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Sample records for nailing proximal tibial

  1. "Clothesline technique" for proximal tibial shaft fracture fixation using conventional intramedullary nail: a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent fracture malalignment.

    PubMed

    Belangero, William Dias; Santos Pires, Robinson Esteves; Livani, Bruno; Rossi, Felipe Lins; de Andrade, Andre Luis Lugnani

    2018-05-01

    Treatment of proximal tibial shaft fractures is always challenging. Despite the development of modern techniques, the literature still shows high complication rates, especially regarding proximal fragment malalignment. It is well known that knee position in flexion during tibial nailing is responsible for extension and valgus deformities of the proximal fragment. Unlike in tibial shaft fractures, nails do not reduce proximal tibial fractures due to the medullary canal width. This study aims to describe a simple, useful, and inexpensive technique to prevent valgus and extension deformities when treating proximal tibial fractures using conventional nails: the so-called clothesline technique.

  2. Finite element analysis of intramedullary nailing and double locking plate for treating extra-articular proximal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fancheng; Huang, Xiaowei; Ya, Yingsun; Ma, Fenfen; Qian, Zhi; Shi, Jifei; Guo, Shuolei; Yu, Baoqing

    2018-01-16

    Proximal tibia fractures are one of the most familiar fractures. Surgical approaches are usually needed for anatomical reduction. However, no single treatment method has been widely established as the standard care. Our present study aims to compare the stress and stability of intramedullary nails (IMN) fixation and double locking plate (DLP) fixation in the treatment of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the extra-articular proximal tibial fracture, whose 2-cm bone gap began 7 cm from the tibial plateau articular surface, was created fixed by different fixation implants. The axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance was imitated by an axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment, while the distal end was fixed effectively. The equivalent von Mises stress and displacement of the model was used as the output measures for analysis. The maximal equivalent von Mises stress value of the system in the IMN model was 293.23 MPa, which was higher comparing against that in the DLP fixation model (147.04 MPa). And the mean stress of the model in the IMN model (9.25 MPa) was higher than that of the DLP fixation system in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS) (P < 0.0001). The maximal value of displacement (sum) in the IMN system was 8.82 mm, which was lower than that in the DLP fixation system (9.48 mm). This study demonstrated that the stability provided by the locking plate fixation system was superior to the intramedullary nails fixation system and served as an alternative fixation for the extra-articular proximal tibial fractures of young patients.

  3. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  4. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, R. D.; Manzotti, A.; Bhave, A.; Paley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications of tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail with treatment using the traditional Ilizarov method. Methods In this matched case study, 16 adult patients underwent 19 tibial lengthening over nails (LON) procedures. For the matched case group, 17 patients who underwent 19 Ilizarov tibial lengthenings were retrospectively matched to the LON group. Results The mean external fixation time for the LON group was 2.6 months and for the matched case group was 7.6 months. The mean lengthening amounts for the LON and the matched case groups were 5.2 cm and 4.9 cm, respectively. The radiographic consolidation time in the LON group was 6.6 months and in the matched case group 7.6 months. Using a clinical and radiographic outcome score that was designed for this study, the outcome was determined to be excellent in 17 and good in two patients for the LON group. The outcome was excellent in 14 and good in five patients in the matched case group. The LON group had increased blood loss and increased cost. The LON group had four deep infections; the matched case group did not have any deep infections. Conclusions The outcomes in the LON group were comparable with the outcomes in the matched case group. The LON group had a shorter external fixation time but experienced increased blood loss, increased cost, and four cases of deep infection. The advantage of reducing external fixation treatment time may outweigh these disadvantages in patients who have a healthy soft-tissue envelope. Cite this article: J. E. Herzenberg. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails: A matched case comparison with Ilizarov tibial lengthening. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:1–10. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000577 PMID:26764351

  5. Ideal tibial intramedullary nail insertion point varies with tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard M; Zdero, Rad; McKee, Michael D; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how superior entry point varies with tibial rotation and to identify landmarks that can be used to identify suitable radiographs for successful intramedullary nail insertion. The proximal tibia and knee were imaged for 12 cadaveric limbs undergoing 5° increments of internal and external rotation. Medial and lateral arthrotomies were performed, the ideal superior entry point was identified, and a 2-mm Kirschner wire inserted. A second Kirschner wire was sequentially placed at the 5-mm and then the 10-mm position, both medial and lateral to the initial Kirschner wire. Radiographs of the knee were obtained for all increments. The changing position of the ideal nail insertion point was recorded. A 30° arc (range, 25°-40°) provided a suitable anteroposterior radiograph. On the neutral anteroposterior radiograph, the Kirschner wire was 54% ± 1.5% (range, 51-56%) from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. For every 5° of rotation, the Kirschner wire moved 3% of the plateau width. During external rotation, a misleading medial entry point was obtained. A fibular bisector line correlated with an entry point that was ideal or up to 5 mm lateral to this but never medial. The film that best showed the fibular bisector line was between 0° and 10° of internal rotation of the tibia. The fibula head bisector line can be used to avoid choosing external rotation views and, thus, avoid medial insertion points. The current results may help the surgeon prevent malalignment during intramedullary nailing in proximal tibial fractures.

  6. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  7. Hindfoot Valgus following Interlocking Nail Treatment for Tibial Diaphysis Fractures: Can the Fibula Be Neglected?

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Metin; Kara, Adnan; Adaş, Müjdat; Karslioğlu, Bülent; Bülbül, Murat; Beksaç, Burak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated whether intramedullary nail fixation for tibial diaphysis fractures with concomitant fibula fractures (except at the distal one-third level) managed conservatively with an associated fibula fracture resulted in ankle deformity and assessed the impact of the ankle deformity on lower extremity function. Methods. Sixty middle one-third tibial shaft fractures with associated fibular fractures, except the distal one-third level, were included in this study. All tibial shaft fractures were anatomically reduced and fixed with interlocking intramedullary nails. Fibular fractures were managed conservatively. Hindfoot alignment was assessed clinically. Tibia and fibular lengths were compared to contralateral measurements using radiographs. Functional results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Foot and Ankle Disability Index Score (FADI). Results. Anatomic union, defined as equal length in operative and contralateral tibias, was achieved in 60 fractures (100%). Fibular shortening was identified in 42 fractures (68%). Mean fibular shortening was 1.2 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). Clinical exams showed increased hindfoot valgus in 42 fractures (68%). The mean KOOS was 88.4, and the mean FADI score was 90. Conclusion. Fibular fractures in the middle or proximal one-third may need to be stabilized at the time of tibial intramedullary nail fixation to prevent development of hindfoot valgus due to fibular shortening. PMID:25544899

  8. Proximal tibial osteotomy. A survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Fechtman, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy is generally accepted as a treatment for the patient with unicompartmental arthritis. However, a few reports of the long-term results of this procedure are available in the literature, and none have used the technique known as survivorship analysis. This technique has an advantage over conventional analysis because it does not exclude patients for inadequate follow-up, loss to follow-up, or patient death. In this study, survivorship analysis was applied to 78 proximal tibial osteotomies, performed exclusively by the senior author for the correction of a preoperative varus deformity, and a survival curve was constructed. It was concluded that the reliable longevity of the proximal tibial osteotomy is approximately 6 years.

  9. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    PubMed

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  10. Interlocking intramedullary nailing in distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Megas, P; Giannikas, D; Lambiris, E

    2000-08-01

    This retrospective study examined the results of non-pilon fractures of the distal part of the tibia treated with interlocking intramedullary nailing. Seventy-three patients with equal numbers of fractures treated surgically between 1990 and 1998 were reviewed. Mean patient age was 39.8 years, and follow-up averaged 34.2 months. The AO fracture classification system was used. Concomitant fractures of the lateral malleolus were fixed. All but three fractures achieved union within 4.2 months on average. Satisfactory or excellent results were obtained in 86.3% of patients. These results indicate interlocking intramedullary nailing is a reliable method of treatment for these fractures and is characterized by high rates of union and a low incidence of complications.

  11. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  12. Intramedullary nailing in the treatment of aseptic tibial nonunion.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Panagiotopoulos, E; Skriviliotakis, S; Lambiris, E

    2001-04-01

    Fifty patients suffering from aseptic tibial nonunion underwent reamed intramedullary nailing (I.N.) and were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-six patients were initially treated with external fixation, six with plate and screws, one with a static I.N., and seven with plaster of Paris. Eighteen of the fractures were initially open (A: 5, B: 6, and C: 7 according to the Gustilo classification). In 34 cases a closed procedure was performed, whereas in sixteen, an opening at the nonunion site was unavoidable either to remove metalwork or realign the fragments. Following failed external fixation, secondary I.N. was performed at least 10 days after removal of the device. Bone grafts from the iliac crest were used in three cases, and a fibular osteotomy was performed in 33. Patients were followed up for an average of 2.5 years after nailing, ranging from 10 months to 7 years. A solid union was achieved in all patients within a period of 6 months. One patient developed late infection, which settled after nail removal and one patient developed impending compartment syndrome which was detected on the first post-operative day and was treated with a fasciotomy. Transient peroneal nerve palsy occurred in one patient and this recovered in 3 months, whereas in nine patients a clinically acceptable deformity was noticed. In conclusion, we believe that reamed intramedullary nailing is a highly effective treatment for aseptic tibial nonunions. Early and late complications are rare and bone graft is rarely needed. The method allows early weight bearing even before solid union occurs, short hospitalisation time and early return to work without external support.

  13. Fatigue strength of common tibial intramedullary nail distal locking screws

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lanny V; Harris, Robert M; Zubak, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Background Premature failure of either the nail and/or locking screws with unstable fracture patterns may lead to angulation, shortening, malunion, and IM nail migration. Up to thirty percent of all unreamed nail locking screws can break after initial weight bearing is allowed at 8–10 weeks if union has not occurred. The primary problem this presents is hardware removal during revision surgery. The purposes of our study was to evaluate the relative fatigue resistance of distal locking screws and bolts from representative manufacturers of tibial IM nail systems, and develop a relative risk assessment of screws and materials used. Evaluations included quantitative and qualitative measures of the relative performance of these screws. Methods Fatigue tests were conducted to simulate a comminuted fracture that was treated by IM nailing assuming that all load was carried by the screws. Each screw type was tested ten times in a single screw configuration. One screw type was tested an additional ten times in a two-screw parallel configuration. Fatigue tests were performed using a servohydraulic materials testing system and custom fixturing that simulated screws placed in the distal region of an appropriately sized tibial IM nail. Fatigue loads were estimated based on a seventy-five kilogram individual at full weight bearing. The test duration was one million cycles (roughly one year), or screw fracture, whichever occurred first. Failure analysis of a representative sample of titanium alloy and stainless steel screws included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative metallography. Results The average fatigue life of a single screw with a diameter of 4.0 mm was 1200 cycles, which would correspond roughly to half a day of full weight bearing. Single screws with a diameter of 4.5 mm or larger have approximately a 50 percent probability of withstanding a week of weight bearing, whereas a single 5.0 mm diameter screw has greater than 90 percent probability of

  14. Influence of medial parapatellar nail insertion on alignment in proximal tibia fractures--special consideration of the fracture level.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Patrick; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Traxler, Hannes; Pfafl, Veronika; Hertz, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Although a lateral starting point for tibial nailing is recommended to avoid valgus misalignment, higher rates of intra-articular damage were described compared with a medial parapatellar approach. The aim of this anatomic study was to evaluate the fracture level allowing for a safe medial nail entry point without misalignment or dislocation of fragments. Thirty-two fresh-frozen cadaver lower extremities were used to create 1-cm osteotomies at four different levels (n = 8) from 2 cm to 8 cm below the tibial tuberosity. Nine-millimeter unreamed solid titanium tibial nails (Connex, I.T.S. Spectromed, Lassnitzhohe, Austria) were inserted from a medial parapatellar incision. Misalignment (degree) and dislocation of the distal fragment were measured in the frontal and sagittal plane. A medial parapatellar approach for tibial nail insertion mainly caused valgus and anterior bow misalignment and ventral and medial fragment displacement. Mean misalignment and fragment displacement did not exceed 0.5 degree if the osteotomy was performed 8 cm to 9 cm below the tibial tuberosity. According to the results of this study, a medial parapatellar approach can be performed without misalignment and fragment dislocation in proximal tibia fractures extending 8 cm or more below the tibial tuberosity.

  15. Distal tibial fractures and non-unions treated with shortened intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Zouboulis, P; Papadopoulos, A X; Karageorgos, A; Lambiris, E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed 18 patients, 14 with acute fractures and four with non-union of the distal tibia, treated between 1990 and 2001 with a shortened, reamed intramedullary nail. The mean follow-up was 38 (8-144) months. The fractures united at an average of 16 (12-18) weeks and the non-unions at 20 (12-30) weeks. Two patients required nail dynamization. No limb shortening nor material failures were seen. All patients returned to normal daily activities. Although technically demanding, intramedullary nailing for distal tibial fractures and non-unions with a shortened nail represents a safe and reliable method.

  16. Are there any advantages in using a distal aiming device for tibial nailing? Comparing the Centro Nailing System with the Unreamed Tibia Nail.

    PubMed

    Veen, Egbert J D; Ettema, Harmen B; Zuurmond, Rutger G; Mostert, Adriaan K

    2011-10-01

    The distal locking of an intramedullary tibial nail can be challenging and time consuming when performed freehand. This study was conducted to evaluate if a distal aiming device would reduce surgical time. A case-controlled study was performed between 2007 and 2009 with 30 patients receiving a reamed tibial nail (Centronail) with the use of a distal aiming device and 30 patients who were treated with an Unreamed Tibia Nail (UTN), with freehand distal locking, in the same period. The primary outcome in this study was operative time. Secondary outcomes were the need for fluoroscopy, time to consolidation and complications. Operation time was longer in the Centronail group compared with the UTN group (126 min vs. 96 min, p=0.000). Use of fluoroscopy for distal locking was needed in half of the cases (n=16) using a distal aiming device. No differences were found regarding time to consolidation, time to removal of the nail and complications. The use of an aiming device for distal locking of a tibia nail lengthens operation time rather than reducing it. Fluoroscopy was still needed in about half of the cases. No difference was seen in clinical outcomes. The use of a distal aiming device to lock a tibial nail appears to have no benefit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational comparison of tibial diaphyseal fractures fixed with various degrees of prebending of titanium elastic nails and with and without end caps.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Nien; Lee, Pei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Han; Chang, Chih-Wei; Ho, Yi-Hung; Li, Chun-Ting; Peng, Yao-Te

    2016-10-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is a treatment strategy for the management of diaphyseal long-bone fractures in adolescents and children, but few studies have investigated the mechanical stability of tibial diaphyseal fractures treated with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stability, including the gap deformation and nail dropping, of a tibia fracture with various fracture sites and fixed with various degrees of prebending of the elastic nails by the finite element method. Furthermore, the contribution of end caps to stability was taken into consideration in the simulation. A tibia model was developed with a transverse fracture at the proximal, middle and distal parts of the diaphysis, and fixed with three degrees of prebending of elastic nails, including those equal to, two times and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. The outer diameter of the nail used in the computation was 3.5mm, and the fractured tibia was fixed with two elastic double C-type nails. Furthermore, the proximal end of each nail was set to free or being tied to the surrounding bone by a constraint equation to simulate with or without using end caps. The results indicated that using end caps can prevent the fracture gap from collapsing by stopping the ends of the nails from dropping back in all prebending conditions and fracture patterns, and increasing the prebending of the nails to a degree three times the diameter of the canal reduced the gap shortening and the dropping distance of the nail end in those without using end caps under axial compression and bending. Insufficient prebending of the nails and not using end caps caused the gap to collapse and the nail to drop back at the entry point under loading. Using end caps or increasing the prebending of the nails to three times the diameter of the canal is suggested to stop the nail from dropping back and thus produce a more stable

  18. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; P<0.05). The present study demonstrates a small, but statistically significant overall bone mineral density decrease in healed tibiae with retained nails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  19. Minimizing the complications of intramedullary nailing for distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yaligod, Vishwanath; Rudrappa, Girish H.; Nagendra, Srinivas; Shivanna, Umesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The complications of intramedullary nailing of distal third tibial shaft and metaphyseal fractures have a direct impact on ankle and hind foot function. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 28 patients. Unreamed nail was negotiated across the well reduced fracture till subchondral bone and fixed with 2 to 3 distal locking screws in different planes. Results Fracture union rate was 85%. Three out of 28 patients had malalignment. Mean ankle, hindfoot functional score was 85. Conclusion Complications can be minimized by impacting the unreamed nail till the subchondral bone while maintaining the fracture well reduced and by using multiple distal locking screws in different planes. PMID:24719527

  20. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). The flexion and extension of knee joint was 139.0 +/- 3.7 degrees and 4.0 +/- 0.7 degrees in intramedullary nailing group and 149.0+/-4.2 degrees and 0+/-0.4 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1

  1. Technique tip: use of anterior cruciate ligament jig for hindfoot fusion by calcanio-talo-tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Haque, Syed; Sarkar, Jay

    2012-08-01

    The use of intramedullary nail fixation for tibio-talo-calcaneal fusion is gaining popularity. There is chance of failure of procedure following faulty operative technique specially alignment. The article describes a useful application of tibial tunnel jig in inserting the calcanio-talo-tibial guide wire. There is precision of few millimeters in the exit point of guide wire on talus. The authors believe that this helps in better positioning of nail and hence better alignment and better operative outcome.

  2. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. Case Report: A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. Conclusion: A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients. PMID:29181350

  3. Temporary Fixation Using a Long Femoral-tibial Nail to Treat a Displaced Medial Tibial Plateau Fracture in a 90-year-old Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Batta, V; Sinha, S; Trompeter, A

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are complex injuries in the elderly population. When traditional methods of fixation are not suitable, an alternative method needs to be chosen for a favorable outcome. We demonstrate a previously undescribed treatment for displaced tibial plateau fractures in the very elderly with poor soft-tissue integrity. A 90-year-old woman suffered an open, Gustilo Grade IIIA, displaced fracture of the tibial plateau. An intramedullary knee arthrodesis, the femoral-tibial nail was used to temporarily stabilize her fracture. She was able to weight bear immediately postfixation. A long femoral-tibial nail allows favorable fracture and soft tissue healing, ease of nursing and immediate full weight-bearing. It shows good promise and should be considered as a management option when traditional methods are not applicable in select patients.

  4. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sagnik; Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-04-01

    Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed. There was no difference between the two modalities

  5. Interlocking Nailing Versus Plating in Tibial Shaft Fractures in Adults: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Arambam, Mahendra Singh; Waikhom, Sanjib; Santosha; Masatwar, Pranav Vitthal; Maske, Rohan Gautam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tibial diaphyseal fractures are the commonest long bone fractures in adults, most commonly managed by intramedullary interlocking nailing. However, several meta-analysis show that locking plate osteosynthesis is equally effective in managing tibial diaphyseal fractures and are associated with less number of complications. Aim To compare the results of fixation of tibial fractures following plating and nailing in terms of union, patient satisfaction and complications. Materials and Methods A hospital based non randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2013 to August 2016 where closed or open diaphyseal or metaphyseo- diaphyseal fractures of the tibia (closed or open Gustilo Anderson type 1 through 3B) were included. Simple sequential allocation was used for allotting the patients to two groups, one for interlocking nailing and other for plating. The patients were followed up for clinical, radiographic and functional results. Results Forty patients with 41 involved limbs completed follow up for one year. The duration of surgery and average blood loss during surgery was 75.45±3.03 minutes and 165.00±5.31 ml respectively in case of nailing and 85.05±2.54 minutes and184.29±5.33 ml respectively in case of plating and their difference was statistically significant. In our study union was achieved in less than 20 weeks in 29 (70.8%) of the patients and 25-30 weeks in nine (22%) cases. The average time of union in our study was 19.55±0.69 weeks in case of interlocking nailing and 20.38±1.39 weeks in case of plating and there was no statistically significant difference between the two. However, there is statistically significant difference in the functional score in between the two groups in terms of Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS). Delayed union in one case of nailing and two cases of plating, valgus malunion in one case of nailing and joint stiffness in two cases each of nailing and plating were the major complications observed

  6. Is there a bone-nail specific entry point? Automated fit quantification of tibial nail designs during the insertion for six different nail entry points.

    PubMed

    Amarathunga, J P; Schuetz, M A; Yarlagadda, K V D; Schmutz, B

    2015-04-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard fixation method for displaced diaphyseal fractures of tibia. Selection of the correct nail insertion point is important for axial alignment of bone fragments and to avoid iatrogenic fractures. However, the standard entry point (SEP) may not always optimise the bone-nail fit due to geometric variations of bones. This study aimed to investigate the optimal entry for a given bone-nail pair using the fit quantification software tool previously developed by the authors. The misfit was quantified for 20 bones with two nail designs (ETN and ETN-Proximal Bend) related to the SEP and 5 entry points which were 5 mm and 10 mm away from the SEP. The SEP was the optimal entry point for 50% of the bones used. For the remaining bones, the optimal entry point was located 5 mm away from the SEP, which improved the overall fit by 40% on average. However, entry points 10 mm away from the SEP doubled the misfit. The optimised bone-nail fit can be achieved through the SEP and within the range of a 5 mm radius, except posteriorly. The study results suggest that the optimal entry point should be selected by considering the fit during insertion and not only at the final position. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimally invasive surgical technique: Percutaneous external fixation combined with titanium elastic nails for selective treatment of tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kai-Kai; Zhou, Xian-Ting; Tao, Zhou-Shan; Chen, Wei-Kai; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Several techniques have been described to treat tibial fractures, which respectively remains defects. This article presents a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique: percutaneous external fixator combined with titanium elastic nails (EF-TENs system). The purpose of this study is to introduce this new minimally invasive surgical technique and selective treatment of tibial fractures, particularly in segmental fractures, diaphysis fractures accompanied with distal or proximal bone subfissure, or fractures with poor soft-tissue problems. Following ethical approval, thirty-two patients with tibial fractures were treated by the EF-TENs system between January 2010 and December 2012. The follow-up studies included clinical and radiographic examinations. All relevant outcomes were recorded during follow-up. All thirty-two patients were achieved follow-ups. According to the AO classification, 3 Type A, 9 Type B and 20 Type C fractures were included respectively. According to the Anderson-Gustilo classification, there were 5 Type Grade II, 3 Type Grade IIIA and 2 Type Grade IIIB. Among 32 patients, 8 of them were segmental fractures. 12 fractures accompanied with bone subfissure. Results showed no nonunion case, with an average time of 23.7 weeks (range, 14-32 weeks). Among them, there were 3/32 delayed union patients and 0/32 malunion case. 4/32 patients developed a pin track infection and no patient suffered deep infection. The external fixator was removed with a mean time of 16.7 weeks (range, 10-26 weeks). Moreover, only 1/32 patient suffered with the restricted ROM of ankle, none with the restricted ROM of knee. This preliminary study indicated that the EF-TENs system, as a novel intra- and extramedullary fixation technique, had substantial effects on selective treatment of tibial fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is intramedullary nailing applicable for distal tibial fractures with ankle joint extension?

    PubMed

    Beytemür, Ozan; Albay, Cem; Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Güleç, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and radiographic results and treatment complications of AO/OTA (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association) type 43C1 and C2 fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We retrospectively evaluated 35 AO/OTA type 43C1 and C2 patients (26 males, 9 females; mean age 39.8±16.9 years; range 19 to 82 years) treated with intramedullary nailing. Two interfragmentary screws out of nail were applied in 10 patients (29%), while one interfragmentary screw out of nail was applied in 17 patients (49%). Intramedullary nailing was applied in eight patients (23%) without external screws. Fracture union, union time, alignment problems, and complications were evaluated. Clinical evaluation of patients was conducted using the Olerud and Molander score and by measuring the ankle joint range of motion. Union was achieved in all 35 patients. Mean union time was 16.5±2.8 weeks (range 12 to 24 weeks) and mean Olerud and Molander score was 88±8.24. Varus deformity was detected in one patient, valgus deformity was detected in two patients, and rotation deformity was detected in one patient. Superficial infection was detected in three patients (9%). Deep infection was not detected in any patient. Intramedullary nailing is not contraindicated for simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures. In these fractures, intramedullary nailing performed in accordance with its technique, with an additional percutaneous screw if necessary, is a successful treatment option with high fracture union rates, high functional results, and low complication rates.

  9. Dynamic osteosynthesis by modified Kuntscher nail for the treatment of tibial diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Gadegone, Wasudeo M; Salphale, Yogesh S

    2009-04-01

    We evaluated a series of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia using low-cost, Indian-made modified Kuntscher nail (Daga nail) with the provision of distal locking screw for the management of the tibial diaphyseal fractures. One hundred and fifty one consecutive patients with diaphyseal fractures of tibia with 151 fractures who were treated by Daga nail were enrolled. One of the patients who had died because of cancer, and the two patients who were lost to follow-up at 3 months were excluded from the study.Therefore data of 148 patients with one hundred and fortyeight fractures is described. One hundred twenty closed fractures, 20 open Grade I fractures, and eight open Grade II fractures as per Gustilo and Anderson classification were included in this study. One hundred fourteen men and 34 women, with a mean age of 38.4 years, were studied. The result were analysed for Surgical time, duration of hospitalisation, union time, union rate, complication rate, functional recovery and crutch walking time. The fractures were followed at least until the time of solid union. The follow-up period averaged 15 months (range, 6-26 months). Union occurred in 140 cases (94.6%). The mean time to union was 13 weeks for closed fractures,17.8 weeks for Grade I open fractures, and 21.6 weeks for Grade II open fractures. Compartment syndrome occurred in two patients. Superficial infection occurred in five cases of Grade I and II compound fractures. Three closed fractures and one case of Grade I compound fracture required bone grafting for delayed union. Two cases of Grade II compound fracture with nonunion required revision surgery and bone grafting. Twelve cases resulted in acceptable malalignment due to operative technical error. In four cases, the distal screw breakage was seen, but none of these complications interfered with fracture healing. Recovery of joint motion was essentially normal in those patients without knee or ankle injury. Unreamed distally locked dynamic tibial nailing

  10. Fibular fixation as an adjuvant to tibial intramedullary nailing in the treatment of combined distal third tibia and fibula fractures: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Morin, Paul M; Reindl, Rudolf; Harvey, Edward J; Beckman, Lorne; Steffen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Distal third tibia fractures have classically been treated with standard plating, but intramedullary (IM) nailing has gained popularity. Owing to the lack of interference fit of the nail in the metaphyseal bone of the distal tibia, it may be beneficial to add rigid plating of the fibula to augment the overall stability of fracture fixation in this area. This study sought to assess the biomechanical effect of adding a fibular plate to standard IM nailing in the treatment of distal third tibia and fibula fractures. Eight cadaveric tibia specimens were used. Tibial fixation consisted of a solid titanium nail locked with 3 screws distally and 2 proximally, and fibular fixation consisted of a 3.5 mm low-contact dynamic compression plate. A section of tibia and fibula was removed. Testing was accomplished with an MTS machine. Each leg was tested 3 times; with and without a fibular plate and with a repetition of the initial test condition. Vertical displacements were tested with an axial load up to 500 N, and angular rotation was tested with torques up to 5 N*m. The difference in axial rotation was the only statistically significant finding (p = 0.003), with fibular fixation resulting in 1.1 degrees less rotation through the osteotomy site (17.96 degrees v. 19.10 degrees ). Over 35% of this rotational displacement occurred at the nail-locking bolt interface with the application of small torsional forces. Fibular plating in addition to tibial IM fixation of distal third tibia and fibula fractures leads to slightly increased resistance to torsional forces. This small improvement may not be clinically relevant.

  11. [Comparative study of the treatment of pertrochanteric fractures--trochanteric gamma nail vs. proximal femoral nail].

    PubMed

    Megas, P; Kaisidis, A; Zouboulis, P; Papas, M; Panagopoulos, A; Lambiris, E

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a retrospective comparative study between the trochanteric gamma nail (TGN) and the proximal femoral nail (PFN). During the period 1998-2003, 97 TGN and 83 PFN were used for the treatment of pertrochanteric fractures. Most of the fractures were of the A3 type according to the AO/ASIF classification. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were available for 87 TGN and 65 PFN. The mean operative time for the TGN was shorter than that for the PFN. Intraoperative complications were noted in 17.5 % and 28.8 % for the TGN and PFN groups, respectively. Late complications occurred in 18.4 % for TGN compared to 27.6 % of the PFN. Union was achieved in 94.2 % and 89.3 % of the patients treated with the TGN and PFN, respectively. The reoperation rates were 10.3 % and 24.6 % for the TGN and the PFN, respectively. Clinical outcomes were good for both groups (65 % in the TGN, 62 % in the PFN group). Treatment of pertrochanteric fractures using the TGN and PFN implants is quite reliable. The major complication was cut-out and occurred mostly in the PFN group, while varus deformity was more frequent in the TGN group. The PFN was associated with a higher rate of reoperation and longer operative time, probably due to a more demanding technique.

  12. Tibial rotational osteotomy for idiopathic torsion. A comparison of the proximal and distal osteotomy levels.

    PubMed

    Krengel, W F; Staheli, L T

    1992-10-01

    A retrospective analysis was done of 52 rotational tibial osteotomies (RTOs) performed on 35 patients with severe idiopathic tibial torsion. Thirty-nine osteotomies were performed at the proximal or midtibial level. Thirteen were performed at the distal tibial level with a technique previously described by one of the authors. Serious complications occurred in five (13%) of the proximal and in none of the distal RTOs. For severe and persisting idiopathic tibial torsion, the authors recommend correction by RTO at the distal level. Proximal level osteotomy is indicated only when a varus or valgus deformity required concurrent correction.

  13. Role of the fibula in the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures fixed by intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, John G; Daly, Charles J; Harty, James A; Dailey, Hannah L

    2016-10-01

    For tibial fractures, the decision to fix a concomitant fibular fracture is undertaken on a case-by-case basis. To aid in this clinical decision-making process, we investigated whether loss of integrity of the fibula significantly destabilises midshaft tibial fractures, whether fixation of the fibula restores stability to the tibia, and whether removal of the fibula and interosseous membrane for expediency in biomechanical testing significantly influences tibial interfragmentary mechanics. Tibia/fibula pairs were harvested from six cadaveric donors with the interosseous membrane intact. A tibial osteotomy fracture was fixed by reamed intramedullary (IM) nailing. Axial, torsion, bending, and shear tests were completed for four models of fibular involvement: intact fibula, osteotomy fracture, fibular plating, and resected fibula and interosseous membrane. Overall construct stiffness decreased slightly with fibular osteotomy compared to intact bone, but this change was not statistically significant. Under low loads, the influence of the fibula on construct stability was only statistically significant in torsion (large effect size). Fibular plating stiffened the construct slightly, but this change was not statistically significant compared to the fibular osteotomy case. Complete resection of the fibula and interosseous membrane significantly decreased construct torsional stiffness only (large effect size). These results suggest that fixation of the fibula may not contribute significantly to the stability of diaphyseal tibial fractures and should not be undertaken unless otherwise clinically indicated. For testing purposes, load-sharing through the interosseous membrane contributes significantly to overall construct mechanics, especially in torsion, and we recommend preservation of these structures when possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a retrograde intramedullary nail: a biomechanical analysis of the effect of nail length.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Timothy; Pinzur, Michael; Paxinos, Odysseas; Havey, Robert; Patwardhin, Avinash

    2005-04-01

    Fatigue fractures of the tibia have been observed at the level of the proximal end of the nail after successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with a retrograde intramedullary device. To study the effect of nail length, five matched pairs of cadaver tibiae were instrumented with strain gauges and potted in methylmethacrylate from a level 3 cm proximal to the distal medial malleolus to simulate a successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis. A standard length (15 cm) ankle arthrodesis nail and an identical longer device terminating in the proximal tibial metaphysis were inserted in each paired tibia using appropriate technique. The strain of the posterior cortex of the tibia was recorded under bending moments of up to 50 Nm for each intact specimen after nail insertion and after proximal locking of the nail. The nails were then exchanged between the specimens of the same pairs and the experiment was repeated to insure uniformity. The standard length locked nail increased the principal strain of the posterior cortex of the tibia at the level of the proximal screw holes 5.3 times more than the locked long nail (353 and 67 microstrains), respectively. This stress concentration was not observed when the proximal extent of the nail terminated within the proximal tibial metaphysis. A successful tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis with a standard length locked intramedullary nail creates stress concentration around the proximal screw holes that may be responsible for the fractures observed clinically. This study supports the use of a "long" retrograde locked intramedullary nail for tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis in patients with systemic or localized osteopenia.

  15. Tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hayoung; Kim, Kap Jung; Ahn, Jae Hoon; Choy, Won Sik; Kim, Yong In; Koo, Jea Yun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tibial lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and an Ilizarov external fixator for the treatment of leg length discrepancy or short stature. This retrospective study was performed on 18 tibiae (13 patients) in which attempts were made to reduce complications. We used an Ilizarov external fixator and a nail (10 mm diameter in 17 tibiae and 11 mm in one tibia) in combination. Average limb lengthening was 4.19 cm (range, 2.5–5.5). The mean duration of external fixation was 12.58 days per centimetre gain in length, and the mean consolidation index was 40.53 (range, 35.45–51.85). All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. Gradual limb lengthening using a reamed type intramedullary nail and circular external fixation in combination was found to be reliable and effective and reduced external fixation time with fewer complications. PMID:18415098

  16. Bilateral tibial lengthening over the nail: our experience of 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Motallebi Zadeh, Nader; Mortazavi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Khaki, Siavash; Heidari, Kazem; Karbasi, Ashraf; Ostad Rahimi, Sedigheh

    2014-09-01

    Using lengthening over an intramedullary nail as a technique for cosmetic purposes improves the individuals' quality of life and provides more satisfactory results due to less external fixator period. This study reports a case series of 143 individuals who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail for cosmetic purposes together with the review of parameters related to the surgery and complications. Level of satisfaction was measured with the standard visual analog scale at least 1 year after removal of external fixator. In this study, mean (SD) age of patients was 26.6 (7.26) years. 85 (59.4%) participants were male and 58 (40.6%) were female. Mean end lengthening of all individuals was 6.65 cm. The mean external fixator period was 93.7 days. Complication rate was 0.74 per segment but it decreased to 0.45 when pin-tract infection was excluded. Complications were categorized based on Paley et al.'s classification as 129 problems, 85 obstacles and no sequelae. Interestingly, 44 (30.8%) individuals had no problem and obstacle. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail provides bone formation in equal quality to that obtained by the conventional Ilizarov method, along with lower rate of complications. The large number of individuals involved in our study is a remarkable benefit which could be used as an appropriate sample to compare results for outcomes and complications.

  17. Factors influencing interlocking screw failure in unreamed small diameter nails--a biomechanical study using a distal tibia fracture model.

    PubMed

    Weninger, Patrick; Schueller, Michael; Jamek, Michael; Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie; Redl, Heinz; Tschegg, Elmar K

    2009-05-01

    Unreamed tibia nails with small diameters are increasingly used for fracture fixation. However, little is known about the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws in those nails. To date, no data are available reporting on mechanical differences of solid compared to cannulated tibial nails. The aim of this study was to assess the fatigue strength of proximal and distal interlocking screws of solid and cannulated small diameter tibia nails. We created a distal tibia fracture model (AO/OTA 43 A3) using 16 Sawbones. After fracture stabilization with one of four different nail types (Expert Tibial Nail, VersaNail, T2 Tibial Nailing System, Connex), mechanical testing was performed in three loading series (40,000 cycles each) with incremental loads. Timing and type of interlocking screw failure were assessed. Interlocking screw failure was observed significantly earlier (after a mean interval of 57,042 cycles) in cannulated tibial nails (VersaNail, T2) compared to solid nails (after a mean interval of 88,415 cycles; P < 0.001). Proximal interlocking screw failure was recorded if oblique screws were used proximally (VersaNail, T2, Connex). No distal interlocking screw failure was recorded in the Connex nail. Two- and three-part fractures of proximal or distal interlocking screws were observed in all specimen. Proximal and distal interlocking screw failure has to be considered in small diameter nails in case of delayed fracture healing. To support our results, further experimental studies and clinical series are necessary.

  18. Suprapatellar Versus Infrapatellar Tibial Nail Insertion: A Prospective Randomized Control Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel S; Serrano-Riera, Rafael; Griffing, Rebecca; Steverson, Barbara; Infante, Anthony; Watson, David; Sagi, H Claude; Sanders, Roy W

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this OTA-approved pilot study was to compare the clinical and functional outcomes of the knee joint after infrapatellar (IP) versus suprapatellar (SP) tibial nail insertion. Prospective, randomized. Level I trauma center. After institutional review board approval, skeletally mature patients with OTA 42 tibial shaft fractures were randomized into either an IP or SP nail insertion group after informed consent was obtained. The SP also underwent prenail and postnail insertion patella-femoral (PF) joint arthroscopy. Patients underwent follow-up (6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months) with standard radiographs, as well as visual analog score and pain diagram documentation. At the 6-month and 12-month visits, knee function questionnaires (Lysholm knee scale and SF-36) were completed. Magnetic resonance imaging/image (MRI) of the affected knee was obtained at 12 months. Ten patients in each group were required for a power analysis for the anticipated larger randomized control trial, but enrollment in each arm was not limited because of known problems with patient follow-up over a 12-month period. A total of 41 patients/fractures were enrolled in this study. Of those, only 25 patients/fractures (14 IP, 11 SP) fully complied with and completed 12 months of follow-up. Six of 11 SP presented with articular changes (chondromalacia) in the PF joint during the preinsertion arthroscopy. Three patients displayed a change in the articular cartilage based on postnail insertion arthroscopy. At 12 months, all fractures in both groups had proceeded to union. There were no differences between the affected and unaffected knee with respect to range of motion. Functional visual analog score and Lysholm knee scores showed no significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). The SF-36v2 comparison also revealed no significant differences in the overall score, all 4 mental components, and 3/4 physical components (P > 0.05). The bodily pain component score was superior in the SP group

  19. Comparison of intraoperative anthropometric measurements of the proximal tibia and tibial component in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Naohisa; Sugita, Takehiko; Aizawa, Toshimi; Sasaki, Akira; Maeda, Ikuo; Kamimura, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Precise matching of the tibial component and resected bony surfaces and proper rotational implanting of the tibial component are crucial for successful total knee arthroplasty. We aimed to analyze the exact anthropometric proximal tibial data of Japanese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and correlate the measurements with the dimensions of current total knee arthroplasty systems. A total of 703 knees in 566 Japanese patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis were included. The bone resection in the proximal tibia was performed perpendicular to the tibial axis in the frontal plane. Measurements of the proximal tibia were intraoperatively obtained after proximal tibial preparation. There were significant positive correlations between the lateral anteroposterior and medial anteroposterior and mediolateral dimensions. A progressive decrease in the mediolateral/lateral anteroposterior ratio with an increasing lateral anteroposterior dimension or the mediolateral/anteroposterior ratio with an increasing anteroposterior dimension was observed. The lateral anteroposterior dimension was smaller than the medial anteroposterior dimension by a mean of 4.8 ± 2.0 mm. The proximal tibia exhibited asymmetry between the lateral and medial plateaus. A comparison of the morphological data and dimensions of the implants, one of which was a symmetric tibial component (NexGen) and the others were asymmetric (Genesis II and Persona), indicated that an asymmetric tibial component could be beneficial to maximize tibial plateau coverage. This study provided important reference data for designing a proper tibial component for Japanese people. The proximal tibial cut surface was asymmetric. There was wide dispersion in the lateral anteroposterior, medial anteroposterior, and mediolateral dimensions depending on the patient. Our data showed that the tibial components of the Genesis II and Persona rather than that of the NexGen may be preferable for

  20. [Comparison of effect between early and delayed in primary intramedullary nailing combined with locked plate fixation for the treatment of multi-segments tibial fractures of type].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei-qiang; Hu, Jiang-hai; Gu, Zhu-chao; Zhang, Huai-xian; Min, Peng; Zhang, Lin-jun; Yu, Wen-wen; Wang, Guang-lin

    2015-02-01

    locked plating does not significantly increase the postoperative incidence of soft tissue complications for patients. The early and delayed primary intramedullary nailing and locked plating for treatment of AO/ASIF-42C2 proximal third tibial fractures can get similar curative effect.

  1. [Current status of surgical technique for unreamed nailing of tibial shaft fractures with the UTN (unreamed tibia nail)].

    PubMed

    Krettek, C; Schandelmaier, P; Rudolf, J; Tscherne, H

    1994-11-01

    Nailing technique has changed in recent years in some important aspects which are not limited to the omitted reaming procedure. These changes concern patient positioning, reduction technique, the use of temporary stabilizers such as the 'Pinless', and determination of implant length and diameter. Approach and exposure techniques have been modified to new, less invasive procedures, in order to fulfill technical, functional and aesthetic requirements. Techniques and tricks have been developed for avoidance of fragment diastasis and axial and torsional malalignment. Finally, simple algorithms are described for the management of large bone defects, bilateral tibia shaft or ipsilateral femoral shaft fractures, number and location of locking bolts, the 'when and how' of patient mobilization and load bearing, and primary and secondary dynamization. These algorithms, techniques and procedures were developed in a series of 152 tibia shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed tibia nail (UTN) in a prospective study between March 1989 and June 1994. Of these, 75 cases with a mean follow-up of 19.4 +/- 6.3 (range 11-37) months after trauma were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller (1990): 14 type A, 37 type B and 24 type C. Closed soft tissue damage was categorized according to our classification: C0/1, n = 5; C2, n = 12; C3, n = 9 (Tscherne 1982). Among 49 open fractures 8 were OI, 18 OII, 10 OIIIA and 13 OIIIB (Gustilo 1976). The main minor intraoperative complication was drill bit breakage (n = 10), most frequently at the proximal locking holes. The main postoperative complication was breakage of locking bolts (n = 16), mainly between weeks 6 and 20. Minor secondary reinterventions were, in most cases, secondary dynamization under local anaesthesia. Major reintervention were: soft tissue reconstructions (n = 5), isolated cancellous bone graft (n = 6), and change of treatment (n = 12). There were nine changes to a reamed nail, two changes, in very

  2. Comparison of suprapatellar and infrapatellar intramedullary nailing for tibial shaft fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Li, Ge

    2018-06-14

    Optimal surgical approach for tibial shaft fractures remains controversial. We perform a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the clinical efficacy and prognosis between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. PubMed, OVID, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science were searched up to December 2017 for comparative RCTs involving infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Primary outcomes were blood loss, visual analog scale (VAS) score, range of motion, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Secondary outcomes were length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. We assessed statistical heterogeneity for each outcome with the use of a standard χ 2 test and the I 2 statistic. The meta-analysis was undertaken using Stata 14.0. Four RCTs involving 293 participants were included in our study. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between infrapatellar and suprapatellar intramedullary nail regarding the total blood loss, VAS scores, Lysholm knee scores, and fluoroscopy times. Suprapatellar intramedullary nailing could significantly reduce total blood loss, postoperative knee pain, and fluoroscopy times compared to infrapatellar approach. Additionally, it was associated with an improved Lysholm knee scores. High-quality RCTs were still required for further investigation.

