Science.gov

Sample records for nailed steel wire

  1. 76 FR 23279 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Works/Stanley Fastening Systems LP, and an unaffiliated wire drawing subcontractor are collectively..., nails made of round wire and nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction or... such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel nails subject to this proceeding are...

  2. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... contained in USITC Publication 4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No....

  3. 77 FR 27421 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... the investigation, Dubai Wire FZE and Precision Fasteners LLC, submitted timely ministerial error... Investigation of Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates: Precision Fasteners, LLC and Dubai Wire FZE..., the amended weighted average dumping margins changed from 2.80 to 2.51 percent for Precision...

  4. 78 FR 40172 - Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to... duty order on imports of steel nails from China (73 FR 44961). The Commission is conducting a review...

  5. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317.00.65, and 7317.00.75 of the Harmonized... that imports of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within...

  6. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317... steel nails from the United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  7. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final... the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of... Department's final margin calculations. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of...

  8. 76 FR 23559 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... steel nails from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) filed in proper form by Mid Continent Nail Corporation... petitioner made adjustments for foreign inland freight, foreign port expenses, ocean freight, U.S....

  9. 76 FR 19124 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates AGENCY: United States International Trade... from The United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55,...

  10. 76 FR 47146 - Certain Steel Nails From the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Extension... review on the antidumping order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for..., the Department initiated the first antidumping duty administrative review on certain steel nails...

  11. 75 FR 17125 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time... order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') was published in the Federal Register on August 1, 2008. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Steel Nails From the...

  12. 78 FR 68472 - Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Steel Nails From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  13. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  14. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from China of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  15. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30 and 7217.20.45 of the Harmonized...., Nashville, TN; National Standard, LLC, Niles, MI; and Oklahoma Steel and Wire Co., Inc., Madill,...

  16. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From...

  17. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading...; National Standard, LLC/DW-National Standard-Niles, LLC, Niles, MI; and Oklahoma Steel & Wire Company,...

  18. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam, provided for in subheading 7326.20.00 of the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The...

  19. Low carbon dual phase steels for high strength wire

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.

    1985-08-01

    This paper shows that dual phase steels can be designed and processed as new, economical low carbon steels for cold drawing into high tensile strength steel wires. Current work indicates wires of tensile strengths up to 400,000 psi can be obtained. Potential applications for dual phase steel wire include bead wire, tire cord, wire rope and prestressed concrete. It should be possible to produce wire rods in existing rod mills by adapting the controlled rolling and quenching procedures outlined in this paper.

  20. 75 FR 43149 - Certain Steel Nails from the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails from the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Partial... review on the antidumping order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for..., the Department ] initiated the first antidumping duty administrative review on certain steel...

  1. 77 FR 46686 - Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... \\1\\ as including steel nails found within Target Corporation's toolkits from the People's Republic of... contained within toolkits. See Final Scope Ruling: Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China... Department issued a final scope ruling on toolkits from the PRC ] imported by Target Corporation. See...

  2. 75 FR 38080 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of New.... DATES: Effective Date: July 1, 2010. SUMMARY: In response to a request from Maanshan Leader Metal... antidumping duty order on certain steel nails from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering...

  3. KIRSCHNER WIRE VERSUS TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILS IN PEDIATRIC FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Cengiz; Kurtulmus, Tuhan; Saglam, Necdet; Saka, Gursel; Akpinar, Fuat; Sarman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation using the Kirschner-wire (K-wire) compared to the titanium elastic nail (TEN) in pediatric femoral shaft fractures. Methods: A sample of 42 pediatric patients with a mean age of 6.55±2.42 years (range 4-11 years) presenting femoral shaft fractures underwent intramedullary fixation using the K-wire or TEN. Results: There was no significant difference found between groups, of which 16 (38.1%) patients were treated with K-wire and 26 (61.9%) patients were treated with TEN in terms of union duration. Moreover, none of the patients showed nonunion or a delayed union. Conclusions: The use of adjusted K-wire instead of TEN in the intramedullary fixation of femoral shaft fractures in selected children may be an advantageous surgical option due to the lower cost, easy accessibility and no need for a second surgery for implant removal. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study. PMID:26981033

  4. 76 FR 33242 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of... of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China. See Galvanized Steel Wire From the... investigation, Davis Wire Corporation, Johnstown Wire Technologies, Inc., Mid-South Wire Company, Inc.,...

  5. 75 FR 4104 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade... concrete steel wire strand, provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... suitable for use in prestressed concrete (both pre-tensioned and post- tensioned) applications. The...

  6. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan... the Commission following notification of a preliminary determination by Commerce that imports of...

  7. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China... concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  8. 75 FR 8113 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16,...

  9. 76 FR 21914 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations....

  10. 1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Copy of Drawing, 'American Steel & Wire Co., Central Furnace Works -- Sketch of Plant Showing Tracks & Buildings, 1913, Revised 3/10/31.' Drawing courtesy United States Steel Corporation, Lorain, Ohio. Credit Berni Rich, Score Photographs, August 1979, for photos 1 through 4 and 7 through 11. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 77 FR 3231 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from India would likely lead to continuation or... reviews of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods (``wire rods'') from...

  12. Microstructure of Horseshoe Nails Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, D. J.; Studer, A. J.; Stachurski, Z. H.

    2010-04-01

    Neutron diffraction allows nondestructive testing of the bulk microstructure of mechanical components. The microstructures of horseshoe nails made through three different processes have been explored as a function of position along the nail. Despite all nails being made of similar plain low-carbon steel and being process annealed after manufacture, the microstructures are far from the same. Nails made from strip, using a cold forging stamping process, show narrower diffraction peaks indicating a narrower distribution of lattice parameters and also show diffraction peak intensity ratios closer to those expected for unstrained steel. Thus, the distribution of the orientation of grains in these nails is closer to that of undistorted steel compared to nails made through the other two processes considered—one a drawing from wire and the other a combination of rolling and cold forging. The blades of the drawn nails showed little preferred orientation but the converse was true in the heads. Differing patterns of preferred orientation suggest that the various manufacturing approaches result in substantially different mechanical advantages for the three types of nails, a result in accord with mechanical testing.

  13. 76 FR 23564 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of... concerning imports of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (PRC) filed in proper form by Davis Wire Corporation, Johnstown Wire Technologies, Inc., Mid-South Wire Company, Inc.,...

  14. 76 FR 73589 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... investigation covers galvanized steel wire which is a cold-drawn carbon quality steel product in coils, of solid... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Amended... than fair value in the antidumping investigation of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic...

  15. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1,...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1,...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.370 - RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel strand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for seven wire galvanized steel... steel strand. (a) RUS incorporates by reference ASTM A475-78, Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated Steel Wire Strand, issued May 1978. All seven wire galvanized steel strand purchased after April 1,...

  18. Residual stresses and durability in cold drawn eutectoid steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atienza, J. M.; Elices, M.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Caballero, L.; Valiente, A.

    2007-04-01

    Prestressing steel wires have excellent mechanical properties but there is a need to improve their durability in aggressive environments. In this work, the influence of residual stresses on the environmentally assisted cracking of these wires is studied. A good correlation has been found between residual stresses at the surface of the wires and the time to rupture during stress corrosion test proposed by the International Federation of Prestressing. Wires with the same microstructure, surface quality and mechanical properties show very different behaviour in aggressive environments depending on their residual stress state. Research shows that environmentally assisted cracking can be improved significantly by acting on the surface residual stresses produced by wire drawing. In addition, in this study a post-drawing treatment to generate compressive residual stresses at the surface of the wires is proposed.

  19. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less... Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire..., 2011, the Department initiated the antidumping duty investigation on galvanized wire from Mexico....

  20. An improved method for stainless steel wire mesh cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Forni, C; Pagni, C A

    1985-07-01

    A method for stainless steel wire mesh cranioplasty is described. The method has proved simple and quick. Cosmetic results have been very good and no complications have been observed so far. This method seems particularly suitable in very large skull defects. It seems to reduce the incidence of the major complications of the wire mesh cranioplasties, viz. lifting of the margins, depression of the prosthetic vault and electrolytic interference with the circulating fluids.

  1. 78 FR 76653 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... steel ] wire rod from Brazil and the antidumping duty orders on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod... wire rod from Brazil and the antidumping duty orders on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod...

  2. Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Kim, D.K.

    1996-06-25

    Hypereutectoid steels have the potential for dramatically increasing the strength of wire used in tire cord and in other high strength wire applications. The basis for this possible breakthrough is the elimination of a brittle proeutectoid network that can form along grain boundaries if appropriate processing procedures and alloy additions are used. A review is made of work done by Japanese and other researchers on eutectoid and mildly hypereutectoid wires. A linear extrapolation of the tensile strength of fine wires predicts higher strengths at higher carbon contents. The influence of processing, alloy additions and carbon content in optimizing the strength, ductility and fracture behavior of hypereutectoid steels is presented. It is proposed that the tensile strength of pearlitic wires is dictated by the fracture strength of the carbide lamella at grain boundary locations in the carbide. Methods to improve the strength of carbide grain boundaries and to decrease the carbide plate thickness will contribute to enhancing the ultrahigh strength obtainable in hypereutectoid steel wires. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 77 FR 3737 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation... concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) filed in... of Antidumping Duties on Steel Wire Garment Hangers from Taiwan and the Social Republic of...

  4. 77 FR 75973 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... provided to producers and exporters of steel wire garment hangers (garment hangers) from the Socialist... Limited (Supreme) (collectively, the Infinite Companies). \\1\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From...

  5. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative... Department'') continues to determine that steel wire garment hangers (``garment hangers'') exported by Angang... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  6. 78 FR 70271 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... review and the first new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73...

  7. 77 FR 51514 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'').\\1\\ On August 2... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Determination of Sales...

  8. 78 FR 54272 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from China would be... Department of Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of steel wire garment hangers from...

  9. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminarily determined that critical circumstances exist with respect to imports of steel wire garment hangers...\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of...

  10. 78 FR 8105 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... States is materially injured within the meaning of section 735(b)(1)(A)(i) of the Act by reason of less... other garment hangers that are not made of steel wire; (b) steel wire garment hangers with swivel hooks... section 735(b)(1)(A)(i) of the Act by reason of less-than-fair-value imports of steel wire garment...

  11. 75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China...'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China...., Ltd. in the Antidumping Duty Investigation of Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the...

  12. 75 FR 37382 - Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from... duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC strand'') from the People's Republic of... material injury to a U.S. industry. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China...

  13. 75 FR 36678 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of prestressed concrete steel wire strand (PC strand), provided for in subheading 7312.10.30 of the... (June 2010), entitled Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from China: Investigation Nos....

  14. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan,...

  15. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in... the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam that...

  16. 77 FR 73424 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import... duty order on steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul Walker, AD... of sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of steel wire garment...

  17. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative... subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the... U.S. producers that filed the petition for this investigation are Davis Wire Corporation,...

  18. 78 FR 16651 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ..., interested parties submitted surrogate value (``SV'') comments and SV rebuttal comments.\\4,5\\ On October 19...-Preliminary Surrogate Value Submission: Third Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Steel Nails... People's Republic of China, Third Administrative Review; Post-Preliminary Results Surrogate Value...

  19. 76 FR 9752 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...

  20. 78 FR 69644 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Enforcement and Compliance,...

  1. 75 FR 34425 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... made changes to the dumping margin calculations for the final results. See Memorandum to the File from... dumping margin is listed below in the section entitled ``Final Results of the Review.'' EFFECTIVE DATE... of the Review The weighted-average dumping margin for the POR is as follows: Certain Steel Nails...

  2. 77 FR 17427 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Steel Wire From Mexico AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of... fair value of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from Mexico.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire... galvanized wire from Mexico is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair...

  3. 78 FR 75547 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Thailand: Preliminary... concrete steel rail tire wire (``PC tie wire'') from Thailand is not being, or likely to be, sold in the... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  4. 77 FR 46055 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value AGENCY.... Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') preliminarily determines that steel wire garment hangers... Department received an antidumping duty (``AD'') petition concerning imports of steel wire garment...

  5. 78 FR 75544 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico: Preliminary.... SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``Department'') preliminarily determines that prestressed concrete... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  6. 78 FR 2658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Rescission of... its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Mexico for the period October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012. DATES:...

  7. Ion release and cytotoxicity of stainless steel wires.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2005-12-01

    Heat treatment is generally applied to orthodontic stainless steel (SS) wires to relieve the stresses that result from their manipulation by orthodontists. The quality and thickness of the oxide films formed on the surface of heat-treated wires can vary, and it is believed that these oxide films can influence the properties of heat-treated wires. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of heat treatment and cooling methods on the amount of metal ions released and to examine the cytotoxicity of heat-treated wires. In this study, four types of SS wires (Remanium, Permachrome, Colboloy and Orthos) with a cross-sectional area of 0.41 x 0.56 mm were investigated. These wires were heat-treated in a vacuum, air, or argon environment, and were cooled in either a furnace or a water bath. Four control groups and 24 experimental groups were classified according to the type of wires, heat treatment conditions and cooling methods. In each group, the amount of nickel released as well as its cytotoxicity was investigated. The concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was measured for a period of up to 12 weeks. In all groups, the concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was lowest for the vacuum heat treatment-furnace cooling group and a significant difference was shown compared with the other experimental groups. The concentration of dissolved nickel ions in artificial saliva was highest in the groups heat-treated in air (P < 0.05), while the amount of nickel released was highest in the Remanium and Colboloy (P < 0.05). The cytotoxicity was mild in all the experimental groups but the response index of the air groups was slightly higher than in the other groups. According to these results, SS wires retain their high corrosion resistance and low ion release rate when heat-treated in a vacuum and cooled in a furnace.

  8. 75 FR 21658 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... COMMISSION Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Trinidad and Tobago AGENCY: United States... in the antidumping duty Investigation No. 731-TA-961 concerning carbon and certain alloy steel wire... known as Mittal Steel Point Lisas, Ltd., initiated a judicial action to review the...

  9. 76 FR 27007 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... first two stages, described as steel wire drawing and molding, were performed in the PRC by Company X... Chinese production processes for the first two steps (wire drawing stage and wire shaping forming stage...\\ According to Angang, the equipment and labor involved in the wire drawing, cutting, and shaping stages...

  10. 77 FR 66954 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Preliminary Results of... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review is October 1... certain alloy steel wire rod. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  11. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic...'') petitions concerning imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the... Antidumping Duty Petitions on Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and...

  12. The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Klmaku, Snukn; Syla, Nairn; Dilo, Teuta

    2010-01-21

    The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

  13. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... the subject merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel product... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  14. 76 FR 66903 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... respondents.\\7\\ The Department sent the non-market economy (``NME'') antidumping questionnaire to Shanghai... Steel Garment Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market Economy Questionnaire... Administrative Review of Steel Garment Wire Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Non-Market...

  15. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China,...

  16. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire... materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete...

  17. 75 FR 32747 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping... prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC Strand'') from Mexico for the period January 1, 2009...

  18. 77 FR 2958 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From Thailand: Correction to Notice of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on prestressed concrete steel wire strand (``PC...

  19. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final... determine that shipments of wire rod with an actual diameter of 4.75 mm to 5.00 mm by Deacero S.A. de C.V... included within the scope of the order on wire rod from Mexico. Further, we continue to determine...

  20. 76 FR 47150 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico... duty investigations of galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Mexico. The... Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  1. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam... continue to determine that steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam are being, or are likely to be, sold...

  2. 76 FR 28953 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... Register a notice of initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on steel wire... Administrative Review of Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Selection of...

  3. 77 FR 70993 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012 Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: 2011-2012... antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the... INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on steel wire garment hangers from the PRC (``the...

  4. 77 FR 19191 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final... on steel wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

  5. 77 FR 28356 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan... antidumping duty investigations of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... 6, 2012. \\1\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and...

  6. 77 FR 14002 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Notice of... (the Department) initiated the countervailing duty investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the Socialist Republic of...

  7. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Taiwan of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment...

  8. 78 FR 60316 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from Brazil and antidumping duty orders on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from...

  9. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... second administrative review of the antidumping duty order \\1\\ on steel wire garment hangers from the... September 30, 2010. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the...

  10. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and... orders on stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and... Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  11. 75 FR 38977 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Amended...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China... concrete steel wire strand (PC strand) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). On June 22, 2010, the ITC...-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China, USITC Pub. 4162, Inv. Nos....

  12. 75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of pre-stressed concrete steel wire strand... Determination on October 27, 2009. See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic...

  13. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  14. 76 FR 38686 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would be likely to lead...

  15. 76 FR 64105 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India AGENCY: United States International Trade... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod from India would...

  16. 78 FR 8107 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... order on certain steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). DATES... duty investigation of certain steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam.\\1\\ On January 28, 2013, the...

  17. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of... carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is October 1... Federal Register the Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty administrative review of wire rod...

  18. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the... certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Department initiated the second sunset review of the CVD order \\1\\ on wire rod from Brazil pursuant...

  19. Corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires in acid artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the corrosion resistance of stressed NiTi and stainless steel orthodontic wires using cyclic potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests in acid artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the 3-D surface topography of as-received wires. Scanning electron microscope observations were carried out before and after the cyclic potentiodynamic tests. The surface chemical analysis was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy after the potentiostatic tests. The cyclic potentiodynamic test results showed that the pH had a significant influence on the corrosion parameters of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires (p < 0.05). The pitting potential, protection potential, and passive range of stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires decreased on decreasing pH, whereas the passive current density increased on decreasing pH. The load had no significant influence on the above corrosion parameters (p > 0.05). For all pH and load conditions, stainless steel wire showed higher pitting potential and wider passive range than NiTi wire (p < 0.001), whereas NiTi wire had lower passive current density than stainless steel wire (p < 0.001). The corrosion resistance of the stressed NiTi and stainless steel wires was related to the surface characterizations, including surface defect and passive film.

  20. Fracture toughness evaluation of high-strength cold-drawn eutectoid steel wires used in wire ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourladian, Bamdad

    High carbon (eutectoid) steel wires are used in many modern engineering applications which require high strength and durability. The most demanding applications are those for wire ropes, tire reinforcements, engine valve springs, and structural strands used for long span cable stayed bridges. In this study, a test method based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) was used to evaluate fracture toughness, KC, for various grades of wire which were of 0.072″ nominal diameter. An extensive review of literature on mechanical behavior of wire ropes is presented. Also a very thorough review of technical literature on the applications of LEFM in high strength rods and wires is provided. Various stress intensity factor solutions (K-solutions) are evaluated and compared. The most applicable K-solutions for application in KC determination in circular rods and wires with semi-elliptical surface cracks are recommended. Plane-stress K-solutions for straight-edge surface cracks in 0.072″ diameter steel wire were also developed by a 3D FEA model. An experimental fracture toughness test procedure based on principles of LEFM is described in detail. Experimental tensile fracture data is presented for 285 pre-cracked fracture samples. SEM fractographs documenting fracture surface topography of various fracture modes are described and characterized. For each wire grade and condition an average value of KC was determined. Statistical treatment of data and 90% confidence intervals are also provided. Average KC values ranged from 52Ksiin to 60Ksiin for wires ranging in tensile strength from 289 Ksi to 336 Ksi. Delamination toughening phenomenon was observed in some wire fracture samples and documented. As high as 60% increase in KC value was observed for some delaminated wires. The effect of crack aspect ratio in semi-elliptical cracks was considered and found to be very significant.

  1. Corrosion resistance of premodeled wires made of stainless steel used for heart electrotherapy leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Młynarski, R.; Szatka, W.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wire made of X10CrNi18-8 stainless steel designed for use in cardiology treatment. The influence of strain formed in the premodeling process and methods of wire surface preparation to corrosive resistance in artificial plasma solution were analysed. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in the solution of artificial plasma. Resistance to electrochemical corrosion was evaluated on the ground of recorded curves of anodic polarization by means of potentiodynamic method. Potentiodynamic tests carried out enabled to determine how the resistance to pitting corrosion of wire changes, depending on strain formed in the premodeling process as well as on the method of wire surface preparation. For evaluation of phenomena occurring on the surface of tested steel, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied. Deterioration of corrosive properties of wire along with the increase in the formed strain hardening was observed.

  2. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less... wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United... from Taiwan.\\1\\ No interested party provided case briefs or rebuttal briefs. \\1\\ See Steel Wire...

  3. 77 FR 40853 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Partial... wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period October 1, 2010... Steel Wire Garment Hangers from China--Petitioner's Withdrawal of Review Requests for Specific...

  4. 77 FR 3731 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Taiwan...'') received antidumping duty (``AD'') petition concerning imports of steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam... wire garment hangers from Vietnam and Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United...

  5. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on November 8, 2012.\\1\\ We gave...\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty...

  6. 78 FR 63450 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... International Trade Administration, Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico... on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (``wire rod'') from Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova... Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and Tobago, and Ukraine, pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  7. 76 FR 55031 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) preliminarily determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). For information on the estimated subsidy rates, see the ``Suspension of Liquidation'' section of this...

  8. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the surface. Nails start in the nail root , hidden under the cuticle. When cells at the root of the nail grow, the new nail cells ... nail as it grows out from the nail root. The lunula (say: LOON-yuh-luh) — which comes ...

  9. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from... notice of initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel...

  10. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  11. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  12. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  13. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  14. 7 CFR 1755.702 - Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR) aerial service wire. 1755.702 Section 1755.702 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued..., ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.702 Copper coated steel reinforced (CCSR)...

  15. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  16. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  17. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Dongge; Wu, Xinjun; Zuo, Su

    2016-01-01

    A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible. PMID:27782062

  18. A Steel Wire Stress Measuring Sensor Based on the Static Magnetization by Permanent Magnets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dongge; Wu, Xinjun; Zuo, Su

    2016-10-06

    A new stress measuring sensor is proposed to evaluate the axial stress in steel wires. Without using excitation and induction coils, the sensor mainly consists of a static magnetization unit made of permanent magnets and a magnetic field measurement unit containing Hall element arrays. Firstly, the principle is illustrated in detail. Under the excitation of the magnetization unit, a spatially varying magnetized region in the steel wire is utilized as the measurement region. Radial and axial magnetic flux densities at different lift-offs in this region are measured by the measurement unit to calculate the differential permeability curve and magnetization curve. Feature parameters extracted from the curves are used to evaluate the axial stress. Secondly, the special stress sensor for Φ5 and Φ7 steel wires is developed accordingly. At last, the performance of the sensor is tested experimentally. Experimental results show that the sensor can measure the magnetization curve accurately with the error in the range of ±6%. Furthermore, the obtained differential permeability at working points 1200 A/m and 10000 A/m change almost linearly with the stress in steel wires, the goodness of linear fits are all higher than 0.987. Thus, the proposed steel wire stress measuring sensor is feasible.

  19. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  20. Nail Fungus

    MedlinePlus

    ... nail polish daily for a year. Medicated nail cream. Your doctor may prescribe an antifungal cream, which you rub into your infected nails after soaking. These creams may work better if you first thin the ...

  1. Radiative Properties of Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays with Application to Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S.; Ouart, N. D.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments with different stainless steel (SS) wire loads were performed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator at University of Nevada, Reno. The wire array loads consisted of 7.6 {mu}m SS wires and had 10 wires for the planar wire array with an interwire gap of 1 mm and 8 wires for the cylindrical wire array of a 16 mm diameter. In addition, a single-wire experiment with a 25 {mu}m SS wire was carried out. The different wire loads were used to provide a broader spectrum of plasma conditions. Time-integrated and time-gated x-ray images, as well as time-integrated, spatially-resolved and spatially-integrated x-ray spectra, were collected and analyzed. Both K-shell and L-shell radiation were recorded using LiF and KAP crystal spectrometers, respectively. Non-LTE kinetic models of Fe and Ni are employed to derive plasma parameters. For axially resolved L-shell spectra, the resulting electron temperatures are between 230 and 300 eV (higher near the cathode) and electron densities vary from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} dependent on the load. The advantage of using Z-pinch plasmas for astrophysical applications is highlighted.

  2. Prospects of increasing the strength of aluminum by reinforcing it with stainless steel wire (a review)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botvina, L. R.; Ivanova, V. S.; Kopev, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental strength of aluminum reinforced with stainless steel wire is analyzed. Various methods of producing the composite material and it's static and cyclical strengths are considered. The reinforcement of aluminum with stainless steel wire was accomplished from the perspective of increasing the specific strength of aluminum and it's alloys, increasing the strength of the material with respect to high and low temperatures, as well as increasing the cyclical strength. The production of the composite aluminum-stainless steel wire material with approximated or calculated strengthening is possible by any of the considered methods. The selection of the proper production technology depends on precise details and conditions of application of the material.

  3. Surface characteristics and mechanical properties of high-strength steel wires in corrosive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui; Yan, Weiming

    2013-04-01

    Cables are always a critical and vulnerable type of structural components in a long-span cable-stayed bridge in normal operation conditions. This paper presents the surface characteristics and mechanical performance of high-strength steel wires in simulated corrosive conditions. Four stress level (0MPa, 300MPa, 400MPa and 500MPa) steel wires were placed under nine different corrosive exposure periods based on the Salt Spray Test Standards ISO 9227:1990. The geometric feathers of the corroded steel wire surface were illustrated by using fractal dimension analysis. The mechanical performance index including yielding strength, ultimate strength and elastic modulus at different periods and stress levels were tested. The uniform and pitting corrosion depth prediction model, strength degradation prediction model as well as the relationship between strength degradation probability distribution and corrosion crack depth would be established in this study.

  4. Mechanical behavior of ultrahigh strength ultrahigh carbon steel wire and rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sberby, O.D.; Whittenherger, W.D.

    1997-07-22

    Ultrahigh-carbon steels (UHCSS) can achieve very high strengths in wire or rod form. These high strengths result from the mechanical work introduced during wire and rod processing. These strengths have been observed to increase with carbon content. In wire form, tensile strengths approaching 6000 MPa are predicted for UHCS containing 1. 8%C. In this paper, we will discuss the influence of processing (including rapid transformation during wire patenting) and micros ct- ure on the mechanical behavior of UHCS wire. The tensile properties of as- extruded rods are described as a function of extrusion temperature and composition. For spheroidized steels, yield and ultimate tensile strength are a function of grain size, interparticle spacing and particle size. For pearlitic steels, yield and ultimate strength were found to be functions of colony size, carbide size and plate spacing and orientation. Alloying additions (such as C, Cr, Si, Al and Co) can influence the effect of processing on these microstructural features. For spheroidized steels, fracture was found to be a function of the size of coarse carbides and of composition.

  5. 76 FR 23548 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... (``Sterling'') on the record. The Department placed the statement of Indian producer Visakha Wire Ropes... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China and Mexico... Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') received petitions concerning imports of galvanized steel...

  6. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from...

  7. Nail cosmetics in nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-03-01

    The clinical features of nail dystrophies depend on the part of the nail that has been damaged. Due to the important functions of fingernails and toenails, any abnormality of the nail causes impaired function of the hand or foot. Moreover, the aesthetic aspect of the nail may affect employability, self-esteem, and interaction with other people. Because the nails are often difficult to treat, cosmetology may be an effective support to medical treatment. Nail cosmetics may help the patient to cope with his or her nail dystrophy while waiting for treatment to show its efficacy. It may also be the only choice to hide nail dystrophy where the nail is irreversibly damaged. Nail cosmetics may also function at treatment for onychtillomania, nail biting, and nail ingrowing.

  8. Resistance to sliding of stainless steel multistranded archwires and comparison with single-stranded leveling wires.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Brian K; Kusy, Robert P

    2002-07-01

    The sliding mechanics of multistranded stainless steel (SS) wires were compared with single-stranded leveling wires in the passive and the active regions when dominated by classical friction and elastic binding, respectively. Tests were done under both dry and wet (human saliva) conditions. The round multistranded wires had 3- (triple) and 6-stranded (coax) configurations in nominal sizes of 15.5, 17.5, 19.5, and 21.5 mil; the rectangular wires had 3- (rect3) and 8-stranded (rect8) configurations in nominal sizes of 16 x 16, 16 x 22, 17 x 25, and 19 x 25 mil. While a ligature force of 150 g was applied and the second-order angulation was varied from -12 degrees to 12 degrees, each wire was translated relative to its bracket as the drawing force was digitally recorded. Linear regressions were fitted separately to the passive and the active regions. In the passive region, the kinetic coefficients of friction mu(k-FR) in the wet state were the same as, lower than, and higher than in the dry state for single-stranded SS, single-stranded nickel titanium (NiTi), and multistranded SS wires, respectively. Because the kinetic coefficients of friction were similar for multistranded and single-stranded SS wires, mu(k-FR) is a material property for SS and perhaps also for NiTi. In the active region, the frictional behaviors of multistranded SS wires compared with other leveling archwires are as follows: (1) coax wires had low friction, (2) triple and rect8 wires had midrange friction, and (3) rect3 wires had high friction. The coefficients of binding (mu(BI)) were not affected by saliva and were proportional to the wire stiffnesses. The resistance to sliding depended on wire stiffnesses to the extent that the differences in the mu(k-FR)'s of SS versus NiTi became unimportant shortly after binding occurred.

  9. Nail biology and nail science.

    PubMed

    de Berker, D A R; André, J; Baran, R

    2007-08-01

    The nail plate is the permanent product of the nail matrix. Its normal appearance and growth depend on the integrity of several components: the surrounding tissues or perionychium and the bony phalanx that are contributing to the nail apparatus or nail unit. The nail is inserted proximally in an invagination practically parallel to the upper surface of the skin and laterally in the lateral nail grooves. This pocket-like invagination has a roof, the proximal nail fold and a floor, the matrix from which the nail is derived. The germinal matrix forms the bulk of the nail plate. The proximal element forms the superficial third of the nail whereas the distal element provides its inferior two-thirds. The ventral surface of the proximal nail fold adheres closely to the nail for a short distance and forms a gradually desquamating tissue, the cuticle, made of the stratum corneum of both the dorsal and the ventral side of the proximal nail fold. The cuticle seals and therefore protects the ungual cul-de-sac. The nail plate is bordered by the proximal nail fold which is continuous with the similarly structured lateral nail fold on each side. The nail bed extends from the lunula to the hyponychium. It presents with parallel longitudinal rete ridges. This area, by contrast to the matrix has a firm attachment to the nail plate and nail avulsion produces a denudation of the nail bed. Colourless, but translucent, the highly vascular connective tissue containing glomus organs transmits a pink colour through the nail. Among its multiple functions, the nail provides counterpressure to the pulp that is essential to the tactile sensation involving the fingers and to the prevention of the hypertrophy of the distal wall tissue, produced after nail loss of the great toe nail.

