Arabidopsis thaliana and Rubia cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Veremeichik, Galina; Bulgakov, Victor; Shkryl, Yury

    2016-08-01

    Expression of rol genes from Agrobacterium rhizogenes induces reprogramming of transformed plant cells and provokes pleiotropic effects on primary and secondary metabolism. We have previously established that the rolB and rolC genes impair reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in transformed cells of Rubia cordifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present investigation, we tested whether this effect is associated with changes in the expression levels of NADPH oxidases, which are considered to be the primary source of ROS during plant-microbe interactions. We identified two full-length NADPH oxidase genes from R. cordifolia and examined their expression in non-transformed and rolB-transformed calli. In addition, we examined the expression of their homologous genes from A. thaliana in non-transformed and rolB-expressing cells. The expression of Rboh isoforms was 3- to 7-fold higher in both R. cordifolia and A. thaliana rolB-transformed cells compared with non-transformed cells. Our results for the first time show that Agrobacterium rolB gene regulates particular NADPH oxidase isoforms. PMID:27208504

  1. The Role of the NADPH Oxidase NOX2 in Prion Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sorce, Silvia; Nuvolone, Mario; Keller, Annika; Falsig, Jeppe; Varol, Ahmet; Schwarz, Petra; Bieri, Monika; Budka, Herbert; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Prion infections cause neurodegeneration, which often goes along with oxidative stress. However, the cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their pathogenetic significance are unclear. Here we analyzed the contribution of NOX2, a prominent NADPH oxidase, to prion diseases. We found that NOX2 is markedly upregulated in microglia within affected brain regions of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, NOX2 expression was upregulated in prion-inoculated mouse brains and in murine cerebellar organotypic cultured slices (COCS). We then removed microglia from COCS using a ganciclovir-dependent lineage ablation strategy. NOX2 became undetectable in ganciclovir-treated COCS, confirming its microglial origin. Upon challenge with prions, NOX2-deficient mice showed delayed onset of motor deficits and a modest, but significant prolongation of survival. Dihydroethidium assays demonstrated a conspicuous ROS burst at the terminal stage of disease in wild-type mice, but not in NOX2-ablated mice. Interestingly, the improved motor performance in NOX2 deficient mice was already measurable at earlier stages of the disease, between 13 and 16 weeks post-inoculation. We conclude that NOX2 is a major source of ROS in prion diseases and can affect prion pathogenesis. PMID:25502554

  2. NADPH oxidase enzymes in skin fibrosis: molecular targets and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Mamalis, Andrew; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Jagdeo, Jared

    2014-05-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components eventually resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. In dermatology, fibrosis is the hallmark component of many skin diseases, including systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, hypertrophic scars, keloids, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, restrictive dermopathy and other conditions. Fibrotic skin disorders may be debilitating and impair quality of life. There are few FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs; thus, research in this area is crucial in addressing this deficiency. Recent investigations elucidating the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis have implicated endogenous reactive oxygen species produced by the multicomponent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme complex. In this review, we discuss Nox enzymes and their role in skin fibrosis. An overview of the Nox enzyme family is presented and their role in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis is discussed. The mechanisms by which Nox enzymes influence specific fibrotic skin disorders are also reviewed. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches to ameliorate skin fibrosis by directly targeting Nox enzymes with the use of statins, p47phox subunit modulators, or GKT137831, a competitive inhibitor of Nox enzymes. Nox enzymes can also be targeted indirectly via scavenging ROS with antioxidants. We believe that Nox modulators are worthy of further investigation and have the potential to transform the management of skin fibrosis by dermatologists. PMID:24155025

  3. NADPH oxidase enzymes in skin fibrosis: molecular targets and therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Mamalis, Andrew; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Jagdeo, Jared

    2014-05-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components eventually resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. In dermatology, fibrosis is the hallmark component of many skin diseases, including systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, hypertrophic scars, keloids, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, restrictive dermopathy and other conditions. Fibrotic skin disorders may be debilitating and impair quality of life. There are few FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs; thus, research in this area is crucial in addressing this deficiency. Recent investigations elucidating the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis have implicated endogenous reactive oxygen species produced by the multicomponent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme complex. In this review, we discuss Nox enzymes and their role in skin fibrosis. An overview of the Nox enzyme family is presented and their role in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis is discussed. The mechanisms by which Nox enzymes influence specific fibrotic skin disorders are also reviewed. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches to ameliorate skin fibrosis by directly targeting Nox enzymes with the use of statins, p47phox subunit modulators, or GKT137831, a competitive inhibitor of Nox enzymes. Nox enzymes can also be targeted indirectly via scavenging ROS with antioxidants. We believe that Nox modulators are worthy of further investigation and have the potential to transform the management of skin fibrosis by dermatologists.

  4. Urotensin II-induced insulin resistance is mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Yong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the effects of urotensin II (UII) on hepatic insulin resistance in HepG2 cells and the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were cultured with or without exogenous UII for 24 h, in the presence or absence of 100 nmol/L insulin for the last 30 min. Glucose levels were detected by the glucose-oxidase method and glycogen synthesis was analyzed by glycogen colorimetric/fluorometric assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected with a multimode reader using a 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. The protein expression and phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), insulin signal essential molecules such as insulin receptor substrate -1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and glucose transporter-2 (Glut 2), and NADPH oxidase subunits such as gp91phox, p67phox, p47phox, p40phox, and p22phox were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: Exposure to 100 nmol/L UII reduced the insulin-induced glucose consumption (P < 0.05) and glycogen content (P < 0.01) in HepG2 cells compared with cells without UII. UII also abolished insulin-stimulated protein expression (P < 0.01) and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.05), associated with down-regulation of Akt (P < 0.05) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05) phosphorylation levels, and the expression of Glut 2 (P < 0.001), indicating an insulin-resistance state in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, UII enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK (P < 0.05), while the activity of JNK, insulin signaling, such as total protein of IRS-1 (P < 0.001), phosphorylation of IRS-1 (P < 0.001) and GSK-3β (P < 0.05), and glycogen synthesis (P < 0.001) could be reversed by pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Besides, UII markedly improved ROS generation (P < 0.05) and NADPH oxidase subunit expression (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin could decrease UII-induced ROS production (P < 0.05), JNK phosphorylation (P < 0

  5. Amyloid β25-35 induced ROS-burst through NADPH oxidase is sensitive to iron chelation in microglial Bv2 cells.

    PubMed

    Part, Kristin; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Poska, Helen; Land, Tiit; Shimmo, Ruth; Zetterström Fernaeus, Sandra

    2015-12-10

    Iron chelation therapy and inhibition of glial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase can both represent possible routes for Alzheimer's disease modifying therapies. The metal hypothesis is largely focused on direct binding of metals to the N-terminal hydrophilic 1-16 domain peptides of Amyloid beta (Aβ) and how they jointly give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The cytotoxic effects of Aβ through ROS and metals are mainly studied in neuronal cells using full-length Aβ1-40/42 peptides. Here we study cellularly-derived ROS during 2-60min in response to non-metal associated mid domain Aβ25-35 in microglial Bv2 cells by fluorescence based spectroscopy. We analyze if Aβ25-35 induce ROS production through NADPH oxidase and if the production is sensitive to iron chelation. NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium (DPI) is used to confirm the production of ROS through NADPH oxidase. We modulate cellular iron homeostasis by applying cell permeable iron chelators desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP). NADPH oxidase subunit gp91-phox level was analyzed by Western blotting. Our results show that Aβ25-35 induces strong ROS production through NADPH oxidase in Bv2 microglial cells. Intracellular iron depletion resulted in restrained Aβ25-35 induced ROS.

  6. Neonatal hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in the rat brain: the role of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Andrea Pereira; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Dias; de Souza, Laila Oliveira; Bitencourt, Fernanda; Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Coelho, Juliana Gonzales; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the consequences of diabetes on the central nervous system (CNS) have received great attention. However, the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia affects the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In addition, recent studies have shown that hyperglycemia induces oxidative damage in the adult rat brain. In this regard, no study has assessed oxidative stress as a possible mechanism that affects the brain normal function in neonatal hyperglycemic rats. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether neonatal hyperglycemia elicits oxidative stress in the brain of neonate rats subjected to a streptozotocin-induced neonatal hyperglycemia model (5-day-old rats). The activities of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6-PGD), NADPH oxidase (Nox), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), the production of superoxide anion, the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS), and the protein carbonyl content were measured. Neonatal hyperglycemic rats presented increased activities of G6PD, 6PGD, and Nox, which altogether may be responsible for the enhanced production of superoxide radical anion that was observed. The enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, and GSHPx) that were observed in neonatal hyperglycemic rats, which may be caused by a rebound effect of oxidative stress, were not able to hinder the observed lipid peroxidation (TBA-RS) and protein damage in the brain. Consequently, these results suggest that oxidative stress could represent a mechanism that explains the harmful effects of neonatal hyperglycemia on the CNS.

  7. NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent intracellular and extracellular O2·- production in coronary arterial myocytes from CD38 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Xia, Min; Li, Xiao-Xue; Ritter, Joseph K; Zhang, Fan; Li, Pin-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase has been reported to produce superoxide (O2 ·-) extracellularly as an autocrine/paracrine regulator or intracellularly as a signaling messenger in a variety of mammalian cells. However, it remains unknown how the activity of NAD(P)H oxidase is regulated in arterial myocytes. Recently, CD38-associated ADP-ribosylcyclase has been reported to use NAD(P)H oxidase product, NAD+ or NADP+ to produce cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) or nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), which mediates intracellular Ca2+ signaling. The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that CD38/cADPR pathway as a downstream event exerts feedback regulatory action on the NAD(P)H oxidase activity in production of extra- or intracellular O2 ·-in mouse coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). By fluorescent microscopic imaging, we simultaneously monitored extra- and intracellular O2 ·-production in wild-type (CD38+/+) and CD38 knockout (CD38-/-) CAMs in response to oxotremorine (OXO), a muscarinic type 1 (M1) receptor agonist. It was found that CD38 deficiency prevented OXO-induced intracellular but not extracellular O2 ·-production in CAMs. Consistently, the OXO-induced intracellular O2 ·-production was markedly inhibited by CD38 shRNA or CD38 inhibitor nicotinamide in CD38+/+ CAMs. Further, Nox4 siRNA inhibited OXO-induced intracellular but not extracellular O2 ·- production, whereas Nox1 siRNA attenuated both intracellular and extracellular O2 ·-production in CD38+/+ CAMs. Direct delivery of exogenous cADPR into CAMs markedly elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration and restored intracellular O2 ·-production in CD38-/- CAMs. Functionally, CD38 deficiency or Nox1 siRNA and Nox4 siRNA prevented OXO-induced contraction in isolated perfused coronary arteries in CD38 WT mice. These results provide direct evidence that CD38/cADPR pathway importantly controls Nox4-mediated intracellular O2 ·-production and that CD38-dependent intracellular O2

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins as potent NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun Soo; Choi, Sun; Park, Jung Jae; Joo, Jung Hee; Cui, Minghua; Cho, Hyunsung; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Sang Hyup

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis of novel 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins 3, and their biological evaluation using NADPH oxidase (NOX) 1 and 4. Based on structural and pharmacophore analyses of known inhibitors such as hydroxypyrazole 2, we envisioned interesting 2-thiohydantoin compounds, 3-substituted 5-benzylidene-1-methyl-2-thiohydantoins 3 that would be expected to well match the structural features in 2. Efficient synthesis of eighteen target compounds 3 were achieved through the synthetic pathway of 4→11→3, established after consideration of several plausible synthetic pathways. The inhibitory activities of compounds 3 against NOX 1 and 4 were measured, with some of the target compounds showing similar or higher activities compared with reference 2; in particular, compounds 3bz, 3cz, and 3ez were found to be promising inhibitors of both NOX 1 and 4 with modest isozyme selectivities, which highlights the significance of the 2-thiohydantoin substructure for inhibition of NOX 1 and 4. This marks the first time these compounds have been applied to the inhibition of NOX enzymes.

  9. [Light activation of NADH and NADPH].

    PubMed

    Nikandrov, V V; Brin, G P; Krasnovskiĭ, A A

    1978-01-01

    Illumination of NADH and NADPH by UV-light in the absence of oxygen resulted in the reduction of ferredoxin or methyl-viologen to cation-radical and under prolonged illumination to dihydrodipyridyl. The reaction may by accompanied by triplet and singlet exitation of NADH. It was shown that hematoporphyrin in aqueous solution photosensitized the reaction of NADH oxidation by ferredoxin and methylviologen to the visible region of the spectrum. Under light excitation the redox potentials of NADH and NADPH were increased up to the level exceeding the potential of hydrogen electrode. Illumination of NADH and NADPH by UV-light in the presence of bacterial hydrogenase resulted in hydrogen evolution. The reaction of hydrogen evolution could be sensitised towards the visible region of the spectrum by chlorophyll or chloroplasts.

  10. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress induces monocyte adhesion by stimulating reactive oxygen species production from a nox1-based NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sorescu, George P; Song, Hannah; Tressel, Sarah L; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Smith, Debra A; Boyd, Nolan L; Platt, Manu O; Lassègue, Bernard; Griendling, Kathy K; Jo, Hanjoong

    2004-10-15

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions including oscillatory shear stress (OS). OS exposure induces endothelial expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), which in turn may activate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion. OS is also known to induce monocyte adhesion by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, raising the possibility that BMP4 may stimulate the inflammatory response by ROS-dependent mechanisms. Here we show that ROS scavengers blocked ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion induced by BMP4 or OS in endothelial cells (ECs). Similar to OS, BMP4 stimulated H2O2 and O2- production in ECs. Next, we used ECs obtained from p47phox-/- mice (MAE-p47-/-), which do not produce ROS in response to OS, to determine the role of NADPH oxidases. Similar to OS, BMP4 failed to induce monocyte adhesion in MAE-p47-/-, but it was restored when the cells were transfected with p47phox plasmid. Moreover, OS-induced O2- production was blocked by noggin (a BMP antagonist), suggesting a role for BMP. Furthermore, OS increased gp91phox (nox2) and nox1 mRNA levels while decreasing nox4. In contrast, BMP4 induced nox1 mRNA expression, whereas nox2 and nox4 were decreased or not affected, respectively. Also, OS-induced monocyte adhesion was blocked by knocking down nox1 with the small interfering RNA (siRNA). Finally, BMP4 siRNA inhibited OS-induced ROS production and monocyte adhesion. Together, these results suggest that BMP4 produced in ECs by OS stimulates ROS release from the nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase leading to inflammation, a critical early atherogenic step. PMID:15388638

  11. Defects in NADPH Oxidase Genes NOX1 and DUOX2 in Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Patti; Dhillon, Sandeep; O'Neill, Kim; Thoeni, Cornelia; Hui, Ken Y.; Elkadri, Abdul; Guo, Conghui H.; Kovacic, Lidija; Aviello, Gabriella; Alvarez, Luis A.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Snapper, Scott B.; Brant, Steven R.; Doroshow, James H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Peter, Inga; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Cho, Judy; Brumell, John H.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Bourke, Billy; Muise, Aleixo A.; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Defects in intestinal innate defense systems predispose patients to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases in the mucosal barrier maintain gut homeostasis and defend against pathogenic attack. We hypothesized that molecular genetic defects in intestinal NADPH oxidases might be present in children with IBD. Methods After targeted exome sequencing of epithelial NADPH oxidases NOX1 and DUOX2 on 209 children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD), the identified mutations were validated using Sanger Sequencing. A structural analysis of NOX1 and DUOX2 variants was performed by homology in silico modeling. The functional characterization included ROS generation in model cell lines and in in vivo transduced murine crypts, protein expression, intracellular localization, and cell-based infection studies with the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Results We identified missense mutations in NOX1 (c.988G>A, p.Pro330Ser; c.967G>A, p.Asp360Asn) and DUOX2 (c.4474G>A, p.Arg1211Cys; c.3631C>T, p.Arg1492Cys) in 5 of 209 VEOIBD patients. The NOX1 p.Asp360Asn variant was replicated in a male Ashkenazi Jewish ulcerative colitis cohort. All NOX1 and DUOX2 variants showed reduced ROS production compared with wild-type enzymes. Despite appropriate cellular localization and comparable pathogen-stimulated translocation of altered oxidases, cells harboring NOX1 or DUOX2 variants had defective host resistance to infection with C. jejuni. Conclusions This study identifies the first inactivating missense variants in NOX1 and DUOX2 associated with VEOIBD. Defective ROS production from intestinal epithelial cells constitutes a risk factor for developing VEOIBD. PMID:26301257

  12. The NADPH Oxidase Subunit NOX4 Is a New Target Gene of the Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Diebold, Isabel; Petry, Andreas; Hess, John

    2010-01-01

    NADPH oxidases are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possibly contributing to various disorders associated with enhanced proliferation. NOX4 appears to be involved in vascular signaling and may contribute to the response to hypoxia. However, the exact mechanisms controlling NOX4 levels under hypoxia are not resolved. We found that hypoxia rapidly enhanced NOX4 mRNA and protein levels in pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells (PASMCs) as well as in pulmonary vessels from mice exposed to hypoxia. This response was dependent on the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α because overexpression of HIF-1α increased NOX4 expression, whereas HIF-1α depletion prevented this response. Mutation of a putative hypoxia-responsive element in the NOX4 promoter abolished hypoxic and HIF-1α–induced activation of the NOX4 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed HIF-1α binding to the NOX4 gene. Induction of NOX4 by HIF-1α contributed to maintain ROS levels after hypoxia and hypoxia-induced proliferation of PASMCs. These findings show that NOX4 is a new target gene of HIF-1α involved in the response to hypoxia. Together with our previous findings that NOX4 mediates HIF-1α induction under normoxia, these data suggest an important role of the signaling axis between NOX4 and HIF-1α in various cardiovascular disorders under hypoxic and also nonhypoxic conditions. PMID:20427574

  13. WRKY Transcription Factors Phosphorylated by MAPK Regulate a Plant Immune NADPH Oxidase in Nicotiana benthamiana[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Nakano, Takaaki; Miyagawa, Noriko; Ishihama, Nobuaki; Yoshioka, Miki; Katou, Yuri; Yaeno, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack sequentially confers pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) after sensing of pathogen patterns and effectors by plant immune receptors, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in PTI and ETI as signaling molecules. Nicotiana benthamiana RBOHB, an NADPH oxidase, is responsible for both the transient PTI ROS burst and the robust ETI ROS burst. Here, we show that RBOHB transactivation mediated by MAPK contributes to R3a/AVR3a-triggered ETI (AVR3a-ETI) ROS burst. RBOHB is markedly induced during the ETI and INF1-triggered PTI (INF1-PTI), but not flg22-tiggered PTI (flg22-PTI). We found that the RBOHB promoter contains a functional W-box in the R3a/AVR3a and INF1 signal-responsive cis-element. Ectopic expression of four phospho-mimicking mutants of WRKY transcription factors, which are MAPK substrates, induced RBOHB, and yeast one-hybrid analysis indicated that these mutants bind to the cis-element. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated direct binding of the WRKY to the cis-element in plants. Silencing of multiple WRKY genes compromised the upregulation of RBOHB, resulting in impairment of AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts, but not the flg22-PTI ROS burst. These results suggest that the MAPK-WRKY pathway is required for AVR3a-ETI and INF1-PTI ROS bursts by activation of RBOHB. PMID:26373453

  14. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular

  15. NADPH oxidase-generated hydrogen peroxide induces DNA damage in mutant FLT3-expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Stanicka, Joanna; Russell, Eileen G; Woolley, John F; Cotter, Thomas G

    2015-04-10

    Internal tandem duplication of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase (FLT3-ITD) receptor is present in 20% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and it has been associated with an aggressive AML phenotype. FLT3-ITD expressing cell lines have been shown to generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the molecular basis of how FLT3-ITD-driven ROS leads to the aggressive form of AML is not clearly understood. Our group has previously reported that inhibition of FLT3-ITD signaling results in post-translational down-regulation of p22(phox), a small membrane-bound subunit of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex. Here we demonstrated that 32D cells, a myeloblast-like cell line transfected with FLT3-ITD, have a higher protein level of p22(phox) and p22(phox)-interacting NOX isoforms than 32D cells transfected with the wild type FLT3 receptor (FLT3-WT). The inhibition of NOX proteins, p22(phox), and NOX protein knockdowns caused a reduction in ROS, as measured with a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-specific dye, peroxy orange 1 (PO1), and nuclear H2O2, as measured with nuclear peroxy emerald 1 (NucPE1). These reductions in the level of H2O2 following the NOX knockdowns were accompanied by a decrease in the number of DNA DSBs. We showed that 32D cells that express FLT3-ITD have a higher level of both oxidized DNA and DNA DSBs than their wild type counterparts. We also observed that NOX4 and p22(phox) localize to the nuclear membrane in MV4-11 cells expressing FLT3-ITD. Taken together these data indicate that NOX and p22(phox) mediate the ROS production from FLT3-ITD that signal to the nucleus causing genomic instability. PMID:25697362