  3. Splitting of the Proximal Femur With a New Femoral Nail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    should be exercised with the use of new implants that require a change in customary technique. In addition, some concern must be raised by the amount of...the potential for gluteus medius tendon injury,8 whereas other authors have found greater soft-tissue injury by inserting a nail through the...Entry Femoral Nail (Synthes USA, Paoli, PA) moved the entry point further lateral (10 degrees) and distal to completely avoid the gluteus medius tendon

  4. Management of comminuted proximal ulna fracture-dislocations using a multiplanar locking intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott G; Argintar, Evan; Lamb, Joshua

    2011-06-01

    Intramedullary nails have been used for the fixation of olecranon fractures in an attempt to reduce the soft tissue irritation and resulting need for hardware removal seen with plating and tension banding. Further benefits include preservation of vascular supply, and increase stability and improved compression over some alternative techniques. Most intramedullary nails have been limited to simple olecranon fractures or osteotomies. One novel multiplanar, locking intramedullary nail, however, is indicated to stabilize all fracture patterns of the proximal ulna, including the coronoid. This particular locking nail has screws that radiate in multiple planes and form a fixed-angle lattice throughout the bone. The nail also has fixed-angle screws dedicated to the 3 parts of the coronoid: process tip, medial facet, and medial wall. This allows the nail to secure multiple fragments regardless of the fracture pattern's extent of instability. The objective of this article is to illustrate the recommended steps in reducing and stabilizing a comminuted proximal ulna fracture-dislocation using this multiplanar locking intramedullary nail.

  5. [Clinical application of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nail].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Li-Guo; Fang, Zhi-Song; Luo, Cong-Feng; Wang, Qing-Feng; Ma, Yi-Ping; Gao, Hong; Fu, Guo-Hai; Hu, Cheng-Ting

    2012-07-01

    To introduce the clinical method of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nails. From June 2006 to March 2011, 26 patients with distal tibial fracture were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails using blocking screws and rooting technique, included 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 46.2 years old ranging from 24 to 64 years. According to AO classification: 10 cases of type A1, 4 cases of type A2, 8 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2. The average distance of the fractures end to the ankle joint was 85 mm ranging from 55 to 125 mm, the mean time between injured and operation was 4.5 days. The patients were evaluated with pain, range of motion, walking. All cases were followed-up for 6 to 22 months (averaged 15 months). According to Iowa ankle joint grading system,the score was improved from preoperative (66.8 +/- 8.2) to postoperative (94.6 +/- 4.8). All fractures had united, and got satisfactory reduction and stable fixation with no complications had happen such as breakage of screw. Fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail using blocking screws and rooting technique in treating distal tibial fracture, is a safe and effective technique for the improvement of stability.

  6. Semiextended approach for intramedullary nailing via a patellar eversion technique for tibial-shaft fractures: Evaluation of the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Obara, Shu; Hayashi, Junji; Arai, Masayuki; Sato, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation is a common treatment for tibial-shaft fractures, and it offers a better functional prognosis than other conservative treatments. Currently, the primary approach employed during intramedullary nail insertion is the semiextended position is the suprapatellar approach, which involves a vertical incision of the quadriceps tendon Damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage has been highlighted as a drawback associated with this approach. To avoid this issue, we perform surgery using the patellar eversion technique and a soft sleeve. This method allows the articular surface to be monitored during intramedullary nail insertion. We arthroscopically assessed the effect of this technique on patellofemoral joint cartilage. The patellar eversion technique allows a direct view and protection of the patellofemoral joint without affecting the patella. Thus, damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage can be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Absorbable Sheath to Prevent Stress Shielding of Tibial Interlocking Intramedullary Nail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yansheng; Wang, Yongqing; Dong, Limin; Jia, Peng; Lu, Fengcheng

    2017-07-01

    The nail with absorbable sheath (AS nail) is designed to reduce the stress shielding effect of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail. In order to verify its feasibility, two types of the finite element models of internal fixation of tibia with the AS nail and the common metal nail (CM nail) are established using the Softwares of Mimics, Geomagic, SolidWorks and ANSYS according to the CT scanning data of tibia. The result of the finite element analysis shows that the AS nail has great advantages compared with the CM nail in reducing the stress shielding effect in different periods of fracture healing. The conclusion is that the AS nail can realize the static fixation to the dynamic fixation from the early to the later automatically to shorten the time of fracture healing, which also provides a new technique to the interlocking intramedullary nail.

  8. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tibial lengthening using a humeral intramedullary nail combined with a single-plane external fixator for leg discrepancy in sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Liu, Fanggang; Jiang, Yao

    2011-03-01

    The sequelae of poliomyelitis are the common causes of leg discrepancy. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem but it is associated with a high rate of complications. In this study, we combined the use of humeral nail and external fixator in tibial lengthening with the purpose of reducing lengthening complications. Compared with the cases lengthened by a single-plane external fixator alone, this combined strategy was found to be beneficial in maintaining the tibial alignment. Therefore, it can be recommended as a good technique for tibial lengthening in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  10. Nail or plate in the management of distal extra-articular tibial fracture, what is better? Valutation of outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bisaccia, Michele; Cappiello, Andrea; Meccariello, Luigi; Rinonapoli, Giuseppe; Falzarano, Gabriele; Medici, Antonio; Vicente, Cristina Ibáñez; Piscitelli, Luigi; Stano, Verdiana; Bisaccia, Olga; Caraffa, Auro

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Distal tibial fractures are the most common long bone fractures. Several studies focusing on the methods of treatment of displaced distal tibial fractures have been published. To date, locked plates, intramedullary nails and external fixation are the three most used techniques. The aim of our study was to compare intramedullary nail (IMN) and locked plate (LP) for treatment of this kind of fracture. Materials and methods: We collected data on 81 patients with distal tibial fractures (distance from the joint between 40 and 100 mm) and we divided into two groups: IMN and LP. We compared in the 2 groups the mean operation time, the mean union time, the infection rate the rate of malunion and nonunion, the full weight bearing time. Results: No patient in the two groups developed a nonunion. None of the patients obtained a fair or poor outcome. Overall 52 patients obtained an excellent result (69.3%) and 23 obtained a good result (30.6%). Discussion: Our study results indicate a superiority of IMN over LP in terms of lower rates of infections and statistically significant shorter time to full weight bearing. Whereas LP appeared to be advantageous over IMN in terms of leading to a better anatomical and fixed reductions of the fracture and a lower rate of union complications. The two treatments achieved comparable results in terms of operation time, hospital stay, union time and functional outcomes. PMID:29469802

  11. A prospective multi-center study of intramedullary nailing vs casting of stable tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Obremskey, William T; Cutrera, Norele; Kidd, Christopher M

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal treatment of stable tibial shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing (IMN) or casting. We performed a multi-center prospective study cohort. Patients with stable tibia shaft fractures meeting Sarmiento's criteria (isolated closed fractures with less than 12 mm of shortening and 10° of angulation) were enrolled prospectively and treated with either a reamed IMN with static interlocking screws or closed reduction followed by long-leg casting. Both groups were weight bearing following surgery. Radiographs were taken until union, and range of motion of knee and ankle joints was assessed. Malalignment (>5°) and malunion (>10°) were determined. Functional outcome measures using short musculoskeletal assessment scores (SMFA) and a knee pain score were scheduled at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. At 3 months, differences between the casting and IMN groups were noted in return to work (6/15 vs 3/17, P < 0.05); ankle dorsiflexion (7° vs 12°, P < 0.05); plantar flexion (28° vs 39°, P < 0.05); and SMFA domains of Dysfunction Index, Bother Index, daily activities, emotional status, and arm/hand function (P < 0.05). The SMFA mobility function demonstrated a significant trend (P = 0.065). At 6 months, malalignment was present in 3/15 in the casting group and in 1/17 in the IMN group (P = 0.02). Malunion was present in 1/15 in the cast group. One fracture in the casting group went on to nonunion and required late IMN placement at 7 months and eventually healed. There were no differences in ankle motion, SMFA scores, or return to work. There was no difference in knee pain between the groups as measured by VAS and Court-Brown pain scale at 6 months. Patients with stable tibia fractures treated with intramedullary nailing have improved clinical and functional outcomes at 3 months compared with those treated with casting, but there are no differences in any other outcome measure. Patients treated in a

  12. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Gustavo; Soler, Isabel; López-Durán, Luis

    2014-04-14

    Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo's grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety.

  13. Fat embolism syndrome after nailing an isolated open tibial fracture in a stable patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal complication of long bone fractures. It is usually seen in the context of polytrauma or a femoral fracture. There are few reports of fat embolism syndrome occurring after isolated long bone fractures other than those of the femur. Case presentation We describe a case of fat embolism syndrome in a 33-year-old Caucasian man. He was being seen for an isolated Gustilo’s grade II open tibial fracture. He was deemed clinically stable, so we proceeded to treat the fracture with intramedullary reamed nailing. He developed fat embolism syndrome intraoperatively and was treated successfully. Conclusion This case caused us to question the use of injury severity scoring for isolated long bone fractures. It suggests that parameters that have been described in the literature other than that the patient is apparently clinically stable should be used to establish the best time for nailing a long bone fracture, thereby improving patient safety. PMID:24731759

  14. Early Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Intramedullary Nail for Treatment of a Complex Tibial Pilon Fracture (AO/OTA 43-C).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Szatkowski, Jan P

    2015-06-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA 43-C) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Open reduction and internal fixation of the tibial plafond, tibiotalar arthrodesis, and salvage hindfoot reconstruction procedures are all associated with surgical complications and functional limitations. In this report, we present a case of a complex pilon fracture in a patient with multiple medical comorbidities and socioeconomic disadvantages that was successfully and acutely treated with a retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal hindfoot arthrodesis nail. At final follow-up examination, the patient had decreased pain, a stable plantigrade foot, and could ambulate with normal shoes without any assistive devices. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Anatomic relationship of the proximal nail matrix to the extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion.

    PubMed

    Palomo López, P; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, R; López López, D; Prados Frutos, J C; Alfonso Murillo González, J; Losa Iglesias, M E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the relationship of the terminal extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion to the proximal limit of the nail matrix of the great toe. Fifty fresh-frozen human cadaver great toes with no evidence of trauma (average age, 62.5 years; 29 males and 21 females) were used for this study. Under 25X magnification, the proximal limit of the nail matrix and the terminal bony insertion of the extensor hallucis longus tendons were identified. The distance from the terminal tendon insertion to the nail matrix was ascertained using precision calipers, an optical microscope, and autocad(®) software for windows. Twenty-five great toes were placed in a neutral formalin solution and further analysed by histological longitudinal-sections. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically to determine the presence of the extensor hallucis longus tendon along the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx of each great toe. The main result we found in great toes was that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx in all, 100%, specimens. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx as is the case for fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. We have found that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of distal phalanx as is the case in fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. Our anatomic study demonstrates that the proximal limit of the matrix and nail bed of the human great toe are dorsal and

  16. Numerical Optimization of the Position in Femoral Head of Proximal Locking Screws of Proximal Femoral Nail System; Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Konya, Mehmet Nuri; Verim, Özgür

    2017-09-29

    Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accidents. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures in the proximal femur. To compare various combinations and to determine the ideal proximal lag screw position in pertrochanteric fractures (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification 31-A1) of the femur by using optimized finite element analysis. Biomechanical study. Computed tomography images of patients' right femurs were processed with Mimics. Afterwards a solid femur model was created with SolidWorks 2015 and transferred to ANSYS Workbench 16.0 for response surface optimization analysis which was carried out according to anterior-posterior (-10°proximal lag screw positions in the fracture region. The optimum position of the proximal lag screw was determined based on the von Mises stress values occurring on the fracture line. Initial analysis of the system was realized under the surgeon's normal positioning conditions (anterior-posterior, inferior-superior=0°; tip-apex distance=12 mm). The maximum and minimum (compression) von Mises stresses were found to be 438 MPa and 0.003 MPa, respectively, and risky stresses for the system occurred in the regions where the proximal lag screw passes through the proximal femoral nail hole, the small diameter portion of stem joints with a large diameter and lag screw mounts to the stem. The most suitable position of the proximal lag screw was found at the middle position of the tip-apex distance (20 mm) and femoral neck (anterior-posterior, inferior-superior=0°), according to von Mises compression stress values occurring on the fracture line. In our study, we couldn't find any correlation between proximal lag screw movement and tip-apex distance on stresses of the fracture surfaces, but the proximal lag screw

  17. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P < 0.0001). Average time required for partial and full weight bearing in the nailing group was 4.95 weeks and 10.09 weeks respectively which was significantly less ( P < 0.0001) as compared to 6.90 weeks and 13.38 weeks in the plating group. Lesser complications in terms of implant irritation, ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  18. Intramedullary nailing in opening wedge high tibial osteotomy-in vitro test for validation of a method of fixation.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Rene; Katerla, Denise; Hammer, Marina; Pahlkötter, Anke; Soost, Christian; Dietrich, Gerhard; Ohrndorf, Arne; Richter, Wolfgang; Lengsfeld, Markus; Christ, Hans-Jürgen; Graw, Jan Adriaan; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2018-02-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) as a treatment in unicompartimental osteoarthritis of the knee can significantly relieve pain and prevent or at least delay an early joint replacement. The fixation of the osteotomy has undergone development and refinements during the last years. The angle-stable plate fixator is currently one of the most commonly used plates in HTOs. The angular stable fixation between screws and the plate offers a high primary stability to retain the correction with early weight-bearing protocols. This surgical technique is performed as a standard of care and generally well tolerated by the patients. Nevertheless, some studies observed that many patients complained about discomfort related to the implant. Therefore, the stability of two different intramedullary nails, a short implant used in humeral fractures and a long device used in tibial fractures for stabilization in valgus HTOs, was investigated as an alternative fixation technique. The plate fixator was defined as reference standard. Nine synthetic tibia models were standardly osteotomized and stabilized by one of the fixation devices. Axial compression was realized using a special testing machine and two protocols were performed: a multi-step fatigue test and a load-to-failure test. Overall motion, medial, and lateral displacements were documented. Fractures always occurred at the lateral cortex. Axial cyclic loading up to 800 N was tolerated by all implants without failure. The tibia nail provided highest fatigue strength under the load-to-failure conditions. The results suggest that intramedullary nailing might be used as an alternative concept in HTO.

  19. Incidence of infection after early intramedullary nailing of open tibial shaft fractures stabilized with pinless external fixators

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major drawback of conventional fixator system is the penetration of fixator pins into the medullary canal. The pins create a direct link between the medullary cavity and outer environment, leading to higher infection rates on conversion to intramedullary nailing. This disadvantage is overcome by the AO pinless fixator, in which the trocar points are clamped onto the outer cortex without penetrating it. This study was designed to evaluate the role of AO pinless fixators in primary stabilization of open diaphyseal tibial fractures that received staged treatment because of delayed presentation or poor general condition. We also analyzed the rate of infection on early conversion to intramedullary nail. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 30 open diaphyseal fractures of tibia, which were managed with primary stabilization with pinless fixator and early exchange nailing. Outcome was evaluated in terms of fracture union and rate of residual infection. The data were compared with that available in the literature. Results: All the cases were followed up for a period of 2 years. The study includes Gustilo type 1 (n=10), 14 Gustilo type 2 (n=14), and type3 (n=6) cases. 6 cases (20%) had clamp site infection, 2 cases (6.7%) had deep infection, and in 28 cases (93%) the fracture healed and consolidated well. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the valuable role of pinless external fixator in the management of open tibial fractures in terms of safety and ease of application as well as the advantage of early conversion to intramedullary implant without the risk of deep infection. PMID:19753227

  20. Intraoperative study on anthropometry and gender differences of the proximal tibial plateau at the arthroplasty resection surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Jiakuo; Gong, Xi; Chen, Lianxu; Wang, Yongjian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Haijun; Zhang, Jiying

    2014-01-01

    The tibial plateau is asymmetric with a larger medial plateau. We observed from clinical practice that the shape of the tibial plateau does not always present a larger medial plateau. Tibial plateau also showed other shapes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data of the proximal tibia in a large group of Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty and to investigate the morphology of the resected proximal tibial surface and its gender differences. A total of 822 knees (164 males, 658 females) from the Chinese population were measured intraoperatively for medial anteroposterior (MAP) and lateral anteroposterior (LAP) dimensions of the resected proximal tibial surface. The difference of MAP and LAP (DML) was also calculated as MAP minus LAP. We then classified the data into three groups based on the DML (<-2, -2 to 2, and >2 mm) to analyze the morphology of the proximal tibia and its distribution between male and female. The shape of proximal tibial plateau was of three types: larger medial plateau type, symmetric type, and larger lateral plateau type. There were significant differences between males and females in relation to the shape distribution of the proximal tibial plateau (P < 0.05). Most of the proximal tibial plateau was asymmetric, with 517 of 822 (62.9%) tibia having a DML >2 mm and 120 of 822 (14.6%) tibia having a DML<-2 mm. Only 185 of 822 (22.5%) tibia had a DML between -2 and 2 mm. The results of this study can be used as a guideline to design tibial components with different DMLs to better match the different anthropometry of the resected tibial surface.

  1. The best location for proximal locking screw for femur interlocking nailing: A biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A; Karakaşli, Ahmet; Aycan, Hakan; Çeçen, Berivan; Yildiz, Didem Venüs; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proximal locking screw deformation and screw fracture is a frequently seen problem for femur interlocking nailing that affects fracture healing. We realized that there is lack of literature for the right level for the proximal locking screw. We investigated the difference of locking screw bending resistance between the application of screws on different proximal femoral levels. Materials and Methods: We used a total of 80 proximal locking screws for eight groups, 10 screws for each group. Three-point bending tests were performed on four types of screws in two different trochanteric levels (the lesser trochanter and 20 mm proximal). We determined the yield points at three-point bending tests that a permanent deformation started in the locking screws using an axial compression testing machine. Results: The mean yield point value of 5 mm threaded locking screws applied 20 mm proximal of lesser trochanter was 1022 ± 49 (range 986–1057) (mean ± standard deviation, 95% confidence interval). On the other hand, the mean yield point value of the same type of locking screws applied on the lesser trochanteric level was 2089 ± 249 (range 1911–2268). Which means 103% increase of screw resistance between two levels (P = 0.000). In all screw groups, on the lesser trochanter line we determined 98–174% higher than the yield point values of the same type of locking screws in comparison with 20 mm proximal to the lesser trochanter (P = 0.000). Conclusion: According to our findings, there is twice as much difference in locking screw bending resistance between these two application levels. To avoid proximal locking screw deformation, locking screws should be placed in the level of the lesser trochanter in nailing of 1/3 middle and distal femur fractures. PMID:26955183

  2. [Disruption of the arteria nutricia tibiae by reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Study of the vascular architecture of the human tibial intramedullary cavity].

    PubMed

    Paar, O; mon O'Dey, D; Magin, M N; Prescher, A

    2000-01-01

    By reason of the pseudarthrotic healing of fractures due to vascular complications after reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing, the intraosseous course and branching of the tibial nutrient artery and its impairment by nailing procedures needs an actual analysis. The nutrient vessel of 24 tibiae taken from fresh corpses were prepared by injection of Technovit and lead oxide. After this procedure the medullary cavities of 12 bones were opened by a frontal cut. These specimens were subjected to routine maceration. The other 12 tibiae were naed with the unreamed (6) and the reamed nailing (6) techniques. X-rays were also taken routinely. After penetration of the tibial compact bone the main trunk of the nutrient vessel runs through a perforated osseous tunnel (pars tecta arteriae nutriciae tibiae). At its end the vessel divides into a descending branch (obligate) and two ascending branches (facultative). The descending branch lies near to the centromedial region of the medullary cavity which is termed as the pars liberal arteriae nutriciae tibiae. All branches pass through supporting horizontal osseous lamellas. Due to this topography the reamed nailing technique destroyed the nutrient vessel completely in all specimens. In contrast to this observation the unreamed nailing destroyed the vessel completely only in 1 (16.7%) and partially in 3 (50%) bones; 2 (33.3%) specimens exhibited no destruction of the vessel. The unreamed as well as the reamed nailing technique can destroy the intramedullary course of the tibial nutrient artery. Fractures as well as displacement osteotomies or corticotomies are able to diminish the medullary blood supply seriously, if they are localised within the area of the tactic an of the tibial nutrient artery.

  3. Expandable proximal femoral nail versus gamma proximal femoral nail for the treatment of AO/OTA 31A1-3 fractures.

    PubMed

    Michael, Drexler; Yaniv, Warschawski; Tal, Frenkel Rutenberg; Kessler Evan, G; Eyal, Amar; Nimrod, Snir; Ehud, Rath; Gilad, Eizenberg; Ely, Steinberg L

    2016-02-01

    The gamma-proximal femoral nail (GPFN) and the expandable proximal femoral nail (EPFN) are two commonly used intramedullary devices for the treatment of AO 31A1-3 proximal femur fractures. The aim of this study was to compare outcomes and complication rates in patients treated by both devices. A total of 299 patients (149 in the GPFN group and 150 in the EPFN group, average age 83.6 years) were treated for AO 31A1-3 proximal femur fractures in our institution between July 2008 and February 2013. Time from presentation to surgery, level of experience of the surgeon, operative time, amount of blood loss and number of blood transfusions were recorded. Postoperative radiological variables, including peg/screw location, tip to apex distance and orthopaedic complications, as, malunion, nonunion, surgical wound infection rates, cutouts, periprosthetic fractures and the incidence of non-orthopaedic complications. Functional results were estimated using the modified Harris Hip Score, and quality of life was queried by the SF-36 questionnaire. The GPFN and the EPFN fixation methods were similar in terms of functional outcomes, complication rates and quality of life assessments. More patients (107 vs. 73) from the GPFN group were operated within 48 h from presentation (44.8 h vs. 49.9 h for the EPFN group, p=0.351), and their surgery duration and hospitalisation were significantly longer (18.5 days vs. 26 days, respectively, p<0.001). The GPFN patients were frequently operated by junior surgeons: 90% (135) while 50.6% (76) of the EPFN operations were performed by senior doctors. Other intraoperative measures were similar between groups. Cutout was the most common complication affecting 6.7% of the GPFN group and 3.3% of the EPFN group (p=0.182). Good clinical outcomes and low complication rates in the GPFN and the EPFN groups indicate essentially equivalent safety and reliability on the part of both devices for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures. Copyright © 2015

  4. Biological approach to treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with double osteosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh; Patel, Pankaj R; Joshi, Anil Kumar; Naik, Rajnikant N; Nagaraj, Chethan; Kumar, Sudeep

    2009-02-01

    The treatment of intra-articular proximal tibial fractures is associated with complications, and much conflicting literature exists concerning the treatment of choice. In our study, an attempt has been made to develop an ideal and adequate treatment protocol for these intra-articular fractures. The principle of double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO), was combined with a medial external fixator to treat 22 intra-articular proximal tibial fractures with soft tissue injury with a mean follow-up of 25 months. Superficial pin track infection was observed in one case, and no soft tissue breakdown was noted. Loss of articular reconstruction was reported in one case. Bridging callus was seen at 12 weeks (8 weeks-7 months). The principle of substitution or double osteosynthesis, i.e., lateral MIPO, was combined with a medial external fixator and proved to be a fairly good method of fixation in terms of results and complications.

  5. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (p<.05). Less edema observed for the shock-control hammer suggests that isolating handle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis of proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Hee-June; Jung, Jae-Wook; Jung, Young-Soo

    2017-06-01

    High-energy proximal tibial fractures often accompany compartment syndrome and are usually treated by fasciotomy with external fixation followed by secondary plating. However, the initial soft tissue injury may affect bony union, the fasciotomy incision or external fixator pin sites may lead to postoperative wound infections, and the staged procedure itself may adversely affect lower limb function. We assess the results of staged minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) for proximal tibial fractures with acute compartment syndrome. Twenty-eight patients with proximal tibial fractures accompanied by acute compartment syndrome who underwent staged MIPO and had a minimum of 12 months follow-up were enrolled. According to the AO/OTA classification, 6 were 41-A, 15 were 41-C, 2 were 42-A and 5 were 42-C fractures; this included 6 cases of open fractures. Immediate fasciotomy was performed once compartment syndrome was diagnosed and stabilization of the fracture followed using external fixation. After the soft tissue condition normalized, internal conversion with MIPO was done on an average of 37 days (range, 9-158) after index trauma. At the time of internal conversion, the external fixator pin site grades were 0 in 3 cases, 1 in 12 cases, 2 in 10 cases and 3 in 3 cases, as described by Dahl. Radiographic assessment of bony union and alignment and a functional assessment using the Knee Society Score and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score were carried out. Twenty-six cases achieved primary bony union at an average of 18.5 weeks. Two cases of nonunion healed after autogenous bone grafting. The mean Knee Society Score and the AOFAS score were 95 and 95.3 respectively, at last follow-up. Complications included 1 case of osteomyelitis in a patient with a grade IIIC open fracture and 1 case of malunion caused by delayed MIPO due to poor wound conditions. Duration of external fixation and the external fixator pin site grade were not related to the

  7. [Pyoderma gangrenosum after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture: A differential diagnosis to necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; Merkel, P; Hungerer, S; Friederichs, J; Müller, N; Militz, M; Bühren, V

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare non-infectious neutrophilic dermatitis, whereas necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection of the fascia and adjacent skin. As in the case described here after intramedullary nailing, the clinical appearance of both diseases can be similar. Because of the completely different therapeutic approach and a worse outcome in the case of false diagnosis, pyoderma gangrenosum should always be taken into consideration before treating necrotizing fasciitis.

  8. Individual risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures: a single centre experience of 480 patients.

    PubMed

    Metsemakers, W-J; Handojo, K; Reynders, P; Sermon, A; Vanderschot, P; Nijs, S

    2015-04-01

    Despite modern advances in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures, complications including nonunion, malunion, and infection remain relatively frequent. A better understanding of these injuries and its complications could lead to prevention rather than treatment strategies. A retrospective study was performed to identify risk factors for deep infection and compromised fracture healing after intramedullary nailing (IMN) of tibial shaft fractures. Between January 2000 and January 2012, 480 consecutive patients with 486 tibial shaft fractures were enrolled in the study. Statistical analysis was performed to determine predictors of deep infection and compromised fracture healing. Compromised fracture healing was subdivided in delayed union and nonunion. The following independent variables were selected for analysis: age, sex, smoking, obesity, diabetes, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) classification, polytrauma, fracture type, open fractures, Gustilo type, primary external fixation (EF), time to nailing (TTN) and reaming. As primary statistical evaluation we performed a univariate analysis, followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Univariate regression analysis revealed similar risk factors for delayed union and nonunion, including fracture type, open fractures and Gustilo type. Factors affecting the occurrence of deep infection in this model were primary EF, a prolonged TTN, open fractures and Gustilo type. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed polytrauma as the single risk factor for nonunion. With respect to delayed union, no risk factors could be identified. In the same statistical model, deep infection was correlated with primary EF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of poor outcome after IMN of tibial shaft fractures. The univariate regression analysis showed that the nature of complications after tibial shaft nailing could be multifactorial. This was not confirmed in a multiple logistic regression model, which

  9. [Ender nailing in fractures of the proximal femur. II. Analysis of our cohort].

    PubMed

    Bartonícek, J

    1989-12-01

    The work presents the analysis of the group of 172 patients with the fracture of the proximal femur treated by the technique of Ender nailing between June 1985 and December 1988. The group comprised 45 male (26 per cent) and 127 female (74 per cent) patients. Their average age was 76 years (ranging from 20 to 97 years of age) out of which 75 per cent of patients were older than 70 years and 40 per cent older than 80 years. Indication of Ender nailing in patients under 60 years of age we consider exceptional. In our group we operated on in total 14 patients under 60 years of age (ranging from 20 to 57 years of age) and namely in case of the comminuted type of fracture increased risk of infection or serious total condition. The whole group was operated on by 21 variously experienced surgeons. 147 operations were performed in the general anesthesia and 25 in the epidural one. The fractures of the proximal femur were divided into basicervical--10 (6 per cent), stable pertrochanteric 96 (56 per cent), unstable pertrochanteric--38 (22 per cent), per-subtrochanteric--19 (11 per cent) and subtrochanteric--9 (5 per cent). For the objective evaluation we compared our classification of the fracture of the trochanteric part with these of Evens, Kyle and Jensen. For stable fractures we considered the types I and II according to Kyle, for unstable the type III of Kyle classification. Per-subtrochanteric fractures (Kyle IV) we singled out for their seriousness as a separate group of unstable pertrochanteric fractures. Almost the same spectrum of fractures was in the group of 108 patients in which we evaluated longterm results. The minimum observence period was 3 months the mean period 6.3 months. Almost all patients from this group were followed up until complete healing. The mean duration of operation was 52 minutes, the mean duration of anesthesia was 81 minutes and the duration of X-ray exposure was 2.6 minutes. These data were calculated also for individual types of fractures

  10. Surgical treatment of a proximal diaphyseal tibial deformity associated with partial caudal and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency and patella baja.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, S; Knell, S; Pozzi, A

    2017-04-01

    Caudal cruciate ligament injury can be a complication following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) (Slocum und Slocum, 1993) especially if the post-operative Tibial Plateau Angle (TPA) is less than 5 degree. We describe a case of negative TPA associated with partial cranial and caudal ligament rupture treated with a center of rotation of angulation (CORA) based cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy and tibial tuberosity transposition. A 13 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for right pelvic limb lameness. Radiographically a bilateral patella baja and a malformed tibia tuberosity along with a bilateral TPA of -8 degree were detected. Arthroscopically a partial rupture of the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments were found. A cranial tibial opening wedge osteotomy of 23 degree and a fibular ostectomy were performed. The osteotomy was fixed with a 8 holes ALPS 9 (KYON, Switzerland) and a 3-holes 2.0mm UniLock plate (Synthes, Switzerland). Then a proximal tibial tuberosity transposition of 10mm was performed and fixed with a pin and tension band construct. The postoperative TPA was 15 degree. The radiographic controls at 6, 10 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery revealed an unchanged position of the implants and progressive healing of the osteotomies. At the 6 and 12 months recheck evaluation the dog had no evidence of lameness or stifle pain and radiographs revealed complete healing of the osteotomy site and no implant failure. The diaphyseal CORA based osteotomy allowed accurate correction of a proximal tibial deformity associated with negative TPA.

  11. Intramedullary nailing versus plating for extra-articular distal tibial metaphyseal fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xing-He; Yan, Shi-Gui; Cai, Xun-Zi; Shi, Ming-Min; Lin, Tiao

    2014-04-01

    With development in the techniques of reduction and fixation, there has been a controversy in comparison between intramedullary nailing (IMN) and plating for the treatment of distal tibial metaphyseal fracture (DTF). The study aimed to investigate: (1) which fixation, IMN or plating, was better in the clinical outcomes and in the complications for the treatment of DTF and (2) which modifying variables affected the comparative results between the two modalities. PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and specific orthopaedic journals were searched from inception to July 2013, using the search strategy of '('Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary' [MeSH]) AND ('Tibial Fractures' [MeSH]) AND (plate OR plating)'. All prospective and retrospective controlled trials comparing function, pain, bone union and complications between IMN and plating for DTF were identified. Our analysis had no limitation of the language or the publication year. The primary outcome measurements were complication rate, union time, operation time and hospital stays, while the secondary outcome measurements were functional score and pain score. Fourteen of 6620 studies with 842 patients were included. IMN was probably preferential to plating for DTF given its higher functional score (p=0.01), lower risk of infection (p=0.02) and comparable pain score (p=0.33), total complication rate (p=0.53) and time to union (p=0.86). However, plating had a lower malunion rate than IMN (p<0.0001). All the results were based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) evidence of moderate quality. With a satisfying alignment obtained, IMN may be preferential to plating for fixation of DTF with better function and lower risk of infection. However, IMN showed higher malunion rate for fixation of DTF. With the biases in our meta-analysis, it will ultimately require a rigorous and adequately powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) to

  12. In vivo biomechanical evaluation of a novel angle-stable interlocking nail design in a canine tibial fracture model.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Loïc M; Cabassu, Julien B; Guillou, Reunan P; Villwock, Mark; Guiot, Laurent P; Haut, Roger C

    2014-03-01

    To compare clinical outcome and callus biomechanical properties of a novel angle stable interlocking nail (AS-ILN) and a 6 mm bolted standard ILN (ILN6b) in a canine tibial fracture model. Experimental in vivo study. Purpose-bred hounds (n = 11). A 5 mm mid-diaphyseal tibial ostectomy was stabilized with an AS-ILN (n = 6) or an ILN6b (n = 5). Orthopedic examinations and radiographs were performed every other week until clinical union (18 weeks). Paired tibiae were tested in torsion until failure. Callus torsional strength and toughness were statistically compared and failure mode described. Total and cortical callus volumes were computed and statistically compared from CT slices of the original ostectomy gap. Statistical significance was set at P < .05 RESULTS: From 4 to 8 weeks, lameness was less pronounced in AS-ILN than ILN6b dogs (P < .05). Clinical union was reached in all AS-ILN dogs by 10 weeks and in 3/5 ILN6b dogs at 18 weeks. Callus mechanical properties were significantly greater in AS-ILN than ILN6b specimens by 77% (failure torque) and 166% (toughness). Failure occurred by acute spiral (control and AS-ILN) or progressive transverse fractures (ILN6b). Cortical callus volume was 111% greater in AS-ILN than ILN6b specimens (P < .05). Earlier functional recovery, callus strength and remodeling suggest that the AS-ILN provides a postoperative biomechanical environment more conducive to bone healing than a comparable standard ILN. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Proximal tibial fractures: early experience using polyaxial locking-plate technology.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Tan, Hiang Boon; Haidukewych, George; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-08-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, 60 patients with proximal tibial fractures were included in this prospective study. All fractures were treated with the polyaxial locked-plate fixation system (DePuy, Warsaw, IN, USA). Clinical and radiographic data, including fracture pattern, changes in alignment, local and systemic complications, hardware failure and fracture union were analysed. The mean follow-up was 14 (12-36) months. According to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification, there were five 41-A, 28 41-B and 27 41-C fractures. Fractures were treated percutaneously in 30% of cases. Double-plating was used in 11 cases. All but three fractures progressed to union at a mean of 3.2 (2.5-5) months. There was no evidence of varus collapse as a result of polyaxial screw failure. No plate fractured, and no screw cut out was noted. There was one case of lateral joint collapse (>10°) in a patient with open bicondylar plateau fracture. The mean Knee Society Score at the time of final follow-up was 91 points, and the mean functional score was 89 points. The polyaxial locking-plate system provided stable fixation of extra-articular and intra-articular proximal tibial fractures and good functional outcomes with a low complication rate.

  14. Proximal tibial strain in medial unicompartmental knee replacements: A biomechanical study of implant design.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Eaton, M J; Nutton, R W; Wade, F A; Pankaj, P; Evans, S L

    2013-10-01

    As many as 25% to 40% of unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) revisions are performed for pain, a possible cause of which is proximal tibial strain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of UKR implant design and material on cortical and cancellous proximal tibial strain in a synthetic bone model. Composite Sawbone tibiae were implanted with cemented UKR components of different designs, either all-polyethylene or metal-backed. The tibiae were subsequently loaded in 500 N increments to 2500 N, unloading between increments. Cortical surface strain was measured using a digital image correlation technique. Cancellous damage was measured using acoustic emission, an engineering technique that detects sonic waves ('hits') produced when damage occurs in material. Anteromedial cortical surface strain showed significant differences between implants at 1500 N and 2500 N in the proximal 10 mm only (p < 0.001), with relative strain shielding in metal-backed implants. Acoustic emission showed significant differences in cancellous bone damage between implants at all loads (p = 0.001). All-polyethylene implants displayed 16.6 times the total number of cumulative acoustic emission hits as controls. All-polyethylene implants also displayed more hits than controls at all loads (p < 0.001), more than metal-backed implants at loads ≥ 1500 N (p < 0.001), and greater acoustic emission activity on unloading than controls (p = 0.01), reflecting a lack of implant stiffness. All-polyethylene implants were associated with a significant increase in damage at the microscopic level compared with metal-backed implants, even at low loads. All-polyethylene implants should be used with caution in patients who are likely to impose large loads across their knee joint.

  15. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  16. [Comparative study of proximal femoral shortening after the third generation of Gamma nail versus proximal femoral nail anti-rotation in treatment of intertrochanteric fracture].

    PubMed

    Hou, Yu; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Gen'ai; Ding, Lixiang

    2018-03-01

    To explore the difference of the proximal femoral shortening (PFS) between the third generation of Gamma nail (TGN) and the proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) in treating intertrochanteric fracture of femur. The clinical data of 158 patients with intertrochanteric fracture of femur who were treated with TGN internal fixation or PFNA internal fixation between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into TGN group (69 cases) and PFNA group (89 cases) according to surgical operation. There was no significant difference in gender, age, bone mineral density, causes of injury, AO/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification, accompanied disease, and the time from injury to operation between 2 groups ( P >0.05). The result of fracture reduction was divided into 3 types: positive medial cortex support, neutral position cortex support, and negative medial cortex support according to the method of Chang et al . At 18 months postoperatively, bilateral hip anteroposterior X-ray films were taken to measure horizontal PFS values (marked as X), vertical PFS values (marked as Y), and calculate the total PFS values (marked as Z). The PFS values were divided into 4 grades according to the criteria (≤1.0 mm, 1.0-4.9 mm, 5.0-9.9 mm, and ≥10.0 mm), and the constituent ratio was calculated and compared between 2 groups. The X, Y, and Z values and the collodiaphyseal angles of 2 groups at 18 months postoperatively were compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of patients with failed fixation and normal healing within 18 months after operation were recorded and compared. The X, Y, and Z values of 2 groups of the patients with different cortex support types were also compared. There were 34 cases of positive medial cortex support, 30 cases of neutral position cortex support, and 5 cases of negative medial cortex support in TGN group, and there were 45, 33, and 11 cases in PFNA group respectively

  17. Percutaneous or Open Reduction of Closed Tibial Shaft Fractures During Intramedullary Nailing Does Not Increase Wound Complications, Infection or Nonunion Rates.

    PubMed

    Auston, Darryl A; Meiss, Jordan; Serrano, Rafael; Sellers, Thomas; Carlson, Gregory; Hoggard, Timothy; Beebe, Michael; Quade, Jonathan; Watson, David; Simpson, Robert Bruce; Kistler, Brian; Shah, Anjan; Sanders, Roy; Mir, Hassan R

    2017-04-01

    To compare the incidence of complications (wound, infection, and nonunion) among those patients treated with closed, percutaneous, and open intramedullary nailing for closed tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective review. Multiple trauma centers. Skeletally mature patients with closed tibia fractures amenable to treatment with an intramedullary device. Intramedullary fixation with closed, percutaneous, or open reduction. Superficial wound complication, deep infection, nonunion. A total of 317 tibial shaft fractures in 315 patients were included in the study. Two-hundred fractures in 198 patients were treated with closed reduction, 61 fractures in 61 patients were treated with percutaneous reduction, and 56 fractures in 56 patients were treated with formal open reduction. The superficial wound complication rate was 1% (2/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 3.6% (2/56) for the open group with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.179). The deep infection rate was 2% (4/200) for the closed group, 1.6% (1/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group with no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.133). Nonunion rate was 5.0% (10/200) for the closed group, 4.9% (3/61) for the percutaneous group, and 7.1% (4/56) for the open group, with no statistical difference between the groups (P = 0.492). This is the largest reported series of closed tibial shaft fractures nailed with percutaneous and open reduction. Percutaneous or open reduction did not result in increased wound complications, infection, or nonunion rates. Carefully performed percutaneous or open approaches can be safely used in obtaining reduction of difficult tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary devices. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  18. Concomitant Posterior Hip Dislocation, Ipsilateral Intertrochanteric- and Proximal Tibial- Fractures with Popliteal Artery Injury: A Challenging Trauma Mélange.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Pranit N; Ebraheim, Nabil A; Hart, Ryan; Wassef, Andrew

    2015-11-05

    Constellation of ipsilateral posterior hip dislocation, intertrochanteric- and proximal tibial fracture with popliteal artery injury is rare. Management of this presentation is challenging. A motor vehicle accident victim presented with these injuries, but without any initial signs of vascular compromise. Popliteal artery injury was diagnosed intra-operatively and repaired. This was followed by external fixation of tibial fracture, open reduction of dislocated hip and internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. Patient regained bilateral complete weight bearing and returned to pre-accident activity level. Apt surgical management including early repair of vascular injury in such a trauma mélange allows for a positive postoperative outcome.