  10. Effect of Si on the Aging Behavior of Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yiyou; Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Huiling; Zhou, Xuefeng; Jiang, Jianqing

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Si on the aging behavior in severe cold-drawn pearlitic steel were investigated. Under the same conditions, partitioning ratio, κ Mn, increased from 1.14 to 1.92 in 0.22 pct-Si steel as pearlitic transformation temperature rose from 793 K to 873 K (520 °C to 600 °C); however, κ Mn of 0.95 pct-Si steel only increased from 1.87 to 1.94. Cementite lamellae spheroidization in high Si content steel wire was remarkably delayed during aging at 698 K (425 °C) by the combined effect of diffusion retardation of Si and C atom and cementite phase stabilization by Mn alloying. In addition, age-hardening duration is prolonged, thereby extending age-hardening duration of the as-drawn 0.95 pct-Si-873 K (600 °C) steel wire by approximately 10 times that of 0.22 pct-Si-793 K (520 °C) steel wire.

  11. Lower incisor intrusion with intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-chao; Huang, Ji-na; Lin, Xin-ping

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires as anchorage for intrusion of the lower incisors using a rabbit model. Placement of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires around incisors is similar to that of intraoral transosseous wiring of edentulous mandibular fractures. Ten male New Zealand rabbits, 9 +/- 1.5 months of age, average weight 1.8 +/- 0.3 kg, were used in this study. One lower incisor was intruded with a 50 g bilateral force using a coil spring for 10 weeks, while the other incisor served as the control. Clinical measurements of the distances between the occlusal edges of the incisors (EE) were performed weekly with a calliper. In addition to standard descriptive statistical calculations, a paired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the two groups. All surgical sites healed uneventfully after insertion of the wires. Significant differences were found in the change of EE between the experimental and control sides from 4 weeks onwards. Intrusion of the incisor, 4 +/- 0.58 mm, was seen on the test side, while EE on the control side remained unchanged. Within the limits of this animal study, it is concluded that the intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage system is a cost-effective method for intrusion of lower incisors when the use of other anchorage system is not possible.

  12. Flexural Testing of Steel Wire Composite Beams Made with Hardwire (trademark) Unidirectional Tape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-18

    Hardwire to carbon fabric in the panels was 85%/15% respectively. The 3XSF Hardwire/fiberglass specimens were made with a 675 yield Type 30 Owens ... Corning glass fiber incorporated into the steel wire cord as shown in Figure 3 in a proprietary co-mingling operation in the cord making process. Ply by

  13. Radiation Hydrodynamics of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on the Z Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Clark, R. W.; Whitney, K.; Coverdale, C. A.; Lepell, D.; Jones, B.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Experiments on the Z accelerator with nested stainless steel wire arrays produced K-shell x-ray yields exceeding 50 kJ in the energy range 5.5 to 8 keV. Stainless steel (Z = 24-28) can barely be ionized to the K-shell on Z, and the spectra are therefore sensitive to the details of the implosion. We have simulated the implosion dynamics of stainless steel wire arrays with diameters ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 centimeters using a detailed configuration non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics model. Reasonable agreement with total and K-shell experimental yields was obtained for the various array configurations. A comparison is made between the 1-D and 2-D simulations for shot Z-578.

  14. Ultrastructural effect of self-ligating bracket materials on stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Sunghoon; Cheong, Youjin; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2012-08-01

    Frictional interactions between wires and brackets reduce the efficacy in orthodontic treatments. Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) are now more often used due to lower frictional forces when compared with conventional-ligating brackets. In this study, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to examine the microstructural effects of stainless steel and ceramic SLBs on the surface roughness of stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wires both after in vivo clinical orthodontic treatment as well as in in vitro three-point bending experiments. A combination of two wires-0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel wires and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires-and two SLBs-both passive-type stainless steel SLBs and active-type ceramic SLBs-was applied for 4 months (bicuspid-extraction) in an in vivo setting and for 1 month in an in vitro setting (200 g loads). After the SLB treatments, all wires exhibited severe scratches secondary to frictional interactions with the brackets. When used with the stainless steel SLBs (Damon 3MX®), the surfaces of 0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel (P < 0.0001) and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires (P < 0.05) were significantly smoother than when used with the ceramic SLBs (Clippy-C®). Such results suggest that orthodontic treatments with stainless steel SLBs are more effective than with ceramic SLBs.

  15. Formation quality optimization of laser hot wire cladding for repairing martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Feng, Zhenhua; Zheng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Laser cladding is an advantaged repairing technology due to its low heat input and high flexibility. With preheating wire by resistance heat, laser hot wire cladding shows better process stability and higher deposition efficiency compared to laser cold wire/powder cladding. Multi-pass layer were cladded on the surface of martensite precipitation hardening stainless steel FV520B by fiber laser with ER410NiMo wire. Wire feed rate and preheat current were optimized to obtain stable wire transfer, which guaranteed good formation quality of single pass cladding. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters and predict formation quality of multi-pass cladding. Laser power P, scanning speed Vs, wire feed rate Vf and overlap ratio η were selected as the input variables, while flatness ratio, dilution and incomplete fusion value as the responses. Optimal clad layer with flat surface, low dilution and no incomplete fusion was obtained by appropriately reducing Vf, and increasing P, Vs and η. No defect like pore or crack was found. The tensile strength and impact toughness of the clad layer is respectively 96% and 86% of those of the substrate. The clad layer showed nonuniform microstructure and was divided into quenched areas with coarse lath martensite and tempered areas with tempered martensite due to different thermal cycles in adjacent areas. The tempered areas showed similar hardness to the substrate.

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel sternal wire after long-term implantation.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Yasuko; Hanawa, Takao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nishida, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    A variety of metallic components have been used in medical devices where lifelong durability and physical strength are demanded. To investigate the in vivo changes of implanted metallic medical devices in humans, stainless steel sternal wires removed from patients were evaluated. Stainless steel (316L) sternal wires removed from four patients after 10, 13, 22, and 30 years of implantation were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Macroscopically, the removed specimens maintained their metallic luster and color. Under SEM, small holes were observed sporadically at 10 years and they tended to connect in the drawing direction. The longer the implanted duration, the more numerous and deeper were the crevices observed. By EDS, sulfur, phosphorus, and calcium were identified in all areas at 10 years, in addition to the component elements of stainless steel, comprising iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese. Corrosion products observed at 30 years were identified as calcium phosphate. In conclusion, stainless steel sternal wires develop corroded pores that grow larger and deeper with time after implantation; however, the pores remain shallow even after decades of implantation and they may not be a cause of mechanical failure. An amount of metal ions equivalent to the corroded volume must have been released into the human body, but the effect of these metal ions on the body is not apparent.

  17. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Saadi, Hamza Salim Mohammed; Mohandas, Hoby P.; Namasivayam, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC) beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP). For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  18. Your Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... luh) — which comes from the Latin word for "moon" — is that pale half circle just above the ... Problems Most of the time, your nails are pink and healthy, but sometimes nails have problems. Some ...

  19. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  20. Quiz: Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Quiz: Nails KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Nails Print A A A How much do ... about your nails? Find out by taking this quiz! About KidsHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  1. Nail anatomy.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent.

  2. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  3. Identification of the mechanisms responsible for static strain ageing in heavily drawn pearlitic steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, A.; Kleber, X.; Massardier-Jourdan, V.; Mari, D.

    2014-08-01

    The microstructural changes occurring during drawing and ageing in pearlitic steel wires have been studied using the thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements combined with atom probe tomography (APT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). APT analysis confirmed that cementite dissolution occurs during the cold-drawing process. The high sensitivity of TEP to solute atoms allowed two ageing mechanisms to be identified, both related to a redistribution of carbon atoms. The complementary use of tensile tests and DSC confirmed these results.

  4. Process improvement in laser hot wire cladding for martensitic stainless steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zilin; Wang, Gang; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Changhong; Rong, Yiming

    2016-09-01

    Laser hot wire cladding, with the prominent features of low heat input, high energy efficiency, and high precision, is widely used for remanufacturing metal parts. The cladding process, however, needs to be improved by using a quantitative method. In this work, volumetric defect ratio was proposed as the criterion to describe the integrity of forming quality for cladding layers. Laser deposition experiments with FV520B, one of martensitic stainless steels, were designed by using the Taguchi method. Four process variables, namely, laser power ( P), scanning speed ( V s), wire feed rate ( V f), and wire current ( I), were optimized based on the analysis of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Metallurgic observation of cladding layer was conducted to compare the forming quality and to validate the analysis method. A stable and continuous process with the optimum parameter combination produced uniform microstructure with minimal defects and cracks, which resulted in a good metallurgical bonding interface.

  5. 76 FR 14918 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Partial... wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period October 1,...

  6. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed

  7. Surface Preparation of Powder Metallurgical Tool Steels by Means of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Sepehr; Shahabi-Navid, Mehrdad; Nyborg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    The surface of two types of powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels ( i.e., with and without nitrogen) was prepared using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM). From each grade of tool steel, seven surfaces corresponding to one to seven passes of WEDM were prepared. The WEDM process was carried out using a brass wire as electrode and deionized water as dielectric. After each WEDM pass the surface of the tool steels was thoroughly examined. Surface residual stresses were measured by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The measured stresses were found to be of tensile nature. The surface roughness of the WEDM specimens was measured using interference microscopy. The surface roughness as well as the residual stress measurements indicated an insignificant improvement of these parameters after four passes of WEDM. In addition, the formed recast layer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization investigation clearly shows diffusion of copper and zinc from the wire electrode into the work material, even after the final WEDM step. Finally, the importance of eliminating excessive WEDM steps is thoroughly discussed.

  8. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  9. 76 FR 23788 - Certain Steel Nails From the Peoples' Republic of China: Notice of Extension of Time Limits and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Product Co., Ltd.; 124) Tianjin Shishun Metallic Products Co., Ltd.; 125) Tianjin Xiantong Fucheng Gun... Xiantong Fucheng Gun Nail Manufacture Co., Ltd.; 111) Tianjin Xiantong Juxiang Metal MFG Co., Ltd.;...

  10. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  11. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  12. In situ neutron diffraction of heavily drawn steel wires with ultra-high strength under tensile loading

    SciTech Connect

    Tomota, Y. . E-mail: tomota@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Suzuki, T.; Kanie, A.; Shiota, Y.; Uno, M.; Moriai, A.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.

    2005-01-10

    To make clear the strengthening mechanism of heavily drawn steel wires exhibiting ultra-high strength, in situ neutron diffraction during tensile loading was performed. A ferrite steel (FK) subjected to a true strain of 6.6 and a pearlite steel (PS) subjected to 4.0 were extended on a tensile tester and (1 1 0) diffraction profiles were measured at various holding stresses. Tensile strengths of steel FK and PS are 1.7 and 3.7 GPa, respectively. The change in (1 1 0) spacing with tensile stress is reversible, i.e., elastic, close to the relevant tensile strength. A stress versus (1 1 0) lattice plane strain is linear for steel FK while evidently nonlinear at higher stresses for steel PS. In steel PS in which cementite peaks were hardly observed, the strengthening mechanism is postulated to be different from that for as-patented pearlite steels.

  13. Corrosion damage estimation in multi-wire steel strands using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhidzadeh, Alireza; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a nondestructive evaluation method based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) to estimate corrosion in steel strands. Steel strands are one of the main components in constructing prestressed structures. Hidden corrosion in these structures has become a concern for designers, owners and regulators as it can eventuate in disastrous failure. In this study, a reference-free algorithm is proposed to quantify the extent of corrosion through estimating the cross section loss using dispersion curves and the velocity of certain frequency components in the waveform. Experimental test setups were designed to accelerate corrosion on two similarly loaded steel strands. One strand was embedded in concrete (to simulate a prestressed concrete beam) and the other was free (to resemble a prestressed cable). Visual inspection, halfcell potential, and mass loss measurements were employed as supporting evidences for the state of corrosion. An uncertainty analysis was also carried out to investigate how close this method can estimate the diameter of wires in a strand. The method could reasonably estimate the diameter of the wires without a reference baseline.

  14. Degradation of 316L stainless steel sternal wire by steam sterilization.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Che; Su, Yea-Yang; Chen, Lung-Ching; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2010-06-01

    Sterilization is an important step prior to the implantation of medical devices inside the human body. In this work we studied the influence of steam sterilization cycles on the oxide film properties of stainless steel sternal wire. Characterization techniques such as open- circuit potential, potentiodynamic measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cathodic stripping, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were employed to investigate the cycles of steam sterilization on the corrosion behavior of sternal wire. The results showed that the oxide properties are a function of the number of steam sterilization cycles and deteriorate as the number of cycles increases. Steam sterilization might damage the implant integrity and heavy metals could be released to the surrounding tissues due to deterioration of the oxide film.

  15. [A Case of Transorbital Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Steel Wire Entirely Embedded in the Brain Parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Kin, Kyohei; Ono, Yasuhiro; Fujimori, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Goda, Yuji; Kawauchi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Penetrating brain injury(PBI)is very rare in Japan. Because there is a very wide variety of pathological condition of PBI, the guideline for the treatment of PBI has not been established yet. We report the unique case of PBI caused by a steel wire piece completely embedded in the brain parenchyma. A 75-year-old man was brought to the emergency department due to ocular injury caused by a steel wire piece. Neurological examination revealed only left visual disturbance. CT scan revealed a steel wire piece located intraparenchymally between the left frontal lobe and the ventricles, but digital subtraction angiography showed no significant vascular injury in the surrounding structures. We performed an open surgery and removed the steel wire piece. Because the steel wire piece was completely embedded in the brain, we used intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy to choose a less invasive approach for the brain. The patient suffered no additional neurological deficit and no sign of cerebral infection or seizure after surgery. He was discharged after a 4-week administration of antibiotics. In most cases of PBI caused by low velocity injury, foreign bodies are not completely embedded in the brain except for remnants after surgical removal. This is the first report of low velocity PBI caused by a foreign body completely embedded in the brain.

  16. Reconstruction with the use of a sheath of fine stainless steel wire mesh.

    PubMed

    Dias, A D

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the use of stainless steel wire mesh as the basic material in fabricating a sheath to be inserted as a surgical implant. This sheath can be moulded into various shapes and sizes by hand at the time of operation. It has been used for reconstruction in various areas. It is inexpensive and its range of application appears to be considerable. It has been used to date in 16 patients and two cases have now been followed up for over one year.

  17. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  18. Nail histopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, B

    2013-09-01

    The structure of the nail unit is complex and many dermatologists and dermatopathologists have an incomplete understanding of it. Familiarity with the anatomy and histology of this unit, however, is a key factor in improving the diagnostic yield of nail biopsy. Inflammatory or infectious conditions that affect the nail can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life. A wide-ranging variety of tumors can also develop in this region and they may be life-threatening or require surgery that will result in functional defects. The author reviews the anatomy and histology of the nail unit as well as the basic histopathologic findings in the most common conditions affecting the nails.

  19. Frictional behavior of stainless steel bracket-wire combinations subjected to small oscillating displacements.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Clocheret, K; Celis, J P; Verbeke, G; Chatzicharalampous, E; Carels, C

    2001-10-01

    In orthodontic treatment, sliding is frequently used to cause tooth movement. Inherent to this technique is the generation of a counteracting frictional force. In this pilot study, a fretting test consisting of reciprocating tangential displacements was used to investigate test parameters influencing frictional forces during sliding processes. Tests were run at a normal load of 2 N and a frequency of 1 Hz for tangential displacement strokes of 200 microm. Stainless steel orthodontic wires with cross-sections of .017 x .025 in (W17) and .018 x .025 in (W18), and brackets with slot sizes of .018 in (B18) and .022 in (B22) were used. A specific centered positioning method was developed to achieve a parallel alignment of the wire and the bracket slot. The experimental results indicated the significant role of the centered positioning method on the friction value. Implementation of the centered positioning method resulted in a friction force ranging from 0.89 N to 0.97 N at a 200 microm displacement amplitude and 1 Hz frequency, corresponding to a coefficient of friction ranging from 0.45 to 0.49 for the B18-W17 and the B22-W17 bracket-wire combinations, respectively. When the centered positioning method was not used, significantly higher values for the coefficient of friction were found for both bracket-wire combinations. The slot-filling, bracket-wire combinations (B18-W18 and B22-W22) resulted in an increased coefficient of friction and therefore are not recommended as sliding systems.

  20. Stainless steel wire mesh cranioplasty: ten years' experience with 183 patients (100 followed up).

    PubMed

    Datti, R; Cavagnaro, G; Camici, S

    1985-01-01

    We have executed 183 cranioplasties in order to repair cranial defects using stainless steel wire mesh over a period of a decade, using Gardner's technique with minor modifications. The follow-up was possible in 100 patients and it ranged from 4 to 134 months, with an average of 64.1 months (5.3 years). Among these, 8 patients developed postoperative complications (8%): 7 needed cranioplasty remotion (7%) and 1 needed cranioplasty revision without remotion (1%). The causes of morbidity were due to: infection (3%), CSF leak (1%), haematoma (1%), skin local soaking (1%), posttraumatic plastic dislodgement (2%). Our total morbidity rate (8%) may compare with that resulting from the use of different materials such as alloplastics (6-12%), osteoplastics (until 40%) and miscellaneous (5.5%). The group in which cranioplasty was done within six months following the first operation had our highest complication rate (18.2%). In our experience the stainless steel wire mesh was shown to be an effective material to repair cranial defects.

  1. Occurrence of two-stage hardening in C-Mn steel wire rods containing pearlitic microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Saxena, Atul

    2016-09-01

    The 8 and 10 mm diameter wire rods intended for use as concrete reinforcement were produced/ hot rolled from C-Mn steel chemistry containing various elements within the range of C:0.55-0.65, Mn:0.85-1.50, Si:0.05-0.09, S:0.04 max, P:0.04 max and N:0.006 max wt%. Depending upon the C and Mn contents the product attained pearlitic microstructure in the range of 85-93% with balance amount of polygonal ferrite transformed at prior austenite grain boundaries. The pearlitic microstructure in the wire rods helped in achieving yield strength, tensile strength, total elongation and reduction in area values within the range of 422-515 MPa, 790-950 MPa, 22-15% and 45-35%, respectively. On analyzing the tensile results it was revealed that the material experienced hardening in two stages separable by a knee strain value of about 0.05. The occurrence of two stage hardening thus in the steel with hardening coefficients of 0.26 and 0.09 could be demonstrated with the help of derived relationships existed between flow stress and the strain.

  2. Ultra-strong and damage tolerant metallic bulk materials: A lesson from nanostructured pearlitic steel wires

    PubMed Central

    Hohenwarter, A.; Völker, B.; Kapp, M. W.; Li, Y.; Goto, S.; Raabe, D.; Pippan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Structural materials used for safety critical applications require high strength and simultaneously high resistance against crack growth, referred to as damage tolerance. However, the two properties typically exclude each other and research efforts towards ever stronger materials are hampered by drastic loss of fracture resistance. Therefore, future development of novel ultra-strong bulk materials requires a fundamental understanding of the toughness determining mechanisms. As model material we use today’s strongest metallic bulk material, namely, a nanostructured pearlitic steel wire, and measured the fracture toughness on micron-sized specimens in different crack growth directions and found an unexpected strong anisotropy in the fracture resistance. Along the wire axis the material reveals ultra-high strength combined with so far unprecedented damage tolerance. We attribute this excellent property combination to the anisotropy in the fracture toughness inducing a high propensity for micro-crack formation parallel to the wire axis. This effect causes a local crack tip stress relaxation and enables the high fracture toughness without being detrimental to the material’s strength. PMID:27624220

  3. Radiative Characteristics of Pulsed Power Driven Stainless Steel Nested Wire Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Thornhill, J. W.; Apruzese, J. P.; Velikovich, A.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C.; Lepell, D.

    2001-10-01

    The radiative characteristics of nested arrays of stainless steel wires are investigated with the aid of numerical simulations and compared with experimental results measured on the Z facility. The wire load contains a cocktail of 5 elements: Fe, Ni, Cr, Mg, and Si. This multimaterial load is ideal for benchmarking the simulation. The modeling and numerical simulations were done with a 1-D radiation MHD model self-consistently driven by an equivalent Z circuit model. The ionization dynamic model is represented by a collisional radiative model where the opacity for the lines and continuum is self-consistently calculated online and transported through the plasma. The collision between inner and outer arrays is treated classically allowing for differences in gap to wire diameter spacing. Results are presented for the L- and K-shell radiation yields and emission spectra as a function of photon energy from 0.01 to 10 keV. Numerical simulations and comparisons are also made between the TCREfootnote J. Thornhill, J. Apruzese, J. Davis, R. Clark, et. al., Phys. Plasmas \\underbar 8, 3480 (2001). and probability of escape radiation transport models.

  4. Ultra-strong and damage tolerant metallic bulk materials: A lesson from nanostructured pearlitic steel wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenwarter, A.; Völker, B.; Kapp, M. W.; Li, Y.; Goto, S.; Raabe, D.; Pippan, R.

    2016-09-01

    Structural materials used for safety critical applications require high strength and simultaneously high resistance against crack growth, referred to as damage tolerance. However, the two properties typically exclude each other and research efforts towards ever stronger materials are hampered by drastic loss of fracture resistance. Therefore, future development of novel ultra-strong bulk materials requires a fundamental understanding of the toughness determining mechanisms. As model material we use today’s strongest metallic bulk material, namely, a nanostructured pearlitic steel wire, and measured the fracture toughness on micron-sized specimens in different crack growth directions and found an unexpected strong anisotropy in the fracture resistance. Along the wire axis the material reveals ultra-high strength combined with so far unprecedented damage tolerance. We attribute this excellent property combination to the anisotropy in the fracture toughness inducing a high propensity for micro-crack formation parallel to the wire axis. This effect causes a local crack tip stress relaxation and enables the high fracture toughness without being detrimental to the material’s strength.

  5. Ultra-strong and damage tolerant metallic bulk materials: A lesson from nanostructured pearlitic steel wires.

    PubMed

    Hohenwarter, A; Völker, B; Kapp, M W; Li, Y; Goto, S; Raabe, D; Pippan, R

    2016-09-14

    Structural materials used for safety critical applications require high strength and simultaneously high resistance against crack growth, referred to as damage tolerance. However, the two properties typically exclude each other and research efforts towards ever stronger materials are hampered by drastic loss of fracture resistance. Therefore, future development of novel ultra-strong bulk materials requires a fundamental understanding of the toughness determining mechanisms. As model material we use today's strongest metallic bulk material, namely, a nanostructured pearlitic steel wire, and measured the fracture toughness on micron-sized specimens in different crack growth directions and found an unexpected strong anisotropy in the fracture resistance. Along the wire axis the material reveals ultra-high strength combined with so far unprecedented damage tolerance. We attribute this excellent property combination to the anisotropy in the fracture toughness inducing a high propensity for micro-crack formation parallel to the wire axis. This effect causes a local crack tip stress relaxation and enables the high fracture toughness without being detrimental to the material's strength.

  6. Parametric Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Powder Metallurgical Cold Worked Tool Steel using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakara, Dara; Prasanthi, Guvvala

    2016-08-01

    Wire Cut EDM is an unconventional machining process used to build components of complex shape. The current work mainly deals with optimization of surface roughness while machining P/M CW TOOL STEEL by Wire cut EDM using Taguchi method. The process parameters of the Wire Cut EDM is ON, OFF, IP, SV, WT, and WP. L27 OA is used for to design of the experiments for conducting experimentation. In order to find out the effecting parameters on the surface roughness, ANOVA analysis is engaged. The optimum levels for getting minimum surface roughness is ON = 108 µs, OFF = 63 µs, IP = 11 A, SV = 68 V and WT = 8 g.

  7. 76 FR 68129 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India, 70 FR 54023, 54025-26 (September 13... Value: Circular Seamless Stainless Steel Hollow Products From Japan, 65 FR 42985 (July 12, 2000... Less Than Fair Value: Circular Seamless Stainless Steel Hollow Products From Japan, 65 FR at...

  8. 76 FR 16379 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... (``Stanley Works''), and an unaffiliated wire drawing subcontractor are collectively referred to as ``Stanley...) Stanley's \\4\\ PRC offices and factory from November 15, 2010, through November 17, 2010; (3) a wire- drawing subcontractor for Stanley from November 18, 2010, through November 19, 2010; and (4) Stanley's...

  9. Characterization of HAZ of API X70 Microalloyed Steel Welded by Cold-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadijoo, Mohsen; Kenny, Stephen; Collins, Laurie; Henein, Hani; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2017-03-01

    High-strength low-carbon microalloyed steels may be adversely affected by the high-heat input and thermal cycle that they experience during tandem submerged arc welding. The heat-affected zone (HAZ), particularly the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ), i.e., the region adjacent to the fusion line, has been known to show lower fracture toughness compared with the rest of the steel. The deterioration in toughness of the CGHAZ is attributed to the formation of martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents, local brittle zones, and large prior austenite grains (PAG). In the present work, the influence of the addition of a cold wire at various wire feed rates in cold-wire tandem submerged arc welding, a recently developed welding process for pipeline manufacturing, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HAZ of a microalloyed steel has been studied. The cold wire moderates the heat input of welding by consuming the heat of the trail electrode. Macrostructural analysis showed a decrease in the CGHAZ size by addition of a cold wire. Microstructural evaluation, using both tint etching optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, indicated the formation of finer PAGs and less fraction of M-A constituents with refined morphology within the CGHAZ when the cold wire was fed at 25.4 cm/min. This resulted in an improvement in the HAZ impact fracture toughness. These improvements are attributed to lower actual heat introduced to the weldment and lower peak temperature in the CGHAZ by cold-wire addition. However, a faster feed rate of the cold wire at 76.2 cm/min adversely affected the toughness due to the formation of slender M-A constituents caused by the relatively faster cooling rate in the CGHAZ.

  10. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  11. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671d(b)) (the Act) and the final phase of antidumping investigation Nos. 731-TA- 1197-1198 (Final) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in... garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and...

  12. Effect of microalloying on pearlite transformation of high carbon wire steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying has been shown to improve strength in eutectoid steels for wire applications, and previous work on vanadium-microalloyed eutectoid steels showed delayed pearlite transformation with additions of niobium and accelerated pearlite transformation with additional nitrogen. This study investigates the origin of the CCT shifts with microalloying additions and whether trends in hardness and microstructural feature sizes observed in continuous cooling tests persist through industrial hot rolling simulations. An industrially hot rolled 1080 wire rod with vanadium additions and three laboratory-prepared alloys were studied. The base alloy, denoted the V steel, had a composition of 0.80C-0.50Mn-0.24Si-0.20Cr-0.079V-0.0059N (wt pct). The V+N steel contained 0.0088 wt pct N, and the V+Nb steel contained an additional 0.010 wt pct Nb. All alloys were subjected to a GleebleRTM 3500 torsion hot rolling simulation based on industrial wire rod hot rolling parameters. Microstructural constituents, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size, and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) were characterized for each alloy. All alloys exhibited pearlitic microstructures with some proeutectoid ferrite at prior austenite grain boundaries, with no evidence of shear transformation products. The V steel has the lowest overall hardness, while both nitrogen and niobium additions increase hardness by approximately 15 HV, correlating to a 43 MPa increase in yield strength. Niobium additions refined ILS, with an average ILS of 92 +/- 3 nm for the V+Nb steel compared to 113 +/- 5 nm for the V steel and 113 +/- 3 nm for the V+N alloy. Vanadium additions produced precipitation strengthening for all alloys and heat treatments, and additional precipitation strengthening with nitrogen and niobium additions was not apparent based on a Taleff regression analysis. Atom probe tomography of an industrially processed wire rod with vanadium additions revealed vanadium enrichment of cementite, and vanadium

  13. Hemilaryngeal reconstruction using an axial island cheek flap supported by Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh.

    PubMed

    Winek, T G; Sasaki, T M; Luallin, D; Cook, D W; Galey, W T; Baker, H W

    1988-10-01

    The defect that remains after an extended hemilaryngectomy continues to be a challenge to the reconstructing surgeon. The reconstruction ideally must provide airway protection against aspiration, allow for phonation, and provide a durable mucosal surface. It also must be accomplished in one stage. Nine Labrador dogs underwent successful reconstruction of the hemilarynx using an axial island cheek flap based on the facial artery and vein. Adequate laryngeal function was demonstrated by maintenance of body weight, normal barium swallows, return of strong bark, and no evidence of aspiration pneumonia. Pathologic review confirmed a viable mucosal surface and incorporation of the Marlex and stainless steel wire mesh in a fibrous reaction. We have concluded that this method of reconstruction provides a result superior to currently used techniques.

  14. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  15. 76 FR 72438 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...), phosphate cement, and paint. Head styles include, but are not limited to, flat, projection, cupped, oval... as plastic, paper, or wire. For further information concerning the conduct of this phase of...

  16. Notch toughness in hot-rolled low carbon steel wire rod

    SciTech Connect

    Baarman, M.H.

    1999-12-01

    Charpy V-notch toughness has been investigated in four hot-rolled, low carbon steels with different grain sizes and carbon contents between 0.019 and 0.057%. The raw material was wire rod designed for drawing and possible subsequent cold heading operations and manufactured from continuous cast billets. In this study, the influence of microstructure, mechanical properties, and alloying elements on the ductile-brittle transition behavior has been assessed. A particular emphasis has been given to the influence of boron with contents up to 0.0097%. As a result, transition temperatures between {minus}29 and +50 C explicated by the material properties have been obtained. The examination also shows that the transition temperature raises with circa 0.5 C for each added ppm boron most likely as a consequence of an enlargement of the ferrite grain size and the reduction of yield and tensile strength. The highest upper shelf energy and lowest transition temperature can be observed in a steel without boron additions and with maximum contents of carbon, silicon, and manganese.

  17. Comparison of friction forces between stainless orthodontic steel brackets and TiNi wires in wet and dry conditions.

    PubMed

    Phukaoluan, Aphinan; Khantachawana, Anak; Kaewtatip, Pongpan; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Santiwong, Peerapong; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep

    2017-03-01

    In sliding mechanics, frictional force is an important counter-balancing element to orthodontic tooth movement, which must be controlled in order to allow application of light continuous forces. The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between a stainless steel bracket and five different wire alloys under dry and wet (artificial saliva) conditions. TiNi, TiNiCu, TiNiCo, commercial wires A and commercial wires B with equal dimensions of 0.016×0.022'' were tested in this experiment. The stainless steel bracket was chosen with a slot dimension of 0.022''. Micro-hardness of the wires was measured by the Vickers micro-hardness test. Surface topography of wires was measured by an optical microscope and quantified using surface roughness testing. Static and kinetic friction forces were measured using a custom-designed apparatus, with a 3-mm stretch of wire alloy at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. The static and dynamic frictions in the wet condition tended to decrease more slowly than those in the dry condition. Therefore, the friction of TiNiCu and commercial wires B would increase. Moreover, these results were associated with scarred surfaces, i.e. the increase in friction would result in a larger bracket microfracture. From the results, it is seen that copper addition resulted in an increase in friction under both wet and dry conditions. However, the friction in the wet condition was less than that in dry condition due to the lubricating effect of artificial saliva.

  18. Decompression Device Using a Stainless Steel Tube and Wire for Treatment of Odontogenic Cystic Lesions: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun-Joo; Baek, Jin-A; Leem, Dae-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Decompression is considered an effective treatment for odontogenic cystic lesions in the jaw. A variety of decompression devices are successfully used for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors, radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts, and ameloblastoma. The purpose of these devices is to keep an opening between the cystic lesion and the oral environment during treatment. The aim of this report is to describe an effective decompression tube using a stainless steel tube and wire for treatment of jaw cystic lesions.