  16. Involvement of NADPH oxidases in alkali burn-induced corneal injury

    PubMed Central

    GU, XUE-JUN; LIU, XIAN; CHEN, YING-YING; ZHAO, YAO; XU, MAN; HAN, XIAO-JIAN; LIU, QIU-PING; YI, JING-LIN; LI, JING-MING

    2016-01-01

    Chemical burns are a major cause of corneal injury. Oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and neovascularization after the chemical burn aggravate corneal damage, and lead to loss of vision. Although NADPH oxidases (Noxs) play a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the role of Noxs in chemical burn-induced corneal injury remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the transcription and expression of Noxs in corneas were examined by RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. It was found that alkali burns markedly upregulated the transcription and expression of Nox2 and Nox4 in human or mouse corneas. The inhibition of Noxs by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) or apocynin (Apo) effectively attenuated alkali burn-induced ROS production and decreased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein levels in the corneas. In addition, Noxs/CD11b double-immunofluorescence staining indicated that Nox2 and Nox4 were partially co-localized with CD11b. DPI or Apo prevented the infiltration of CD11b-positive inflammatory cells, and inhibited the transcription of inflammatory cytokines following alkali burn-induced corneal injury. In our mouse model of alkali burn-induced corneal injury, corneal neovascularization (CNV) occurred on day 3, and it affected 50% of the whole area of the cornea on day 7, and on day 14, CNV coverage of the cornea reached maximum levels. DPI or Apo effectively attenuated alkali burn-induced CNV and decreased the mRNA levels of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Taken together, our data indicate that Noxs play a role in alkali burn-induced corneal injury by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and CNV, and we thus suggest that Noxs are a potential therapeutic target in the future treatment of chemical-induced corneal injury. PMID:27221536

  17. Hydrogen peroxide produced by NADPH oxidases increases proline accumulation during salt or mannitol stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Lefebvre-De Vos, Delphine; Le Disquet, Isabel; Leprince, Anne-Sophie; Bordenave, Marianne; Maldiney, Régis; Jdey, Asma; Abdelly, Chedly; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-12-01

    Many plants accumulate proline, a compatible osmolyte, in response to various environmental stresses such as water deficit and salinity. In some stress responses, plants generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) that mediates numerous physiological and biochemical processes. The aim was to study the relationship between stress-induced proline accumulation and H2 O2 production. Using pharmacological and reverse genetic approaches in Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidases, Respiratory burst oxidase homologues (Rboh), in the induction of proline accumulation was investigated in response to stress induced by either 200 mM NaCl or 400 mM mannitol. Stress from NaCl or mannitol resulted in a transient increase in H2 O2 content accompanied by accumulation of proline. Dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of H2 O2 , and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2 O2 production by NADPH oxidase, were found to significantly inhibit proline accumulation in these stress conditions. DPI also reduced the expression level of Δ(1) -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of proline. Similarly, less proline accumulated in knockout mutants lacking either AtRbohD or AtRbohF than in wild-type plants in response to the same stresses. Our data demonstrate that AtRbohs (A. thaliana Rbohs) contribute to H2 O2 production in response to NaCl or mannitol stress to increase proline accumulation in this plant.

  18. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to impaired cutaneous microvascular function in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; Ramick, Meghan G.; Farquhar, William B.; Townsend, Raymond R.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress promotes vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We utilized the cutaneous circulation to test the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase impair nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in CKD. Twenty subjects, 10 stage 3 and 4 patients with CKD (61 ± 4 yr; 5 men/5 women; eGFR: 39 ± 4 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2) and 10 healthy controls (55 ± 2 yr; 4 men/6 women; eGFR: >60 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2) were instrumented with 4 intradermal microdialysis fibers for the delivery of 1) Ringer solution (Control), 2) 10 μM tempol (scavenge superoxide), 3) 100 μM apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition), and 4) 10 μM allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibition). Skin blood flow was measured via laser-Doppler flowmetry during standardized local heating (42°C). Ng-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10 mM) was infused to quantify the NO-dependent portion of the response. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as a percentage of the maximum CVC achieved during sodium nitroprusside infusion at 43°C. Cutaneous vasodilation was attenuated in patients with CKD (77 ± 3 vs. 88 ± 3%, P = 0.01), but augmented with tempol and apocynin (tempol: 88 ± 2 (P = 0.03), apocynin: 91 ± 2% (P = 0.001). The NO-dependent portion of the response was reduced in patients with CKD (41 ± 4 vs. 58 ± 2%, P = 0.04), but improved with tempol and apocynin (tempol: 58 ± 3 (P = 0.03), apocynin: 58 ± 4% (P = 0.03). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase did not alter cutaneous vasodilation in either group (P > 0.05). These data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase is a source of reactive oxygen species and contributes to microvascular dysfunction in patients with CKD. PMID:24761000

  19. Application of a novel thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from hyperthermophilic archaeon for the regeneration of both NAD⁺ and NADP⁺.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi; Kobori, Hiroki; Orita, Izumi; Zhang, Chong; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Xing, Xin-Hui; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A novel thermostable NAD(P)H oxidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkNOX) catalyzes oxidation of NADH and NADPH with oxygen from atmospheric air as an electron acceptor. Although the optimal temperature of TkNOX is >90°C, it also shows activity at 30°C. This enzyme was used for the regeneration of both NADP(+) and NAD(+) in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-catalyzed enantioselective oxidation of racemic 1-phenylethanol. NADP(+) regeneration at 30°C was performed by TkNOX coupled with (R)-specific ADH from Lactobacillus kefir, resulting in successful acquisition of optically pure (S)-1-phenylethanol. The use of TkNOX with moderately thermostable (S)-specific ADH from Rhodococcus erythropolis enabled us to operate the enantioselective bioconversion accompanying NAD(+) regeneration at high temperatures. Optically pure (R)-1-phenylethanol was successfully obtained by this system after a shorter reaction time at 45-60°C than that at 30°C, demonstrating an advantage of the combination of thermostable enzymes. The ability of TkNOX to oxidize both NADH and NADPH with remarkable thermostability renders this enzyme a versatile tool for regeneration of the oxidized nicotinamide cofactors without the need for extra substrates other than dissolved oxygen from air.

  20. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  1. NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent VCAM-1 Induction on TNF-α-Challenged Human Cardiac Fibroblasts Enhances Monocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tseng, Hui-Ching; Pan, Chih-Shuo; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation-dependent adhesion molecule expressions are characterized in cardiovascular diseases and myocardial tissue infiltrations. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in the acute myocardial injury and infarction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is raised in the injury tissues and inflammatory regions and involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac injury, inflammation, and apoptosis. In fibroblasts, TNF-α-triggered expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 aggravated the heart inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying TNF-α-mediated VCAM-1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, the primary cultured human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on VCAM-1 expression. The molecular evidence, including protein, mRNA, and promoter analyses, indicated that TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 gene expression is mediated through the TNFR-dependent manner. Activation of TNF-α/TNFR system triggered PKCα-dependent NADPH oxidase (Nox)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal linking to MAPK cascades, and then led to activation of the transcription factor, AP-1. Moreover, the results of mRNA and promoter assay demonstrated that c-Jun/AP-1 phosphorylated by TNF-α turns on VCAM-1 gene expression. Subsequently, up-regulated VCAM-1 on the cell surface of TNF-α-challenged HCFs increased the number of monocytes adhering to these cells. These results indicated that in HCFs, activation of AP-1 by PKCα-dependent Nox/ROS/MAPKs cascades is required for TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression. To clarify the mechanisms of TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HCFs may provide therapeutic strategies for heart injury and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26858641

  2. Sex differences in the role of NADPH oxidases in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui San; Randall, Michael D; Roberts, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined whether vascular function, expression and activity of NADPH oxidases differ between sexes in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) using selective Nox inhibitors, ML-171 and VAS2870. Vascular responses of distal PCAs were examined under myographic conditions in the presence of a range of inhibitors. Nox activity in PCA homogenates was assessed using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. Protein expression of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 was compared using Western immunoblotting. The presence of ML-171 or DPI had no effect on the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in PCAs from females. In males, DPI shifted the EC50 2.8-fold to the right. In the presence of L-NAME and indomethacin, DPI and ML-171 had no effect in females, but enhanced the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in males. ML-171 had no effect on the forskolin-induced vasorelaxation but decreased the potency of U46619-induced tone in both sexes in the absence or presence of endothelium. VAS2870 had no effect on the bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in both sexes but reduces the EDH-type response in males only. Nox activity was reduced by DPI and ML-171, but not VAS2870 in PCAs from both sexes. Protein expression of Nox1 and Nox2 in PCAs was higher in males compared to females whereas Nox4 was higher in females. Inhibition of Nox with ML-171 enhances while VAS2870 reduces the EDH-type response in PCAs from males but not females. This indicates that Nox-generated ROS play a role in the EDH-type response in males with differences attributed to the differential expression of Nox isoforms. This may underlie the greater oxidative stress observed in males. PMID:25872163

  3. Positive regulation of NADPH oxidase 5 by proinflammatory-related mechanisms in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona A; Florea, Irina C; Luca, Catalina M; Raicu, Monica

    2012-05-01

    NADPH oxidase Nox5 subtype expression is significantly increased in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) underlying fibro-lipid atherosclerotic lesions. The mechanisms that up-regulate Nox5 are not understood. Consequently, we characterized the promoter of the human Nox5 gene and investigated the role of various proinflammatory transcription factors in the regulation of Nox5 in human aortic SMCs. The Nox5 promoter was cloned in the pGL3 basic reporter vector. Functional analysis was done employing 5' deletion mutants to identify the sequences necessary to effect high levels of expression in SMCs. Transcriptional initiation site was detected by rapid amplification of the 5'-cDNA ends. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/STAT3 sites. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-kB, c-Jun/AP-1, or STAT1/STAT3 increased significantly the Nox5 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the physical interaction of c-Jun/AP-1 and STAT1/STAT3 proteins with the Nox5 promoter. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot assays showed that pharmacological inhibition and the silencing of p65/NF-kB, c-Jun/AP-1, or STAT1/STAT3 reduced significantly the interferon γ-induced Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and Nox5 expression. Up-regulated Nox5 correlated with increases in intracellular Ca(2+), an essential condition for Nox5 activity. NF-kB, AP-1, and STAT1/STAT3 are important regulators of Nox5 in SMCs by either direct or indirect mechanisms. Overexpressed Nox5 may generate free radicals in excess, further contributing to SMCs dysfunction in atherosclerosis. PMID:22348975

  4. Acute restraint stress increases carotid reactivity in type-I diabetic rats by enhancing Nox4/NADPH oxidase functionality.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Josimar D; Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; do Prado, Alejandro F; da Silva, Carlos H T P; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-15

    Hyperglycemia increases the generation of reactive oxygen species and affects systems that regulate the vascular tone including renin-angiotensin system. Stress could exacerbate intracellular oxidative stress during Diabetes upon the activation of angiotensin AT1/NADPH oxidase pathway, which contributes to the development of diabetic cardiovascular complications. For this study, type-I Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. 28 days after streptozotocin injection, the animals underwent to acute restraint stress for 3 h. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II were obtained in carotid rings pre-treated or not with Nox or cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Nox1 or Nox4 expression and activity were assessed by Western blotting and lucigenin chemiluminescence, respectively. The role of Nox1 and Nox4 on reactive oxygen species generation was evaluated by flow cytometry and Amplex Red assays. Cyclooxygenases expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The contractile response evoked by angiotensin II was increased in diabetic rat carotid. Acute restraint stress increased this response in this vessel by mechanisms mediated by Nox4, whose local expression and activity in generating hydrogen peroxide are increased. The contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in stressed diabetic rat carotid is also mediated by metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase-2, whose local expression is increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that acute restraint stress exacerbates the contractile hyperreactivity to angiotensin II in diabetic rat carotid by enhancing Nox4-driven generation of hydrogen peroxide, which evokes contractile tone by cyclooxygenases-dependent mechanisms. Finally, these findings highlight the harmful role played by acute stress in modulating diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26387612

  5. Alzheimer's disease: a gas model. The NADPH oxidase-Nitric Oxide system as an antibubble biomachinery.

    PubMed

    Denis, Pierre A

    2013-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of unknown origin. The pathological lesions that define AD would be linked to the insidious accumulation of nitrogen, having invaded the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) from the blood via the physiological cycling pool of vascular glucose transporters (GLUT-1). According to this hypothesis, the nitrogen nanobubbles, being chemically inert and actually indestructible for human beings, can not escape from the ISF anymore. They would exert a huge and deleterious pressure against cellular components, especially in microglia and in astrocytes. They could enhance the existing cell oxygen anisotropy, which might enhance the natural bubble nucleation of O2-2O2 in cells or in mitochondria. Indeed, with the help of a new symbolic representation for gas nuclei in chemical reactions, the NADPH oxidase-NO system is identified for the first time, as an antibubble biomachinery, able to break O2-2O2 bubbles up as it releases superoxide O2-. Superoxide is considered as a quantum bubble, which collapses through the reactivity of the gaseous NO radical. Their combination in soluble peroxinitrite provides the change from one state of matter to another, avoiding any risk of a bubble enlargement, and finally avoiding the risk of enzyme crowding or of a bulk pressure variation. However, a bubble is expected to entrap Nitric Oxide (NO), which leads theoretically to a decrease in its bioavailability, and is expected to trigger a guanylyl-cyclase-mediated inflammatory cascade, that could explain the inflammation in AD. In vitro, any increase in the hydrostatic pressure has already been linked to the microtubule disorganization. The amyloid deposits, also known as senile plaques, would behave as a sponge toward ISF nitrogen; Aβ is considered as a foam-stabilizing agent. By taking the shape of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, the amyloid could confine the nitrogen leak from the blood, and progressively insulate the Blood-Brain Barrier

  6. A novel role of microglial NADPH oxidase in mediating extra-synaptic function of norepinephrine in regulating brain immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lulu; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shi-Jun; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Wilson, Belinda; Sanders, Virginia; Xie, Keqin; Wang, Qingshan; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2015-06-01

    Although the peripheral anti-inflammatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) is well documented, the mechanism by which this neurotransmitter functions as an anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. This article aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of NE in inflammation-based dopaminergic neurotoxicity models. In mice, NE-depleting toxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) was injected at 6 months of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. It was found that NE depletion enhanced LPS-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. This piece of in vivo data prompted us to conduct a series of studies in an effort to elucidate the mechanism as to how NE affects dopamine neuron survival by using primary midbrain neuron/glia cultures. Results showed that submicromolar concentrations of NE dose-dependently protected dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglia activation and subsequent release of pro-inflammatory factors. However, NE-elicited neuroprotection was not totally abolished in cultures from β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR)-deficient mice, suggesting that novel pathways other than β2-AR are involved. To this end, It was found that submicromolar NE dose-dependently inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX2)-generated superoxide, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of NE. This novel mechanism was indeed adrenergic receptors independent since both (+) and (-) optic isomers of NE displayed the same potency. We further demonstrated that NE inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 activation by blocking the translocation of its cytosolic subunit to plasma membranes. In summary, we revealed a potential physiological role of NE in maintaining brain immune homeostasis and protecting neurons via a novel mechanism. PMID:25740080

  7. Severity of pancreatitis-associated intestinal mucosal barrier injury is reduced following treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenhong; Abliz, Ablikim; Xu, Sheng; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Shi, Qiao; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, significantly decreased acute pancreatitis-associated inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. In addition, apocynin was able to reduce ischemic reperfusion injury-associated damage; however, the exact effects of apocynin on acute pancreatitis-associated intestinal mucosal injury have yet to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of apocynin on intestinal mucosal injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham operation group (SO), SAP group, apocynin treatment (APO) group and drug control (APO-CON) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Apocynin was administered 30 min prior to SAP induction in the APO group. All rats were sacrificed 12 h after SAP induction. Intestinal integrity was assessed by measuring diamine oxidase (DAO) levels. Morphological alterations to intestinal tissue were determined under light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression levels were detected in the intestine by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress was detected by measuring intestinal malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase content. In addition, blood inflammatory cytokines, and amylase (AMY) and lipase (LIP) levels were evaluated. The results demonstrated that apocynin attenuated the following: i) Serum AMY, LIP and DAO levels; ii) pancreatic and intestinal pathological injury; iii) intestinal MDA content; iv) intestinal ultrastructural alterations; v) serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels; and vi) NOX2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB expression in intestinal tissues. These results suggested that apocynin may attenuate

  8. Severity of pancreatitis‑associated intestinal mucosal barrier injury is reduced following treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenhong; Abliz, Ablikim; Xu, Sheng; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Shi, Qiao; Yu, Jia; Wang, Weixing

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, significantly decreased acute pancreatitis‑associated inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. In addition, apocynin was able to reduce ischemic reperfusion injury‑associated damage; however, the exact effects of apocynin on acute pancreatitis‑associated intestinal mucosal injury have yet to be fully clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of apocynin on intestinal mucosal injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham operation group (SO), SAP group, apocynin treatment (APO) group and drug control (APO‑CON) group. SAP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Apocynin was administered 30 min prior to SAP induction in the APO group. All rats were sacrificed 12 h after SAP induction. Intestinal integrity was assessed by measuring diamine oxidase (DAO) levels. Morphological alterations to intestinal tissue were determined under light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB expression levels were detected in the intestine by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress was detected by measuring intestinal malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase content. In addition, blood inflammatory cytokines, and amylase (AMY) and lipase (LIP) levels were evaluated. The results demonstrated that apocynin attenuated the following: i) Serum AMY, LIP and DAO levels; ii) pancreatic and intestinal pathological injury; iii) intestinal MDA content; iv) intestinal ultrastructural alterations; v) serum interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α levels; and vi) NOX2, p38 MAPK and NF‑κB expression in intestinal tissues. These results suggested

  9. Involvement of RAGE, NADPH oxidase, and Ras/Raf-1 pathway in glycated LDL-induced expression of heat shock factor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sangle, Ganesh V; Zhao, Ruozhi; Mizuno, Tooru M; Shen, Garry X

    2010-09-01

    Atherothrombotic cardiovascular diseases are the predominant causes of mortality of diabetic patients. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the major physiological inhibitor for fibrinolysis, and it is also implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Increased levels of PAI-1 and glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in patients with diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) is involved in glyLDL-induced PAI-1 overproduction in vascular endothelial cells (EC). The present study investigated transmembrane signaling mechanisms involved in glyLDL-induced HSF1 and PAI-1 up-regulation in cultured human vascular EC and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody prevented glyLDL-induced increase in the abundance of PAI-1 in EC. GlyLDL significantly increased the translocation of V-Ha-Ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (H-Ras) from cytoplasm to membrane compared with LDL. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor-277 or small interference RNA against H-Ras inhibited glyLDL-induced increases in HSF1 and PAI-1 in EC. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, blocked glyLDL-induced translocation of H-Ras, elevated abundances of HSF1 and PAI-1 in EC, and increased release of hydrogen peroxide from EC. Small interference RNA for p22(phox) prevented glyLDL-induced expression of NOX2, HSF1, and PAI-1 in EC. GlyLDL significantly increased V-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) phosphorylation. Treatment with Raf-1 inhibitor blocked glyLDL-induced increase of PAI-1 mRNA in EC. The levels of RAGE, H-Ras, NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were increased in hearts of streptozotocin-diabetic mice and positively correlated with plasma glucose. The results suggest that RAGE, NOX, and H-Ras/Raf-1 are implicated in the up-regulation of HSF1 or PAI-1 in vascular EC under diabetes

  10. Acrolein-induced oxidative stress in NAD(P)H Oxidase Subunit gp91phox knock-out mice and its modulation of NFκB and CD36.

    PubMed

    Yousefipour, Zivar; Zhang, Chelsea; Monfareed, Mahdieh; Walker, James; Newaz, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    An essential component of NAD(P)H, gp91phox, maintains the functionality of the enzyme in producing oxygen radicals. NAD(P)H oxidase plays an important role in oxidative stress but its precise contribution in acrolein-induced toxicity was not explored. We examined the involvement of NAD(P)H oxidase and other oxidant system in acrolein toxicity using gp91phox knockout mice. Male gp91phox knockout (KO) mice (20-25 gm) or wild type (WT) controls were treated with acrolein (0.5 μg/kg; 1 week). Animals were sacrificed and the liver was used to determine biochemical parameters. Knockout mice generated low (1.43 ±.02 pg/μg protein) free radicals as evident in 8-Isoprostane compared with the WT mice (2.19 ± 0.1). Acrolein increased 8-Isoprostane in WT (P<.05) and KO (p<.05) mice. Xanthine Oxidase (XO) activity was higher (p<.05) in KO (0.56 ± 0.06 μ unit/μg protein) than WT mice. Acrolein increased XO in KO mice, but significantly increased it only in WT. Cycloxygenase (COX) activity was not different between WT and KO mice, although acroelin increased COX in WT. Knockout mice exhibited a significantly low (2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/mg protein) total antioxidant status (TAS) compared with the WT (3.5 ± 0.3). Acrolein reduced TAS in both WT and KO mice equally. Baseline NFκB was significantly higher in KO mice, although acrolein increased NFκB in WT but not in KO. CD36 was higher (p<.05) in KO mice than the WT and acrolein increased (p<.05) CD36 further in KO but not in WT mice. These data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase contributes significantly in acrolein-induced oxidative stress. We also suggests that in the absence of NAD(P)H oxidase XO plays a definitive role together with reduced antioxidant ability to compound the toxic effects of acrolein. We propose that in absence of NAD(P)H oxidase a different signaling process may involve that utilizes CD36 besides NFκB.