  19. Avoidance of malreduction of proximal femoral shaft fractures with the use of a minimally invasive nail insertion technique (MINIT).

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A; Mir, Hassan R; Stoneback, Jason; Cohen, Jose; Downs, Brandon

    2008-07-01

    To determine our rate of malalignment in proximal femoral shaft fractures treated with intramedullary (IM) nails, with and without the use of a minimally invasive nail insertion technique (MINIT). Retrospective study. Level 1 trauma center. Between July 1, 2003, and June 31, 2005, 100 consecutive proximal femoral shaft fractures (97 patients) were treated with IM nails. The average age of the 56 men and 41 women was 43.5 years (range, 17 to 96 years). There were 92 closed fractures and 8 open fractures. Fractures were classified according to the Russell-Taylor classification (69 type 1A, 11 type 1B, 3 type 2A, 17 type 2B). All patients underwent antegrade IM nailing using a fracture table in the supine (83) or lateral (17) position. A total of 72 entry portals were trochanteric, and 28 were piriformis. Seventy-seven percent of the femurs were opened with MINIT, a technique that uses a percutaneous cannulated channel reamer over a guide pin as opposed to the standard method of Kuntscher, which employs a femoral awl. Nails were locked proximally using standard locking in 37 fractures, and recon mode in 63. Fracture reduction was examined on immediate postoperative films to determine angulation in the coronal and sagittal planes. Criteria for acceptable reduction were less than 5 degrees angulation in any plane. In addition, surgical position, entry portal, mechanism of injury, Russell-Taylor classification, OTA classification, open or closed fracture, open or closed reduction, and type of implant used were analyzed for significance. The frequency of malalignment was 10% for the entire group of patients. Malalignment occurred in 26% of fractures treated without the use of the MINIT and in 5.2% when the MINIT was used (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the different Russell-Taylor fracture types, although there was a trend towards more malalignment in type 2A and 2B fractures (P = 0.06). None of the other factors studied had a

  20. Should the tip-apex distance (TAD) rule be modified for the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA)? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nikoloski, Andrej N; Osbrough, Anthony L; Yates, Piers J

    2013-10-17

    Unstable proximal femoral fractures are common and challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. Often, these are treated with intramedullary nails. The most common mode of failure of any device to treat these fractures is cut-out. The Synthes proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) is unique because it is the only proximal femoral intramedullary nail which employs a helical blade in lieu of a lag screw. The optimal tip-apex distance is 25 mm or less for a dynamic hip screw. The optimal blade tip placement is not known for the PFNA. The aim of this study is to determine if the traditional tip-apex distance rule (<25 mm) applies to the PFNA. A retrospective study of all proximal femoral fractures treated with the PFNA in Western Australian public teaching hospitals between August 2006 and October 2007 was performed. Cases were identified from company and theatre implant use records. Patient demographic data was obtained from hospital records. Fractures were classified according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation. Fracture reduction, distal locking type and blade position within the head (tip-apex distance and Cleveland zone) were recorded from the intraoperative and immediate postoperative radiographs. Postoperative radiographs obtained in the routine treatment of patients were studied for review looking primarily for cut-out. Clinical outcomes were measured with the Oxford hip score. One hundred eighty-eight PFNAs were implanted during the study period, with 178 cases included in this study. Ninety-seven patients could be followed up clinically. There were 18 surgical implant-related failures (19%). The single most common mode of failure was cut-out in six cases (6.2%). Three cut-outs (two medial perforation and one varus collapse) occurred with tip-apex distance (TAD) less than 20 mm. There was no cut-out in cases where the TAD was from 20-30 mm. There were three implant-related failures (nail fracture

  1. [Close reduction combined with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis for proximal and distal tibial fractures: a report of 56 patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yin-Wen; Kuang, Yong; Gu, Xin-Feng; Zheng, Yu-Xin; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Wei, Xiao-En; Zhang, Ming-Cai; Zhan, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Yin-yu

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical effects of close reduction combined with minimally invasive percutanous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) for proximal and distal tibial fractures. From March 2007 to December 2010, 56 patients with proximal and distal tibial fractures were treated with close reduction combined with MIPPO technique. There were 39 males and 17 females,aged from 22 to 67 years with an average of 41.3 years. Left fracture was in 25 cases and right fracture was in 31 cases; proximal tibial fracture was in 15 cases and distal tibial fractures was in 41 cases; 34 cases caused by fall down and 22 cases caused by road accident. The mean time from injury to operation was 1.7 d. Clinical manifestation included pain, swelling of leg with limitation of activity. According to the standard of Johner-Wruhs, clinical effects were evaluated. The mean operative time was 46 min in 56 patients. All fractures obtained satisfactory reduction and the location of plate was good. Incisions healed with one-stage and no superficial or deep infection was found. All the patients were followed up from 8 to 23 months with an average of 14.2 months. Only one fracture complication with delayed union,and after auto grafting with ilium bone,the fracture got union. Other 55 cases obtained bone healing in 15 to 20 weeks after operation and no internal fixation failure was found. The time of walking was 4-6 months after operation,without limping at 7 months after operation. Both lower extremities were symmetrical and the function of knee and ankle got complete recovery. According to the criteria of Johner-Wruhs score,46 cases obtained excellent results,9 good and 2 fair. Treatment of proximal and distal tibial fractures with close reduction and MIPPO technique can not only preserve soft tissue,simplify operative procedure and decrease wound, but also can obtain rigid internal fixation and guarantee early function exercises of knee and ankle joints. The method has the advantages of less soft tissue

  2. Anterior knee pain and thigh muscle strength after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture: an 8-year follow-up of 28 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Väistö, Olli; Toivanen, Jarmo; Kannus, Pekka; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common complication after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. The source of pain is often not known, although it correlates with a simultaneous decrease in thigh muscle strength. No long-term follow-up study has assessed whether weakness of the thigh muscles is associated with anterior knee pain after the procedure in question. Prospective study. University Hospital of Tampere, University of Tampere. The muscular performance of 40 consecutive patients with a nailed tibial shaft fracture was tested isokinetically in a follow-up examination an average of 3.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) years after the initial surgery. An 8-year follow-up was possible in 28 of these cases. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were made in 28 patients at an average 8.1 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail insertion and an average 6.6 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail extraction. All nails were extracted at an average 1.6 +/- 0.2 years after the nailing. : Seven patients were painless initially and still were at final follow-up (never pain, or NP). In 13 patients, the previous symptom of anterior knee pain was no longer present at final follow-up [pain, no pain (PNP)], and the remaining 8 had anterior knee pain initially and at final follow-up [always pain group (AP)]. With reference to the hamstring muscles, the mean peak torque difference between the injured and uninjured limb was -2.2% +/- 12% in the NP group, 1.6% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and 10.3% +/- 30% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 1.0; P = 0.593). At a speed of 180 degrees/second, the corresponding differences were -2.9% +/- 23% and 7.0% +/- 19% and 4.4% +/- 16% (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi = 1.7; P = 0.429). With reference to the quadriceps muscles, the mean peak torque difference was -2.8% +/- 9% in the NP group, 5.9% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and -13.0% +/- 16% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 7.9; P = 0

  3. Proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild osteoarthritis of the knee: case report.

    PubMed

    Curković, Marko; Kovac, Kristina; Curković, Bozidar; Babić-Naglić, Durda; Potocki, Kristina

    2011-03-01

    Stress fractures are considered as multifactorial overuse injuries occurring in 0.3%-0.8% of patients suffering from rheumatic diseases, with rheumatoid arthritis being the most common underlying condition. Stress fractures can be classified according to the condition of the bone affected as: 1) fatigue stress fractures occurring when normal bone is exposed to repeated abnormal stresses; and 2) insufficiency stress fractures that occur when normal stress is applied to bone weakened by an underlying condition. Stress fractures are rarely associated with severe forms of knee osteoarthritis, accompanied with malalignment and obesity. We present a patient with a proximal tibial stress fracture associated with mild knee osteoarthritis without associated malalignment or obesity. Stress fracture should be considered when a patient with osteoarthritis presents with sudden deterioration, severe localized tenderness to palpation and localized swelling or periosteal thickening at the pain site and elevated local temperature. The diagnosis of stress fractures in patients with rheumatic diseases may often be delayed because plain film radiographs may not reveal a stress fracture soon after the symptom onset; moreover, evidence of a fracture may never appear on plain radiographs. Triple phase nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging are more sensitive in the early clinical course than plain films for initial diagnosis.

  4. Strategies for Proximal Femoral Nailing of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures: Lateral Decubitus Position or Traction Table.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Mesut Mehmet; Camur, Savas; Erturer, Erden; Ugurlar, Meric; Kara, Adnan; Ozturk, Irfan

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the traction table and lateral decubitus position techniques in the management of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Eighty-two patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures between 2011 and 2013 were included in this study. All patients were treated surgically with the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation implant (DePuy Synthes). Patients were randomized to undergo the procedure in the lateral decubitus position (42 patients) or with the use of a traction table (40 patients). Patients whose procedure was not performed entirely with a semi-invasive method or who required the use of additional fixation materials, such as cables, were excluded from the study. The groups were compared on the basis of the setup time, surgical time, fluoroscopic exposure time, tip-to-apex distance, collodiaphyseal angle, and modified Baumgaertner criteria for radiologic reduction. The setup time, surgical time, and fluoroscopic exposure time were lower and the differences were statistically significant in the lateral decubitus group compared with the traction table group. The collodiaphyseal angles were significantly different between the groups in favor of the lateral decubitus method. The tip-to-apex distance and the classification of reduction according to the modified Baumgaertner criteria did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the groups. The lateral decubitus position is used for most open procedures of the hip. We found that this position facilitates exposure for the surgical treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures and has advantages over the traction table in terms of set up time, surgical time and fluoroscopic exposure time.

  5. Cement augmentation of the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation (PFNA) - A multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Christian; Hem, Einar S; Klopfer, Tim; Gebhard, Florian; Sermon, An; Dietrich, Michael; Bach, Olaf; Weil, Yoram; Babst, Reto; Blauth, Michael

    2018-04-22

    New implant designs like the Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation (PFNA) were developed to reduce failure rates in unstable pertrochanteric fractures in the elderly. Standardized implant augmentation with up to 6 mL of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement has been introduced to enhance implant anchorage by increasing the implant-bone interface in osteoporotic bone conditions. Biomechanically, loads to failure were significantly higher with augmentation. The primary objective of this study was to compare the mobility of patients with closed unstable trochanteric fractures treated by PFNA either with or without cement augmentation. A prospective multicentre, randomized, patient-blinded trial was conducted with ambulatory patients aged 75 or older who sustained a closed, unstable trochanteric fracture. Surgical fixation had to be performed within 72 h after admission. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, during surgery, 3 to 14 days after surgery, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. To evaluate the primary objective, patients' walking speed was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Secondary objectives included the analysis of implant migration assessed on radiographs, quality of life measured by the Barthel Index, mobility measured by the Parker Mobility Score, and complications. Of 253 randomized patients, 223 patients were eligible: 105 patients were allocated to the PFNA Augmentation group and 118 to PFNA group. At 3 to 14 days after surgery, there was no statistical significant difference in mean walking speed between the treatment groups. For the secondary objectives, also no statistical significant differences were found. However, no patient in the PFNA Augmentation group had a reoperation due to mechanical failure or symptomatic implant migration compared to 6 patients in the PFNA group. Augmentation of the PFNA blade did not improve patients' walking ability compared to the use of a non-augmented PFNA but might have the potential to

  6. [Clinical observation of proximal femoral anti-rotation nail for the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fracture].

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang-Gui; Wang, De-Xin; Hu, Yu-Tong; Xu, Rong-Ming

    2017-10-25

    To explore the curative effect and the recessive loss of blooding of PFNA for the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures of femur. From January 2012 to January 2015, a total of 49 patients with intertrochanteric fractures of femur were treated with proximal femoral anti-rotation nail including 41 males and 8 females with an average age of 79 years old ranging from 65 to 91 years old. According to the modified Evans type, 1 case was type I, 12 cases were type II, 36 cases were type III. All cases were fresh fractures. Patients had hip pain, movement limited, joint swelling, bruising, extorsion deformity, X-ray and CT examination showed completely fractures. All patients were treated by closed reduction and PFNA internal fixation. Three comminuted fractures using closed reduction were not satisfied, then were treated by limited PFNA fixation after open reduction. The patients' incision got the grade A healing, no complications such as infection and internal fixation failure happened. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months (means 22 months). The pain VAS score decreased from preoperative 7.70±1.97 to 1.00±0.26 at 6 months after operation( P <0.01). Harris hip score improved from preoperative 8.70±4.19 to 91.70±5.31 at 6 months after operation( P <0.01). The outcome at 6 months after operation was excellent in 34 cases, good in 7, poor in 1. The fracture healing time was from 8 to 16 weeks with an average of 12 weeks after operation. One patient with osteoporosis, crushing broken, poor compliance, associated with schizophrenia at the same time, appeared with the displacement of the femoral greater trochanter, with conservative treatment for healing. Intertrochanteric fractures of femur are common in the elderly trauma, in pain relief, recovery of hip function, to provide quality of life for the patients, PFNA achieved satisfactory effect, but its existence is worth to pay close attention to the recessive loss of blood.

  7. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a dynamically locked retrograde intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kevin; Hofer, Jason K; Thordarson, David B

    2006-10-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is an important salvage method for patients with complex hindfoot problems, including Charcot arthropathy, osteonecrosis of the talus, combined arthritis of the ankle and subtalar joint, and failed total ankle arthroplasty. This study evaluated the results of a dynamic retrograde intramedullary nail for fixation with posterior to anterior distal interlocking screws placed through the calcaneus for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion. Thirty-three consecutive tibiotalocalcaneal fusions were done by a single surgeon (DBT) and were stabilized with a dynamic retrograde intramedullary nail. Time to fusion, impaction of the nail relative to the intramedullary canal, nail-tibial angle, and complications were noted. Average followup was 14 months. Twenty-nine of 33 feet (88%) fused at an average of 3.7 months after surgery. Average impaction of the nail was 2.3 (0.5 to 5.0) mm. Cortical hypertrophy at the tip of the rod or at the proximal interlocking screw was noted in 13 of 27 patients. A trend toward a higher nonunion rate was noted in patients with an increased nail-tibial angle. Dynamic retrograde intramedullary nailing for fixation of the tibiotalocalcaneal fusions is a good method of stabilizing this complex fusion construct.

  8. Trampoline fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus: a report of seven cases and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Kakel, R

    2012-06-01

    Fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children is a rare injury but notorious for carrying the risk of subsequent valgus deformity of the tibia. Trampoline-caused fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus. We followed up six children who collectively sustained seven fractures of the proximal tibial metaphysis while trampolining with other heavier and/or older children. Initial and follow-up x-rays were reviewed by an orthopaedic surgeons and two radiologists. None of the patients developed valgus deformity with follow-up. Trampoline is associated with a specific type of injury to the proximal tibia when children are trampolining with other heavier children even without falling off the trampoline. This fracture is linear and complete, often non-displaced. Unlike "other" proximal tibial metaphyseal fractures, trampoline-associated proximal tibial metaphysical fracture in children is not associated with a risk of subsequent valgus deformity. Level 4. case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel management of distal tibial and fibular fractures with Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Wei-Na; Qi, Bao-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Anatomical characteristics, such as subcutaneous position and minimal muscle cover, contribute to the complexity of fractures of the distal third of the tibia and fibula. Severe damage to soft tissue and instability ensure high risk of delayed bone union and wound complications such as nonunion, infection, and necrosis. This case report discusses management in a 54-year-old woman who sustained fractures of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula, with damage to overlying soft tissue (swelling and blisters). Plating is accepted as the first choice for this type of fracture as it ensures accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it increases the risk of complications. Closed fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula (AO: 43-A3). After the swelling was alleviated, the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with an Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO), ensuring a smaller incision and minimal soft-tissue dissection. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had recovered well and had regained satisfactory function in the treated limb. The Kofoed score of the left ankle was 95. Based on the experience from this case, the operation can be undertaken safely when the swelling has been alleviated. The minimal invasive technique represents the best approach. Considering the merits and good outcome in this case, we recommend the Acumed fibular nail and MIPO technique for treatment of distal tibial and fibular fractures.

  10. Fatigue Failure in Extra-Articular Proximal Tibia Fractures: Locking Intramedullary Nail Versus Double Locking Plates-A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Utku; Herfat, Safa; Herzog, Mary; Viscogliosi, Paul; Pekmezci, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study is to compare the fatigue strength of a locking intramedullary nail (LN) construct with a double locking plate (DLP) construct in comminuted proximal extra-articular tibia fractures. Eight pairs of fresh frozen cadaveric tibias with low bone mineral density [age: 80 ± 7 (SD) years, T-score: -2.3 ± 1.2] were used. One tibia from each pair was fixed with LN, whereas the contralateral side was fixed with DLP for complex extra-articular multifragmentary metaphyseal fractures (simulating OTA 41-A3.3). Specimens were cyclically loaded under compression simulating single-leg stance by staircase method out to 260,000 cycles. Every 2500 cycles, localized gap displacements were measured with a 3D motion tracking system, and x-ray images of the proximal tibia were acquired. To allow for mechanical settling, initial metrics were calculated at 2500 cycles. The 2 groups were compared regarding initial construct stiffness, initial medial and lateral gap displacements, stiffness at 30,000 cycles, medial and lateral gap displacements at 30,000 cycles, failure load, number of cycles to failure, and failure mode. Failure metrics were reported for initial and catastrophic failures. DLP constructs exhibited higher initial stiffness and stiffness at 30,000 cycles compared with LN constructs (P < 0.03). There were no significant differences between groups for loads at failure or cycles to failure. For the fixation of extra-articular proximal tibia fractures, a LN provides a similar fatigue performance to double locked plates. The locked nail could be safely used for fixation of proximal tibia fractures with the advantage of limited extramedullary soft tissue damage.

  11. Influence of knee flexion and atraumatic mobilisation of infrapatellar fat pad on incidence and severity of anterior knee pain after tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Andrija; Korac, Zelimir; Bozic, Nenad-Bozo; Stedul, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and aetiology of anterior knee pain (AKP) in a series of patients that underwent intramedullary nailing for stabilisation of tibial fractures. During the preparation of the entry site no excision of the infrapatellar fat was allowed and electrical haemostasis was kept at the lowest level. Medullary canal was reamed and the nails inserted in position of knee flexion over 100 degrees. All fractures were fixed using medial paratendinous approach. Functional outcome was measured using Lysholm knee score. The knee range of movement and return to previous level of activity were also documented and analysed. Mean follow up was 38.9 months (range 12-84 months). In total 60 patients with 62 tibial shaft fractures were analysed. The mean age at the time of final follow up was 49.4 years (range 20-87). In 22 (35.5%) a newly developed and persisting pain in the anterior region of the operated knee was reported. According to VAP scale, the pain was mild (VAS 1-3) in 12 cases (19.4%) and moderate (VAS 4-6) in 10 (16.1%). In 16 cases (73%) the pain was noticed 6-12 months after injury and subjectively related to return to full range of working and recreational activities. The mean Lysholm knee score in the group without AKP was 90.8. In the AKP group with mild pain it was 88.4 and in the group with moderate AKP it was 79.9. Complete return to previous professional and recreational activities occurred in 49/60 patients (81.7%). Content with the treatment regarding expectations in recovery dynamics and return to desired level of activity was present in 98.3% of patients; one patient was unsatisfied with the treatment. Our results indicate that respecting the physiological motion of Hoffa pad and menisci during knee flexion, accompanied with atraumatic mobilisation of retrotendinous fat, reduces incidence and severity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immediate versus delayed intramedullary nailing for open fractures of the tibial shaft: a multivariate analysis of factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kazuhiko; Itoman, Moritoshi; Uchino, Masataka; Fukushima, Kensuke; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kojima, Yoshiaki

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate contributing factors affecting deep infection and fracture healing of open tibia fractures treated with locked intramedullary nailing (IMN) by multivariate analysis. We examined 99 open tibial fractures (98 patients) treated with immediate or delayed locked IMN in static fashion from 1991 to 2002. Multivariate analyses following univariate analyses were derived to determine predictors of deep infection, nonunion, and healing time to union. The following predictive variables of deep infection were selected for analysis: age, sex, Gustilo type, fracture grade by AO type, fracture location, timing or method of IMN, reamed or unreamed nailing, debridement time (< or =6 h or >6 h), method of soft-tissue management, skin closure time (< or =1 week or >1 week), existence of polytrauma (ISS< 18 or ISS> or =18), existence of floating knee injury, and existence of superficial/pin site infection. The predictive variables of nonunion selected for analysis was the same as those for deep infection, with the addition of deep infection for exchange of pin site infection. The predictive variables of union time selected for analysis was the same as those for nonunion, excluding of location, debridement time, and existence of floating knee and superficial infection. Six (6.1%; type II Gustilo n=1, type IIIB Gustilo n=5) of the 99 open tibial fractures developed deep infections. Multivariate analysis revealed that timing or method of IMN, debridement time, method of soft-tissue management, and existence of superficial or pin site infection significantly correlated with the occurrence of deep infection (P< 0.0001). In the immediate nailing group alone, the deep infection rate in type IIIB + IIIC was significantly higher than those in type I + II and IIIA (P = 0.016). Nonunion occurred in 17 fractures (20.3%, 17/84). Multivariate analysis revealed that Gustilo type, skin closure time, and existence of deep infection significantly correlated with

  13. Radiological study of the knee joint line position measured from the fibular head and proximal tibial landmarks.

    PubMed

    Havet, Eric; Gabrion, Antoine; Leiber-Wackenheim, Frederic; Vernois, Joël; Olory, Bruno; Mertl, Patrice

    2007-06-01

    Restoring the joint line level is one of the surgical challenges during revision of total knee arthroplasty. The position of the tibial surface is commonly estimated by its distance to the apex of fibular head, but no study evaluating this distance accurately has been published yet. The purpose of this work was to study the distance between the knee joint line and the apex of the fibular head and the proximal tibia, particularly the tibial tuberosity. Variability with clinical data and relations with other local measurements have been evaluated on knee radiographs (an antero-posterior view, a medio-lateral view and an anteroposterior full length view) of 100 subjects (125 knees). Results showed no correlation between the joint line-fibular head apex distance and any clinical data of the patients, or any other performed measurements. Relations between tibial measurements and the sexe or the height of the subjects were noted. Besides, the review of the 25 bilateral cases did not show statistically significant side difference but the descriptive analysis showed too large discrepancies for the joint line-fibular head apex distance to be used as a landmark. We conclude that the fibular head apex cannot be used as a morphologic landmark to determine the knee joint line position. Its interest in clinical and surgical practice must be discussed.

  14. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: Proximal tibial strain in an experimentally validated finite element model.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E H; Eaton, M J; Nutton, R W; Wade, F A; Evans, S L; Pankaj, P

    2017-01-01

    Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N. Cortical strain was measured using DIC and cancellous microdamage using AE. FEMs were created and validated and polyethylene thickness varied from 6 mm to 10 mm. The volume of cancellous bone exposed to < -3000 µε (pathological loading) and < -7000 µε (yield point) minimum principal (compressive) microstrain and > 3000 µε and > 7000 µε maximum principal (tensile) microstrain was computed. Experimental AE data and the FEM volume of cancellous bone with compressive strain < -3000 µε correlated strongly: R = 0.947, R 2 = 0.847, percentage error 12.5% (p < 0.001). DIC and FEM data correlated: R = 0.838, R 2 = 0.702, percentage error 4.5% (p < 0.001). FEM strain patterns included MB lateral edge concentrations; AP concentrations at keel, peg and at the region of load application. Cancellous strains were higher in AP implants at all loads: 2.2- (10 mm) to 3.2-times (6 mm) the volume of cancellous bone compressively strained < -7000 µε. AP tibial components display greater volumes of pathologically overstrained cancellous bone than MB implants of the same geometry. Increasing AP thickness does not overcome these pathological forces and comes at the cost of greater bone resection.Cite this article: C. E. H. Scott, M. J. Eaton, R. W. Nutton, F. A. Wade, S. L. Evans, P. Pankaj. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: Proximal tibial strain in an experimentally validated finite

  15. The effect of proximal tibial slope on dynamic stability testing of the posterior cruciate ligament- and posterolateral corner-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Petrigliano, Frank A; Suero, Eduardo M; Voos, James E; Pearle, Andrew D; Allen, Answorth A

    2012-06-01

    Proximal tibial slope has been shown to influence anteroposterior translation and tibial resting point in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. The effect of proximal tibial slope on rotational stability of the knee is unknown. Change in proximal tibial slope produced via osteotomy can influence both static translation and dynamic rotational kinematics in the PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knee. Controlled laboratory study. Posterior drawer, dial, and mechanized reverse pivot-shift (RPS) tests were performed on hip-to-toe specimens and translation of the lateral and medial compartments measured utilizing navigation (n = 10). The PCL and structures of the PLC were then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and compartmental translation was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5° or -5° of tibial slope variation, after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = .05). Combined sectioning of the PCL and PLC structures resulted in a 10.5-mm increase in the posterior drawer, 15.5-mm increase in the dial test at 30°, 14.5-mm increase in the dial test at 90°, and 17.9-mm increase in the RPS (vs intact; P < .05). Increasing the posterior slope (high tibial osteotomy [HTO] +5°) in the PCL/PLC-deficient knee reduced medial compartment translation by 3.3 mm during posterior drawer (vs deficient; P < .05) but had no significant effect on the dial test at 30°, dial test at 90°, or RPS. Conversely, reversing the slope (HTO -5°) caused a 4.8-mm increase in medial compartment translation (vs deficient state; P < .05) during posterior drawer and an 8.6-mm increase in lateral compartment translation and 9.0-mm increase in medial compartment translation during RPS (vs deficient state; P < .05). Increasing posterior tibial slope diminished static posterior instability of the PCL/PLC-deficient knee as measured by the

  16. Monoplanar versus biplanar medial open-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis: a comparison of clinical and radiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elmalı, Nurzat; Esenkaya, Irfan; Can, Murat; Karakaplan, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    We compared clinical and radiological results of two proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) techniques: monoplanar medial open-wedge osteotomy and biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge osteotomy, stabilised by a wedged plate. We evaluated 88 knees in 78 patients. Monoplanar medial open-wedge PTO was performed on 56 knees in 50 patients with a mean age of 55 ± 9 years. Biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge PTO was performed on 32 knees in 28 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 7 years. Mean follow-up periods were 40.6 ± 7 months for the monoplanar PTO group and 38 ± 5 months for the biplanar retrotubercle PTO group. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the hospital for special surgery scoring system, and radiological outcome was evaluated by the measurements of femorotibial angle (FTA), patellar height and tibial slope changes. In both groups, post-operative HSS scores increased significantly. No significant difference was found between groups in FTA alteration, but the FTA decreased significantly in both groups. Patellar index ratios decreased significantly in the monoplanar PTO group (Insall-Salvati Index by 0.07, Blackburne-Peel Index by 0.07), but not in the biplanar retrotubercle PTO group. Tibial slopes were increased significantly in the monoplanar PTO group, but not in the retrotubercle PTO group. Biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge osteotomy and monoplanar medial open-wedge osteotomy are both clinically effective for the treatment for varus gonarthrosis. Retrotubercle osteotomy also prevents patella infera and tibial slope changes radiologically.

  17. TIBIAL PLATEAU PROXIMAL AND DISTAL BONE BEHAVE SIMILARLY: BOTH ARE ASSOCIATED WITH FEATURES OF KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a growing imperative to understand how changes in peri-articular bone relate to pathological progression of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Peri-articular bone density can be measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The medial:lateral tibial BMD ratio (M:L BMD) is associated with MRI and...

  18. Do biodegradable magnesium alloy intramedullary interlocking nails prematurely lose fixation stability in the treatment of tibial fracture? A numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haosen; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2017-01-01

    Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective technique used to treat long bone fractures. Recently, biodegradable metals have drawn increased attention as an intramedullary interlocking nailing material. In this study, numerical simulations were implemented to determine whether the degradation rate of magnesium alloy makes it a suitable material for manufacturing biodegradable intramedullary interlocking nails. Mechano-regulatory and bone-remodeling models were used to simulate the fracture healing process, and a surface corrosion model was used to simulate intramedullary rod degradation. The results showed that magnesium alloy intramedullary rods exhibited a satisfactory degradation rate; the fracture healed and callus enhancement was observed before complete dissolution of the intramedullary rod. Delayed magnesium degradation (using surface coating techniques) did not confer a significant advantage over the non-delayed degradation process; immediate degradation also achieved satisfactory healing outcomes. However, delayed degradation had no negative effect on callus enhancement, as it did not cause signs of stress shielding. To avoid risks of individual differences such as delayed union, delayed degradation is recommended. Although the magnesium intramedullary rod did not demonstrate rapid degradation, its ability to provide high fixation stiffness to achieve earlier load bearing was inferior to that of the conventional titanium alloy and stainless steel rods. Therefore, light physiological loads should be ensured during the early stages of healing to achieve bony healing; otherwise, with increased loading and degraded intramedullary rods, the fracture may ultimately fail to heal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical outcome of proximal femoral nail antirotation is superior to proximal femoral locking compression plate for reverse oblique intertrochanteric fractures: a biomechanical study of intertrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Xiong; Wang, Jie; Xu, Wei-Guo; Yu, Jing-Tao; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-01-01

    Reverse obliquity intertrochanteric fractures are a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. The optimal internal fixation for repairing this type of unstable intertrochanteric fractures remains controversial. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical properties in axial load and cyclical axial load of proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) and proximal femoral locking compression plate (PFLCP) for fixation of reverse obliquity intertrochanteric fractures. Sixteen embalmed cadaver femurs were sawed to simulate reverse obliquity intertrochanteric fracture and instrumented with PFNA or PFLCP. Axial loads and axial cyclic loads were applied to the femoral head by an Instron tester. If the implant-femur constructs did not fail, axial failure load was added to the remaining implant-femur constructs. Mean axial stiffness for PFNA was 21.10% greater than that of PFLCP. Cyclic axial loading caused significantly less (p=0.022) mean irreversible deformation in PFNA (3.43 mm) than in PFLCP (4.34 mm). Significantly less (p=0.002) mean total deformation was detected in PFNA (6.16 mm) than in PFLCP (8.67 mm). For fixing reverse obliquity intertrochanteric fractures, PFNA is superior to PFLCP under axial load.

  20. Using three-dimensional computational modeling to compare the geometrical fitness of two kinds of proximal femoral intramedullary nail for Chinese femur.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Kairui; Wang, Yimin; Feng, Wei; Wang, Bowei; Yu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional (3D) computational modeling to compare the geometric fitness of these two kinds of proximal femoral intramedullary nails in the Chinese femurs. Computed tomography (CT) scans of a total of 120 normal adult Chinese cadaveric femurs were collected for analysis. With the three-dimensional (3D) computational technology, the anatomical fitness between the nail and bone was quantified according to the impingement incidence, maximum thicknesses and lengths by which the nail was protruding into the cortex in the virtual bone model, respectively, at the proximal, middle, and distal portions of the implant in the femur. The results showed that PFNA-II may fit better for the Chinese proximal femurs than InterTan, and the distal portion of InterTan may perform better than that of PFNA-II; the anatomic fitness of both nails for Chinese patients may not be very satisfactory. As a result, both implants need further modifications to meet the needs of the Chinese population.

  1. Human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) restores cancellous bone to the immobilized, osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Jee, W. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Li, M.; Yamamoto, N.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) (hPTH(1-38)) can restore cancellous bone mass to the established osteopenic, immobilized proximal tibial metaphyses of female rats. The right hindlimbs of 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were immobilized by bandaging the right hindlimbs to the abdomen. After 30 days of right hindlimb immobilization, the rats were subcutaneously injected with 200 micrograms hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days (short-term treatment) or 75 days (longer-term treatment). Static bone histomorphometry was performed on the primary spongiosa, and both static and dynamic histomorphometry were performed on the secondary spongiosa of the right proximal tibial metaphyses. Immobilization for 30 days without treatment decreased trabecular bone area, number, and thickness in both primary and secondary spongiosa, and induced an increase in eroded perimeter and a decrease in tissue referent-bone formation rate in the secondary spongiosa. These changes reached a new steady state thereafter. Treatment with 200 micrograms hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days, beginning 30 days after immobilization, significantly increased trabecular bone area, thickness, and number in both primary and secondary spongiosa despite continuous immobilization when compared with controls. The short-term PTH treatment (15 days) significantly increased labeling perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and tissue referent-bone formation rate in the secondary spongiosa and stimulated longitudinal bone growth as compared with the controls. Longer PTH treatment (75 days) further increased trabecular bone area, thickness, and number as compared with controls and groups given short-term PTH treatment (15 days). The bone formation indices in the secondary spongiosa of the longer-term treated rats were lower than those of the short-term treated group, but they were still higher than those of controls. Our findings indicate that PTH treatment stimulates cancellous bone

  2. Fixation of 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus: Can we identify radiological criteria that support locking plates or IM nailing? Comparative, retrospective study of 107 cases.

    PubMed

    Gadea, F; Favard, L; Boileau, P; Cuny, C; d'Ollone, T; Saragaglia, D; Sirveaux, F

    2016-12-01

    No objective criteria exist to help surgeons choose between IM nailing and plate fixation for 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. The goal of this study was to identify radiological criteria that would make one technique a better choice than the other. This was a comparative, multicentre, retrospective study of 54 cases of antegrade nailing and 53 cases of plating performed between 1st January 2009 and 31 December 2011 for 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus. All patients had a minimum radiological and clinical follow-up of 18 months. The functional outcomes were evaluated using the weighted Constant score; a poor result was defined as a weighted Constant score<70%. The following radiological criteria were evaluated during the preoperative assessment and at the last follow-up: initial displacement and reduction of humeral head and tuberosities; morphology of the medial column (i.e. calcar comminution, posteromedial hinge, size of metaphyseal head extension); occurrence of avascular necrosis (AVN). After an average follow-up of 42 months, the weighted Constant scores and rate of poor outcomes were 77% and 48% in the nail group and 81% and 38% in the plate group, respectively (ns). The humeral head was reduced into an anatomical position, valgus or varus in 57%, 30% and 13% of cases in the nail group, and 58%, 29% and 13% in the plate group, respectively. The tuberosities healed in an anatomical position in 72% of nail cases and 70% of plate cases (ns). Only the presence of a medial hinge preoperatively had an effect on the functional outcomes in the nail and plate groups: the weighted Constant scores (P=0.05) and rate of poor outcomes (P=0.02) were 82% and 52% in the nail group and 97% and 9% in the plate group, respectively. The complication rates were comparable: the rates of AVN and articular screw penetration were 17% and 11% in the nail group, and 15% and 11% in the plate group, respectively. The surgical revision rate was 18.5% in the nail group and

  3. Electromagnetic navigation reduces surgical time and radiation exposure for proximal interlocking in retrograde femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Somerson, Jeremy S; Rowley, David; Kennedy, Chad; Buttacavoli, Frank; Agarwal, Animesh

    2014-07-01

    To compare the time required for proximal locking screw placement between a standard freehand technique and the navigated technique, and to quantify the reduction in ionizing radiation exposure. A fresh frozen cadaver model was used for 48 proximal interlocking screw procedures. Each procedure consisted of insertion of 2 anteroposterior locking screws. Standard fluoroscopic technique was used for 24 procedures, and an electromagnetic navigation system was used for the remaining 24 procedures. Procedure duration was recorded using an electronic timer and radiation doses were documented. Mean total insertion time for both proximal interlocking screws was 405 ± 165.7 seconds with the freehand technique and 311 ± 78.3 seconds in the navigation group (P = 0.002). All procedures resulted in successful locking screw placement. Mean ionizing radiation exposure time for proximal locking was 29.5 ± 12.8 seconds. Proximal locking screw insertion using the navigation technique evaluated in this work was significantly faster than the standard fluoroscopic method. The navigated technique is effective and has the potential to prevent ionizing radiation exposure.

  4. Joint-preserving palliative surgery using self-locking screws of intramedullary nail and percutaneous cementoplasty for proximal humeral metastasis in the advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Woong; Kim, Yong-Il; Kang, Hyun Guy; Kim, June Hyuk; Kim, Han Soo

    2018-05-15

    We introduced a palliative joint-preserving surgery using proximal self-locking screws of intramedullary (IM) nail and percutaneous cementoplasty (PC) in patients with proximal humeral metastases, including the head and neck, and evaluated the outcome of the surgical method. Twenty-three patients (mean age = 63.0 ± 11.8 years, M:F = 14:9) had IM nailing with a self-locking screw system and PC for the treatment of humeral head and neck metastases. Usually, three proximal locking screws were inserted after IM nailing, and 20.9 ± 8.0 ml of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement was injected in the perimetal osteolytic area. Regional anesthesia with interscalene block was performed in 87.0% (20/23), and the duration of surgery (from anesthesia to awakening) was approximately 40-55 min. Red blood cell was not transfused intra- and/or postoperatively in 65.2% (15/23). The localized preoperative pain (visual analog scale (VAS), 8.2 ± 3.1) was gradually decreased at postoperative 1 week (VAS, 4.9 ± 2.1) and at 6 weeks (VAS, 2.9 ± 2.1) (P < 0.001). Among nine patients who underwent F-18-FDG PET/CT, the proximal humeral metastasis around PC showed improved, stable, and aggravated states in five (55.6%), three (33.3%), and one patient (11.1%), respectively. Meanwhile, 88.8% (8/9) of patients showed aggravation at the naive bone metastasis area. The selection of the self-locking screw type of the IM nail and PC was helpful in preventing fixation failure for joint-preserving palliative surgery in the proximal humeral metastasis.

  5. MRI Anatomy of the Tibial ACL Attachment and Proximal Epiphysis in a Large Population of Skeletally Immature Knees: Reference Parameters for Planning Anatomic Physeal-Sparing ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Swami, Vimarsha Gopal; Mabee, Myles; Hui, Catherine; Jaremko, Jacob Lester

    2014-07-01

    To aid in performing anatomic physeal-sparing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, it is important for surgeons to have reference data for the native ACL attachment positions and epiphyseal anatomy in skeletally immature knees. To characterize anatomic parameters of the ACL tibial insertion and proximal tibial epiphysis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of skeletally immature knees. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ACL tibial attachment site and proximal epiphysis were examined in 570 skeletally immature knees with an intact ACL (age, 6-15 years) using 1.5-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI; also measured were the tibial anteroposterior diameter; anterior, central, and posterior ACL attachment positions; vertical height of the epiphysis; and maximum oblique epiphyseal depth extending from the ACL tibial attachment center to the tibial tuberosity. In adolescents (11-15 years of age), the center of the ACL's tibial attachment was 51.5% ± 5.7% of the anteroposterior diameter of the tibia, with no significant differences between sexes or age groups (P > .05 in all cases). Mean vertical epiphyseal height was 15.9 ± 1.7 mm in the adolescent group, with significant differences between 11-year-olds (15.2 ± 1.5 mm) and 15-year-olds (16.6 ± 1.6 mm), P < .001, and between males (16.6 ± 1.5 mm) and females (14.8 ± 1.4), P < .001. Mean maximum oblique depth was 30.0 ± 5.3 mm, with a significant difference between 11-year-olds (26.7 ± 4.9 mm) and 15-year-olds (32.7 ± 5.1 mm), P < .001, and between males (29.7 ± 6.4 mm) and females (27.8 ± 5.2 mm), P < .001. The maximum oblique depth occurred at a mean angle of ~50°, and this angle did not change with age or sex. There was a significant moderate correlation (r = 0.39, P < .001) between epiphyseal vertical height and maximum oblique depth. The center of the ACL tibial attachment was consistently near 51% of the anteroposterior diameter, regardless of age or sex

  6. [Proximal tibial valgus osteotomy semi-invasive technique. A report on 66 cases].

    PubMed

    González Maza, Carlos; Moscoso López, Luis; Magaña García, Ignacio; Mejía Vargas, Gildardo; López Segundo, José Román

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to report sixty six high tibial lateral osteotomies (HTO) make on patients with osteoarthrosis of the medial compartment, using modified semi invasive technique. With this technique the incision is 5-6 mm, fibular head is not resect, biceps femoris tendon is not cut, no internal fixation is place; the median follow-up was 6.4 years. The status of the patient at the final follow-up was analyzed using Knee Society Score (KSS), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). An average of 85 points was achieved after HTO compared to 55 points preoperative and 83 points after HTO compared to 51 points preoperative, was obtained at the evaluation with KSS. The only complication was superficial infections (4%). Serious complications did not appear. There was not pseudoarthrosis.