  19. 76 FR 68407 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of Sales at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...We preliminarily determine that galvanized steel wire from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (``LTFV''), as provided in section 733 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). The estimated margins of sales at LTFV are shown in the ``Preliminary Determination'' section of this notice. Pursuant to a......

  20. 75 FR 56070 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...''), Stanley \\1\\ and Petitioner \\2\\ submitted comments on the respondent selection process. \\1\\ The Stanley... Company Ltd.; Shaoxing Chengye Metal Production Co., Ltd.; Suzhou Yaotian Metal Products Co., Ltd.... Industry & Trade Corp.; Tianjin ] Shenyuan Steel Production Group Co., Ltd.; Wuhu Shijie Hardware Co.,...

  1. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small Iuv/Ivis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  2. Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding of Dissimilar Titanium Alloy and Stainless Steel Using Copper Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Chen, Cong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zemin; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding with Cu3Si filler wire was employed to join dissimilar Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and AISI316 stainless steel (316SS). The effects of welding parameters on bead shape, microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture behavior were investigated in detail. The results show that cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 212 MPa. In the joint, obvious nonuniformity of the microstructure is found in the fusion zone (FZ) and at the interfaces from the top to the bottom, which could be improved by increasing heat input. For the homogeneous joint, the FZ is characterized by Fe67- x Si x Ti33 dendrites spreading on α-Cu matrix, and the two interfaces of 316SS/FZ and FZ/Ti6Al4V are characterized by a bamboo-like 316SS layer and a CuTi2 layer, respectively. All the tensile samples fractured in the hardest CuTi2 layer at Ti6Al4V side of the joints. The fracture surface is characterized by river pattern revealing brittle cleavage fracture. The bead formation mechanisms were discussed according to the melt flow and the thermodynamic calculation.

  3. Wettability behavior of special microscale ZnO nail-coated mesh films for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Huang, Xing; Li, Xiaoyu; Meng, Xiangmin; Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Huang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-11-15

    The surface free energy and geometrical structure are two important factors to govern the surface wettability. However, the design and simple synthesis of materials with specific surface free energy and geometrical structure, and their elaborate regulations are still a key challenge. Herein, through one-step thermal evaporation method, we successfully synthesized aligned arrays of highly crystallized ZnO with modulated nail structures on the stainless steel meshes for the first time. Owing to the decoration of [0001] oriented nail structures, the wire surface of meshes were indeed enclosed by the ZnO (0002) facets, which had the lowest surface energy in wurtzite structure. Under no any further modifications, just by regulating the nail structure and density as well as the mesh pore sizes, we not only obtained ZnO nail-coated mesh with hydrophobic, oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater oleophilic properties, but also fabricated one with hydrophilic (water penetration), oleophilic (oil penetration), and underwater superoleophobic properties. Furthermore, interestingly, the separation of oil and water mixture was realized by utilizing two ZnO-nail coated meshes with different wettability. The underlying mechanism was investigated and discussed in the work. Therefore, our study provides interesting insight into the design of novel functional films with desired surface wettability for the separation of oil-water mixture.

  4. A direct assessment of human prion adhered to steel wire using real-time quaking-induced conversion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Tsuyoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Furukawa, Kana; Takatsuki, Hanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Sano, Kazunori; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Ishibashi, Daisuke; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Accidental transmission of prions during neurosurgery has been reported as a consequence of re-using contaminated surgical instruments. Several decontamination methods have been studied using the 263K-hamster prion; however, no studies have directly evaluated human prions. A newly developed in vitro amplification system, designated real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), has allowed the activity of abnormal prion proteins to be assessed within a few days. RT-QuIC using human recombinant prion protein (PrP) showed high sensitivity for prions as the detection limit of our assay was estimated as 0.12 fg of active prions. We applied this method to detect human prion activity on stainless steel wire. When we put wires contaminated with human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease brain tissue directly into the test tube, typical PrP-amyloid formation was observed within 48 hours, and we could detect the activity of prions at 50% seeding dose on the wire from 102.8 to 105.8 SD50. Using this method, we also confirmed that the seeding activities on the wire were removed following treatment with NaOH. As seeding activity closely correlated with the infectivity of prions using the bioassay, this wire-QuIC assay will be useful for the direct evaluation of decontamination methods for human prions. PMID:27112110

  5. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a steel-girder highway bridge equipped with different SMA wire-based smart elastomeric isolators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, Farshad; Shahria Alam, M.

    2016-07-01

    Shape memory alloy wire-based rubber bearings (SMA-RBs) possess enhanced energy dissipation capacity and self-centering property compared to conventional RBs. The performance of different types of SMA-RBs with different wire configurations has been studied in detail. However, their reliability in isolating structures has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study is to analytically explore the effect of SMA-RBs on the seismic fragility of a highway bridge. Steel-reinforced elastomeric isolators are equipped with SMA wires and used to isolate the bridge. Results revealed that SMA wires with a superelastic behavior and re-centering capability can increase the reliability of the bearing and the bridge structure. It was observed that at the collapse level of damage, the bridge isolated by SMA-HDRB has the lowest fragility. Findings also showed that equipping NRB with SMA wires decreases the possibility of damage in the bridge while, replacing HDRB with SMA-HDRB; or LRB with SMA-LRB increases the failure probability of the system at slight, moderate, and extensive limit states.

  6. Matricectomy and nail ablation.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert; Haneke, Eckart

    2002-11-01

    Matricectomy refers to the complete extirpation of the nail matrix, resulting in permanent nail loss. Usually however, matricectomy is only partial, restricted to one or both lateral horns of the matrix. Nail ablation is the definitive removal of the entire nail organ. The most important common denominator in the successful matricectomy is the total removal or destruction of the matrix tissue. Matricectomy may be indicated for the management of onychauxis, onychogryphosis, congenital nail dystrophies, and chronic painful nail, such as recalcitrant ingrown toenail or split within the medial or lateral one-third of the nail.

  7. [Nail diseases in cosmetology].

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefańska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient.

  8. Nailing Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

  9. Update: nail unit dermatopathology.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Campbell L; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-01-01

    Nail unit dermatopathology is a growing field filled with many challenges. Many advances in this field have been made in the last 5 years. This review article provides an update on new information and studies published in that period of time. We divided these works into different sections, including clinical and pathologic challenges in diagnosis and treatment of nail disorders, nail unit biopsy and processing techniques, normal nail unit histology, nail plate structural and growth pathology, metabolic disease, inflammatory conditions, onychomycosis, benign growths, malignant growths, and dyschromias. Specific highlights include advances in the marking and orientation of nail unit biopsies for improved histologic interpretation, improved nail plate softening techniques, new methods for histologic evaluation of onychomycosis, descriptions of newly described benign growths unique to the nail unit, and the morphologic and immunohistochemical distinction between benign and malignant pigmented lesions of the nail unit.

  10. Ordered mesoporous polymers in situ coated on a stainless steel wire for a highly sensitive solid phase microextraction fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juan; Liang, Yeru; Liu, Shuqin; Ding, Yajuan; Shen, Yong; Luan, Tiangang; Zhu, Fang; Jiang, Ruifen; Wu, Dingcai; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-07-01

    Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application.Development of facile and effective methods for fabrication of high-performance solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres remains a great challenge. Herein, a new class of ordered mesoporous polymers (OMPs) in situ coated on a stainless steel wire were successfully developed and utilized as a highly sensitive and stable SPME fibre for the first time. Because of the highly ordered mesoporous structure of its OMP coating, the π-π interactions and the dispersion forces, the OMP-coated SPME fibre exhibited much better extraction properties as compared to the commercial PDMS fibre. The findings could provide a new benchmark for preparing well-defined porous materials for the SPME application. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S3 and Tables S1-S3. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02674a

  11. Effect of reduction of area on microstructure and mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel during wire drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of reduction of area (RA), 10%, 20%, and 30%, during wire drawing on the inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of Fe-Mn-Al-C twinning-induced plasticity steel has been investigated. After wire drawing, the deformation texture developed into the major <111> and minor <100> duplex fiber texture. However, the <111> texture became more pronounced in both center and surface areas as the RA per pass increased. It also shows that a larger RA per pass resulted in a higher yield strength and smaller elongation than a smaller RA per pass at all strain levels. Although inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction decreased with increasing RA per pass, there existed an optimum RA per pass for maximum drawing limit. Insufficient penetration of strain from surface to center at small RA per pass (e.g., 10%) and high friction and unsound metal flow at large RA per pass (e.g., 30%) all resulted in heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of drawn wire. On the other hand, 20% RA per pass improved the drawing limit by about 30% as compared to the 10% and 30% RAs per pass.

  12. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. Optimization of intramedullary nailing by numerical simulation of fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Tim; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Simon, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Due to the annular gap between intramedullary (IM) nails and the endosteal surface, high interfragmentary movement can occur under loading. This could prolong the healing time, particularly for thin IM nails that are often used for unreamed IM nailing. The aims of our study were to determine the influence of the nail diameter on the healing time of human tibial shaft fractures and to investigate whether the healing time could be shortened by increasing the stiffness of the implant material. Therefore, a corroborated numerical model for simulating the fracture healing process in humans was used to simulate the healing process of human tibial fractures treated with IM nails. The calculated healing time (up to 71 weeks) was longest for transverse fractures treated with thin IM nails made of titanium. That the healing time was disproportionately long depended on the nail diameter, and could be greatly reduced by using a thicker nail or using steel instead of titanium. To avoid a prolonged healing time, the nail should be thick, and the annular gap should be as narrow as possible. Alternatively, using steel instead of titanium may also help to avoid a prolonged healing time.

  14. 76 FR 78882 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...; (c) high nickel steel; (d) ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods. Also... sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or more than 0.01..., (3) 0.040 percent or less, in the aggregate, of phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or less...

  15. Fungal nail infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the skin of the body or head ... fungal infection. Alternative Names Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Tinea unguium Images Nail infection, candidal Yeast and mold ...

  16. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    MedlinePlus

    ... perform a procedure to permanently excessive perspiration. prevent ingrown nails. The corner of the nail that ingrows, along with the matrix or root of Prevention that piece of nail, are removed by use of a ◆ Proper hygiene and regular inspec- chemical, a laser, or by other methods. tion of the feet ...

  17. Effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of NiTi and Stainless Steel Laser-Welded Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, G. R.; Saatchi, A.; Kermanpur, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of NiTi shape memory wire, laser welded to the 304 stainless steel wire were investigated. The results showed that PWHT at 200 °C increased corrosion resistance and tensile strength of the joint up to ~1.8 times that of the as-weld joint, with no heat treatment. On the contrary, precipitation of neoteric intermetallic compounds like Fe2Ti, Cr2Ti, FeNi, Ni3Ti, and Ti2Ni in the welded region deteriorated these properties, when PWHT was conducted at 400 °C. Due to the vital effects of the PWHT performed after the laser welding, careful control of the PWHT temperature was found to be a prerequisite for achievement of desirable properties in the dissimilar NiTi-304 stainless steel laser-welded wires.

  18. The effect of geometry of composite MgB 2/stainless-steel (SS) wires fabricated by PIT process on the superconducting properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. J.; Kim, S. W.; Park, C.; Joo, J. H.; Choi, S. J.; Ko, R. K.; Ha, H. S.; Ha, D. W.; Oh, S. S.

    2004-08-01

    Single-, multi-, and two kinds of coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS (stainless steel for both outer and inner tubes) and MgB 2/SS-Cu (stainless steel for outer tube and copper for inner tube) wires were successfully fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process with swaging only. The effect of the geometries of the MgB 2 PIT wires has been studied comparatively. The isothermal magnetizations M( H) for both the sintered and the as-rolled single-, multi-, and coaxial-filament MgB 2 wires were measured at temperatures between 5 and 50 K in fields up to 5 T. The critical current density was estimated by the M( H) data using Bean model. The coaxial-filament composite MgB 2 wires showed much better Jc than both the single- and the multi-filament composite ones. The results of this study show that the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 PIT wires/tapes can improve by employing better geometries such as the coaxial-filament composite MgB 2/SS-SS wires.

  19. Atomic scale investigation of redistribution of alloying elements in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and annealing.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Choi, P; Goto, S; Borchers, C; Raabe, D; Kirchheim, R

    2013-09-01

    A local electrode atom probe has been employed to analyze the redistribution of alloying elements including Si, Mn, and Cr in pearlitic steel wires upon cold-drawing and subsequent annealing. It has been found that the three elements undergo mechanical mixing upon cold-drawing at large strains, where Mn and Cr exhibit a nearly homogeneous distribution throughout both ferrite and cementite, whereas Si only dissolves slightly in cementite. Annealing at elevated temperatures leads to a reversion of the mechanical alloying. Si atoms mainly segregate at well-defined ferrite (sub)grain boundaries formed during annealing. Cr and Mn are strongly concentrated in cementite adjacent to the ferrite/cementite interface due to their lower diffusivities in cementite than in ferrite.

  20. Stainless steel wire mesh-supported ZnO for the catalytic photodegradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet irradiation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tan T; del Río, Laura; Valdés-Solís, Teresa; Marbán, Gregorio

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of catalysts formed by nanostructured zinc oxide supported on stainless steel wire mesh for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. Catalysts prepared by means of different low temperature synthesis methods, as described in a previous work (Vu et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 47 (2012) 1577-1586) were tested. A new activity parameter was introduced in order to compare the catalytic activity of the different catalysts. The best catalyst showed a catalytic activity higher than that of the reference material TiO(2) P25 (Degussa-Evonik). This high activity is attributed to a higher quantum yield derived from the small particle length of the ZnO deposited on the wire mesh. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of methylene blue fitted a potential model with n orders ranging from 0.5 to 6.9. Reaction orders over 1 were attributed to catalyst deactivation during the reaction resulting from the photocorrosion of ZnO.

  1. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  2. Cluster analysis of stress corrosion mechanisms for steel wires used in bridge cables through acoustic emission particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wenyao

    2017-05-01

    Stress corrosion is the major failure type of bridge cable damage. The acoustic emission (AE) technique was applied to monitor the stress corrosion process of steel wires used in bridge cable structures. The damage evolution of stress corrosion in bridge cables was obtained according to the AE characteristic parameter figure. A particle swarm optimization cluster method was developed to determine the relationship between the AE signal and stress corrosion mechanisms. Results indicate that the main AE sources of stress corrosion in bridge cables included four types: passive film breakdown and detachment of the corrosion product, crack initiation, crack extension, and cable fracture. By analyzing different types of clustering data, the mean value of each damage pattern's AE characteristic parameters was determined. Different corrosion damage source AE waveforms and the peak frequency were extracted. AE particle swarm optimization cluster analysis based on principal component analysis was also proposed. This method can completely distinguish the four types of damage sources and simplifies the determination of the evolution process of corrosion damage and broken wire signals.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot wire laser clad layers for repairing precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Peng; Cai, Zhipeng; Feng, Zhenhua; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel (PH-MSS) is widely used as load-bearing parts because of its excellent overall properties. It is economical and flexible to repair the failure parts instead of changing new ones. However, it is difficult to keep properties of repaired part as good as those of the substrate. With preheating wire by resistance heat, hot wire laser cladding owns both merits of low heat input and high deposition efficiency, thus is regarded as an advantaged repairing technology for damaged parts of high value. Multi-pass layers were cladded on the surface of FV520B by hot wire laser cladding. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared and analyzed for the substrate and the clad layer. For the as-cladded layer, microstructure was found non-uniform and divided into quenched and tempered regions. Tensile strength was almost equivalent to that of the substrate, while ductility and impact toughness deteriorated much. With using laser scanning layer by layer during laser cladding, microstructure of the clad layers was tempered to fine martensite uniformly. The ductility and toughness of the clad layer were improved to be equivalent to those of the substrate, while the tensile strength was a little lower than that of the substrate. By adding TiC nanoparticles as well as laser scanning, the precipitation strengthening effect was improved and the structure was refined in the clad layer. The strength, ductility and toughness were all improved further. Finally, high quality clad layers were obtained with equivalent or even superior mechanical properties to the substrate, offering a valuable technique to repair PH-MSS.

  4. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing

    PubMed Central

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Friction Resistance of Titanium, Stainless Steel, Ceramic and Ceramic with Metal Insert Brackets with Varying Dimensions of Stainless Steel Wire: An In vitro Multi-center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B Sunil; Miryala, Suresh; Kumar, K Kiran; Shameem, K; Regalla, Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orthodontist seeks an archwire–bracket combination that has both good biocompatibility and low friction. Hence, the aim of this multicenter in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the frictional resistance generated between titanium (Ti), stainless steel (SS), ceramic and ceramic with metal insert (CMI) brackets with SS wires of varying dimensions in a specially designed apparatus. Materials and Methods: The material used in this study were Ti, SS, Ceramic and CMI with 0.018″ slot manufactured with zero degree tip and −7° torque premolar brackets (3M, Unitek) and SS wires of varying dimensions (0.016″ round, 0.016 × 0.016″ square, 0.016 × 0.022″ rectangular and 0.017 × 0.025″ rectangular) used. The frictional resistance was measured using Instron Universal testing machine (Model no. 4301). The specimen population in each center composed each of 160 brackets and wires. Differences among the all bracket/wire combinations were tested using (one-way) ANOVA, followed by the student Newman Keuls multiple comparisons of means ranking (at P < 0.05) for the determination of differences among the groups. Results: Ti bracket in combination with 0.017 × 0.025″ SS rectangular wire produced significant force levels for an optimum orthodontic movement with least frictional resistance. Conclusion: Ti brackets have least resistance and rectangular wires produced significant force. These can be used to avoid hazards of Nickel. SS brackets revealed higher static frictional force values as the wire dimension increased and showed lower static friction than Ti brackets for all wires except the thicker wire. Our study recommends the preclusion of brackets with rough surface texture (Ti brackets) with SS ligature wire for ligating bracket and archwire are better to reduce friction. PMID:25395796

  6. In vitro comparative study on the friction of stainless steel wires with and without Orthospeed® (JAL 90458) on an inclined plane

    PubMed Central

    Claros-Stucchi, Miguel; Albaladejo, Alberto; Iglesias-Conde, Carmen; Alvarado-Lorenzo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background During the treatment of orthodontics, in the mechanics of slide, there takes place friction, which they reduce the slide of the arch across bracket. Therefore, clinical there takes place an increase of the time of treatment. There are different the technologies that try to reduce this friction, as the self-ligating braces. The purpose of this study was to research the in vitro behavior of JAL 90458 as a buffering agent which reduces friction between brackets and stainless steel arch wires of different cross sections and sizes. Material and Methods Three types of stainless steel wires with different cross sections and three types of ligatures were used with and without JAL 90458 to measure the friction according to the time and distance traveled by the brackets on an inclined plane with two angulations. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks was applied to determine the degree of friction between the group using and the group not using the product (P ≤ .05). Results Separate analysis of the arch wires, ligatures and angulation with and without the compound revealed statistically significant differences between the groups, showing that friction was reduced significantly when JAL 90458 was used (P ≤ .01). The 0.021x0.025” arch wires and the arch wires attached using elastic ligatures produce the least resistance to sliding among all of those analyzed when the product was not used (P ≤ .05). Conclusions The results show that JAL 90458 reduces friction independently of arch wire cross section, type of ligature and angulation of the measuring instrument. Key words:Friction, JAL 90458, arch wires, ligatures, in vitro. PMID:27034753

  7. Control of Hydrogen Embrittlement in High Strength Steel Using Special Designed Welding Wire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    principle • New filler wire development • Y-Groove test results • Mechanical testing results • Residual stress results • Conclusions Outlin 2...Master title style • HIC testing : Y-Groove (aka Tekken) test (ISO 17642-2) • Chosen over other types of HIC weldability tests for its representative...unlimited. Click to edit Master title style 7 Y-Groove Base Line ER100/110 S HIC testing results HIC crack appeared after 30-40 min. Weld crater

  8. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact

  9. The role of stainless steel wire mesh and cement in bone allograft incorporation in impaction grafting technique: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Roidis, Nikolaos; Karachalios, Theofilos; Khaldi, Lubna; Stamos, Konstantinos; Lyritis, George P

    2003-06-01

    Cages of flexible stainless steel wire mesh were filled with impacted morcellized cancellous allograft. Bone defects were created in both tibial metaphyseal regions of 10 adult white New Zealand rabbits. The base of both defects was plugged with a small amount of bone cement. The cages were implanted in the right tibia while the left tibia was filled with impacted bone allograft. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of the retrieved specimens at 3 months showed a statistically significant difference in active bone formation parameters between the 2 groups. Active bone formation was more prominent away from the bone cement. The biological process of bone graft incorporation in the "impaction grafting" technique seems to be adversely affected by stainless steel wire mesh and in areas adjacent to bone cement.

  10. Formation Mechanism of SiO2-Type Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel Wires Containing Limited Aluminum Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2015-10-01

    The origin, formation mechanism, and evolution of SiO2-type inclusions in Si-Mn-killed steel wires were studied by pilot trials with systematical samplings at the refining ladle, casting tundish, as-cast bloom, reheated bloom, and hot-rolled rods. It was found that the inclusions in tundish were well controlled in the low melting point region. By contrast, MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions in the as-cast bloom were with compositions located in the primary region of SiO2, and most CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions lied in primary phase region of anorthite. Therefore, precipitation of SiO2 particles in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions can be easier than in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO inclusions to form dual-phase inclusions in the as-cast bloom. Thermodynamic calculation by the software FactSage 6.4 (CRCT-ThermFact Inc., Montréal, Canada) showed that mass transfer between liquid steel and inclusions resulted in the rise of SiO2 content in inclusions from tundish to as-cast bloom and accelerated the precipitation of pure SiO2 phase in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions. As a result, the inclusions characterized by dual-phase structure of pure SiO2 in MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix were observed in both as-cast and reheated blooms. Moreover, the ratio of such dual-phase SiO2-type inclusions witnessed an obvious increase from 0 to 25.4 pct before and after casting, whereas it changed little during the reheating and rolling. Therefore, it can be reasonably concluded that they were mainly formed during casting. Comparing the evolution of the inclusions composition and morphology in as-cast bloom and rolled products, a formation mechanism of the SiO2-type inclusions in wire rods was proposed, which included (1) precipitation of SiO2 in the formed MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusion during casting and (2) solid-phase separation of the undeformed SiO2 precipitation from its softer MnO-SiO2-Al2O3 matrix during multipass rolling.

  11. [Cosmetology and brittle nails].

    PubMed

    Abimelec, P

    2000-12-15

    The knowledge of manicure techniques and nail cosmetics compositions are a prerequisite to the understanding of their potential side effects. The brittle nail syndrome is a common problem that roughly affect 20% of women. We will review the etiologic hypothesis, describe the various presentations, and suggest a treatment for this perplexing problem.

  12. Nail Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are treatments usually effective?Are there any side effects of the treatment?If my treatment works, will my nail grow back normally?If I've had one fungal nail infection, am I likely to get another?What kinds of shoes should I wear?Should I wear gloves when ...

  13. Advanced Nail Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    Six techniques not yet widely known or used in the dermatologic surgery of the nails are briefly described. Small-to-medium-sized tumours of the proximal nail fold (PNF) can be excised and the defect repaired with advancement or rotation flaps. A superficial biopsy technique of the matrix for the diagnosis of longitudinal brown streaks in the nail, which allows rapid histological diagnosis of the melanocyte focus to be performed, is described here. Because the excision is very shallow and leaves the morphogenetic connective tissue of the matrix intact, the defect heals without scarring. Laterally positioned nail tumours can be excised in the manner of a wide lateral longitudinal nail biopsy. The defect repair is performed with a bipedicled flap from the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx. Malignant tumours of the nail organ often require its complete ablation. These defects can be covered by a full-thickness skin graft, reversed dermal graft, or cross-finger flap. The surgical correction of a split nail is often difficult. The cicatricial tissue of the matrix and PNF have to be excised and the re-attachment of these wounds prevented. The matrix defect has to be excised and sutured or covered with a free matrix graft taken either from the neighbouring area or from the big toe nail. PMID:22279381

  14. Influence of Nb Additions on Microstructural Evolution of a V-Microalloyed High-Carbon Wire Steel During Patenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie L.; de Moor, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of microalloying strategies for improving the strength of high-carbon wire products subjected to industrial patenting heat treatments for two eutectoid steels: a 0.8C-0.5Mn-0.2Cr-0.08 V alloy (wt.%) and the same composition with an additional 100 ppm Nb. A Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator (Dynamic Systems Inc., Poestenkill, NY, USA) was used to perform heat treatments consisting of a 30 s austenitization at 1093 °C, 950 °C, or 880 °C followed by a 15 s isothermal transformation step at 650 °C, 625 °C, 600 °C, or 575 °C. Vickers hardness, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and pearlite interlamellar spacing measurements were conducted to assess the effects of the heat treatments. Niobium microalloying additions were found to provide no hardness increase, but they extended the pearlitic regime to lower isothermal transformation temperatures.

  15. Internal impedance of twisted steel-aluminum wires at an industrial frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkushev, A. G.; Elagin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    A simplified mathematical model is suggested that describes the harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in high-voltage steel-core twisted cables with a single-layer winding at an industrial frequency. As a physical idealization, the twisted strands are represented in the form of an anisotropically conducting layer. When twisting is taken into consideration, an axial magnetic field arises, which substantially influences losses in the cables. Using the model, the dependences of the internal impedance on the core's magnetic permeability are derived for AS-70 cable at three winding angles of the external strands. These dependences are compared with results obtained in terms of a hollow cylinder model and with calculation data carried out in the complete statement of the problem with the finite element method.

  16. Influence of type of medullary nail on the development of local infection. An experimental study of solid and slotted nails in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Melcher, G A; Claudi, B; Schlegel, U; Perren, S M; Printzen, G; Munzinger, J

    1994-11-01

    Any operation involving the implantation of a foreign body increases the risk of infection. The implant material and its surface, the dead space, and any necrosis or vascular changes play a significant role in susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effect of the dead space in an intramedullary nail on the rate of local infection. We inoculated the intramedullary cavities of rabbit tibiae with various concentrations of a human pathogen, of Staphylococcus aureus strain, and then inserted either a solid or a hollow slotted stainless-steel nail. We found a significantly higher rate of infection after use of the slotted nail (59%) than after the solid nail (27%) (p < 0.05).

  17. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 Low-Carbon Vacuum Melted Stainless Steel: Part I. Mechanism of Joint Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, G. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Li, X. G.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The excellent biocompatibility and corrosion properties of Pt alloys and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) make them attractive for biomedical applications. With the increasing complexity of medical devices and in order to lower costs, the challenge of joining dissimilar materials arises. In this study, laser microwelding (LMW) of crossed Pt-10 pct Ir to 316 LVM SS wires was performed and the weldability of these materials was determined. The joint geometry, joining mechanism, joint breaking force (JBF), and fracture modes were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and microtensile testing. It was shown that the mechanisms of joint formation transitioned from (1) brazing, (2) a combination of brazing and fusion welding, and (3) fusion welding with increasing pulsed laser energy. The joints demonstrated various tensile failure modes including (1) interfacial failure below a peak power of 0.24 kW, (2) partial interfacial failure that propagated into the Pt-Ir wire, (3) failure in the Pt-Ir wire, and (4) failure in the SS wire due to porosity and severe undercutting caused by overwelding. During this study, the optimal laser peak power range was identified to produce joints with good joint geometry and 90 pct of the tensile strength of the Pt-10 pct Ir wire.

  18. Nail stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Our knowledge on stem cells of the hair follicle has increased exponentially after the bulge was characterized as the stem cell niche two decades ago. In contrast, little is known about stem cells in the nail unit. Whereas hair follicles are plentiful and easy to access, the human body has only twenty nails and they are rarely biopsied. Therefore, examining fetal material offers unique advantages. In the following mini-review, our current knowledge on nail stem cells is summarized and analogies to the hair follicle stem cells are drawn.

  19. Comparing the Knotless Tension Band and the Traditional Stainless Steel Wire Tension Band Fixation for Medial Malleolus Fractures: A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Michael W.; Duncan, Kyle; Kosmopoulos, Victor; Motley, Travis A.; Carpenter, Brian B.; Ogunyankin, Fadeke; Garrett, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The traditional stainless steel wire tension band (WTB) has been popularized for small avulsion fractures at the medial malleolus. Despite the tension band principle creating a stable construct, complications continue to arise utilizing the traditional stainless steel WTB with patients experiencing hardware irritation at the tension band site and subsequent hardware removal. Coupled with hardware irritation is fatigue failure with the wire. The goal of this investigation was to retrospectively compare this traditional wire technique to an innovative knotless tension band (KTB) technique in order to decrease costly complications. A total of 107 patients were reviewed with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Outcome measures include descriptive data, fracture classification, results through economic costs, and fixation results (including hardware status, healing status, pain status, and time to healing). The KTB group had a 13% lower true cost as compared to the WTB group while the fixation results were equivocal for the measured outcomes. Our results demonstrate that the innovative KTB is comparable to the traditional WTB while offering a lower true cost, an irritation free reduction all without the frustration of returning to the operating room for additional hardware removal, which averages approximately to $8,288. PMID:27293969

  20. Effects of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of three-wire stainless steel weld overlay cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Haggag, F.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Thermal aging of three-wire series-arc stainless steel weld overlay cladding at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h resulted in an appreciable decrease (16%) in the Charpy V-notch (CVN) upper-shelf energy (USE), but the effect on the 41-J transition temperature shift was very small (3{degrees}C). The combined effect of aging and neutron irradiation at 288{degrees}C to a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) was a 22% reduction in the USE and a 29{degrees}C shift in the 41-J transition temperature. The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties was very small. However, the combined effect of irradiation and aging was an increase in the yield strength (6 to 34% at test temperatures from 288 to {minus}125{degrees}C) but no apparent change in ultimate tensile strength or total elongation. Neutron irradiation reduced the initiation fracture toughness (J{sub Ic}) much more than did thermal aging alone. Irradiation slightly decreased the tearing modulus, but no reduction was caused by thermal aging alone. Other results from tensile, CVN, and fracture toughness specimens showed that the effects of thermal aging at 288 or 343{degrees}C for 20,000 h each were very small and similar to those at 288{degrees}C for 1605 h. The effects of long-term thermal exposure time (50,000 h and greater) at 288{degrees}C will be investigated as the specimens become available in 1996 and beyond.

  1. Capillary nail refill test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may indicate: Dehydration Shock Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) Hypothermia Alternative Names Nail blanch test; Capillary refill time ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 79. Read More Dehydration Hypothermia Peripheral artery disease - legs Shock Review Date 4/ ...

  2. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  3. Nail Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acrylics") Artificial nails are composed primarily of acrylic polymers and are made by reacting together acrylic monomers, such as ethyl methacrylate monomer, with acrylic polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate. When the reaction is completed, ...