  11. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-08

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by {gamma}-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10 Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  12. Human monocytes and macrophages express NADPH oxidase 5; a potential source of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona-Adriana; Gan, Ana Maria; Constantin, Alina; Fenyo, Ioana Madalina; Raicu, Monica; Muresian, Horia; Simionescu, Maya

    2015-05-22

    Monocytes (Mon) and Mon-derived macrophages (Mac) orchestrate important oxidative and inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis by secreting reactive oxygen species (ROS) due, in large part, to the upregulated NADPH oxidases (Nox). The Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in human Mon and Mac. However, the expression and functional significance of the Nox5 subtypes is not known. We aimed at elucidating whether Nox5 is expressed in human Mon and Mac, and examine its potential role in atherosclerosis. Human monocytic THP-1 cell line and CD14(+) Mon were employed to search for Nox5 expression. RT-PCR, Western blot, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium assays were utilized to examine Nox5 in these cells. We found that Nox5 transcription variants and proteins are constitutively expressed in THP-1 cells and primary CD14(+) Mon. Silencing of Nox5 protein expression by siRNA reduced the Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and the formation of ROS in Mac induced by A23187, a selective Ca(2+) ionophore. Exposure of Mac to increasing concentrations of IFNγ (5-100 ng/ml) or oxidized LDL (5-100 μg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in Nox5 protein expression and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Nox5 is present in CD68(+) Mac-rich area within human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that Nox5 is constitutively expressed in human Mon. Induction of Nox5 expression in IFNγ- and oxidized LDL-exposed Mac and the presence of Nox5 in Mac-rich atheroma are indicative of the implication of Nox5 in atherogenesis. PMID:25871798

  13. Human monocytes and macrophages express NADPH oxidase 5; a potential source of reactive oxygen species in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Manea, Simona-Adriana; Gan, Ana Maria; Constantin, Alina; Fenyo, Ioana Madalina; Raicu, Monica; Muresian, Horia; Simionescu, Maya

    2015-05-22

    Monocytes (Mon) and Mon-derived macrophages (Mac) orchestrate important oxidative and inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis by secreting reactive oxygen species (ROS) due, in large part, to the upregulated NADPH oxidases (Nox). The Nox enzymes have been extensively investigated in human Mon and Mac. However, the expression and functional significance of the Nox5 subtypes is not known. We aimed at elucidating whether Nox5 is expressed in human Mon and Mac, and examine its potential role in atherosclerosis. Human monocytic THP-1 cell line and CD14(+) Mon were employed to search for Nox5 expression. RT-PCR, Western blot, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dihydroethidium assays were utilized to examine Nox5 in these cells. We found that Nox5 transcription variants and proteins are constitutively expressed in THP-1 cells and primary CD14(+) Mon. Silencing of Nox5 protein expression by siRNA reduced the Ca(2+)-dependent Nox activity and the formation of ROS in Mac induced by A23187, a selective Ca(2+) ionophore. Exposure of Mac to increasing concentrations of IFNγ (5-100 ng/ml) or oxidized LDL (5-100 μg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in Nox5 protein expression and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Nox5 is present in CD68(+) Mac-rich area within human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence that Nox5 is constitutively expressed in human Mon. Induction of Nox5 expression in IFNγ- and oxidized LDL-exposed Mac and the presence of Nox5 in Mac-rich atheroma are indicative of the implication of Nox5 in atherogenesis.

  14. Ionizing irradiation induces apoptotic damage of salivary gland acinar cells via NADPH oxidase 1-dependent superoxide generation.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Yoshihisa; Sasabe, Eri; Ueta, Eisaku; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2008-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important roles in various physiological processes. Recently, several novel homologues of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase have been discovered and this protein family is now designated as the Nox family. We investigated the involvement of Nox family proteins in ionizing irradiation-induced ROS generation and impairment in immortalized salivary gland acinar cells (NS-SV-AC), which are radiosensitive, and immortalized ductal cells (NS-SV-DC), which are radioresistant. Nox1-mRNA was upregulated by gamma-ray irradiation in NS-SV-AC, and the ROS level in NS-SV-AC was increased to approximately threefold of the control level after 10Gy irradiation. The increase of ROS level in NS-SV-AC was suppressed by Nox1-siRNA-transfection. In parallel with the suppression of ROS generation and Nox1-mRNA expression by Nox1-siRNA, ionizing irradiation-induced apoptosis was strongly decreased in Nox1-siRNA-transfected NS-SV-AC. There were no large differences in total SOD or catalase activities between NS-SV-AC and NS-SV-DC although the post-irradiation ROS level in NS-SV-AC was higher than that in NS-SV-DC. In conclusion, these results indicate that Nox1 plays a crucial role in irradiation-induced ROS generation and ROS-associated impairment of salivary gland cells and that Nox1 gene may be targeted for preservation of the salivary gland function from radiation-induced impairment.

  15. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation.

  16. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation. PMID:26585490

  17. Transient congenital hypothyroidism caused by compound heterozygous mutations affecting the NADPH-oxidase domain of DUOX2.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa-Ogasawara, Atsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Ogikubo, Sayaka; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Satoh, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Here, we describe three cases of loss-of-function mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase (NOX) domain of dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) occurring along with concurrent missense mutations in thyroid peroxidase (TPO), leading to transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Three Japanese boys with nonconsanguineous parents were diagnosed with CH during their neonatal screenings. All patients presented with moderate-to-severe neonatal hypothyroidism and were diagnosed with transient CH after re-evaluation of thyroid function. Two siblings were compound heterozygous for p.[R1110Q]+[Y1180X] in DUOX2; one of them was also heterozygous for p.[R361L] in TPO. The third patient was compound heterozygous for p.[L1160del]+[R1334W] in DUOX2 and heterozygous for p.[P883S] in TPO. This is the first report of a de novo L1160del mutation affecting the DUOX2 gene and of the novel mutations Y1180X in DUOX2 and R361L in TPO. R1110Q and L1160del were found to reduce H2O2 production (5%-9%, p<0.01), while Y1180X, which introduces a premature stop codon, did not confer detectable H2O2 production (-0.7%±0.6%, p<0.01). Moreover, R1334W, a missense mutation possibly affecting electron transfer, led to reduced H2O2 production (24%±0.9%, p<0.01) in vitro, and R1110Q and R1334W resulted in reduced protein expression. Y1180X was detected in a 120 kDa truncated form, whereas L1160del expression was maintained. Further, R361L, a novel missense mutation in TPO, caused partial reduction in peroxidase activity (20.6%±0.8%, p=0.01), whereas P883S, a missense variant, increased it (133.7%±2.8%, p=0.02). The protein expression levels in the case of R361L and P883S were maintained. In conclusion, we provide clinical and in vitro demonstrations of different functional defects and phenotypic heterogeneity in the same thyroid hormonogenesis pathway.

  18. Inhibitory action of NoxA1 on dual oxidase activity in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Pacquelet, Sandrine; Lehmann, Mandy; Luxen, Sylvia; Regazzoni, Karine; Frausto, Monika; Noack, Deborah; Knaus, Ulla G

    2008-09-01

    Imbalance between pro- and antioxidant mechanisms in the lungs can compromise pulmonary functions, including blood oxygenation, host defense, and maintenance of an anti-inflammatory environment. Thus, tight regulatory control of reactive oxygen species is critical for proper lung function. Increasing evidence supports a role for the NADPH oxidase dual oxidase (Duox) as an important source for regulated H2O2 production in the respiratory tract epithelium. In this study Duox expression, function, and regulation were investigated in a fully differentiated, mucociliary airway epithelium model. Duox-mediated H2O2 generation was dependent on calcium flux, which was required for dissociation of the NADPH oxidase regulatory protein Noxa1 from plasma membrane-bound Duox. A functional Duox1-based oxidase was reconstituted in model cell lines to permit mutational analysis of Noxa1 and Duox1. Although the activation domain of Noxa1 was not required for Duox function, mutation of a proline-rich domain in the Duox C terminus, a potential interaction motif for the Noxa1 Src homology domain 3, caused up-regulation of basal and stimulated H2O2 production. Similarly, knockdown of Noxa1 in airway cells increased basal H2O2 generation. Our data indicate a novel, inhibitory function for Noxa1 in Duox regulation. This represents a new paradigm for control of NADPH oxidase activity, where second messenger-promoted conformational change of the Nox structure promotes oxidase activation by relieving constraint induced by regulatory components.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of the Crosstalk Between Mitochondria and NADPH Oxidase Through Reactive Oxygen Species—Studies in White Blood Cells and in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Kossmann, Sabine; Scholz, Alexander; Daub, Steffen; Oelze, Matthias; Xia, Ning; Hausding, Michael; Mikhed, Yuliya; Zinßius, Elena; Mader, Michael; Stamm, Paul; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Li, Huige; Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is involved in the development of cardiovascular disease. There is a growing body of evidence for a crosstalk between different enzymatic sources of oxidative stress. With the present study, we sought to determine the underlying crosstalk mechanisms, the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and its link to endothelial dysfunction. Results: NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation (oxidative burst and translocation of cytosolic Nox subunits) was observed in response to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) formation in human leukocytes. In vitro, mtROS-induced Nox activation was prevented by inhibitors of the mPTP, protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase cSrc, Nox itself, or an intracellular calcium chelator and was absent in leukocytes with p47phox deficiency (regulates Nox2) or with cyclophilin D deficiency (regulates mPTP). In contrast, the crosstalk in leukocytes was amplified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (type 2) (MnSOD+/−) deficiency. In vivo, increases in blood pressure, degree of endothelial dysfunction, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysregulation/uncoupling (e.g., eNOS S-glutathionylation) or Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation in response to angiotensin-II (AT-II) in vivo treatment, or the aging process were more pronounced in MnSOD+/− mice as compared with untreated controls and improved by mPTP inhibition by cyclophilin D deficiency or sanglifehrin A therapy. Innovation: These results provide new mechanistic insights into what extent mtROS trigger Nox activation in phagocytes and cardiovascular tissue, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Conclusions: Our data show that mtROS trigger the activation of phagocytic and cardiovascular NADPH oxidases, which may have fundamental implications for immune cell activation and development of AT-II-induced hypertension. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 247–266. PMID:23845067

  20. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate-Induced ICAM-1 Expression via NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent NF-κB Cascade on Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Cho, Rou-Ling; Wang, Chen-Yu; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression is frequently correlated with the lung inflammation. In lung injury, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, bioactive sphingolipid metabolite), participate gene regulation of adhesion molecule in inflammation progression and aggravate tissue damage. To investigate the transduction mechanisms of the S1P in pulmonary epithelium, we demonstrated that exposure of HPAEpiCs (human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells) to S1P significantly induces ICAM-1 expression leading to increase monocyte adhesion on the surface of HPAEpiCs. These phenomena were effectively attenuated by pretreatments with series of inhibitors such as Rottlerin (PKCδ), PF431396 (PYK2), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), apocynin (NADPH oxidase), Edaravone (ROS), and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB). Consistently, knockdown with siRNA transfection of PKCδ, PYK2, p47phox, and p65 exhibited the same results. Pretreatment with both Gq-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2A) and Gi/o-coupled receptor antagonist (GPA2) also blocked the upregulation of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA induced by S1P. We observed that S1P induced PYK2 activation via a Gq-coupled receptor/PKCδ-dependent pathway. In addition, S1P induced NADPH oxidase activation and intracellular ROS generation, which were also reduced by Rottlerin or PF431396. We demonstrated that S1P induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in HPAEpiCs. Activated NF-κB was blocked by Rottlerin, PF431396, APO, DPI, or Edaravone. Besides, the results of monocyte adhesion assay indicated that S1P-induced ICAM-1 expression on HPAEpiCs can enhance the monocyte attachments. In the S1P-treated mice, we found that the levels of ICAM-1 protein and mRNA in the lung fractions, the pulmonary hematoma and leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were enhanced through a PKCδ/PYK2/NADPH oxidase/ROS/NF-κB signaling pathway. We concluded that S1P-accelerated lung damage is due to the ICAM-1 induction associated with

  1. Glucose oxidase activity of actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    St Vlahov, S

    1978-01-01

    The ability of 311 actiomycete, belonging to 12 species to produce glucose oxidase was studied. It was found that 174 of them formed exoenzymes on solid medium and 133 in liquid medium. The composition of the nutrient medium has an essential effect on the amount of enzyme formed. Strains with considerably higher activity form a greater amount of exoenzymes on soya meal medium and on synthetic medium with KNO2. The highest activity of the culture liquid of some strains was observed between the 6th and 7th day of cultivation. During this phase of growth the highest productivity of the biomas was established. PMID:76424

  2. Curcuminoids Modulate the PKCδ/NADPH Oxidase/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Pathway and Suppress Matrix Invasion during Monocyte-Macrophage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao-Lan; Chen, Pei-Yi; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2015-10-14

    Monocyte recruitment and invasion play critical roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The reduction in monocyte adhesion and infiltration is thought to exert antiatherosclerotic effects. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are the major active components of curcuminoids and exhibit several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiatherogenic effects and mechanisms of curcuminoids during monocyte to macrophage differentiation. The results showed that curcumin, DMC, and BDMC (20 μM) suppressed matrix invasion from 100.0 ± 5.0% to 24.8 ± 1.4%, 26.6 ± 2.9%, and 33.7 ± 1.7%, respectively, during PMA-induced THP-1 differentiation. We found that curcuminoids significantly reduced PMA-induced CD11b and MMP-9 expression by THP-1 cells. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PMA (126.7 ± 2.1%) was markedly attenuated by curcumin, DMC, and BDMC to 99.5 ± 7.8%, 87.8 ± 8.2%, and 89.8 ± 7.6%, respectively, resulting in the down-regulation of CD11b and MMP-9 expression. We demonstrated that curcuminoids inhibited NADPH oxidase through the down-regulation of NOX2 expression and the reduction of p47phox membrane translocation. Moreover, we found involvement of PKCδ in the PMA-induced NOX2, CD11b, and MMP-9 mRNA expression. Curcumin, DMC, and BDMC decreased the active form of PKCδ protein stimulated by PMA in THP-1 cells. Overall, our results reveal that curcuminoids suppress matrix invasion through the inhibition of the PKCδ/NADPH oxidase/ROS signaling pathway during monocyte-macrophage differentiation. PMID:26414495

  3. Propofol Protects Against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injury in Differentiated PC12 Cells via Inhibition of Ca(2+)-Dependent NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Di-Han; Tang, Ying; Ling, Ze-Min; Zhou, Li-Hua; Feng, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used general anesthetic with anti-oxidant activities. This study aims to investigate protective capacity of propofol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in neural cells and whether the anti-oxidative effects of propofol occur through a mechanism involving the modulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in a manner of calcium-dependent. The rat differentiated PC12 cell was subjected to H2O2 exposure for 24 h to mimic a neuronal in vitro model of oxidative injury. Our data demonstrated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with propofol significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability, prevented H2O2-induced morphological changes, and reduced the ratio of apoptotic cells. We further found that propofol attenuated the accumulation of malondialdehyde (biomarker of oxidative stress), counteracted the overexpression of NOX core subunit gp91(phox) (NOX2) as well as the NOX activity following H2O2 exposure in PC12 cells. In addition, blocking of L-type Ca(2+) channels with nimodipine reduced H2O2-induced overexpression of NOX2 and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, NOX inhibitor apocynin alone or plus propofol neither induces a significant downregulation of NOX activity nor increases cell viability compared with propofol alone in the PC12 cells exposed to H2O2. These results demonstrate that the protective effects of propofol against oxidative injury in PC12 cells are mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH oxidase.

  4. Hepatocyte NADPH Oxidase 4 Regulates Stress Signaling, Fibrosis, and Insulin Sensitivity During Development of Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Jiang, Joy X.; Sasaki, Yu; Chao, Tzu-I; Kiss, Zsofia; Chen, Xiangling; Tian, Jijing; Katsuyama, Masato; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Xi, Yannan; Szyndralewiez, Cedric; Schröder, Kathrin; Shah, Ajay; Brandes, Ralph P.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Török, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Reactive oxidative species (ROS) are believed to be involved in the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, little is known about the sources of ROS in hepatocytes or their role in disease progression. We studied the effects of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) in liver tissues from patients with NASH and mice with steatohepatitis. Methods Liver biopsy samples were obtained from 5 patients with NASH, as well as 4 patients with simple steatosis and 5 patients without steatosis (controls) from the University of California, Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NOX4 (NOX4hepKO) and NOX4floxp+/+ C57BL/6 mice (controls) were given fast food diets (supplemented with high-fructose corn syrup) or choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined to induce steatohepatitis, or control diets, for 20 weeks. A separate group of mice were given the NOX4 inhibitor (GKT137831). Liver tissues were collected and immunoblot analyses were performed determine levels of NOX4, markers of inflammation and fibrosis, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), and phospho-eIF-2alpha kinase (PERK)-mediated stress signaling pathways. We performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies and immunoprecipitation analyses to determine the oxidation and phosphatase activity of PP1C. Results Levels of NOX4 were increased in patients with NASH, compared with controls. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of NOX4 reduced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and liver fibrosis in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. A small molecule inhibitor of NOX4 reduced liver inflammation and fibrosis and increased insulin sensitivity in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. In primary hepatocytes, NOX4 reduced the activity of the phosphatase PP1C, prolonging activation of PKR and PERK-mediated stress signaling. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NOX4 and mice given GKT137831had increased insulin sensitivity. Conclusion NOX4 regulates

  5. Allelic variations in the CYBA gene of NADPH oxidase and risk of kidney complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patente, Thiago A; Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Driss, Fathi; Sanchez, Manuel; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system is an important source of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycemic conditions in the kidney. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a marker of oxidative stress, is increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated associations of variants in the CYBA gene, encoding the regulatory subunit p22(phox) of NADPH oxidase, with diabetic nephropathy and plasma AOPP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in type 1 diabetic patients. Seven SNPs in the CYBA region were analyzed in 1357 Caucasian subjects with type 1 diabetes from the SURGENE (n=340), GENEDIAB (n=444), and GENESIS (n=573) cohorts. Duration of follow-up was 10, 9, and 6 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) for incidence and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The major G-allele of rs9932581 was associated with the incidence of renal events defined as new cases of microalbuminuria or the progression to a more severe stage of nephropathy during follow-up (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.18, P=0.003) in SURGENE. The same allele was associated with established/advanced nephropathy (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, P=0.0001) and with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.30-3.24, P=0.001) in GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled studies. The risk allele was also associated with higher plasma AOPP concentration in subsets of SURGENE and GENEDIAB, with higher plasma MPO concentration in a subset of GENEDIAB, and with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the three cohorts. In conclusion, a functional variant in the promoter of the CYBA gene was associated with lower eGFR and with prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy and ESRD in type 1 diabetic patients. These results are consistent with

  6. Allelic variations in the CYBA gene of NADPH oxidase and risk of kidney complications in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patente, Thiago A; Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Driss, Fathi; Sanchez, Manuel; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy, and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system is an important source of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycemic conditions in the kidney. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a marker of oxidative stress, is increased in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We investigated associations of variants in the CYBA gene, encoding the regulatory subunit p22(phox) of NADPH oxidase, with diabetic nephropathy and plasma AOPP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in type 1 diabetic patients. Seven SNPs in the CYBA region were analyzed in 1357 Caucasian subjects with type 1 diabetes from the SURGENE (n=340), GENEDIAB (n=444), and GENESIS (n=573) cohorts. Duration of follow-up was 10, 9, and 6 years, respectively. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) or odds ratios (OR) for incidence and prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. The major G-allele of rs9932581 was associated with the incidence of renal events defined as new cases of microalbuminuria or the progression to a more severe stage of nephropathy during follow-up (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.18, P=0.003) in SURGENE. The same allele was associated with established/advanced nephropathy (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, P=0.0001) and with the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.30-3.24, P=0.001) in GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled studies. The risk allele was also associated with higher plasma AOPP concentration in subsets of SURGENE and GENEDIAB, with higher plasma MPO concentration in a subset of GENEDIAB, and with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the three cohorts. In conclusion, a functional variant in the promoter of the CYBA gene was associated with lower eGFR and with prevalence and incidence of diabetic nephropathy and ESRD in type 1 diabetic patients. These results are consistent with

  7. High Expression Levels of NADPH Oxidase 3 in the Cerebrum of Ten-Week-Old Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Michihara, Akihiro; Oda, Asaki; Mido, Mayuko

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the high levels of oxidative stress in the brains of ten-week-old stroke-prone hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were attributable to intrinsic, not extrinsic factors (Biol. Pharm. Bull., 33, 2010, Michihara et al.). The aim of the present study was to determine whether increases in the enzymes producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reductions in the enzymes and proteins removing ROS, or increases in an enzyme and transporter removing antioxidants promoted oxidative stress in the SHRSP cerebrum. No significant decreases were observed in the mRNA levels of enzymes that remove ROS between SHRSP and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. The activity of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and the protein and mRNA levels of NOX3, an enzyme that produces ROS, were significantly increased in the SHRSP cerebrum. These results suggested that the high expression levels of NOX3 increased oxidative stress in the SHRSP cerebrum.