  7. Human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) restores cancellous bone to the immobilized, osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Li, M.; Yamamoto, N.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) (PTH) can restore cancellous bone mass to the established osteopenic, immobilized proximal tibial metaphyses (PTM) of female rats. The right hindlimbs of six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were immobilized by bandaging the right hindlimbs to the abdomen. After 30 days of right hindlimb immobilization (RHLI), the rats were subcutaneously injected with 200 microgram hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 (short-term) or 75 (longer-term) days. Static bone histomorphometry was performed on the primary spongiosa, while both static and dynamic histomorphometry were performed on the secondary spongiosa of the right PTM. Immobilization for 30 days without treatment decreased trabecular bone area, number and thickness in both primary and secondary spongiosa, and induced an increase in eroded perimeter and a decrease in tissue referent-bone formation rate (BFR/TV) in the secondary spongios. These changes reached a new steady state thereafter. Treatment with 200 microgram hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days, beginning at 30 days post immobilization (IM), significantly increased trabecular bone area, thickness and number in both primary and secondary spongiosa despite continuous IM when compared to the age-related and IM controls. The short-term (15 days) PTH treatment significantly increased labeling perimeter, mineral apposition rate and BFR/TV in the secondary spongiosa and stimulated longitudinal bone growth as compared to the age-related and IM controls. PTH treatment for longer-term (75 days) further increased trabecular bone area, thickness and number as compared to aging and IM controls and short-term (15 days) PTH treated groups. The bone formation indices in the secondary spongiosa of these longer-term treated rats were lower than that of short-term (15 days) PTH treated group, but they were still higher than those of IM and age-related controls. Our findings indicate that PTH treatment stimulates

  8. Intra-epiphyseal stress injury of the proximal tibial epiphysis: preliminary experience of magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tony, G; Charran, A; Tins, B; Lalam, R; Tyrrell, P N M; Singh, J; Cool, P; Kiely, N; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2014-11-01

    Stress induced injuries affecting the physeal plate or cortical bone in children and adolescents, especially young athletes, have been well described. However, there are no reports in the current English language literature of stress injury affecting the incompletely ossified epiphyseal cartilage. We present four cases of stress related change to the proximal tibial epiphysis (PTE) along with their respective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances ranging from subtle oedema signal to a pseudo-tumour like appearance within the epiphyseal cartilage. The site and pattern of intra-epiphyseal injury is determined by the type of tissue that is affected, the maturity of the skeleton and the type of forces that are transmitted through the tissue. We demonstrate how an awareness of the morphological spectrum of MRI appearances in intra-epiphyseal stress injury and the ability to identify concomitant signs of stress in other nearby structures can help reduce misdiagnosis, avoid invasive diagnostic procedures like bone biopsy and reassure patients and their families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [The randomized controlled trial of influences of T shape approach on the function of knee joint in the treatment of proximal tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-xiong; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Jie-hong

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the clinical value of T shape approach in the treatment of proximal tibial fractures. One handrend and thirteen patients of proximal tibial fractures were randomly divided into two groups. Group A: 62 cases underwent the traditional exposure approach. According to Schatzker classification,the cases of II to VI type was 25, 10, 16, 6, 5 respectively. Group B:51 cases underwent T shape approach ahead of knee joint, the cases of II to VI type was 21, 8, 13, 5, 4 respectively. All data were analyzed by SPSS 10.0 to compare operation time, blood loss, duration of hospitalization, healing time, the time of osseous union and complications after operation. Sixty patients in group A and 50 patients in group B were followed-up from 12 to 24 months. (1) Operation time:group B was longer than A (P < 0.01). (2) Mean blood loss and duration of hospitalization was the same. (3) Clinical healing time:group B was shorter. (4) Mean time of osseous union: 48 group B was shorter. Function of knee: group B was better than group A. (Complication: group B was less than group A. As compared with traditional exposure approach, T shape approach of knee joint had advantages of small scar, fewer complications, faster union of fracture and earlier recovery of joint function. The approach is valuable for the treatment of proximal tibial fractures.

  10. Early proximal tibial valgus osteotomy as a very important prognostic factor in Thai children with infantile tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Tangsataporn, Suksan; Jatunarapit, Ratiporn

    2005-10-01

    To find the effectiveness of the early surgery (2-3 years of age)as a very important prognostic factor affecting the outcomes in Thai children with infantile tibia vara and all the prognostic factors including the usefulness of arthrographic study in correcting the deformity. From 1994 to 2004, sixteen children aged average 3.61 years old (2.08-7.0) were treated in Siriraj Hospital and diagnosed as infantile tibia vara by Langenskiold radiographic staging were included in the present study and retrospectively reviewed with an average of 6.4 years follow up (range 6 month - 11.1 years). All cases were initially treated by surgery because of low compliance for brace or brace failure. They consisted of 3 boys and 13 girls. There were 24 legs including the bilateral involvement in 8 cases (2 boy and 6 girls). After arihrography, the midshaft fibular osteotomy was performed then the proximal tibial dome-shaped valgus osteotomy was done and fixed with 2 pins. The desired position was 12 degree knee valgus . The patients were divided in two groups, 1)group A,the successful group with the knee becoming normal without any deformity after single osteotomy, 2)group B,the recurrent group with recurrence of the varus deformity required further corrective osteotomies to make normal axis of the knee. All variables were analyzed and compared between group A and group B. The general characteristics and radiographic findings were recorded in 1)age, 2)sex, 3)side, 4)weight in kilogram and in percentage of normal or overweight(obesity) compared with the standard Thai weight chart, 5)tibiofemoral angle (TFA) pre and postoperative treatment, 6) metaphyseal diaphyseal angle (MDA), 7)the medial physeal slope angle (MPS, 8)The preoperative arthrographic articulo-diaphyseal angle (ADA), 9.arthrographic articulo-medial physeal angle (AMPA). There were 14 legs in group A and the remaining 10 legs were in group B (average 2.4 operations). All cases healed in good alignment of the legs without

  11. The Anteroposterior Axis of the Proximal Tibia Can Change After Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Computer Simulation Using Asian Osteoarthritis Knees.

    PubMed

    Ushio, Tetsuro; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Ma, Yuan; Kuwashima, Umito; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of cutting surface on the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the proximal tibia using a 3-dimensional (3D) bone model to ensure proper tibial rotational alignment in total knee arthroplasty. 3D bone models were reconstructed from the preoperative computed tomography data of 93 Japanese osteoarthritis knees with varus deformity. The AP axis was defined as the perpendicular bisector of the medial and lateral condylar centers in a 3D coordinate system. Bone cutting of the proximal tibia was performed with various tibial posterior slopes (0°, 3°, 7°) to the mechanical axis, and we compared the AP axes before and after bone cutting. The AP axis before bone cutting crossed a point at about 16% (one-sixth) of the distance from the medial edge of the patellar tendon at its tibial attachment. The AP axis after bone cutting was significantly internally rotated at all posterior slopes: 4.1° at slope 0°, 3.0° at slope 3°, and 2.1° at slope 7°. The percentages of cases with differences of more than 3° or 5° were 66.7% and 34.4% at slope 0°, 53.8% and 24.7% at slope 3°, and 38.3% and 11.8% at slope 7°, respectively. The AP axis of the proximal tibia may be rotated internally after resection of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty. Hence, surgeons should recognize the effect of changes in the cutting surface on rotational alignment of the proximal tibia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... appearance of the thumbnails. Long-term exposure to moisture or nail polish can cause nails to peel ... nail, if your nails are constantly exposed to moisture, or whether you are always picking at your ...

  13. Operative treatment of 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus (AO 11-A3) in the elderly: Cement augmented locking plate Philos™ vs. proximal humerus nail MultiLoc®.

    PubMed

    Helfen, Tobias; Siebenbürger, Georg; Mayer, Marcel; Böcker, Wolfgang; Ockert, Ben; Haasters, Florian

    2016-10-28

    Proximal humeral fractures are with an incidence of 4-5 % the third most common fractures in the elderly. In 20 % of humeral fractures there is an indication for surgical treatment according to the modified Neer-Criteria. A secondary varus dislocation of the head fragment and cutting-out are the most common complications of angle stable locking plates in AO11-A3 fractures of the elderly. One possibility to increase the stability of the screw-bone-interface is the cement augmentation of the screw tips. A second is the use of a multiplanar angle stablentramedullary nail that might provide better biomechanical properties after fixation of 2-part-fractures. A comparison of these two treatment options augmented locking plate versus multiplanar angle stable locking nail in 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus has not been carried out up to now. Forty patients (female/male, ≥60 years or female postmenopausal) with a 2-part-fracture of the proximal humerus (AO type 11-A3) will be randomized to either to augmented plate fixation group (PhilosAugment) or to multiplanar intramedullary nail group (MultiLoc). Outcome parameters are Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm and Hand-Score (DASH) Constant Score (CS), American Shoulder and Elbow Score (ASES), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), Range of motion (ROM) and Short Form 36 (SF-36) after 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 and 24 months. Because of the lack of clinical studies that compare cement augmented locking plates with multiplanar humeral nail systems after 2-part surgical neck fractures of the proximal humerus, the decision of surgical method currently depends only on surgeons preference. Because only a randomized clinical trial (RCT) can sufficiently answer the question if one treatment option provides advantages compared to the other method we are planning to perform a RCT. Clinical Trial ( NCT02609906 ), November 18, 2015, registered retrospectively.

  14. Removal torque of nail interlocking screws is related to screw proximity to the fracture and screw breakage.

    PubMed

    White, Alexander A; Kubacki, Meghan R; Samona, Jason; Telehowski, Paul; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Studies have shown that titanium implants can be challenging to explant due to the material's excellent biocompatibility and resulting osseointegration. Clinically, titanium alloy nail interlocking screws may require removal to dynamize a construct or revise the nail due to nonunion, infection, pain, or periprosthetic fracture. This study was designed to determine what variables influence the removal torque for titanium alloy interlocking screws. An intramedullary nail with four interlocking screws was used to stabilize a 1-cm segmental femoral defect in a canine model for 16 weeks. The animals were observed to be active following a several-day recovery after surgery. In six animals, the femora and implanted nail/screws were first tested to failure in torsion to simulate periprosthetic fracture of an implant after which the screws were then removed. In four additional animals, the screws were removed without mechanical testing. Both intraoperative insertional and extraction torques were recorded for all screws. Mechanical testing to failure broke 10/24 screws. On average, the intact screws required 70% of the insertional torque during removal while broken screws only required 16% of the insertional torque (p < 0.001). In addition, intact screws closer to the fracture required 2.8 times more removal torque than the outboard distal screw (p < 0.005). On average, the angle of rotation to peak torque was ∼80°. The peak axial load did not significantly correlate with the torque required to remove the screws. On average, the removal torque was lower than at the time of insertion, and less torque was required to remove broken screws and screws remote to the fracture. However, broken screws will require additional time to retrieve the remaining screw fragment. This study suggests that broken screws and screws in prematurely active patients will require less torque to remove. © IMechE 2016.

  15. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  16. The Protective Effects of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Formulas on Growth Factor Expression and the Proximal Tibial Epiphyseal Growth Plate in a TNBS-Induced IBD Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jieru; Huang, Zhiheng; Wang, Yuhuan; Huang, Ying

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different types of nutritional formulas in a rat model of TNBS-induced IBD. IBD was induced with TNBS in 4-week-old rats that were then fed different exclusive enteral nutrition diets for 7 days. The length of the tibia and the number of chondrocytes in the proximal tibias were analyzed at 7 days after supplementation. Immunohistochemical analysis, ELISA and real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the levels of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), the growth factors IGF-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) , bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and BMP-6 respectively. The results demonstrated that the tibia length of the peptide formula group was longer than that of the IBD-Modulen(®) formula and normal diet groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the number of chondrocytes of the proximal tibial was more pronounced in the peptide formula group compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). The peptide formula was also more effective in increasing the expression of GHR compared to the other groups (P < 0.05), while the expression of IGF-IR was not significantly different (P > 0.05). In addition, the IGF-I and IGFBP3 levels were more pronounced in the peptide formula supplement group (P < 0.05), and the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-6 mRNA in the proximal tibia growth plate from the peptide formula group was higher than that in the ordinary formula and normal diet groups (P < 0.05). EEN, and particularly a peptide formula, exerted protective effects on the proximal tibial epiphyseal growth plate in a TNBS-induced IBD model.

  17. [Should one choose the nail or the plate in treating a leg fracture?].

    PubMed

    Vives, P; Massy, E; Dubois, P; Decoopmann, P

    1975-12-01

    The authors have analysed the results of 126 tibial fractures treated by blind nailing with reaming and 112 tibial fractures treated by plating. They noted 5 septic complications after nailing, after plating, one non-union after nailing and 12 after plating, 3 malunions after nailing and 2 after plating. The cases treated by nailing united earlier. The Authors conclude that nailing is a more fiable technique than plating, and that the only fractures which should be plated are those which are not fit for nailing.

  18. Prediction of local proximal tibial subchondral bone structural stiffness using subject-specific finite element modeling: Effect of selected density-modulus relationship.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, S Majid; Amini, Morteza; Kontulainen, Saija A; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Masri, Bassam A; Wilson, David R; Johnston, James D

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative computed tomography based subject-specific finite element modeling has potential to clarify the role of subchondral bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis initiation, progression, and pain initiation. Calculation of bone elastic moduli from image data is a basic step when constructing finite element models. However, different relationships between elastic moduli and imaged density (known as density-modulus relationships) have been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to apply seven different trabecular-specific and two cortical-specific density-modulus relationships from the literature to finite element models of proximal tibia subchondral bone, and identify the relationship(s) that best predicted experimentally measured local subchondral structural stiffness with highest explained variance and least error. Thirteen proximal tibial compartments were imaged via quantitative computed tomography. Imaged bone mineral density was converted to elastic moduli using published density-modulus relationships and mapped to corresponding finite element models. Proximal tibial structural stiffness values were compared to experimentally measured stiffness values from in-situ macro-indentation testing directly on the subchondral bone surface (47 indentation points). Regression lines between experimentally measured and finite element calculated stiffness had R(2) values ranging from 0.56 to 0.77. Normalized root mean squared error varied from 16.6% to 337.6%. Of the 21 evaluated density-modulus relationships in this study, Goulet combined with Snyder and Schneider or Rho appeared most appropriate for finite element modeling of local subchondral bone structural stiffness. Though, further studies are needed to optimize density-modulus relationships and improve finite element estimates of local subchondral bone structural stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of medial meniscus posterior root tear and proximal tibial morphology in the development of spontaneous osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Ryota; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Tahara, Keitaro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) has been reported to play a key role in the development of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. However, little is known about the differences in the development of SONK and OA after MMPRT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to the development of these conditions. We evaluated the existence of MMPRT and the extent of medial meniscal extrusion in preoperative magnetic resonance images and proximal tibial morphology in radiographs of 45 patients with SONK and 104 patients with OA who underwent knee surgery. There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index between the two groups. The incidence of MMPRT and the mean posterior tibial slope (PTS) were significantly higher in SONK than in OA patients (62.2% versus 34.3%, P=0.002, and 12.8° versus 10.5°, P<0.001, respectively). The mean extent of meniscal extrusion was larger in OA than in SONK patients (7.5mm versus 5.3mm, P<0.001). The mean tibial varus angle was 4.8° in SONK and 5.4° in OA, with no significant difference between the two (P=0.088). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that compared with OA, SONK was more closely associated with the existence of MMPRT and had a smaller extent of medial meniscus extrusion and higher PTS. MMRPT and higher PTS were more closely associated with the development of SONK than with that of OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of two intramedullary nails for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion: anatomic and radiographic considerations.

    PubMed

    Mückley, Thomas; Ullm, Sebastian; Petrovitch, Alexander; Klos, Kajetan; Beimel, Claudia; Fröber, Rosemarie; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2007-05-01

    Retrograde intramedullary nailing is an established procedure for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. This study was conducted to see whether, and if so to what extent, nail design modifications would influence the risk to anatomic structures and the bony coverage of the nail base. Six pairs of thawed fresh-frozen cadaver legs received two different intramedullary nails (N1: straight nail, lateral-medial tip locking; N2: valgus-curved nail, medial-lateral tip locking) under simulated operative conditions. The specimens were dissected; distances between the at-risk structures and the hardware were measured. The hindfoot axis and the volume of the intracalcaneal nail portion were determined with CT. At the plantar entry site, N2 was significantly farther from the flexor hallucis longus tendon (p=0.047), the medial plantar artery (p=0.026), and the lateral plantar nerve (p=0.026) than N1. The lateral-medial calcaneal locking screw of N1 damaged significantly more often the peroneus brevis tendon (p=0.03) than N2. The proximal tip-locking screw, N2, was significantly farther from the anterior tibial artery (p=0.075) and the deep (p=0.047) and superficial peroneal nerves (p=0.009) than N1; N1 was significantly farther from the great saphenous vein (p=0.075) than N2. The distal tip-locking screw, N1. damaged significantly more often the extensor digitorum longus (p=0.007), the anterior tibial artery(p = 0.04), and the deep and superficial peroneal nerves (p=0.03) than N2. CT did not show any significant changes in the hindfoot axis with either device; intracalcaneal nail volumes were similar. A curved nail can increase the distance to at-risk plantar structures. Medial-lateral nail-tip locking appears to have less risk to neurovascular structures. Safer retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibiotalocalcaneal fusion requires knowledge of the structures at risk and appropriate operative technique.

  1. [The use of structural proximal tibial allografts coated with human albumin in treating extensive periprosthetic knee-joint bone deficiency and averting late complications. Case report].

    PubMed

    Klára, Tamás; Csönge, Lajos; Janositz, Gábor; Pap, Károly; Lacza, Zsombor

    2015-01-11

    The authors report the history of a 74-year-old patient who underwent surgical treatment for segmental knee-joint periprosthetic bone loss using structural proximal tibial allografts coated with serum albumin. Successful treatment of late complications which occurred in the postoperative period is also described. The authors emphasize that bone replacement with allografts is a physiological process that enables the stable positioning of the implant and the reconstruction of the soft tissues, the replacement of extensive bone loss, and also it is a less expensive operation. It has been already confirmed that treatment of lyophilised allografts with albumin improves the ability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to adhere and proliferate the surface of the allografts, penetrate the pores and reach deeper layers of the graft. Earlier studies have shown osteoblast activity on the surface and interior of the graft.

  2. Optimizing finite element predictions of local subchondral bone structural stiffness using neural network-derived density-modulus relationships for proximal tibial subchondral cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, S Majid; Amini, Morteza; Kontulainen, Saija A; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Masri, Bassam A; Wilson, David R; Johnston, James D

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography based subject-specific finite element modeling has potential to clarify the role of subchondral bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis initiation, progression, and pain. However, it is unclear what density-modulus equation(s) should be applied with subchondral cortical and subchondral trabecular bone when constructing finite element models of the tibia. Using a novel approach applying neural networks, optimization, and back-calculation against in situ experimental testing results, the objective of this study was to identify subchondral-specific equations that optimized finite element predictions of local structural stiffness at the proximal tibial subchondral surface. Thirteen proximal tibial compartments were imaged via quantitative computed tomography. Imaged bone mineral density was converted to elastic moduli using multiple density-modulus equations (93 total variations) then mapped to corresponding finite element models. For each variation, root mean squared error was calculated between finite element prediction and in situ measured stiffness at 47 indentation sites. Resulting errors were used to train an artificial neural network, which provided an unlimited number of model variations, with corresponding error, for predicting stiffness at the subchondral bone surface. Nelder-Mead optimization was used to identify optimum density-modulus equations for predicting stiffness. Finite element modeling predicted 81% of experimental stiffness variance (with 10.5% error) using optimized equations for subchondral cortical and trabecular bone differentiated with a 0.5g/cm 3 density. In comparison with published density-modulus relationships, optimized equations offered improved predictions of local subchondral structural stiffness. Further research is needed with anisotropy inclusion, a smaller voxel size and de-blurring algorithms to improve predictions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Which factor is most important for occurrence of cutout complications in patients treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation? Retrospective analysis of 298 patients.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ali; Kalenderer, Önder; Karapınar, Levent; Kumbaracı, Mert; Akkan, Hasan Ali; Ağuş, Haluk

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical complications, such as cut-out of the head-neck fixation device, are the most common causes of morbidity after trochanteric femur fracture treatment. The causes of cut-out complications are well defined in patients who are treated with sliding hip screws and biaxial cephalomedullary nails but there are few reports about the patients who are treated with proximal femoral nail antirotation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the most important factor about occurance of cutout complication and also to evaluate the risks of the combination of each possible factors. Overally 298 patients were enrolled in the study. Medical records were reviewed for patients' age, fracture type, gender, anesthesia type and occurance of cut-out complication. Postoperatively taken radiographs were reviewed for tip-apex distance, obtained collo-diaphyseal angle, the quadrant of the helical blade and Ikuta reduction subgroup. The most important factor (s) and also predicted probability of cut-out complication was calculated for each combination of factors. Cut-out complication was observed in 14 patients (4.7 %). The most important factor about occurrence of the cut-out complication was found as varus reduction (p: 0.01), the second important factor was found as implantation of the helical blade in the improper quadrant (p: 0.02). Tip-apex distance was found as third important factor (p: 0.10). The predicted probability of cut-out complication was calculated as 45.6 % when whole of the four surgeon dependent factors were improperly obtained. Althought obtaining proper tip-apex distance is important to prevent cutout complication in these fractures, if the fracture is not reduced in varus position and helical blade is inserted in the proper quadrant, possibility of cut-out complication is very low even in the patients with high tip-apex distance.

  4. Angular stable plates in proximal meta-epiphyseal tibial fractures: study of joint restoration and clinical and functional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, S; Giovannelli, D; Dell'Osso, G; Bottai, V; Bugelli, G; Celli, F; Citarelli, C; Guido, G

    2016-04-01

    The tibial plateau fractures involve one of the main weight bearing joints of the human body. The goals of surgical treatment are anatomical reduction, articular surface reconstruction and high primary stability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes after internal plate fixation of this kind of fractures. From January 2009 to December 2012, we treated 75 cases of tibial plateau fracture with angular stable plates. We used Rasmussen Score and the Knee Society Score for the clinical and functional evaluation. Twenty-five cases that underwent hardware removal had arthroscopic and CT evaluation of the joint. No complications occurred. The clinical and functional evaluation, performed by the KSS and Rasmussen Score, highlighted the high percentage of good-to-excellent results (over 90 %). In every case, the range of motion was good with flexion >90°. Arthroscopy showed the presence of chondral damage in 100 % of patients. In all the cases, we found that X-ray images seem better than the CT images. Angular stable plates allow to obtain a good primary stability, permitting an early joint recovery with an excellent range of motion. Avoiding to perform a knee arthrotomy at the time of fracture reduction could prove to be an advantage in terms of functional recovery. The meniscus on the injured bone should be preserved in order to maintain good function of the joint. X-ray images remain the gold standard in checking the progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis.

  5. [Locked plating with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis versus intramedullary nailing of distal extra-articular tibial fracture: a retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Ni, Jie; Peng, Li-bin; Yu, Da-xin; Yuan, Xiao-ming

    2013-12-17

    To compare the efficacies of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) and interlocking intramedullary nailing (IMN) in the treatment of extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. Retrospective reviews were conducted for 126 patients with extra-articular distal tibia fractures. Treatment was either MIPPO (n = 61) or IMN (n = 65). The outcomes were assessed by comparing operating duration, time to union, the last follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and complication rate. The average follow-up period was 23.7 (12-53) months. In the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis group, there were deep infections (n = 2), superficial infections (n = 5), delayed union (n = 2), malunion (n = 2) and knee joint pain (n = 10) were observed. In addition, the average operating duration (85.9 ± 18.9 min), average time to union (17.3 ± 3.8 weeks) and average AOFAS (83.2 ± 11.9) were analyzed. In the interlocking intramedullary nailing group, there were delayed union (n = 3), malunion (n = 12) and knee joint pain (n = 22). And the average operating duration (83.3 ± 15.7 min), average time to union (16.5 ± 3.1 weeks) and average AOFAS (84.9 ± 12.0) were analyzed. No statistical significance existed in operating duration, time to union and the last follow-up AOFAS between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the rates of malformation and knee joint pain were higher in the intramedullary nail group than those in the plate group. And the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.015, P = 0.025). Both MIPPO and IMN are effective for extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. However, the former has the advantage of lowers rate of malformation and knee joint pain. Therefore a surgeon should consider the degree of injury while managing extra-articular fracture of distal tibia.

  6. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with the expert tibia nail].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthias; El Attal, René; Blum, Jochen; Blauth, Michael; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare. Early functional aftercare to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. All closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures (AO 42). Certain extraarticular fractures of the proximal and distal tibia (AO 41 A2/A3; AO 43 A1/A2/A3). Segmental fractures of the tibia. Certain intraarticular fractures of the tibia with use of additional implants (AO 41 C1/C2; AO 43 C1/C2). Stabilization during and after segmental bone transport or callus distraction of the tibia. Patients in poor general condition (e.g., bedridden). Flexion of the knee of less than 90 degrees . Infection in the nail's insertion area. Infection of the tibial cavity. Complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture. If necessary, use of reduction clamps through additional stab incisions or open surgical procedures. In some cases, additional osteosynthesis procedures are necessary (e.g., screws). Positioning of the patient may be performed on a radiolucent table or a traction table. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Cannulated or noncannulated insertion of the Expert Tibia Nail((R)) with or without reaming of the medullary canal depending on the fracture type and soft-tissue condition. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle joint and knee joint. Depending on the type of fracture, mobilization with 20 kg partial weight bearing or pain-dependent full weight bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight bearing depending on the fracture status. In a prospective, international multicentric study, 181 patients with 186 fractures were included between July 2004 and

  8. Effects of Long-Term Daily Administration of Prostaglandin-E2 on Maintaining Elevated Proximal Tibial Metaphyseal Cancellous Bone Mass in Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Jee, Webster S. S.; Mori, Satoshi; Li, Xiao Jian; Kimmel, Donald B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E(sub 2) (PGE(sub 2)) on cancellous bone in proximal tibial metaphysis were studied in 7 month old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3, and 6 mg PGE(sub 2)/kg/day and sacrificed after 60, 120, and 180 days. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double fluorescent-labeled undecalcified bone specimens. After 60 days of treatment, PGE(sub 2) produced diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, increased trabecular bone area, eroded and labeled trabecular perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate at all dose levels when compared with age-matched controls. In rats given PGE(sub 2) for longer time periods (120 and 180 days), trabecular bone area, diffusely labeled trabecular bone area, labeled perimeter, mineral apposition, and bone formation rates were sustained at the elevated levels achieved earlier at 60-day treatment. The eroded perimeter continued to increase until 120 days, then plateau. The observation that continuous systemic PGE(sub 2) administration to adult male rats elevated metaphyseal cancellous bone mass to 3.5-fold of the control level within 60 days and maintained it for another 120 days indicates that the powerful skeletal anabolic effects of PGE2 can be sustained with continuous administration .

  9. [EFFECTIVENESS COMPARISON OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAIL ANTI-ROTATION IN SUPINE "SCISSORS" POSITION AND IN LITHOTOMY POSITION TO TREAT FEMORAL INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES OF OLD PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Du, Shihao; Yin, Fei; Wei, Xuming; Song, Sheng; Gu, Sanjun; Sun, Zhenzhong; Rui, Yongjun

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) between in the supine "scissors" position and in the lithotomy position for treating femoral intertrochanteric fractures of old patients. A retrospective study was performed on 58 patients with femoral intertrochanteric fractures treated with PFNA between January 2013 and January 2015. Fracture was treated with PFNA in the lithotomy position in 28 cases (group A) and in the supine "scissors" position in 30 cases (group B). There was no significant difference in gender, age, side, cause of injury, fracture type, and interval from injury to operation between 2 groups (P>0.05). The incision length, operation time, perspective times, intraoperative blood loss, complications, and fracture healing time were recorded; Harris hip score was used to access the effectiveness. The wound healed by first intention without infection, pressure sores, deep vein thrombosis of lower extremity, and other complications. There was no significant difference in incision length between 2 groups (t=1.313, P=0.212). Group B was significantly better than group A in operation time, perspective times, and intraoperative blood loss (P<0.05). All patients were followed up 10-31 months (mean, 15.3 months). Stretch injury at normal side and perineal discomfort occurred in 1 case and 5 cases of group A respectively, and no nonunion and other complications was observed in the other patients. There was no significant difference in fracture healing time and Harris hip score at last follow-up between 2 groups (P>0.05). PFNA in the supine "scissors" position has exact effectiveness and advantages of shorter operation time, less intraoperative blood loss, less perspective times, and fewer complications.

  10. Elastic nailing of tibia shaft fractures in young children up to 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jeong; Oh, Chang-Wug; Park, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Joon-Woo; Kim, Hee-June; Lee, Jong-Chul; Park, Il-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Although tibia shaft fractures in children usually have satisfactory results after closed reduction and casting, there are several surgical indications, including associated fractures and soft tissue injuries such as open fractures. Titanium elastic nails (TENs) are often used for pediatric tibia fractures, and have the advantage of preserving the open physis. However, complications such as delayed union or nonunion are not uncommon in older children or open fractures. In the present study, we evaluated children up to 10 years of age with closed or open tibial shaft fractures treated with elastic nailing technique. A total of 16 tibia shaft fractures treated by elastic nailing from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. The mean patient age at operation was 7 years (range: 5-10 years). Thirteen of 16 cases were open fractures (grade I: 4, grade II: 6, grade IIIA: 3 cases); the other cases had associated fractures that necessitated operative treatments. Closed, antegrade intramedullary nailing was used to insert two nails through the proximal tibial metaphysis. All patients were followed up for at least one year after the injury. Outcomes were evaluated using modified Flynn's criteria, including union, alignment, leg length discrepancies, and complications. All fractures achieved union a mean of 16.1 weeks after surgery (range: 11-26 weeks). No patient reported knee pain or experienced any loss of knee or ankle motion. There was a case of superficial infection in a patient with grade III open fracture. Three patients reported soft tissue discomfort due to prominent TEN tips at the proximal insertion site, which required cutting the tip before union or removing the nail after union. At the last follow-up, there were no angular or rotational deformities over 10° in either the sagittal or coronal planes. With the exception of one case with an overgrowth of 15 mm, no patient showed shortening or overgrowth exceeding 10mm. Among final outcomes, 15 were excellent and 1 was

  11. Sarcoidosis: nail dystrophy without underlying bone changes.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, S H; James, M P

    1995-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin that affects multiple organs and may present with a variety of skin lesions. Involvement of the nails is rare and almost invariably associated with underlying bone disease. We describe a patient with sarcoid nail dystrophy in whom this diagnosis was confirmed by a proximal nail fold biopsy. Radiologic investigation did not show evidence of an associated bone dystrophy in this case.

  12. Nail Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... diligently cleaning and trimming fingernails, which may harbor dirt and germs and can contribute to the spread ... of their length, longer fingernails can harbor more dirt and bacteria than short nails, thus potentially contributing ...

  13. Anatomic aspects of tibiotalocalcaneal nail arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Hyer, Christopher F; Cheney, Nick

    2013-01-01

    During the past 15 years, tibiotalocalcaneal nail arthrodesis has become an established procedure for the treatment of specific disorders of the hindfoot and ankle. However, controversy exists regarding the proper starting point for obtaining and maintaining the correct hindfoot position to allow successful fusion. One of the challenges with this procedure is aligning the tibial canal with the central talus and calcaneus for placement of the intramedullary nail. We performed a cadaver study to evaluate the radiographic and anatomic position of the tibial canal and the central talus as it relates to placement of a retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nail. In our subjects, guide wires directed in an antegrade fashion down the tibial canal were more likely to enter lateral to the midline of the talus and miss the calcaneal body medially. These data have revealed a mismatch among the central axis of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus. Surgeons must pay careful attention to wire placement across these 3 bone segments during retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nailing. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of plate position and size on tibial slope in high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rubino, L Joseph; Schoderbek, Robert J; Golish, S Raymond; Baumfeld, Joshua; Miller, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomies are performed for degenerative changes and varus. Opening wedge osteotomies can change proximal tibial slope in the sagittal plane, possibly imparting stability in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of plate position and size on change in tibial slope. Eight cadaveric knees underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates of each different size. Plates were placed anterior, central, and posterior for each size used. Lateral radiographs were obtained. Tibial slope was measured and compared with baseline slope. Tibial slope was affected by plate position (P < 0.05) and size (P < 0.001). Smaller, posterior plates had less effect on tibial slope. However, anterior and central plates increased tibial slope over all plate sizes (P < 0.05). This study found that tibial slope increases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Larger corrections and anterior placement of the plate are associated with larger increases in slope.

  15. Anthropometric measurements of tibial plateau and correlation with the current tibial implants.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Sayar, Safak; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to make an anthropometric analysis at the resected surfaces of the proximal tibia in the Turkish population and to compare the data with the dimensions of tibial components in current use. We hypothesized that tibial components currently available on the market do not fulfil the requirements of this population and a new tibial component design may be required, especially for female patients with small stature. Anthropometric data from the proximal tibia of 226 knees in 226 Turkish subjects were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the mediolateral, middle anteroposterior, medial and lateral anteroposterior dimensions and the aspect ratio of the resected proximal tibial surface. All morphological data were compared with the dimensions of five contemporary tibial implants, including asymmetric and symmetric design types. The dimensions of the tibial plateau of Turkish knees demonstrated significant differences according to gender (P < 0.05). Among the different tibial implants reviewed, neither asymmetric nor symmetric designs exhibited a perfect conformity to proximal tibial morphology in size and shape. The vast majority of tibial implants involved in this study tend to overhang anteroposteriorly, and a statistically significant number of women (21 %, P < 0.05) had tibial anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available tibial component. Tibial components designed according to anthropometric measurements of Western populations do not perfectly meet the requirements of Turkish population. These data could provide the basis for designing the optimal and smaller tibial component for this population, especially for women, is required for best fit. II.

  16. Quiz: Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... you know about your nails? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes ...

  17. Fractures above and below a modular nail for knee arthrodesis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hinarejos, Pedro; Ginés, Alberto; Monllau, Juan C; Puig, Lluis; Cáceres, Enric

    2005-06-01

    Several techniques have been advocated for knee arthrodesis, and there has been an increasing interest in modular intramedullary nails in the recent last years. We report a case of femoral and tibial fractures at each end of a modular nail in a solidly fused knee 8 months after an arthrodesis.

  18. Green Nail Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... nail is detached from the nail bed, the waterproof seal formed by the skin on the nail ... should also be noted that wearing tight-fitting shoes for a prolonged time, especially while exercising, is ...

  19. An Innovative Approach to the Repair of Distal Tibia Nonunion Using a Retrograde Buried Tibio-Talar-Calcaneal Nail: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Van Steyn, Peter; Romash, Michael

    We report a case using retrograde tibial nailing as treatment of nonunion of a distal tibial osteotomy, which was performed as part of a complex reconstruction of distal tibial malunion with ankle arthritis. Although retrograde nailing has classically been used for tibial-talar-calcaneal arthrodesis, this method spares the subtalar joint. Preservation of some hindfoot motion by subtalar mobility allows for a decrease in the loss of function typically seen with tibial-talar-calcaneal arthrodesis. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using a retrograde nail locked in the sagittal plane].

    PubMed

    Veselý, R; Procházka, V; Visna, P; Valentová, J; Savolt, J

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate our experience with the use of a retrograde nail locked in the sagittal plane for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis indicated in severe post-traumatic arthritis of the ankle. Twenty patients, 16 men and four women at an average age of 58.7 years (range, 23 to 72) were evaluated. All patients had severe post-traumatic changes in the talocrural and talocalcaneal joints. Five patients also had an equinus deformity. In two patients arthrodesis followed the treatment of purulent arthritis of the talocrural joint. A local fasciocutaneous flap was used for soft tissue reconstruction in three patients. All patients were operated on using the standard surgical technique. METHODS With the patient in a supine position, reamed by hand with the use of a driving rod, a straight retrograde AAN Orthofix nail was inserted through the heel bone and talus into the distal tibia and locked in these bones in the sagittal plane. No complications such as injury to the neurovascular plexus or pseudoarthrosis were recorded. Four patients showed a reaction to the proximal locking screw on the proximal tibial surface, which was treated by earlier screw removal under topical anaesthesia. Due to infectious complications, the nail had to be removed prematurely in one patient. The average Foot Function Index was 12 points (range, 10 to 15) and the average ankle-hindfoot score was 67.6 points (range, 59 to 84). Thirteen patients (65 %) were not limited in their daily activities or recreational sports, six (30 %) experienced pain in sports but not daily activities and one patient (5 %) reported pain even when walking. All fusions healed in the correct position within 18 weeks. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is not a frequent surgical procedure in either trauma surgery or orthopaedics. For this complicated procedure, rather than intramedullary nails, internal fixation with screws or plates or external fixation are preferred. The high rate of bony healing can be explained by maintenance of

  2. A new classification and treatment protocol for combined fractures of the femoral shaft with the proximal or distal femur with closed locked intramedullary nailing: clinical experience of 63 fractures.

    PubMed

    Lambiris, Elias; Giannikas, Dimitrios; Galanopoulos, George; Tyllianakis, Minos; Megas, Panagiotis

    2003-03-01

    The medical records and radiographs of 63 patients, who were admitted between 1989-1997, with a combined femur fracture, were reviewed. Associated injuries were present in 38 (60%) patients. The combined fractures were classified into four major types depending on their anatomical position: type I, femoral shaft fracture combined with hip neck fracture; type II, femoral shaft fracture combined with a trochanteric fracture; type III, femoral shaft fracture combined with a distal femur fracture; and type IV, femoral shaft fracture combined with a proximal or distal femur fracture. The fractures were treated with locked intramedullary nailing and additional free cancellous 6.5-mm screws as needed. Fifty-six fractures healed without further operations. Of the remaining 6 fractures, 2 were material failures, 1 malunion with 3-cm shortening and external rotation of the femoral diaphysis, 2 early infections of the surgical wound, and 1 pseudarthrosis of the femoral shaft. All fractures were healed between 16 and 32 weeks (average: 20 weeks).

  3. Extraction of the Wichita Fusion Nail after Knee Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Neuts, Ann-Sophie; Lammens, Johan; Stuyck, Jose

    2016-01-01

    To avoid a new exposition and partial damage of a knee arthrodesis site due to the removal of the Wichita fusion nail (WFN), a new extraction technique was developed, using a femoral osteotomy at the proximal end of the nail. Fixing the osteotomy with an Ilizarov frame offered the possibility to perform an additional correction of length and/or alignment if necessary.

  4. Nailing Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Roman hihstorian Pliny the Younger noted that Mount Vesuvius blew its top and destroyed Pompeii in the early afternoon of August 24, 1,918 years ago. Now, a team of scientists, tempted by the certainty of that record, has confirmed the eruption to within 7 years. The team developed and used an improved radioactive argon-argon dating technique, which they say can reliably establish the age of rocks as old as the solar system or as recent as 1,000 years old.“We nailed the date to 5% on our first attempt, so we could probably get the error down to 1% or less,” says Paul Renne, adjunct associate professor of geology and geophysics at the University of California at Berkeley and director of the private Berkeley Geochronology Center. “Dating things that are really young has always been the Holy Grail of potassium-argon [an earlier method] and argonargon dating.”

  5. [Intramedullary nailing of the distal tibia illustrated with the Expert(TM) tibia nail].

    PubMed

    El Attal, R; Hansen, M; Rosenberger, R; Smekal, V; Rommens, P M; Blauth, M

    2011-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare and to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. Closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures distal to the isthmus (AO 42), extraarticular fractures of the distal tibia (AO 43 A1/A2/A3), segmental fractures of the tibia with a fracture in the distal tibia, and certain intraarticular fractures of the distal tibia without impression of the joint line with the use of additional implants (AO 43 C1) Patient in reduced general condition (e.g., bed ridden), flexion of the knee of less than 90°, patients with knee arthroplasty of the affected leg, infection in the area of the nail's insertion, infection of the tibial cavity, complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture preferably on a fracture table or using a distractor or an external fixation frame. If necessary, use pointed reduction clamps or sterile drapery. In some cases, additional implants like percutaneous small fragment screws, poller screws or k-wires are helpful. Open reduction is rarely necessary and must be avoided. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Canulated insertion of the Expert(TM) tibia nail (ETN; Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland) with reaming of the medullary canal. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle and knee joint. Mobilization with 20 kg weight-bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight-bearing depending on the fracture status. In cases with simple fractures, good bony contact, or transverse fracture pattern, full weight-bearing at the end of week 6 is targeted. Between July 2004 and May 2005, 180 patients were included in a

  6. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  7. Biomechanical strength of the Peri-Loc proximal tibial plate: a comparison of all-locked versus hybrid locked/nonlocked screw configurations.

    PubMed

    Estes, Chris; Rhee, Peter; Shrader, M Wade; Csavina, Kristine; Jacofsky, Marc C; Jacofsky, David J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of a contoured locking plate instrumented with either an all-locked or hybrid locked/nonlocked screw construct in a proximal metaphyseal fracture of the tibia (AO 41-A3.2). A standardized proximal metaphyseal wedge osteotomy (AO 41-A3.2) was created in five pairs of cadaveric tibia. Each pair was randomly instrumented with either an all-locked or combination locked/nonlocked screw construct using a locked contoured periarticular plate (Peri-Loc periarticular locked plating system, Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN). Vertical subsidence (irreversible deformation) and deflection (reversible deformation) in each pair were analyzed and compared. Load to failure, defined by complete fracture gap closure, was also determined. There was no statistically significant difference in vertical subsidence (P = 0.19) or deflection (P = 0.19) of the proximal tibia between the all-locked and combination locked/nonlocked screw construct with increasing levels of cyclical axial load from 200 to 1200 N. Failure occurred at a mean value of 2160 N in the locked group and 1760 N in the hybrid group (P = 0.19); the failure mode was plate bending in all specimens. The results indicate that the use of compression screws with locked screws in this particular construct allows a similar amount of irreversible and reversible deformation in response to an axial load when compared to an all-locked screw construct. This suggests that there is no statistically significant difference in the stability in fixation between the two methods, allowing the surgeon the freedom to choose the appropriate screw combination unique to each fracture.