  4. Implosion dynamics and K-shell x-ray generation in large diameter stainless steel wire array Z pinches with various nesting configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brent; Coverdale, Christine A.; Deeney, Christopher; Sinars, Daniel B.; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Ampleford, David J.; LePell, P. David; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Thornhill, J. Ward; Apruzese, J. P.; Dasgupta, Arati; Whitney, Kenneth G.; Clark, Robert W.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.

    2008-12-15

    Nested stainless steel wire array variations were investigated on the 20 MA Z machine [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. In order to reach experimentally observed electron temperatures near 3.8 keV and excite the K shell, these {approx}6.7 keV photon energy x-ray sources must be of large initial diameter (45-80 mm) which poses a concern for magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth. We discuss the implosion dynamics in these large diameter wire arrays, including an analysis of the ablation phase indicating that the prefill material is snowplowed at large radius. Nested array configurations with various mass and radius ratios are compared for instability mitigation and K-shell scaling. Degradation of the K-shell x-ray power and yield was observed for shots that did not have simultaneous implosion of the outer and inner wire arrays. Shots that were designed per this constraint exhibited K-shell yield scaling consistent with the model of J. W. Thornhill et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 2377 (2006)] which had been benchmarked to single array results. This lends confidence to K-shell yield predictions using this model for future shots on the refurbished Z machine. Initial results employing a triple nested wire array to stabilize the large diameter implosion are also reported.

  5. Diagnostic applications of nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Sasha; Tosti, Antonella; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-04-01

    "Nail clipping is a simple technique for diagnosis of several nail unit dermatoses. This article summarizes the practical approach, utility, and histologic findings of a nail clipping in evaluation of onychomycosis, nail unit psoriasis, onychomatricoma, subungual hematoma, melanonychia, and nail cosmetics, and the forensic applications of this easily obtained specimen. It reviews important considerations in optimizing specimen collection, processing methods, and efficacy of special stains in several clinical contexts. Readers will develop a greater understanding and ease of application of this indispensable procedure in assessing nail unit dermatoses."

  6. 77 FR 17430 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ....; Guizhou Wire Rope Incorporated Company; Hebei Minmetals Co., Ltd.; Shandong Minmetals Co., Ltd.; Fasten... never provided any evidence demonstrating an absence of government control both in law and in fact. As....; Huanghua Jinhai Import & Export Trading Co., Ltd.; Guizhou Wire Rope Incorporated Company; Hebei...

  7. 78 FR 33103 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, Moldova, Trinidad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... found a single Domestic Like Product encompassing all wire rod, including grade 1080 tire cord and grade... single Domestic Industry consisting of all domestic producers of wire rod. (5) An Importer is any person or firm engaged, either directly or through a parent company or subsidiary, in importing the...

  8. 76 FR 16607 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... percent of tellurium). Also excluded from the scope are 1080 grade tire cord quality wire rod and 1080 grade tire bead quality wire rod. This grade 1080 tire cord quality rod is defined as: (i) Grade 1080... aggregate, of copper, nickel and chromium. ] This grade 1080 tire bead quality rod is defined as: (i)...

  9. 75 FR 8650 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod from Trinidad and Tobago; Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... percent of tellurium). Also excluded from the scope are 1080 grade tire cord quality wire rod and 1080 grade tire bead quality wire rod. Grade 1080 tire cord quality rod is defined as: (i) grade 1080 tire... aggregate, of copper, nickel and chromium. Grade 1080 tire bead quality rod is defined as: (i) grade...

  10. Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Engineer, L; Norton, L A; Ahmed, A R

    2000-09-01

    Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is relatively rare. We describe a case of severe pemphigus involving both the skin and oral mucosa in which an acute exacerbation was preceded by the onset of nail involvement of all 4 extremities. Nail involvement occurred in the form of hemorrhagic paronychia of multiple digits. Oral, cutaneous, and nail manifestations of the disease were all well controlled by systemic therapy. A review of the literature on nail involvement in pemphigus reveals that this involvement may be manifested in multiple ways, with chronic paronychia and onychomadesis being the most common. Involvement of the nail occurs most frequently either as part of the initial presentation, or just before or concurrent with a flare of pre-existing disease. Nail involvement, when it occurs, is usually present when the disease is severe. Topical therapy is insufficient, and systemic therapy is warranted. In the majority of cases, nail recovery is complete, with no residual damage.

  11. Histopathology of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Martínez-Nova, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we review several inflammatory infectious and tumoral conditions of the nail unit. We emphasize the anatomic peculiarities of such pathologies of the nail unit and provide some required diagnostic criteria.

  12. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  13. Nails: diagnostic clue to genodermatoses.

    PubMed

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Nails are cutaneous appendages mostly involved in mechanical functions. However, nails may reflect presence of various systemic disorders evidenced by alteration of their shape, size, color or texture. Genodermatoses are multisystem disorders with cutaneous involvement. Many of the genodermatoses present with nail changes and some of these may be the clinical pointers to the diagnosis. Diagnostic clues to various genodermatoses derived from nail findings have been discussed.

  14. Development of a locking femur nail for mice.

    PubMed

    Holstein, J H; Menger, M D; Culemann, U; Meier, C; Pohlemann, T

    2007-01-01

    We herein report on a novel locking intramedullary nail system in a murine closed femur fracture model. The nail system consists of a modified 24-gauge injection needle and a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten guide wire. Rotation stability was accomplished by flattening the proximal and distal end of the needle. Torsional mechanical testing of the implants in osteotomized cadaveric femora revealed a superiority of the locking nail (3.9+/-1.0 degrees rotation at a torque of 0.9 Nmm, n=10) compared to the unmodified injection needle (conventional nail; 52.4+/-3.2 degrees, n=10, p<0.05). None of the implants, however, achieved the rotation stability of unfractured femora (0.3+/-0.5 degrees, n=10). In a second step, we tested the feasibility of the in vivo application of the locking nail to stabilize a closed femoral midshaft fracture in C57BL/6 mice. Of interest, none of the 10 animals showed a dislocation of the locking nail over a 5-week period, while 3 of 4 animals with conventional nail fracture stabilization showed a significant pin dislocation within the first 3 days (p<0.05). Mechanical testing after 5-weeks stabilization with the locking nail revealed an appropriate bone healing with a torque at failure of 71.6+/-3.4% and a peak rotation before failure of 68.4+/-5.3% relative to the unfractured contralateral femur. With the advantage that closed fractures can be fixed with rotation stability, the herein introduced model may represent an ideal tool to study bone healing in transgenic and knockout mice.

  15. Analysis of Radiation from Implosions of Stainless Steel Wire Arrays on Zebra and Comparison with Laser Plasma Experiments on Leopard at UNR*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Osborne, G. C.; Williamson, K. M.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Esaulov, A. A.; Wiewior, P.; Legalloudec, N.; Paudel, Y.; Coverdale, C. A.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2011-10-01

    The implosions of Stainless Steel (SS) Wire Arrays are extensively studied at SNL and also have applications in astrophysics. The analysis of radiation from low-number-wire SS Single and Nested Cylindrical, and Planar Wire Array experiments on the 1 MA Zebra is presented. The major focus is on x-ray imaging and spectra, total radiation yields, and fast, filtered x-ray detector data. The results of Leopard laser experiments with a flat 25 μm Fe target in the nanosecond (ns) and 350 femtosecond (fs) pulse regimes are discussed and compared with Z-pinch data. This comparison focuses mainly on L-shell Fe radiation and provides an excellent benchmark to the Z-pinch results. Good agreement with laser data is demonstrated in the ns regime, but a substantial difference is observed for the fs pulse. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Coop. Agreements DE-FC52-06NA27588, 27586, and 27616. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Co., for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods. Also excluded are (f) free machining steel products... lead, 0.05 percent or more of bismuth, 0.08 percent or more of sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of... sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or less of nitrogen, and (5) not more than 0.15 percent, in the aggregate,...

  17. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...) high nickel steel; (d) ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods. Also excluded... sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or more than 0.01... phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or less of nitrogen, and (5) not more than 0.15 percent, in...

  18. Nail care for newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Nail care for newborns URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  19. Anatomy of the nail unit and the nail biopsy.

    PubMed

    Haneke, Eckart

    2015-06-01

    The nail unit is the largest and a rather complex skin appendage. It is located on the dorsal aspect of the tips of fingers and toes and has important protective and sensory functions. Development begins in utero between weeks 7 and 8 and is fully formed at birth. For its correct development, a great number of signals are necessary. Anatomically, it consists of 4 epithelial components: the matrix that forms the nail plate; the nail bed that firmly attaches the plate to the distal phalanx; the hyponychium that forms a natural barrier at the physiological point of separation of the nail from the bed; and the eponychium that represents the undersurface of the proximal nail fold which is responsible for the formation of the cuticle. The connective tissue components of the matrix and nail bed dermis are located between the corresponding epithelia and the bone of the distal phalanx. Characteristics of the connective tissue include: a morphogenetic potency for the regeneration of their epithelia; the lateral and proximal nail folds form a distally open frame for the growing nail; and the tip of the digit has rich sensible and sensory innervation. The blood supply is provided by the paired volar and dorsal digital arteries. Veins and lymphatic vessels are less well defined. The microscopic anatomy varies from nail subregion to subregion. Several different biopsy techniques are available for the histopathological evaluation of nail alterations.

  20. Removal of a femoral nail with osseous overgrowth at the end-cap: A navigated and cannulated minimally invasive technique.

    PubMed

    Marintschev, Ivan; Rausch, Sascha; Fujak, Albert; Klos, Kajetan; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gras, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Intramedullary nail removal can be demanding, especially in cases of implant breakage or bony overgrowth at the end-cap, if the exact insertion depth of the nail is neglected in the index surgery. In the presented case, two challenging nail removals were necessary. The first was performed in a re-nailing procedure due to a pseudarthrosis with implant breakage, and the second was performed during hardware removal after fracture healing in a situation where there was deep intramedullary placement of the exchange nail. For the second implant removal a minimally invasive approach based on instrument placements over a navigated guide-wire was used to reduce the iatrogenic morbidity associated with an extensive open approach to the nail and to decrease the radiation exposure for the patient and the operating team.

  1. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part II. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In the second part of this paper, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of plain-carbon steel rods which have been subjected to known cooling conditions are described. Specifically, the isothermal phase transformation kinetics for the decomposition of austenite into ferrite and pearlite have been determined with a diametral dilatometer and characterized in terms of empirical coefficients in the Avrami equation. The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) start time, fraction ferrite, ferrite grain diameter, and pearlite interlamellar spacing have been quantified and correlated with steel composition and cooling rate. Tensile tests have been conducted to obtain yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), which, with literature data, have been related to the microstructure and composition of the steels. These correlations, which apply to both hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, have been incorporated in a mathematical model of the Stelmor process, to be described in Part III of this article.[441

  2. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.

  3. Morphopathological aspects of healthy nails and nails affected by onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zaikovska, Olga; Pilmane, Mara; Kisis, Janis

    2014-09-01

    Patients of onychomycosis are common in the dermatology practice. Contemporary morphology creates opportunities to study the functional units of the nail when such infections occur from morphopathological point of view. There were 22 nails biopsies from onychomycosis patients taken for the research of morphopathological changes in the thickened nail plate affected by onychomycosis. Samples of cadaverous' nails were used as a control material. The material was stained with haematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical methods. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling reaction and periodic acid-Schiff reaction were also performed. We found patchy hypertrophy in the granulose layer of the epidermis, with focal acanthosis. In the horn layer, we identified nests of parakeratosis of various sizes, with incorporations of homogenous and eosinophil masses. We found high levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 positive cells in the nail bed and in the bloodstream. Interleukin 1, however, was not a part of any of the functional units of any of the nails. Significant amount of fibres containing human beta defensin-2 were found in the bed and plate of the nail. Therefore one can conclude that as regards the nails affected by onychomycosis, the most effective morphopathogenical processes include cytokine and defensin excretion occurrence in the nail bed.

  4. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  5. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  7. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-09

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples.

  8. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  9. Application of soil nails to the stability of mine waste slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tant, C.R.; Drumm, E.C.; Mauldon, M.; Berry, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The traditional soil nailed structure incorporates grouted or driven nails, and a wire mesh reinforced shotcrete facing to increase the stability of a slope or wall. This paper describes the construction and monitoring of a full-scale demonstration of nailing to stabilize coal mine spoil. The purpose of the investigation is to evaluate the performance of nailed slopes in mine spoil using methods proven for the stabilization of soil walls and slopes. The site in eastern Tennessee is a 12 meter high slope of dumped fill, composed of weathered shale chips, sandstone, and coal. The slope was formed by {open_quotes}pre-regulatory{close_quotes} contour surface mining operations and served as a work bench during mining. The material varies in size from silt to boulders, and has a small amount of cohesion. Portions of the mine spoil slope have experienced slope instability and erosion which have hampered subsequent reclamation activities. Three different nail spacings and three different nail lengths were used in the design. The 12 meter high structure is instrumented to permit measurement of nail strain, and vertical inclinometer readings and survey measurements will be used for the detection of ground movement. The results of this study will aid in the development of design recommendations and construction guidelines for the application of soil nailing to stabilize mine spoil.

  10. Crossed-Wire Laser Microwelding of Pt-10 Pct Ir to 316 LVM Stainless Steel: Part II. Effect of Orientation on Joining Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. D.; Pequegnat, A.; Zou, G. S.; Feng, J. C.; Khan, M. I.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-04-01

    With the increasing complexity of medical devices and with efforts to reduce manufacturing costs, challenges arise in joining dissimilar materials. In this study, the laser weldability of dissimilar joints between Pt-10 pct Ir and 316 low-carbon vacuum melted (LVM) stainless steel (SS) crossed wires was investigated by characterizing the weld geometry, joint strength, morphology of weld cross sections, and differences in joining behavior, depending on which material is subject to the incident laser beam. With the Pt-Ir alloy on top, a significant amount of porosity was observed on the surface of the welds as well as throughout the weld cross sections. This unique form of porosity is believed to be a result of preferential vaporization of 316 LVM SS alloying elements that become mixed with the molten Pt-10 pct Ir during welding. The joining mechanism documented in micrographs of cross-sectioned welds was found to transition from laser brazing to fusion welding. It is inferred that the orientation of the two dissimilar metals ( i.e., which material is subject to the incident laser beam) plays an important role in weld quality of crossed-wire laser welds.

  11. Growth of cedar-like Au nanoparticles coating on an etched stainless steel wire and its application for selective solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yida; Yang, Yaoxia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-05-30

    A novel cedar-like Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) coating was fabricated on an etched stainless steel (SS) wire by direct chemical deposition and used as an efficient and unbreakable solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The etched SS wire offers a rough surface structure for subsequent growth of AuNPs in chloroauric acid solution. As a result, the uniform cedar-like AuNPs coating with larger surface area was tightly attached to the etched SS wire substrate. The AuNPs coated etched SS fiber (AuNPs/SS) was examined for SPME of ultraviolet (UV) filters, phthalate esters and aromatic hydrocarbons coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some aromatic hydrocarbons. Influential parameters of extraction and desorption time, temperature, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. The limits of detection ranged from 0.008 μg L(-1) to 0.037 μg L(-1). The single fiber repeatability varied from 3.90% to 4.50% and the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility ranged from 5.15% to 6.87%. The recovery of aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples spiked at 2.0 μg L(-1) and 20 μg L(-1) ranged from 94.38% to 106.2% with the relative standard deviations below 6.44%. Furthermore the growth of the cedar-like AuNPs coating can be performed in a highly reproducible manner. This fabricated fiber exhibits good stability and withstands at least 200 extraction and desorption replicates.

  12. Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

    2007-12-18

    The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

  13. Nail clipping in onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    Bertanha, Laura; Chiacchio, Nilton Di

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is the most prevalent onychopathy and it requires a correct early diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic gold standard is the association of direct mycological test with culture; however, it shows variable sensitivity. The histopathological examination of the distal nail plate, called clipping, has shown to be an adjuvant in diagnosing onychomycosis. This is an easy-to-perform, relatively cheap examination that is little dependent of the examiner, rapidly provides results, has high sensitivity, and for patients it is painless and harmless. PMID:27828655

  14. Teaching Your Child Healthy Nail Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... aad", "size=300x250", "vpos=t", "hpos=r", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy nail care Nails take a ... by wearing flip-flops or shower sandals in public places, such as beaches, ... nails are usually healthy, but teaching them to check their nails at a young ...

  15. Flexible intramedullary nailing in paediatric femoral fractures. A report of 73 cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up. Material and methods We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined. Results Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures. All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results. Conclusion Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures. PMID:22192682

  16. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part I. Experimental design and heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a mathematical model which incorporates heat flow, phase transformation kinetics, and property-structure-composition relationships to predict the mechanical properties of steel rod being control cooled under industrial conditions. Thus, the principles of microstructural engineering have been brought to bear on this interdisciplinary problem by combining computer modeling with laboratory measurements of heat flow, austenite decomposition kinetics, microstructure and mechanical properties, and industrial trials to determine heat transfer and obtain rod samples under known conditions. Owing to the length and diversity of the study, it is reported in three parts,[8191]the first of which is concerned with the heat flow measurements. A relatively simple and reliable technique, involving a preheated steel rod instrumented with a thermocouple secured at its centerline, has been devised to determine the cooling rate in different regions of the moving bed of rod loops on an operating Stelmor line. The measured thermal response of the rod has been analyzed by two transient conduction models (lumped and distributed parameter, respectively) to yield overall heat-transfer coefficients for radiation and convection. The adequacy of the technique has been checked by cooling instrumented rods under well-defined, air crossflow conditions in the laboratory and comparing measured heat-transfer coefficients to values predicted from well-established equations. The industrial thermal measurements have permitted the characterization of a coefficient to account for radiative interaction among adjacent rod loops near the edge and at the center of the bed.

  17. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting 19 nails.

    PubMed

    Patsatsi, A; Sotiriou, E; Devliotou-Panagiotidou, D; Sotiriadis, D

    2009-03-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with painful erosions in the oral mucosa, pharynx, perineum and perianal area, and multiple plaques with thick adherent crusts on the scalp. Most (nine) of the patient's fingernails had alterations in colour, affecting more than half of the nail plate, and all the toenails had severe inflammation of the nail folds, haemorrhagic paronychia and subungual or intraungual haemorrhage. A diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was made based on histology and on direct and indirect immunofluorescence findings. Groups of acantholytic cells were also observed in a Tzanck smear obtained from a subungual lesion. Onychomadesis in most of the fingernails and in all the toenails developed gradually. The patient was hospitalized and treated with oral corticosteroids. Complete recovery without residual damage to the nails and persistent remission was achieved. Nail involvement in PV is rarely described and is always of interest, as its presentation varies widely.

  18. Reliable Wiring Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    New harness for electrical wiring includes plugs that do not loosen from vibration. Ground braids prevented from detaching from connectors and constrained so braids do not open into swollen "birdcage" sections. Spring of stainless steel encircles ground braid. Self-locking connector contains ratchet not only preventing connector from opening, but tightens when vibrated.

  19. Cavitation during wire brushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zou, Jun; Ji, Chen

    2016-11-01

    In our daily life, brush is often used to scrub the surface of objects, for example, teeth, pots, shoes, pool, etc. And cleaning rust and stripping paint are accomplished using wire brush. Wire brushes also can be used to clean the teeth for large animals, such as horses, crocodiles. By observing brushing process in water, we capture the cavitation phenomenon on the track of moving brush wire. It shows that the cavitation also can affect the surface. In order to take clear and entire pictures of cavity, a simplified model of one stainless steel wire brushing a boss is adopted in our experiment. A transparent organic tank filled with deionized water is used as a view box. And a high speed video camera is used to record the sequences. In experiment, ambient pressure is atmospheric pressure and deionized water temperature is kept at home temperature. An obvious beautiful flabellate cavity zone appears behind the moving steel wire. The fluctuation of pressure near cavity is recorded by a hydrophone. More movies and pictures are used to show the behaviors of cavitation bubble following a restoring wire. Beautiful tracking cavitation bubble cluster is captured and recorded to show.

  20. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  1. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  2. Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

    2014-10-16

    Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

  3. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options. PMID:24770509

  4. Nail psoriasis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Knob, Cristiane Faccin; Murussi, Nádia; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Neumaier, Walter; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2014-01-01

    Nails are considered epidermal appendages, and as such, are commonly affected in patients with psoriasis, 80% of whom are likely to develop nail psoriasis as a result of their condition. Two patterns of nail disorders have been shown to be caused by psoriasis. Nail matrix involvement can result in features such as leukonychia, pitting (punctures or cupuliform depressions), red spots in the lunula and crumbling. Nail bed involvement, on the other hand, can cause onycholysis, salmon or oil-drop patches, subungual hyperkeratosis and splinter hemorrhages. Nail disease causes aesthetic and functional impairment, and is indicative of more severe forms of psoriasis as well as of joint involvement. The treatment for nail psoriasis involves behavioral interventions, topical medications, or systemic therapy in case of extensive skin or joint involvement. This article presents a review of the main features of nail psoriasis, its clinical presentation, diagnostic and assessment methods, clinical repercussions, and of its available treatment options.

  5. Nail fragility syndrome and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Baran, R; Schoon, D

    2004-07-01

    For reasons of clarity, definitions are offered for strength, hardness, flexibility, brittleness and toughness of the nails. Six clinical types of nail fragility are delineated: longitudinal furrows and splitting (onychorrhexis), single longitudinal splitting, multiple crenellated splitting, lamellar splitting (onychoschizia), transverse splitting and nail friability. Changes may be observed in the keratin structure of fragile nails. Nail brittleness is usually 'environmental' in origin, but sometimes may be part of a nail dystrophy. Household daily chores are particularly damaging. Among the acquired general causes, hypochromic anaemia and sideropaenia, arthritic deformities of the distal joints, peripheral vascular impairment and endocrinopathies are the best known. Useful therapeutic approaches are updated. They entail protection with plastic gloves worn over light cotton glove linings, the use of nail hardeners composed of two main types of products: a modified nail varnish that functions as a base coat or a hardener, such as dimethyl urea, which overcomes the objections related to formaldehyde; a systemic drug, biotine, is still useful.

  6. Understanding the formidable nail barrier: A review of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir; Kasting, Gerald B; Li, S Kevin; Wickett, Randy; Adams, Brian; Eurich, Sean; Schamper, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The topical treatment of nail fungal infections has been a focal point of nail research in the past few decades as it offers a much safer and focused alternative to conventional oral therapy. Although the current focus remains on exploring the ways of enhancing permeation through the formidable nail barrier, the understanding of the nail microstructure and composition is far from complete. This article reviews our current understanding of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases. A few of the parameters affecting the nail permeability and potential causes of the recurrence of fungal nail infection are also discussed.

  7. Anti-infective efficacy of antiseptic-coated intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Darouiche, R O; Farmer, J; Chaput, C; Mansouri, M; Saleh, G; Landon, G C

    1998-09-01

    The coating of medical devices with antimicrobial agents has recently emerged as a potentially effective method for the prevention of device-related infections. We examined the anti-infective efficacy of intramedullary nails coated with an antiseptic combination of chlorhexidine and chloroxylenol in a rabbit model of device-related infection after fixation of an open tibial fracture. The rabbits were randomized to receive 2.8-by-100-millimeter stainless-steel tibial intramedullary nails that either were uncoated or were coated with antiseptic. After administration of anesthesia and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, a tibial fracture was created and then reduced with insertion of the intramedullary nail. A bacterial inoculum of 10(6) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus was injected into the intramedullary canal, and the wound was sutured. Radiographs of the tibiae were made postoperatively, and the rabbits were monitored daily. They were killed at six weeks, or earlier if there was dehiscence of the wound, the fracture became grossly unstable, or the rabbit failed to thrive. The use of the antiseptic-coated nails was associated with a significantly lower rate of device-related osteomyelitis (two of twenty-two; 9 per cent) than the use of the uncoated nails (thirteen of twenty-one; 62 per cent) (p = 0.0003). The radiographic and histopathological findings were generally similar in the two groups of rabbits. Antiseptic agents were not detected in serum. The results suggest that antiseptic-coated fracture-fixation devices provide significant local protection against Staphylococcus aureus, which is the most common cause of infections related to orthopaedic devices.

  8. Jacket-free stir bar sorptive extraction with bio-inspired polydopamine-functionalized immobilization of cross-linked polymer on stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Bao, Tao; Chen, Zilin

    2015-08-14

    Stainless steel wire (SSW) is a good substrate for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). However, it is still a challenge to immobilize commonly used cross-linked polymers onto SSW. In this work, we present a new approach for immobilization of the cross-linked organic polymer onto SSW for jacket-free SBSE. A dopamine derivative was firstly synthesized; by introducing a mussel-inspired polydopamine process, a stable coating layer was finally generated on the surface of SSW. Secondly, the cross-linked polymer was synthesized on the polydopamine-modified SSW by using acetonitrile as the porogen, acrylamide (AA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker and 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile) as the initiator. A diluted pre-polymerization solution was carefully prepared to generate a thin layer of the polymer. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed high stability and good tolerance toward stirring, ultrasonication, organic solvents, and strong acidic and basic conditions. Morphology and structure characterization of coatings were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The prepared poly(EGDMA-AA)-modified stir bar showed great extraction efficiency toward protoberberines, with enrichment factors of 19-42. An SBSE-HPLC method was also developed for quantitative analysis of protoberberines. The method showed low limits of detection (0.06-0.15 ng mL(-1)), wide linear range (0.5-400 ng mL(-1)), good linearity (R≥0.9980) and good reproducibility (RSD≤3.60% for intra-day, RSD≤4.73% for inter-day). The developed method has been successfully applied to determine protoberberines in herb and rat plasma samples, with recoveries of 88.53-114.61%.

  9. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  10. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  11. VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST, LEFT BUILDING 40 WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) RIGHT BUILDING 42 ROPE SHOP (1910) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  12. VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST ACROSS HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  13. VIEW NORTHHUDSON STREET BUILDING 67INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-HUDSON STREET BUILDING 67-INSULATED WIRE DEPT. STORAGE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  14. VIEW NORTHWESTBUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) John ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHWEST-BUILDING 35 CLINTON STREET WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  15. BUILDING 25NOW 2 WIRE MILLPATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BUILDING 25-NOW 2 WIRE MILL-PATTERNS STORED ON THIRD FLOOR - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. VIEW SOUTHSOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-SOUTH CLINTON AVENUE BUILDING 35 CLINTON ST. WIRE MILL (1899) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. VIEW NORTHBUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-BUILDING 67 INSULATED WIRE DIVISION STORE HOUSE (1897) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  18. A locked hip screw-intramedullary nail (cephalomedullary nail) for the treatment of fractures of the proximal part of the femur combined with fractures of the femoral shaft.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Ekeland, A; Grøgaard, B; Dokke, J R

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complex femoral fractures (combined shaft and proximal femoral fractures) were treated with a modified Grosse-Kempf slotted locking nail (cephalomedullary nail), wherein two screws were inserted in the hip. Four types of complex, multifocal femoral fractures were represented in the series. Eleven of the femoral shaft fractures were secondary to a previous, internally fixed, not yet united hip fracture (type I). Ten comminuted peritrochanteric fractures occurred in normal bone (type II). Three similar fractures were pathologic because of metastasis. Two patients had an ipsilateral fracture of the femoral shaft and the trochanteric area (type III), and one of the shaft and the femoral neck (type IV). Locking was made static in 24 cases. Additional cerclage wiring was used in three type II fractures. Five complications were as follows: one cutting out of a screw in the femoral head, two fractures of the nail, one deep venous thrombosis, and one wound hematoma. Reoperations were two salvage operations using a new nail and one evacuation of hematoma. One patient with multiple injuries and four elderly patients died within 2 months. Eighteen patients with fractures in normal bone were followed for a median of 20 (6 to 37) months. All fractures united. Two nails were removed. The end result was excellent in ten patients, good in seven, and fair in one (2-cm shortening and 20-degree external rotation). We conclude that a locked intramedullary construct with locking screws in femoral neck and distal femur controls a complex fracture situation well.

  19. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    PubMed

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  20. Consensus on melanonychia nail plate dermoscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Chiacchio, Nilton Di; de Farias, Débora Cadore; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Hirata, Sergio Henrique; Richert, Bertrand; Zaiac, Martin; Daniel, Ralph; Fanti, Pier Alessandro; Andre, Josette; Ruben, Beth S; Fleckman, Philip; Rich, Phoebe; Haneke, Eckart; Chang, Patricia; Cherit, Judith Dominguez; Scher, Richard; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010) there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation. PMID:23739699

  1. How to submit a nail specimen.

    PubMed

    Reinig, Erica; Rich, Phoebe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2015-04-01

    The scarcity of specific submission protocols for nail unit biopsies presents many challenges for appropriate specimen processing. Many nail biopsies are received fragmented or without orientation, often resulting in less-than-ideal tissue embedding and poor histologic sections, which are difficult to interpret. Methods are described for proper nail matrix/bed biopsy and plate submission that incorporate aspects of previous submission protocols and include inking the biopsy specimen along with submitting the tissue on a drawing of the nail. Also described is a technique for maintaining adherence of nail plate to glass slides, a chronic challenge in the laboratory.

  2. Nail Psoriasis: The Journey So Far

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Alka; Arora, Amanjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Nail involvement is an extremely common feature of psoriasis and affects approximately 10-78% of psoriasis patients with 5-10% of patients having isolated nail psoriasis. However, it is often an overlooked feature in the management of nail psoriasis, despite the significant burden it places on the patients as a result of functional impairment of manual dexterity, pain, and psychological stress. Affected nail plates often thicken and crumble, and because they are very visible, patients tend to avoid normal day-to-day activities and social interactions. Importantly, 70-80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis have nail psoriasis. In this overview, we review the clinical manifestations of psoriasis affecting the nails, the common differential diagnosis of nail psoriasis, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and the various diagnostic aids for diagnosing nail psoriasis especially, the cases with isolated nail involvement. We have also discussed the available treatment options, including the topical, physical, systemic, and biological modalities, in great detail in order to equip the present day dermatologist in dealing with a big clinical challenge, that is, management of nail psoriasis. PMID:25071247

  3. [The use of nails to diagnosis diseases].

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert

    2014-11-01

    For those interested in nails, a fairly good knowledge of the anatomy of the nail unit is indispensable. But nothing will replace a careful, clinical examination of the nail apparatus. The shape of the nail, surface abnormalities and coloration, with or without a magnifying glass, may well provide a medical diagnosis not only in dermatology but also for medicine in general. Pits on the surface of the nail plate may be enough to diagnose psoriasis on a limited area of scalp dandruff. Even partial detachment of the nail apparatus might lead to the suspicion of psoriatic arthritis. A triangular lunula is associated with the absence of patellas. Finally, no pulmonary examination of a smoker is complete without looking for clubbing. It is high time to pay tribute to the nail.