  8. NAD(P)H oxidase and pro-inflammatory response during maximal exercise: role of C242T polymorphism of the P22PHOX subunit.

    PubMed

    Izzicupo, P; Di Valerio, V; D' Amico, M A; Di Mauro, M; Pennelli, A; Falone, S; Alberti, G; Amicarelli, F; Miscia, S; Gallina, S; Di Baldassarre, A

    2010-01-01

    Intense exercise induces a pro-inflammatory status through a mechanism involving the NAD(P)H oxidase system. We focused our attention on p22phox, a subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase, and on its allelic polymorphism C242T, which is known to affect the functional activity of the enzyme. We investigated whether the p22phox C242T variants exhibit systemic effects in healthy subjects by analyzing the proinflammatory and cardiocirculatory responses to physical exercise in endurance athletes. The group of study consisted of 97 long distance runners, 37 +/- 4.4 yrs of age, with similar training history. The subjects underwent a maximal stress test during which both inflammatory and cardiopulmonary parameters were monitored. Our results demonstrate that T allele deeply influences the neutrophil activation in response to intense exercise, since T carriers were characterized by significantly lower release of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a classical leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory cytokine. In addition, the presence of T allele was associated with a higher cardiopulmonary efficiency as evidenced by a significantly lower Heart Rate (HR) at the peak of exercise and, when a dominant model was assumed, by a higher maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). On the other hand, no effects of 242T mutation on the plasmatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and on the cortisol responses to the physical exercise were detected. In conclusion, our data support a systemic role for p22phox C242T polymorphism that, modifying the intensity of the inflammatory response, can influence the cardiovascular adaptations elicited by aerobic training. These results contribute to support the hypothesis of a systemic effect for the C242T polymorphism and of its possible functional rebound in healthy subjects.

  9. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-{kappa}B in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Manea, Adrian; Tanase, Laurentia I.; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya

    2010-06-11

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-{kappa}B signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-{kappa}B, up to 24 h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-{kappa}B pathway reduced significantly the TNF{alpha}-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-{kappa}B elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-{kappa}B significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-{kappa}B proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-{kappa}B is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-{kappa}B and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms, Nox1 and Nox4, by nuclear factor-kappaB in human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Adrian; Tanase, Laurentia I; Raicu, Monica; Simionescu, Maya

    2010-06-11

    Inflammation-induced changes in the activity and expression of NADPH oxidases (Nox) play a key role in atherogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of Nox regulation are scantily elucidated. Since nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) controls the expression of many genes associated to inflammation-related diseases, in this study we have investigated the role of NF-kappaB signaling in the regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 transcription in human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cultured cells were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), a potent inducer of both Nox and NF-kappaB, up to 24h. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and dichlorofluorescein assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis showed that inhibition of NF-kappaB pathway reduced significantly the TNFalpha-dependent up-regulation of Nox-derived reactive oxygen species production, Nox1 and Nox4 expression. In silico analysis indicated the existence of typical NF-kappaB elements in the promoters of Nox1 and Nox4. Transient overexpression of p65/NF-kappaB significantly increased the promoter activities of both isoforms. Physical interaction of p65/NF-kappaB proteins with the predicted sites was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These findings demonstrate that NF-kappaB is an essential regulator of Nox1- and Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase in SMCs. Elucidation of the complex relationships between NF-kappaB and Nox enzymes may lead to a novel pharmacological strategy to reduce both inflammation and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and its associated complications. PMID:20457132

  11. High-throughput assays for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide: design of a screening workflow to identify inhibitors of NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jacek; Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Monika; Ganesh, Thota; Sun, Aiming; Joseph, Joy; Michalski, Radosław; O'Brien, William J; Lambeth, J David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2014-06-01

    Recent progress characterizing the reaction mechanism(s) of fluorescent probes with reactive oxygen species has made it possible to rigorously analyze these reactive species in biological systems. We have developed rapid high throughput-compatible assays for monitoring cellular production of superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide using hydropropidine and coumarin boronic acid probes, respectively. Coupling plate reader-based fluorescence measurements with HPLC-based simultaneous monitoring of superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide provides the basis for the screening protocol for NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitors. Using this newly developed approach along with the medium-throughput plate reader-based oximetry and EPR spin trapping as confirmatory assays, it is now eminently feasible to rapidly and reliably identify Nox enzyme inhibitors with a markedly lower rate of false positives. These methodological advances provide an opportunity to discover selective inhibitors of Nox isozymes, through enhanced conceptual understanding of their basic mechanisms of action.

  12. Persistence of the bacterial pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease monocytes and macrophages lacking a functional NADPH oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Jessica; Song, Helen H.; Zarember, Kol A.; Mills, Teresa A.; Gallin, John I.

    2013-01-01

    Granulibacter bethesdensis is a Gram-negative pathogen in patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD), a deficiency in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Repeated isolation of genetically identical strains from the same patient over years, and prolonged waxing and waning seropositivity in some subjects, raises the possibility of long-term persistence. G. bethesdensis resists killing by serum, CGD polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and antimicrobial peptides, indicating resistance to non-oxidative killing mechanisms. While G. bethesdensis extends the survival of PMN, persistent intracellular bacterial survival might rely on longer-lived macrophages and their precursor monocytes. Therefore, we examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Cells from both normal and CGD subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal PMN. Normal but not CGD monocytes and MDM killed G. bethesdensis and required in vitro treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to maintain this killing effect. Although in vitro IFN-γ did not enhance G. bethesdensis killing in CGD monocytes, it restricted growth in proportion to CGD PMN residual superoxide production, providing a potential method to identify patients responsive to IFN-γ therapy. In IFN-γ-treated CGD MDM, G. bethesdensis persisted for the duration of the study (7 days) without decreasing viability of the host cells. These results indicate that G. bethesdensis is highly resistant to oxygen-independent microbicides of myeloid cells, requires an intact NADPH oxidase for clearance, and can persist long-term in CGD mononuclear phagocytes, likely relating to the persistence of this microorganism in infected CGD patients. PMID:23956436

  13. Role of NADPH oxidase and iNOS in vasoconstrictor responses of vessels from hypertensive and normotensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Y; Briones, A M; Hernanz, R; Pérez-Girón, J V; Alonso, M J; Salaices, M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyse the influence of hypertension in the modulation induced by inducible NOS (iNOS)-derived NO and superoxide anion (O2 •−) of vasoconstrictor responses and the sources of O2 •− implicated. Experimental approach: Vascular reactivity experiments were performed in segments of aorta from normotensive, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); protein and mRNA expressions were respectively measured by western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and O2 •− production was evaluated by ethidium fluorescence. Key results: The contractile responses to phenylephrine (1 nM–30 μM) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.1–100 μM) were greater in aortic segments from SHR than WKY. The selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400W (10 μM), increased the phenylephrine contraction only in WKY segments; however, iNOS protein and mRNA expressions were greater in aorta from SHR than WKY. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, 150 U ml−1) reduced phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses only in aorta from SHR; the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (0.3 mM) decreased phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses more in vessels from SHR than WKY. Co-incubation with SOD plus 1400W potentiated the phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine responses more in segments from SHR than WKY. O2 •− production was greater in aorta from SHR than WKY; apocynin abolished this difference. Conclusions and implications: Increased O2 •− formation from NADP(H) oxidase in vessels from hypertensive rats contributes to the vasoconstrictor responses and counteract the increase of NO from iNOS and the consequent modulation of these responses. PMID:17994107

  14. Increased expression of gp91phox homologues of NAD(P)H oxidase in the aortic media during chronic hypertension: involvement of the renin-angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Akasaki, Takashi; Ohya, Yusuke; Kuroda, Junya; Eto, Kimika; Abe, Isao; Sumimoto, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2006-10-01

    Although vascular cells express multiple members of the Nox family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase, including gp91phox, Nox1, and Nox4, the reasons for the different expressions and specific roles of these members in vascular injury in chronic hypertension have remained unclear. Thus, we quantified the mRNA expressions of these NAD(P)H oxidase components by real-time polymerase chain reaction and evaluated superoxide production and morphological changes in the aortas of 32-week-old stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The aortic media of SHRSP had an approximately 2.5-fold greater level of Nox4 mRNA and an approximately 10-fold greater level of Nox1 mRNA than WKY. The mRNA expressions of gp91phox and p22phox in SHRSP and WKY were comparable. SHRSP were treated from 24 weeks of age for 8 weeks with either high or low doses of candesartan (4 mg/kg/day or 0.2 mg/kg/day), or a combination of hydralazine (30 mg/kg/day) and hydrochlorothiazide (4.5 mg/kg/day). The high-dose candesartan or the hydralazine plus hydrochlorothiazide decreased the blood pressure of SHRSP to that of WKY, whereas the low-dose candesartan exerted no significant antihypertensive action. Media thickening and fibrosis, as well as the increased production of superoxide in SHRSP, were nearly normalized with high-dose candesartan and partially corrected with low-dose candesartan or hydralazine plus hydrochlorothiazide. These changes by antihypertensive treatment paralleled the decrease in mRNA expression of Nox4 and Nox1. These results suggest that blood pressure and angiotensin II type 1 receptor activation are involved in the up-regulation of Nox1 and Nox4 expression, which could contribute to vascular injury during chronic hypertension. PMID:17283869

  15. Increased accumulation of neutrophils and decreased fibrosis in the lung of NADPH oxidase-deficient C57BL/6 mice exposed to carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shvedova, A.A. Kisin, E.R.; Murray, A.R.; Kommineni, C.; Castranova, V.; Fadeel, B.; Kagan, V.E.

    2008-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been introduced into a large number of new technologies and consumer products. The combination of their exceptional features with very broad applications raised concerns regarding their potential health effects. The prime target for SWCNT toxicity is believed to be the lung where exposure may occur through inhalation, particularly in occupational settings. Our previous work has demonstrated that SWCNT cause robust inflammatory responses in rodents with very early termination of the acute phase and rapid onset of chronic fibrosis. Timely elimination of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) through apoptosis and their subsequent clearance by macrophages is a necessary stage in the resolution of pulmonary inflammation whereby NADPH oxidase contributes to control of apoptotic cell death and clearance of PMNs. Thus, we hypothesized that NADPH oxidase may be an important regulator of the transition from the acute inflammation to the chronic fibrotic stage in response to SWCNT. To experimentally address the hypothesis, we employed NADPH oxidase-deficient mice which lack the gp91{sup phox} subunit of the enzymatic complex. We found that NADPH oxidase null mice responded to SWCNT exposure with a marked accumulation of PMNs and elevated levels of apoptotic cells in the lungs, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased production of the anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine, TGF-{beta}, and significantly lower levels of collagen deposition, as compared to C57BL/6 control mice. These results demonstrate a role for NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in determining course of pulmonary response to SWCNT.

  16. Yno1p/Aim14p, a NADPH-oxidase ortholog, controls extramitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, apoptosis, and actin cable formation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Büttner, Sabrina; Laun, Peter; Heeren, Gino; Felder, Thomas K; Klinger, Harald; Weinberger, Martin; Stolze, Klaus; Grousl, Tomas; Hasek, Jiri; Benada, Oldrich; Frydlova, Ivana; Klocker, Andrea; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Jansko, Bettina; Breitenbach-Koller, Hannelore; Eisenberg, Tobias; Gourlay, Campbell W; Madeo, Frank; Burhans, William C; Breitenbach, Michael

    2012-05-29

    The large protein superfamily of NADPH oxidases (NOX enzymes) is found in members of all eukaryotic kingdoms: animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The physiological functions of these NOX enzymes range from defense to specialized oxidative biosynthesis and to signaling. In filamentous fungi, NOX enzymes are involved in signaling cell differentiation, in particular in the formation of fruiting bodies. On the basis of bioinformatics analysis, until now it was believed that the genomes of unicellular fungi like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe do not harbor genes coding for NOX enzymes. Nevertheless, the genome of S. cerevisiae contains nine ORFs showing sequence similarity to the catalytic subunits of mammalian NOX enzymes, only some of which have been functionally assigned as ferric reductases involved in iron ion transport. Here we show that one of the nine ORFs (YGL160W, AIM14) encodes a genuine NADPH oxidase, which is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and produces superoxide in a NADPH-dependent fashion. We renamed this ORF YNO1 (yeast NADPH oxidase 1). Overexpression of YNO1 causes YCA1-dependent apoptosis, whereas deletion of the gene makes cells less sensitive to apoptotic stimuli. Several independent lines of evidence point to regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by Yno1p.

  17. Organochlorine insecticides induce NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species in human monocytic cells via phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Stokes, John V; Matthews, Anberitha T; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K

    2015-04-20

    Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposure might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infectious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorinated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated alicyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to elucidate the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 μM in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS, as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47(phox

  18. NADPH oxidase complex and IBD candidate gene studies: identification of a rare variant in NCF2 that results in reduced binding to RAC2

    PubMed Central

    Muise, Aleixo M; Xu, Wei; Guo, Cong-Hui; Walters, Thomas D; Wolters, Victorien M; Fattouh, Ramzi; Lam, Grace Y; Hu, Pingzhao; Murchie, Ryan; Sherlock, Mary; Gana, Juan Cristóbal; Russell, Richard K; Glogauer, Michael; Duerr, Richard H; Cho, Judy H; Lees, Charlie W; Satsangi, Jack; Wilson, David C; Paterson, Andrew D; Griffiths, Anne M; Silverberg, Mark S; Brumell, John H

    2013-01-01

    Objective The NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex produces reactive oxygen species and plays a critical role in the killing of microbes by phagocytes. Genetic mutations in genes encoding components of the complex result in both X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Patients with CGD often develop intestinal inflammation that is histologically similar to Crohn's colitis, suggesting a common aetiology for both diseases. The aim of this study is to determine if polymorphisms in NOX2 NADPH oxidase complex genes that do not cause CGD are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Direct sequencing and candidate gene approaches were used to identify susceptibility loci in NADPH oxidase complex genes. Functional studies were carried out on identified variants. Novel findings were replicated in independent cohorts. Results Sequence analysis identified a novel missense variant in the neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2) gene that is associated with very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) and subsequently found in 4% of patients with VEO-IBD compared with 0.2% of controls (p=1.3×10−5, OR 23.8 (95% CI 3.9 to 142.5); Fisher exact test). This variant reduced binding of the NCF2 gene product p67phox to RAC2. This study found a novel genetic association of RAC2 with Crohn's disease (CD) and replicated the previously reported association of NCF4 with ileal CD. Conclusion These studies suggest that the rare novel p67phox variant results in partial inhibition of oxidase function and are associated with CD in a subgroup of patients with VEO-IBD; and suggest that components of the NADPH oxidase complex are associated with CD. PMID:21900546

  19. Different functions for the interleukin 8 receptors (IL-8R) of human neutrophil leukocytes: NADPH oxidase and phospholipase D are activated through IL-8R1 but not IL-8R2.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S A; Wolf, M; Qin, S; Mackay, C R; Baggiolini, M

    1996-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies, anti-IL8R1 and anti-IL8R2, raised against both interleukin 8 receptors (IL-8R) of human neutrophils, IL-8R1 and IL-8R2, were used to study individual receptor functions after stimulation with IL-8, GRO alpha, or NAP-2. Efficacy and selectivity of the antibodies were tested in Jurkat cells transfected with cDNA coding for one or the other receptor. The binding of 125 I labeled IL-8 and IL-8-induced changes of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration were inhibited by anti-IL8RI in cells expressing IL-8R1 and by anti-IL8R2 in cells expressing IL-8R2. In human neutrophils, release of elastase was observed after stimulation with IL-8 or GRO alpha. The response to IL-8 was inhibited slightly by anti-IL8R1 and more substantially when both monoclonal antibodies were present, while the response to GRO alpha was inhibited by anti-IL8R2 but was not affected by anti-IL8R1. These results indicate that both IL-8 receptors can signal independently for granule enzyme release. Superoxide production, a measure of the respiratory burst, was obtained with increasing concentrations of IL-8 with maximum effects at 25 to 50 nM, but no response was observed upon challenge with GRO alpha or NAP-2 up to 1000 nM. The superoxide production induced by IL-8 was inhibited by anti-IL8R1, but was not affected by anti-IL8R2. Stimulation of neutrophils with IL-8, in contrast to GRO alpha or NAP-2, also elicited phospholipase D activity. The effect of IL-8 was again inhibited by anti-IL-8R1 but not by anti-IL8R2, indicating that this response, like the respiratory burst, was mediated by IL-8R1. Taken together, our results show that IL-8R1 and IL-8R2 are functionally different. Responses, such as cytosolic free Ca2+ changes and the release of granule enzymes, are mediated through both receptors, whereas the respiratory burst and the activation of phospholipase D depend exclusively on stimulation through IL-8R1. PMID:8692878

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-derived NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the failing heart, NADPH oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase utilize cytosolic NADPH to form superoxide. NADPH is supplied principally by the pentose phosphate pathway, whose rate-limiting enzyme is glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac G6PD activation dr...

  1. Effects of Iodonium-Class Flavin Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on Growth, Reactive Oxygen Production, Cell Cycle Progression, NADPH Oxidase 1 Levels, and Gene Expression in Human Colon Cancer Cells and Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Doroshow, James H.; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W.; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explain the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1 [Nox1]). We found that diphenylene iodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodoniumdiphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10–250 nM for DPI, 0.5–2.5 μM for DTI, and 155 nM to 10 μM for iodoniumdiphenyl) substantially lower than for DU145 human prostate cancer cells that do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24 hr, following short-term (1-hr) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that

  2. The role of the NADPH oxidase derived brain oxidative stress in the cocaine-related death associated with excited delirium: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Stefania; Neri, Margherita; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Pomara, Cristoforo; Trabace, Luigia; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2016-09-01

    Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is a term used to describe a clinical condition characterized by bizarre and aggressive behaviour, commonly associated with the use of psychoactive compounds, especially cocaine. The pathophysiology of ExDS is complex and not yet fully understood. In addition to a central dopamine hypothesis, other mechanisms are thought to be involved in cocaine-related ExDS, such as increased reactive oxygen species production by the family of the NADPH oxidase NOX enzymes. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge on the crucial contribution of brain NADPH oxidase derived oxidative stress in the development of cocaine-induced ExDS. Data from animal models as well as human evidence will be discussed. PMID:27265246

  3. Dual Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species and NADPH Oxidase RBOHD in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria Pathosystem1[W

    PubMed Central

    Pogány, Miklós; von Rad, Uta; Grün, Sebastian; Dongó, Anita; Pintye, Alexandra; Simoneau, Philippe; Bahnweg, Günther; Kiss, Levente; Barna, Balázs; Durner, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen attack. Our data demonstrate that a rbohD knockout mutant exhibits increased spread of cell death at the macroscopic level upon inoculation with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. However, the cellular patterns of reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death are fundamentally different in the AtrbohD mutant compared with the wild type. Functional RBOHD causes marked extracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation as well as cell death in distinct, single cells of A. brassicicola-infected wild-type plants. This single cell response is missing in the AtrbohD mutant, where infection triggers spreading-type necrosis preceded by less distinct chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide accumulation in large clusters of cells. While the salicylic acid analog benzothiadiazole induces the action of RBOHD and the development of cell death in infected tissues, the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibits cell death, indicating that both salicylic acid and ethylene positively regulate RBOHD and cell death. Moreover, A. brassicicola-infected AtrbohD plants hyperaccumulate ethylene and free salicylic acid compared with the wild type, suggesting negative feedback regulation of salicylic acid and ethylene by RBOHD. We propose that functional RBOHD triggers death in cells that are damaged by fungal infection but simultaneously inhibits death in neighboring cells through the suppression of free salicylic acid and ethylene levels. PMID:19726575

  4. Activation of polyphenol oxidase of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N E

    1973-02-01

    Polyphenol oxidase of leaves is located mainly in chloroplasts isolated by differential or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. This activity is part of the lamellar structure that is not lost on repeated washing of the plastids. The oxidase activity was stable during prolonged storage of the particles at 4 C or -18 C. The Km (dihydroxyphenylalanine) for spinach leaf polyphenol oxidase was 7 mm by a spectrophotometric assay and 2 mm by the manometric assay. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the leaf peroxisomal fraction, after isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient, did not coincide with the peroxisomal enzymes but was attributed to proplastids at nearly the same specific density.Plants were grouped by the latency properties for polyphenol oxidase in their isolated chloroplasts. In a group including spinach, Swiss chard, and beet leaves the plastids immediately after preparation from fresh leaves required a small amount of light for maximal rates of oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine. Polyphenol oxidase activity in the dark or light increased many fold during aging of these chloroplasts for 1 to 5 days. Soluble polyphenol oxidase of the cytoplasm was not so stimulated. Chloroplasts prepared from stored leaves were also much more active than from fresh leaves. Maximum rates of dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidation were 2 to 6 mmoles x mg(-1) chlorophyll x hr(-1). Equal stimulation of latent polyphenol oxidase in fresh or aged chloroplasts in this group was obtained by either light, an aged trypsin digest, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea, or antimycin A. A variety of other treatments did not activate or had little effect on the oxidase, including various peptides, salts, detergents, and other proteolytic enzymes.Activation of latent polyphenol oxidase in spinach chloroplasts by trypsin amounted to as much as 30-fold. The trypsin activation occurred even after the trypsin had been treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid, 1.0 n HCl or boiled for 30

  5. NADPH oxidases as electrochemical generators to produce ion fluxes and turgor in fungi, plants and humans.

    PubMed

    Segal, Anthony W

    2016-05-01

    The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion.