  8. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  9. Arthrodesis of the knee: experience with intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Incavo, S J; Lilly, J W; Bartlett, C S; Churchill, D L

    2000-10-01

    Knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail has gained acceptance as treatment in difficult cases such as infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), neuropathic joint, and obesity. A retrospective review of 22 cases treated at our institution using an intramedullary nail for knee arthrodesis was performed. Deep infection after primary (11) or revision (6) TKA was the most common indication for this procedure. A long intramedullary nail was used in 3 cases, a long nail with a proximal interlocking screw was used in 6 cases, and a customized nail with a valgus bend and a proximal interlocking screw was used in 11 cases. A modular knee fusion nail was used in 1 case. Successful fusion occurred in all cases, although 4 patients required additional surgery. Average operative blood loss was 748 mL, and average time to union was 7 months. Shortening of the extremity averaged 3.2 cm. Tibiofemoral alignment was improved by using a customized valgus nail (average, 3.1 valgus; range, 1-5) when compared with a straight nail (average, 0.2 valgus; range, 3 varus to 3 valgus). No patient developed infection in the hip or ankle region as a result of the long intramedullary nail. Intramedullary nailing is an excellent technique for knee arthrodesis in difficult cases. A customized proximal interlocking nail with 5 degrees to 7 degrees of valgus and 5 degrees of anterior angulation improves tibiofemoral alignment and is straightforward to insert or extract should it be necessary. Stability and pain relief are rapid, and the fusion rate is maximized.

  10. Use of embedded strain gages for the in-vitro study of proximal tibial cancellous bone deformation during knee flexion-extension movement: development, reproducibility and preliminary results of feasibility after frontal low femoral osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports the development of an in-vitro technique allowing quantification of relative (not absolute) deformations measured at the level of the cancellous bone of the tibial proximal epiphysis (CBTPE) during knee flexion-extension. This method has been developed to allow a future study of the effects of low femoral osteotomies consequence on the CBTPE. Methods Six strain gages were encapsulated in an epoxy resin solution to form, after resin polymerisation, six measurement elements (ME). The latter were inserted into the CBTPE of six unembalmed specimens, just below the tibial plateau. Knee motion data were collected by three-dimensional (3D) electrogoniometry during several cycles of knee flexion-extension. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was estimated on one specimen for all MEs. Intra-specimen repeatability was calculated to determine specimen's variability and the error of measurement. A varum and valgum chirurgical procedure was realised on another specimen to observed CBTPE deformation after these kind of procedure. Results Average intra-observer variation of the deformation ranged from 8% to 9% (mean coefficient of variation, MCV) respectively for extension and flexion movement. The coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC) ranged from 0.93 to 0.96 for flexion and extension. No phase shift of maximum strain peaks was observed. Inter-observer MCV averaged 23% and 28% for flexion and extension. The CMC were 0.82 and 0.87 respectively for extension and flexion. For the intra-specimen repeatability, the average of mean RMS difference and the mean ICC were calculated only for flexion movement. The mean RMS variability ranged from 7 to 10% and the mean ICC was 0.98 (0.95 - 0.99). A Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated showing that RMS was independent of signal intensity. For the chirurgical procedure, valgum and varum deviation seems be in agree with the frontal misalignment theory. Conclusions Results show that the

  11. Use of embedded strain gages for the in-vitro study of proximal tibial cancellous bone deformation during knee flexion-extension movement: development, reproducibility and preliminary results of feasibility after frontal low femoral osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Lefèvre, Philippe; Feipel, Véronique; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Rooze, Marcel

    2011-03-03

    This paper reports the development of an in-vitro technique allowing quantification of relative (not absolute) deformations measured at the level of the cancellous bone of the tibial proximal epiphysis (CB(TPE)) during knee flexion-extension. This method has been developed to allow a future study of the effects of low femoral osteotomies consequence on the CB(TPE). Six strain gages were encapsulated in an epoxy resin solution to form, after resin polymerisation, six measurement elements (ME). The latter were inserted into the CB(TPE) of six unembalmed specimens, just below the tibial plateau. Knee motion data were collected by three-dimensional (3D) electrogoniometry during several cycles of knee flexion-extension. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was estimated on one specimen for all MEs. Intra-specimen repeatability was calculated to determine specimen's variability and the error of measurement. A varum and valgum chirurgical procedure was realised on another specimen to observed CB(TPE) deformation after these kind of procedure. Average intra-observer variation of the deformation ranged from 8% to 9% (mean coefficient of variation, MCV) respectively for extension and flexion movement. The coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC) ranged from 0.93 to 0.96 for flexion and extension. No phase shift of maximum strain peaks was observed. Inter-observer MCV averaged 23% and 28% for flexion and extension. The CMC were 0.82 and 0.87 respectively for extension and flexion. For the intra-specimen repeatability, the average of mean RMS difference and the mean ICC were calculated only for flexion movement. The mean RMS variability ranged from 7 to 10% and the mean ICC was 0.98 (0.95-0.99). A Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated showing that RMS was independent of signal intensity. For the chirurgical procedure, valgum and varum deviation seems be in agree with the frontal misalignment theory. Results show that the methodology is reproducible within a

  12. [Influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine].

    PubMed

    Meng, W Z; Guo, Y J; Liu, Z K; Li, Y F; Wang, G Z

    2016-07-20

    Objective: To investigate the influencing factors for trauma-induced tibial infection in underground coal mine. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1 090 patients with tibial fracture complicated by bone infection who were injured in underground coal mine and admitted to our hospital from January 1995 to August 2015, including the type of trauma, injured parts, severity, and treatment outcome. The association between risk factors and infection was analyzed. Results: Among the 1 090 patients, 357 had the clinical manifestations of acute and chronic bone infection, 219 had red and swollen legs with heat pain, and 138 experienced skin necrosis, rupture, and discharge of pus. The incidence rates of tibial infection from 1995 to 2001, from 2002 to 2008, and from 2009 to 2015 were 31%, 26.9%, and 20.2%, respectively. The incidence rate of bone infection in the proximal segment of the tibia was significantly higher than that in the middle and distal segments (42.1% vs 18.9%/27.1%, P <0.01) . As for patients with different types of trauma (Gustilo typing) , the patients with type III fracture had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than those with type I/II infection (52.8% vs 21.8%/24.6%, P <0.01) . The incidence rates of bone infection after bone traction, internal fixation with steel plates, fixation with external fixator, and fixation with intramedullary nail were 20.7%, 43.5%, 21.4%, and 26.1%, respectively, suggesting that internal fixation with steel plates had a significantly higher incidence rate of bone infection than other fixation methods ( P <0.01) . The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the position of tibial fracture and type of fracture were independent risk factors for bone infection. Conclusion: There is a high incidence rate of trauma-induced tibial infection in workers in underground coal mine. The position of tibial fracture and type of fracture are independent risk factors

  13. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  14. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of a nail polish colour applied on a nail.

    PubMed

    Monpeurt, C; Cinotti, E; Razafindrakoto, J; Rubegni, P; Fimiani, M; Perrot, J L; Hebert, M

    2018-02-01

    The colour of a nail polish varies according to the nail on which it is applied. The objective of this study was to predict the colour of the nail polish on a given nail and to study how the colour varies depending on the nail polish thickness. Six nail polishes were applied in one, two and three layers on the nails of one subject, thus forming eighteen samples. The spectral reflectances of the eighteen nail polishes applied on the nails with different thicknesses were obtained by spectrophotometry. The spectral reflectances of the nails without polish were also measured using the same technique. The thicknesses of nail polishes were measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). Then, to determine the physical parameters of the nail polish itself, we applied the six nail polishes on an opacity drawdown chart and we measured the spectral reflectance and the thickness of each patch using spectrophotometry and HD-OCT, respectively. The Kubelka-Munk theory was used to get the predicted spectral reflectance of the nail polish applied on the nail according to the polish thickness by knowing the parameter of the polish itself and the spectral reflectance of the nail. The predicted spectral reflectances were finally compared with those measured directly on the nails. The predicted spectral reflectances were rather close to measured ones. Consequently, knowing the colour of the nail without polish and the optical parameters of the nail polish itself, we can estimate the colour of the nail polish applied on the nail depending on its thickness. Our study showed that the Kubelka-Munk theory can be used to predict the nail polish colour. The ability to predict the real colour of a nail polish applied on a nail could help a nail polish manufacturer to improve his polish formulae in order to obtain a precise colour. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Knee arthodesis using a modular customized intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Letartre, R; Combes, A; Autissier, G; Bonnevialle, N; Gougeon, F

    2009-11-01

    Arthrodesis of the knee, particularly in infectious situations, can be achieved using either an external fixator or an intramedullary device. The objective of this study is to report the clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes of a continuous series of 19 cases of knee arthrodesis using a customized modular intramedullary nailing system. The modular intramedullary nail offers a satisfactory functional result while maintaining limb length, in spite of a nonunion risk, since acting like a true endoprosthesis. In our retrospective series of 19 patients, the main source of patients were infected total knee replacements. The nail was customized from assembling a dual surface-sanded titanium component (femoral and tibial). The Lequesne Algofunctional score and the WOMAC score were recorded, as well as the length discrepancy between the lower extremities. Arthrodesis consolidation and the nail's fit in the shaft were verified on anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral radiographs. Five complications were observed: one anterior cortical break, one excessive tibial rotation, two cases of delayed union, and one nail revision due to residual nail instability. The postoperative Lequesne Algofunctional score was 13/24 and the WOMAC score 57/100. The nonunion rate was 32%. From a functional point of view, the patients who did not achieve complete union and those who did had similar scores. The subjective results were not as good in patients who did not achieve final consolidation. Modular intramedullary nailing simplifies the technique, shortens the procedure, and reduces the amount of blood loss at surgery. Our nonunion rate was high, although the functional result did not seem compromised by such nonunion. The risk of long-term implant failure was not studied and requires longer follow-up studies. Level IV therapeutic study. 2009 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  18. Extraction of the Wichita Fusion Nail after Knee Arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Neuts, Ann-Sophie; Lammens, Johan; Stuyck, Jose

    2016-01-01

    To avoid a new exposition and partial damage of a knee arthrodesis site due to the removal of the Wichita fusion nail (WFN), a new extraction technique was developed, using a femoral osteotomy at the proximal end of the nail. Fixing the osteotomy with an Ilizarov frame offered the possibility to perform an additional correction of length and/or alignment if necessary. PMID:28529847

  19. Brown Nail-bed Arcs and Chronic Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, W. K.; Raffle, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A brown arc affecting the distal part of the fingernail-bed, just proximal to the point of separation of the nail from its bed, has been found in 12 out of 34 patients with chronic renal disease (35%) compared with an incidence of less than 2% in a series of unselected patients. It represents a distinctive form of pigmentation, possibly due to lipochromes. No decisive association could be found between the presence or absence of the pigmented nail arc and the level of impaired renal function. Nevertheless it seems that renal disease predisposes towards the development of brown nail arcs. Imagesp786-a PMID:5014252

  20. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    PubMed

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  3. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  4. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  5. Primary Ankle Arthrodesis for Severely Comminuted Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Al-Ashhab, Mohamed E

    2017-03-01

    Management of severely comminuted, complete articular tibial pilon fractures (Rüedi and Allgöwer type III) remains a challenge, with few treatment options providing good clinical outcomes. Twenty patients with severely comminuted tibial pilon fractures underwent primary ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde calcaneal nail and autogenous fibular bone graft. The fusion rate was 100% and the varus malunion rate was 10%. Fracture union occurred at a mean of 16 weeks (range, 13-18 weeks) postoperatively. Primary ankle arthrodesis is a successful method for treating highly comminuted tibial pilon fractures, having a low complication rate and a high satisfaction score. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e378-e381.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Anatomic tibial component design can increase tibial coverage and rotational alignment accuracy: a comparison of six contemporary designs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Scuderi, Giles R; Bischoff, Jeffrey E; Bertin, Kim; Tarabichi, Samih; Rajgopal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate contemporary tibial component designs against global tibial anatomy. We hypothesized that anatomically designed tibial components offer increased morphological fit to the resected proximal tibia with increased alignment accuracy compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs. Using a multi-ethnic bone dataset, six contemporary tibial component designs were investigated, including anatomic, asymmetric, and symmetric design types. Investigations included (1) measurement of component conformity to the resected tibia using a comprehensive set of size and shape metrics; (2) assessment of component coverage on the resected tibia while ensuring clinically acceptable levels of rotation and overhang; and (3) evaluation of the incidence and severity of component downsizing due to adherence to rotational alignment and overhang requirements, and the associated compromise in tibial coverage. Differences in coverage were statistically compared across designs and ethnicities, as well as between placements with or without enforcement of proper rotational alignment. Compared to non-anatomic designs investigated, the anatomic design exhibited better conformity to resected tibial morphology in size and shape, higher tibial coverage (92% compared to 85-87%), more cortical support (posteromedial region), lower incidence of downsizing (3% compared to 39-60%), and less compromise of tibial coverage (0.5% compared to 4-6%) when enforcing proper rotational alignment. The anatomic design demonstrated meaningful increase in tibial coverage with accurate rotational alignment compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs, suggesting its potential for less intra-operative compromises and improved performance. III.

  7. Nail Care Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acrylics") Artificial nails are composed primarily of acrylic polymers and are made by reacting together acrylic monomers, such as ethyl methacrylate monomer, with acrylic polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate. When the reaction is completed, ...

  8. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  9. Nail Bed Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1: The anatomy of the nail ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  10. Nail polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002722.htm Nail polish poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. This poisoning is from swallowing or breathing in ( ...

  11. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surface of the nail can be PODIAT PHYSIC filed off, followed by the application of an ... toes ◆ Repeated trauma to the feet from normal activities Problems If you suspect an infection due to ...

  12. Comparative study of nail sampling techniques in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Avner; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Trau, Henri; Amichai, Boaz

    2009-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common problem. Obtaining accurate laboratory test results before treatment is important in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to compare results of curettage and drilling techniques of nail sampling in the diagnosis of onychomycosis, and to establish the best technique and location of sampling. We evaluated 60 patients suffering from distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis and lateral subungual onychomycosis using curettage and vertical and horizontal drilling sampling techniques from three different sites of the infected nail. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. At each sample site, the horizontal drilling technique has a better culture sensitivity than curettage. Trichophyton rubrum was by far the most common pathogen detected by both techniques from all sampling sites. The drilling technique was found to be statistically better than curettage at each site of sampling, furthermore vertical drilling from the proximal part of the affected nail was found to be the best procedure for nail sampling. With each technique we found that the culture sensitivity improved as the location of the sample was more proximal. More types of pathogens were detected in samples taken by both methods from proximal parts of the affected nails.

  13. [The monorail system--bone segment transport over unreamed interlocking nails].

    PubMed

    Oedekoven, G; Jansen, D; Raschke, M; Claudi, B F

    1996-11-01

    A treatment protocol is demonstrated, consisting of an osteotomy, either proximal or distal, of the bone defect with subsequent segmental transport via an anteromedially (tibia) or laterally (femur) mounted AO external fixation over an unreamed interlocking nail (monorail system). Twenty patients were treated by this method with indications as follows: 13 had a segmental bone defect of the tibia, 3 of the femur. Three patients showed post-traumatic and postinfectious leg-length discrepancies and one was treated for hypertrophic non-union of the femur. Defect distance varied between 5 and 18.5 cm and average time for transport was 19,42 days/ cm for the tibial shaft, 15,93 days/cm for the femur. Two patients developed deep infection, which required change of treatment, removing the monorail system and application of an Ilizarov apparatus. Despite complications using the monorail system, all patients healed and no amputations were required. The monorail system can be used as an alternative to the Ilizarov method under certain criteria of patient selection; these criteria are shown by an algorithm for segmental bone defects without infection, respecting the soft-tissue status with or without neurovascular compromise.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 10

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nails MalaCards: nail disorder, nonsyndromic congenital, 10 Merck Manual Consumer Version: Deformities, Dystrophies, and Discoloration of the Nails Orphanet: Autosomal recessive nail dysplasia Patient Support ...

  15. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Kirousis, George; Delis, Harry; Megas, Panagiotis; Lambiris, Elias; Panayiotakis, George

    2009-10-01

    Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. The mean operation time was 101 (48-240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy x cm(2). The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique.

  16. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. Patients and methods 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. Results The mean operation time was 101 (48–240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy·cm2. The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Interpretation Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique. PMID:19916691

  17. Limb Lengthening Using the PRECICETM Nail System: Complications and Results

    PubMed Central

    Wiebking, Ulrich; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Kenawey, Mohamed; Krettek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Three types of telescopic nails are mainly used for intramedullary limb lengthening nowadays. Despite some important advantages of this new technology (e.g. controlled distraction rate, not restricted availability, possibility to perform accordion maneuvers), few articles exist on clinical results and complications after lengthening with the PRECICETM nail (Ellipse, USA). Objectives The aim of the current study was to describe and analyze the complications associated with lengthening with the PRECICETM nail. Are the problems preventable when using the PRECICE, related to the distraction rate control, the lengthening goals and technique and handling? Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 9 patients operated between 2012 and 2013 with a PRECICETM nail for a leg length discrepancy (LLD). The mean age of the patients was 32 years (range, 17 - 48 years). There were 5 femoral and 4 tibial procedures. The causes of LLD were posttraumatic (n = 5) and congenital (n = 4). The mean LLD was 36.4 ± 11.4 mm. The minimum follow-ups were 2 months (average, 5 months; range, 2 - 9 months). Results The mean distraction rate was 0.5 ± 0.1 mm/day. We observed in 7 patients differences in achieving the lengthening goals (average, 1.6 mm; range, -20.0 - 5.0 mm). Average lengthening was 34.7 ± 10.7 mm. All patients reached normal alignment and normal joint orientation. An unintentional loss of the achieved length during the consolidation phase was noticed in patients with delayed bone healing in two cases. In the first case (loss of 20mm distraction) the nail could be redistracted and the goal length was achieved. In the second case (loss of 10mm distraction) the nail broke shortly after the diagnosis and the nail was exchanged. Conclusions We report of loss of achieved length after lengthening with a telescopic nail. Weight bearing before complete consolidation of the regenerate might be a risk factor for that. Thorough examination of the limb length and careful

  18. Neurovascular Structures at Risk With Curved Retrograde TTC Fusion Nails.

    PubMed

    de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Johannesmeyer, David; Cone, Brent; Araoye, Ibukunoluwa; Hudson, Parke William; Sahranavard, Bahman; Johnson, Michael; Shah, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of iatrogenic injury to plantar neurovascular structures of the foot during insertion of a curved retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion nail. Ten below-knee thawed fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent curved retrograde nailing of the ankle. The shortest distance between the nail and the main plantar neurovascular branches and injured structures were recorded during dissection. We also evaluated the relative position of these structures along 2 lines (AB, connecting the calcaneus to the first metatarsal, and BC, connecting the first and fifth metatarsal). The lateral plantar artery was found to be in direct contact with the nail 70% of the time, with a macroscopic laceration 30% of the time. The Baxter nerve was injured 20% of the time, as was the lateral plantar nerve. The medial plantar artery and nerve were never injured. The most proximal structure to cross line AB was the Baxter nerve followed by the lateral plantar artery, the nail, the lateral plantar nerve, and the medial plantar nerve. Our cadaveric anatomic study found that the most common structures at risk for iatrogenic injury by lateral curved retrograde TTC fusion nails were the lateral plantar artery and nerve, and the Baxter nerve. Determination of a true neurovascular safe zone is challenging and therefore warrants careful operative dissection to minimize neurovascular injuries.

  19. [Knee arthrodesis using a customized intramedullary nail: 14 cases].

    PubMed

    Volpi, R; Dehoux, E; Touchard, P; Mensa, C; Segal, P

    2004-02-01

    We report our experience with knee arthrodesis using a customized intramedullary nail implanted in 14 patients. Indications for knee arthrodesis were: recurrent prosthesis infection (n=11), post-traumatic septic arthritis (n=1), aseptic loosening of a hinge prosthesis (n=1), and nonunion (n=1). A two-stage procedure was used for the 12 patients with infected joints. Mean follow-up was 19 months. Weight bearing began during the first week after arthrodesis in 13 patients. First intention bone healing was achieved in 13 patients. Mean time to healing was three months. All patients rapidly recovered full independence. Complications were: one misinsertion of the tibial stem, one nonunion which fused after repeated grafting, and two recurrent infections (controlled chronic fistulae) which required skin flaps for cover. We have found that this customized nail is a useful method for achieving bone fusion in patients with difficult indications for arthrodesis, particularly recurrent prosthesis infection.

  20. Closed retrograde retrieval of the distal broken segment of femoral cannulated intramedullary nail using a ball-tipped guide wire.

    PubMed

    Metikala, Sreenivasulu; Mohammed, Riazuddin

    2011-07-01

    Extracting broken segments of intramedullay nails from long bones can be an operative challenge, particularly from the distal end. We report a case series where a simple and reproducible technique of extracting broken femoral cannulated nails using a ball-tipped guide wire is described. This closed technique involves no additional equipment or instruments. Eight patients who underwent the described method were included in the study. The technique involves using a standard plain guide wire passed through the cannulated distal broken nail segment after extraction of the proximal nail fragment. The plain guide wire is then advanced distally into the knee joint carefully under fluoroscopy imaging. Over this wire, a 5-millimeter (mm) cannulated large drill bit is used to create a track up to the distal broken nail segment. Through the small knee wound, a ball-tipped guide wire is passed, smooth end first, till the ball engages the end of the nail. The guide wire is then extracted along with the broken nail through the proximal wound. The method was successfully used in all eight patients for removal of broken cannulated intramedullary nail from the femoral canal without any complications. All patients underwent exchange nailing with successful bone union in six months. None of the patients had any problems at the knee joint at the final follow-up. We report a technique for successful extraction of the distal fragment of broken femoral intramedullary nails without additional surgical approaches.

  1. Comparison of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of long bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical effects of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and interlocking intramedullary nail (IIN) for long bone fractures. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 1,704 patients who suffered bone fractures and underwent RSIN or IIN operation in our hospital between March 1999 and March 2013, including 494 with femoral fractures, 572 with humeral fractures, and 638 with tibial fractures. Among them, 634 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, healing rate, and the excellent and good rate of functional recovery were compared between two groups. Results Compared with IIN group, RSIN group exhibited significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss no matter for humeral, femoral, or tibial fractures (all p < 0.001). The healing rate in patients with more than 1 year follow-up was significantly higher in RSIN group for femoral and tibial fractures (both p < 0.05). In RSIN group, no nail breakage or loosening occurred, but radial nerve injury and incision infection were respectively observed in one patient with humeral fracture. In IIN group, nail breakage or loosening occurred in 7 patients with femoral fractures and 16 patients with tibial fractures, radial nerve injury was observed in 8 patients with humeral fractures, and incision infection was present in 2 patients with humeral fractures and 1 patient with femoral fracture. The complication rate of IIN group was significantly higher than that of RSIN group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the excellent and good rate of shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle joint functional recovery between RSIN group and IIN group. Conclusion RSIN may be a reliable and practical alternative method for the treatment of long bone fractures. PMID:25047454

  2. Comparison of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail and interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of long bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailian; Xiong, Ying; Deng, Hong; Gu, Shao; Jia, Fu; Li, Qunhui; Wang, Daxing; Gan, Xuewen; Liu, Wei

    2014-07-21

    The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical effects of our self-designed rotary self-locking intramedullary nail (RSIN) and interlocking intramedullary nail (IIN) for long bone fractures. A retrospective study was performed in 1,704 patients who suffered bone fractures and underwent RSIN or IIN operation in our hospital between March 1999 and March 2013, including 494 with femoral fractures, 572 with humeral fractures, and 638 with tibial fractures. Among them, 634 patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, healing rate, and the excellent and good rate of functional recovery were compared between two groups. Compared with IIN group, RSIN group exhibited significantly shorter operative time and less intraoperative blood loss no matter for humeral, femoral, or tibial fractures (all p < 0.001). The healing rate in patients with more than 1 year follow-up was significantly higher in RSIN group for femoral and tibial fractures (both p < 0.05). In RSIN group, no nail breakage or loosening occurred, but radial nerve injury and incision infection were respectively observed in one patient with humeral fracture. In IIN group, nail breakage or loosening occurred in 7 patients with femoral fractures and 16 patients with tibial fractures, radial nerve injury was observed in 8 patients with humeral fractures, and incision infection was present in 2 patients with humeral fractures and 1 patient with femoral fracture. The complication rate of IIN group was significantly higher than that of RSIN group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the excellent and good rate of shoulder, elbow, knee, and ankle joint functional recovery between RSIN group and IIN group. RSIN may be a reliable and practical alternative method for the treatment of long bone fractures.

  3. Intramedullary fixation of forearm fractures with new locked nail.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Himanshu

    2011-09-01

    Lack of availability of interlocked nails made plate osteosynthesis the first choice of treatment of forearm fractures inspite of more surgical exposure, periosteal stripping and big skin incision subsequent scar along with higher risk of refracture on implant removal. We hereby report the first 12 cases with 19 forearm bone fractures internally fixed by indegenous interlocked nail. Existing square nails were modified to have a broad proximal end of 5.5 mm with a hole for locking screw of 2.5 mm. The nail has a distal hole of 1/1.2/1.5 mm in 2.5/3/3.5 mm diameter nail, respectively. A new method of distal locking with a clip made of k wire is designed. The clip after insertion into the bone and hole in nail and opposite cortex snuggly fits the bone providing a secure locking system. Twelve skeletally mature patients, mean age 32 years (range 24-45 years) with 19 diaphyseal fractures of the forearm were treated with this indigenously made new nail. The patient were evaluated for fracture union, functional recovery and complications. The functional outcome was assessed by disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH score). Time to radiographic union ranged between 12 and 28 weeks, with a 100% union rate. Complications were minimal, with mild infection in open fracture (n=1) and delayed union (n=1) in patient with comminuted fracture of the ulna only. The clinical results were excellent. The DASH score ranged between 0 and 36 points. This new interlocking nail may be considered as an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for fractures of the forearm in adults. The advantages are benefit of closed reduction, smaller residual scar, reduced cost and early union with allowance of immediate movements.

  4. Avoiding Pitfalls of Tibiotalocalcaneal Nail Malposition With Internal Rotation Axial Heel View.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Ryan; Juliano, Paul; Aydogan, Umur; Clayton, Justin

    2018-04-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) nails are often used for complex hind foot arthrodesis and deformity correction. The natural valgus alignment of the hindfoot creates a challenge to optimum placement of the guidewire and eventual nail with a straight or valgus-curved nail. Five fresh frozen cadavers were used for placement of a TTC guidewire with standard anterior-posterior (AP), lateral, and Harris axial heel views as a reference for proper placement. The limb was then rotated 15°, 30°, and 45° both internally and externally to evaluate the perceived amount of osseous purchase within the calcaneus. The TTC nail was then inserted and dissection was performed to demonstrate proximity of the nail to the sustentaculum tali and neurovascular structures. A 30° internal rotation Harris axial heel view demonstrated the most accurate representation of osseous purchase within the calcaneus with the guidewire and nail placement. When the guidewire was placed with standard imaging the nail was often ultimately placed in close proximity to the sustentaculum tali and neurovascular structures. Careful placement of the guidewire prior to reaming and nail placement should be undertaken to avoid neurovascular injury and to increase osseous purchase. For optimal guidewire placement, the authors suggest using appropriate anatomic landmarks and using a 30° internally rotated Harris axial heel view to verify correct placement. Level V: Expert opinion.

  5. Green Nail Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... if continued for one to four months. Alternatively, chlorine bleach, diluted 1:4 with water, is effective in suppressing growth of P. aeruginosa when applied topically to affected nails. Vinegar (acetic acid) has been reported to be useful in this ...

  6. Brittle Splitting Nails (Onychoschizia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more common in women. Only very rarely are internal disease or vitamin deficiencies the reason (iron deficiency is the most common). One tip is that if the fingernails split, but the toenails are strong, then an external factor is the cause. Basically brittle nails can be ...

  7. Brittle Splitting Nails (Onychoschizia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be divided into dry and brittle (too little moisture) and soft and brittle (often too much moisture). The usual cause is repeated wetting and drying ... that the nails may be getting too much moisture or being damaged by chemicals such as detergents, ...

  8. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  9. Arthrodesis of the knee with an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Donley, B G; Matthews, L S; Kaufer, H

    1991-07-01

    The cases of twenty patients who had an arthrodesis in which an intramedullary nail was used for stabilization were reviewed at an average follow-up of six years. The predominant indications were infection after total knee arthroplasty and post-traumatic pain and instability. Other indications included aseptic loosening of the components of a total knee arthroplasty, reconstruction after resection of a giant-cell tumor, non-union of a fracture of the distal part of the femur or the proximal part of the tibia, and failed external-compression arthrodesis. Success was achieved in seventeen patients (85 per cent), and functional stability immediately postoperatively was gained in all twenty. Of the three patients in whom the arthrodesis failed, all had sustained an intraoperative fracture, and infection eventually developed. Of the twelve nails that were secured to the greater trochanter with a loop of stainless-steel wire, none showed evidence of proximal migration. Of the eight nails that were not thus secured, two migrated proximally, necessitating removal of the nail. Two drawbacks to this operation are the long duration and the large amount of blood that is lost. The major advantage is that a high percentage of patients have progression to a stable fusion despite serious problems. Furthermore, all but seven patients (including the six who had a tumor or who had sustained an intraoperative fracture) were able to bear full weight by the second postoperative week. Only a few patients needed an external support for walking.

  10. Greater rate of cephalic screw mobilisation following proximal femoral nailing in hip fractures with a tip-apex distance (TAD) and a calcar referenced TAD greater than 25 mm.

    PubMed

    Aicale, Rocco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2018-05-02

    To ascertain whether the tip-apex distance (TAD), calcar referenced TAD (CalTAD), and the sum of both (TADcalTAD) are predictive measurements of mobilisation of the cephalic screw in patients with trochanteric hip fractures. Between 2014 and 2015, 68 patients (mean age 86 years, 45 females, 23 males) with a trochanteric hip fracture underwent intramedullary nailing. The TAD and CalTAD were measured, and for each parameter, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). There is evidence of a statistically significant association between a TAD and CalTAD greater than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD greater than 50 mm and mobilisation of the cephalic screw. All measurements have similar sensitivity, but the TAD presents the highest specificity (p < 0.01). To avoid the risk of mobilisation of the cephalic screw and possible subsequent failure of the construct, surgeons should strive for a TAD and CalTAD less than 25 mm and a TADcalTAD less than 50 mm when using intramedullary fixation.

  11. Do modern total knee replacements improve tibial coverage?

    PubMed

    Meier, Malin; Webb, Jonathan; Collins, Jamie E; Beckmann, Johannes; Fitz, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of the present study is to compare newer designs of various symmetric and asymmetric tibial components and measure tibial bone coverage using the rotational safe zone defined by two commonly utilized anatomic rotational landmarks. Computed tomography scans (CT scans) of one hundred consecutive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were obtained pre-operatively. A virtual proximal tibial cut was performed and two commonly used rotational axes were added for each image: the medio-lateral axis (ML-axis) and the medial 1/3 tibial tubercle axis (med-1/3-axis). Different symmetric and asymmetric implant designs were then superimposed in various rotational positions for best cancellous and cortical coverage. The images were imported to a public domain imaging software, and cancellous and cortical bone coverage was computed for each image, with each implant design in various rotational positions. One single implant type could not be identified that provided the best cortical and cancellous coverage of the tibia, irrespective of using the med-1/3-axis or the ML-axis for rotational alignment. However, it could be confirmed that the best bone coverage was dependent on the selected rotational landmark. Furthermore, improved bone coverage was observed when tibial implant positions were optimized between the two rotational axes. Tibial coverage is similar for symmetric and asymmetric designs, but depends on the rotational landmark for which the implant is designed. The surgeon has the option to improve tibial coverage by optimizing placement between the two anatomic rotational alignment landmarks, the medial 1/3 and the ML-axis. Surgeons should be careful assessing intraoperative rotational tibial placement using the described anatomic rotational landmarks to optimize tibial bony coverage without compromising patella tracking. III.

  12. Tibial dyschondroplasia associated proteomic changes in chicken growth plate cartilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a poultry leg problem that affects the proximal growth plate of tibia preventing its transition to bone. To understand the disease-induced proteomic changes we compared the protein extracts of cartilage from normal and TD- affected growth plates. TD was induced by fe...

  13. A patient specific finite element simulation of intramedullary nailing to predict the displacement of the distal locking hole.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Javad; Farahmand, Farzam; Behzadipour, Saeed; Yeganeh, Ali; Aghighi, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    Distal locking is a challenging subtask of intramedullary nailing fracture fixation due to the nail deformation that makes the proximally mounted targeting systems ineffective. A patient specific finite element model was developed, based on the QCT data of a cadaveric femur, to predict the position of the distal hole of the nail postoperatively. The mechanical interactions of femur and nail (of two sizes) during nail insertion was simulated using ABAQUS in two steps of dynamic pushing and static equilibrium, for the intact and distally fractured bone. Experiments were also performed on the same specimen to validate the simulation results. A good agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental observations. There was a three-point contact pattern between the nail and medullary canal, only on the proximal fragment of the fractured bone. The nail deflection was much larger in the sagittal plane and increased for the larger diameter nail, as well as for more distally fractured or intact femur. The altered position of the distal hole was predicted by the model with an acceptable error (mean: 0.95; max: 1.5 mm, in different tests) to be used as the compensatory information for fine tuning of proximally mounted targeting systems. Copyright © 2018 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Arthrodesis (with/without correction) of the ankle and subtalar joint: A3 nail fixation with triple bending and mechanical navigation].

    PubMed

    Richter, M

    2014-08-01

    Restoration of a stable and plantigrade foot in deformities of the ankle and/or hindfoot and concomitant degenerative changes at the ankle and subtalar joints. Deformities at the ankle and/or hindfoot and concomitant degenerative changes at the ankle and subtalar joint. Failed (corrective) arthrodesis of the ankle and subtalar joints. Fused ankle and degeneration of the subtalar joint. Failed total ankle replacement with insufficient substance of talar body and/or degeneration of subtalar joint. Massive hindfoot instability. Active local infection or relevant vascular insufficiency, possible preservation of the ankle or subtalar joint (relative contraindication). Prone position and posterolateral approach to ankle and subtalar joints (alternative supine position/anterior approach; lateral position/lateral approach). Exposition of ankle and subtalar joints and removal of remaining cartilage. Optional corrective osteotomies and/or bone grafting. Correction and optional fixation of the corrected position with 2.0 mm K-wires. Mechanically navigated insertion of a retrograde guide wire in projection of the tibial axis and insertion of a second guide wire through the entry point of the nail lateral and dorsal to the tibial axis. Reaming and insertion of the A3 nail with a distal double bend; one posterior and one lateral, and a proximal bend corresponding to a slight recurvatum. Insertion of locking screws into the calcaneus, talus and tibia (twice with optional static or dynamic locking). Optional compression between calcaneus and talus, and between tibia and talus. Insertion of a drainage and layer-wise closure. For the first 6 weeks 15 kg partial weight bearing in an orthosis, followed by full weight bearing in a stable standard shoe. In October 2010 (n = 2) and from 15 October 2011 to 13 April 2012 (n = 26) 28 arthrodeses (with/without correction) with A3 fixation were performed. In all cases, exact nail placement was achieved. Thirteen cases completed

  15. Measurement of bone adjacent to tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S C; Eastell, R; Ingle, B M

    2002-12-01

    Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT); (2) compare values for fractured versus non-fractured leg to determine the duration of decrement in bone measurements; and (3) calculate short-term precision in DXA, QUS and pQCT in order to calculate the ratio of decrement to precision (response ratio, RR) to determine the optimal test for monitoring changes after tibial fracture. The biggest decrement in bone measurements at the ipsilateral limb of 28 patients with tibial shaft fracture was observed at the pQCT tibial trabecular sites (distal = 19%, p<0.0001; proximal 5% = 21%, p<0.001; proximal 10% = 28%, p<0.001) and the ultradistal tibia/fibula measured by DXA (19%, p<0.0001). When comparing Z-scores, the magnitude of decrements at the ipsilateral limb was bigger for variables measured directly at the tibia, both proximal and distal to the fracture. The magnitude of the decrement in ultradistal tibia/fibula BMD decreased as the time since fracture increased ( r = 0.55). When response ratios are considered, pQCT measurements at the distal tibia (RR 6-8) and proximal 5% and 10% trabecular sites (RR 5 and 9 respectively) were found to be the most sensitive to change. Therefore, pQCT of the trabecular regions of either the proximal or distal tibia should prove the most sensitive measurement for monitoring changes in bone adjacent to a tibial shaft fracture.

  16. Pulmonary fat embolism after reamed and unreamed nailing of femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Högel, F; Gerlach, U V; Südkamp, N P; Müller, C A

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether reamed or unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral fractures results in higher incidence of pulmonary fat embolism, three different methods of intramedullary nailing were compared in sheep. To analyze the presence of bone marrow fat embolism in pulmonary arteries, histological evaluation was undertaken using a quantitative computer-assisted measurement system. In this experimental model of 27 female Swiss alpine sheep, an osteotomy of the proximal femur was conducted in each animal. Then, the animals were divided into three groups according to the method of treatment: two different reamed intramedullary nailing techniques and an unreamed nailing technique were used. In the first group "ER" (experimental reamer; n=9), the nail was inserted after reaming with an experimental reamer; in the second group "CR" (conventional reamer; n=7), the intramedullary nail was inserted after reaming with the conventional AO-reamer. In the third group "UN" (unreamed; n=8) unreamed nailing was performed. During the operation procedure intramedullary pressure was measured in the distal fragment. After sacrificing the animals, quantitative histological analyses of bone marrow fat embolism in pulmonary arteries were done using osmium tetroxide fixation and staining of the fat. The measurement of intramedullary pressure showed significantly lower values for reamed nailing than for the unreamed technique. The quantitative histological evaluation of lung vessels concerning bone marrow fat embolism revealed a statistically significant difference between reamed and unreamed insertion of the nail: 7.77%±6.93 (ER) and 6.66%±5.61 (CR) vs. 16.25%±10.05 (UN) (p<0.05) of the assessed lung vessels were filled with fat emboli. However, no difference was found between the traditional and experimental reamer. Intramedullary nailing after reaming is a safe procedure with low systemic embolisation when compared to the unreamed insertion of the nail. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  17. Reducing intraoperative duration and ionising radiation exposure during the insertion of distal locking screws of intramedullary nails: a small-scale study comparing the current fluoroscopic method against radiation-free, electromagnetic navigation.

    PubMed

    Grimwood, Darren; Harvey-Lloyd, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the standard surgical treatment for mid-diaphyseal fractures of long bones; however, it is also a high radiation dose procedure. Distal locking is regularly cited as a demanding element of the procedure, and there remains a reliance on X-ray fluoroscopy to locate the distal holes. A recently developed electromagnetic navigation (EMN) system allows radiation-free distal locking, with a virtual on-screen image. To compare operative duration, fluoroscopy time and radiation dose when using EMN over fluoroscopy, for the distal locking of intramedullary nails. Consecutive patients with mid-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia and femur, treatable with intramedullary nails, were prospectively enrolled during a 9-month period. The sample consisted of 29 individuals, 19 under fluoroscopic guidance and 10 utilising EMN. Participants were allocated depending on the type of intramedullary nail used and surgeon's preference. These were further divided into tibial and femoral subcategories, relative to the fracture site. EMN reduced fluoroscopy time by 49 (p = 0.038) and 28 s during tibial and femoral nailings, respectively. Radiation dose was reduced by 18 cGy/cm 2 (p = 0.046) during tibial and 181 cGy/cm 2 during femoral nailings when utilising EMN. Operative duration was 11 min slower during tibial nailings using EMN, but 38 min faster in respect of femoral nailings. This study has evidenced statistically significant reductions in both fluoroscopy time and radiation dose when using EMN for the distal locking of intramedullary nails. It is expected that overall operative duration would also decrease in line with similar studies, with increased usage and a larger sample.

  18. Segmental transport after unreamed intramedullary nailing. Preliminary report of a "Monorail" system.

    PubMed

    Raschke, M J; Mann, J W; Oedekoven, G; Claudi, B F

    1992-09-01

    The Ilizarov method of segmental bone transport has been shown to be an alternative to more conventional treatments of posttraumatic bony defects. After extensive clinical experience with the unreamed tibial nail in open fractures up to Grade IIIb, a new monorail fixation system for callus distraction and segmental bone transport was devised. This Monorail system is composed of an unreamed intramedullary (IM) nail and a unilateral AO distraction device. The new fixation method and the preliminary clinical experience are reported here. Four patients who previously sustained Grades II-IIIb open tibial fractures had an average bony defect of 9 cm. Two patients had previous bony infections. All patients had had serial debridements and myocutaneous flaps were required in three patients. An unreamed IM nail was inserted, and the transport device was applied. After an osteotomy, segmental transport was carried out until docking was achieved. The external fixator was removed after interlocking of the transported segment. The mean duration of external fixation was 17.9 days/cm and the mean period until roentgenographic consolidation of the distraction and nonunion site was 41.2 days/cm. There were two pin-tract infections but no IM infections. One nail broke after osseous consolidation of the regenerate at the distal interlocking site and required exchange. The goal of transport was achieved in all cases without angular or rotational deformity or length discrepancy. There were no neurovascular injuries.

  19. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  20. Scabies of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Oh, Susan; Vandergriff, Travis

    2014-10-15

    Scabies limited to the nail unit is quite unusual, but may persist after treatment of crusted scabies. We present a man with a history of crusted scabies that resolved with treatment, but later the patient reported a chronic problem with crumbly, thickened nails, which were found to be harboring scabies mites.