  4. Lengthening Over an Existing Intramedullary Nail In Cases of Post-traumatic Femoral Shortening. Technical Note. Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Iosifidou, Eirini; Nikolaos, Xilouris; Hatzokos, Ippokratis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intramedullary (IM) nailing is the method of choice for the treatment of most femoral shaft fractures. However, despite successful solid union, great initial fracture comminution can lead to significant leg length discrepancy affecting normal gait mechanics. Femoral osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis over the pre-existing IM nail could restore this limb inequality. Methods: Five patients with an average post-traumatic femoral shortening of 3.83 cm were presented in our department with the nail in situ. Limb lengthening was achieved with the application of a distal hybrid external rail frame over the pre-existing nail. We assumed that the choice of a distal external fixator ring with wires could facilitate the procedure and minimize the possibility of friction–contact problems with the large diameter nail. Results: The amount of length discrepancy, calculated preoperatively, was restored in all patients. The mean time in frame was 57.6 days and the external fixator index 16.978 d/cm. The mean time of total healing was 152.6 days and the average bone-healing index 44.9d/cm. No deep infection or hardware loosening was observed. One superficial pin track infection was treated successfully with oral antibiotics. Conclusion: This technique utilizes the principles and advantages of lengthening over an IM nail, avoids the necessity of nail removal and minimizes the complication rates and the overall time for complete recovery. PMID:27053972

  5. Comparative anatomy of mouse and human nail units.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Philip; Jaeger, Karin; Silva, Kathleen A; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies of mice with hair defects have resulted in major contributions to the understanding of hair disorders. To use mouse models as a tool to study nail diseases, a basic understanding of the similarities and differences between the human and mouse nail unit is required. In this study we compare the human and mouse nail unit at the macroscopic and microscopic level and use immunohistochemistry to determine the keratin expression patterns in the mouse nail unit. Both species have a proximal nail fold, cuticle, nail matrix, nail bed, nail plate, and hyponychium. Distinguishing features are the shape of the nail and the presence of an extended hyponychium in the mouse. Expression patterns of most keratins are similar. These findings indicate that the mouse nail unit shares major characteristics with the human nail unit and overall represents a very similar structure, useful for the investigation of nail diseases and nail biology.

  6. The Effects of a Hydrogen Environment on the Lifetime of Small-Diameter Drift Chamber Anode Wires

    SciTech Connect

    King, J; Smith, T; Kunkle, J; Castelaz, J; Thomson, S; Burstein, Z; Bernstein, A; Rosenberg, L; Hefner, M

    2005-04-29

    Possible deterioration of anode sense wires used in a hydrogen-filled neutron detector is investigated. Wires were loaded with free weights and put into a wire detector environment. Stainless Steel, Tungsten, and Platinum wires did not break after exposure to charge equivalent to many wire lifetimes. Furthermore, exposure to hydrogen gas caused no noticeable surface degradation or change in wire yield strength.

  7. Drug reactions affecting the nail unit: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Iorizzo, Matilde

    2007-04-01

    Several drugs may be responsible for the development of nail abnormalities, but only a few classes are consistently associated with nail symptoms. Drug-induced nail abnormalities result from toxicity to the matrix, the nail bed, the periungual tissues, or the digit blood vessels. Pharmacologic agents that most frequently produce nail abnormalities include retinoids, indinavir, and cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Immunohistochemical study of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in transverse sections of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Youn; Yang, Jun-Mo; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2011-05-01

    In the frozen longitudinal section of the nail unit, CD10 was previously found in nail mesenchymal cells beneath nail matrix, and we proposed calling the nail mesenchymal cells onychofibroblasts. In this study, to further characterize nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts, we examined the expression of several mesenchymal markers immunohistochemically in transverse paraffin sections of the nail unit. CD10 was strongly expressed in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts beneath the nail matrix. However, CD10 was not observed in dermal fibroblasts and surrounding extracellular matrix of the lateral nail fold (LNF), except around blood vessels and eccrine structures. In addition, versican was expressed diffusely in the nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts in contrast to the dermis of LNF. Fibrillin, which is a major component of elastic fiber in the dermis, was expressed very weakly on the nail mesenchyme below the nail matrix but was expressed strongly in the dermis of LNF. These findings support the existence of specialized nail mesenchyme containing onychofibroblasts that is distinguished from the dermis of LNF.

  9. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  10. Itraconazole penetrates the nail via the nail matrix and the nail bed--an investigation in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matthieu, L; De Doncker, P; Cauwenbergh, G; Woestenborghs, R; van de Velde, V; Janssen, P A; Dockx, P

    1991-09-01

    Nail-matrix kinetics were studied in 21 patients (19 with onychomycosis, two with tinea corporis) as soon as taking itraconazole (Sporanox) 100 mg daily for up to 7 months. Itraconazole was detected in the distal nail as soon as 1 month after the start of therapy (42 ng/g in fingernails and 16 ng/g in toenails). During the course of treatment, this concentration rose and reached a mean of 160 ng/g in fingernail clippings and 197 ng/g in toenail clippings. Moreover, in fingernails of 12 out of 21 patients and in toenails of six out of 20 patients, itraconazole was detected in the distal nail clippings before full outgrowth of the fastest-growing nail. In most patients, itraconazole was detected in the distal nail clippings earlier than would be expected if the drug were incorporated only via the nail matrix, indicating that in addition to the nail matrix, a second route of penetration into the nail exists, i.e. the nail bed.

  11. [Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis].

    PubMed

    Qadripur, S A; Schauder, S; Schwartz, P

    2001-07-01

    Black nails caused by Proteus mirabilis were seen in a motor mechanic and in a petrol pump attendant. Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that generates hydrogen sulfide. This compound reacts with traces of metals in the nail plate such as zinc, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, tin, copper and lead. Metal sulfides blacken the nail plate. The protracted course of the discoloration over months corresponds to the slow reactions of metals with hydrogen sulfide. The disappearance of the blackening after topical treatment with chinosol, tincture of iodine and chloramphenicol solution supports the etiologic connection between black nails and Proteus mirabilis. Wet and dirty work encourages the colonisation of Proteus mirabilis between nail fold and nail plate.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10

    MedlinePlus

    ... congenital nail disorder 10 nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10 is a condition that affects the fingernails and ...

  13. Yellow nail syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Vignes, Stéphane; Baran, Robert

    2017-02-27

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS; OMIM 153300, ORPHA662) is a very rare disorder that almost always occurs after 50 years of age but a juvenile or familial form has also been observed. YNS is diagnosed based on a triad associating yellow nail discoloration, pulmonary manifestations (chronic cough, bronchiectasia, pleural effusion) and lower limb lymphedema. Chronic sinusitis is frequently associated with the triad. YNS etiology remains unknown but a role of lymphatic impairment is usually evoked. YNS is more frequently isolated but may be associated in rare cases with autoimmune diseases, other clinical manifestations implicating lymphatic functions or cancer and, hence, is also considered a paraneoplastic syndrome. YNS management is symptomatic and not codified. YNS can resolve spontaneously. Oral vitamin E alone or even better when associated with triazole antifungals may achieve partial or total disappearance of nail discoloration. Pleural effusion can be treated surgically, with decortication/pleurectomy or pleurodesis. Antibiotic prophylaxis is prescribed for bronchiectasia with chronic sputum production. Lymphedema treatment is based on low-stretch bandages and the wearing of elastic compression garments combined with skin care, exercises and, as needed, manual lymph drainage.

  14. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  15. Functional analysis and treatment of nail biting.

    PubMed

    Dufrene, Brad A; Steuart Watson, T; Kazmerski, Jennifer S

    2008-11-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a simplified habit reversal package that was modified based on results of the functional analysis. Following treatment implementation, nail biting decreased as evidenced by consistent nail growth and participant self-recorded data. Results are discussed in terms of treatment utility of functional analysis methodology for novel populations and response topographies.

  16. Congenital onychoheterotopia involving multiple toe nails.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Savita; Khullar, Geeti; Dogra, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Onychoheterotopia is an uncommon condition in which nail tissue is found beyond the common nail unit of the digits of the hands and feet, most often on the fifth digit of the hand. It represents an extra and independent nail that can be present either congenitally, or more commonly, acquired following trauma. The exact pathogenesis of the congenital type is undetermined. We report a 25-year-old male with multiple congenital ectopic nails of the toes since birth, which has not been reported before.

  17. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  18. Vascular Features of Nail Psoriasis Using Dynamic Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aldahan, Adam S.; Chen, Lucy L.; Fertig, Raymond M.; Holmes, Jon; Shah, Vidhi V.; Mlacker, Stephanie; Hsu, Vincent M.; Nouri, Keyvan; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Nail psoriasis is a painful and disfiguring nail disease that often leads to invasive biopsies. Dermoscopy of the hyponychium can be useful in the diagnosis showing twisted coiled vessels. Structural features of nail psoriasis have been described with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Objectives To investigate vascular features of nail psoriasis using dynamic OCT. Methods This was an observational, prospective, controlled study in which psoriasis patients with psoriatic nail changes and healthy control patients underwent OCT imaging of the distal nail plate and proximal nail fold. Vertical and horizontal OCT images were analyzed to describe structural and vascular features and to quantify blood flow at depth. Results Sixteen psoriatic nails and 16 control nails were included. Psoriatic nails had significantly increased blood flow in the proximal nail fold at depths of 0.72 mm (p = 0.035) and 0.76 mm (p = 0.027). Nail thickness was significantly greater in psoriatic nails compared to control nails (p = 0.0016). Compared to control nails, psoriatic nails had dilated, disorganized blood vessels superficially in the proximal nail fold. Limitations The main limitation of our study is the relatively small sample size. Conclusions OCT can identify structural and vascular features specific to nail psoriasis. PMID:28232916

  19. Influence of nail prominence and insertion point on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Shan-Wei; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is the most common complication after tibial nail insertion. Its etiology remains unknown, and multifactorial sources have been suggested. The authors believe that nail prominence and the insertion point of the nail are important in the development of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the roles of the insertion point and nail prominence in anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach and a common nail type. A total of 108 patients with tibial shaft fractures underwent reamed intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach between 2006 and 2009. Mean follow-up was 26.8±5.0 months. A visual analog scale (0-100) was used to estimate anterior knee pain severity while patients performed 7 activities retrospectively. Radiographic assessments, including nail prominence and insertion point, were performed. Sixty (55.6%) patients experienced knee pain (group P) and 48 (44.4%) did not (group N). Significant differences were not found between the groups with respect to demographics, nail diameters, or fracture classifications. Less superior and more anterior nail prominences in radiographic assessments were significantly associated with anterior knee pain. When the insertion point was over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, the influence of anterior nail prominence was more obvious. Nail removal resulted in diminished pain during the 7 assessed activities. Nail insertion should be over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, with minimal anterior nail prominence. If anterior knee pain occurs, removal of the nail should be considered.

  20. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  1. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree

    2017-01-01

    Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity. Some uncommon and rare nail tic disorders are onychoteiromania, onychotemnomania, onychodaknomania and bidet nails. Onychophagia is chronic nail biting behavior which usually starts during childhood. It is often regarded as a tension reducing measure. Onychotillomania is recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails. In severe cases, it may lead to onychoatrophy due to irreversible scarring of the nail matrix. Very often, they occur in psychologically normal children but may sometimes be associated with anxiety. In severe cases, onychotillomania may be an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Management of nail tic disorders is challenging. Frequent applications of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their fingernails. Habit-tic deformity can be helped by bandaging the digit daily with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine in high doses can be helpful in interrupting these compulsive disorders in adults. For a complete diagnosis and accurate management, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health and simultaneously treat the underlying psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  2. Intramedullary locking femoral nails. Experience with the AO nail.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A. B.; Yeates, H. A.

    1991-01-01

    The AO interlocking nail was introduced to the Ulster Hospital, Dundonald in 1988 and since then has been used in over 50 patients with femoral shaft fractures. We have reviewed 45 patients with 46 femoral shaft fractures treated between June 1988 and April 1990. These included four compound fractures and 13 comminuted fractures. The results compare favourably with other series. The union rate was 98% and there were no instances of deep infection. The alternative treatment methods available are discussed along with a review of the relevant literature. Images Fig 3 Fig 5 PMID:1785145

  3. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  4. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    PubMed

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  5. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Desmond, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers. PMID:15829204

  6. Do K-wires made from shape memory alloys increase pull-out forces? A preliminary experimental cadaver study in bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Wiebking, U; Gösling, T; Monschizada, W; Rau, T; Krettek, C

    2007-06-01

    After osteosynthesis of the proximal humerus by Kirschner wires (K-wire), loosening and secondary loss can occur. This study tested primary fixation of wires made from a shape memory alloy (SMA) Nitinol (NiTi), compared to conventional steel K-wires by pull-out tests. Blocks of cancellous bone were tested with three wire types: NiTi-K-wire with split apex geometry and conventional steel K-wires with and without threads. We found that NiTi-wires can be pulled out of bone more easily than steel wires (P=0.05), even though the former had rougher surfaces. The application of NiTi-wires through bone produced no better stability in comparison to normal steel K-wires, because of triggering the memory effect. Further studies are required to determine if NiTi wires of another appropriate design, surface and localization are superior to conventional wires in the context of this application.

  7. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  8. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  9. Gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Zhou, Changli; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    A fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction device based on a gold-functionalized stainless-steel wire and tube was developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, it was evaluated using six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Important parameters including sampling rate, sample volume, organic solvent content and desorption time were investigated. Under optimized conditions, an online analysis method was established. The linearity was in the range of 0.15-50 μg/L with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9999, and limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L. The method was applied to determine model analytes in mosquito-repellent incense ash and river water samples, with recoveries in the range of 85-120%.

  10. VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFTBUILDING 25NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST LEFT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) CENTER BUILDING 27 PATTERN SHOP (c.1853) NEXT BUILDING 28 BLACKSMITH SHOP (1885) NEXT BUILDING 32 MACHINE SHOP (1890) EXTREME RIGHT-DOBBINS BUILDING (NOT AM STEEL & WIRE) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  11. The 2 clinical subbands of the distal nail unit and the nail isthmus. Anatomical explanation and new physiological observations in relation to the nail growth.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2008-06-01

    The distal region of the nail unit, which marks the transition of the nail bed to the hyponychium, is known clinically as the onychodermal band (ODB). For several authors, the ODB is described as 2 subbands of tonal values: slightly milky and pink from proximal to distal. However, its 2 subbands show individual variation and are often scarcely visible. It has been stated that the proximal subband, that is, the white band of Pinkus, corresponds histologically to the attachment of the compact orthokeratotic layer of the hyponychium to the nail plate. In 2 studies, I have individualized a transitional zone between the nail bed and the hyponychium: the nail isthmus. In these previous studies, the ODB was not visible. The purpose of this article is to analyze the anatomo-clinical correlations between the nail isthmus and the ODB and to highlight some new physiological information concerning the nail growth. A case showing clearly the 2 clinical subbands of ODB was investigated. In addition, all the longitudinal sections of the 5 normal nail unit specimens, used in the 2 previous studies, were reviewed to analyze the ventral surface of the nail plate in longitudinal planes. The nail isthmus can be described synthetically by 2 features: (1) a stair-like appearance of the epithelium of the distal nail bed with a marked depression of the epithelium below the inferior surface of the nail plate (2) a specialized mode of attachment of its horny layer to nail plate via a horizontal mode of differentiation. The white band of Pinkus corresponded histologically to the nail isthmus. Its white color was caused by alteration in light diffraction in the thin compartment of pale parakeratotic corneocytes squeezed between the nail plate and the epithelium of the nail isthmus. The pink middle band corresponded to the 2 horny layers surmounting the epidermis of the hyponychium: the compact horny layer of the hyponychium and the thin pale "tongue-like" parakeratotic extension of the nail

  12. Application of Hansen Solubility Parameters to predict drug-nail interactions, which can assist the design of nail medicines.

    PubMed

    Hossin, B; Rizi, K; Murdan, S

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesised that Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) can be used to predict drug-nail affinities. Our aims were to: (i) determine the HSPs (δD, δP, δH) of the nail plate, the hoof membrane (a model for the nail plate), and of the drugs terbinafine HCl, amorolfine HCl, ciclopirox olamine and efinaconazole, by measuring their swelling/solubility in organic liquids, (ii) predict nail-drug interactions by comparing drug and nail HSPs, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of these predictions using literature reports of experimentally-determined affinities of these drugs for keratin, the main constituent of the nail plate and hoof. Many solvents caused no change in the mass of nail plates, a few solvents deswelled the nail, while others swelled the nail to varying extents. Fingernail and toenail HSPs were almost the same, while hoof HSPs were similar, except for a slightly lower δP. High nail-terbinafine HCl, nail-amorolfine HCl and nail-ciclopirox olamine affinities, and low nail-efinaconazole affinities were then predicted, and found to accurately match experimental reports of these drugs' affinities to keratin. We therefore propose that drug and nail Hansen Solubility Parameters may be used to predict drug-nail interactions, and that these results can assist in the design of drugs for the treatment of nail diseases, such as onychomycosis and psoriasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of HSPs in ungual research.

  13. Ultrasound-mediated nail drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Danielle; Zderic, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    A novel ultrasound-mediated drug delivery system has been developed for treatment of a nail fungal disorder (onychomycosis) by improving delivery to the nail bed using ultrasound to increase the permeability of the nail. The slip-in device consists of ultrasound transducers and drug delivery compartments above each toenail. The device is connected to a computer, where a software interface allows users to select their preferred course of treatment. In in vitro testing, canine nails were exposed to 3 energy levels (acoustic power of 1.2 W and exposure durations of 30, 60, and 120 seconds). A stereo -microscope was used to determine how much of a drug-mimicking compound was delivered through the nail layers by measuring brightness on the cross section of each nail tested at each condition, where brightness level decreases coincide with increases in permeability. Each of the 3 energy levels tested showed statistical significance when compared to the control (P < .05) with a permeability factor of 1.3 after 30 seconds of exposure, 1.3 after 60 seconds, and 1.5 after 120 seconds, where a permeability factor of 1 shows no increase in permeability. Current treatments for onychomycosis include systemic, topical, and surgical. Even when used all together, these treatments typically take a long time to result in nail healing, thus making this ultrasound-mediated device a promising alternative.

  14. Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate adhesive for rapid nail plate restoration.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G; Lutz, D A

    2000-09-01

    Following nail bed repair, returning the nail plate as a conforming stent or splint is a common technique. Especially when split, the nail plate fragments can very readily be pieced together and bonded to the nail bed using the tissue adhesive Octyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. This new formulation can expedite this maneuver, and has shown no signs of histotoxicity or adverse effect on nail plate regeneration.

  15. Splitting of the Proximal Femur With a New Femoral Nail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    offset from the top of this particular nail to its long axis. Key Words: lateral entry, trochanteric nail , intramedullary nailing , femur, complication...trochanteric intramedullary femoral nailing . J Orthop Trauma. 2005;19:681–686. 8. McConnell T, Tornetta P III, Benson E, et al. Gluteus medius tendon injury...Germany: Stryker Trauma; 2006: 191–199. 11. Gerhard Küntscher. Practice of Intramedullary Nailing . Translated by Herman Rinne. Springfield, IL: Thomas

  16. Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Surya Prakash

    Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength

  17. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  18. VIEW EASTLEFTBUILDING 4NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHTBUILDING 25NO 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-BUILDING 4-NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) RIGHT-BUILDING 25-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) RIGHT-BUILDING 23 WIRE MILL & PATENTING (1853 & 1900)-BEHIND 25 CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (C.1873) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. The 'PDA nail': traumatic nail dystrophy in habitual users of personal digital assistants.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Wu, John Z; Slowinska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    All-in-one devices with mobile phone, web browser, and organizer are now owned by over 6 million people and their popularity is increasing. These devices are often called personal digital assistants (PDAs) or 'BlackBerry(R)' devices, after a popular brand name of these appliances. The use of PDAs is associated with exposure of distal thumbs and nails to repeated pressure with a frequency of up to a few thousand times per hour and several tens of thousands of times per day. We describe two cases of traumatic thumb nail dystrophy associated with using a PDA keyboard for several hours per day. Both patients developed median nail plate dystrophy after 4-8 months of habitual PDA use. One patient also developed thumb nail psoriasis and paronychia. All symptoms resolved a few months after discontinuing PDA use. Analysis of nail biomechanics, performed by using a finite element fingertip model, showed that maximal stress reaches approximately 3 MPa and appears near the root on the internal surface of the nail, while it reaches approximately 2 MPa and appears around one-third from the root on the outside surface. In conclusion, biomechanical stress resulting from overuse of PDAs may result in various types of nail dystrophy. We suggest the general term 'PDA nails' for these nail abnormalities.

  20. Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission.

  1. VIEW SOUTH, LEFT BUILDING 40WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER BUILDING 42ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH, LEFT- BUILDING 40-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) CENTER- BUILDING 42-ROPE SHOP (1910) RIGHT- BUILDING 32; MACHINE SHOP (1890) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. VIEW SOUTHLEFTBUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTERBUILDING 27WIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-LEFT-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) CENTER-BUILDING 27-WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  3. Femoral lengthening with a motorized intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Joachim; Grimsrud, Øyvind; Dagsgard, Anita Hoddevik; Huhnstock, Stefan; Steen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We assessed whether an intramedullary lengthening device would reduce the problems normally associated with the external fixation technique. We also wanted to determine whether it is a reliable construct for limb lengthening and deformity correction in the femur. Patients and methods We conducted a matched-pair comparison of 30 femoral lengthenings, 15 with a motorized intramedullary nail (the nail group) and 15 lengthenings with an external ring fixator (the fixator group). The patients were matched based on age, sex, amount of lengthening, and the etiology of leg length discrepancy. Mean lengthening was 35 (25–55) mm in the nail group and 38 (15–75) mm in the fixator group. Outcome measures were: lengthening and alignment achieved, consolidation index, knee range of motion (ROM), and complications. Results The pairs in this matched-pair study were similar in terms of age, sex, diagnosis, and amount of lengthening. The planned amount of lengthening was achieved in all patients in both groups and axis correction was considered sufficient. The mean radiographic consolidation index in the nail group, at 1.5 (0.9–3.0) months/cm, was better than the mean value for the fixator group (1.9 (0.9–3.4) months/cm) (p = 0.01). Knee ROM was better in the nail group during the lengthening, 6 weeks after lengthening was completed, and 6 months after lengthening was completed (p < 0.001). A larger number of complications were observed in the fixator group than in the nail group. Interpretation A lengthening nail may be superior to external fixation in femoral lengthening, when the anatomical conditions and the complexity of the deformity allow the use of an intramedullary nail. PMID:25191936

  4. Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further

  5. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  6. Lateral drug diffusion in human nails.

    PubMed

    Palliyil, Biji B; Li, Cong; Owaisat, Suzan; Lebo, David B

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of the current work is to demonstrate the process of passive lateral diffusion in the human nail plate and its effect on the passive transungual permeation of antifungal drug ciclopirox olamine (CPO). A water soluble dye, methyl red sodium salt (MR) was used to visualize the process of lateral diffusion using a novel suspended nail experiment. The decline in concentration of CPO correlates with that of concentration of MR from the proximal to the distal end of the nail in suspended nail study. Three toenails each were trimmed to 5 mm × 5 mm (25 mm(2)), 7 mm × 7 mm (49 mm(2)), and 9 mm × 9 mm (81 mm(2)) to study the extent and effect of lateral diffusion of the CPO on its in vitro transungual permeation. The permeation flux of CPO decreased as the surface area of the toenail increased. There was a positive correlation between the concentrations of CPO and MR in the area of application and in the peripheral area of the toenails of the three surface areas, confirming the findings in the suspended nail experiment. Profound lateral diffusion of CPO was demonstrated and shown to reduce the in vitro passive transungual drug permeation and prolong the lag-time in human toenails. The study data implies that during passive in vitro transungual permeation experiments, the peripheral nail around the area of drug application has to be kept to a minimum, in order to get reliable data which mimics the in vivo situation.

  7. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  8. Transungual delivery of terbinafine by iontophoresis in onychomycotic nails.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2011-10-01

    Trans-nail permeability is limited due to the innate nature of the nail plate and the recent investigations indicated the potential of iontophoresis in enhancing the transungual drug delivery in normal nails. However, the onychomycotic nails differ from the normal nails with respect to the anatomical and biological features. The current study investigated the effect of iontophoresis (0.5 mA/cm(2) for 1 h) on the transungual delivery of terbinafine in onychomycotic finger and toe nails. The presence of fungi in the onychomycotic nails was diagnosed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopy. Passive and iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine across the infected nail was studied in Franz diffusion cell. Further, the release profile of terbinafine from the drug-loaded nails was investigated by agar diffusion method. KOH microscopy confirmed the presence of fungi in all the nails used. The amount of drug permeated across the nail plate was enhanced significantly during iontophoresis over passive delivery, that is, by 21-fold in case of finger and 37-fold in case of toe nails. Further, the total drug load in the onychomycotic nail was enhanced by ~12-fold (in both finger and toe nails) due to iontophoresis. Release of terbinafine from the iontophoresis-loaded nails into agar plates exhibited two phases, a rapid phase followed by a steady release, which extended >2 months. This study concluded that the drug delivery in onychomycotic nails did not differ significantly when compared with normal nails, although the extent of drug permeation and drug load differs between finger and toe nails.

  9. Membrane separation cuts disposal costs for wire-products maker

    SciTech Connect

    Nichele, V.B.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce disposal and maintenance costs associated with alkaline washing stations, a manufacturer of wire-welded products installed a membrane-separation wastewater treatment system. The Missouri-based company produces welded-wire products, such as shelves, closet conversions, wire baskets, display racks and coat hangers. The steel parts undergo an extensive cleaning process that consists of five spray-washing stages. An alkaline solution first washes oil and solids from the steel parts, then is washed off the parts. A phosphatizing solution etches the steel parts. Finally, the parts are rinsed thoroughly with potable water before they are powder coated.

  10. In vitro permeation of several drugs through the human nail plate: relationship between physicochemical properties and nail permeability of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Komatsu, Tsunehisa; Sumi, Machiko; Numajiri, Sachihiko; Miyamoto, Misao; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of the present study are to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties and the nail permeability of drugs through human nail plates. Homologous p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters were used to investigate the relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and the permeability coefficient of several drugs. The nail permeability was found to be independent of the lipophilicity of a penetrating drug. However, the nail permeability of several model drugs was found to markedly decrease as their molecular weights increased. The nail permeability of an ionic drug was found to be significantly lower than that of a non-ionic drug, and the nail permeability of these drugs markedly decreased as their molecular weights increased. The permeation of a model drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), through healthy nail plates was also determined and compared with that through nail plates with fungal infections. The drug permeation through a nail plate decreased with an increase in nail plate thickness. Nail plates with fungal infections exhibited approximately the same 5-FU permeation as healthy nail plates. We suggest that the permeability of a drug is mainly influenced by its molecular weight and permeability through nails with fungal infection can be estimated from data on healthy nail permeability.

  11. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold to target drugs to the nail matrix.

    PubMed

    Manda, Prashanth; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the plausibility of iontophoretic delivery of drugs to the nail matrix via proximal nail fold. The in vitro drug transport studies were performed in Franz diffusion cells across folded epidermis, which is used as a model for the proximal nail fold. The amount of drug transported into the receiver compartment following iontophoresis for 3 h at 0.5 mA/cm(2) was 150-fold higher than the control (0.008 ± 0.002 μg/cm(2)). The amount of drug present in the skin after iontophoresis (0.45 ± 0.12 μg/mg) was approximately fivefold higher as compared with that of the control (0.08 ± 0.01 μg/mg). Iontophoresis of terbinafine across the proximal nail fold was assessed using excised cadaver toe model as well. A custom-designed foam-pad-type patch system was used for iontophoresis in cadaver toes. The amount of the drug delivered into the nail matrix following iontophoresis for 3 h was significantly higher than the minimum inhibition concentration of terbinafine. However, on the contrary, passive delivery for about 24 h did not result in any detectable drug levels in the nail matrix. Iontophoresis across the proximal nail fold could be developed as a potential method to target drugs to nail matrix.

  12. Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Nikica; Bajs, Ivana Dovzak; Rutić, Zeljko; Darabos, Anela; Poljak, Damir; Dobsa, Jasminka

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between anterior knee pain (AKP) and nail position marked as a distance from tip of nail to tibial plateau (NP) and to the tuberositas tibiae (NT). Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing. We evaluated postoperative outcome results of 50 patients in the last 3 years with healed fractures initially treated with intramedullary (IM) reamed nails with 2 or 3 interlocking screws on both parts of the nail and with the use of medial paratendinous incision for nail entry portal. Patients marked a point on the visual analog scale (VAS) that corresponded to the level of postoperative AKP felt. Two groups of patients were formed on the basis of AKP (pain level was neglected): groups A and B, with and without pain, respectively. The difference between the two groups concerning NP measurements was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but not concerning NT measurements at the p < 0.05 level. Patients were classified by pain with high accuracy (98%) according to a classification tree. Symptoms of AKP did not appear if the tip of the nail position was more than 6.0 mm from the NP and more than 2.6 mm from the NT. However, for better evaluation of these results it will be necessary to examine a larger number of postoperative patients with AKP.

  13. [Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].

    PubMed

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin.

  14. Drug delivery to the nail following topical application.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2002-04-02

    The absorption of drugs into the nail unit, following topical application to the nail plate, is highly desirable to treat nail disorders, such as onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail). Nail permeability is however quite low and limits topical therapy to early/mild disease states. In this paper, the recent research into ungual drug delivery is reviewed. The nail unit and the two most common diseases affecting the nail--onychomycosis and nail psoriasis--are briefly described to set the scene and to give an overview of the nature and scope of the problem. The factors, which affect drug uptake and permeation through the nail plate such as solute molecular size, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, charge, and the nature of the vehicle, are then discussed, followed by ways of enhancing drug transport into and through the nail plate. Finally, drug-containing nail lacquers which, like cosmetic varnish, are brushed onto the nail plates to form a film, and from which drug is released and penetrates into the nail, are reviewed.

  15. Fabrication of ciprofloxacin molecular imprinted polymer coating on a stainless steel wire as a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber for sensitive determination of fluoroquinolones in biological fluids and tablet formulation using HPLC-UV detection.

    PubMed

    Mirzajani, Roya; Kardani, Fatemeh

    2016-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber on stainless steel wire using ciprofloxacin template with a mild template removal condition was synthetized and evaluated for fiber solid phase microextraction (SPME) of fluoroquinolones (FQs) from biological fluids and pharmaceutical samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The developed MIP fiber exhibited high selectivity for the analytes in complex matrices. The coating of the fibers were inspected using fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, thermogaravimetric analysis, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fiber shows high thermal stability (up to 300°C), good reproducibility and long lifetime. The composite coating did not swell in organic solvents nor did it strip off from the substrate. It was also highly stable and extremely adherent to the surface of the stainless steel fiber. The fabricated fiber exclusively exhibited excellent extraction efficiency and selectivity for some FQs. The effective parameters influencing the microextraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, desorption condition, and stirring rate were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the four FQs ranged from 0.023-0.033 μg L(-1) (S/N=5) and the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 0.1-40 μg L(-1), the inter-day and intraday relative standard deviations (RSD) for various FQs at three different concentration level (n=5) using a single fiber were 1.1-4.4% and the fiber to fiber RSD% (n=5) was 4.3-6.7% at 5 μg L(-1) of each anlyetes. The method was successfully applied for quantification of FQs in real samples including serum, plasma and tablet formulation with the recoveries between 97 to 102%.