  6. Diapocynin, a Dimer of the NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin, Reduces ROS Production and Prevents Force Loss in Eccentrically Contracting Dystrophic Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hesham M.; Scapozza, Leonardo; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dorchies, Olivier M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX) have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25329652

  7. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  8. NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism, nitric oxide production, salt sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Castejon, A M; Bracero, J; Hoffmann, I S; Alfieri, A B; Cubeddu, L X

    2006-10-01

    Mutations in the NAD(P)H oxidase gene may be associated with abnormal superoxide generation, nitric oxide (NO) availability and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the prevalence of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism, and its possible association with blood pressure, NO production, salt sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics. Genotype frequencies were as follows: CC, 52.9%; CT, 40.3%; and TT, 6.8%. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, age, weight, fasting and post-load glucose levels, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride and urinary albumin levels in subjects with CC, CT or the TT genotypes. Presence of the T allele was associated with increased salt sensitivity in women, but not in men. NO metabolite excretion was markedly decreased both in women and men with the TT genotype (CC: 868+/-79 micromol/day; CT: 839+/-75 micromol/day; TT: 534+/-78 micromol/day; P<0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism in Venezuelans was comparable to that of Caucasians, but different from that of Chinese and Japanese. Although the T allele was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia or hypertension, in women, it appeared to be a genetic susceptibility factor for salt sensitivity. Both in women and men, the p22phox gene may play a role in the genetic control of NO levels.

  9. FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases, is required for female fertility and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengkang; Lin, Yahong; Wang, Jianqiang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Miaoping; Norvienyeku, Justice; Li, Guangpu; Yu, Wenying; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal pathogen that causes wheat Fusarium head blight. In this study, we identified FgNoxR, a regulatory subunit of NADPH oxidases (Nox) in F. graminearum, and found that it plays an important role in the pathogenicity of F. graminearum. FgNoxR is localized on punctate structures throughout the cytoplasm in aerial hyphae while these structures tend to accumulate at or near the plasma membrane, septa and hyphal tips in germinated conidia. Deletion of the FgNOXR gene results in reduced conidiation and germination. Importantly, sexual development is totally abolished in the FgNOXR deletion mutant. In addition, the disease lesion of FgNOXR deletion mutant is limited to the inoculated spikelets of wheat heads. Finally, FgNoxR interacts with FgRac1 and FgNoxA, and all three proteins are required for female fertility. Taken together, our data indicate that FgNoxR contributes to conidiation, sexual reproduction and pathogenesis in F. graminearum.

  10. Dynamic optical imaging of metabolic and NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in live mouse brain using fluorescence lifetime unmixing.

    PubMed

    Hall, David J; Han, Sung-Ho; Chepetan, Andre; Inui, Edny G; Rogers, Mike; Dugan, Laura L

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide is the single-electron reduction product of molecular oxygen generated by mitochondria and the innate immune enzyme complex, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and its isoforms. Initially identified as critical to the host defense against infection, superoxide has recently emerged as an important signaling molecule and as a proposed mediator of central nervous system injury in stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, and aging itself. Complete understanding of superoxide in central nervous system disease has been hampered by lack of noninvasive imaging techniques to evaluate this highly reactive, short-lived molecule in vivo. Here we describe a novel optical imaging technique to monitor superoxide real time in intact animals using a fluorescent probe compound and fluorescence lifetime contrast-based unmixing. Specificity for superoxide was confirmed using validated mouse models with enhanced or attenuated brain superoxide production. Application of fluorescence lifetime unmixing removed autofluorescence, further enhanced sensitivity and specificity of the technique, permitted visualization of physiologically relevant levels of superoxide, and allowed superoxide in specific brain regions (e.g., hippocampus) to be mapped. Lifetime contrast-based unmixing permitted disease model-specific and brain region-specific differences in superoxide levels to be observed, suggesting this approach may provide valuable information on the role of mitochondrial and Nox-derived superoxide in both normal function and pathologic conditions in the central nervous system.

  11. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment.

  12. BcNoxD, a putative ER protein, is a new component of the NADPH oxidase complex in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Ulrike; Marschall, Robert; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-03-01

    NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major enzymatic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In fungi these multi-enzyme complexes are involved in sexual differentiation and pathogenicity. However, in contrast to mammalian systems, the composition and recruitment of the fungal Nox complexes are unresolved. Here we introduce a new Nox component, the membrane protein NoxD in the grey mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. It has high homology to the ER protein Pro41 from Sordaria macrospora, similar functions to the catalytic Nox subunit BcNoxA in differentiation and pathogenicity, and shows similarities to phagocytic p22phox. BcNoxA and BcNoxD interact with each other. Both proteins are involved in pathogenicity, fusion of conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) and formation of sclerotia and conidia. These data support our earlier view based on localization studies, for an ER-related function of the Nox complex. We present the first evidence that some functions of the BcNoxA complex are indeed linked to the ER, while others clearly require export from the ER. PMID:25402961

  13. NADPH oxidases as electrochemical generators to produce ion fluxes and turgor in fungi, plants and humans.

    PubMed

    Segal, Anthony W

    2016-05-01

    The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion. PMID:27249799

  14. NADPH oxidases as electrochemical generators to produce ion fluxes and turgor in fungi, plants and humans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion. PMID:27249799

  15. Oxidation of Са2+-Binding Domain of NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5): Toward Understanding the Mechanism of Inactivation of NOX5 by ROS

    PubMed Central

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Lobachev, Vladimir M.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Makarov, Alexander A.; Devred, Francois; Kovacic, Hervé; Kubatiev, Aslan A.; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.

    2016-01-01

    NOX5 protein, one of the most active generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays an important role in many processes, including regulation of cell growth, death and differentiation. Because of its central role in ROS generation, it needs to be tightly regulated to guarantee cellular homeostasis. Contrary to other members of NADPH-oxidases family, NOX5 has its own regulatory calcium-binding domain and thus could be activated directly by calcium ions. While several mechanisms of activation have been described, very little is known about the mechanisms that could prevent the overproduction of ROS by NOX5. In the present study using calorimetric methods and circular dichroism we found that oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues of NOX5 decreases binding of Ca2+ ions and perturbs both secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Our data strongly suggest that oxidation of calcium-binding domain of NOX5 could be implicated in its inactivation, serving as a possible defense mechanism against oxidative stress. PMID:27391469

  16. Oxidation of Са2+-Binding Domain of NADPH Oxidase 5 (NOX5): Toward Understanding the Mechanism of Inactivation of NOX5 by ROS.

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Lobachev, Vladimir M; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Makarov, Alexander A; Devred, Francois; Kovacic, Hervé; Kubatiev, Aslan A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O

    2016-01-01

    NOX5 protein, one of the most active generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays an important role in many processes, including regulation of cell growth, death and differentiation. Because of its central role in ROS generation, it needs to be tightly regulated to guarantee cellular homeostasis. Contrary to other members of NADPH-oxidases family, NOX5 has its own regulatory calcium-binding domain and thus could be activated directly by calcium ions. While several mechanisms of activation have been described, very little is known about the mechanisms that could prevent the overproduction of ROS by NOX5. In the present study using calorimetric methods and circular dichroism we found that oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues of NOX5 decreases binding of Ca2+ ions and perturbs both secondary and tertiary structure of protein. Our data strongly suggest that oxidation of calcium-binding domain of NOX5 could be implicated in its inactivation, serving as a possible defense mechanism against oxidative stress. PMID:27391469

  17. Resveratrol inhibits collagen-induced platelet stimulation through suppressing NADPH oxidase and oxidative inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Yong; Min, Ji Hyun; Wang, Su Bin; Chae, Yun Hee; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced upon collagen stimulation are implicated in propagating various platelet-activating pathways. Among ROS-producing enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) is largely responsible for collagen receptor-dependent ROS production. Therefore, NOX has been proposed as a novel target for the development of antiplatelet agent. We here investigate whether resveratrol inhibits collagen-induced NOX activation and further examine the effects of resveratrol on ROS-dependent signaling pathways in collagen-stimulated platelets. Collagen-induced superoxide anion production in platelets was inhibited by resveratrol. Resveratrol suppressed collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX. Correlated with the inhibitory effects on NOX, resveratrol protected SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) from ROS-mediated inactivation and subsequently attenuated the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (spleen tyrosine kinase, Vav1, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and phospholipase Cγ2) for collagen receptor signaling cascades. Resveratrol also inhibited downstream responses such as cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen. The antiplatelet effects of resveratrol through the inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2 suggest that resveratrol is a potential compound for prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases.

  18. Neutrophils from patients with SAPHO syndrome show no signs of aberrant NADPH oxidase-dependent production of intracellular reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wekell, Per; Björnsdottir, Halla; Björkman, Lena; Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Osla, Veronica; Berg, Stefan; Fasth, Anders; Welin, Amanda; Bylund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate if aberrant intracellular production of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils is a disease mechanism in the autoinflammatory disease SAPHO syndrome, characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, as has previously been suggested based on a family with SAPHO syndrome-like disease. Methods. Neutrophil function was explored in a cohort of four patients with SAPHO syndrome, two of whom were sampled during both inflammatory and non-inflammatory phase. Intracellular neutrophil ROS production was determined by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Results. Cells from all patients produced normal amounts of ROS, both intra- and extracellularly, when compared with internal controls as well as with a large collection of healthy controls assayed in the laboratory over time (showing an extensive inter-personal variability in a normal population). Further, intracellular production of ROS increased during the inflammatory phase. Neutrophil activation markers were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusion. Dysfunctional generation of intracellular ROS in neutrophils is not a generalizable feature in SAPHO syndrome. Secondly, serum amyloid A appears to be a more sensitive inflammatory marker than CRP during improvement and relapses in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:27121779

  19. NADPH oxidase 3-associated oxidative stress and caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in the cochleae of D-galactose-induced aged rats

    PubMed Central

    DU, ZHENGDE; LI, SHUO; LIU, LIN; YANG, QIONG; ZHANG, HONGWEI; GAO, CHUNSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cell apoptosis are heavily implicated in aging. Our previous study established a mimetic rat model of aging in the cochleae using D-galactose (D-gal), and revealed that chronic injection of D-gal can increase oxidative stress and mtDNA common deletions (CD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of reactive oxygen species and the occurrence of apoptosis in the cochleae of rats following 8 weeks of D-gal exposure. The results of the present study indicated that an elevated accumulation of the mtDNA CD and mitochondrial ultrastructural damage occurred in the cochleae of rats injected with D-gal for 8 weeks. In addition, the levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 3, P22phox and cleaved caspase 3, and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end-labelling-positive cells were increased in the cochleae of D-gal-treated rats, compared with the controls. These findings suggested that nitric oxide synthase NOX3-associated oxidative stress may contribute to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations and activate a caspase 3-dependent apoptotic signalling pathway in the cochleae during aging. The present study also provided novel insights into the development of age-associated hearing loss, also termed presbycusis. PMID:26498835

  20. Additive effect of polymorphisms in the β2 -adrenoceptor and NADPH oxidase p22 phox genes contributes to the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Ma, JingTao; Feng, Zhen; Niu, Kai; Liu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Because increased oxidative stress may mediate the detrimental actions of enhanced sympathetic nervous activity on renal function and vice versa, we investigated the effect of the polymorphic Arg16Gly in the β2 -adrenoceptor (ADRB2) gene, Trp64Arg in the β3 -adrenoceptor (ADRB3) gene and C242T in the NADPH oxidase p22phox (CYBA) gene on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a Chinese population. Initially recruited from different outpatient services of HeBei General Hospital in northern China, 668 individuals were finally included in the study, with complete demographic information. Laboratory tests were performed and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation for the Chinese population. Plasma noradrenaline levels and genotype were determined by HPLC and the TaqMan method, respectively. Only across the Arg16Gly polymorphism did eGFR show significant difference: it was lower in individuals with the Gly16Gly variation, who also had the highest plasma noradrenaline levels. This polymorphism remained a significant determinant of eGFR after multivariate analysis. Of importance, the multifactor dimensionality reduction method further detected a significant synergism between the Arg16Gly and C242T polymorphisms in reducing eGFR. These observations clarify the effects of the studied polymorphisms on eGFR and exemplify gene-gene interactions influencing renal function.

  1. Olmesartan Inhibits Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice Overexpressing Renin Independently of Blood Pressure: Its Beneficial Effects on ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas Axis and NADPH Oxidase Expression.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Tomohiro; Tomita, Hirofumi; Narita, Ikuyo; Kinjo, Takahiko; Nishizaki, Kimitaka; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Makoto; Osanai, Tomohiro; Okumura, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced renin-angiotensin activity causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. The angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis pathway functions against Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling. We investigated whether olmesartan (Olm), an AT1R blocker, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy independently of blood pressure, and evaluated the potential mechanisms. The 3- to 4-month-old male mice overexpressing renin in the liver (Ren-Tg) were given Olm (5 mg/kg/d) and hydralazine (Hyd) (3.5 mg/kg/d) orally for 2 months. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the Ren-Tg mice than in wild-type littermates. Olm and Hyd treatments lowered systolic blood pressure to the same degree. However, cardiac hypertrophy, evaluated by echocardiography, heart weight, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, and gene expression, was inhibited by only Olm treatment, but not by Hyd. Olm treatment reversed decreased gene expressions of ACE2 and Mas receptor of Ren-Tg mice and inhibited enhanced NADPH oxidase (Nox)4 expression and reactive oxygen species, whereas Hyd treatment had no influence on them. These findings indicate that Olm treatment inhibits cardiac hypertrophy independently of blood pressure, not only through its original AT1R blockade but partly through enhancement of ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis and suppression of Nox4 expression. PMID:26886190

  2. Bone-marrow derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells express multiple isoforms of NADPH oxidase and produce constitutively reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Claudia; D'Aprile, Annamaria; Ripoli, Maria; Scrima, Rosella; Lecce, Lucia; Boffoli, Domenico; Tabilio, Antonio; Capitanio, Nazzareno

    2007-02-23

    Consolidated evidence highlights the importance of redox signalling in poising the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in adult stem cells. The present study shows that human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) constitutively generate low levels of hydrogen peroxide whose production is inhibited by DPI, apocynin, catalase, and LY294002 and scarcely stimulated by PMA. Moreover, it is shown that HSCs express at the mRNA and protein levels the catalytic subunits of NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 isoforms of the NADPH oxidase family along with the complete battery of the regulatory subunits p22, p40, p47, p67, rac1, rac2, NOXO1, and NOXA1 as well as the splicing variant NOX2s and that the three NOX isoforms are largely co-expressed in the same HSC. These findings are interpreted in terms of a positive feed-back mechanism of NOXs activation enabling a fine tuning of the ROS level to be possibly used in redox-mediated signalling for growth and differentiation of HSCs. PMID:17204244

  3. Bone-marrow derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells express multiple isoforms of NADPH oxidase and produce constitutively reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Claudia; D'Aprile, Annamaria; Ripoli, Maria; Scrima, Rosella; Lecce, Lucia; Boffoli, Domenico; Tabilio, Antonio; Capitanio, Nazzareno

    2007-02-23

    Consolidated evidence highlights the importance of redox signalling in poising the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in adult stem cells. The present study shows that human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) constitutively generate low levels of hydrogen peroxide whose production is inhibited by DPI, apocynin, catalase, and LY294002 and scarcely stimulated by PMA. Moreover, it is shown that HSCs express at the mRNA and protein levels the catalytic subunits of NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4 isoforms of the NADPH oxidase family along with the complete battery of the regulatory subunits p22, p40, p47, p67, rac1, rac2, NOXO1, and NOXA1 as well as the splicing variant NOX2s and that the three NOX isoforms are largely co-expressed in the same HSC. These findings are interpreted in terms of a positive feed-back mechanism of NOXs activation enabling a fine tuning of the ROS level to be possibly used in redox-mediated signalling for growth and differentiation of HSCs.

  4. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  5. NADPH oxidase 4 deficiency leads to impaired wound repair and reduced dityrosine-crosslinking, but does not affect myofibroblast formation.

    PubMed

    Lévigne, Dominik; Modarressi, Ali; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Pittet-Cuénod, Brigitte

    2016-07-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOX) mediate redox signaling by generating superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide, which are involved in biosynthetic pathways, e.g. thyroid hormone generation, dityrosine crosslinking, as well as bacterial killing. Data investigating the role of NOX enzymes in cutaneous wound repair is limited and specifically their function in skin myofibroblast expression is unknown. The isoform NOX4 was recently shown to be a pre-requisite for the differentiation of cardiac and pulmonary myofibroblasts. In this study we investigate the role of NOX4 in wound repair using a wound model in NOX4 knockout mice (n=16) and wildtype mice (n=16). Wounds were photographed daily until complete wound closure. Mice were sacrificed at day 3, 7, 14; wound tissue was harvested. NOX4-deficient mice healed significantly slower (22 days, SD=1.9) than wild-type mice (17 days, SD=1.4, p<0.005). However, there was no difference in myofibroblast expression. Strong dityrosine formation was observed, but was significantly weaker in NOX4-/- mice (p<0.05). NOX2, HIF1α and CD31 expression was significantly weaker in NOX4-/- mice (p<0.05). In this study we show for the first time that NOX4 plays a role in cutaneous wound repair. Our data suggests that NOX4 mediates HIF1α expression and neoangiogenesis during wound repair. NOX4 deletion led to a decreased expression of NOX2, implying a role of NOX4 in phagocytic cell recruitment. NOX4 was required for effective wound contraction but not myofibroblast expression. We suggest that myofibroblast contraction in NOX4-deficient mice is less effective in contracting the wound because of insufficient dityrosine-crosslinking of the ECM, providing the first indication for a physiological function of dityrosine crosslinking in higher animals. PMID:27140231

  6. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 as a novel biomarker for suicidality: evidence from human post mortem brain samples

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, S; Neri, M; Mhillaj, E; Morgese, M G; Cantatore, S; Bove, M; Riezzo, I; Tucci, P; Pomara, C; Turillazzi, E; Cuomo, V; Trabace, L

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress in suicidality. However, few studies were carried out on the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in subjects with suicidal behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived oxidative stress has a major role in the development of neuropathological alterations observed in an animal model of psychosis. Here, we investigated the possible increase in NOX2 in post mortem brain samples of subjects who died by asphyctic suicide (AS) compared with controls (CTRL) and subjects who died by non-suicidal asphyxia (NSA). We found that NOX2 expression was significantly higher in the cortex of AS subjects than in the other two experimental groups. NOX2 immunostaining was mainly detected in GABAergic neurons, with a minor presence of NOX2-positive-stained cells in glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons, as well as astrocytes and microglia. A sustained increase in the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an indirect marker of oxidative stress, was also detected in the cortex of AS subjects, compared with CTRL and NSA subjects. A significant elevation in cortical interleukin-6 immunoreactivity in AS subjects suggested an involvement of cytokine-associated molecular pathways in NOX2 elevations. Our results suggest that the increase in NOX2-derived oxidative stress in the brain might be involved in the neuropathological pathways leading to suicidal behaviour. These results may open innovative insights in the identification of new pathogenetic and necroscopic biomarkers, predictive for suicidality and potentially useful for suicide prevention. PMID:27187235