  1. Surgical treatment of refractory tibial stress fractures in elite dancers: a case series.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Ryan G; Dhotar, Herman S; Rose, Donald J; Egol, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Treatment of tibial stress fractures in elite dancers is centered on rest and activity modification. Surgical intervention in refractory cases has important implications affecting the dancers' careers. Refractory tibial stress fractures in dancers can be treated successfully with drilling and bone grafting or intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 1992 and 2006, 1757 dancers were evaluated at a dance medicine clinic; 24 dancers (1.4%) had 31 tibial stress fractures. Of that subset, 7 (29.2%) elite dancers with 8 tibial stress fractures were treated operatively with either intramedullary nailing or drilling and bone grafting. Six of the patients were followed up closely until they were able to return to dance. One patient was available only for follow-up phone interview. Data concerning their preoperative treatment regimens, operative procedures, clinical union, radiographic union, and time until return to dance were recorded and analyzed. The mean age of the surgical patients at the time of stress fracture was 22.6 years. The mean duration of preoperative symptoms before surgical intervention was 25.8 months. Four of the dancers were male and 3 were female. All had failed nonoperative treatment regimens. Five patients (5 tibias) underwent drilling and bone grafting of the lesion, and 2 patients (3 tibias) with completed fractures or multiple refractory stress fractures underwent intramedullary nailing. Clinical union was achieved at a mean of 6 weeks and radiographic union at 5.1 months. Return to full dance activity was at an average of 6.5 months postoperatively. Surgical intervention for tibial stress fractures in dancers who have not responded to nonoperative management allowed for resolution of symptoms and return to dancing with minimal morbidity.

  2. Complications of short versus long cephalomedullary nail for intertrochanteric femur fractures, minimum 1 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Josh; Cohen, Eric; Vopat, Bryan G; Kane, Patrick; Abbood, Emily; Born, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Hip fractures are becoming increasingly common resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and raising healthcare costs. Both short and long cephalomedullary devices are currently employed to treat intertrochanteric hip fractures. However, which device is optimal continues to be debated as each implant has unique characteristics and theoretical advantages. This study looked to identify rates of complications associated with both long and short cephalomedullary nails for the treatment of intertrochanteric hip fractures. We retrospectively reviewed charts from 2006 to 2011, and we identified 256 patients were identified with AO class 31.1-32.3 fractures. Sixty were treated with short nails and 196 with long nails. Radiographs and charts were then analysed for failures and hardware complications. Catastrophic failure and hardware complication rates were not statistically different between short or long cephalomedullary nails. The overall catastrophic failure rate was 3.1 %; there was a 5 % failure rate in the short-nail group compared with a 2.6 % failure rate in the long-nail group (p = 0.191). There was a 3.33 % secondary femur fracture rate in the short-nail group, compared with none in the long-nail cohort (p = 0.054). The rate of proximal fixation failure was 1.67 % for the short-nail group and 2.0 % in the long-nail group (p = 0.406). Our data suggests equivocal outcomes as measured by similar catastrophic failure rate between both short and long cephalomedullary nails for intertrochanteric femur fractures. However, there was an increased risk of secondary femur fracture with short cephalomedullary nails when compared to long nails that approached statistical significance.

  3. Review of end grain nail withdrawal research

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2004-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on static and impact withdrawal of nails driven into the end grain of wood members. From this, an empirical relationship was created relating the specific gravity of the wood, the diameter of the nail, and the depth of penetration of the nail to the static withdrawal capacity of nails driven into the wood and withdrawn immediately....

  4. The influence of distal locking on the need for fibular plating in intramedullary nailing of distal metaphyseal tibiofibular fractures.

    PubMed

    Attal, R; Maestri, V; Doshi, H K; Onder, U; Smekal, V; Blauth, M; Schmoelz, W

    2014-03-01

    Using human cadaver specimens, we investigated the role of supplementary fibular plating in the treatment of distal tibial fractures using an intramedullary nail. Fibular plating is thought to improve stability in these situations, but has been reported to have increased soft-tissue complications and to impair union of the fracture. We proposed that multidirectional locking screws provide adequate stability, making additional fibular plating unnecessary. A distal tibiofibular osteotomy model performed on matched fresh-frozen lower limb specimens was stabilised with reamed nails using conventional biplanar distal locking (CDL) or multidirectional distal locking (MDL) options with and without fibular plating. Rotational stiffness was assessed under a constant axial force of 150 N and a superimposed torque of ± 5 Nm. Total movement, and neutral zone and fracture gap movement were analysed. In the CDL group, fibular plating improved stiffness at the tibial fracture site, albeit to a small degree (p = 0.013). In the MDL group additional fibular plating did not increase the stiffness. The MDL nail without fibular plating was significantly more stable than the CDL nail with an additional fibular plate (p = 0.008). These findings suggest that additional fibular plating does not improve stability if a multidirectional distal locking intramedullary nail is used, and is therefore unnecessary if not needed to aid reduction.

  5. Prognostic Factors for Predicting Outcomes After Intramedullary Nailing of the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Sanders, David W.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen D.; Zdero, Rad; Goslings, J.C.; Teague, David; Jeray, Kyle; McKee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prediction of negative postoperative outcomes after long-bone fracture treatment may help to optimize patient care. We recently completed the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT), a large, multicenter trial of reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures in 1226 patients. Using the SPRINT data, we conducted an investigation of baseline and surgical factors to determine any associations with an increased risk of adverse events within one year of intramedullary nailing. Methods: Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we investigated fifteen baseline and surgical factors for any associations with an increased risk of negative outcomes. Results: There was an increased risk of negative events in patients with a high-energy mechanism of injury (odds ratio [OR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 2.35), a stainless steel compared with a titanium nail (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.13), a fracture gap (OR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.94), and full weight-bearing status after surgery (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). There was no increased risk with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, late or early time to surgery, or smoking status. Open fractures had a higher risk of events among patients treated with reamed nailing (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.01 to 5.28) but not in patients treated with unreamed nailing (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.47). Patients with open fractures who had wound management either without any additional procedures or with delayed primary closure had a decreased risk of events compared with patients who required subsequent, more complex reconstruction (OR = 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.35] and 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.62], respectively). Conclusions: We identified several baseline fracture and surgical characteristics that may increase the risk of adverse events in patients with tibial shaft fractures. Surgeons should consider the

  6. Management of Open Tibial Shaft Fractures: Does the Timing of Surgery Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Duyos, Oscar A; Beaton-Comulada, David; Davila-Parrilla, Ariel; Perez-Lopez, Jose Carlos; Ortiz, Krystal; Foy-Parrilla, Christian; Lopez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures require emergent care. Treatment with intravenous antibiotics and fracture débridement within 6 to 24 hours is recommended. Few studies have examined outcomes when surgical treatment is performed >24 hours after occurrence of the fracture. This retrospective study included 227 patients aged ≥18 years with isolated open tibial shaft fractures in whom the time to initial débridement was >24 hours. The statistical analysis was based on time from injury to surgical débridement, Gustilo-Anderson classification, method of fixation, union status, and infection status. Fractures débrided within 24 to 48 hours and 48 to 96 hours after injury did not show a statistically significant difference in terms of infection rates (P = 0.984). External fixation showed significantly greater infection rates (P = 0.044) and nonunion rates (P = 0.001) compared with intramedullary nailing. Open tibial shaft fractures should be débrided within 24 hours after injury. Our data indicate that after the 24-hour period and up to 4 days, the risk of infection remains relatively constant independent of the time to débridement. Patients treated with external fixation had more complications than did patients treated with other methods of fixation. Primary reamed intramedullary nailing appears to be a reasonable option for the management of Gustilo-Anderson types 1 and 2 open tibial shaft fractures. Level III retrospective study.

  7. Dermoscopy in the Evaluation of Nail Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alessandrini, Aurora; Starace, Michela; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2017-01-01

    Nail dermoscopy was initially used only in the assessment of nail pigmentation, but now it is widely utilized for the evaluation of many nail disorders. In daily practice, dermoscopy may confirm clinical diagnoses and guides in the management of nail diseases and treatments, permitting a better visualization of symptoms. Dry dermoscopy is required for evaluation of the nail plate surface, while gel as an interface is necessary for assessment of nail pigmentation and onycholysis, as well as for the evaluation of the distal nail margin. In this review, we describe the dermoscopic features of the most important nail disorders, looking at the different areas of the nail. Dermatoscopic changes that usually accompany specific nail diseases are also reviewed. PMID:28560217

  8. Arthrodesis of the knee with a modular titanium intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J S; Garvin, K L; Neff, J R

    1997-01-01

    We retrospectively studied the results of arthrodesis of the knee with a modular titanium intramedullary nail that couples at the knee. The study group consisted of thirteen patients who had a malignant tumor around the knee, five who had failure of a total knee arthroplasty, and three who had a locally destructive benign tumor about the knee. All of the patients were followed for a minimum of two years. Through a single incision at the knee, one nail was inserted retrograde into the femur and the other, antegrade into the tibia; the two nails were joined at the level of the knee by a conical couple and were secured with locking screws. The diameters of the nails were different, to accommodate the dissimilar sizes of the tibial and femoral intramedullary canals. A solid osseous fusion was achieved in nineteen (90 per cent) of the twenty-one patients (sixteen who had had resection of a tumor and three who had had a failed arthroplasty), at an average of 8.4 months (range, three to nineteen months) after the operation. One patient had a delayed union, but fusion was achieved after additional bone-grafting. Of the sixteen patients who were available for clinical and radiographic evaluation at the time of the study, fifteen were satisfied with the over-all outcome and thirteen had either less pain or the same amount of pain as they had had preoperatively. There were no mechanical failures of the implant and no recurrences of tumor. Complications occurred in eight (38 per cent) of the twenty-one patients: three patients had a stress fracture, three had a peroneal nerve palsy (one of which was transient), one had a superficial wound infection, and one had reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  9. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D.; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods. We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results. Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion. Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice. PMID:27818800

  10. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Emmanuel D; Rodriguez, Mario; Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods . We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results . Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion . Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice.

  11. Exchange nailing for nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia: our results and an analysis of the risk factors for failure.

    PubMed

    Tsang, S T J; Mills, L A; Frantzias, J; Baren, J P; Keating, J F; Simpson, A H R W

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures. A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months). The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union. Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union. Multiple causes for the primary nonunion were found for 28 (27%) tibiae, with infection present in 32 (31%). Six patients were lost to follow-up. Further surgical procedures were required in 35 (36%) nonunions. Other fixation modalities were required in five fractures. A single nail exchange procedure achieved union in 60/96 (63%) of all nonunions. Only 11 out of 31 infected nonunions (35.4%) healed after one exchange nail procedure. Up to five repeated exchange nailings, with or without bone grafting, ultimately achieved union in 89 (93%) fractures. The median time to union after exchange nailing was 8.7 months (IQR 5.7 to 14.0 months). Univariate analysis confirmed that an oligotrophic/atrophic pattern of nonunion (p = 0.002), a bone gap of 5 mm or more (p = 0.04) and infection (p < 0.001), were predictive for failure of exchange nailing Multiple regression analysis found that infection was the strongest predictor of failure (p < 0.001). Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. However, in the presence of severe infection with a highly resistant organism, or extensive sclerosis of the bone, other fixation modalities, such as Ilizarov treatment, should be considered. Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial

  12. An evaluation of flexible intramedullary nail fixation in femoral shaft fractures in paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Roy, Sandip Kumar; Jha, Amrish Kumar; Chatterjee, Debdutta; Banerjee, Debabrata; Garg, Anant Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-two femoral shaft fractures in 60 patients treated by elastic intramedullary nailing with mean age of the patients being 9.2 years (range 5 years to 12 years) and average follow-up of 15 months (range 7 months to 60 months) are evaluated. Twenty-eight fractures were fixed with titanium elastic nail while 34 fractures were fixed with Enders nail. There were 40 midshaft fractures, 18 proximal femoral and 4 were fractures of distal third. Fracture patterns were transverse in 35, short oblique in 14 cases and 13 were spiral fractures. Mean age of union in this series was 17 weeks (range 12 weeks to 28 weeks). Ten cases had complications, 5 had nail tip irritation, 3 varus or valgus malalignment and 2 had delayed union. In this series, we did not have any non-union, refracture, limb length discrepancy or any major infection. The result demonstrates 100% union rate irrespective of the age, weight and height of the patient. Regardless of the site of fracture and their pattern, it united every time with elastic nail fixation. We did not find and mismatch in the results of fractures stabilised with titanium elastic nail with that of elastic stainless steel nail.

  13. Nail Ridges: Cause for Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a health problem? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. It depends on the direction of ... indicate an underlying health condition. With Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Habif TP. Nail diseases. In: Clinical ...

  14. Posterior tibial slope in medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy: 2-D versus 3-D navigation.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ji Hyeon; Seon, Jong Keun; Song, Eun Kyoo

    2012-10-01

    Although opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) is used to correct deformities, it can simultaneously alter tibial slope in the sagittal plane because of the triangular configuration of the proximal tibia, and this undesired change in tibial slope can influence knee kinematics, stability, and joint contact pressure. Therefore, medial opening-wedge HTO is a technically demanding procedure despite the use of 2-dimensional (2-D) navigation. The authors evaluated the posterior tibial slope pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent navigation-assisted opening-wedge HTO and compared posterior slope changes for 2-D and 3-dimensional (3-D) navigation versions. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the navigation system used: group A (2-D guidance for coronal alignment; 17 patients) and group B (3-D guidance for coronal and sagittal alignments; 17 patients). Postoperatively, the mechanical axis was corrected to a mean valgus of 2.81° (range, 1°-5.4°) in group A and 3.15° (range, 1.5°-5.6°) in group B. A significant intergroup difference existed for the amount of posterior tibial slope change (Δ slope) pre- and postoperatively (P=.04).Opening-wedge HTO using navigation offers accurate alignment of the lower limb. In particular, the use of 3-D navigation results in significantly less change in the posterior tibial slope postoperatively than does the use of 2-D navigation. Accordingly, the authors recommend the use of 3-D navigation systems because they provide real-time intraoperative information about coronal, sagittal, and transverse axes and guide the maintenance of the native posterior tibial slope. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  16. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a curved, interlocking, intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Hepple, Steve; Harries, William G; Livingstone, James A; Winson, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a straight rod has a risk of damaging the lateral plantar neurovascular structures and may interfere with maintaining normal heel valgus position.We report the results of a prospective study of tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with a short, anatomically curved interlocking, intramedullary nail. Forty-five arthrodesis in 42 patients, performed between Jan 2003 and Oct 2008, were prospectively followed. The mean followup was 48 (range, 10 to 74) months. The main indications for the procedure were failed ankle arthrodesis with progressive subtalar arthritis, failed ankle arthroplasty and complex hindfoot deformity. The outcome was measured by a combination of pre and postoperative clinical examination, AOFAS hindfoot scores, SF-12 scores and radiological assessment. Union rate was 89% (40/45). Eighty-two percent (37/45) reported improvement in pain and 73% (33/45) had improved foot function. Satisfactory hindfoot alignment was achieved in 84% (38/45). Postoperatively there was a mean improvement in the AOFAS score of 37. Complications included a below knee amputation for persistent deep infection, five nonunions, and three delayed unions. Four nails, six proximal and six distal locking screws were removed for various causes. Other complications included two perioperative fractures, four superficial wound infections and one case of lateral plantar nerve irritation. With a short, anatomically curved intramedullary nail, we had a high rate of tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with minimal plantar neurovascular complications. We believe a short, curved intramedullary nail, with its more lateral entry point, helped maintain hindfoot alignment.

  17. [Tibiocalcaneal arthrodesis using retrograde insertion of a compression nail].

    PubMed

    Bölderl, A; Dallapozza, C; Wille, M

    2011-12-01

    OPERATION GOAL: Arthrodesis of the upper and lower ankle joint because of problematic bone positioning or failed arthrodesis. Osteosynthesis procedure using a retrograde compression nail. To achieve stable, fully weight-bearing osteosynthesis for early, pain-free mobilization. Rearthrodesis because of failure of the conventional arthrodesis technique and development of osteoarthritis of the lower ankle joint. Painful osteoarthritis of the upper ankle joint because of inadequate perfusion or a major bone defect because of sclerosis or necrosis. Primary arthrodesis because of facture of the lower leg (pilon tibial) with joint involvement and preexisting osteoarthritis. Acute osteitis/osteomyelitis, sclerosis in the marrow of the distal tibia, malalignment of the distal tibial shaft and local soft tissue inflammation. Preparation of the articular surface of the upper and lower ankle for arthrodesis using a transfibular approach. If necessary, correction of bone defects with iliac crest spongiosa. Stabile osteosynthesis by retrograde insertion of a compression nail. A split lower leg cast on the 2nd postoperative day, mobilization of the patient with underarm crutches with floor contact for 2 weeks, then with application of a lower leg walking cast for 8 weeks with partial weight-bearing for 4 weeks and full weight-bearing for the last 4 weeks of cast fixation. X-ray controls immediately postoperatively, then after 6 and 12 weeks. From 2006 to 2008, 12 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age 59 years) with various indications were treated with retrograde insertion of a compression nail. All patients were routinely controlled radiologically and clinically after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Follow-up was carried out at 6, 12 and 24 months. All arthrodeses showed osseous consolidation 16 weeks postoperatively. Ten patients were able to use full weight-bearing without pain after 12 weeks. Two patients reported experiencing pain after walking for 2 h. In total three

  18. Ruptured Pseudoaneurysm of the Lateral Plantar Artery After Tibiotalocalcaneal Fusion With Retrograde Nail-A Rare Complication.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Silvampatti Ramaswamy; Rajagopalakrishnan, Ramakanth; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    We report a rare presentation of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the lateral plantar artery following tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a retrograde nail at 1 month after the index surgery. Although case reports of pseudoaneurysms of larger arteries such as the anterior tibial artery and posterior tibial artery after ankle surgery (e.g., ankle arthroscopy, implant removal, Ilizarov application) have been reported, we report a rare complication of a pseudoaneurysm of the lateral plantar artery. We discuss the anatomic considerations of the lateral plantar artery in the foot and the entry point of the retrograde nail to avoid this unusual complication. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tibial anatomy in normal small breed dogs including anisometry of various extracapsular stabilizing suture attachment sites.

    PubMed

    Witte, P G

    2015-01-01

    To investigate proximal tibial anatomy and its influence on anisometry of extracapsular stabilizing sutures in small dog breeds. Mediolateral radiographs of the femora, stifles, and tibiae of 12 small breed dogs were acquired with the stifles positioned at various angles. Measurements taken included tibial plateau angle (TPA), diaphyseal: proximal tibial angle (DPA), patellar tendon angle (PTA), Z-angle, relative tibial tuberosity width (rTTW), and the distance between six combinations of two femoral and three tibial extra-capsular stabilizing suture (ECS) attachment sites. Theoretical strain through stifle range-of-motion was recorded. The TPA (32° ± 5.8°), DPA (10.2° ± 7.3°), PTA (103.7° ± 6.2°), and Z-angle (70.4° ± 9.0°) were positively correlated with one another (R >0.7), but none were correlated with rTTW (0.93 ± 0.10). The F2-T1 combination of ECS attachment sites had lowest strain for nine stifles. The shortest attachment site separation was at a stifle flexion of 50° for nine stifles. Proximal tibial anatomy measurements could not predict optimal attachment site combination, optimal stifle angle for suture placement, or ECS strain. There is individual variation in the optimal attachment site combination and stifle angle for suture placement, which may influence consistency of outcomes with ECS.

  20. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  1. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  2. Which Surgical Treatment for Open Tibial Shaft Fractures Results in the Fewest Reoperations? A Network Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Foote, Clary J; Guyatt, Gordon H; Vignesh, K Nithin; Mundi, Raman; Chaudhry, Harman; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Thabane, Lehana; Tornetta, Paul; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-07-01

    Open tibial shaft fractures are one of the most devastating orthopaedic injuries. Surgical treatment options include reamed or unreamed nailing, plating, Ender nails, Ilizarov fixation, and external fixation. Using a network meta-analysis allows comparison and facilitates pooling of a diverse population of randomized trials across these approaches in ways that a traditional meta-analysis does not. Our aim was to perform a network meta-analysis using evidence from randomized trials on the relative effect of alternative approaches on the risk of unplanned reoperation after open fractures of the tibial diaphysis. Our secondary study endpoints included malunion, deep infection, and superficial infection. A network meta-analysis allows for simultaneous consideration of the relative effectiveness of multiple treatment alternatives. To do this on the subject of surgical treatments for open tibial fractures, we began with systematic searches of databases (including EMBASE and MEDLINE) and performed hand searches of orthopaedic journals, bibliographies, abstracts from orthopaedic conferences, and orthopaedic textbooks, for all relevant material published between 1980 and 2013. Two authors independently screened abstracts and manuscripts and extracted the data, three evaluated the risk of bias in individual studies, and two applied Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to bodies of evidence. We included all randomized and quasirandomized trials comparing two (or more) surgical treatment options for open tibial shaft fractures in predominantly (ie, > 80%) adult patients. We calculated pooled estimates for all direct comparisons and conducted a network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect evidence for all 15 comparisons between six stabilization strategies. Fourteen trials published between 1989 and November 2011 met our inclusion criteria; the trials comprised a total of 1279 patients surgically treated for open tibial

  3. Physics of nail conditions: why do ingrown nails always happen in the big toes?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Cyril; Cherkaoui-Rbati, Mohammed

    2014-10-16

    Although surgical treatment of nail conditions can be traced back centuries to the writings of Paul Aegineta (625-690 AC), little is known about the physical laws governing nail growth. Such a poor understanding together with the increasing number of nail salons in the high street should raise legitimate concerns regarding the different procedures applied to nails. An understanding of the physics of nail growth is therefore essential to engage with human medicine and to understand the aetiology of nail conditions. In this context, a theory of nail plate adhesion, including a physical description of nail growth can be used to determine the transverse and longitudinal curvatures of the nail plate that are so important in the physical diagnosis of some nail conditions. As a result physics sheds light on: (a) why/how nails/hooves adhere strongly, yet grow smoothly; (b) why hoof/claw/nail growth rates are similar across species; (c) potential nail damage incurred by poor trimming; (d) the connection between three previously unrelated nail conditions, i.e. spoon-shaped, pincer and ingrown nails and; last but not least, (e) why ingrown nails occur preferentially in the big toes.

  4. Understanding the Formidable Nail Barrier: A Review of the Nail Microstructure, Composition and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baswan, Sudhir; Kasting, Gerald B.; Li, S. Kevin; Wickett, Randy; Adams, Brian; Eurich, Sean; Schamper, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The topical treatment of nail fungal infections has been a focal point of nail research in the past few decades as it offers a much safer and focused alternative to conventional oral therapy. Although the current focus remains on exploring the ways of enhancing permeation through the formidable nail barrier, the understanding of the nail microstructure and composition is far from complete. This article reviews our current understanding of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases. A few of the parameters affecting the nail permeability and potential causes of the recurrence of fungal nail infection are also discussed. PMID:28098391

  5. Understanding the formidable nail barrier: A review of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir; Kasting, Gerald B; Li, S Kevin; Wickett, Randy; Adams, Brian; Eurich, Sean; Schamper, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The topical treatment of nail fungal infections has been a focal point of nail research in the past few decades as it offers a much safer and focused alternative to conventional oral therapy. Although the current focus remains on exploring the ways of enhancing permeation through the formidable nail barrier, the understanding of the nail microstructure and composition is far from complete. This article reviews our current understanding of the nail microstructure, composition and diseases. A few of the parameters affecting the nail permeability and potential causes of the recurrence of fungal nail infection are also discussed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  7. The risk of sacrificing the PCL in cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty and the relationship to the sagittal inclination of the tibial plateau.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Pasquale; Fioravanti, Giulio; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Cinotti, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    In cruciate retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA), a partial avulsion of PCL may occur when en-bloc tibial osteotomy is performed. We evaluated the effects of a tibial cut performed with different degrees of posterior slope on PCL insertion and whether the results are affected by the sagittal inclination of the patient's tibial plateau. We selected 83 MRIs of knees showing mild or no degenerative changes. The effects of a simulated tibial cut performed with a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's tibial plateau inclination on PCL insertion in the proximal tibia were investigated. The results were correlated with the degree of posterior inclination of the tibial plateau. Every angle we used for the tibial cut caused a PCL avulsion greater than 50%. The percentage of PCL avulsion significantly increased with increasing the posterior slope of the tibial cut. Patients with sagittal tibial plateau inclination <5° showed greater PCL avulsion than those with sagittal inclination >8°. Most of the PCL insertion is likely to be sacrificed when resection of the proximal tibia is performed en-block. The risk of PCL avulsion is reduced in patients showing a marked posterior inclination of the tibial plateau, but even in this group of patients a surgical technique aimed at sparing most of the PCL insertion is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel implant for peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ton; Chen, Bernard K; Wu, Xinhua; Pun, Chung Lun

    2018-03-01

    Repair of peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures is very challenging in patients with a total knee replacement or arthroplasty. The tibial component of the knee implant severely restricts the fixation points of the tibial implant to repair peri-prosthetic fractures. A novel implant has been designed with an extended flange over the anterior of tibial condyle to provide additional points of fixation, overcoming limitations of existing generic locking plates used for proximal tibia fractures. Furthermore, the screws fixed through the extended flange provide additional support to prevent the problem of subsidence of tibial component of knee implant. The design methodology involved extraction of bone data from CT scans into a flexible CAD format, implant design and structural evaluation and optimisation using FEM as well as prototype development and manufacture by selective laser melting 3D printing technology with Ti6Al4 V powder. A prototype tibia implant was developed based on a patient-specific bone structure, which was regenerated from the CT images of patient's tibia. The design is described in detail and being applied to fit up to 80% of patients, for both left and right sides based on the average dimensions and shape of the bone structure from a wide range of CT images. A novel tibial implant has been developed to repair peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures which overcomes significant constraints from the tibial component of existing knee implant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nail toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gilbar, Peter; Hain, Alice; Peereboom, Veta-Marie

    2009-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive literature review of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity, including clinical presentation, implicated drugs and approaches for prevention and management. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966-2008) databases was conducted using the terms (and variations of the terms) antineoplastic agents, nails, nail toxicity, onycholysis, and paronychia. Bibliographies from selected articles were reviewed for appropriate references. The retrieved literature was reviewed to include all articles relevant to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, incidence, prevention, and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity. Nail toxicity is a relatively uncommon adverse effect linked to a number of chemotherapeutic agents. Clinical presentation varies, depending on which nail structure is affected and the severity of the insult. Nail changes may involve all or some nails. Toxicity may be asymptomatic and limited to cosmetic concerns, however, more severe effects, involving pain and discomfort can occur. Taxanes and anthracyclines are the antineoplastic drug groups most commonly implicated. It is suggested that the administration schedule may influence the incidence of nail abnormalities, for example reported cases linked to the weekly administration of paclitaxel.Before instituting chemotherapy, patients should be educated regarding potential nail toxicities and strategies for prevention implemented. Management includes appropriate nail cutting, avoiding potential irritants, topical, or oral antimicrobials, and possibly cessation or dose reduction of the offending agent. Cryotherapy, through the application of frozen gloves or socks, has been beneficial in reducing docetaxel-induced nail toxicity and may be effective for other drugs.

  10. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  12. Rotary self-locking intramedullary nail for long tubular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhong-lian; Yang, Hai-long; Xu, Jian-kun; Xia, Xue; Wang, Xin-jia; Song, Jian-xin; Hu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Intramedullary nails had been widely used in the treatment of long-bone fractures because of less interference of fractures and center bearing biomechanical advantage. However, it had been also found many shortcomings such as broken nails, delayed healing and was modified in order to achieve better efficacy and reduce complications. The aim of the present study is to compare the efficacy of rotary self-locking intramedullary nails (RSIN) with that of interlocking intramedullary nails (IIN) in the treatment of long-bone fractures. A retrospective study investigated 129 cases with long-bone fractures (36 with femoral fracture, 81 with tibial fracture, and 12 with humeral fracture). The fractures were fixed using either an RSIN or IIN. All patients underwent followup for 12-30 months. All patients in both groups achieved a clinical fracture healing standard and the postoperative affected limb muscle strength and joint function were well restored. The RSIN group required a shorter operative time and the fracture healed faster. There was no significant difference in the hospital stay, intraoperative blood loss or postoperative complications between the two groups. RSIN is used to treat long-bone fractures. Its healing efficacy is equivalent to the IIN. Moreover, the RSIN method is simpler and causes less tissue damage than the IIN, therefore having the advantage of accelerated healing.

  13. The nail and hair in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Daniel, C Ralph; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2004-02-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the hair or nail symptoms. Drugs and toxins that can be detected in hair and nails are reviewed and the application of hair/nail analysis in general and in forensic medicine is discussed.

  14. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  15. The Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Stifle Extensor Mechanism Load: A Canine Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jarrod O; Glyde, Mark R; Hosgood, Giselle L; Hayes, Alex J

    2018-02-01

     To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on stifle extensor mechanism load in an ex vivo cruciate-intact canine cadaveric model.   Ex vivo mechanical testing study.  Cadaveric canine pelvic limbs ( n  = 6).  A 21-mm tibial radial osteotomy was performed on pelvic limbs ( n  = 6) prior to being mounted into a load-bearing limb press. The proximal tibial segment was incrementally rotated until the anatomical tibial plateau angle had been rotated to at least 1°. The proportional change in stifle extensor mechanism load between the anatomical tibial plateau angle and the neutralized (∼6.5 degrees) and over-rotated (∼1°) tibial plateau angle was analysed using a one-sample t -test against a null hypothesis of no change. A p -value ≤0.05 was considered significant.  There was no significant change in the stifle extensor mechanism load from the anatomical tibial plateau angle (308 N [261-355 N]) to the neutralized tibial plateau angle (313 N [254-372 N]; p =.81), or from the anatomical tibial plateau angle to the over-rotated tibial plateau angle (303 N [254-352 N; p  = 0.67).  Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy does not significantly alter stifle extensor mechanism load at either a neutralized or over-rotated tibial plateau angle in our cruciate-intact model. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  16. Proximal third humeral shaft fractures -- a fracture entity not fully characterized by conventional AO classification.

    PubMed

    Stedtfeld, H W; Biber, R

    2014-01-01

    The retrospective study was made to evaluate the fracture patterns at the proximal humeral shaft for which the long version of a standard proximal humeral nail (PHNLV) has been used. The indication has been decided by the individual surgeons. Over a five year period 72 consecutive PHNLV cases of an acute fracture were identified and were included in the study. Mean patient age was 68.9 years. Gender ratio was m/f=22/50. 86.1% of the patients fractured their humerus by a fall, the rest by a high velocity accident. We analysed patient comorbidity, ASA score, osteoporosis, social status before accident, additional injuries affecting local soft tissues or other anatomic regions. We analysed the expansion of the fractures, dividing the humerus into five zones. Fracture morphology was categorized according to the standard AO/ASIF classification (if applicable). Comorbidities were found in 76.4% of the patients. Almost all patients (93.1%) had been living independently at home before the accident. 47.2% of patients had osteoporosis in their medical history. Five patients (6.9%) had a primary palsy of the radial nerve. Six fractures chosen for PHNLV fixation were clearly restricted to the humeral head. The remaining 66 fractures were located in the humeral shaft (AO region 12). There were 5 segmental fractures. Of the remaining 67 fractures affecting the proximal third of the humeral shaft 49.3 percent extended into the humeral head. 98 percent of these fractures displayed spiral morphology. Proximal humeral shaft fractures are amazingly similar to subtrochanteric and distal tibial shaft fractures: Spiral fracture types with different grades of comminution are absolutely dominant; a great proportion of the fractures extend into the humeral head with growing tendency of displacement if located closer to the humeral head. Diverging traction of deltoid and pectoralis muscle causes typical displacement if the fracture line runs in between their attachments substantiating the

  17. A Pilot Study: Nailing Indian Elections with the Indelible Ink Mark

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anil; Roga, Gillian; Thomas, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Context: The indelible ink that's used in our elections was developed by National Physical Laboratories (NPL), Delhi in 1962, and has been used ever since. Though formulated by NPL, it is manufactured by Mysore Paints and Varnish Ltd. owned by the Karnataka Government. Earlier, the ink mark was applied on the cuticle but with effect from February 01, 2006 the ink is applied on the voter's left index fingernail from the distal end proximally until the cuticle using an applicator. This idea of the ink mark applied during elections was used as a simple tool to measure the rate of nail growth in a busy outpatient department of a Tertiary Hospital in South India. Aims: To assess the feasibility of using the ink mark during elections as a method of obtaining data of nail growth across the spectrum of the entire country. Subjects and Methods: In 74 patients presenting to a hospital, the rate of nail growth was measured. The voter's mark on the left index fingernail of patients during the recent elections was used as a marker for measuring the length of the nail. Results: The average rate of nail growth was 0.113 mm/day. The rate of nail growth was found to be more in females, younger individuals, pregnancy, patients on nutritional supplementation, psoriasis. Conclusion: This study which was conducted on 74 patients using the election ink mark successfully confirmed the possibility of using it as an efficient tool in measuring the rate of nail growth. The findings revealed the slightly higher rate of nail growth as compared to a study done by Rani et al. However, the limited sample size in this study was the major limitation. PMID:26677268

  18. Does graded reaming affect the composition of reaming products in intramedullary nailing of long bones?

    PubMed

    Kouzelis, Antonis Th; Kourea, Helen; Megas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Marangos, Markos; Lambiris, Elias

    2004-08-01

    Reaming products taken during intramedullary nailing were examined to identify possible differences in their composition depending on the reaming percentage. Reaming products were taken from 39 fresh closed tibial and femoral diaphyseal fractures in patients with an average age of 29 years. According to histology, reaming products mainly consisted of bone trabeculae, viable or nonviable, and bone marrow stroma. A statistically significant reverse correlation exists between viable bone mass percentage and reaming progress. Reaming 1 mm less than the minimum canal diameter provides a higher viable bone mass percentage, which might be an important factor in the bone healing process.

  19. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  20. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg.

    PubMed

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion .

  1. [Investigation of tibial bones of the rats exposed on board "Spacelab-2":histomorphometric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A. S.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Vorobeva, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    Proximal metaphyses of tibial bones from the Sprague-Dowly rats exposed in US dedicated space life sciences laboratory SLS-2 for 13-14 days and sacrificed on day 13 in microgravity and within 5 hours and 14 days following recovery were the subject of histological, histochemical, and histomorphometric analyses. After the 13-day flight of SLS-2 the rats showed initial signs of osteopenia in the spongy tissue of tibial bones, secondary spongiosis affected first. Resorption of the secondary spongiosis was consequent to enhanced resorption and inhibition of osteogenesis. In rats sacrificed within 5 hours of recovery manifestations of tibial osteopenia were more evident than in rats sacrificed during the flight. Spaceflight-induced changes in tibial spongiosis were reverse by character the amount of spongy bone was fully compensated and following 14 days of readaptation to the terrestrial gravity.

  2. The location of the tibial accelerometer does influence impact acceleration parameters during running.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Encarnación-Martínez, Alberto; Camacho-García, Andrés; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2017-09-01

    Tibial accelerations have been associated with a number of running injuries. However, studies attaching the tibial accelerometer on the proximal section are as numerous as those attaching the accelerometer on the distal section. This study aimed to investigate whether accelerometer location influences acceleration parameters commonly reported in running literature. To fulfil this purpose, 30 athletes ran at 2.22, 2.78 and 3.33 m · s -1 with three accelerometers attached with double-sided tape and tightened to the participants' tolerance on the forehead, the proximal section of the tibia and the distal section of the tibia. Time-domain (peak acceleration, shock attenuation) and frequency-domain parameters (peak frequency, peak power, signal magnitude and shock attenuation in both the low and high frequency ranges) were calculated for each of the tibial locations. The distal accelerometer registered greater tibial acceleration peak and shock attenuation compared to the proximal accelerometer. With respect to the frequency-domain analysis, the distal accelerometer provided greater values of all the low-frequency parameters, whereas no difference was observed for the high-frequency parameters. These findings suggest that the location of the tibial accelerometer does influence the acceleration signal parameters, and thus, researchers should carefully consider the location they choose to place the accelerometer so that equivalent comparisons across studies can be made.

  3. Technical note: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the presence of an intramedullary femoral nail using anteromedial drilling.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Matthew; Lamplot, Joseph; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-18

    stitched, quadrupled and shaped to match the diameter of the prepared femoral tunnel. If the diameter of the patient's autologous hamstring graft is insufficient to fill the prepared femoral tunnel, the autograft may be supplemented with an allograft. The remainder of the reconstruction is performed according to surgeon preference. The presence of retained hardware presents a challenge for surgeons treating patients with knee instability. In cruciate ligament reconstruction, distal femoral and proximal tibial implants hardware may confound tunnel placement, making removal of hardware necessary, unless techniques are adopted to allow for anatomic placement of the graft. This report demonstrates how the femoral tunnel can be created using the anteromedial portal instead of a transtibial approach for reconstruction of the ACL.

  4. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  5. Management of knee rheumatoid arthritis and tibia nonunion with one-stage total knee arthroplasty and intramedullary nailing: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Fahri; Sarikaya, Ilker Abdullah; Can, Ata; Gorgun, Baris

    2018-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure which is widely used in the treatment of gonarthrosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The incidence of stress fractures in tibia in the patients with RA is higher compared to normal patients. In this study, we report two cases of TKA and intramedullary nailing in RA patients with severe knee arthritis and tibial nonunion. Both patients had a satisfactory clinical outcome with radiological healing of the tibial fracture. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  7. Posttraumatic tibia valga: a case demonstrating asymmetric activity at the proximal growth plate on technetium bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Zionts, L.E.; Harcke, H.T.; Brooks, K.M.

    1987-07-01

    Posttraumatic tibia valga is a well-recognized complication following fracture of the upper tibial metaphysis in young children. We present a case of a child who developed a valgus deformity following fracture of the proximal tibia and fibula in which quantitative bone scintigraphy at 5 months after injury demonstrated increased uptake at the proximal tibial growth plate with proportionally greater uptake on the medial side. This finding suggests that the valgus deformity in this patient was due to a relative increase in vascularity and consequent overgrowth of the medial portion of the proximal tibial physis.

  8. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  9. A 3D finite element model to investigate prosthetic interface stresses of different posterior tibial slope.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Li, Xiaomiao; Fu, Xiaodong; Wang, Weili

    2015-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope that is created during proximal tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty has emerged as an important factor in the mechanics of the knee joint and the surgical outcome. But the ideal degree of posterior tibial slope for recovery of the knee joint function and preventions of complications remains controversial and should vary in different racial groups. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of posterior tibial slope on contact stresses in the tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to calculate contact stresses in tibial polyethylene component of total knee prostheses subjected to a compressive load. The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis was constructed from the images produced by 3D scanning technology. Stresses in tibial polyethylene component were calculated with four different posterior tibial slopes (0°, 3°, 6° and 9°). The 3D finite element model of total knee prosthesis we presented was well validated. We found that the stress distribution in the polythene as evaluated by the distributions of the von Mises stress, the maximum principle stress, the minimum principle stress and the Cpress were more uniform with 3° and 6° posterior tibial slopes than with 0° and 9° posterior tibial slopes. Moreover, the peaks of the above stresses and trends of changes with increasing degree of knee flexion were more ideal with 3° and 6° posterior slopes. The results suggested that the tibial component inclination might be favourable to 7°-10° so far as the stress distribution is concerned. The range of the tibial component inclination also can decrease the wear of polyethylene. Chinese posterior tibial slope is bigger than in the West, and the current domestic use of prostheses is imported from the West, so their demands to tilt back bone cutting can lead to shorten the service life of prostheses; this experiment result is of important

  10. Delayed diagnosis of a peroneal artery false aneurysm at a concomitant tibial fracture. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Panagiotopoulos, E; Megas, P; Lambiris, E

    1995-07-01

    A 49-year-old man had posttraumatic persistent calf swelling and a tibial and fibular fracture. Despite the intramedullary nailing of the fracture, the swelling did not improve, and at the 6th postoperative week it was misdiagnosed (using venogram) as deep vein thrombosis. Therefore, it was mistreated with anticoagulants, which led to great deterioration of the local signs. An arteriogram revealed an initially missed false peroneal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed immediately. The 6-week delay had led to some atrophy of the posterior compartment muscles, fortunately without any permanent disability. The importance of proper and early diagnosis of posttraumatic persistent calf swelling is stressed.

  11. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  12. Effect of tibial slope on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Petrigliano, Frank P; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Citak, Mustafa; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to quantify the effect of changes in tibial slope on the magnitude of anterior tibial translation (ATT) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee during the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests. We hypothesized that increased posterior tibial slope would increase the amount of ATT of an ACL-deficient knee, while leveling the slope of the tibial plateau would decrease the amount of ATT. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed on hip-to-toe cadaveric specimens, and ATT of the lateral and the medial compartments was measured using navigation (n = 11). The ACL was then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and ATT was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5 or -5° of tibial slope variation after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Sectioning the ACL resulted in a significant increase in ATT in both the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests (P < 0.05). Increasing or decreasing the slope of the tibial plateau had no effect on ATT during the Lachman test (n.s.). During the mechanized pivot shift tests, a 5° increase in posterior slope resulted in a significant increase in ATT compared to the native knee (P < 0.05), while a 5° decrease in slope reduced ATT to a level similar to that of the intact knee. Tibial slope changes did not affect the magnitude of translation during a Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope variation affected the magnitude of the pivot shift.

  13. Nail-Gun Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Pappas-Politis, Effie; Naidu, Deepak K.; Salas, R. Emerick; Johnson, Erika L.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The nail gun is a commonly utilized tool in carpentry and construction. When used properly with appropriate safety precautions, it can facilitate production and boost efficiency; however, this powerful tool also has the potential to cause serious injury. The most common site of nail-gun injuries in both industrial and nonoccupational settings is the hand. Materials and Methods: We report on two patients with nail-gun injuries to the hand. A review of the literature and discussion of clinical evaluation and treatment of nail-gun injuries to the hand are presented. Results: Two patients present with soft tissue injuries to the hand with the nail embedded and intact at the injury site. Operative removal of the nail and wound care resulted in successful treatment in both cases. Nail-gun injuries to the hand vary in severity on the basis of the extent of structural damage. Treatment is based on the severity of injury and the presence and location of barbs on the penetrating nail. Conclusion: Healthcare providers must understand and educate patients on the prevention mechanics of nail-gun injuries. Nail-gun injuries to the hand necessitate appropriate evaluation techniques, understanding of surgical management versus nonsurgical management, and awareness of potential pitfalls in treatment. PMID:19079574

  14. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  15. Proximal Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  16. Anatomic mapping for surgical reconstruction of the proximal tibiofibular ligaments.