  16. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  17. Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Ray, R.; Hart, K.; Wagner, P.

    1995-10-01

    Localized corrosion of carbon steel wire rope stored in a humid environment on wooden spools was caused by organic acid and carbon dioxide production by fungi growing directly on the wood. Fungal growth was found on the interior so the wooden spools, and corrosion was most severe on the wrap of wire in direct contact with the wood. Laboratory experiments and an extensive review of the literature demonstrated causal relationships between storage conditions and fungal growth and localized corrosion.

  18. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Piyas; Das, Souvik; Mathur, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase). PMID:26973808

  19. Routes of drug delivery into the nail apparatus: Implications for the efficacy of topical nail solutions in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

    2016-01-01

    The route of antifungal drug entry into the nail plate and the underlying nail bed plays an important role in determining the efficacy of therapy. Oral antifungal agents reach the nail bed and nail plate by being ingested and achieving antifungal levels in the blood stream that are well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The reticular circulation at the distal end of the digit enables the drug to reach the nail bed, the proximal matrix and the lateral nail folds. The drug then diffuses into the proximal, ventral and lateral nail plate. The primary route of drug delivery for topical lacquers is transungual, with drug applied to the dorsal aspect of the nail plate and penetrating to the underlying nail bed. The new topical agents approved in the US for the treatment of onychomycosis are solutions with lower viscosity and increased nail penetration characteristics; therefore, these agents penetrate through the transungual route, but also through the space between the nail plate and the nail bed. This subungual route is an important method of drug delivery and is able to in part circumvent the thickness of the nail plate.

  20. Nail psoriasis - what a rheumatologist should know about.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with prevalence of 1-3%. Nail psoriasis affects 10-90% of patients with plaque psoriasis. The aim of the article is to review the literature for the correlation between nail psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to provide rheumatologists a short review on features of nail psoriasis, methods of their assessment and possible clinical repercussions. The PubMed database was searched using the key words 'nail psoriasis' and 'psoriatic arthritis'. Psoriasis involving the nail matrix shows up as changes such as pitting, Beau lines, leukonychia, red spots in the lunula, or nail plate crumbling. Nail bed psoriasis manifests as onycholysis, oil drops (or salmon patches), dyschromia, splinter hemorrhages, or subungual hyperkeratosis. Nail psoriasis and psoriatic lesions in the gluteal cleft and on the scalp usually accompany PsA, especially in adult men.

  1. 42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE NAIL HARDENER USED TO HARDEN AND TEMPER THE NAILS; WEST TUBES IN FOREGRPUND AND DRAWBACK TUBE IN THE CENTER - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Transonychial water loss in healthy and diseased nails.

    PubMed

    Krönauer, C; Gfesser, M; Ring, J; Abeck, D

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the transonychial water loss (TOWL) in both healthy and affected nails in different diseases and to compare it with the transepidermal water loss (TEWL). TOWL was measured by a new evaporimetric method: Plasticine was used to fix the protection cover of the evaporimeter probe to the nails. The TOWL behaved contrary to the TEWL. Affected nails in patients with atopic eczema (p <0.01), psoriasis (p<0.05) and onychomycosis (p<0.001) showed a significantly lower TOWL than did nails of healthy test subjects. The decrease in TOWL in diseased nails in comparison to healthy nails could be due to the formation of a stratum granulosum in atopic, psoriatic or fungus-affected nails, as this layer is normally absent in healthy nails.

  3. Nail psoriasis – what a rheumatologist should know about

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory skin disease with prevalence of 1–3%. Nail psoriasis affects 10–90% of patients with plaque psoriasis. The aim of the article is to review the literature for the correlation between nail psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) to provide rheumatologists a short review on features of nail psoriasis, methods of their assessment and possible clinical repercussions. The PubMed database was searched using the key words ‘nail psoriasis’ and ‘psoriatic arthritis’. Psoriasis involving the nail matrix shows up as changes such as pitting, Beau lines, leukonychia, red spots in the lunula, or nail plate crumbling. Nail bed psoriasis manifests as onycholysis, oil drops (or salmon patches), dyschromia, splinter hemorrhages, or subungual hyperkeratosis. Nail psoriasis and psoriatic lesions in the gluteal cleft and on the scalp usually accompany PsA, especially in adult men. PMID:28386142

  4. Nail disorders as signs of pediatric systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kara N; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-09-01

    Herein, we describe some of the more common changes in the nail unit that can be seen in systemic diseases in children. Changes that can be seen are not limited to those discussed in the following pages. The presence of changes on multiple nails is suggestive of a systemic cause in an ill child. However, multiple nails can also be affected in primary inflammatory disorders and infections of the nail unit. When evaluating a pediatric patient with a nail disorder, it is important to perform a complete physical examination of the skin and oral mucosa, as other clues to the diagnosis of the nail problem may be found. A comprehensive family history is also important to uncover possible syndromic associations with nail disease or diseases that can manifest with nail changes.

  5. Manganese accumulation in nail clippings as a biomarker of welding fume exposure and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Lin, Gary X; Jefferson, Amy M; Roberts, Jenny R; Andrews, Ronnee N; Kashon, Michael L; Antonini, James M

    2012-01-27

    Occupational exposure to welding fumes (WF) is thought to cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-like neurological dysfunction. An apprehension that WF may accelerate the onset of PD also exists. Identifying reliable biomarkers of exposure and neurotoxicity are therefore critical for biomonitoring and neurological risk characterization of WF exposure. Manganese (Mn) in welding consumables is considered the causative factor for the neurological deficits seen in welders. Hence, we sought to determine if Mn accumulation in blood or nail clippings can be a marker for adverse exposure and neurotoxicity. To model this, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to dissolved or suspended fume components collected from gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) or manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) welding. Trace element analysis revealed selective Mn accumulation in dopaminergic brain areas, striatum (STR) and midbrain (MB), following exposure to the two fumes. This caused dopaminergic abnormality as evidenced by loss of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (Th; 25-32% decrease) and Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, early onset) 7 (Park7; 25-46% decrease) proteins. While blood Mn was not detectable, Mn levels in nails strongly correlated with the pattern of Mn accumulation in the striatum (R(2)=0.9386) and midbrain (R(2)=0.9332). Exposure to manganese chloride (MnCl(2)) caused similar Mn accumulation in STR, MB and nail. Our findings suggest that nail Mn has the potential to be a sensitive and reliable biomarker for long-term Mn exposure and associated neurotoxicity. The non-invasive means by which nail clippings can be collected, stored, and transported with relative ease, make it an attractive surrogate for biomonitoring WF exposures in occupational settings.

  6. Development of a solid-phase microextraction fiber by chemical binding of polymeric ionic liquid on a silica coated stainless steel wire.

    PubMed

    Pang, Long; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2012-03-23

    A novel approach was developed for the fabrication of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by coating stainless steel fiber with a polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) through covalent bond. The stainless steel fiber was sequentially coated with a gold film by replacement reaction between Fe and Au when immerged in chloroauric acid, assembled with a monolayer of 3-(mercaptopropyl) triethoxysilane on the gold layer through the Au-S bond, and coated with a silica layer by the hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction of the surface-bonded siloxane moieties and the active silicate solution. Then, 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazolium chloride ionic liquid was anchored on the silica layer by covalent bond, and the PIL film was further formed by free radical copolymerization between 1-vinyl-3-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazdium and vinyl-substituted imidazolium with azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. Parameters influencing the preparation of PIL fiber were optimized, and the developed SPME fiber has a coating thickness of ~20 μm with good thermal stability and long lifetime. The performance of the PIL fiber was evaluated by analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water samples. The developed PIL fiber showed good linearity between 0.5 and 20 μg l(-1) with regression coefficient in the range of 0.963-0.999, detection limit ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 μg l(-1), and relative standard deviation of 9.2-29% (n=7). This developed PIL fiber exhibited comparable analytical performance to commercial 7 μm thickness PDMS fiber in the extraction of PAHs. The spiked recoveries for three real water samples at 0.5-5 μg l(-1) levels were 49.6-111% for the PIL fiber and 40.8-103% for the commercial PDMS fiber.

  7. Guidance on maintaining personal hygiene in nail care.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Bridget; Berridge, Pat

    Nail care is important in the maintenance of personal hygiene and is an essential aspect of patient care. Confusion about who should perform nail care for patients has resulted in poor practice and cycles of non-activity. This article provides guidance for nurses on performing routine nail care.

  8. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region. PMID:24937826

  9. Portable x-ray fluorescence for the analysis of chromium in nail and nail clippings.

    PubMed

    Fleming, David E B; Ware, Chris S

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of chromium content in human nail or nail clippings could serve as an effective biomarker of chromium status. The feasibility of a new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) approach to chromium measurement was investigated through analysis of nail and nail clipping phantoms. Five measurements of 180s (real time) duration were first performed on six whole nail phantoms having chromium concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20µg/g. Using nail clippers, these phantoms were then converted to nail clippings, and assembled into different mass groups of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100mg for additional measurements. The amplitude of the chromium Kα characteristic x-ray energy peak was examined as a function of phantom concentration for all measurement conditions to create a series of calibration lines. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for chromium was also calculated for each case. The chromium MDL determined from the whole nail intact phantoms was 0.88±0.03µg/g. For the clipping phantoms, the MDL ranged from 1.2 to 3.3µg/g, depending on the mass group analyzed. For the 40mg clipping group, the MDL was 1.2±0.1µg/g, and higher mass collections did not improve upon this result. This MDL is comparable to chromium concentration levels seen in various studies involving human nail clippings. Further improvements to the portable XRF technique would be required to detect chromium levels expected from the lower end of a typical population.

  10. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated.

  11. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  12. Are biologics useful for nail psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Antúnez-Lay, Andrea; Cabrolier, Jorge; Andino-Navarrete, Romina

    2016-01-11

    Apart from involving skin, psoriasis can compromise the nails and adjacent structures. Even though there are multiple therapeutic alternatives, there is great interest in biological therapy, but no consensus on its role exists. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether biological therapy is superior to placebo in the treatment of nail psoriasis because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  13. Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

    PubMed Central

    Haneke, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    Ingrown toenails are one of the most frequent nail disorders of young persons. They may negatively influence daily activities, cause discomfort and pain. Since more than 1000 years, many different treatments have been proposed. Today, conservative and surgical methods are available, which, when carried out with expertise, are able to cure the disease. Packing, taping, gutter treatment, and nail braces are options for relatively mild cases whereas surgery is exclusively done by physicians. Phenolisation of the lateral matrix horn is now the safest, simplest, and most commonly performed method with the lowest recurrence rate. Wedge excisions can no longer be recommended PMID:22675345

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  15. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  16. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  17. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTERBUILDING 102 ELMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 27 WIRE ROPE WAREHOUSE (1929) CENTER-BUILDING 102 ELMER STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) RIGHT-BUILDING 101 CLARK STREET ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  18. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  19. The tensile fatigue of wire rope: A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, T.W.; Rance, A.

    1983-05-01

    The fatigue behaviour in air and seawater of zinc coated steel wire taken from a 40 mm diameter wire rope has been studied. Seawater had little effect on short term tensile strength but it reduced fatigue life by an amount which increased with increasing mean stress and decreasing test frequency. The application of fretting during fatigue testing resulted in very low endurances, which were similar to those measured in fatigue tests on wire ropes.

  20. VIEW EASTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) POWER HOUSE BUILDING 3 (1880) BOILER HOUSE BUILDING 2 (1872)-3 STORY MAIN OFFICE BUILDING 1 (1879) CENTER-PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (c.1873) RIGHT-NO 2 WIRE MILL BUILDING 25 (c.1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  1. A simple procedure with nail preservation for ingrowing toe-nails.

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, J H; Ranger, I

    1985-01-01

    The numerous methods used for treating ingrowing toe-nails are testimony to the lack of a generally acceptable procedure with a low failure rate. A simple procedure with nail preservation is described, and the results of treatment assessed. The procedure consists of making a transposition flap of the nail wall after preliminary curettage of the granulation tissue in the nail groove. A total of 82 patients were treated by this method over a 3-year period, and the results in 63 patients were assessed between 18 months and 3 years after surgery. A total of 120 operations were carried out and 110 (92%) were successful. The treatment is effective, well tolerated, not technically difficult, and should be considered as an alternative to current methods of treatment. Images Fig. 3 PMID:4052211

  2. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  3. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on pulse oximetry reading using the Lifebox oximeter in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Desalu, I; Diakparomre, O I; Salami, A O; Abiola, A O

    2013-12-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - Pulse oximetry is mandatory during anaesthesia, sedation and transfer of critically ill patients. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on the accuracy of saturation reading is inconsistent. The Lifebox pulse oximeter is reliable and recommended for low and middle income countries. We investigated its accuracy in the presence of 4 nail colours and acrylic nails SUBJECTS AND METHODS Fifty non-smoking volunteers had their fingers numbered from right to left (little finger of right hand =1 and little finger of left hand =10). Alternate fingers were nails painted with clear, red, brown and black nail polish and the 5th finger had acrylic nail applied. The corresponding finger on the other hand acted as control. The oxygen saturation was determined using the Lifebox pulse oximeter. Results All fingers (100%) with clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails recorded a saturation value. Each of the mean saturation value for clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails was not significantly different from the control mean (p= 0.378, 0.427 and 0.921). Only 12% and 64% of nails polished black and brown respectively recorded a saturation value. The mean SpO- for black and brown polish were significantly different from their control mean (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Black and brown polish resulted in a significant decrease in SpO with the Lifebox oximeter. Dark coloured nail polish should be removed prior to SpO2 determination to ensure that accurate readings can be obtained.

  4. In vitro human nail penetration and kinetics of panthenol.

    PubMed

    Hui, X; Hornby, S B; Wester, R C; Barbadillo, S; Appa, Y; Maibach, H

    2007-08-01

    The in vitro absorption of panthenol into and through the human nail was examined in this study. Panthenol, the alcohol form of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), is believed to act as a humectant and improve the flexibility and strength of nails. A liquid nail treatment formulated with panthenol (2%) was compared to a solution of panthenol (2%) in water. Fingernail specimens were dosed daily for 7 days with either the nail treatment (non-lacquer film forming) formulation or aqueous solution with sampling performed every 24 h. Panthenol concentrations were determined in the dorsal surface, interior (by drilling and removal) and in the supporting bed under the human nail. Panthenol levels in the dorsal nail (R(2) = 0.87; P < 0.001), nail interior (R(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001) and nail supporting bed (R(2) = 0.79; P < 0.003) showed a significant linear increase with each day of dosing. Significantly more panthenol was delivered into the interior nail and supporting bed by a nail treatment formulation than from an aqueous solution. The film acts not only as a reservoir of panthenol, but also acts to increase the hydration of the nail and the thermodynamic activity of panthenol as well, thereby enhancing diffusion.

  5. 1st meeting on topical drug delivery to the nail.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2007-07-01

    The first ever symposium dedicated solely to drug delivery to the nail following topical application was held on the 2nd April 2007, in London, UK, organised by Dr Clive Roper (Charles River Laboratories, Scotland) and Dr Sudaxshina Murdan (School of Pharmacy, University of London, UK), under the auspices of Skin Forum. The 1-day meeting was attended by approximately 35 delegates from industry, academia and hospitals, and provided a much-needed forum for the presentation and discussion of research and problems in this emerging field. Topical drug delivery is especially suitable for onychomycosis (fungal infections of the nail plate and/or nail bed) and nail psoriasis, which affect 2 - 13 and 1 - 3% of the general population, respectively, and make up the bulk of nail disorders. Topical therapy would avoid the adverse events and drug interactions of systemic antifungal agents and the pain of injection when antipsoriatic agents are injected into affected nail folds. However, successful topical therapy is extremely challenging due to the very low permeability of the nail plate. Five speakers spoke about various aspects of topical drug delivery to the nail, including review of the nail plate structure, function, diseases, their existing therapies (systemic and topical), limitations and global sales. The need for effective topical drug delivery to the nail to overcome the problems associated with present treatment, and the fact that there are few topical formulations available for the treatment of nail fungal infections and psoriasis, and the even fewer effective formulations, was highlighted.

  6. Onychomycosis: Potential of Nail Lacquers in Transungual Delivery of Antifungals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hemlata; Pathak, Kamla

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis constitutes the most common fungal infection of the nail (skin beneath the nail bed) that affects the finger as well as toe nails. It is an infection that is initiated by yeasts, dermatophytes, and nondermatophyte molds. Nail lacquers are topical solutions intended only for use on fingernails as well as toenails and have been found to be useful in the treatment of onychomycosis. Thus, in the present review an attempt has been made to focus on the treatment aspects of onychomycosis and the ungual delivery of antifungals via nail lacquer. Several patents issued on nail lacquer till date have also been discussed. Penetration efficiency was assessed by several researchers across the human nail plate to investigate the potentiality of nail lacquer based formulations. Various clinical trials have also been conducted in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of nail lacquers in delivering antifungal agents. Thus, it can be concluded that nail lacquer based preparations are efficacious and stable formulations. These possess tremendous potential for clinical topical application to the nail bed in the treatment of onychomycosis. PMID:27123362

  7. Matrix based system of isotretinoin as nail lacquer to enhance transungal delivery across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Monika; Sharma, Vijay; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-01-15

    The project was aimed at development of isotretinoin nail lacquer and assessment of its penetration efficiency across human nail plate. Preliminary studies (hydration enhancement factor and SEM) aided the selection of thioglycolic acid as permeation and eugenol was selected as local anesthetic in the formulation. The nail lacquer was optimized by 3(2) factorial design and a total of nine formulations were prepared and screened. In vitro adhesion and ex vivo permeation (cumulative drug permeation per unit area (CDP/A) = 6.61 ± 0.57 mg/cm(2)) across bovine hoof guided the selection of F3 as optimized formulation that was improvised. Viscosity adjustments to improve handling characteristics were affected by incorporation of ethyl cellulose (6%; F3M1) that scaled the viscosity to 312.681 cp and insignificantly (p > 0.05) affected CDP/A (6.32 ± 0.45 mg/cm(2)). In comparison to marketed preparation (Retino-A cream) F3M1 afforded two fold increase in CDP/A. The permeation characteristics were defined by Higuchi model (r(2) = 0.964) and flux value of 176 μg/cm(2)/h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, after 72 h of nail lacquer application, revealed extensive distribution of the fluorescent tracer across the human nail plate in comparison to control that was confined to the top layer. Conclusively, an efficacious and stable nail lacquer of isotretinoin was developed for potential clinical topical use to target the drug to nail bed in treatment of nail psoriasis.

  8. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  9. Twenty-Nail Dystrophy and Darier's (Darier-White) Disease.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Chaudhuri, Anita; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old married man presented with progressive distortion of all the nails of the hands and toes for the past 30 years. Initially, his parents noticed yellowish discoloration and roughness of the thumb nail at the age of 5 years. Since then, the changes have been insidious to involve the other nails. Currently, the nails are lusterless, rough, ridged, and difficult to trim. In addition, the patient has had dark, dirty-looking raised eruptions over the skin, attended by generalized itching, corresponding to the onset of the nail lesions. His mother experienced similar disease. Examination of the nails was marked by alternating elevation and depression (ridging) and/or pitting, lack of luster, roughening, sandpaper texture, and splitting, along with muddy, grayish white discoloration. Dystrophy of the nails was prominent. The changes were bilateral and symmetrical, affecting all 10 fingers and 10 toes (Figure 1).

  10. Non-Melanoma-Associated Dyschromia of the Proximal Nail Fold

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Subungual melanoma with pigmentation beneath the nail that extends to involve the proximal nail fold is referred to as Hutchinson’s sign. Black or brown subungual discoloration involving the proximal nail fold secondary to other etiologies has been referred to as pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. Three patients with nail discoloration and concurrent dyschromia of the proximal nail fold are described: a female with a chronic subungual hematoma and pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign, a male with culture-confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) of the nail with green discoloration involving the proximal nail fold, and a male with an acute subungual hematoma with red-purple subungual discoloration affecting the proximal nail fold. PubMed was searched for the following: black, brown, chloronychia, discoloration, dyschromia, green, hematoma, Hutchinson’s sign, nail, nail fold, proximal, pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign, red, subungual melanoma, syndrome. The papers were reviewed and appropriate references evaluated. In conclusion, melanoma-associated black proximal nail fold pigmentation is referred to as Hutchinson’s sign, and non-melanoma-associated black pigmentation has been designated as pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. Subungual nail plate discoloration extending to involve the proximal nail fold may be black, green, or red-purple in patients with melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions, bacterial infection (Pseudomonas), and acute subungual hematoma, respectively. Instead of creating a new terminology, we suggest that non-black subungual discoloration (green or red-purple) extending to involve the proximal nail fold be referred to as pseudo pseudo-Hutchinson’s sign. PMID:28090415

  11. A Clinical Study of 35 Cases of Pincer Nails

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae In; Lee, Young Bok; Oh, Shin Tack; Cho, Baik Kee

    2011-01-01

    Background Pincer nail is a nail deformity characterized by transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. Pincer nail can affect a patient's quality of life due to its chronic, recurrent course; however, there have been no clinical studies on the pincer nail condition in Korean patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical findings and treatment of pincer nail. In addition, possible etiological factors were considered, and treatment efficacy was evaluated. Methods The medical records and clinical photographs of 35 patients (12 males, 23 females) who were diagnosed with pincer nail between August 1, 2005 and July 31, 2009 were studied. Results Patient age ranged from 10 to 77 (52.09±17.26) years, and there was a predominance of female (23 out of 35 patients, F:M=2:1). The mean duration of the disorder was 7.45 years (range 0.25~40); 85% had pincer nail for at least 1 year. In addition, 40% had a history of previous treatment and recurrence. There were 82.8% patients with the common type of pincer nails. The most commonly involved nails were both great toenails. Among 35 patients, nail grinding was started in 30 patients, and 25 patients showed clinical improvement with nail grinding. The width index increased and the height index decreased after treatment. The mean follow up period was 8.42 months (range 1~27), and 7 patients showed recurrence after 8.8 months (range 2~20). Among 35 patients, 5 patients were treated with nail extraction with matricectomy, and the symptoms resolved immediately. The mean follow up period was 7.6 months (range 0~19), and recurrence was not observed. Onychomycosis was also present in 37.1% of patients, and itraconazole pulse therapy for 3 months was added. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the clinical features of pincer nail in Korean patients. The findings show that the common type of pincer nail was most common, and nail grinding as a conservative treatment greatly improved pincer nails

  12. Electrodeposition of self-assembled poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) @gold nanoparticles on stainless steel wires for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-11-04

    In this work, a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)@Au nanoparticles (PEDOT@AuNPs) hybrid coating was prepared and characterized. Firstly, the monomer 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was self-assembled on AuNPs, and then electropolymerization was performed on a stainless steel wire by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained PEDOT@AuNPs coating was rough and showed cauliflower-like micro-structure with thickness of ∼40μm. It displayed high thermal stability (up to 330°C) and mechanical stability and could be used for at least 160 times of solid phase microextraction (SPME) without decrease of extraction performance. The coating exhibited high extraction capacity for some environmental pollutants (e.g. naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenathrene) due to the hydrophobic interaction between the analytes and PEDOT and the additional physicochemical affinity between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and AuNPs. Through coupling with GC detection, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9894), wide linear range (0.01-100μgL(-1)), low limits of detection (2.5-25ngL(-1)) were achieved for these analytes. The reproducibility (defined as RSD) was 1.1-4.0% and 5.8-9.9% for single fiber (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber (n=5), respectively. The SPME-GC method was successfully applied for the determination of three real samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 89.9-106% for lake water, 95.7-112% for rain water and 93.2-109% for soil saturated water, respectively.

  13. VIEW WESTBUILDING 23WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)CENTER BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-BUILDING 23-WIRE MILL & PATENTING (c.1853 & c.1900)-CENTER BUILDING 25- NO 2 WIRE MILL (c.1853) BEHIND 23 TO RIGHT - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  14. VIEW SOUTHBUILDING 25LEFTNO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40CENTERWIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH-BUILDING 25-LEFT-NO 2 WIRE MILL (c. 1853) BUILDING 40-CENTER-WIRE WAREHOUSE (1915) BUILDING 27-RIGHT-PATTERN SHOP (1853) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  15. Augmentation of proximal femoral nail in unstable trochanteric fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gadegone, Wasudeo M.; Shivashankar, Bhaskaran; Lokhande, Vijayanad; Salphale, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Biomechanically proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a better choice of implant, still it is associated with screw breakage, cut out of screw through femoral head, Z effect, reverse Z effect, and lateral migration of screws. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of augmented PFN in terms of prevention of postoperative complications and failure rates in unstable trochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective study of 82 cases with unstable trochanteric femoral fractures from April 2010 to December 2015. Forty-two females and 40 males in the age group between 58 and 81 years were included in this study. There were 45 cases of AO 31 A2 (2.2, 2.3) and 37 cases of AO 31 A3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3). Fractures were fixed by PFN with augmentation by an additional screw from trochanter to inferior quadrant of femoral head or cerclage wire to strengthen the lateral trochanteric wall. Results: The bone healing is observed in all the cases in the mean period of 14.2 weeks. Nine patients developed complications, including lateral migration of neck screws (n = 5), Z effect (n = 1), infection (n = 2), and breakage of distal interlocking bolt in one case. Removal of screws was required in five cases. Patients were followed up for a mean of 8.4 months. At the end of follow-up the Salvati and Wilson hip function was 32 (out of 40) in 88% of patients. Conclusion: The stabilization of lateral trochanteric wall with additional screw or cerclage wire increases the stability of construct. PMID:28186871

  16. Wire Retrieves Broken Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burow, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Safety wire retains pieces of broken tool. Retrieval wire running through shaft of tool used to pull pieces of tool out of hole, should tool break during use. Safety wire concept suitable for pins subject to deflection or breakage.

  17. Spring loaded beaded cable makes efficient wire puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    An efficient wire puller consists of a steel probe with a hole in one end fastened to a steel cable which is strung with metal beads compressed by spring loaded ferrules. This device allows cables to be pulled or forced around bends and elbows in pipes or tubes.

  18. Short-term isotretinoin-induced elkonyxis and median nail dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Dogan, Sibel

    2016-03-01

    Elkonyxis and median nail distrophy are very rare nail fold disorders due to the damage in nail matrix and proximal nail fold. Herein, we report a patient with both elkonyxis and median nail distrophy occured two months into a treatment course of isotretinoin that is to our knowledge for the first time.

  19. Corrosion behavior, biocompatibility and biomechanical stability of a prototype magnesium-based biodegradable intramedullary nailing system.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Manuel; Schilling, Markus; Eifler, Rainer; Hering, Britta; Reifenrath, Janin; Besdo, Silke; Windhagen, Henning; Willbold, Elmar; Weizbauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Implants made of degradable magnesium alloys are a potential alternative to conventional orthopaedic implant materials, e.g. stainless steel or titanium. Intramedullary nails made of the magnesium alloy LAE442 were subjected to cyclic fatigue tests in both distilled water and Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) at 37.5°C until implant failure or a limit of 500,000cycles was reached. In distilled water, four of the five nails were still intact after the end of the biomechanical test. In HBSS, a breakage within the first 70,000 bending cycles was observed. Additionally, the degradation rate of this alloy was determined in HBSS according to the weight loss method (0.24±0.12mmyear(-1)) and based on gas release (0.21±0.03mmyear(-1)) with a standard eudiometer. A cytotoxicity test with L929 cells was carried out in accordance with EN ISO 10993-5/12. This test demonstrated sufficient cell viability of the diluted extracts (50%, 25% and 12.5%). The relative metabolic activity of the 100% extract was reduced slightly below 70%, which is classified as a threshold value for cytotoxicity. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that intramedullary nails made of LAE442 may not have the required fatigue resistance for load-bearing applications and the development of a corrosion-protective coating may be necessary to prevent early failure of the implant.

  20. Automated wire preparation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Deborah J.

    The first step toward an automated wire harness facility for the aerospace industry has been taken by implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 into the wire harness preparation area. An overview of the Wire Vektor 2000 is given, including the facilities for wire cutting, marking, and transporting, for wire end processing, and for system control. Production integration in the Wire Vektor 2000 system is addressed, considering the hardware/software debug system and the system throughput. The manufacturing changes that have to be made in implementing the Wire Vektor 2000 are discussed.

  1. Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the

  2. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface texture and friction resistance

    PubMed Central

    Abbassy, Mona Aly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. Materials and Methods: Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dunnett's t-test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effect of fluoride application and type of wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ (P < 0.05). Results: Ni-Ti wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro, P < 0.05. Fluoride application did not significantly affect the friction resistance of the tested wires in situ, P < 0.05. SEM observation revealed deterioration of the surface texture of the Ni-Ti wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ. Conclusions: The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires. PMID:27843886

  3. [Three cases of removal of intrabronchial metal nails].

    PubMed

    Nohara, Jun; Lee, Synnum; Noguchi, Tetsuo; Sakaguchi, Yasuto; Kono, Tomoya; Terada, Yasuji

    2009-12-01

    We describe the successful extraction from an airway of foreign bodies metal nails in three cases. They were all carpenters, and often held nails between their lips. Case 1: a 72-year-old man had aspirated a nail three months earlier, but did not seek medical assistance at the time. A chest X-ray film and CT examination revealed a nail in the peripheral S7 region of the right lower lobe. The nail could not be extracted with forceps via bronchoscopy, so video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed. During surgery, the nail moved to the truncus intermedius, then it was extracted using bronchoscopy forceps. The extracted nail was rust-proof, and no rust was observed. Case 2 : a 76-year-old man visited our hospital with a history bloody sputum with a slightly dry cough for two months. A chest X-ray film showed a nail in the right hilum. Bronchoscopy revealed the nail covered with mucinous secretion in the right B7, and it was extracted by forceps. It was a rust-proof type nail, and no granulation tissue was observed in the bronchus. Case 3: a 74-year-old man visited our hospital because of dry cough for two months. A chest X-ray revealed a nail in the right hilus and bronchoscopy showed the nail was buried in reactive granulation tissue in the right middle lobe bronchus and could not be observed from the surface. Tranilast (n-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl] anthranilic acid) at 300 mg/day and Methylprednisolone at 250 mg/day were prescribed for 4 days, followed by a reduction of the corticosteroid to 40 mg/day for 3 days. Seven days later, the granulation tissue and mucosal edema had diminished, and the nail was successfully extracted. The extracted nail was not rust-proof and had swollen with rust. These nails were found a few months after aspiration. The reason why these were not defected was possibly that the long and narrow shape did not obstruct the segmental bronchus and the symptoms can be less severe compared with other foreign bodies. The rust-proof nails were

  4. [Biomechanical analysis of the medullary bone nail and its locking].