  7. NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species at different stages of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Kathleen E; Aschner, J L; Milatovic, D; Schmidt, J W; Aschner, M; Kaplowitz, M R; Zhang, Y; Fike, Candice D

    2009-10-01

    Recently, we reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase (NOX) contribute to aberrant responses in pulmonary resistance arteries (PRAs) of piglets exposed to 3 days of hypoxia (Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295: L881-L888, 2008). An objective of the present study was to determine whether NOX-derived ROS also contribute to altered PRA responses at a more advanced stage of pulmonary hypertension, after 10 days of hypoxia. We further wished to advance knowledge about the specific NOX and antioxidant enzymes that are altered at early and later stages of pulmonary hypertension. Piglets were raised in room air (control) or hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Using a cannulated artery technique, we found that treatments with agents that inhibit NOX (apocynin) or remove ROS [an SOD mimetic (M40403) + polyethylene glycol-catalase] diminished responses to ACh in PRAs from piglets exposed to 10 days of hypoxia. Western blot analysis showed an increase in expression of NOX1 and the membrane fraction of p67phox. Expression of NOX4, SOD2, and catalase were unchanged, whereas expression of SOD1 was reduced, in arteries from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 or 10 days. Markers of oxidant stress, F(2)-isoprostanes, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were increased in PRAs from piglets raised in hypoxia for 3 days, but not 10 days. We conclude that ROS derived from some, but not all, NOX family members, as well as alterations in the antioxidant enzyme SOD1, contribute to aberrant PRA responses at an early and a more progressive stage of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets. PMID:19592458

  8. Puerarin Improves Diabetic Aorta Injury by Inhibiting NADPH Oxidase-Derived Oxidative Stress in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenping; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Qin; Lu, Yuanfu; Shi, Jingshan; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Puerarin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the TCM lobed kudzuvine root. This study investigated the effect and mechanisms of puerarin on diabetic aorta in rats. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were administered with puerarin for 3 weeks. Levels of serum insulin (INS), PGE2, endothelin (ET), glycated hemoglobin (GHb), H2O2, and nitric oxide (NO) in rats were measured by ELISA and colorimetric assay kits. The aortas were stained with H&E. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), and NOX4 and the protein expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NF-κB p65, E-selectin, NOX2, and NOX4 in aorta tissues were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The localization of ICAM-1, NF-κB p65, NOX2, and NOX4 in the aorta tissues was also determined through immunohistochemistry. Results. Puerarin treatment exerted no effect on fasting blood glucose levels but significantly reduced the serum levels of INS, GHb, PGE2, ET, H2O2, and NO. In addition, puerarin improved the pathological alterations and inhibited the expression of ICAM-1, LOX-1, NOX2, and NOX4 at both mRNA and protein levels. Puerarin also significantly reduced the number of cells showing positive staining for ICAM-1, NOX2, NOX4, and NF-κB p65. Conclusion. Puerarin demonstrated protective effect on the STZ-induced diabetic rat aorta. The protective mechanisms may include regulation of NF-κB and inhibition of NOX2 and NOX4 followed by inhibition of cell adhesion molecule expression. PMID:26881260

  9. Regulation by mitochondrial superoxide and NADPH oxidase of cellular formation of nitrated cyclic GMP: potential implications for ROS signalling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khandaker Ahtesham; Sawa, Tomohiro; Ihara, Hideshi; Kasamatsu, Shingo; Yoshitake, Jun; Rahaman, Md Mizanur; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Fujii, Shigemoto; Akaike, Takaaki

    2012-01-15

    8-Nitro-cGMP (8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) is a nitrated derivative of cGMP, which can function as a unique electrophilic second messenger involved in regulation of an antioxidant adaptive response in cells. In the present study, we investigated chemical and biochemical regulatory mechanisms involved in 8-nitro-cGMP formation, with particular focus on the roles of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Chemical analyses demonstrated that peroxynitrite-dependent oxidation and myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite in the presence of H2O2 were two major pathways for guanine nucleotide nitration. Among the guanine nucleotides examined, GTP was the most sensitive to peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. Immunocytochemical and tandem mass spectrometric analyses revealed that formation of 8-nitro-cGMP in rat C6 glioma cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide plus pro-inflammatory cytokines depended on production of both superoxide and H2O2. Using the mitochondria-targeted chemical probe MitoSOX Red, we found that mitochondria-derived superoxide can act as a direct determinant of 8-nitro-cGMP formation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nox2 (NADPH oxidase 2)-generated H2O2 regulated mitochondria-derived superoxide production, which suggests the importance of cross-talk between Nox2-dependent H2O2 production and mitochondrial superoxide production. The results of the present study suggest that 8-nitro-cGMP can serve as a unique second messenger that may be implicated in regulating ROS signalling in the presence of NO.

  10. Apocynin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by attenuating the upregulation of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2015-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting many people all over the world. Absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Apocynin (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard. Interestingly, apocynin pre-treatment provided 93.5% gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulceration. Biochemically, gastric mucin content was significantly increased with apocynin pre-treatment. This finding was further supported by alcian blue staining of stomach sections obtained from the different treated groups. Also, gastric juice volume and acidity were significantly reduced. Apocynin significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by replenishing reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels as well as reducing elevated malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissues. Besides, ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased by apocynin pre-treatment via reducing elevated levels of pro-inflammatory markers; interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, caspase-3 tissue level was significantly reduced in apocynin pre-treated group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) and NOX-4 up-regulation was shown to be partially involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and was significantly reversed by apocynin pre-treatment. Gastroprotective properties of apocynin were confirmed by histopathological examination. It is worth mentioning that apocynin was superior in all aspects except gastric mucin content parameter where it was significantly increased by 13.5 folds in the omeprazole pre-treated group. This study was the first to show that apocynin is a promising gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, partially via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects as well as down-regulating NOX-1 and NOX-4

  11. Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) supports NADPH oxidase1 (Nox1)-based superoxide generation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jaeyul; Wang, Aibing; Burke, Devin J; Boudreau, Howard E; Lekstrom, Kristen J; Korzeniowska, Agnieszka; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yi, Liang; Ersoy, Ilker; Jaeger, Stefan; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Ambruso, Daniel R; Jackson, Sharon H; Leto, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    Nox1 is an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in colon epithelium recently shown to function in wound healing and epithelial homeostasis. We identified Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) as a novel binding partner of Nox activator 1 (Noxa1) in yeast two-hybrid screening experiments using the Noxa1 SH3 domain as bait. Prdx6 is a unique member of the Prdx antioxidant enzyme family exhibiting both glutathione peroxidase and phospholipase A2 activities. We confirmed this interaction in cells overexpressing both proteins, showing Prdx6 binds to and stabilizes wild type Noxa1, but not the SH3 domain mutant form, Noxa1 W436R. We demonstrated in several cell models that Prdx6 knockdown suppresses Nox1 activity, whereas enhanced Prdx6 expression supports higher Nox1-derived superoxide production. Both peroxidase- and lipase-deficient mutant forms of Prdx6 (Prdx6 C47S and S32A, respectively) failed to bind to or stabilize Nox1 components or support Nox1-mediated superoxide generation. Furthermore, the transition-state substrate analogue inhibitor of Prdx6 phospholipase A2 activity (MJ-33) was shown to suppress Nox1 activity, suggesting Nox1 activity is regulated by the phospholipase activity of Prdx6. Finally, wild type Prdx6, but not lipase or peroxidase mutant forms, supports Nox1-mediated cell migration in the HCT-116 colon epithelial cell model of wound closure. These findings highlight a novel pathway in which this antioxidant enzyme positively regulates an oxidant-generating system to support cell migration and wound healing. PMID:27094494

  12. H2O2 generated by NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-mediated mechanosensation in the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chian-Shiung; Lee, Shang-Hsing; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-08-15

    The presence of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the kidney, especially Nox4, results in H2O2 production, which regulates Na(+) excretion and urine formation. Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1s) are distributed in mechanosensory fibers of the renal pelvis and monitor changes in intrapelvic pressure (IPP) during urine formation. The present study tested whether H2O2 derived from Nox4 affects TRPV1 function in renal sensory responses. Perfusion of H2O2 into the renal pelvis dose dependently increased afferent renal nerve activity and substance P (SP) release. These responses were attenuated by cotreatment with catalase or TRPV1 blockers. In single unit recordings, H2O2 activated afferent renal nerve activity in response to rising IPP but not high salt. Western blots revealed that Nox2 (gp91(phox)) and Nox4 are both present in the rat kidney, but Nox4 is abundant in the renal pelvis and originates from dorsal root ganglia. This distribution was associated with expression of the Nox4 regulators p22(phox) and polymerase δ-interacting protein 2. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that IPP increases polymerase δ-interacting protein 2 association with Nox4 or p22(phox) in the renal pelvis. Interestingly, immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated that Nox4 colocalizes with TRPV1 in sensory fibers of the renal pelvis, indicating that H2O2 generated from Nox4 may affect TRPV1 activity. Stepwise increases in IPP and saline loading resulted in H2O2 and SP release, sensory activation, diuresis, and natriuresis. These effects, however, were remarkably attenuated by Nox inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that Nox4-positive fibers liberate H2O2 after mechanostimulation, thereby contributing to a renal sensory nerve-mediated diuretic/natriuretic response. PMID:26136558

  13. WO3/Pt nanoparticles are NADPH oxidase biomimetics that mimic effector cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea J.; Coury, Emma L.; Meilhac, Alexandra M.; Petty, Howard R.

    2016-02-01

    To provide a means of delivering an artificial immune effector cell-like attack on tumor cells, we report the tumoricidal ability of inorganic WO3/Pt nanoparticles that mimic a leukocyte’s functional abilities. These nanoparticles route electrons from organic structures and electron carriers to form hydroxyl radicals within tumor cells. During visible light exposure, WO3/Pt nanoparticles manufacture hydroxyl radicals, degrade organic compounds, use NADPH, trigger lipid peroxidation, promote lysosomal membrane disruption, promote the loss of reduced glutathione, and activate apoptosis. In a model of advanced breast cancer metastasis to the eye’s anterior chamber, we show that WO3/Pt nanoparticles prolong the survival of 4T1 tumor-bearing Balb/c mice. This new generation of inorganic photosensitizers do not photobleach, and therefore should provide an important therapeutic advance in photodynamic therapy. As biomimetic nanoparticles destroy targeted cells, they may be useful in treating ocular and other forms of cancer.

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of alkyl gallates.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Kubo, Isao

    2006-08-01

    A series (C1-C12) of alkyl gallates was examined for their effects on the activity of xanthine oxidase. Octyl (C8), decyl (C10), and dodecyl (C12) gallates competitively inhibited uric acid formation generated by xanthine oxidase, and the inhibition increased upon increasing the alkyl chain length. Interestingly, neither menthyl nor bornyl gallates inhibited uric acid formation. These data indicate that the hydrophobic alkyl portion is associated with the xanthine-binding site in the Mo-binding domain. It is likely that the linear alkyl portion interacts with the hydrophobic domain close to the binding site, and the hydrophobic interaction is crucial to inhibit the xanthine oxidase reaction. On the other hand, all of gallic acid and its esters equally suppress superoxide anion generation catalyzed by xanthine oxidase at low concentration. The suppression is not due to scavenging activity of these gallates but due to reduction of xanthine oxidase by these gallates. The reduced enzyme catalyzes the reaction to generate hydrogen peroxide and uric acid.

  15. Oscillatory shear stress stimulates endothelial production of O2- from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidases, leading to monocyte adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Jinah; Saha, Aniket; Boo, Yong Chool; Sorescu, George P.; McNally, J. Scott; Holland, Steven M.; Dikalov, Sergei; Giddens, Don P.; Griendling, Kathy K.; Harrison, David G.; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Arterial regions exposed to oscillatory shear (OS) in branched arteries are lesion-prone sites of atherosclerosis, whereas those of laminar shear (LS) are relatively well protected. Here, we examined the hypothesis that OS and LS differentially regulate production of O2- from the endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, is responsible for their opposite effects on a critical atherogenic event, monocyte adhesion. We used aortic endothelial cells obtained from C57BL/6 (MAE-C57) and p47phox-/- (MAE-p47-/-) mice, which lack a component of NAD(P)H oxidase. O2- production was determined by dihydroethidium staining and an electron spin resonance using an electron spin trap methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine. Chronic exposure (18 h) to an arterial level of OS (+/- 5 dynes/cm2) increased O2- (2-fold) and monocyte adhesion (3-fold) in MAE-C57 cells, whereas chronic LS (15 dynes/cm2, 18 h) significantly decreased both monocyte adhesion and O2- compared with static conditions. In contrast, neither LS nor OS were able to induce O2- production and monocyte adhesion to MAE-p47-/-. Treating MAE-C57 with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase compound, polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase, also inhibited OS-induced monocyte adhesion. In addition, over-expressing p47phox in MAE-p47-/- restored OS-induced O2- production and monocyte adhesion. These results suggest that chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates O2- and/or its derivatives produced from p47phox-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase, which, in turn, leads to monocyte adhesion, an early and critical atherogenic event.

  16. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Rajesh K.; Murray, Thomas V. A.; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M.; Brewer, Alison C.

    2016-01-01

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production. PMID:26620565

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of Cystathionine-γ-Lyase in Endothelial Cells by NADPH Oxidase 4-Dependent Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rajesh K; Murray, Thomas V A; Prysyazhna, Oleksandra; Martin, Daniel; Burgoyne, Joseph R; Santos, Celio; Eaton, Philip; Shah, Ajay M; Brewer, Alison C

    2016-01-22

    The gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as an important mediator of endothelial cell homeostasis and function that impacts upon vascular tone and blood pressure. Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is the predominant endothelial generator of H2S, and recent evidence suggests that its transcriptional expression is regulated by the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. However, the cellular source of H2O2 and the redox-dependent molecular signaling pathway that modulates this is not known. We aimed to investigate the role of Nox4, an endothelial generator of H2O2, in the regulation of CSE in endothelial cells. Both gain- and loss-of-function experiments in human endothelial cells in vitro demonstrated Nox4 to be a positive regulator of CSE transcription and protein expression. We demonstrate that this is dependent upon a heme-regulated inhibitor kinase/eIF2α/activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) signaling module. ATF4 was further demonstrated to bind directly to cis-regulatory sequences within the first intron of CSE to activate transcription. Furthermore, CSE expression was also increased in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice, compared with wild-type littermate controls. Using wire myography we demonstrate that endothelial-specific Nox4 transgenic mice exhibit a hypo-contractile phenotype in response to phenylephrine that was abolished when vessels were incubated with a CSE inhibitor, propargylglycine. We, therefore, conclude that Nox4 is a positive transcriptional regulator of CSE in endothelial cells and propose that it may in turn contribute to the regulation of vascular tone via the modulation of H2S production.

  18. Luminal flow induces NADPH oxidase 4 translocation to the nuclei of thick ascending limbs.

    PubMed

    Saez, Fara; Hong, Nancy J; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-03-01

    Superoxide (O2 (-)) exerts its physiological actions in part by causing changes in gene transcription. In thick ascending limbs flow-induced O2 (-)production is mediated byNADPHoxidase 4 (Nox4) and is dependent on protein kinase C (PKC). Polymerase delta interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) increases Nox4 activity, but it is not known whether Nox4 translocates to the nucleus and whether Poldip2 participates in this process. We hypothesized that luminal flow causes Nox4 translocation to the nuclei of thick ascending limbs in aPKC-dependent process facilitated by Poldip2. To test our hypothesis, we studied the subcellular localization of Nox4 and Poldip2 using confocal microscopy and O2 (-)production in the absence and presence of luminal flow. Luminal flow increased the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic intensity of Nox4 (N/C) from 0.3 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1 (P < 0.01) and O2 (-)production from 89 ± 15 to 231 ± 16AU/s (P < 0.001). In the presence of flowPKCinhibition reduced N/C from 0.5 ± 0.1 to 0.2 ± 0.1 (P < 0.01). Flow-induced O2 (-)production was also blocked (flow: 142 ± 20AU/s; flow plusPKCinhibition 26 ± 12AU/s;P < 0.01). The cytoskeleton disruptor cytochalasin D (1 μmol/L) decreased flow-induced Nox4 translocation by 0.3 ± 0.01 (P < 0.01); however, it did not reduce flow-induced O2 (-) Flow did not alter Poldip2 localization. We conclude that: (1) luminal flow elicits Nox4 translocation to the nucleus in aPKC- and cytoskeleton-dependent process; (2) Nox4 activation occurs before translocation; and (3) Poldip2 is not involved in Nox4 nuclear translocation. Flow-induced Nox4 translocation to the nucleus may play a role in O2 (-)-dependent changes in thick ascending limbs.

  19. Bile acid receptor TGR5, NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S and CREB Mediate Bile Acid-Induced DNA Damage In Barrett’s Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby bile acid reflux may accelerate the progression from Barrett’s esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. In this study we found that bile acid taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) significantly increased the tail moment (TM) and histone H2AX phosphorylation in FLO-1 EA cells, an increase which was significantly decreased by knockdown of TGR5. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly increased TDCA-induced TM increase and H2AX phosphorylation. In addition, NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium significantly inhibited the TDCA-induced increase in TM and H2AX phosphorylation. TDCA-induced increase in TM and H2AX phosphorylation was significantly decreased by knockdown of NOX5-S and overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased TDCA-induced increase in the tail moment and H2AX phosphorylation. Furthermore, TDCA significantly increased cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in FLO-1 cells. Knockdown of CREB significantly decreased TDCA-induced increase in NOX5-S mRNA and the tail moment. Conversely, overexpression of CREB significantly increased TDCA-induced TM increase. We conclude that TDCA-induced DNA damage may depend on the activation of TGR5, CREB and NOX5-S. It is possible that in Barrett’s patients bile acids may activate NOX5-S and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via activation of TGR5 and CREB. NOX5-S-derived ROS may cause DNA damage, thereby contributing to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:27511066

  20. Bile acid receptor TGR5, NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S and CREB Mediate Bile Acid-Induced DNA Damage In Barrett's Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms whereby bile acid reflux may accelerate the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE) to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) are not fully understood. In this study we found that bile acid taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) significantly increased the tail moment (TM) and histone H2AX phosphorylation in FLO-1 EA cells, an increase which was significantly decreased by knockdown of TGR5. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly increased TDCA-induced TM increase and H2AX phosphorylation. In addition, NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium significantly inhibited the TDCA-induced increase in TM and H2AX phosphorylation. TDCA-induced increase in TM and H2AX phosphorylation was significantly decreased by knockdown of NOX5-S and overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased TDCA-induced increase in the tail moment and H2AX phosphorylation. Furthermore, TDCA significantly increased cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in FLO-1 cells. Knockdown of CREB significantly decreased TDCA-induced increase in NOX5-S mRNA and the tail moment. Conversely, overexpression of CREB significantly increased TDCA-induced TM increase. We conclude that TDCA-induced DNA damage may depend on the activation of TGR5, CREB and NOX5-S. It is possible that in Barrett's patients bile acids may activate NOX5-S and increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via activation of TGR5 and CREB. NOX5-S-derived ROS may cause DNA damage, thereby contributing to the progression from BE to EA. PMID:27511066

  1. Oxygen radicals as second messengers for expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the monocyte colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1, in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and immunoglobulin G. Evidence for involvement of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase.

    PubMed

    Satriano, J A; Shuldiner, M; Hora, K; Xing, Y; Shan, Z; Schlondorff, D

    1993-09-01

    The potential involvement of reactive oxygen species in the expression of genes involved in immune response was examined in mesangial cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and aggregated (aggr.) IgG increased mRNA levels for the monocyte chemoattractant protein, JE/MCP-1, and the colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1. Scavengers for free radicals such as di- and tetra-methylthiourea (DMTU and TMTU) attenuated the increase in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. Generation of superoxide anion by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine increased mRNA levels of these genes, but exogenous H2O2 did not. Addition of NADPH to activate a membrane-bound NADPH-oxidase generated superoxide and caused a dose-dependent increase in mRNA levels and further enhanced the stimulation by TNF-alpha or aggr. IgG. An inhibitor of NADPH-dependent oxidase 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-acetophenone attenuated the rise in mRNA levels in response to TNF-alpha and aggr. IgG. By nuclear run-on experiments TNF-alpha, aggr. IgG and NADPH increased the transcription rates for JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1, effects inhibited by TMTU. We conclude that generation of reactive oxygen species, possibly by NADPH-dependent oxidase, are involved in the induction of the JE/MCP-1 and CSF-1 genes by TNF-alpha and IgG complexes. The concerted expression of leukocyte-directed cytokines represents a general response to tissue injury.

  2. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers.