    PubMed

    See, Aaron; Bear, Russell R; Owens, Brett D

    2013-01-01

    Injury to the proximal tibiofibular joint is uncommon. Previous studies regarding the anatomy of this region have predominantly focused on joint orientation. As radiographic technology has advanced, later studies have attempted to evaluate the capsular anatomy. However, no reports specifically map the ligaments to this joint. The objectives of the current study were to define specific ligamentous structures that provide stability to the proximal tibiofibular joint, describe easily identifiable and reproducible surgical landmarks to aid in surgical reconstruction, and add to the understanding of the posterolateral structures of the knee previously described by other authors. The proximal tibiofibular joint ligaments were identified in 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Average ligament length, width, and thickness and area of the footprints of the tibial and fibular attachments were measured. Distances from the ligament footprints to known anatomic landmarks (eg, Gerdy's tubercle, tibial articular surface, and fibular styloid) were also measured. The anterior ligament tibial attachment was a mean of 15.6 mm lateral and posterior to Gerdy's tubercle and 17.3 mm anterior and inferior from the fibular styloid. Posterior ligament tibial insertion was a mean of 15.7 mm inferior to the tibial articular surface on the tibial side and 14.2 mm medial and slightly inferior from the fibular styloid. Definable ligaments provide stability to the proximal tibiofibular joint and can be reconstructed in an anatomic fashion using the landmarks and parameters described. This information allows for an anatomic reconstruction of the proximal tibiofibular joint, which should provide patients with better outcomes and fewer postoperative sequelae. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. What Components Comprise the Measurement of the Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove Distance in a Patellar Dislocation Population?

    PubMed

    Tensho, Keiji; Akaoka, Yusuke; Shimodaira, Hiroki; Takanashi, Seiji; Ikegami, Shota; Kato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Naoto

    2015-09-02

    The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is used as an indicator for medial tibial tubercle transfer; however, to our knowledge, no studies have verified whether this distance is strongly affected by tubercle lateralization at the proximal part of the tibia. We hypothesized that the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is mainly affected by tibial tubercle lateralization at the proximal part of the tibia. Forty-four patients with a history of patellar dislocation and forty-four age and sex-matched controls were analyzed with use of computed tomography. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, tibial tubercle lateralization, trochlear groove medialization, and knee rotation were measured and were compared between the patellar dislocation group and the control group. The association between the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance and three other parameters was calculated with use of the Pearson correlation coefficient and partial correlation analysis. There were significant differences in the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (p < 0.001) and knee rotation (p < 0.001), but there was no difference in the tibial tubercle lateralization (p = 0.13) and trochlear groove medialization (p = 0.08) between the patellar dislocation group and the control group. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance had no linear correlation with tubercle lateralization (r = 0.21) or groove medialization (r = -0.15); however, knee rotation had a good positive correlation in the patellar dislocation group (r = 0.62). After adjusting for the remaining parameters, knee rotation strongly correlated with the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (r = 0.69, p < 0.001), whereas tubercle lateralization showed moderate significant correlations in the patellar dislocation group (r = 0.42; p = 0.005). Because the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance is affected more by knee rotation than by tubercle malposition, its use as an indicator for

  18. Intramedullary nailing: experience in 427 patients.

    PubMed

    Lambiris, E; Tyllianakis, M; Megas, P; Panagiotopoulos, E

    1996-01-01

    In the Orthopaedic Department in Patras University 427 intramedullary nailings in the lower limbs were performed between 1989 and 1994 and retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the range of complications. One hundred and seventy-two were nailings of the femur; 80 gamma nails mainly for subtrochanteric and intertrochanteric with subtrochanteric extension fractures were included, (total 252/59%); 175 (41%) were nailings of the tibia. Union was achieved in all case. Overall the complication rate in this series was 3.3% (14 cases) and included infection (4 cases), neuropraxia (2 cases), implant failure (5 cases), limb length deficiency (2 cases) and malrotation (1 case).

  19. Investigation of Human Nail Microstructure with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeva, A. R.; Bakulin, E. Y.; Denisova, L. A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    Investigation of a human fingernail and the extraction of the data on its microstructure and elastic properties is important in three main aspects. First of all, various diseases of the nail can be differentiated more precisely; second of all, it is possible to non-invasively track during time the effects of a cosmetic product upon the nail; third of all, because various processes in the organism have a strong influence upon the nail plate growth, the monitoring of the nail morphology and its mechanical properties may be used as additional information for the diagnosis of a number of medical disorders, such as systemic sclerosis, psoriasis, chronic hand eczema, anemia etc. The aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed ultrasound investigation in the high-frequency range (25-50 MHz) of a human nail including micro-anatomical structure imaging and ultrasound velocity evaluation, using B-scans obtained with a scanning acoustic microscope. On the images, exact topology of the nail, nail matrix and the underlying bone have been revealed. Additionally, a certain type of inclined internal layering along the nails of some individuals has been found, which was not reported in previous ultrasonic studies of the nail.

  20. [Results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail and external fixator].

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Kacki, Wojciech; Tesiorowski, Maciej; Potaczek, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Current techniques of operative limb lengthening usually are based on distraction osteogenesis. One of the techniques is limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail. Between 1999 and 200619 femoral "over nail" lengthenings were performed. There were 7 males and 12 females. Mean patients' age at surgery was 15.8 years, and mean initial femoral shortening was 5.1 cm. Operative technique consisted of one-stage implantation of intramedullary nail and external fixator. Ilizarov apparatus was used in 9 patients, monolateral fixator in 10 cases--ORTHOFIX in 9 patients, Wagner fixator--in 1 patient. Intramedullary nail was locked proximally with screws or Schanz pins from external fixator. After distraction phase, external fixator was removed and distal locking screws were applied. Evaluation criteria: obtained lengthening, time of external fixator, treatment time, healing index, external fixation index, range of motion in hip and knee joints and complications according to Paley. The mean lengthening was 4.6 cm, and mean distraction time was 66.6 days. Mean time of external fixation was 115.5 days, and external fixation index was 26.2 days for centimeter. Healing index was 36.9 days for centimeter. In cases with monolateral fixator, healing index did not differ with the whole group. During treatment 18 complications occurred, for a rate of 0.9 complication per segment. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail reduces the time of external fixator. Over nail femoral lengthening can prevent axis deviation following regenerate bending. Complication rate is similar to lengthenings with the classic Ilizarov technique. There are no differences in the treatment time in relation to the type of external fixator.

  1. [Electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail technology for treatment of femoral shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kangkang; Qin, Wei; Guo, Qing; Palati-Ababaikeli; Qiao, Peiliu; Shen, Mingquan; Yin, Lele; Pan, Qilin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the value of electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture. Between July 2012 and October 2013, 53 cases of femoral shaft fracture were treated. There were 40 males and 13 females, aged 16-52 years (mean, 38.3 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 28 cases, falling from height in 11 cases, falling in 7 cases, crush injury in 4 cases, and other in 3 cases. Of 53 cases, there were 3 cases of open fracture (Gustilo I degree) and 50 cases of closed fracture. Fracture was located in the proximal femur in 17 cases, middle femur in 29 cases, and distal femur in 7 cases. According to Winquist classification, 7 cases were rated as type I, 8 cases as type II, 22 cases as type III, and 16 cases as type IV; according to AO classification, 18 cases were rated as type 32-A, 28 cases as type 32-B, and 7 cases as type 32-C. The time from injury to operation was 3-11 days (mean, 5 days). Distal interlocking intramedullary nail was implanted using electromagnetic navigation. The distal locking nail operation with interlocking intramedullary nail was successfully completed under electromagnetic navigation; the one-time success rate of distal locking nail operation reached 100%; and the locking nail time was 5.0-9.5 minutes (mean, 7.0 minutes). Healing of incision by first intention was obtained after operation, and no complication of skin necrosis, infection, and sinus tract occurred. Fifty-three cases were all followed up 5-12 months (mean, 9 months). One case had hip pain and weaken middle gluteal muscle strength, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the nail. During the follow-up period, no broken nails, nail exit, infection, or re-fracture occurred. All fractures achieved clinical healing, and the healing time was 8-22 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks). In 49 patients followed up 8 months, the Lysholm score was excellent in 44 cases, good in 4 cases, and acceptable in 1 case, with an excellent and

  2. Titanium elastic nail - Complications in the treatment of paediatric diaphyseal fracture of femur [corrected].

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Ranadeb; Mukherjee, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is the most common major paediatric orthopaedic. For generations traction and casting was the standard treatment for all femoral shaft fractures in children. Over the past two decades the advantages of fixation and rapid mobilisation have been increasingly recognised. A prospective study was conducted in five private hospitals in the district of Bankura, West Bengal over a period of two years (April 2010 to March 2012) on 70 patients with closed shaft femur fractures between 6- 14 years age of either sex. The aim was to find out the short term complications of titanium elastic nailing in diaphyseal fracture of femur in children and compare the findings of this study with pre- existing studies in this field. In our study the most common complication was pain at nail entry site (60%). 5.71% had local inflammatory reaction due to nails. Superficial infection occurred in 2.85%. At the end of 1 year, 2.85% had limb length discripancies. Proximal migration occurred in 2.85%. 2.85% encountered acute reactive synovitis, 5.71% developed angulation of fracture site and 2.85% developed per operative breakage of nail. The treatment of paediatric shaft femur fracture has been drastically changed over the last two decades to internal fixation by elastically stable intra- medullary nail (ESIN). In our study, we encountered only a few complications most of them being minor. Most of the complications were surgical technique related and were seen at the initial phase of the learning curve.

  3. Bone microarchitecture of the tibial plateau in skeletal health and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Hubert, Jan; Deymann, Simon; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Wulff, Birgit; Petersik, Andreas; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Hawellek, Thelonius; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-07

    Impaired bone structure poses a challenge for the treatment of osteoporotic tibial plateau fractures. As knowledge of region-specific structural bone alterations is a prerequisite to achieving successful long-term fixation, the aim of the current study was to characterize tibial plateau bone structure in patients with osteoporosis and the elderly. Histomorphometric parameters were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 21 proximal tibiae from females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age: 84.3 ± 4.9 years) and eight female healthy controls (45.5 ± 6.9 years). To visualize region-specific structural bony alterations with age, the bone mineral density (Hounsfield units) was additionally analyzed in 168 human proximal tibiae. Statistical analysis was based on evolutionary learning using globally optimal regression trees. Bone structure deterioration of the tibial plateau due to osteoporosis was region-specific. Compared to healthy controls (20.5 ± 4.7%) the greatest decrease in bone volume fraction was found in the medio-medial segments (9.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001). The lowest bone volume was found in central segments (tibial spine). Trabecular connectivity was severely reduced. Importantly, in the anterior and posterior 25% of the lateral and medial tibial plateaux, trabecular support and subchondral cortical bone thickness itself were also reduced. Thinning of subchondral cortical bone and marked bone loss in the anterior and posterior 25% of the tibial plateau should require special attention when osteoporotic patients require fracture fixation of the posterior segments. This knowledge may help to improve the long-term, fracture-specific fixation of complex tibial plateau fractures in osteoporosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcome of Distal Both Bone Leg Fractures Fixed by Intramedulary Nail for Fibula & MIPPO in Tibia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anil; Anjum, Rashid; Singh, Navdeep; Hackla, Shafiq

    2015-04-01

    Fractures of the distal third of the tibia are mostly associated with a fibular fracture that often requires fixation. The preferred treatment of distal tibial fracture is the minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) procedure. However, there are no clear cut guidelines on fixation of the fibular fracture and currently most orthopedic surgeons use a plate osteosynthesis for the fibula as well. A common complication associated with dual plating is an increased chance of soft tissue necrosis, infection, and in some cases resulting in an exposed implant. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the results of fractures of the distal in both leg bones managed by the MIPPO procedure for tibial fractures and a rush nail for fibular fractures. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from November 2012 to May 2014, a total of 30 fractures in 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) with a mean age of 42.4 years (26-60 years) were treated in our institution in the aforesaid time period with MIPPO for tibia and rush nail for fibular fractures. All the cases were operated on by a single surgeon in emergency within 24 hours. The patients with skin blistering and compound fractures were excluded from this study. Rehabilitative measures were proceeded as per patient's pain profile, isometric and isotonic exercises were started on the first post-operative day, with full weight bearing at 10-12 weeks after assessing clinical and radiological union. Regular follow up of patients was done, radiographs were taken at the immediate post-operative period and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. All the patients were available for regular follow up. Radiological and clinical union proceeded normally in all the patients, no patients had signs of any deep infection, delayed union or nonunion, three patients had a superficial infection of the tibial incision that healed with a change in antibiotic. The use of dual plating for fixation of the lower tibia and fibula

  5. [Structural changes in the tibial bones from an excessive load].

    PubMed

    Moshiashvili, B I

    1977-10-01

    80 cases of pathological reconstruction of the tibia in young men at the age of 18--20 are described. The pathology developed as a result of intense regular physical exercise. In 53 patients the process was localized in the upper third of the tibia, in 20--in the middle third and in 7--in the lower third of the bone. In 6 cases the fracture of the tibial proximal metaphysis happened against the background of pathological reconstruction of the tibia; 3 of them sustained simultaneously a fracture of the fibular head. Some recommendations of practical importance are suggested.

  6. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree

    2017-01-01

    Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity. Some uncommon and rare nail tic disorders are onychoteiromania, onychotemnomania, onychodaknomania and bidet nails. Onychophagia is chronic nail biting behavior which usually starts during childhood. It is often regarded as a tension reducing measure. Onychotillomania is recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails. In severe cases, it may lead to onychoatrophy due to irreversible scarring of the nail matrix. Very often, they occur in psychologically normal children but may sometimes be associated with anxiety. In severe cases, onychotillomania may be an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Management of nail tic disorders is challenging. Frequent applications of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their fingernails. Habit-tic deformity can be helped by bandaging the digit daily with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine in high doses can be helpful in interrupting these compulsive disorders in adults. For a complete diagnosis and accurate management, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health and simultaneously treat the underlying psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  7. The stability of a hip fracture determines the fatigue of an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Eberle, S; Bauer, C; Gerber, C; von Oldenburg, G; Augat, P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the question of how the stability of a proximal hip fracture determines the fatigue and failure mechanism of an intramedullary implant. To answer this question, mechanical experiments and finite element simulations with two different loading scenarios were conducted. The two load scenarios differed in the mechanical support of the fracture by an artificial bone sleeve, representing the femoral head and neck. The experiments confirmed that an intramedullary nail fails at a lower load in an unstable fracture situation in the proximal femur than in a stable fracture. The nails with an unstable support failed at a load 28 per cent lower than the nails with a stable support by the femoral neck. Hence, the mechanical support of a fracture is crucial to the fatigue failure of an implant. The simulation showed why the fatigue fracture of the nail starts at the aperture of the lag screw. It is the location of the highest von Mises stress, which is the failure criterion for ductile materials.

  8. Open wedge high tibial osteotomy using three-dimensional printed models: Experimental analysis using porcine bone.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Jun-Dae; Kim, Hee-June; Park, Jaeyoung; Park, Il-Hyung; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) printed models for open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) in porcine bone. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained from 10 porcine knees and 3D imaging was planned using the 3D-Slicer program. The osteotomy line was drawn from the three centimeters below the medial tibial plateau to the proximal end of the fibular head. Then the osteotomy gap was opened until the mechanical axis line was 62.5% from the medial border along the width of the tibial plateau, maintaining the posterior tibial slope angle. The wedge-shaped 3D-printed model was designed with the measured angle and osteotomy section and was produced by the 3D printer. The open wedge HTO surgery was reproduced in porcine bone using the 3D-printed model and the osteotomy site was fixed with a plate. Accuracy of osteotomy and posterior tibial slope was evaluated after the osteotomy. The mean mechanical axis line on the tibial plateau was 61.8±1.5% from the medial tibia. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.160). The planned and post-osteotomy correction wedge angles were 11.5±3.2° and 11.4±3.3°, and the posterior tibial slope angle was 11.2±2.2° pre-osteotomy and 11.4±2.5° post-osteotomy. There were no significant differences (P=0.854 and P=0.429, respectively). This study showed that good results could be obtained in high tibial osteotomy by using 3D printed models of porcine legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ground reaction forces and bone parameters in females with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim; Crossley, Kay; Jayarajan, Jyotsna; Walton, Elizabeth; Warden, Stuart; Kiss, Z Stephen; Wrigley, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Tibial stress fracture is a common overuse running injury that results from the interplay of repetitive mechanical loading and bone strength. This research project aimed to determine whether female runners with a history of tibial stress fracture (TSF) differ in ground reaction force (GRF) parameters during running, regional bone density, and tibial bone geometry from those who have never sustained a stress fracture (NSF). Thirty-six female running athletes (13 TSF; 23 NSF) ranging in age from 18 to 44 yr were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The groups were well matched for demographic, training, and menstrual parameters. A force platform measured selected GRF parameters (peak and time to peak for vertical impact and active forces, and horizontal braking and propulsive forces) during overground running at 4.0 m.s.(-1). Lumbar spine, proximal femur, and distal tibial bone mineral density were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Tibial bone geometry (cross-sectional dimensions and areas, and second moments of area) was calculated from a computerized tomography scan at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometric parameters (P > 0.05). Both TSF and NSF subjects had bone density levels that were average or above average compared with a young adult reference range. Factor analysis followed by discriminant function analysis did not find any combinations of variables that differentiated between TSF and NSF groups. These findings do not support a role for GRF, bone density, or tibial bone geometry in the development of tibial stress fractures, suggesting that other risk factors were more important in this cohort of female runners.

  10. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia: 23 children followed to skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Heon; Agashe, Mandar Vikas; Huh, Young-Jae; Hwang, Soon-Young; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-06-01

    Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with achondroplasia. We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence-especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted.

  11. Failure analysis of knee arthrodesis with the WichitaFusion Nail.

    PubMed

    Parcel, Ted W; Levering, Melissa; Polikandriotis, John A; Gustke, Kenneth A; Bernasek, Thomas L

    2013-11-01

    Arthrodesis is a salvage procedure for failed total knee arthroplasty with the intent to create a stable, pain-free limb on which to ambulate or transfer. For many patients, the alternative to arthrodesis may be an above-knee amputation. Available techniques for knee arthrodesis include compression plating, external fixators, and intramedullary fixation. The purpose of this study was to report the knee fusion rate of consecutive patients at 1 institution using an intramedullary fusion nail and to identify patient risk factors for fusion failure. Between November 1998 and November 2008, twenty-eight patients undergoing knee arthrodesis with an average follow-up of 18 months (range, 3-64 months) were retrospectively studied. Demographic information, presence of fusion, clinical function, pain level, and bone defect data were collected and analyzed. Eighty-two percent (23/28) of patients had radiographic evidence of successful fusion with an average time to fusion of 21 weeks (range, 10-58 weeks). When examining patient variables that could correlate with fusion rates, patients with an Anderson Orthopaedic Research Institute type 3 femoral or type 3 tibial defect had a statistically significant lower fusion rate. The intramedullary fusion nail is an effective device for knee arthrodesis that offers ease of insertion through the knee wound with the advantages of initial bone compression and rigid fixation. Although the use of intramedullary fusion nails leads to a high fusion rate, significant bone deficiency limits successful fusion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Nail disorders in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Starace, Michela

    2014-08-01

    Nail diseases in infants and children are an uncommon cause of consultation and are often difficult to diagnose and to manage. This review will cover nail diseases that are most commonly seen in clinical practice, including congenital and hereditary disorders and inflammatory, infective, and neoplastic nail diseases. The purpose of the review is to help the reader to recognize nail disorders at an early age and to manage them appropriately. Two recent large studies have reported the clinical findings of genetic disorders involving the nails, that is, pachyonychia congenita and epidermolysis bullosa. Only a few articles gave a comprehensive review of a disease, as occurred for onychomycosis, while the majority of the reports published in the recent literature involve single cases. Nail diseases in children and neonates are not easy to diagnose by nonexperts. Basic knowledge of the anatomy and biology of the nail facilitates their diagnosis as the understanding of their pathophysiology. This review gives hints at the most common nail diseases that affect infants and children.

  13. Intramedullary nailing of humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Robert M; Crenshaw, Andrew H; Zinar, Daniel M

    2002-01-01

    The development of interlocking humeral nail systems has greatly broadened the indications for nailing of humeral shaft fracture. Rotational control is better than with earlier nail systems, and most nails have an oblong distal hole that allows axial loading of the fracture site with muscle contraction. When nailing is done with closed technique, loss of the fracture hematoma and periosteal stripping are avoided. Even when open reduction is required, periosteal stripping can be kept to a minimum. Surgical wounds are smaller, even when open reduction is necessary, and when closed nailing is done, bone grafting is unnecessary. Intramedullary nails are ideal for segmental fractures, pathologic fractures, and fractures in osteopenic bone. Because the arm usually is not a weight-bearing extremity, hardware failure is rare and union rates are equivalent to those of compression plate and screw fixation. Compression plates and external fixation certainly have their place for some fracture patterns and for severe wounds that are unsuitable for intramedullary nailing. The surgeon should be well versed in all three techniques and should be able to rapidly choose among these, depending upon the fracture pattern, skin wound, associated injuries, and overall condition of the patient.

  14. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  15. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    PubMed

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  16. Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L.; Desmond, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers. PMID:15829204

  17. Theoretical discrepancy between cage size and efficient tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs treated for cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborde, S; Mills, J; Busoni, V; Brunel, L; Balligand, M

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the difference between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) along the tibial plateau axis and the advancement truly achieved in that direction when cage size has been determined using the method of Montavon and colleagues. To measure the effect of this difference on the final patellar tendon-tibial plateau angle (PTA) in relation to the ideal 90°. Trigonometry was used to calculate the theoretical actual advancement of the tibial tuberosity in a direction parallel to the tibial plateau that would be achieved by the placement of a cage at the level of the tibial tuberosity in the osteotomy plane of the tibial crest. The same principle was used to calculate the size of the cage that would have been required to achieve the desired advancement. The effect of the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved on the final PTA was calculated. For a given desired advancement, the greater the tibial plateau angle (TPA), the greater the difference between the desired advancement and the actual advancement achieved. The maximum discrepancy calculated was 5.8 mm for a 12 mm advancement in a case of extreme TPA (59°). When the TPA was less than 31°, the PTA was in the range of 90° to 95°. A discrepancy does exist between the desired tibial tuberosity advancement and the actual advancement in a direction parallel to the TPA, when the tibial tuberosity is not translated proximally. Although this has an influence on the final PTA, further studies are warranted to evaluate whether this is clinically significant.

  18. Longitudinal erythronychia: individual or multiple linear red bands of the nail plate: a review of clinical features and associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2011-08-01

    Longitudinal erythronychia is a linear red band on the nail plate that originates at the proximal nail fold, traverses the lunula, and extends to the free edge of the nail plate. Longitudinal erythronychia is classified based upon the number of nails affected and the number of red streaks present on each nail as follows: type Ia (monodactylous - single band), type Ib (monodactylous - bifid bands), type IIa (polydactylous - single band), and type IIb (polydactylous - multiple bands). Associated morphologic findings that can be present at the distal tip of the nail with longitudinal erythronychia include fragility, onycholysis, splinter hemorrhage, splitting, subungual keratosis, thinning, and V-shaped nick. Some patients with longitudinal erythronychia seek medical evaluation because of pain in the associated distal digit; however, the linear red nail plate dyschromia is often asymptomatic and the individual is concerned about the cosmetic appearance or distal nail fragility. Longitudinal erythronychia can be a clinical manifestation of an underlying local or systemic condition. Benign tumors (glomus tumor, onychopapilloma, and warty dyskeratoma), malignant neoplasms (malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma), and other conditions (hemiplegia and postsurgical scar) can be associated with monodactylous longitudinal erythronychia or it may be idiopathic or the initial stage of polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia-associated systemic conditions. Polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is most commonly reported in patients with Darier disease (keratosis follicularis); other associated conditions include acantholytic dyskeratotic epidermal nevus, acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa, acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf, amyloidosis, graft-versus-host disease, lichen planus, and pseudobulbar syndrome. Polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia has also been observed as an idiopathic finding. Biopsy of the nail matrix and nail bed may be necessary to establish the

  19. Arthroscopic pullout repair of a complete radial tear of the tibial attachment site of the medial meniscus posterior horn.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mo; Rhee, Kwang-Jin; Lee, June-Kyu; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Yang, Jun-Young; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2006-07-01

    We developed an effective arthroscopic pullout technique for repairing complete radial tears of the tibial attachment site of the medial meniscus posterior horn (MMPH). In our technique, the torn meniscus is reattached to the tibial plateau immediately medial or anteromedial to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) using two No. 2 Ethibond sutures (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). After a complete radial tear of the tibial attachment site of the MMPH and its reparability were confirmed, using a Caspari suture loaded with a suture shuttle, one No. 2 Ethibond suture is placed through the meniscus, through the red-red zone, 3 to 5 mm medial to the torn edge of the MMPH, and the other is passed through the meniscocapsular junction 3 to 5 mm medial to the torn edge of the meniscus. Then, a tibial tunnel, 5-mm in diameter, is made from the anteromedial aspect of the proximal tibia to the previously prepared tibial plateau, immediately medial or anteromedial to the PCL, and the two No. 2 Ethibond sutures are pulled out through the tibial tunnel and then fixed to the proximal tibia using a 3.5-mm cortical screw and washer. Firm reattachment of the torn meniscus was confirmed arthroscopically.

  20. Treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous plating.

    PubMed

    He, Xianfeng; Zhang, Jingwei; Li, Ming; Yu, Yihui; Zhu, Limei

    2014-08-01

    Segmental tibial fractures usually follow a high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. The purpose of this report is to describe the authors' results in the treatment of segmental tibial fractures with supercutaneous locking plates used as external fixators. Between January 2009 and March 2012, a total of 20 patients underwent external plating (supercutaneous plating) of the segmental tibial fractures using a less-invasive stabilization system locking plate (Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania). Six fractures were closed and 14 were open (6 grade IIIa, 2 grade IIIb, 4 grade II, and 2 grade I, according to the Gustilo classification). When imaging studies confirmed bone union, the plates and screws were removed in the outpatient clinic. Average time of follow-up was 23 months (range, 12-47 months). All fractures achieved union. Median time to union was 19 weeks (range, 12-40 weeks) for the proximal fractures and 22 weeks (range, 12-42 weeks) for the distal fractures. Functional results were excellent in 17 patients and good in 3. Delayed union of the fracture occurred in 2 patients. All patients' radiographs showed normal alignment. No rotational deformities and leg shortening were seen. No incidences of deep infection or implant failures occurred. Minor screw tract infection occurred in 2 patients. A new 1-stage protocol using supercutaneous plating as a definitive fixator for segmental tibial fractures is less invasive, has a lower cost, and has a shorter hospitalization time. Surgeons can achieve good reduction, soft tissue reconstruction, stable fixation, and high union rates using supercutaneous plating. The current patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion and good functional outcomes and had a comfortable clinical course. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Knee stabilisation following infected knee arthroplasty with bone loss and extensor mechanism impairment using a modular cemented nail.

    PubMed

    Rao, M C; Richards, O; Meyer, C; Jones, R Spencer

    2009-12-01

    Infected Total Knee Replacement with significant bone loss and loss of extensor mechanism poses a difficult management problem. Arthrodesis relying on bony union can be difficult to achieve and can result in significant limb shortening. We retrospectively looked at the outcome of seven patients with significant bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency following infected TKR who underwent knee stabilisation using a modular cemented nail. The nail relied on the strong coupling mechanism between the modular femoral and tibial components. Pain score improved from a mean of 7.9 pre-operatively to 1.5 post-operatively at a mean follow up of 39.6 months (range 7-68) months. Two patients underwent technically easy revision nailing for recurrent infection and aseptic loosening. The Endo-Model(R) Knee Fusion Nail (Newsplint, UK/Waldemar Link, GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany) has good early results in terms of pain relief and provides a stable knee in cases with significant bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency following an infected TKR thus avoiding an above knee amputation.

  2. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  3. The use of a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system to accurately reproduce the clinical dial test.

    PubMed

    Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H; Jacobs, C; Branch, T P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee

  4. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  5. Analysis of anatomic periarticular tibial plate fit on normal adults.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Kanu S; Skalak, Anthony S; Marcus, Randall E; Vallier, Heather A; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2007-08-01

    Implant manufacturers are producing anatomically contoured periarticular plates to improve the treatment of proximal tibia fractures. We assessed the accuracy of the designation anatomic. We applied eight-hole medial and lateral anatomically contoured periarticular plates to 101 cadaveric tibiae. The tibiae and the plate fits were mapped, quantified, and analyzed using a MicroScribe G2LX digitizer, Rhinoceros software, and MATLAB software. By corresponding the clinical appearance of good fit with our digital findings, we created numerical criteria for plate fit in three planes: coronal (volume of free space between the plate and bone), sagittal (alignment with the tibial plateau and shaft), and axial (match in curvature between the proximal horizontal part of the plate and the tibial plateau). An anatomic fit should mirror the shape of the tibia in all three planes, and only four medial and four lateral plate fits qualified. Recognizing and understanding the substantial variations in fit that exist between anatomically contoured plates and the tibia may help lead to a more stable fixation and prevent malreduction of the fracture and/or soft tissue impingement.

  6. Objective guidelines for removing an external fixator after tibial lengthening using pixel value ratio: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Fan, Qing; Venkatesh, K P; Park, Man S; Song, Hae Ryong

    2009-12-01

    During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 +/- 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.

  7. Surgical anatomy of medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: crucial steps and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Goebel, Lars; Hoffmann, Alexander; Dück, Klaus; Gerich, Torsten; Seil, Romain; Tschernig, Thomas; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To give an overview of the basic knowledge of the functional surgical anatomy of the proximal lower leg and the popliteal region relevant to medial high tibial osteotomy (HTO) as key anatomical structures in spatial relation to the popliteal region and the proximal tibiofibular joint are usually not directly visible and thus escape a direct inspection. The surgical anatomy of the human proximal lower leg and its relevance for HTO are illustrated with a special emphasis on the individual steps of the operation involving creation of the osteotomy planes and plate fixation. The posteriorly located popliteal neurovascular bundle, but also lateral structures such as the peroneal nerve, the head of the fibula and the lateral collateral ligament must be protected from the instruments used for osteotomy. Neither positioning the knee joint in flexion, nor the posterior thin muscle layer of the popliteal muscle offers adequate protection of the popliteal neurovascular bundle when performing the osteotomy. Tactile feedback through a loss-of-resistance when the opposite cortex is perforated is only possible when sawing and drilling is performed in a pounding fashion. Kirschner wires with a proximal thread, therefore, always need to be introduced under fluoroscopic control. Due to anatomy of the tibial head, the tibial slope may increase inadvertently. Enhanced surgical knowledge of anatomical structures that are at a potential risk during the different steps of osteotomy or plate fixation will help to avoid possible injuries. Expert opinion, Level V.

  8. Knee arthrodesis with the Wichita fusion nail.

    PubMed

    Domingo, L J; Caballero, M J; Cuenca, J; Herrera, A; Sola, A; Herrero, L

    2004-02-01

    We reviewed 32 patients who all had knee arthrodesis performed after failed knee replacement. The minimum clinical follow-up was 1 year. The arthrodesis was performed by means of the Wichita fusion nail in 11, by external fixation in 15 cases, by plating in three and by intramedullary nailing in three. The mean patient age was 68.6 years. When the Wichita nail was used, fusion was achieved in ten out of 11 cases after a mean period of 4.5 (3-7) months. Of the remaining 21 patients, fusion was only achieved in 11 cases after a mean period of 6.5 (4.5-10) months.

  9. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dinko; Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Elabjer, Esmat; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    Distal tibial or pilon fractures are usually the result of combined compressive and shear forces, and may result in instability of the metaphysis, with or without articular depression, and injury to the soft tissue. The complexity of injury, lack of muscle cover and poor vascularity make these fractures difficult to treat. Surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures includes several options: external fixation, IM nailing, ORIF and minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). Management of distal tibial fractures with MIPO enables preservation of soft tissue and remaining blood supply. This is a report of a series of prospectively studied closed distal tibial and pilon fractures treated with MIPO. A total of 21 patients with closed distal tibial or pilon fractures were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and November 2013 and completed follow-up. Demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, time required for union, ankle range of motion and complications were recorded. Fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification. Nineteen patients were initially managed with an ankle-spanning external fixator. When the status of the soft tissue had improved and swelling had subsided enough, a definitive internal fixation with MIPO was performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months. Mean age of the patients was 40.1 years (range 19-67 years). Eighteen cases were the result of high-energy trauma and three were the result of low-energy trauma. According to the AO/OTA classification there were extraarticular and intraarticular fractures, but only simple articular patterns without depression or comminution. The average time for fracture union was 19.7 weeks (range 12-38 weeks). Mean range of motion was 10° of dorsiflexion (range 5-15°) and 28.3° of plantar flexion (range 20-35°). Three cases were metalwork-related complications. Two patients underwent plate removal

  10. Linkage analysis of the Nail-patella syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, E.; Watkins, D.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by dysplasia of nails and patella, decreased mobility of the elbow, iliac horns, and, in some cases, nephropathy. The disorder has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9, but the precise localization and identity of the NPS gene are unknown. Linkage analysis in three NPS families, using highly informative dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms on 9q33-q34, confirmed linkage of NPS to this chromosome. Recombinations were detected, by two-point linkage analysis, between NPS and the centromeric markers D9S60 and the gelsolin gene and the telomeric markers D9S64 and D9S66, in one ofmore » the families. Haplotype analysis suggested an additional recombination between NPS and the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene. These results localize the NPS gene to an interval on 9q34.1, distal to D9S60 an proximal to ASS, comprising a genetic distance of {approximately}9 cM. This represents a significant refinement in the localization of the NPS gene. 25 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  11. Effect of tibial tuberosity advancement on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Objective- To evaluate the effects of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. Study Design- In vitro biomechanical study. Animals- Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Methods- Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees . Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TTA-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Results- Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanic parameters were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in any contact mechanic and kinematic parameters were detected between normal and TTA-treated stifles. Conclusion- TTA eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight-bearing and concurrently restores femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Clinical Relevance- TTA may mitigate the progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs afflicted with CrCL insufficiency by eliminating cranial tibial thrust while preserving the normal orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  12. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilateral periprosthetic tibial stress fracture after total knee arthroplasty: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Guzelali; Azboy, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Baris

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures around the knee after total knee arthroplasty can be seen in the femur, tibia and patella. The tibial fractures are rare cases. Our case with bilateral tibial stress fracture developed after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the first of its kind in the literature. 75-year-old male patient with bilateral knee osteoarthritis had not benefited from conservative treatment methods previously applied. Left TKA was applied. In the second month postoperatively, periprosthetic tibial fracture was identified and osteosynthesis was implemented with locked tibia proximal plate-screw. Bone union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-ups. After 15 months of his first operation, TKA was applied to the right knee. Postoperatively in the second month, as in the first operation, periprosthetic tibial fracture was detected. Osteosynthesis with locking plate-screw was applied and union in 12 weeks was observed in his follow-up. He was seen mobilized independently and without support in the last control of the case made in the 24th month after the second operation. The number of TKA applications is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of periprosthetic fractures should also be expected to increase in these cases. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after TKA are rarely seen. The treatment of periprosthetic fractures around the knee after TKA can be difficult. In the case of persistent pain in the upper end of the tibia after the surgery, stress fracture should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of fixation and bone quality on the mechanical stability of tibial knee components.

    PubMed

    Lee, R W; Volz, R G; Sheridan, D C

    1991-12-01

    Tibial component loosening remains one of the major causes of failure of cemented and noncemented total knee arthroplasties. In this study, the authors identified the role of implant design, method of fixation, and bone density as it related to implant stability. The physical properties of "good" and "bad" bone were simulated using a "good" and "bad" foam model of the proximal tibia, fabricated in the laboratory from DARO RF-100 foam. A generic tibial component permitting various fixation designs was implanted into "good" and "bad" variable density foam tibial models in both cemented and noncemented modes. The mechanical stability of the implants was determined using a Materials Testing Machine by the application of an eccentrically applied cyclic load. The micromotion (subsidence and lift-off) of the tibial implants was recorded using two Linear Variable Differential Transformers. Statistically significant differences in implant stability were recorded as a function of fixation method. The most rigid implant fixation was achieved using four peripherally placed, 6.5-mm cancellous screws. The addition of a central stem added stability only in the case of "poor" quality foam. The mechanical stability of noncemented implants related directly to the density of the foam. Implant stability was greatly enhanced in "poor" quality foam by the use of cement. The method of implant fixation and bone density are critical determinants to tibial implant stability.

  15. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures by primary fascio-septo-cutaneous local flap and primary fixation: The 'fix and shift' technique.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, P R

    2017-01-01

    Open fractures of tibia have posed great difficulty in managing both the soft tissue and the skeletal components of the injured limb. Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures are more difficult to manage than I, II, and III A fractures. Stable skeletal fixation with immediate soft tissue cover has been the key to the successful outcome in treating open tibial fractures, in particular, Gustilo Anderson III B types. If the length of the open wound is larger and if the exposed surface of tibial fracture and tibial shaft is greater, then the management becomes still more difficult. Thirty six Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures managed between June 2002 and December 2013 with "fix and shift" technique were retrospectively reviewed. All the 36 patients managed by this technique had open wounds measuring >5 cm (post debridement). Under fix and shift technique, stable fixation involved primary external fixator application or primary intramedullary nailing of the tibial fracture and immediate soft tissue cover involved septocutaneous shift, i.e., shifting of fasciocutaneous segments based on septocutaneous perforators. Primary fracture union rate was 50% and reoperation rate (bone stimulating procedures) was 50%. Overall fracture union rate was 100%. The rate of malunion was 14% and deep infection was 16%. Failure of septocutaneous shift was 2.7%. There was no incidence of amputation. Management of Gustilo Anderson III B open tibial fractures with "fix and shift" technique has resulted in better outcome in terms of skeletal factors (primary fracture union, overall union, and time for union and malunion) and soft tissue factors (wound healing, flap failure, access to secondary procedures, and esthetic appearance) when compared to standard methods adopted earlier. Hence, "fix and shift" could be recommended as one of the treatment modalities for open III B tibial fractures.