    PubMed

    Teubner, E

    1985-07-01

    By mechanical definition an intramedullary nail is not a nail but rather a bendable feather, subject to longitudinal tension and to a lesser degree to transverse pressure. Reaming the medullary canal is necessary for centralization of the nail as well as to increase the area of contact with the bone. However, this procedure is detrimental to the bone metabolism and reduces its elasticity against torsional forces. The dynamic locking nail-system is more biologic than conventional nailing and it reduces rotatory instability with the help of additional components, such as transverse screws. Only static locking allows true static weight bearing with crutches, but not dynamic mobilisation. Nails with conventional strength and in leaf of trefoil formation are superior to other designs. However, an improved angle in the proximal locking is suggested, as this would allow for a three to four times greater weight bearing.

  5. New developments in magnetic resonance imaging of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Sirignano, Cesare; Catalano, Onofrio; Atteno, Mariangela; Costa, Luisa; Caso, Francesco; Peluso, Rosario; Bruner, Vincenzo; Aquino, Maria Maddalena; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    The evolution of dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) musculoskeletal equipment allows new sequences and better images of the nail unit. The use of MRI has modified the imaging strategies used in treating inflammatory arthritis. In the case of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement, which appears as an initial lesion for the induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All patients with psoriasis, even in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes in the nail. This evidence could have a practical diagnostic value, because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have a barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low-field and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  6. Computational comparison of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Benito, María José; Fornells, Pere; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Seral, Belén; Seral-Iñnigo, Fernando; Doblaré, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    We compared, via a computational model, the biomechanical performance of reamed versus unreamed intramedullary tibial nails to treat fractures in three different locations: proximal, mid-diaphyseal, and distal. Two finite element models were analyzed for the two nail types and the three kinds of fractures. Several biomechanical variables were determined: interfragmentary strains in the fracture site, von Mises stresses in nails and bolts, and strain distributions in the tibia and fibula. Although good mechanical stabilization was achieved in all the simulated fractures, the best results were obtained in the proximal fracture for the unreamed nail and in the mid-diaphyseal and distal fractures for the reamed nail. The interlocking bolts, in general, were subjected to higher stresses in the unreamed tibial nail than in the reamed one; thus the former stabilization technique is more likely to fail due to fatigue.

  7. Msx2 and Foxn1 regulate nail homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Ma, Liang

    2011-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions underlie the foundation for ectodermal appendage formation. Signal molecules such as BMPs and WNTs mediate crosstalk between the two tissue layers and coordinate both the induction and morphogenesis of ectodermal appendages. Here, we analyzed the function of two BMP downstream transcription factors, Msx2 and Foxn1, in nail differentiation. First, we show that Msx2 function is required during onychocyte (nail cell) terminal differentiation. Second, the Msx2/Foxn1/hair keratin pathway controlling hair differentiation is also conserved during onychocyte differentiation. Finally, the Msx2-/-; Foxn1-/- double-mutant nails exhibit a more severe phenotype than either single mutant including nail bed hyperplasia. Together, our data implicate important functions for Msx2 and Foxn1 in regulating differentiation of the keratogenous zone, proliferation of distal nail matrix cells, and organization of the nail bed.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  10. Relapse of Yellow Nail Syndrome with Pulmonary Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kozo; Saraya, Takeshi; Kurosaki, Atsuko; Yano, Ryozo; Sasaki, Yuka; Osawa, Takeshi; Kudoh, Shoji; Goto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the triad of yellow, thickened nails, lymphedema, and respiratory manifestations such as pleural effusions, bronchiectasis, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. We report a case of YNS showing pulmonary interlobular septal thickening on thoracic computed tomography, implying the presence of lymphatic edema. The patient showed both the remission and relapse of yellow nail with different lung treatments over a long clinical course.

  11. Retrograde tibial nail: anatomical implantation and surgical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, S; Appelmann, P; Pairon, P; Gruszka, D; Rommens, P M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The treatment of distal tibial fractures requires a stable fixation while minimizing the secondary trauma to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implant. The experimental Retrograde Tibial Nail is currently investigated as a minimally invasive alternative to plating and antegrade nailing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical feasibility in a cadaver model for all distal tibial fracture types generally considered treatable by nailing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five different fracture types (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3 and 43-C1/C2) were created on separate cadaveric limbs. In simple fractures (AO/OTA 43-A1/A2/A3) primary nailing was performed. In intraarticular fractures (AO/OTA 43-C1/2) reduction of the articular block and lag screw fixation was performed before nailing. Intraoperative complications, quality of reduction, fluoroscopy duration and operative time were evaluated. RESULTS Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps. Retrograde nailing is possible in fractures with simple intraarticular involvement after primary lag screw fixation. The duration of surgery averaged 51.8 minutes (range 40-62 min). No major complications occurred during nailing. CONCLUSIONS The minimally invasive retrograde nail combines a minimally invasive local osteosynthesis with the ability to adequately fix extraarticular and simple intraarticular distal tibial fractures. The results suggests that retrograde tibia nailing is a promising new concept for the treatment of distal tibia fractures. Key words: minimally invasive surgery, tibia, metaphyseal fractures, intramedullary nailing, retrograde nailing.

  12. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  13. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy Dos

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants.

  14. 76 FR 12044 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of, and Partial Rescission of, the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. (``Venus Wire'') and its affiliates Precision Metals and Sieves... Department is rescinding the review with respect to India Steel. We preliminarily determine Venus Wire... exported and/or sold by Venus Wire. Interested parties are invited to comment on these preliminary...

  15. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  16. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing in monostotic fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ozturk, Cagatay; Ozturan, Kutay; Sanisoglu, Yavuz S; Cicek, Ilker E; Erler, Kaan

    2008-06-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of bone is an enigma with no known cure. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone-grafting in an attempt to eradicate the lesion and to prevent progressive deformity. This study presents the results of prophylactic intramedullary nailing in 10 patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia, pain increasing with movement, and scintigraphically established activity. Ten patients with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in their upper or lower extremities treated between 2001 and 2003 were included in the study. Seven patients were male and 3 were female; their mean age was 26.9 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months. Closed intramedullary nail without reaming was used in all cases. Bone grafting was not performed. Patients were allowed full weight bearing on the affected extremities on the second postoperative day. Mean VAS for functional pain was 5.33 +/- 0.65 preoperatively and 2.26 +/- 0.57 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). Radiographs showed no changes in lesion size, and the intramedullary fixation appeared to be stable. Prophylactic intramedullary nailing appeared to be beneficial in monostotic fibrous dysplasia with scintigraphically proven activity and functional pain. It also avoids problems that may occur following pathological fracture.

  17. Interlocking Intramedullary Nails in Fracture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiao; Wang, Jing Rong; Hong, Shi Dong; Xin, Feng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao Wei; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate interlocking intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 68 adult patients (for a total of 95 fractures) with isolated long-bone fractures who were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails between January 2010 and January 2012. The patients were followed for 18 months to observe the healing of the fracture, time, and the occurrence of complications in the shoulder, knee, and hip joint functions. After about a follow-up period of 26.2 months (range 18-39 months), all cases obtained bony union. The mean time to fracture union was 5.2 months. Cases of knees and hip joint functions of the femoral or tibial fracture and shoulder functions of the humeral fractures were observed. The interlocking intramedullary nails may be considered as an alternative method for isolated diaphyseal fractures of the extremities. The advantages of this method include small operative scars, reliable fixations, better fracture healings, and fewer complications.

  18. Radiographic findings in the nail-patella syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome is a rare disorder characterized classically by the tetrad of nail hypoplasia or aplasia, aplastic or hypoplastic patellae, elbow dysplasia, and the presence of iliac horns. Iliac horns are considered pathognomonic, and the presence of hypoplastic or aplastic patellae in conjunction with nail abnormalities is a cardinal feature of diagnosis. Elbow dysplasia is present in most cases and can exhibit features typical of the syndrome. Herein we present the radiographic findings of the elbows, knees, and pelvis of a woman with nail-patella syndrome. PMID:26130880

  19. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  20. Insights into drug delivery across the nail plate barrier.

    PubMed

    Saner, Manish V; Kulkarni, Abhijeet D; Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V

    2014-11-01

    Topical therapy is at the forefront in treating nail ailments (especially onychomycosis and nail psoriasis) due to its local effects, which circumvents systemic adverse events, improves patient compliance and reduces treatment cost. However, the success of topical therapy has been hindered due to poor penetration of topical therapeutics across densely keratinized nail plate barrier. For effective topical therapy across nail plate, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. Present review is designed to provide an insight into prime aspects of transungual drug delivery viz. nail structure and physiology, various onychopathies, techniques of nail permeation enhancement and in vitro models for trans-nail drug permeation studies. Updated list of drug molecules studied across the nail plate and key commercial products have been furnished with sufficient depth. Patents pertinent to, and current clinical status of transungual drug delivery have also been comprehensively reviewed. This is the first systematic critique encompassing the detailed aspects of transungual drug delivery. In our opinion, transungual drug delivery is a promising avenue for researchers to develop novel formulations, augmenting pharmaceutical industries to commercialize the products for nail disorders.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting.

  2. Drugs in nails: physiology, pharmacokinetics and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, A; Pichini, S; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, P; Lopez, A

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, drug analysis in keratinised matrices, such as hair and nails, has received considerable attention because of several advantages over drug testing methodologies employing body fluids, such as urine or serum. For example, keratinic matrices, such as finger- and toenails, can accumulate drugs during long term exposure. Drugs are incorporated into nails by a double mechanism: (i) deposition into the root of the growing nail via the blood flow in the nail matrix; and (ii) incorporation via the nail bed during growth from the lunula to the beginning of the free margin. Together, these account for a wide retrospective window of drug detection. Nails can provide a good forensic matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse. Indeed, the international literature has reported the use of nail analysis in postmortem detection of drugs of abuse, drug testing in the workplace and drug screening to detect prenatal exposure, even though further studies are needed for correct interpretation of the data obtained. Another application of drug analysis in nails consists of the possibility of detecting the presence of an antimycotic at the site of action during antifungal therapy for patients with onychomycosis. When available, this evidence has permitted drug treatment of a shorter duration and reduced toxicity. However, so far the potential of drug monitoring in nails still lacks harmonisation and validation of analytical methodologies and a better comprehension of the possible correlation between drug concentrations in the matrix and period of exposure.

  3. Automatic wire twister.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Rodeheaver, G T; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; Chang, D E; Fariss, B L; Edlich, R F

    1988-06-01

    This automatic wire twister used in surgery consists of a 6-inch needle holder attached to a twisting mechanism. The major advantage of this device is that it twists wires significantly more rapidly than the conventional manual techniques. Testing has found that the ultimate force required to disrupt the wires twisted by either the automatic wire twister or manual techniques did not differ significantly and was directly related to the number of twists. The automatic wire twister reduces the time needed for wire twisting without altering the security of the twisted wire.

  4. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  5. Ingrown nails: a comparison of the nail matrix phenolization method with the elevation of the nail bed-periosteal flap procedure.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Umeda, T; Nishioka, K; Iida, H; Aoki, K; Yokoyama, A

    1998-01-01

    Seventy-five procedures were performed on 62 patients with ingrown nails from 1992 to 1996. Those consisted of 51 nail matrix phenolization methods (NMP) and 24 elevation of the nail bed-periosteal flap procedures (ENF). Ingrown nails were classified into type A (normal nail plate) and type B (incurved nail plate). The duration and intensity of postoperative pain were assessed, and the recurrence rate was monitered. The recurrence rate was 3.9% in the NMP group and 4.1% in the ENF group. Concerning the recurrence rate, there was no statistical significance between ENF and NMP in both types. Postoperative pain intensity was less in the NMP group than in the ENF group in both types (P < 0.01). The same tendency was seen in postoperative pain duration. However, the NMP group had longer duration of wound healing compared with the ENF group in type A (P < 0.01). We conclude that NMP is a recommendable treatment for most ingrown nails.

  6. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires.

  7. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  8. [Minimal invasive treatment of massively dislocated radial neck fractures in children by percutaneous joystick reposition and Prevot nailing].

    PubMed

    Hilgert, R E; Dallek, M; Rueger, J M

    2002-02-01

    Undisplaced fractures of the proximal radius can generally be treated conservatively with good results. In children, spontaneous correction of some angular deformities can be expected during growth. Nevertheless, more severely displaced fracture types may require reduction in children, too. Open reduction and internal fracture fixation have shown to lead to a loss in range of motion frequently. A technique of percutaneous fracture reduction is demonstrated that can provide good results in cases when closed techniques have failed. A Kirschner wire is used to manipulate the fracture fragments percutaneously, which can often prevent open techniques. An additionally performed elastic-stable intramedullary nailing can add to an effective stabilisation and encourage to early physiotherapy.

  9. Recovery of nail dystrophy potential new therapeutic indication of tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Jaller, Jose A; Jaller, Juan J; Jaller, Antonio M; Jaller-Char, Juan J; Ferreira, Sineida Berbert; Ferreira, Rachel; Scheinberg, Morton

    2017-04-01

    Nail dystrophy is a heterogeneous skin condition and in some subtypes, is associated with autoimmune diseases in particular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. In this report, we show that tofacitinib, a novel therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, appears to be beneficial in patients with nail disease refractory to other conventional modes of therapy.

  10. Development of ciclopirox nail lacquer with enhanced permeation and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Go, Toe Gyung; Kang, Min Hyung; Han, Sang Duk; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Mi Won; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a prevailing disease caused by fungal infection of nails that mostly affects athletes and the elderly. Ciclopirox is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. However, the desired penetration of ciclopirox into the nail bed has not been achieved via topical application for efficient treatment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to enhance ciclopirox permeation and retention in nail by the development of a new nail lacquer formulation. We screened the effects of different solvents, alkalizing agents, and permeation enhancers on the permeation of bovine hooves by ciclopirox and its retention in human nail clippings. The results suggest that isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, and urea as the solvent, alkalizing agent, and permeation enhancer, respectively, improved the permeation of the ciclopirox nail lacquer formulation the most with high flux rates. Comparison of the final formulation and marketed product revealed enhanced retention of ciclopirox from our developed formulation in human nail clippings. Therefore, our newly developed nail lacquer may be a potentially effective formulation for the treatment of onychomycosis in humans.

  11. Iontophoretically enhanced ciclopirox delivery into and across human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jinsong; Smith, Kelly A; Li, S Kevin

    2009-10-01

    Transungual delivery of antifungal drugs is hindered by the low permeability of human nail plates, and as such, repeated dosing over a long period of time is necessary for effective treatment. The objectives of this study were to explore the possibilities of (a) enhancing the delivery of ciclopirox (CIC) across human nail plates and (b) sustaining CIC delivery from the larger resultant drug depot in the nail plates with constant voltage iontophoresis. In vitro passive and 9 V cathodal iontophoretic transport experiments of CIC across human nails were performed. Transungual CIC delivery with Penlac was the control. The amounts of CIC released from and deposited in the nails were determined in drug release and extraction experiments, respectively. Iontophoresis increased the flux of CIC permeated across the nail approximately 10 times compared to passive delivery from the same formulation or from Penlac. A significant amount of CIC was loaded into and released from the nails; the CIC concentrations were estimated to be above the minimum inhibitory concentrations of CIC for dermatophytic molds. The apparent transport lag time decreased in iontophoretic transport. The results demonstrate that iontophoresis was able to deliver an effective amount of CIC into and across the nails, and this suggests the feasibility of a constant voltage battery-powered transungual iontophoretic device.

  12. Do fungi play a role in psoriatic nails?

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Salomon, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    Onychomycosis is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about a half of all nail abnormalities. Some factors like increasing age, male sex, repeated nail damage, genetic predispositions and underlying conditions, such as diabetes, immunodeficiency or peripheral arterial disease may predispose to develop onychomycosis. It is also suggested that abnormalities in nail morphology are the predisposing factors to onychomycosis. Psoriasis is one of the most common reasons of disturbed nail morphology and the spectrum of nail changes in psoriasis is very wide. Thus, there were suggestions that dystrophic nails in psoriatic patients lose their natural preventing barrier and therefore are more predisposed to fungal infection. This paper summarizes the knowledge about prevalence of onychomycosis among psoriatic patients and contains a literature review concerning this problem. Most authors report that the prevalence of onychomycosis in psoriatic patients is not higher than that in control population. However, especially yeasts and maybe moulds, probably as concomitant pathogens, are more often isolated from psoriatic patients than from non-psoriatic population. In reasonable cases, the mycological examination is required, especially when the clinical picture of the nails suggests the presence of fungal infection. In these cases, antifungal treatment may be beneficial for psoriatic patients.

  13. An unusual foreign body in urethra: nail clippers.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Namik; Yucel, Mehmet; Hatipoglu, Nebahat; Yentur, Serhat; Semercioz, Attila

    2011-01-01

    A 37-year-old mentally retarded male patient complained of voiding difficulties. Physical examination revealed a foreign body in the urethra. The foreign body was found to be nail clippers and was removed with open surgery. This case of self-inserted nail clippers in the urethra by the patient is the first published report to our knowledge.

  14. Did You Know Biting Your Nails Can Make You Sick?

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of an infection called paronychia include a red, swollen area around the nail. If the infection is bacterial, you may develop pus-filled blisters. Nail biting is bad for your smile. The habit can cause your teeth to shift out of place or cause them to chip ...

  15. Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

  16. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  17. Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A; Garrett, Natalie L; Moger, Julian; Price, Gareth J; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H

    2015-12-28

    This study demonstrates the potential of polymeric nanoparticles as drug reservoirs for sustained topical drug delivery into microneedle-treated human nail. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to image the delivery of a fluorescent model compound from nanoparticles into the nail. A label-free imaging technique, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, was applied, in conjunction with two-photon fluorescence imaging, to probe the disposition of nanoparticles and an associated lipophilic 'active' in a microneedle-porated nail. The results provide clear evidence that the nanoparticles function as immobile reservoirs, sequestered on the nail surface and in the microneedle-generated pores, from which the active payload can be released and diffuse laterally into the nail over an extended period of time.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of nail unit in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Ernesto; Scarpa, Raffaele; Cimmino, Marco Amedeo; Atteno, Mariangela; Peluso, Rosario; Sirignano, Cesare; Costa, Luisa; Iervolino, Salvatore; Caso, Francesco; Del Puente, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco; Soricelli, Andrea

    2009-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has modified the imaging strategies of inflammatory arthritides. In psoriatic arthritis (PsA), MRI study of the nail unit identifies nail involvement that appears as the initial lesion for induction of distal phalanx damage and consequently of distal interphalangeal joint arthritis. All psoriatic patients, also in the absence of a clinically evident onychopathy, show characteristic MRI changes of the nail. This evidence could have practical diagnostic value because MRI study of the nail could document diagnosis in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies who have barely evident psoriasis. We discuss the advantages and problems related to the use of low- and high-field MRI in the study of the nail unit of patients with PsA.

  19. Expandable intramedullary nails for fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Ghafil, Dior; Ackerman, Pieter; Baillon, Renaud; Verdonk, Rene; Delince, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Interlocking intramedullary nailing is currently the preferred treatment for most tibial fractures requiring operative treatment, with good results and a relatively low complication rate as reported in large clinical series. However, vascular and neurological complications caused by interlocking screws have been reported. In addition, insertion of distal interlocking screws can be technically demanding and may entail substantial exposure. We present the results with an expandable self-locking nail in the management of 52 AO type A and B tibial shaft fractures. The mean time to union was 15.8 weeks and the rate of union was 98%. The average surgical time was 60 minutes. Complications were those usually seen in diaphysis nailing and no complication was noted during nail expansion. Interlocking screws are not necessary, which reduces the risk of iatrogenic lesions. The expandable nail allows effective management of AO type A and B diaphyseal fractures of the tibia, a lower radiation exposure and shorter operative time.

  20. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  1. Experimental observations of transport of picosecond laser generated electrons in a nail-like target

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J.; Wei, M.; Shipton, E.; Chen, S.; Ma, T.; Beg, F. N.; Alexander, N.; Stephens, R.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Mackinnon, A.; Key, M.; Offermann, D.; Link, A.; Chowdhury, E.; Van-Woerkom, L.; Freeman, R. R.

    2007-12-15

    The transport of relativistic electrons, generated by the interaction of a high intensity (2x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser, has been studied in a nail-like target comprised of a 20 {mu}m diameter solid copper wire, coated with {approx}2 {mu}m of titanium, with an 80 {mu}m diameter hemispherical termination. A {approx}500 fs, {approx}200 J pulse of 1.053 {mu}m laser light produced by the Titan Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was focused to a {approx}20 {mu}m diameter spot centered on the flat face of the hemisphere. K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence from the Cu and Ti regions was imaged together with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission at 68 and 256 eV. Results showed a quasiexponential decline in K{sub {alpha}} emission along the wire over a distance of a few hundred microns from the laser focus, consistent with bulk Ohmic inhibition of the relativistic electron transport. Weaker K{sub {alpha}} and XUV emission on a longer scale length showed limb brightening suggesting a transition to enhanced transport at the surface of the wire.

  2. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.

  3. [Distribution of Luliconazole in Nail Plate by In Vitro Permeation and Efficacy by Zone of Inhibition Test after Treatment of Luliconazole Nail Solution].

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Miyamae, Akiko; Arai, Masakazu; Minemura, Aya; Nozawa, Akira; Kubota, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the character of luliconazole nail solution we have developed, we investigated luliconazole distribution and antifungal activity in nail plate. An in vitro permeation study which measured luliconazole concentration of sliced nail in the transverse direction after treatment of luliconazole nail solution was conducted to investigate for concentration dependency and the influences of nail thickness and treatment duration. When 0.2, 1, 3, 5, and 7.5% luliconazole nail solutions were used, luliconazole was detected in the all the layers of nail and there was a concentration gradient from the dorsal side to deep nail layers. The luliconazole concentration was almost same after 14-day treatment with 5% luliconazole nail solution when using nails of different thicknesses. And we confirmed that concentration of luliconazole into the nail was increased depending on the treatment duration. In zone of inhibition test after 14-day treatment, 5% luliconazole nail solution showed statistically high formation rate of zones of inhibition compared to 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer. Above all, these data suggested that 5% luliconazole nail solution has the potential to show high therapeutic effect for onychomycosis.

  4. Nail DNA and Possible Biomarkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joshua; Liang, Debbie; Kim, Jung Woo; Luo, Yongjun; Huang, Taesheng; Kim, Soo-Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nail has been a substitute DNA source for genotyping. To investigate the integrity and consistency of nail DNA amplification for biomarker study, nail clippings from 12 subjects were collected at monthly intervals. The possibility of longer amplification and existence of GAPDH RNA/protein, were also investigated with three nail samples. Methods Three primer sets were designed for quantitative amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and analysis of their consistency. The mean threshold cycles in amplification of the target genes were compared to test the consistency of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performance among individual factors including age groups, sex, family, the nail source, and by the size of the amplification segments. Results The amplification of the target genes from nail DNA showed similar integrity and consistency between the nail sources, and among the serial collections. However, nail DNA from those in their forties showed earlier threshold cycles in amplification than those in their teens or seventies. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed better DNA integrity and consistency in amplification of all three targets than did nuclear DNA (nucDNA). Over 9 kb of mtDNA was successfully amplified, and nested quantitative PCR showed reliable copy numbers (%) between the two loci. Reverse transcription PCR for mRNA and immunoblotting for GAPDH protein successfully reflected their corresponding amounts. Regarding the existence of RNA and protein in nails, more effective extraction and detection methods need to be set up to validate the feasibility in biomarker study. Conclusions Nail DNA might be a feasible intra-individual monitoring biomarker. Considering integrity and consistency in target amplification, mtDNA would be a better target for biomarker research than nucDNA. PMID:22880155

  5. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  6. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  7. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  8. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  9. Amputated limb by cerclage wire of femoral diaphyseal fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Yougun; Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Kyoun; Weaver, M J; Allen, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    An entrapment of the femoral artery by cerclage wiring is a rare complication after spiral diaphyseal femoral fractures. We report the case of an 82-year-old female treated by an antegrade intramedullary nailing and multiple cable augmentation, which was then complicated by injury to the femoral artery that resulted in ipsilateral leg necrosis and amputation. The entrapment was caused by direct belting by the cable and resulted in a total obstruction of the femoral artery.

  10. Is there a bone-nail specific entry point? Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion for six different nail entry points.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, J P; Schuetz, M A; Yarlagadda, K V D; Schmutz, B

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of tibia. Selection of the correct nail insertion point is important for axial alignment of bone fragments and to avoid iatrogenic fractures. However, the standard entry point (SEP) may not always optimise the bone-nail fit due to geometric variations of bones. This study aimed to investigate the optimal entry for a given bone-nail pair using the fit quantification software tool previously developed by the authors. The misfit was quantified for 20 bones with two nail designs (ETN and ETN-Proximal Bend) related to the SEP and 5 entry points which were 5 mm and 10 mm away from the SEP. The SEP was the optimal entry point for 50% of the bones used. For the remaining bones, the optimal entry point was located 5 mm away from the SEP, which improved the overall fit by 40% on average. However, entry points 10 mm away from the SEP doubled the misfit. The optimised bone-nail fit can be achieved through the SEP and within the range of a 5 mm radius, except posteriorly. The study results suggest that the optimal entry point should be selected by considering the fit during insertion and not only at the final position.

  11. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  12. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  13. Flicking-wire drag tensioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dassele, M. A.; Fairall, H.

    1978-01-01

    Wire-drag system improves wire profile and applies consistent drag to wire. Wire drag is continuously adjustable from zero drag to tensile strength of wire. No-sag wire drag is easier to thread than former system and requires minimal downtime for cleaning and maintenance.

  14. Laser Wire Deposition (WireFeed) for Fully Dense Shapes LDRD

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; GREENE,DONALD L.; RECKAWAY,DARYL E.; MORIN,JACOB A.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CRENSHAW,THOMAS B.; TIKARE,VEENA; ROMERO,JOSEPH A.

    1999-11-01

    Direct metal deposition technologies produce complex, near net shape components from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. Most of these techniques fabricate a component by melting powder in a laser weld pool, rastering the weld bead to form a layer, and additively constructing subsequent layers. This report will describe anew direct metal deposition process, known as WireFeed, whereby a small diameter wire is used instead of powder as the feed material to fabricate components. Currently, parts are being fabricated from stainless steel alloys. Microscopy studies show the WireFeed parts to be filly dense with fine microstructural features. Mechanical tests show stainless steel parts to have high strength values with retained ductility. A model was developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and coarsening during the WireFeed process. Simulations demonstrate the importance of knowing the temperature distribution during fabrication of a WireFeed part. The temperature distribution influences microstructural evolution and, therefore, must be controlled to tailor the microstructure for optimal performance.

  15. Enhancing the nail permeability of topically applied drugs.

    PubMed

    Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2008-11-01

    The topical therapy of nail diseases, especially of onychomycosis, and to a smaller extent, of nail psoriasis, is desirable to avoid the side effects associated with their systemic therapy, to increase patient compliance and reduce the cost of treatment. Systemic therapy is however the mainstay of treatment due to the poor permeability of the nail plate to topically applied drugs. For effective topical therapy, ungual drug permeation must be enhanced. This can be achieved by disrupting the nail plate using physical techniques or chemical agents. Alternatively, drug permeation into the intact nail plate may be encouraged, for example, by iontophoresis or by formulating the drug within a vehicle which enables high drug partition out of the vehicle and into the nail plate. The physical techniques (manual and electrical nail abrasion, acid etching, ablation by lasers, microporation, application of low-frequency ultrasound and electric currents) and chemicals (thiols, sulphites, hydrogen peroxide, urea, water, enzymes) that have shown ungual enhancer activity are discussed in this review. Optimal drug formulation, while crucial to ungual drug delivery, is only briefly reviewed due to the limited literature.

  16. A Technical Note for Extracting an Incarcerated Femoral Kuntscher Nail

    PubMed Central

    Marí, R; Vilamala, D Valverde; García, A León; Guirro, P; López, F Marqués

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the Kuntscher nail has been the most important advancement in trauma surgery. One of the problems is the difficulty to remove it. A new extraction technique is described in the present case report. Case Report: A 46-year-old man was referred for hip osteoarthritis. He had an acetabulum fracture and a femoral shaft fracture treated 30 years ago with a reamed Kuntscher femoral nail. Lateral hip approach was performed and after attempting to remove the nail with the specific tools being unsuccessful we decided to be more aggressive. Firstly, we performed a simple unicortical osteotomy on the lateral side from the proximal part to below the callus in order to decompress the femoral canal without success. Secondly, a trench in the greater trochanter around the proximal hole was performed to hit the nail from below which was still insufficient and furthermore, the hole broke when hitting the nail so we needed to drill a new hole distally. Finally, the Kuntscher nail was removed. Several cerclages closed the osteotomy and a bone graft was used to close the trench. The patient had a good evolution at one year of follow-up. Conclusion: With this case report, we present a new salvage technique to remove an incarcerated Kuntscher nail when all the described methods have failed. PMID:28116256

  17. Considerations on the use of high resistance signal wires for SQUID systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, A.; Ueda, M.; Ogata, H.; Kado, H.

    1995-04-01

    High resistivity manganin or stainless steel wires have not been commonly used for SQUID neuromagnetometers because of their circuit mismatching and large thermal noise. Recently a new type of SQUID circuits has been developed. Using these circuits, it is possible to use high resistivity wires and hence decrease the evaporation loss of liquid helium in comparison with conventional systems with copper signal wires. In this paper, the relationship between the effective flux to voltage transfer ratio, the equivalent flux due to wire thermal noise and the evaporation loss of liquid helium is presented. Finally, the applications of manganin and copper wires are discussed.

  18. Ultrasound anatomy of normal nails unit with 18 mhz linear transducer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Andrea; Montella, Andrea; Ena, Pasquale; Meloni, Giovanni Battista; Mazzarello, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    Interest is growing in non-invasive diagnostic methods for nails in dermatological pathology. Currently, nail disease diagnosis is based mostly on clinical evaluation; instrumental examination, traditionally, has been performed by magnetic resonance. Ultrasound (US) can be proposed as an easier and more available method for the study of the nail apparatus. In this study, the nail unit normal ultrasound anatomy was investigated to obtain data on adult normal parameters. On 35 healthy volunteers (20 women and 15 men--average age of 27 years) we performed an ultrasonographic study on the nail plate (dorsal and ventral), nail matrix and nail bed of all fingers of the hands using a 18 MHz linear transducer with Esaote Mylab 50. A thick gel layer allowed for appropriate transmission of ultrasound without any additional device. Macroscopic nail features were studied by clinical examination and photographic analysis. The following ultrasound parameters were investigated: nail thickness; nail bed thickness; matrix lenght; matrix-bone distance. Blood flow was studied with the use of colour and power colour Doppler. The nail apparatus echographic anatomy consists in: (a) nail plate, represented by two hyperechoic bands (dorsal and ventral) with an hypoechoic or anechoic space between them; (b) nail bed, represented by an area of dys-homogeneous hypo-echogeneity; (c) nail matrix, represented by a markedly hypoechoic area corresponding to the region under the nail sulcus; (d) ligaments, sometimes well detectable and formed by a specialized connective tissue; and (e) vessels, well evaluable through doppler examination.