  3. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  4. [Influence of polymorphism's of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and polymorphism of NADPH oxidase gene on development of complications of arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, T Iu; Gavrilov, D V; Dudanov, I P; Makarevich, P I; Balatskiĭ, A V; Samokhodskaia, L M; Parfenova, E V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of polymorphism Glu298Asp of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and C242T p22 phox polymorphism of NADPH oxidase gene in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) and their influence on AH complications. The study included 272 AH patients, average age 50,7 years. The following analyses were performed: clinical analysis of the blood, general analysis of the urine, lipid spectrum, plasma electrolytes, creatinine, glucose, electrocardiography, echocardioscopy, examination of eye vessels, ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, determination of microalbuminuria. The polymorphism Glu298Asp of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and C242T p22 phox polymorphism of NADPH oxidase gene were detected with two methods: polymerase chain reaction and restrictase reaction. The control group for Glu298Asp polymorphism detection included 102 healthy Russian donors aged 18 to 50 years. Genotypes prevalence in AH patients was as follows: GG 58,8%, GA 32,3%, AA 8,9%, and CC 48,2%, CT 44,9%, TT 6.9%. In the control group: GG 53%, GA 36%, AA 11% and CC 42%, CT 54%, TT 4%. These polymorphisms did not affect the incidence of complications, such as obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremity vessels, ischemic heart disease, and acute insufficiency of cerebral circulation, chronic heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, carotid arteries atherosclerosis. PMID:18429753

  5. SOD1 mutations disrupt redox-sensitive Rac regulation of NADPH oxidase in a familial ALS model

    PubMed Central

    Harraz, Maged M.; Marden, Jennifer J.; Zhou, Weihong; Zhang, Yulong; Williams, Aislinn; Sharov, Victor S.; Nelson, Kathryn; Luo, Meihui; Paulson, Henry; Schöneich, Christian; Engelhardt, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Neurodegeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with enhanced redox stress caused by dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase–1 (SOD1). SOD1 is a cytosolic enzyme that facilitates the conversion of superoxide (O2•–) to H2O2. Here we demonstrate that SOD1 is not just a catabolic enzyme, but can also directly regulate NADPH oxidase–dependent (Nox-dependent) O2•– production by binding Rac1 and inhibiting its GTPase activity. Oxidation of Rac1 by H2O2 uncoupled SOD1 binding in a reversible fashion, producing a self-regulating redox sensor for Nox-derived O2•– production. This process of redox-sensitive uncoupling of SOD1 from Rac1 was defective in SOD1 ALS mutants, leading to enhanced Rac1/Nox activation in transgenic mouse tissues and cell lines expressing ALS SOD1 mutants. Glial cell toxicity associated with expression of SOD1 mutants in culture was significantly attenuated by treatment with the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Treatment of ALS mice with apocynin also significantly increased their average life span. This redox sensor mechanism may explain the gain-of-function seen with certain SOD1 mutations associated with ALS and defines new therapeutic targets. PMID:18219391

  6. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  7. [DISTRIBUTION OF NADPH-DIAPHORASE ACTIVITY IN TREMATODE CERCARIAE].

    PubMed

    Terenina, N B

    2015-01-01

    The presence and distribution of nitric oxide sinthase was studied in cercariae of trematodes from seven families using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemical method. The positive NADPH-d staining has been observed in nerve fibers in main nerve chords and in fibers running to eyespots (pigmented eyes) as well as in muscles of the oral and ventral suckers. The obtained data support an important role of the NO-signalling in the physiology of trematode cercariae. PMID:27055331

  8. Clematichinenoside inhibits VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated endothelial cells via NADPH oxidase-dependent IκB kinase/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Simin; Zhang, Xu; Zheng, Haili; Hu, Danhong; Zhang, Yongtian; Guan, Qinghua; Liu, Lifang; Ding, Qilong; Li, Yunman

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α-induced adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays a critical role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and redox-sensitive transcription factors are implicated in the process. Thus, compounds that mediate intracellular redox status and regulate transcription factors are of great therapeutic interest. Clematichinenoside (AR), a triterpene saponin isolated from the root of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, little is known about the exact mechanism underlying these actions. Thus we performed a detailed study on its effect on leukocytes-endothelial cells adhesion with TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cell-free systems. First, we found that AR reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and their promoter activity, inhibited translocation of p65 and phosphorylation of IκBα, suppressed IκB kinase-β (IKK-β) activity, lowered O2(∙-) and H2O2 levels, tackled p47(phox) translocation, and decreased NOX4 NADPH oxidase expression. Second, we showed that AR exhibited no direct free radical scavenging ability in cell-free systems at concentrations that were used in intact cells. Besides, AR had no direct effect on the activity of IKK-β that was extracted from TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. We also found that p47 translocation, NOX4 expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were up-regulated before IκB phosphorylation in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced IKK-β activity was also inhibited by (polyethylene glycol) PEG-catalase, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and vitamin E. In conclusion, these results suggest that AR reduces VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression through NADPH oxidase-dependent IKK/NF-κB pathways in TNF-α-induced HUVECs, which finally suppress monocyte-HUVECs adhesion. This compound is potentially beneficial for early-stage atherosclerosis. PMID:25463279

  9. XJP-1 protects endothelial cells from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by inhibiting NADPH oxidase subunit expression and modulating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Qiujuan; Guo, Qinglong; Xu, Jinyi; Wu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial apoptosis triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can accelerate the progression of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. (±)7,8-Dihydroxy-3-methyl-isochromanone-4 (XJP-1) is a natural phenolic compound derived from banana peel. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of XJP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to ox-LDL and explored underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that in the presence of ox-LDL, XJP-1 significantly attenuated ox-LDL-mediated cytotoxicity, apoptosis, caspase-3 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and NADPH oxidase subunit (p22phox and p47phox) expression in HUVECs. In addition, the anticytotoxic and anti-apoptotic effect of XJP-1 was partially inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an Akt inhibitor (SH-6), a specific eNOS inhibitor (l-NAME) and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor (DPI). In exploring the underlying mechanisms of XJP-1 action, we found that XJP-1 eliminated ox-LDL-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in a dose-dependent manner. However, XJP-1 alone upregulation of Akt and eNOS phosphorylation were blocked by LY294002 and SH-6. Moreover, XJP-1 increased NO production, but this effect was abolished by LY294002, SH-6 and l-NAME. The inhibition of ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction by XJP-1 is due at least in part to its anti-oxidant activity and its ability to modulate the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway.

  10. On the use of L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent probe, for detecting superoxide and identifying inhibitors of NADPH oxidase: a reevaluation.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Jacek; Lambeth, J David; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-12-01

    L-012, a luminol-based chemiluminescent (CL) probe, is widely used in vitro and in vivo to detect NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived superoxide (O2(*-)) and identify Nox inhibitors. Yet understanding of the free radical chemistry of the L-012 probe is still lacking. We report that peroxidase and H2O2 induce superoxide dismutase (SOD)-sensitive, L-012-derived CL in the presence of oxygen. O2(*-) alone does not react with L-012 to emit luminescence. Self-generated O2(*-) during oxidation of L-012 and luminol analogs artifactually induce CL inhibitable by SOD. These aspects make assays based on luminol analogs less than ideal for specific detection and identification of O2(*-) and NOX inhibitors. PMID:24080119

  11. Root growth restraint can be an acclimatory response to low pH and is associated with reduced cell mortality: a possible role of class III peroxidases and NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Graças, J P; Ruiz-Romero, R; Figueiredo, L D; Mattiello, L; Peres, L E P; Vitorello, V A

    2016-07-01

    Low pH (<5.0) can significantly decrease root growth but whether this is a direct effect of H(+) or an active plant response is examined here. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom) roots were exposed directly or gradually to low pH through step-wise changes in pH over periods ranging from 4 to 24 h. Roots exposed gradually to pH 4.5 grew even less than those exposed directly, indicating a plant-coordinated response. Direct exposure to pH 4.0 suppressed root growth and caused high cell mortality, in contrast to roots exposed gradually, in which growth remained inhibited but cell viability was maintained. Total class III peroxidase activity increased significantly in all low pH treatments, but was not correlated with the observed differential responses. Use of the enzyme inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) suggest that peroxidase and, to a lesser extent, NADPH oxidase were required to prevent or reduce injury in all low pH treatments. However, a role for other enzymes, such as the alternative oxidase is also possible. The results with SHAM, but not DPI, were confirmed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Our results indicate that root growth inhibition from low pH can be part of an active plant response, and suggest that peroxidases may have a critical early role in reducing loss of cell viability and in the observed root growth constraint.

  12. Root growth restraint can be an acclimatory response to low pH and is associated with reduced cell mortality: a possible role of class III peroxidases and NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Graças, J P; Ruiz-Romero, R; Figueiredo, L D; Mattiello, L; Peres, L E P; Vitorello, V A

    2016-07-01

    Low pH (<5.0) can significantly decrease root growth but whether this is a direct effect of H(+) or an active plant response is examined here. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Micro-Tom) roots were exposed directly or gradually to low pH through step-wise changes in pH over periods ranging from 4 to 24 h. Roots exposed gradually to pH 4.5 grew even less than those exposed directly, indicating a plant-coordinated response. Direct exposure to pH 4.0 suppressed root growth and caused high cell mortality, in contrast to roots exposed gradually, in which growth remained inhibited but cell viability was maintained. Total class III peroxidase activity increased significantly in all low pH treatments, but was not correlated with the observed differential responses. Use of the enzyme inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) suggest that peroxidase and, to a lesser extent, NADPH oxidase were required to prevent or reduce injury in all low pH treatments. However, a role for other enzymes, such as the alternative oxidase is also possible. The results with SHAM, but not DPI, were confirmed in tobacco BY-2 cells. Our results indicate that root growth inhibition from low pH can be part of an active plant response, and suggest that peroxidases may have a critical early role in reducing loss of cell viability and in the observed root growth constraint. PMID:26891589

  13. 4-Coumaroyl coenzyme A 3-hydroxylase activity from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and its relationship to polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z X; Li, S M; Löscher, R; Heide, L

    1997-11-15

    A 4-coumaroyl-CoA 3-hydroxylase activity was purified 4600-fold from cell cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. The enzyme showed a molecular mass of 42,400 +/- 1700 Da in gel chromatography and required ascorbate, NADH, or NADPH as cofactors. 4-Coumaroyl-CoA, 4-coumarate, p-cresol, and several other phenolic substances, but not tyrosine, were accepted as substrates for the hydroxylation. Besides hydroxylase activity, the enzyme showed diphenol oxidase activity. Both activities were inhibited by diethyldithiocarbamate or beta-mercaptoethanol, although at different concentrations. The enzyme showed striking similarity to a 4-coumaroyl-glucose 3-hydroxylase from sweet potato (Ipomoe batatas) roots, which has reportedly been purified to homogeneity and identified as a specific enzyme of chlorogenic acid biosynthesis. Close examination and comparison to a commercially available polyphenol oxidase, however, suggest that the enzyme activities purified from both Lithospermum and sweet potato are polyphenol oxidases rather than specific enzymes of secondary metabolism. PMID:9367532

  14. Spatiotemporal Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by NADPH Oxidase Is Critical for Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong-Tao; Wan, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Male sterility in angiosperms has wide applications in agriculture, particularly in hybrid crop breeding and gene flow control. Microspores develop adjacent to the tapetum, a layer of cells that provides nutrients for pollen development and materials for pollen wall formation. Proper pollen development requires programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, which requires transcriptional cascades and proteolytic enzymes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also affect tapetal PCD, and failures in ROS scavenging cause male sterility. However, many aspects of tapetal PCD remain unclear, including what sources generate ROS, whether ROS production has a temporal pattern, and how the ROS-producing system interacts with the tapetal transcriptional network. We report here that stage-specific expression of NADPH oxidases in the Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum contributes to a temporal peak of ROS production. Genetic interference with the temporal ROS pattern, by manipulating RESPIRATORY-BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) genes, affected the timing of tapetal PCD and resulted in aborted male gametophytes. We further show that the tapetal transcriptional network regulates RBOH expression, indicating that the temporal pattern of ROS production intimately connects to other signaling pathways regulated by the tapetal transcriptional network to ensure the proper timing of tapetal PCD.

  15. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  16. Spatiotemporal Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by NADPH Oxidase Is Critical for Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong-Tao; Wan, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Sha; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Male sterility in angiosperms has wide applications in agriculture, particularly in hybrid crop breeding and gene flow control. Microspores develop adjacent to the tapetum, a layer of cells that provides nutrients for pollen development and materials for pollen wall formation. Proper pollen development requires programmed cell death (PCD) of the tapetum, which requires transcriptional cascades and proteolytic enzymes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also affect tapetal PCD, and failures in ROS scavenging cause male sterility. However, many aspects of tapetal PCD remain unclear, including what sources generate ROS, whether ROS production has a temporal pattern, and how the ROS-producing system interacts with the tapetal transcriptional network. We report here that stage-specific expression of NADPH oxidases in the Arabidopsis thaliana tapetum contributes to a temporal peak of ROS production. Genetic interference with the temporal ROS pattern, by manipulating RESPIRATORY-BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG (RBOH) genes, affected the timing of tapetal PCD and resulted in aborted male gametophytes. We further show that the tapetal transcriptional network regulates RBOH expression, indicating that the temporal pattern of ROS production intimately connects to other signaling pathways regulated by the tapetal transcriptional network to ensure the proper timing of tapetal PCD. PMID:24808050

  17. Tomato SlRbohB, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, is required for disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea and tolerance to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Huijuan; Tian, Limei; Huang, Lei; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (also known as respiratory burst oxidase homologs, Rbohs) are key enzymes that catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. In the present study, eight SlRboh genes were identified in tomato and their possible involvement in resistance to Botrytis cinerea and drought tolerance was examined. Expression of SlRbohs was induced by B. cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato but displayed distinct patterns. Virus-induced gene silencing based silencing of SlRbohB resulted in reduced resistance to B. cinerea but silencing of other SlRbohs did not affect the resistance. Compared to non-silenced plants, the SlRbohB-silenced plants accumulated more ROS and displayed attenuated expression of defense genes after infection with B. cinerea. Silencing of SlRbohB also suppressed flg22-induced ROS burst and the expression of SlLrr22, a marker gene related to PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Transient expression of SlRbohB in Nicotiana benthamiana led to enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Furthermore, silencing of SlRbohB resulted in decreased drought tolerance, accelerated water loss in leaves and the altered expression of drought-responsive genes. Our data demonstrate that SlRbohB positively regulates the resistance to B. cinerea, flg22-induced PTI, and drought tolerance in tomato. PMID:26157450

  18. How Nox2-Containing NADPH Oxidase Affects Cortical Circuits in the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Pinto-Duarte, António; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder affecting around 1% of the population worldwide. Its mode of inheritance suggests a multigenic neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms appearing during late adolescence/early adulthood, with its onset strongly influenced by environmental stimuli. Many neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, show alterations in affected individuals, and the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the disease can be mimicked by drugs that produce blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Recent Advances: Mounting evidence suggests that drugs that block NMDARs specifically impair the inhibitory capacity of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) fast-spiking neurons in adult and developing rodents, and alterations in these inhibitory neurons is one of the most consistent findings in the schizophrenic postmortem brain. Disruption of the inhibitory capacity of PV+ inhibitory neurons will alter the functional balance between excitation and inhibition in prefrontal cortical circuits producing impairment of working memory processes such as those observed in schizophrenia. Critical Issues: Mechanistically, the effect of NMDAR antagonists can be attributed to the activation of the Nox2-dependent reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase pathway in cortical neurons, which is consistent with the emerging role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of mental disorders, specifically schizophrenia. Here we review the mechanisms by which NMDAR antagonists produce lasting impairment of the cortical PV+ neuronal system and the roles played by Nox2-dependent oxidative stress mechanisms. Future Directions: The discovery of the pathways by which oxidative stress leads to unbalanced excitation and inhibition in cortical neural circuits opens a new perspective toward understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. Antioxid

  19. Polyphenol Oxidase Activity Expression in Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). To study the actual expression of these genes, we looked for and detected all kinds of PPO activities, including laccase, cresolase, and catechol oxidase activities, in cellular extracts of this microorganism. The conditions for the PPO assays were optimized for the phenolic substrate, pH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration used. It was demonstrated that three different PPOs are expressed. The genes coding for the enzymes were unambiguously correlated with the enzymatic activities detected by generation of null mutations in the genes by using insertional mutagenesis with a suicide plasmid and estimating the changes in the levels of enzymatic activities compared to the levels in the wild-type strain. The protein encoded by the RSp1530 locus is a multicopper protein with laccase activity. Two other genes, RSc0337 and RSc1501, code for nonblue copper proteins exhibiting homology to tyrosinases. The product of RSc0337 has strong tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and it has been shown that this enzyme is involved in melanin synthesis by R. solanacearum. The product of the RSc1501 gene is an enzyme that shows a clear preference for oxidation of o-diphenols. Preliminary characterization of the mutants obtained indicated that PPOs expressed by R. solanacearum may participate in resistance to phenolic compounds since the mutants exhibited higher sensitivity to l-tyrosine than the wild-type strain. These results suggest a possible role in the pathogenic process to avoid plant resistance mechanisms involving the participation of phenolic compounds. PMID:16269713

  20. Superoxide anion production by NADPH oxidase plays a major role in erectile dysfunction in middle-aged rats: prevention by antioxidant therapy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio H; Mónica, Fabíola Z; Báu, Fernando R; Brugnerotto, Ana F; Priviero, Fernanda B M; Toque, Haroldo A; Antunes, Edson

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: Prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases progressively with aging, but the ED pathophysiology at its early stages is still poorly investigated. AIM.: This study aimed to evaluate the functional and molecular alterations of erectile function at middle age, focusing on the contribution of oxidative stress in erectile tissue for the ED. METHODS.: Young (3.5-month) and middle-aged (10-month) male Wistar rats were used. Rat corpus cavernosum (RCC) was dissected free and mounted in 10-mL organ baths containing Krebs solution. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) in anesthetized rats was evaluated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Concentration-response curves to endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent agents, as well as to electrical field stimulation (EFS), were obtained in RCC strips. Measurement of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), gp91(phox) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) expressions in RCC were evaluated. RESULTS.: ICP was significantly reduced in middle-aged compared with young rats. RCC relaxations to acetylcholine (10(-8) to 10(-2)  M), sodium nitroprusside (10(-8) to 10(-2)  M), sildenafil (10(-9) to 10(-5)  M), BAY 41-2272 (10(-9) to 10(-5)  M), and EFS (4-32 Hz) were decreased in middle-aged group, which were nearly normalized by apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor; 10(-4)  M) or SOD (75 U/mL). Prolonged treatment with apocynin (85 mg/rat/day, 4 weeks) also restored the impaired relaxations in middle-aged rats. Relaxations to 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (8-Br-cGMP; 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-4)  M) remained unchanged between groups. Basal and stimulated cGMP production were lower in middle-aged group, an effect fully restored by apocynin and SOD. Protein expression of nNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) (Ser-1177) reduced, whereas gp(91phox) mRNA expression increased in RCC from middle-aged rats. CONCLUSIONS

  1. Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.

    2013-08-01

    In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.

  2. A ROS-Assisted Calcium Wave Dependent on the AtRBOHD NADPH Oxidase and TPC1 Cation Channel Propagates the Systemic Response to Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew J; Choi, Won-Gyu; Gilroy, Simon; Morris, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    Plants exhibit rapid, systemic signaling systems that allow them to coordinate physiological and developmental responses throughout the plant body, even to highly localized and quickly changing environmental stresses. The propagation of these signals is thought to include processes ranging from electrical and hydraulic networks to waves of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) traveling throughout the plant. For the Ca(2+) wave system, the involvement of the vacuolar ion channel TWO PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) has been reported. However, the precise role of this channel and the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of the wave have remained largely undefined. Here, we use the fire-diffuse-fire model to analyze the behavior of a Ca(2+) wave originating from Ca(2+) release involving the TPC1 channel in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We conclude that a Ca(2+) diffusion-dominated calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism is insufficient to explain the observed wave transmission speeds. The addition of a ROS-triggered element, however, is able to quantitatively reproduce the observed transmission characteristics. The treatment of roots with the ROS scavenger ascorbate and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium and analysis of Ca(2+) wave propagation in the Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtrbohD) knockout background all led to reductions in Ca(2+) wave transmission speeds consistent with this model. Furthermore, imaging of extracellular ROS production revealed a systemic spread of ROS release that is dependent on both AtRBOHD and TPC1 These results suggest that, in the root, plant systemic signaling is supported by a ROS-assisted calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism intimately involving ROS production by AtRBOHD and Ca(2+) release dependent on the vacuolar channel TPC1. PMID:27261066

  3. A ROS-Assisted Calcium Wave Dependent on the AtRBOHD NADPH Oxidase and TPC1 Cation Channel Propagates the Systemic Response to Salt Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew J.; Choi, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Plants exhibit rapid, systemic signaling systems that allow them to coordinate physiological and developmental responses throughout the plant body, even to highly localized and quickly changing environmental stresses. The propagation of these signals is thought to include processes ranging from electrical and hydraulic networks to waves of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytoplasmic Ca2+ traveling throughout the plant. For the Ca2+ wave system, the involvement of the vacuolar ion channel TWO PORE CHANNEL1 (TPC1) has been reported. However, the precise role of this channel and the mechanism of cell-to-cell propagation of the wave have remained largely undefined. Here, we use the fire-diffuse-fire model to analyze the behavior of a Ca2+ wave originating from Ca2+ release involving the TPC1 channel in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We conclude that a Ca2+ diffusion-dominated calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism is insufficient to explain the observed wave transmission speeds. The addition of a ROS-triggered element, however, is able to quantitatively reproduce the observed transmission characteristics. The treatment of roots with the ROS scavenger ascorbate and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyliodonium and analysis of Ca2+ wave propagation in the Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (AtrbohD) knockout background all led to reductions in Ca2+ wave transmission speeds consistent with this model. Furthermore, imaging of extracellular ROS production revealed a systemic spread of ROS release that is dependent on both AtRBOHD and TPC1. These results suggest that, in the root, plant systemic signaling is supported by a ROS-assisted calcium-induced calcium-release mechanism intimately involving ROS production by AtRBOHD and Ca2+ release dependent on the vacuolar channel TPC1. PMID:27261066

  4. Wild-type and mutant p53 differentially regulate NADPH oxidase 4 in TGF-β-mediated migration of human lung and breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, H E; Casterline, B W; Burke, D J; Leto, T L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to increased cell plasticity at the onset of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Mechanisms involved in TGF-β-mediated EMT and cell motility are unclear. Recent studies showed that p53 affects TGF-β/SMAD3-mediated signalling, cell migration, and tumorigenesis. We previously demonstrated that Nox4, a Nox family NADPH oxidase, is a TGF-β/SMAD3-inducible source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting cell migration and fibronectin expression, an EMT marker, in normal and metastatic breast epithelial cells. Our present study investigates the involvement of p53 in TGF-β-regulated Nox4 expression and cell migration. Methods: We investigated the effect of wild-type p53 (WT-p53) and mutant p53 proteins on TGF-β-regulated Nox4 expression and cell migration. Nox4 mRNA and protein, ROS production, cell migration, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation were examined in three different cell models based on their p53 mutational status. H1299, a p53-null lung epithelial cell line, was used for heterologous expression of WT-p53 or mutant p53. In contrast, functional studies using siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous p53 were conducted in MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast epithelial cells that express p53-R280K and MCF-10A normal breast cells that have WT-p53. Results: We found that WT-p53 is a potent suppressor of TGF-β-induced Nox4, ROS production, and cell migration in p53-null lung epithelial (H1299) cells. In contrast, tumour-associated mutant p53 proteins (R175H or R280K) caused enhanced Nox4 expression and cell migration in both TGF-β-dependent and TGF-β-independent pathways. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous mutant p53 (R280K) in TGF-β-treated MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast epithelial cells resulted in decreased Nox4 protein and reduced phosphorylation of FAK, a key regulator of cell motility. Expression of WT-p53 or dominant-negative Nox4

  5. Effect of heat stress-induced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species on NADPH oxidase and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA levels in avian muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kikusato, Motoi; Yoshida, Hayami; Furukawa, Kyohei; Toyomizu, Masaaki

    2015-08-01

    Heat stress is a major factor inducing oxidative disturbance in cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured avian muscle cells in response to heat stress, and also focused attention on the interaction of mitochondrial superoxide anions with altered NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA levels in heat-stressed cells. Exposure of cells to heat stress conditions (41°C, 6h) resulted in increased mitochondrial superoxide and intracellular ROS levels, and increased carbonyl protein content as compared with that of normal cells (37°C). The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol lowered intracellular ROS levels in heat-stressed cells. Heat stress increased NOX4 mRNA and decreased HO-1 mRNA levels, while SOD1 and SOD2 mRNA levels remained relatively stable in heat-stressed cells. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy TEMPO to the culture medium of heat-stressed cells restored mitochondrial superoxide and intracellular ROS levels as well as NOX4 and HO-1 mRNA levels to near-normal values. We suggest that mitochondrial superoxide production could play an influential role in augmenting oxidative damage to avian muscle cells, possibly via the up-regulation of NOX4 and down-regulation of HO-1 in heat-stressed avian muscle cells.

  6. Roothairless5, which functions in maize (Zea mays L.) root hair initiation and elongation encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Josefine; Liu, Sanzhen; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Paschold, Anja; Marcon, Caroline; Tang, Ho Man; Li, Delin; Li, Li; Meeley, Robert B; Sakai, Hajime; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Root hairs are instrumental for nutrient uptake in monocot cereals. The maize (Zea mays L.) roothairless5 (rth5) mutant displays defects in root hair initiation and elongation manifested by a reduced density and length of root hairs. Map-based cloning revealed that the rth5 gene encodes a monocot-specific NADPH oxidase. RNA-Seq, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the rth5 gene displays preferential expression in root hairs but also accumulates to low levels in other tissues. Immunolocalization detected RTH5 proteins in the epidermis of the elongation and differentiation zone of primary roots. Because superoxide and hydrogen peroxide levels are reduced in the tips of growing rth5 mutant root hairs as compared with wild-type, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be involved in tip growth, we hypothesize that the RTH5 protein is responsible for establishing the high levels of ROS in the tips of growing root hairs required for elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, a comparative RNA-Seq analysis of 6-day-old rth5 versus wild-type primary roots revealed significant over-representation of only two gene ontology (GO) classes related to the biological functions (i.e. oxidation/reduction and carbohydrate metabolism) among 893 differentially expressed genes (FDR <5%). Within these two classes the subgroups 'response to oxidative stress' and 'cellulose biosynthesis' were most prominently represented.

  7. First evidence for a crosstalk between mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in nitroglycerin-triggered vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Philip; Mollnau, Hanke; Oelze, Matthias; Schulz, Eberhard; Wickramanayake, Jennifer M Dias; Müller, Johanna; Schuhmacher, Swenja; Hortmann, Marcus; Baldus, Stephan; Gori, Tommaso; Brandes, Ralf P; Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    Chronic nitroglycerin treatment results in development of nitrate tolerance associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED). We sought to clarify how mitochondria- and NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to nitrate tolerance and nitroglycerin-induced ED. Nitrate tolerance was induced by nitroglycerin infusion in male Wistar rats (100 microg/h/4 day) and in C57/Bl6, p47(phox/) and gp91(phox/) mice (50 microg/h/4 day). Protein and mRNA expression of Nox subunits were unaltered by chronic nitroglycerin treatment. Oxidative stress was determined in vascular rings and mitochondrial fractions of nitroglycerin-treated animals by L-012 enhanced chemiluminescence, revealing a dominant role of mitochondria for nitrate tolerance development. Isometric tension studies revealed that genetic deletion or inhibition (apocynin, 0.35 mg/h/4 day) of Nox improved ED, whereas nitrate tolerance was unaltered. Vice versa, nitrate tolerance was attenuated by co-treatment with the respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone (100 microg/h/4 day) or the mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporine A (50 microg/h/4 day). Both compounds improved ED, suggesting a link between mitochondrial and Nox-derived ROS. Mitochondrial respiratory chain-derived ROS are critical for the development of nitrate tolerance, whereas Nox-derived ROS mediate nitrate tolerance-associated ED. This suggests a crosstalk between mitochondrial and Nox-derived ROS with distinct mechanistic effects and sites for pharmacological intervention. PMID:18522491

  8. TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor gene: The role of NAD(P)H oxidase 4

    SciTech Connect

    St Hilaire, Cynthia; Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon H.; Smith, Barbara D.; Ravid, Katya

    2008-10-24

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), oxidative stress, and elevated inflammatory cytokines are some of the components that contribute to plaque formation in the vasculature. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) is released during vascular injury, and contributes to lesion formation also by affecting VSMC proliferation. Recently, an A{sub 2B} adenosine receptor (A{sub 2B}AR) knockout mouse illustrated that this receptor is a tissue protector, in that it inhibits VSMC proliferation and attenuates the inflammatory response following injury, including the release of TNF-{alpha}. Here, we show a regulatory loop by which TNF-{alpha} upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR in VSMC in vitro and in vivo. The effect of this cytokine is mimicked by its known downstream target, NAD(P)H oxidase 4 (Nox4). Nox4 upregulates the A{sub 2B}AR, and Nox inhibitors dampen the effect of TNF-{alpha}. Hence, our study is the first to show that signaling associated with Nox4 is also able to upregulate the tissue protecting A{sub 2B}AR.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated angiopoietin-2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis is regulated by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Menden, Heather; Welak, Scott; Cossette, Stephanie; Ramchandran, Ramani; Sampath, Venkatesh

    2015-02-27

    Sepsis-mediated endothelial Angiopoeitin-2 (Ang2) signaling may contribute to microvascular remodeling in the developing lung. The mechanisms by which bacterial cell wall components such as LPS mediate Ang2 signaling in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) remain understudied. In HPMEC, LPS-induced Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A protein expression was preceded by increased superoxide formation. NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) inhibition, but not Nox4 or Nox1 inhibition, attenuated LPS-induced superoxide formation and Ang2, Tie2, and VEGF-A expression. Nox2 silencing, but not Nox4 or Nox1 silencing, inhibited LPS-mediated inhibitor of κ-B kinase β (IKKβ) and p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. In HPMECs, LPS increased the number of angiogenic tube and network formations in Matrigel by >3-fold. Conditioned media from LPS-treated cells also induced angiogenic tube and network formation in the presence of Toll-like receptor 4 blockade but not in the presence of Ang2 and VEGF blockade. Nox2 inhibition or conditioned media from Nox2-silenced cells attenuated LPS-induced tube and network formation. Ang2 and VEGF-A treatment rescued angiogenesis in Nox2-silenced cells. We propose that Nox2 regulates LPS-mediated Ang2-dependent autocrine angiogenesis in HPMECs through the IKKβ/NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. PMID:25568324

  10. NADPH oxidase 2 plays a critical role in dysfunction and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells induced by very low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juan; Dou, Lin; Li, Miao; Lu, Yonggang; Guo, Han-Bang; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    In type 2 diabetes, pancreatic β-cells cannot secret enough insulin compensate for insulin resistance, which are often accompanied by abnormality in lipid metabolism such as hypertriglyceridemia. It is reported that oxidative stress is involved in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. However, molecular mechanisms linking between excessive generations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis induced by high levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) are poorly understood. In this study, we test the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived ROS may play a key role in dysfunction and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cell induced by VLDL. Our results show that the ApoCIII transgenic mice displayed increased serum TG levels, enhanced generation of ROS and impaired insulin content in pancreatic β-cells. In vitro, the treatment of pancreatic NIT-1 cells with 1 mg/ml VLDL for 12 h stimulated NOX2-derived ROS generation, decreased expression and secretion of insulin. Furthermore, we found that VLDL induced dysfunction and apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells through JNK and p53 pathways, which were rescued by siRNA-mediated NOX2 reduction. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a critical role of NOX2-derived ROS in dysfunction and apoptosis through JNK and p53 pathways in pancreatic β-cells induced by VLDL. PMID:22911512

  11. NADPH oxidase NOX2 defines a new antagonistic role for reactive oxygen species and cAMP/PKA in the regulation of insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform-specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse β-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform-specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic β-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS.

  12. NADPH Oxidase NOX2 Defines a New Antagonistic Role for Reactive Oxygen Species and cAMP/PKA in the Regulation of Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Bin; Brun, Thierry; Deffert-Delbouille, Christine; Mahiout, Zahia; Daali, Youssef; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In insulin-secreting cells, expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a potent source of ROS, has been reported, along with controversial findings regarding its function. Here, the role of NOXs was investigated: first by expression and cellular localization in mouse and human pancreatic islets, and then by functional studies in islets isolated from Nox isoform–specific knockout mice. Both human and mouse β-cells express NOX, in particular NOX2. With use of Nox isoform–specific knockout mice, functional analysis revealed Nox2 as the predominant isoform. In human islets, NOX2 colocalized with both insulin granules and endosome/lysosome membranes. Nox2-deficient islets stimulated with 22.8 mmol/L glucose exhibited potentiation of insulin release compared with controls, an effect confirmed with in vitro knockdown of Nox2. The enhanced secretory function in Nox2-deficient islets was associated with both lower superoxide levels and elevated cAMP concentrations. In control islets, GLP-1 and other cAMP inducers suppressed glucose-induced ROS production similarly to Nox2 deficiency. Inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase reduced the secretory response in Nox2-null islets, although not in control islets. This study ascribes a new role for NOX2 in pancreatic β-cells as negative modulator of the secretory response, reducing cAMP/PKA signaling secondary to ROS generation. Results also show reciprocal inhibition between the cAMP/PKA pathway and ROS. PMID:22933115

  13. Immobilization of Pichia pastoris cells containing alcohol oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maleknia, S; Ahmadi, H; Norouzian, D

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The attempts were made to describe the development of a whole cell immobilization of P. pastoris by entrapping the cells in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell Pichia pastoris was evaluated in comparison with yeast biomass production. Materials and Methods Methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris was obtained from Collection of Standard Microorganisms, Department of Bacterial Vaccines, Pasteur Institute of Iran (CSMPI). Stock culture was maintained on YPD agar plates. Alcohol oxidase was strongly induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were harvested by centrifugation then permeabilized. Finally the cells were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel beads. The activity of alcohol oxidase was determined by method of Tane et al. Results At the end of the logarithmic phase of cell culture, the alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell P. Pastoris reached the highest level. In comparison, the alcohol oxidase activity was measured in an immobilized P. pastoris when entrapped in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of cells was induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were permeabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and immobilized. CTAB was also found to increase the gel permeability. Alcohol oxidase activity of immobilized cells was then quantitated by ABTS/POD spectrophotometric method at OD 420. There was a 14% increase in alcohol oxidase activity in immobilized cells as compared with free cells. By addition of 2-butanol as a substrate, the relative activity of alcohol oxidase was significantly higher as compared with other substrates added to the reaction media. Conclusion Immobilization of cells could eliminate lengthy and expensive procedures of enzyme separation and purification, protect and stabilize enzyme activity, and perform easy separation of the enzyme from the reaction media. PMID:22530090

  14. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities of heterocyclic chalcones.

    PubMed

    Minders, Corné; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U

    2015-11-15

    Studies have shown that natural and synthetic chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones) possess monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activities. Of particular importance to the present study is a report that a series of furanochalcones acts as MAO-B selective inhibitors. Since the effect of heterocyclic substitution, other than furan (and more recently thiophene, piperidine and quinoline) on the MAO inhibitory properties of the chalcone scaffold remains unexplored, the aim of this study was to synthesise and evaluate further heterocyclic chalcone analogues as inhibitors of the human MAOs. For this purpose, heterocyclic chalcone analogues that incorporate pyrrole, 5-methylthiophene, 5-chlorothiophene and 6-methoxypyridine substitution were examined. Seven of the nine synthesised compounds exhibited IC50 values <1 μM for the inhibition of MAO-B, with all compounds exhibiting higher affinities for MAO-B compared to the MAO-A isoform. The most potent MAO-B inhibitor (4h) displays an IC50 value of 0.067 μM while the most potent MAO-A inhibitor (4e) exhibits an IC50 value of 3.81 μM. It was further established that selected heterocyclic chalcones are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors. 4h, however, may exhibit tight-binding to MAO-B, a property linked to its thiophene moiety. We conclude that high potency chalcones such as 4h represent suitable leads for the development of MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. The Overexpression of NALP3 Inflammasome in Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated with Synovial Membrane Prolidase and NADPH Oxidase 2

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo-Cornejo, Denise; Martínez-Flores, Karina; Silva-Luna, Karina; Fernández-Torres, Javier; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Guadalupe Santamaría-Olmedo, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is characterized by the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. We aimed to clarify the role of prooxidant enzyme content at the synovial membrane level and how it correlates with the inflammatory process in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In synovial membranes from KOA patients and control group, we analyzed the protein content of prooxidant enzymes such as Nox2, xanthine oxidase (XO), and prolidase as well as the proinflammatory NALP3. Results show that protein content of prolidase and Nox2 increased 4.8- and 8.4-fold, respectively, and XO showed an increasing trend, while the NALP3 inflammasome increased 5.4-fold with respect to control group. Levels of prolidase and XO had a positive correlation between the levels of NALP3 and Nox2. By principal component analysis the protein expression pattern by study groups was evaluated. Three clusters were identified; protein expression patterns were higher for clusters two (prolidase) and three (XO and Nox2) between KOA patients and controls. Data suggest that prooxidant enzymes increase in synovial membrane of KOA patients and may contribute to the inflammatory state and degradation of the articular cartilage. PMID:27777643

  16. Joint functions of protein residues and NADP(H) in oxygen activation by flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Orru, Roberto; Pazmiño, Daniel E Torres; Fraaije, Marco W; Mattevi, Andrea

    2010-11-01

    The reactivity of flavoenzymes with dioxygen is at the heart of a number of biochemical reactions with far reaching implications for cell physiology and pathology. Flavin-containing monooxygenases are an attractive model system to study flavin-mediated oxygenation. In these enzymes, the NADP(H) cofactor is essential for stabilizing the flavin intermediate, which activates dioxygen and makes it ready to react with the substrate undergoing oxygenation. Our studies combine site-directed mutagenesis with the usage of NADP(+) analogues to dissect the specific roles of the cofactors and surrounding protein matrix. The highlight of this "double-engineering" approach is that subtle alterations in the hydrogen bonding and stereochemical environment can drastically alter the efficiency and outcome of the reaction with oxygen. This is illustrated by the seemingly marginal replacement of an Asn to Ser in the oxygen-reacting site, which inactivates the enzyme by effectively converting it into an oxidase. These data rationalize the effect of mutations that cause enzyme deficiency in patients affected by the fish odor syndrome. A crucial role of NADP(+) in the oxygenation reaction is to shield the reacting flavin N5 atom by H-bond interactions. A Tyr residue functions as backdoor that stabilizes this crucial binding conformation of the nicotinamide cofactor. A general concept emerging from this analysis is that the two alternative pathways of flavoprotein-oxygen reactivity (oxidation versus monooxygenation) are predicted to have very similar activation barriers. The necessity of fine tuning the hydrogen-bonding, electrostatics, and accessibility of the flavin will represent a challenge for the design and development of oxidases and monoxygenases for biotechnological applications.

  17. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA. PMID:26771387

  18. NADPH Oxidases NOX-1 and NOX-2 Require the Regulatory Subunit NOR-1 To Control Cell Differentiation and Growth in Neurospora crassa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Domínguez, Nallely; Álvarez-Delfín, Karen; Hansberg, Wilhelm; Aguirre, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play essential roles in cell differentiation. Enzymes belonging to the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family produce superoxide in a regulated manner. We have identified three distinct NOX subfamilies in the fungal kingdom and have shown that NoxA is required for sexual cell differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we show that Neurospora crassa NOX-1 elimination results in complete female sterility, decreased asexual development, and reduction of hyphal growth. The lack of NOX-2 did not affect any of these processes but led instead to the production of sexual spores that failed to germinate, even in the presence of exogenous oxidants. The elimination of NOR-1, an ortholog of the mammalian Nox2 regulatory subunit gp67phox, also caused female sterility, the production of unviable sexual spores, and a decrease in asexual development and hyphal growth. These results indicate that NOR-1 is required for NOX-1 and NOX-2 functions at different developmental stages and establish a link between NOX-generated ROS and the regulation of growth. Indeed, NOX-1 was required for the increased asexual sporulation previously observed in mutants without catalase CAT-3. We also analyzed the function of the penta-EF calcium-binding domain protein PEF-1 in N. crassa. Deletion of pef-1 resulted in increased conidiation but, in contrast to what occurs in Dictyostelium discoideum, the mutation of this peflin did not suppress the phenotypes caused by the lack of NOX-1. Our results support the role of ROS as critical cell differentiation signals and highlight a novel role for ROS in regulation of fungal growth. PMID:18567788

  19. Combined NADPH oxidase 1 and interleukin 10 deficiency induces chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress and causes ulcerative colitis-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Tréton, Xavier; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Ladeiro, Yannick; Sedghi, Shirin; Vallée, Mélissa; Fernandez, Neike; Bruyère, Emilie; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Ducroc, Robert; Montcuquet, Nicolas; Freund, Jean-Noel; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Barreau, Frédérick; Marah, Assiya; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the rectum which progressively extents. Its etiology remains unknown and the number of treatments available is limited. Studies of UC patients have identified an unbalanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the non-inflamed colonic mucosa. Animal models with impaired ER stress are sensitive to intestinal inflammation, suggesting that an unbalanced ER stress could cause inflammation. However, there are no ER stress-regulating strategies proposed in the management of UC partly because o