  19. Wire Cloth as Porous Material for Transpiration-cooled Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Kinsler, Martin R; Cochran, Reeves B

    1951-01-01

    The permeability characteristics and tensile strength of a porous material developed from stainless-steel corduroy wire cloth for use in transpiration-cooled walls where the primary stresses are in one direction were investigated. The results of this investigation are presented and compared with similar results obtained with porous sintered metal compacts. A much wider range of permeabilities is obtainable with the wire cloth than with the porous metal compacts considered and the ultimate tensile strength in the direction of the primary stresses for porous materials produced from three mesh sizes of wire cloth are from two to three times the ultimate tensile strengths of the porous metal compacts.

  20. Antifungal activity, experimental infections and nail permeation of an innovative ciclopirox nail lacquer based on a water-soluble biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Togni, Giuseppe; Mailland, Federico

    2010-05-01

    P-3051 is an innovative 8% ciclopirox nail lacquer, based on hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) as a film-forming agent. The authors' aim was to investigate P-3051's in vitro antifungal activity, as well as its in vitro and in vivo nail permeation. The dilution susceptibility tests performed for Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of P-3051, as percent of ciclopirox, was for both fungi < or = 0.0015% (equivalent to a concentration of 15.6 mg/ ml). In the biological assay of in vitro nail permeation and fungal inhibition, the authors observed that P-3051 permeated well through bovine hoof membranes and produced dose-dependent inhibitory effects on dermatophyte, yeast and mold strains. Moreover, the inhibition effects were higher than those obtained by equal amounts of the ciclopirox reference nail lacquer. P-3051 and the reference showed the same protective activity in experimental infections with strains of dermatophytes isolated from clinical samples. The amount of ciclopirox remained in cut fingernails washed six hours after in vivo application of P-3051 ranged between 18 and 35% of the applied dose. After in vitro application to cut human nails, 40-50% of the applied ciclopirox penetrated during the first six hours, independent of nails being infected or uninfected, intact or filed. In both experiments, the concentration of ciclopirox is largely higher (three to four orders of magnitude) than the MICs for nail pathogens.

  1. Ciclopirox vs amorolfine: in vitro penetration into and permeation through human healthy nails of commercial nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Mailland, Federico

    2014-02-01

    One of the pre-requisite for a successful topical antifungal drug indicated for onychomycosis is its bioavailability into the nail unit for achieving fungal eradication and clinical benefit. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro permeation/penetration through and into human nails of amorolfine (MRF) from a 5% anhydrous commercial formulation (Loceryl®) and ciclopirox (CPX) from the 8% aqueous formulation in hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH) technology (Onytec®). The ability of the active ingredient to reach efficacious concentrations to inhibit nail pathogens was also evaluated. The amounts of drug permeated and retained in human healthy nails were determined using a suitably modified diffusion apparatus. HPLC analysis of the samples was performed. The HPCH-based CPX formulation demonstrated an efficient penetration into and permeation through the nail plates. Conversely, Loceryl® produced an amount of MRF permeated through and penetrated into the human toenails significantly lower than CPX. The evaluation of the efficacy index showed a higher potential efficacy of Onytec® with respect to Loceryl® on nail pathogens. The present work not only reinforced the previous results on different experimental substrates, but pointed out the superiority of HPCH-based Onytec® formulation containing CPX with respect to Loceryl® commercial product with MRF, both in terms of higher permeation through and penetration into the human nail, and for the efficacy towards the most common ungual pathogens.

  2. The thermal effects of Kirschner wire fixation on small bones.

    PubMed

    Khanna, A; Plessas, S J; Barrett, P; Bainbridge, L C

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess bone heating caused by the passage of fine (<2 mm) K-wires of different types. Stainless steel K-wires of trocar and diamond point configurations (0.8-2.0 mm) were drilled into the metatarsal bones from a freshly amputated lower limb at a constant force. Temperature measurements were made by miniature thermocouples inserted into the bones, at 3 second intervals over a period of 3 minutes while each K-wire was drilled three times. The temperature reached varied with the tip configurations and the diameter of the K-wires. Regardless of point configuration, thinner wires generated more heat than thicker ones.

  3. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    PubMed

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  4. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  5. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal.

  6. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED BITI Wired 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel...Then Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics BITI Wired 2016 MAR

  7. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. Nail Biting: Does It Cause Long-Term Damage?

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy ways, such as physical activity, to manage stress and anxiety Keeping your nails neatly trimmed or manicured Occupying your hands or mouth with alternate activities, such as playing a musical ...

  9. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus*

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe Junior, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face. PMID:28300883

  10. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  11. 14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail view of the old rotating nail case and glass display cases now located in the second floor meeting room; looking southeast. - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  12. Fingernails: Do's and Don'ts for Healthy Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... under your fingernails. Repeated or prolonged contact with water can contribute to split fingernails. Wear cotton-lined rubber gloves when washing dishes, cleaning or using harsh chemicals. Practice good nail hygiene. ...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  18. Relativistic electron transport in wire and foil targets driven by intense short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Hill, J.; van Woerkom, L. D.

    2006-10-01

    We model intense laser driven electron transport in wires and foils with the new implicit hybrid code e-PLAS. We focus on background plasma heating for Fast Ignitor applications. The model tracks collisional relativistic PIC electrons undergoing scatter and drag in a background plasma of colliding cold electron and ion Eulerian fluids. Application to 10 μm diameter, 250 μm long, fully ionized carbon wires with an attached cone [Kodama et al. Nature 432 1005 (2004)], exposed to 1 ps, 10^19 W/cm^2 pulses in a 30 μm centered spot, directly calculates resistive Joule heating of the background electrons in the wire to 1.7 KeV. 150 MG magnetic fields arise at the wire surfaces corresponding to hot electron flow outside the wire and a return electron flow just within it. Shorter wires (25 μm) exhibit hot electron recycling. Preliminary simulations indicate that reduction of the cone to a 30 μm diameter nail head produces little change in these results. We also report on tapered wires, wires attached to foils, and the modifying effects of pre-plasma on electron transport into the foils.

  19. Nail surgery: best way to obtain effective anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, Nathaniel J; Vélez, Nicole F

    2015-04-01

    Nail procedures require an effective and reliable approach to anesthesia of the distal digit. Several techniques have been described in the literature. Herein, the relevant anatomy of the nail unit, pain pathways, anesthetic options, and several injection approaches to achieve complete anesthesia are reviewed. Also considered are the potential pitfalls and complications and their management. Ultimately, the physician's approach must be individualized to the patient, procedure, and setting.

  20. White Nail Radio Transmitter: Billion Dollar Savings through Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    energy consumption ashore by 50 percent CNO, Navy Energy Vision, P 10 White Nail Vision Your Cell Phone Cell ...Greenhouse Gas Power 4 1 Energy Navy Use 7.3 Billion kWh White Nail Cell Phone Savings 11 Billion kWh One and a half times!!! Saves the output of four of...Estimated Total Number of transmitters 3,000,000 Estimated total power saved Watt 1,250,000,000 Cell Phone Transmitter Efficiency 1.25 Gigawatts

  1. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration.

  2. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  3. Nail polish as a source of exposure to triphenyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013-2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10-14h after fingernail painting (p<0.001). To determine relative contributions of inhalation and dermal exposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24h following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed.

  4. Nail Polish as a Source of Exposure to Triphenyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Emma; Hagopian, Audrey; Hoffman, Kate; Butt, Craig M.; Lorenzo, Amelia; Congleton, Johanna; Webster, Thomas F.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is primarily used as either a flame retardant or plasticizer, and is listed as an ingredient in nail polishes. However, the concentration of TPHP in nail polish and the extent of human exposure following applications have not been previously studied. We measured TPHP in ten different nail polish samples purchased from department stores and pharmacies in 2013–2014. Concentrations up to 1.68% TPHP by weight were detected in eight samples, including two that did not list TPHP as an ingredient. Two cohorts (n=26 participants) were recruited to assess fingernail painting as a pathway of TPHP exposure. Participants provided urine samples before and after applying one brand of polish containing 0.97% TPHP by weight. Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), a TPHP metabolite, was then measured in urine samples (n=411) and found to increase nearly seven-fold 10–14 hours after fingernail painting (p<0.001). To determine relative contributions of inhalation and dermal exposure, ten participants also painted their nails and painted synthetic nails adhered to gloves on two separate occasions, and collected urine for 24 hours following applications. Urinary DPHP was significantly diminished when wearing gloves, suggesting that the primary exposure route is dermal. Our results indicate that nail polish may be a significant source of short-term TPHP exposure and a source of chronic exposure for frequent users or those occupationally exposed. PMID:26485058

  5. Prevalence and nature of nail alterations in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, A; Tamayo, L; Sosa-de-Martínez, C; Durán-McKinster, C; Orozco-Covarrubias, L; Ruiz-Maldonado, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the frequency and nature of ungual alterations in patients of a pediatric dermatology department at a third-level pediatric hospital. The first 20 patients with nail alterations seen each year during a 5-year period from 1992 through 1996 were included, totaling 100 patients. The rate of nail alterations was 11% (1/9) in pediatric dermatology patients. There were 5 infants, 19 preschoolers (2- to 5-year-olds), 38 school children (6- to 11-year-olds), and 38 adolescents (12- to 17-year-olds). The most frequent diagnoses were onychomycosis (23), nail alterations in a genodermatosis (23), nail alterations associated with dermatoses (16), onychocryptosis (11), and paronychia (10). Toenails were involved in 54 patients, fingernails in 25, and both in 21 patients. Twenty nails were involved in 21 patients. A high prevalence of nail alterations was found in pediatric dermatology patients, some of which were nonspecific, while others provided important diagnostic clues.

  6. A study of dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Artuz, Ferda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dermoscopy is a non-invasive imaging method that enables the evaluation of pigmented and non-pigmented skin lesions. More recently, dermoscopy has been recognized as an effective tool in the diagnosis of nail diseases. Aim To evaluate the dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis and to assess the relationship between these features and disease severity. Material and methods A total of 67 patients with clinically evident nail psoriasis (14 women, 53 men) were prospectively enrolled. Following a thorough clinical examination, patients were graded according to the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and physician’s global assessment score. A dermoscopic examination of all fingernails and toenails was performed using a videodermatoscope. Mann-Whitney U and χ2 tests were used for statistical analysis, with a significance threshold of p < 0.05. Results The most frequently observed dermoscopic features were splinter haemorrhage (73.1%), pitting (58.2%), distal onycholysis (55.2%), dilated hyponychial capillaries (35.8%) and the pseudo-fiber sign (34.3%). The pseudo-fiber sign, dilated hyponychial capillaries, nail plate thickening and crumbling, subungual hyperkeratosis, transverse grooves, trachyonychia, pitting and salmon patches were positively associated with disease severity. Conclusions The pseudo-fiber sign described in this study appears to be a novel dermoscopic feature of nail psoriasis. We have demonstrated positive associations between a number of dermoscopic manifestations and disease severity. Further studies are required to support the present findings. PMID:28286468

  7. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  8. Tumors of the nail unit. A review. Part I: acquired localized longitudinal melanonychia and erythronychia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The article aims to be a guide to the interpretation of tumors specific to the nail, that is, tumors presenting peculiar histological features linked specifically to the nail unit. Therefore, the classical epithelial, fibroepithelial, and fibrous skin tumors occurring in the nail region are not analyzed. The interpretation of nail biopsies requires the identification and integration of the 2 main clinical modes of presentation of nail tumors, the acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal (ALL) band pattern, and the "masked" nail tumor. The ALL band pattern often allows the recognition of a nail tumor in its early phase of progression, with a limited differential diagnosis. The masked nail tumor mimics an inflammatory nail process, as a clinically misleading reactive benign lesion, which delays diagnosis with the subsequent development of partial nail loss and a locally destructive evolution. ALL band pattern appears as a longitudinal band starting at the matrix and extending to the tip of the nail plate. The band is usually single, rarely bifid. This clinical pattern can divided into 2 presentations. The generic term of ALL maculonychia could be proposed to define the macular aspect of the colored band of the nail plate. It encompasses 3 syndromes: longitudinal melanonychia, longitudinal erythronychia, and longitudinal leukonychia. ALL pachyonychia is a rare presentation. Pachyonychia indicates a localized thickening of the nail plate specific to the matrical nail tumor. In this group, there is differentiation toward cells of the nail matrix. The prototype tumor is the onychomatricoma, which present classically with a yellow (xantholeukonychia) band pattern. Recently, a new clinical band pattern has been described as longitudinal pachymelanonychia with 2 etiologies: pigmented onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma. The first part of this review delineate, in the first section, the distinctive microanatomical features of the nail unit and the second is

  9. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  10. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  11. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  12. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  13. Nail apparatus melanoma initially diagnosed as nail matrix blue nevus: a case report with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Bengu Nisa; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Thomas, Luc; Balme, Brigitte; Clark, Simon; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of nail apparatus melanoma in a 50-year-old woman presenting as new and changing longitudinal melanonychia of the right thumb. Very heavy melanin pigmentation involving both the epidermis and dermis interfered with dermatopathological assessment, which initially leads to a diagnosis of nail matrix blue nevus. After consultation with a specialist multidisciplinary clinic the diagnosis was revised to invasive melanoma, a diagnosis consistent with the clinical and dermatoscopic assessment. PMID:28243499

  14. Chloronychia: green nail syndrome caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Foia, Liliana; Marincu, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    Green nails, also known as chloronychia or green nail syndrome, are characterized by green discoloration of the nail plate (greenish-yellow, greenish-brown, greenish-black), proximal chronic non-tender paronychia, and distolateral onycholysis. The cause is Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection of the nail plate in persons whose hands are constantly exposed to water, soaps, and detergents or are subject to mechanical trauma, especially in the elderly. Green or black coloration of the nails should raise suspicion for Pseudomonas infection and be treated with an oral quinolone (ciprofloxacin), particularly in aged patients. We present three cases of green nails in elderly persons.

  15. Fixator-assisted nailing and consecutive lengthening over an intramedullary nail for the correction of tibial deformity.

    PubMed

    Bilen, F E; Kocaoglu, M; Eralp, L; Balci, H I

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of using a combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail in patients with tibial deformity and shortening. Between 1997 and 2007, 13 tibiae in nine patients with a mean age of 25.4 years (17 to 34) were treated with a unilateral external fixator for acute correction of deformity, followed by lengthening over an intramedullary nail with a circular external fixator applied at the same operating session. At the end of the distraction period locking screws were inserted through the intramedullary nail and the external fixator was removed. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.9 cm (2 to 8). The mean time of external fixation was 90 days (38 to 265). The mean external fixation index was 15.8 days/cm (8.9 to 33.1) and the mean bone healing index was 38 days/cm (30 to 60). One patient developed an equinus deformity which responded to stretching and bracing. Another developed a drop foot due to a compartment syndrome, which was treated by fasciotomy. It recovered in three months. Two patients required bone grafting for poor callus formation. We conclude that the combination of fixator-assisted nailing with lengthening over an intramedullary nail can reduce the overall external fixation time and prevent fractures and deformity of the regenerated bone.

  16. 75 FR 26199 - Stainless Steel Bar from India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1, 2010). On February 24, 2010, Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd...''), for a review of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd., Facor Steels Ltd./Ferro Alloys Corporation, Ltd... administrative review, covering Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd/Precision Metals/Sieves Manufacturers...

  17. 75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-average dumping margins for the reviewed firms, Ambica Steels Limited (``Ambica'') and Venus Wire... reasons explained in the Preliminary Results, we have determined that Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and... File, ``Relationship of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and Sieves Manufacturers (India) Pvt....

  18. Inflatable oil well hole plug with reinforcing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Schisler, R. C.; Eisenzimmer, G. W.

    1985-02-19

    An inflatable packer assembly having an inflatable bladder having reinforcing means where the steel wires are arranged as a series of parallel inline cables positioning within the bladder and their ends are anchored in an upper and a lower shoe means and is embedded in elastomeric compounds having preferably special physicals and a cover of a tough elastomer.

  19. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  20. Reconstruction of large area defect of the nail bed by cross finger fascial flap combined with split-thickness toe nail bed graft: A new surgical method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianyun; Wang, Tao; Yu, Cong; Gu, Yudong; Jia, Xiaotian

    2017-02-01

    Fingertip injury commonly results in avulsion of the nail bed. For large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure, methods for reconstruction of soft tissue defects are scarcely mentioned in the literature.From May 2014 to January 2016, 6 patients with large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure were enrolled. A new surgical method, cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft, was applied in all patients.All the 6 patients were followed-up at least 3 months. Good blood supply and no infections were observed. The lengths of the thumb or fingers were preserved. Acceptable appearance and nail bed growth were noted. The donor sites showed no dysfunction or deformity.Cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft is a new and rewarding surgical method to reconstruct large area defect of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure.

  1. Reconstruction of large area defect of the nail bed by cross finger fascial flap combined with split-thickness toe nail bed graft

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianyun; Wang, Tao; Yu, Cong; Gu, Yudong; Jia, Xiaotian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fingertip injury commonly results in avulsion of the nail bed. For large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure, methods for reconstruction of soft tissue defects are scarcely mentioned in the literature. From May 2014 to January 2016, 6 patients with large area defects of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure were enrolled. A new surgical method, cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft, was applied in all patients. All the 6 patients were followed-up at least 3 months. Good blood supply and no infections were observed. The lengths of the thumb or fingers were preserved. Acceptable appearance and nail bed growth were noted. The donor sites showed no dysfunction or deformity. Cross finger fascial flap combined with thin split-thickness toe nail bed graft is a new and rewarding surgical method to reconstruct large area defect of the nail bed with distal phalanx exposure. PMID:28178151

  2. Exploring the biology of the nail: An intriguing but less-investigated skin appendage.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Ohyama, Manabu; Amagai, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    The nail is a highly keratinized structure covering the tip of the digit, and considered to have several important functions in our daily life. In recent years, as biological aspects of the nail organ have been characterized, we realize that the nail unit and the hair follicle share various biological and immunological features. In particular, development and homeostasis of the nail unit also requires intimate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that involve signaling pathways such as Wnt. There is also a striking immunological resemblance between both appendages, since the nail matrix, like the anagen hair bulb and the bulge, was shown to present unique characteristics of an immune privileged site. On the other hand, considerable progress in identifying nail stem cells has succeeded in locating putative stem cell niches in the nail unit. In this context, it is intriguing that nail stem cells residing in the nail matrix were recently shown to possess the ability to organize the process leading to digit regeneration. Further elucidation of signaling pathways governing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the nail unit seems to be a key to develop a novel therapeutic tool to treat amputees using nail epithelium. However, it is at least certain that the nail unit has a promising potential for the future of regenerative medicine. This review explores the biology of the nail organ by focusing on intriguing knowledge gained from recent studies.

  3. Wire mesh current collectors for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Naveen K.; Thombre, Shashikant B.; Motghare, Ramani V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the feasibility of the stainless steel wire mesh as current collector in the passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFCs-W). A novel single cell fixture is designed and fabricated. The cell performance is evaluated and compared with five different wire mesh current collectors. The supporting plates are optimized for every mesh. The performance of DMFCs-W is compared with the conventional passive DMFC which uses perforated metal plate as current collector (DMFC-P). The polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are performed to investigate the different aspects of the cell performance. The results reveal that the DMFCs-W yield better performance than the DMFC-P. Also, more uniform fuel distribution at catalyst layer and higher cell temperature is achieved with wire mesh current collectors. It is found that the wire mesh geometry has significant effect on the cell performance and the mesh made of relatively thick wires gives better cell performance. This study identifies the stainless steel wire mesh as promising material to be used as current collector and potential substitute to the perforated plate current collectors in the passive DMFC.

  4. Imagination Visualized in Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson achieved with a Very Special Artist (VSA) in residence for sixth- and seventh-grade students in which they created wire sculptures. Discusses how the VSA taught the students. Includes a list of art materials and characteristics of wire. (CMK)

  5. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural.

  6. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  7. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  8. Computed modeling of humeral mid-shaft fracture treated by bundle nailing.

    PubMed

    Obruba, Petr; Capek, Lukas; Henys, Petr; Kopp, Lubomir

    2016-10-01

    Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4 mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3 mm.

  9. Enhancing transungual delivery and spreading of efinaconazole under the nail plate through a unique formulation approach.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H

    2014-12-01

    Onychomycosis is a very common nail disorder seen in dermatological practice. It is difficult to treat successfully for a multitude of reasons, and although topical antifungal therapy might be considered ideal for mild to moderate onychomycosis, efficacy has been limited by poor nail penetration of active ingredient through the nail plate into the nail bed and nail matrix to the site of infection. The intrinsic properties of an antifungal and its vehicle formulation are both considered important contributors to effective treatment. Here we review the formulation approach to efinaconazole topical solution, 10% an effective and well-tolerated treatment for onychomycosis. We demonstrate that the low surface tension formulation affords better penetration of efinaconazole through the nail plate, and also to the site of infection by spreading into the space between the nail and nail bed.

  10. Limb Lengthening Using the PRECICETM Nail System: Complications and Results

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Ulrich; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Three types of telescopic nails are mainly used for intramedullary limb lengthening nowadays. Despite some important advantages of this new technology (e.g. controlled distraction rate, not restricted availability, possibility to perform accordion maneuvers), few articles exist on clinical results and complications after lengthening with the PRECICETM nail (Ellipse, USA). Objectives The aim of the current study was to describe and analyze the complications associated with lengthening with the PRECICETM nail. Are the problems preventable when using the PRECICE, related to the distraction rate control, the lengthening goals and technique and handling? Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 9 patients operated between 2012 and 2013 with a PRECICETM nail for a leg length discrepancy (LLD). The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range, 17 - 48 years). There were 5 femoral and 4 tibial procedures. The causes of LLD were posttraumatic (n = 5) and congenital (n = 4). The mean LLD was 36.4 ± 11.4 mm. The minimum follow-ups were 2 months (average, 5 months; range, 2 - 9 months). Results The mean distraction rate was 0.5 ± 0.1 mm/day. We observed in 7 patients differences in achieving the lengthening goals (average, 1.6 mm; range, -20.0 - 5.0 mm). Average lengthening was 34.7 ± 10.7 mm. All patients reached normal alignment and normal joint orientation. An unintentional loss of the achieved length during the consolidation phase was noticed in patients with delayed bone healing in two cases. In the first case (loss of 20mm distraction) the nail could be redistracted and the goal length was achieved. In the second case (loss of 10mm distraction) the nail broke shortly after the diagnosis and the nail was exchanged. Conclusions We report of loss of achieved length after lengthening with a telescopic nail. Weight bearing before complete consolidation of the regenerate might be a risk factor for that. Thorough examination of the limb length and careful

  11. Patterns of clinical nail appearances in patients with cutaneous psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    MARINA, ELENA MIHAELA; BOTAR-JID, CAROLINA; BOLBOACA, SORANA DANIELA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; SENILA, CORINA SIMONA; MIHU, CARMEN MIHAELA; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Nail manifestations are often an overlooked aspect in psoriatic disease, cutaneous and joint involvement being far more often reported and investigated. The reported prevalence of nail changes varies in literature, specific fingernail clinical features having different degrees of occurrence. The aim of this study was to describe specific clinical patterns of fingernail alterations in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis in a university hospital in the North-West of Romania. Methods Clinical data of 35 patients with fingernail psoriasis were collected and analyzed. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores were used to quantify disease extension in each patient. Results PASI score proved linearly correlated with NAPSI score (p<0.05). The age of onset of fingernail psoriasis was positively correlated with age of onset cutaneous psoriasis (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the duration of cutaneous involvement and NAPSI proved significantly related (p<0.05). The third fingernail in the right hand and first fingernail in the left hand were in most of the cases severely affected. The most common observed nail pattern was pitting, followed by salmon patches and subungual hyperkeratosis. Conclusion Important nail changes appear even in moderate forms of cutaneous psoriasis. Particular localization of specific fingernail psoriasis pattern enables the possibility of detecting early stage disease. PMID:28246493

  12. Comparative study of nail sampling techniques in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining accurate laboratory test results before treatment is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare results of curettage and drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to establish the best technique and location of sampling. We evaluated 60 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and vertical and horizontal drilling sampling techniques from three different sites of the infected nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. At each sample site, the horizontal drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity than curettage. Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most common pathogen detected by both techniques from all sampling sites. The drilling technique was found to be statistically better than curettage at each site of sampling, furthermore vertical drilling from the proximal part of the affected nail was found to be the best procedure for nail sampling. With each technique we found that the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal. More types of pathogens were detected in samples taken by both methods from proximal parts of the affected nails.

  13. Frizzled6 deficiency disrupts the differentiation process of nail development

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Klar, Joakim; Georgii-Heming, Patrik; Fröjmark, Anne-Sophie; Baig, Shahid M.; Schlessinger, David; Dahl’, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Nails protect the soft tissue of the tips of digits. The molecular mechanism of nail (and claw) development is largely unknown, but we have recently identified a Wnt receptor gene, Frizzled6 (Fzd6) that is mutated in a human autosomal-recessive nail dysplasia. To investigate the action of Fzd6 in claw development at the molecular level, we compared gene expression profiles of digit tips of wild-type and Fzd6−/− mice, and show that Fzd6 regulates the transcription of a striking number of epidermal differentiation-related genes. Sixty-three genes encoding keratins, keratin associated proteins, and transglutaminases and their substrates were significantly down-regulated in the knockout mice. Among them, four hard keratins, Krt86, Krt81, Krt34 and Krt31; two epithelial keratins, Krt6a and Krt6b; and transglutaminase1 were already known to be involved in nail abnormalities when dysregulated. Immunohistochemical studies revealed decreased expression of Krt86, Krt6b and involucrin in the epidermal portion of the claw field in the knockout embryos. We further showed that Dkk4, a Wnt antagonist, was significantly down-regulated in Fzd6−/− mice along with Wnt, Bmp and Hh family genes; and Dkk4 transgenic mice showed a subtly but appreciably modified claw phenotype. Thus, Fzd6-mediated Wnt signaling likely regulates the overall differentiation process of nail/claw formation. PMID:23439395

  14. Diffusion of uncharged solutes through human nail plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-01-01

    Passive diffusion data for uncharged solutes in hydrated human nail plate are collected and compared to the predictions of two theories for diffusion of uncharged solutes in dense keratin matrices. Quantitative agreement between the experimental data and the theories examined is poor. Concerns with both the experiments and the theories are identified and discussed. It is evident from the analysis that magnitude of the experimental nail permeability data may be questioned, as may the extrapolation procedures used to estimate the properties of dense fiber arrays from more dilute systems. Despite these caveats, it can be inferred that the microstructure of the nail plate is more complex than that assumed in the described models. The influence of residual lipids is implicated. More rigorous experiments and theoretical analysis of mass transport in the nail plate system are warranted. Successful completion of these tasks could lead not only to better predictions of transungual drug delivery, but also to better models of skin permeability, if hydrated nail plate can indeed serve as a model for the corneocyte phase of (partially hydrated) stratum corneum.

  15. A practical method to detect mycoses of the nails.

    PubMed

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio; Franco-Arcia, Francisco; Maldonado, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a method that allows for reliable identification of fungal structures in nails with suspected colonization by fungi. The method is based on the well-known technique of heating nail fragments in 20% potassium hydroxide, but its details allow for reliable and quick processing of samples, when convenient. The method requires simple equipment and is designed for individual practices but might be employed as is or with minor technical improvements by a dermatology department. Minor changes will make it feasible to simultaneously process several samples. The results that were obtained show that while experienced clinicians achieve positive clinical diagnoses in the majority of instances, inaccuracies occur in a sizable proportion of cases. In addition, the varied combination of yeasts and hyphae that were found, bolster the view that microscopic examination is necessary to justify and optimize systemic treatment of mycoses of the nails. Our technique permits the processing and observation of the totality of samples obtained from a single nail or several nails.

  16. Nail psoriasis successfully treated with intralesional methotrexate: case report.

    PubMed

    Sarıcaoglu, Hayriye; Oz, Arife; Turan, Hakan

    2011-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic disease which affects nearly 3% of the population. The lifetime incidence of nail involvement increases up to 80-90% for psoriatic patients. Nail psoriasis is considered a significant social problem. Many topical agents have been used for psoriatic nails with various side effects and some benefits; management is currently inconclusive. Methotrexate (MTX) is a folic acid analog, which irreversibly binds to dehydrofolate reductase and blocks deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. It is considered a potential treatment option for rapidly growing cells and has an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the polyamine pathway in autoimmune diseases. Intralesional MTX has been used successfully for various indications. We present a case successfully treated with low-dose intralesional MTX with no observed side effects in a 26-year-old female psoriatic patient suffering from nail dystrophy. In contrast, conventional topical and systemic therapies have various side effects, which limit their use. We conclude that intralesional MTX injection seems to be a safe and effective treatment option for nail psoriasis; however, large controlled studies are needed.

  17. Pigmented lesions of the nail unit: clinical and histopathologic features.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Beth S

    2010-09-01

    Probably the most common reason to perform biopsy of the nail unit is for the evaluation of irregular pigmentation, especially longitudinal melanonychia or pigmented bands. When narrow and solitary, these are usually the product of melanocytic activation/hypermelanosis, lentigines, or melanocytic nevi. Multiple pigmented bands are generally a benign finding, the result of melanocytic activation, as seen in racial pigmentation in darker-skinned patients, for example. In the context of an irregular, broad, heterogeneous or "streaky" band, the chief concern is the exclusion of subungual melanoma. Before assessing the histologic features of any such entities, it is important to understand the normal nail anatomy and melanocytic density of nail unit epithelium, as well as the type of specimen submitted, and whether it is adequate to undertake a proper histologic evaluation. The criteria for diagnosis and prognosis of melanoma of the nail unit are still evolving, and a variety of factors must be weighed in the balance to make a correct diagnosis. The importance of the clinical context cannot be overemphasized. There are also nonmelanocytic conditions to be considered that may produce worrisome nail discoloration, such as subungual hemorrhage, squamous cell carcinoma, and pigmented onychomycosis.

  18. Deep intramedullary infection in tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Cielo Balce, Gracia; Huh, Young-Jae; Song, Sang-Yoon; Song, Hae-Ryong; Kim, Seung-Ju

    2011-08-01

    Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary (IM) device is associated with a risk of deep intramedullary infection; there is so far no guideline for decision making between early removal and delayed removal of the nail. Tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail/Rush pin was performed in 118 limb segments (63 patients) from 2004 to 2008 in our institution. Fifty five patients had bilateral tibial lengthening. Ninety nine of the 118 segments went on to healing without infection, while 13 segments developed superficial infection and 6 segments developed deep infection. Among 6 patients with deep infection, 4 patients underwent early removal of the nail when deep infection signs and symptoms occurred and 2 patients underwent delayed removal of the nail at 11 months. The 6 segments with deep infection differed significantly with respect t to the callus pattern (p < 0.05) and density (p = 0.0001) from those without infection and with superficial infection. In this small sugroup, removal of the nail was delayed in two patients as there was visible callus bridging at more than one cortex, and deep infection subsided after local drainage.

  19. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  20. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.