  16. High altitude hypoxia as a factor that promotes tibial growth plate development in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shucheng; Zhang, Lihong; Rehman, Mujeeb Ur; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Lan, Yanfang; Mehmood, Khalid; Zhang, Hui; Qiu, Gang; Nabi, Fazul; Yao, Wangyuan; Wang, Meng; Li, Jiakui

    2017-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is one of the most common problems in the poultry industry and leads to lameness by affecting the proximal growth plate of the tibia. However, due to the unique environmental and geographical conditions of Tibet, no case of TD has been reported in Tibetan chickens (TBCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of high altitude hypoxia on blood parameters and tibial growth plate development in chickens using the complete blood count, morphology, and histological examination. The results of this study showed an undesirable impact on the overall performance, body weight, and mortality of Arbor Acres chickens (AACs) exposed to a high altitude hypoxic environment. However, AACs raised under hypoxic conditions showed an elevated number of red blood cells (RBCs) and an increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit values on day 14 compared to the hypobaric normoxia group. Notably, the morphology and histology analyses showed that the size of tibial growth plates in AACs was enlarged and that the blood vessel density was also higher after exposure to the hypoxic environment for 14 days, while no such change was observed in TBCs. Altogether, our results revealed that the hypoxic environment has a potentially new role in increasing the blood vessel density of proximal tibial growth plates to strengthen and enhance the size of the growth plates, which may provide new insights for the therapeutic manipulation of hypoxia in poultry TD. PMID:28282429

  17. Fixator-assisted medial tibial plateau elevation to treat severe Blount's disease: outcomes at maturity.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, F; Ilharreborde, B; Lefevre, Y; Souchet, P; Presedo, A; Mazda, K; Penneçot, G F

    2011-04-01

    Severe forms of Blount's disease may be associated with medial tibial plateau (MTP) depression. Management should then take account of joint congruence, laxity, limb axis, torsional abnomality, leg length discrepancy (LLD) and eventual recurrence history. Eight knees (six patients) were managed in a single step comprising MTP elevation osteotomy, lateral epiphysiodesis and proximal tibia osteotomy to correct varus and rotational deformity. Fixation was achieved using an Ilizarov external fixator. Mean age was 10.5 years. Mean hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle was 151°; distal femoral varus, 94°; metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle (MDA), 27°; and angle of depression of the medial tibial plateau (ADMTP), 42°. Predicted residual proximal tibial growth was 2.6 cm. At a mean 48 months' follow-up, results were good in six cases, medium in one and poor (due to incomplete lateral epiphysiodesis) in one. Mean lateral tibial torsion was 9° and final LLD 11 mm. Weight-bearing was resumed at 2 months, and the fixator was removed at 5.5 months postoperatively. At end of follow-up, mean HKA angle was 179.6°, MDA 7.3° and ADMTP 5.4°. This technically demanding procedure gave satisfactory results in terms of axes and congruence; longer term assessment remains needed. Level IV. Retrospective study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  19. Analysis of Knee Joint Line Obliquity after High Tibial Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Ko, Young Bong; Bae, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Suk Tae; Kim, Jae Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which lower extremity alignment (knee and ankle joint) parameters affect knee joint line obliquity (KJLO) in the coronal plane after open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO). Overall, 69 knees of patients that underwent OWHTO were evaluated using radiographs obtained preoperatively and from 6 weeks to 3 months postoperatively. We measured multiple parameters of knee and ankle joint alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle [HKA], joint line height [JLH], posterior tibial slope [PS], femoral condyle-tibial plateau angle [FCTP], medial proximal tibial angle [MPTA], mechanical lateral distal femoral angle [mLDFA], KJLO, talar tilt angle [TTA], ankle joint obliquity [AJO], and the lateral distal tibial ground surface angle [LDTGA]; preoperative [-pre], postoperative [-post], and the difference between -pre and -post values [-Δ]). We categorized patients into two groups according to the KJLO-post value (the normal group [within ± 4 degrees, 56 knees] and the abnormal group [greater than ± 4 degrees, 13 knees]), and compared their -pre parameters. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of the -pre parameters to abnormal KJLO-post. The mean HKA-Δ (-9.4 ± 4.7 degrees) was larger than the mean KJLO-Δ (-2.1 ± 3.2 degrees). The knee joint alignment parameters (the HKA-pre, FCTP-pre) differed significantly between the two groups ( p  < 0.05). In addition, the HKA-pre (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p  = 0.006) and FCTP-pre (OR = 2.13, p  = 0.006) were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO-post. However, -pre ankle joint parameters (TTA, AJO, and LDTGA) did not differ significantly between the two groups and were not significantly associated with the abnormal KJLO-post. The -pre knee joint alignment and knee joint convergence angle evaluated by HKA-pre and FCTP-pre angle, respectively, were significant predictors of abnormal KJLO after OWHTO. However, -pre ankle joint

  20. Effect on dynamic mechanical stability and interfragmentary movement of angle-stable locking of intramedullary nails in unstable distal tibia fractures: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Gueorguiev, Boyko; Wähnert, Dirk; Albrecht, Daniel; Ockert, Ben; Windolf, Markus; Schwieger, Karsten

    2011-02-01

    Unstable distal tibia fractures are challenging injuries that require surgery. Increasingly, intramedullary nails are being used. However, fracture site anatomy may cause distal-fragment stabilization and fixation problems and lead to malunion/nonunion. We studied the influence of angle-stable nail locking on fracture gap movement and other biomechanical parameters. Eight pairs of fresh human cadaver tibiae were used. The bone mineral density (BMD) was determined. All tibiae were nailed with a Synthes Expert tibial nail. Within each pair, one tibia was randomized to receive conventional locking screws; the other, angle-stable screws with sleeves. A 7-mm osteotomy was created 10 mm above the upper distal locking screw, to simulate an AO 42-A3 fracture. Biomechanical testing involved nondestructive mediolateral and anteroposterior pure bending, followed by cyclic combined axial and torsional loading to catastrophic failure. The neutral zone was determined. Fracture gap movement was monitored with 3-D motion tracking. The angle-stable locked constructs had a significantly smaller mediolateral neutral zone (mean: 0.04 degree; p=0.039) and significantly smaller fracture gap angulation (p=0.043). The number of cycles to failure did not differ significantly between the locking configurations. BMD was a significant covariate affecting the number of cycles to failure (p=0.008). However, over the first 20,000 cycles, there was no significant correlation in the angle-stable construct. Angle-stable locking of the Expert tibial nail was associated with a significant reduction in the mediolateral neutral zone and in fracture gap movement. Angle-stable fixation also reduced the influence of BMD over the first 20,000 cycles.

  1. Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Jeremy J; Li, Xinning; Weiss, Douglas R; Billiar, Kristen L; Wixted, John J

    2010-10-14

    Knee or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure, often with unacceptable rates of nonunion. Basic science of fracture healing suggests that compression across a fusion site may decrease nonunion. A novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail designed to improve dynamic compression is mechanically tested in comparison to existing nails. A novel ratcheting nail was designed and mechanically tested in comparison to a solid nail and a threaded nail using sawbones models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc.). Intramedullary nails (IM) were implanted with a load cell (Futek LTH 500) between fusion surfaces. Constructs were then placed into a servo-hydraulic test frame (Model 858 Mini-bionix, MTS Systems) for application of 3 mm and 6 mm dynamic axial displacement (n = 3/group). Load to failure was also measured. Mean percent of initial load after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement was 190.4% and 186.0% for the solid nail, 80.7% and 63.0% for the threaded nail, and 286.4% and 829.0% for the ratcheting nail, respectively. Stress-shielding (as percentage of maximum load per test) after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement averaged 34.8% and 28.7% (solid nail), 40.3% and 40.9% (threaded nail), and 18.5% and 11.5% (ratcheting nail), respectively. In the 6-mm trials, statistically significant increase in initial load and decrease in stress-shielding for the ratcheting vs. solid nail (p = 0.029, p = 0.001) and vs. threaded nail (p = 0.012, p = 0.002) was observed. Load to failure for the ratcheting nail; 599.0 lbs, threaded nail; 508.8 lbs, and solid nail; 688.1 lbs. With significantly increase of compressive load while decreasing stress-shielding at 6-mm of dynamic displacement, the ratcheting mechanism in IM nails may clinically improve rates of fusion.

  2. Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knee or tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is a salvage procedure, often with unacceptable rates of nonunion. Basic science of fracture healing suggests that compression across a fusion site may decrease nonunion. A novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail designed to improve dynamic compression is mechanically tested in comparison to existing nails. Methods A novel ratcheting nail was designed and mechanically tested in comparison to a solid nail and a threaded nail using sawbones models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc.). Intramedullary nails (IM) were implanted with a load cell (Futek LTH 500) between fusion surfaces. Constructs were then placed into a servo-hydraulic test frame (Model 858 Mini-bionix, MTS Systems) for application of 3 mm and 6 mm dynamic axial displacement (n = 3/group). Load to failure was also measured. Results Mean percent of initial load after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement was 190.4% and 186.0% for the solid nail, 80.7% and 63.0% for the threaded nail, and 286.4% and 829.0% for the ratcheting nail, respectively. Stress-shielding (as percentage of maximum load per test) after 3-mm and 6-mm displacement averaged 34.8% and 28.7% (solid nail), 40.3% and 40.9% (threaded nail), and 18.5% and 11.5% (ratcheting nail), respectively. In the 6-mm trials, statistically significant increase in initial load and decrease in stress-shielding for the ratcheting vs. solid nail (p = 0.029, p = 0.001) and vs. threaded nail (p = 0.012, p = 0.002) was observed. Load to failure for the ratcheting nail; 599.0 lbs, threaded nail; 508.8 lbs, and solid nail; 688.1 lbs. Conclusion With significantly increase of compressive load while decreasing stress-shielding at 6-mm of dynamic displacement, the ratcheting mechanism in IM nails may clinically improve rates of fusion. PMID:20942976

  3. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  4. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A.; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C.; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  5. Nail Psoriasis: A Review of Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Pasch, Marcel C

    2016-04-01

    Nail involvement affects 80-90 % of patients with plaque psoriasis, and is even more prevalent in patients with psoriatic arthritis. This review is the result of a systemic approach to the literature and covers topical, intralesional, conventional systemic, and biologic systemic treatments, as well as non-pharmacological treatment options for nail psoriasis. The available evidence suggests that all anti-tumor necrosis factor-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-17, and anti-IL-12/23 antibodies which are available for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are highly effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Conventional systemic treatments, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin, and apremilast, as well as intralesional corticosteroids, can also be effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Topical treatments, including corticosteroids, calcipotriol, tacrolimus, and tazarotene, have also been shown to have a position in the treatment of nail psoriasis, particularly in mild cases. Finally, non-pharmacological treatment options, including phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and several radiotherapeutic options, are also reviewed but cannot be advised as first-line treatment options. Another conclusion of this review is that the lack of a reliable core set of outcomes measures for trials in nail psoriasis hinders the interpretation of results, and is urgently needed.

  6. Nails in Forensic Toxicology: An Update.

    PubMed

    Solimini, Renata; Minutillo, Adele; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nails as a keratinized matrix to detect drugs or illicit substances has been increasingly used in forensic and clinical toxicology as a complementary test, especially for the specific characteristics of stably accumulating substances for long periods of time. This allows a retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse, monitoring continuous drug or pharmaceutical use, reveal in utero drug exposure or environmental exposures. We herein review the recent literature investigating drug incorporation mechanisms and drug detection in nails for forensic toxicological purposes. Mechanisms of drug incorporation have not yet been fully elucidated. However, some research has lately contributed to a better understanding of how substances are incorporated into nails, suggesting three potential mechanisms of drug incorporation: contamination from sweat, incorporation from nail bed and incorporation from germinal matrix. In addition, numerous methods dealing with the determination of drugs of abuse, medications and alcohol biomarkers in nails have been reported in studies over the years. The latter methods could find application in clinical and forensic toxicology. The studies herein reviewed point out how important it is to standardize and harmonize the methodologies (either pre-analytical or analytical) for nails analysis and the optimization of sampling as well as the development of proficiency testing programs and the determination of cut-off values. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. [Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis with the retrograde intramedullary nail MEDIN].

    PubMed

    Popelka, S; Vavřík, P; Landor, I; Bek, J; Popelka ml, S; Hromádka, R

    2013-01-01

    When the talus and the talocalcaneal joint are both affected, their fusion is the method of treatment. Ankle arthrodesis is carried out using various osteosynthetic materials such as external fixators, screws and plates. One of the options is retrograde nailing. Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis is frequently indicated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in whom both the talus and the subtalar joint are often affected. A retrograde nail for tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis was developed at our department in cooperation with MEDIN Company. This is a titanium double-curved nail, with the distal part bent at 8 degrees ventrally and 10 degrees laterally. It is inserted from the transfibular approach. Sixty-two patients, 35 women and 27 men, were treated at our department from 2005. Since one patient had bilateral surgery, 63 ankles were included. The indications for arthrodesis involved rheumatoid arthritis in 42, post-traumatic arthritis in 10, failed ankle arthrodesis in two and failed total ankle arthroplasty in five ankles; tibial stress fractures close above the ankle in two RA patients, one patient with dermatomyositis and one with lupus erythematodes. The average age at the time of surgery was 64.2 years (range, 30 to 80). The average follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 1 to 9 years), Satisfaction with the treatment outcome and willingness to undergo surgery on the other side were reported by 82% of the patients. The AOFAS score improved from 35 to 74 points. Three (4.8%) patients complained of painful feet due to the fact that exact correction of the calcaneus was not achieved and the heel after arthrodesis remained in a slightly varus position. Of them, two had a failed total ankle arthroplasty. Post-operative complications included early infection managed by antibiotic treatment and early surgical revision with irrigation.in two (3.2%) RA patients, who were undergoing biological therapy. Late infection developed at 2 to 3 years after surgery in three (4

  8. Paediatric tibial shaft fractures treated by open reduction and stabilization with monolateral external fixation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, A.-L.; Apostolou, N.; Vidal, C.; Ferrero, E.; Mazda, K.; Ilharreborde, B.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is increasingly used for surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures, but frequently requires immobilization and delayed full weight-bearing. Therefore, external fixation remains interesting. The aim was to report clinico-radiological outcomes of monolateral external fixation for displaced and unstable tibial shaft fractures in children. Methods All tibial fractures consecutively treated by monolateral external fixation between 2008 and 2013 were followed. Inclusion criteria included skeletal immaturity and closed and open Gustilo I fractures caused by a direct impact. Patients were seen until two years postoperatively. Demographics, mechanism of injury, surgical data and complications were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral side radiographs were performed at each visit. Full-limb 3D reconstructions using biplanar stereroradiography was performed for final limb length and alignment measures. Results A total of 45 patients (mean age 9.7 years ± 0.5) were included. In all, 17 were Gustilo I fractures, with no difference between open and closed fractures for any data. Mean time to full weight bearing was 18.2 days ± 0.7. After 15 days, 39 patients returned to school. Hardware removal (mean time to union 15.6 weeks ± 0.8) was performed during consultation under analgesic gas. There were no cases of nonunion. No fracture healed with > 10° of angulation (mean 5.1° ± 0.4°). Leg-length discrepancy > 10 mm was found for six patients. Conclusions This procedure can be a safe and simple surgical treatment for children with tibial shaft fractures. Few complications and early return to school were reported, with the limitations of non-comparative study. Level of Evidence IV PMID:29456750

  9. Defining the Lower Limit of a "Critical Bone Defect" in Open Diaphyseal Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Haines, Nikkole M; Lack, William D; Seymour, Rachel B; Bosse, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    To determine healing outcomes of open diaphyseal tibial shaft fractures treated with reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the cortical circumference and to better define a "critical bone defect" based on healing outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Forty patients, age 18-65, with open diaphyseal tibial fractures with a bone gap of 10-50 mm on ≥50% of the circumference as measured on standard anteroposterior and lateral postoperative radiographs treated with IMN. IMN of an open diaphyseal tibial fracture with a bone gap. Level-1 trauma center. Healing outcomes, union or nonunion. Forty patients were analyzed. Twenty-one (52.5%) went on to nonunion and nineteen (47.5%) achieved union. Radiographic apparent bone gap (RABG) and infection were the only 2 covariates predicting nonunion outcome (P = 0.046 for infection). The RABG was determined by measuring the bone gap on each cortex and averaging over 4 cortices. Fractures achieving union had a RABG of 12 ± 1 mm versus 20 ± 2 mm in those going on to nonunion (P < 0.01). This remained significant when patients with infection were removed. Receiver operator characteristic analysis demonstrated that RABG was predictive of outcome (area under the curve of 0.79). A RABG of 25 mm was the statistically optimal threshold for prediction of healing outcome. Patients with open diaphyseal tibial fractures treated with IMN and a <25 mm RABG have a reasonable probability of achieving union without additional intervention, whereas those with larger gaps have a higher probability of nonunion. Research investigating interventions for RABGs should use a predictive threshold for defining a critical bone defect that is associated with greater than 50% risk of nonunion without supplementary treatment. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Nail gun injuries among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

    2003-05-01

    Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data

  11. Total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. A comparison study in patients who had bilateral total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Meding, J B; Keating, E M; Ritter, M A; Faris, P M

    2000-09-01

    not found to be significant with the numbers available (p = 0.4810). Knee alignment and stability, femoral and tibial component alignment, and range of motion also were similar in both groups postoperatively. One allpolyethylene tibial component was revised in the high tibial osteotomy group. Two knees in each group required manipulation. There were no deep infections. While patients with a previous high tibial osteotomy may have important differences preoperatively, including valgus alignment, patella infera, and decreased bone stock in the proximal part of the tibia, the present study suggests that the clinical and radiographic results of primary total knee arthroplasty in knees with and without a previous high tibial osteotomy are not substantially different. In our relatively small group of patients, the previous high tibial osteotomy had no adverse effect on the outcome of the subsequent total knee replacement.

  12. A quantitative method for measuring forces applied by nail braces.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Fatma G

    2011-01-01

    Nail bracing is a conservative method used for ingrown nails; however, lack of objective measurements limits its use for various nails. Double-string nail braces with extra metal springs were applied to 12 patients with 21 chronic, thick, and overcurved ingrown nails. Force was measured with a force gauge meter. Treatment was stopped once patients stood on their tiptoes and walked in shoes pain free without braces. A force gauge meter was also used on a model nail to show the forces applied by various nail braces and to compare their pulling forces. After 6 to 10 months of treatment, all of the patients were pain free; 600 to 1,000 centi Newtons of force were applied to the nails. As the width of the nail increased, so did the force. Braces exert more force on larger nails, which may shorten treatment durations. By measuring forces, it may be possible to standardize force and duration of treatment according to variables such as nail thickness, nail width, angle of ingrown nail, and duration of symptoms.

  13. External torsion in a proximal tibia and internal torsion in a distal tibia occur independently in varus osteoarthritic knees compared to healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Tanifuji, Osamu; Koga, Yoshio; Hata, Ryosuke; Mori, Takahiro; Nishino, Katsutoshi; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Omori, Go; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji; Endo, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The relative torsional angle of the distal tibia is dependent on a deformity of the proximal tibia, and it is a commonly used torsional parameter to describe deformities of the tibia; however, this parameter cannot show the location and direction of the torsional deformity in the entire tibia. This study aimed to identify the detailed deformity in the entire tibia via a coordinate system based on the diaphysis of the tibia by comparing varus osteoarthritic knees to healthy knees. In total, 61 limbs in 58 healthy subjects (age: 54 ± 18 years) and 55 limbs in 50 varus osteoarthritis (OA) subjects (age: 72 ± 7 years) were evaluated. The original coordinate system based on anatomic points only from the tibial diaphysis was established. The evaluation parameters were 1) the relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia, 2) the proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis, and 3) the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis. The relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia showed external torsion in both groups, while the external torsion was lower in the OA group than in the healthy group (p < 0.0001). The proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher external torsion in the OA group (p = 0.012), and the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher internal torsion in the OA group (p = 0.004) in comparison to the healthy group. The reverse torsional deformity, showing a higher external torsion in the proximal tibia and a higher internal torsion in the distal tibia, occurred independently in the OA group in comparison to the healthy group. Clinically, this finding may prove to be a pathogenic factor in varus osteoarthritic knees. Level Ⅲ. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the Stryker S2 IM Nail Distal Targeting Device for reduction of radiation exposure: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Anastopoulos, George; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Chissas, Dionisios; Loupasis, George; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Athanaselis, Eustratios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-10-01

    Distal locking is one challenging step during intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures that can lead to an increase of radiation exposure. In the present study, the authors describe a technique for the distal locking of femoral nails, implementing a new targeting device in an attempt to reduce radiation exposure and operational time. Over a 2-year period, 127 consecutive cases of femoral shaft fractures were included in the study. All cases were treated with nailing of femoral shaft fractures with an unslotted reamed antegrade femoral nail and distal locking was performed with the use of a proximally mounted aiming device. Mean duration of the procedure was 63.5 18.1 min while the duration for distal locking was 6.6 +/- 2.6 min. In all successful cases, exposure from intraoperative fluoroscopy was 17.2 +/- 7.4 s for the whole operative procedure, and for distal locking was 2 shots, 1.35 s (range, 0.9-2.2 s) and 1.9 mGy (range, 1.1-2.9 mGy). Five cases (3.9%) were unsuccessful, but overall no intraoperative complications were encountered from the application of this technique. The ability of the device to correspond to the level of nail deformation and to properly identify the distal holes, reduced exposure to radiation compared to other published reports, and should be considered as a valuable tool for distal locking of femoral fractures.

  15. Proximity fuze

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the lightmore » pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.« less

  16. Proximity fuze

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal dependingmore » upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.« less

  17. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  18. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  19. Periprosthetic fracture of the proximal tibia after lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Chambers, Iain; Wong, Paul

    2008-06-01

    We report a case of periprosthetic fracture of the proximal tibia after lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty following a trivial fall. At the time of surgery, the components were found to be loose; and there was a large uncontained tibial defect with bone loss and communition at the fracture site. The patient was treated by revision total knee arthroplasty and proximal structural tibial allograft, with a satisfactory result at 5-year follow up. Our case illustrates that a bone-conserving unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, if complicated by a periprosthetic fracture, can also present with a difficult surgical problem. Attention to preoperative planning and to availability of structural allograft for such difficult cases is recommended.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  1. Dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis treated with biologics.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Uyama, Miki; Takada, Yuko; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishiko, Akira

    2017-05-01

    Although psoriatic nail lesions are small, they cause considerable discomfort for patients and adversely affect quality of life. Few studies have evaluated the dermoscopic features of psoriatic nails. The aim of this study was to clarify the dermoscopic features of nail psoriasis and identify those that reflect psoriatic activity. During biologic treatment of psoriasis, six patients with psoriatic nails twice underwent dermoscopic examination, with an interval of 17-42 weeks. We used the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score to identify and assess dermoscopic features. We identified 10 dermoscopic findings, of which disappearance of diffuse scaling of the nail plate, transverse step-like notches and splinter hemorrhages of the nail bed, and appearance of erythematous borders of the onycholytic area were associated with improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score. Dermoscopy can detect nail changes during psoriasis treatment and should be used to evaluate treatment success. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of the risk of secondary fracture around short versus long cephalomedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Daner, William E; Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S; Graves, Ryan B; Willis, Mark C

    2017-12-01

    For proximal femur fractures, long cephalomedullary nails (CMNs) are often selected to avoid a diaphyseal stress riser at the tip of a shorter nail. Secondary peri-implant fracture rates for long and short CMN have not been shown to differ clinically. This study biomechanically compares both CMN in a cadaveric model. Ten matched pairs of cadaveric femora with short or long CMN were axially loaded and internally rotated to failure. Resulting fractures involved distal interlocking screws of the short and long CMN. Energy and rotation to failure were significantly greater for short CMN. Torque at failure trended higher for short CMN but not significantly. No statistical difference was detected in stiffness of the short and long CMN. A greater risk of secondary fracture is not indicated for short versus long CMN under torsional stress. Short CMN may be suitable in the younger patient.

  3. Trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Develi, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    The tibial nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve and it terminates in the tarsal tunnel by giving lateral and medial plantar nerves. We present a rare case of trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. The variant nerve curves laterally after branching from the tibial nerve and courses deep to quadratus plantae muscle. Interestingly, posterior tibial artery was also terminating by giving three branches. These branches were accompanying the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

  4. Does a conservative tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty violate the deep medial collateral ligament?

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Luyckx, Thomas; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-11-01

    Based on the anatomy of the deep medial collateral ligament (MCL), it was hypothesized that at least part of its cross-sectional insertion area is jeopardized while performing a standard tibial cut in conventional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to determine whether it is anatomically possible to preserve the tibial deep MCL insertion during conventional TKA. Thirty-three unpaired cadaveric knee specimens were used for this study. Knees with severe varus/valgus deformity or damage to the medial structures of the knee were excluded. In the first part of the study, the dimensions of the tibial insertion of the deep MCL and its relationship to the joint line were recorded. Next, the cross-sectional area of the deep MCL insertion was determined using calibrated digital photographic analysis. In the second part, the effect of a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut on the structural integrity of the deep MCL cross-sectional insertion area was determined using conventional instrumentation. The proximal border of the deep MCL insertion site on the tibia was located on average 4.7 ± 1.2 mm distally to the joint line. After performing a standard 9-mm 3° sloped tibial cut, on average 54% of the deep MCL insertion area was resected. In 29% of the cases, the deep MCL insertion area was completely excised. The deep MCL cannot routinely be preserved in conventional TKA. The deep MCL insertion is at risk and may be jeopardized in case of a tibial cut 9 mm below the native joint line. As the deep MCL is a distinct medial stabilizer and plays an important role in rotational stability, this may have implications in future designs of both unicondylar and total knee arthroplasty, but further research is necessary.

  5. Removal of a broken trigen intertan intertrochanteric antegrade nail.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan-Lin; Park, Young-Chang; Kim, Sungmin; An, Haemosu; Yang, Kyu-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Implant breakage is a serious complication after cephalomedullary nailing for unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Failure usually occurs at the lag screw hole in the nail body. On the other hand, lag screw failure is extremely rare and occurs around the nail-lag screw junction. We experienced rare mechanical failure of the Intertan nail, which showed breakage at the lag screw hole and failure of the integrated compression screw underneath the main lag screw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes assessment in the SPRINT multicenter tibial fracture trial: Adjudication committee size has trivial effect on trial results.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Nicole; Walter, Stephen; Devereaux, P J; Sprague, Sheila; Guyatt, Gordon H; Schemitsch, Emil; Tornetta, Paul; Sanders, David; Swiontkowski, Marc; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate how the size of an outcome adjudication committee, and the potential for dominance among its members, potentially impacts a trial's results. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the six-member adjudication committee in the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Reamed Intramedullary Nails in Patients with Tibial Fractures (SPRINT) Trial. We modeled the adjudication process, predicted the results and costs if smaller committees had been used, and tested for the presence of a dominant adjudicator. Use of smaller committee sizes (one to five members) would have had little impact on the final study results, although one analysis suggested that the benefit in reduction of reoperations with reamed nails in closed tibial fractures would have lost significance if committee sizes of three or less were used. We identified a significant difference between adjudicators in the number of times their original minority decisions became the final consensus decision (χ(2)=9.67, P=0.046), suggesting that dominant adjudicators were present. However, their impact on the final study results was trivial. Reducing the number of adjudicators from six to four would have led to little change in the final SPRINT study results irrespective of the significance of the original trial results, demonstrating the potential for savings in trial resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  8. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  9. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1114 (Review)] Steel Nails From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on steel nails from China would be... 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-1114 (Review). By order of the...

  10. Guidance on maintaining personal hygiene in nail care.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Bridget; Berridge, Pat

    Nail care is important in the maintenance of personal hygiene and is an essential aspect of patient care. Confusion about who should perform nail care for patients has resulted in poor practice and cycles of non-activity. This article provides guidance for nurses on performing routine nail care.

  11. Soil nailing of a bridge fill embankment : construction report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-08-01

    Soil nailing as an alternative lateral earth support method has recently been introduced in Oregon to build the first permanent Soil-Nailed Wall on the State's Highway System. : The soil nailing technique was used for an underpass widening to provide...

  12. Is there a role for intramedullary nails in the treatment of simple pilon fractures? Rationale and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Matthew S; Yoon, Richard S; Langford, Joshua; Kubiak, Erik N; Morris, Andrew J; Koval, Kenneth J; Haidukewych, George J; Liporace, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Certain patients with pilon fractures present with significant soft-tissue swelling or with a poor soft-tissue envelope typically not amenable to definitive fixation in the early time period. The objective of this study was to review the treatment of simple intra-articular fractures of the tibial plafond (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) type 43C1-C2) via intramedullary nailing (IMN) with the assessment of clinical and radiographic results and any associated complications. Retrospective clinical and radiological reviews of 31 patients sustaining AO/OTA type 43C distal tibial fractures treated with IMN were evaluated. Our main outcome measurement included achievable alignment in the immediate postoperative period and at the time of union along with complications or need for secondary procedures within the first year of follow-up. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. All the remaining patients achieved bony union at a mean union time of 14.1 ± 4.9 weeks with no evidence of malunion or malrotation. All patients were at full-weight-bearing status at 1-year follow-up. Complications were notable for one delayed union, one non-union, one patient with superficial wound drainage, two with deep infection, one with symptomatic hardware and one with deep vein thrombosis. Simple articular fractures of the tibial plafond (AO/OTA type 43C) treated via IMN can achieve excellent alignment and union rates with proper patient selection and surgical indication. One should not hesitate to use additional bone screws or plating options to help achieve better anatomic reduction. However, larger, prospective randomised trials comparing plating versus nailing, in experienced hands, are needed to completely delineate the utility of this treatment modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  14. Ipsilateral intact fibula as a predictor of tibial plafond fracture pattern and severity.

    PubMed

    Luk, Pamela C; Charlton, Timothy P; Lee, Jackson; Thordarson, David B

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in fracture pattern and severity of comminution between tibial plafond fractures with and without associated fibular fractures using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the presence of an intact fibula was predictive of increased tibial plafond fracture severity. This was a case control, radiographic review performed at a single level I university trauma center. Between November 2007 and July 2011, 104 patients with 107 operatively treated tibial pilon fractures and preoperative CT scans were identified: 70 patients with 71 tibial plafond fractures had associated fibular fractures, and 34 patients with 36 tibial plafond fractures had intact fibulas. Four criteria were compared between the 2 groups: AO/OTA classification of distal tibia fractures, Topliss coronal and sagittal fracture pattern classification, plafond region of greatest comminution, and degree of proximal extension of fracture line. The intact fibula group had greater percentages of AO/OTA classification B2 type (5.5 vs 0, P = .046) and B3 type (52.8 vs 28.2, P = .013). Conversely, the percentage of AO/OTA classification C3 type was greater in the fractured fibula group (53.5 vs 30.6, P = .025). Evaluation using the Topliss sagittal and coronal classifications revealed no difference between the 2 groups (P = .226). Central and lateral regions of the plafond were the most common areas of comminution in fractured fibula pilons (32% and 31%, respectively). The lateral region of the plafond was the most common area of comminution in intact fibula pilon fractures (42%). There was no statistically significant difference (P = .71) in degree of proximal extension of fracture line between the 2 groups. Tibial plafond fractures with intact fibulas were more commonly associated with AO/OTA classification B-type patterns, whereas those with fractured fibulas were more commonly associated with C-type patterns. An intact fibula

  15. Effect of mechanical forces on finger nail curvature: an analysis of the effect of occupation on finger nails.

    PubMed

    Sano, Hitomi; Shionoya, Kaori; Ogawa, Rei

    2014-04-01

    We studied the relationship between mechanical force and nail curvature. The effect of different frequencies and strengths of mechanical force on nail curvature was assessed. In Study 1, 63 carpenters and 63 office workers were enrolled, and the configurations of their thumb nails were assessed by measuring the curve index (defined as nail height/width) and pinch strength. In Study 2, nail curvature and pinch strength of jazz bassists, who characteristically do not use the right fourth and fifth fingers but use the left fifth finger a lot, were compared. In Study 3, the thumb nail curvature and pinch strength of the dominant and nondominant sides of the 126 participants from Study 1 were compared. Study 1: Carpenters had a significantly lower mean thumb nail curve index and higher mean pinch strength. Study 2: The nails of the unused right fourth and fifth fingers were much more curved than the nails of the frequently used left fourth and fifth fingers. The pinch strength of the right fifth finger was much weaker than the pinch strength of the left fifth finger. Study 3: The dominant side had a significantly lower nail curve index and higher pinch strength. The frequency and strength of mechanical forces on finger nails significantly affect nail appearance. © 2014 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Fracture of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty with an extensor mechanism allograft.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gregg R; Levine, Harlan B; Sporer, Scott M; Hartzband, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Extensor mechanism reconstruction with an extensor mechanism allograft (EMA) remains one of the most reliable methods for treating the extensor mechanism deficient total knee arthroplasty. We report 3 patients who were treated with an EMA who sustained a proximal tibial shaft fracture. In all 3 cases, a short tibial component was present that ended close to the level of the distal extent of the bone block. When performing an EMA, it is important to recognize that the tibial bone block creates a stress riser and revision to a long-stemmed tibial component should be strongly considered to bypass this point to minimize the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical features and nail clippings in 52 children with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Uber, Marjorie; Carvalho, Vânia O; Abagge, Kerstin T; Robl Imoto, Renata; Werner, Betina

    2018-03-01

    Nail clipping, the act of cutting the distal portion of a nail for microscopic analysis, can complement the diagnosis of skin diseases with nail involvement, such as psoriasis. This study aimed to describe histopathologic findings on 81 nails from 52 children and adolescents with skin psoriasis and to determine whether these changes correlated with the severity of skin and nail involvement. Children with psoriasis were enrolled in this cross-sectional study to obtain Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores. The most altered nails were processed using periodic acid-Schiff with diastase staining. Fifty-two patients with a median age of 10.5 years were included. The median Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score of the 20 nails from these patients was 17 (range 3-80). The most common findings were pitting (94.2%), leukonychia (73.0%), and longitudinal ridges (63.5%). Eighty-one nail fragments were collected by clipping. Neutrophils were found in 6 samples (7.6%) and serous lakes in 15 (19%). Median nail plate thickness was 0.3 mm (range 0.1-0.63 mm). Patients whose nails had neutrophils had a higher median PASI score (6.1 vs 2.0, P = .03). Patients whose nails had serous lakes had higher median PASI (5.3 vs 1.9, P = .008) and NAPSI (median 45.0 vs 18.0, P = .006) scores. There seems to be a correlation between some microscopic nail features in children with psoriasis and their PASI and NAPSI scores, so nail clippings from children with suspected psoriasis may help with diagnosis, especially in the presence of neutrophils, and in excluding onychomycosis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A cranial nail for fetal shunting.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R L; Simmons, G M; Edwards, W H; Crow, H C

    1985-01-01

    A small number of human fetal hydrocephalics have been treated by ventriculoamniotic shunts of silastic tubing. The Colorado device appears to be the one most commonly used. The original experimental device tested on a primate model resembled a hollow shingle nail. This was designed by Michedja and Hodgen, contained a spring valve, measured approximately 32 X 4 mm and was placed by hysterotomy. An attractive feature of this design was its fixation by impaction in the skull, preventing displacement by fetal activity, a reported disadvantage with the silastic devices. To our knowledge, no one has used this nail-like design and tailored it to transuterine percutaneous placement in a human case.

  20. Effect of open wedge high tibial osteotomy on the lateral tibiofemoral compartment in sheep. Part II: standard and overcorrection do not cause articular cartilage degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Raphaela; Goebel, Lars; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate whether medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in structural changes in the articular cartilage in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment of adult sheep. Three experimental groups received biplanar osteotomies of the right proximal tibiae: (a) closing wedge HTO (4.5° of tibial varus), (b) opening wedge HTO (4.5° tibial valgus; standard correction), and (c) opening wedge HTO (9.5° of valgus; overcorrection), each of which was compared to the contralateral knees that only received an arthrotomy. After 6 months, the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the articular cartilage of the lateral tibiofemoral compartment were assessed. The articular cartilage in the central region of the lateral tibial plateau in sheep had a higher safranin O staining intensity and was 4.6-fold thicker than in the periphery (covered by the lateral meniscus). No topographical variation in the type-II collagen immunoreactivity was seen. All lateral tibial plateaus showed osteoarthritic changes in regions not covered by the lateral meniscus. No osteoarthritis was seen in the peripheral submeniscal regions of the lateral tibial plateau and the lateral femoral condyle. Opening wedge HTO resulting in both standard and overcorrection was not associated with significant macroscopic and microscopic structural changes between groups in the articular cartilage of the lateral tibial plateau and femoral condyle after 6 months in vivo. Opening wedge HTO resulting in both standard and overcorrection is a safe procedure for the articular cartilage in an intact lateral tibiofemoral compartment of adult sheep at 6 months postoperatively.

  1. Nail Scabies: An Unusual Presentation Often Overlooked and Mistreated.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2017-04-01

    Nail scabies is an interesting clinical presentation of scabies. Although it is usually found concomitant with characteristic dermatologic manifestations, it may present as an isolated finding in the immunocompromised host. This condition is commonly mistaken with other diseases such as nail dystrophy, nail psoriasis and onychomycosis. We report two cases of unusual nail presentations that provide clues to diagnosis. Also, literature on unusual nail and dermatologic presentations was reviewed to recognize dermatologist consideration for appropriate treatment options. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Asymmetry in gait pattern following tibial shaft fractures - a prospective one-year follow-up study of 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Berre Eriksen, Christian; Elsoe, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high number of studies evaluating the outcomes following tibial shaft fractures, the literature lacks studies including objective assessment of patients' recovery regarding gait pattern. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively following intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture are different compared with a healthy reference population. The study design was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measurement was the gait patterns at 6 and 12 months post-operatively measured with a 6-metre-long pressure-sensitive mat. The mat registers footprints and present gait speed, cadence as well as temporal and spatial parameters of the gait cycle. Gait patterns were compared to a healthy reference population. 49 patients were included with a mean age of 43.1 years (18-79 years). Forty-three patients completed the 12-month follow-up (88%). Gait speed and cadence were significantly increased between the 6- and 12-month follow-up (P<0.001). At 6-month follow-up, patients showed considerable asymmetry in the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg: single-support time 12.8% shorter, swing-time 12.8% longer, step-length 11.9% shorter, and rotation of the foot increased by 32.3%. At the 12-month follow-up, gait asymmetry become almost normalized compared to a healthy reference group. In patients treated by intramedullary nailing following a tibial shaft fracture, gait asymmetry accompanied with slower speed and cadence are common during the first 6 months and become normalized compared with a healthy reference population between 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat embolism syndrome in an adolescent before surgical treatment of an isolated closed tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Cayce B; Kelly, Derek M; Warner, William C; Beaty, James H; Rhodes, Leslie; Sawyer, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) occurs most commonly in adults with high-energy trauma, especially fractures of the long-bones and pelvis. Because of unique age-related physiologic differences in the immature skeleton, as well as differences in fracture management in pediatric patients, FES is rare in children. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of FES occurring before surgical fixation of a closed tibial shaft fracture in an adolescent. A 16-year-old, 109 kg, Caucasian adolescent boy developed FES after closed diaphyseal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula, showing signs of respiratory distress and mental status changes. The FES resolved with supportive respiratory care and intramedullary nailing of the fracture was done without further respiratory compromise. FES is uncommon in children and adolescents. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis promptly and institute appropriate treatment. Intramedullary nailing of a long-bone fracture can be done safely and successfully after resolution of the FES.

  4. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on pulse oximetry reading using the Lifebox oximeter in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Desalu, I; Diakparomre, O I; Salami, A O; Abiola, A O

    2013-12-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES - Pulse oximetry is mandatory during anaesthesia, sedation and transfer of critically ill patients. The effect of nail polish and acrylic nails on the accuracy of saturation reading is inconsistent. The Lifebox pulse oximeter is reliable and recommended for low and middle income countries. We investigated its accuracy in the presence of 4 nail colours and acrylic nails SUBJECTS AND METHODS Fifty non-smoking volunteers had their fingers numbered from right to left (little finger of right hand =1 and little finger of left hand =10). Alternate fingers were nails painted with clear, red, brown and black nail polish and the 5th finger had acrylic nail applied. The corresponding finger on the other hand acted as control. The oxygen saturation was determined using the Lifebox pulse oximeter. Results All fingers (100%) with clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails recorded a saturation value. Each of the mean saturation value for clear nail polish, red nail polish and acrylic nails was not significantly different from the control mean (p= 0.378, 0.427 and 0.921). Only 12% and 64% of nails polished black and brown respectively recorded a saturation value. The mean SpO- for black and brown polish were significantly different from their control mean (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Black and brown polish resulted in a significant decrease in SpO with the Lifebox oximeter. Dark coloured nail polish should be removed prior to SpO2 determination to ensure that accurate readings can be obtained.

  5. CalNail : a design tool for soil nail projects using field case histories.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-06-01

    Currently, geotechnical staff within Caltrans do not have ready access to detailed information on : previously designed soil nail walls. Much of this information is kept by individual designers, or stored in : paper format, with no organized method o...

  6. Treatment of Nail Psoriasis: Common Concepts and New Trends

    PubMed Central

    Oram, Yasemin; Akkaya, A. Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime incidence of nail involvement in psoriatic patients is estimated to be 80–90%, and the nails can be affected in 10% to 55% of psoriatic patients. Psoriasis may also solely involve the nails, without any other skin findings, in which the treatment can be more challenging. Nail psoriasis may lead to considerable impairment in quality of life due to aesthetic concerns and more importantly limitations in daily activities resulting from the associated pain, which may be overlooked by the physicians. Several topical and systemic treatment modalities, as well as radiation and light systems, have been used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. In the last decade, the introduction of biologic agents and the utilization of laser systems have brought a new insight into the treatment of nail psoriasis. This paper focuses on the recent advances, as well as the conventional methods, in treating nail psoriasis in adults and children, in reference to an extensive literature search. PMID:23762032

  7. Influence of the intramedullary nail preparation method on nail's mechanical properties and degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Morawska-Chochół, Anna; Chłopek, Jan; Szaraniec, Barbara; Domalik-Pyzik, Patrycja; Balacha, Ewa; Boguń, Maciej; Kucharski, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    When it comes to the treatment of long bone fractures, scientists are still investigating new materials for intramedullary nails and different manufacturing methods. Some of the most promising materials used in the field are resorbable polymers and their composites, especially since there is a wide range of potential manufacturing and processing methods. The aim of this work was to select the best manufacturing method and technological parameters to obtain multiphase, and multifunctional, biodegradable intramedullary nails. All composites were based on a poly(l-lactide) matrix. Either magnesium alloy wires or carbon and alginate fibres were introduced in order to reinforce the nails. The polylactide matrix was also modified with tricalcium phosphate and gentamicin sulfate. The composite nails were manufactured using three different methods: forming from solution, injection moulding and hot pressing. The effect of each method of manufacturing on mechanical properties and degradation rate of the nails was evaluated. The study showed that injection moulding provides higher uniformity and homogeneity of the particle-modified polylactide matrix, whereas hot pressing favours applying higher volume fractions of fibres and their better impregnation with the polymer matrix. Thus, it was concluded that the fabrication method should be individually selected dependently on the nail's desired phase composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments can cause skin to become dry, itchy, red, or peel. Nails may become dark, yellow, or cracked. Learn about signs of skin problems that may need urgent medical care. Get a helpful list of questions to ask your doctor.

  9. 3D Computer graphical anatomy study of the femur: a basis for a new nail design.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Beat; Kmiec, Stanley; Wullschleger, Martin E; Altmann, Martin; Schuetz, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Current intramedullary nails with a radius of curvature (ROC) of 1500-2000 mm sometimes cause distal anterior cortical encroachment. Furthermore, clinical data indicate that the proximal nail end is too long for some Asian patients. The objective of our study was to develop a comprehensive 3D measurement protocol that measures both the anatomy of the canal and the proximal region. The protocol was used to obtain measurements from Caucasian and Asian (Japanese and Thai) specimens. A total of 90 3D bone models representative of hip fracture patients were reconstructed from CT data. RapidForm 2006 was used to generate the reference geometries required for determining radius and angulation of shaft antecurvature as well as measurements of the proximal anatomy. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of height, age, ethnicity, gender, and body side on the total variance. The mean ROC in the natural 3D antecurvature plane was 885 mm overall, 974 mm in Caucasians and 787 mm in Asians. Height, age, ethnicity, gender, and body side significantly predicted ROC (R = 0.53, p = 0.000). The mean values of anteversion measurements for Asians (Japanese: 22.1°; Thai: 22.7°) were significantly larger than those of the Caucasians (14.5°; p = 0.001). There was virtually no difference (p = 0.186) between the measurements pertaining to the length of the proximal nail end between Caucasian and Asian samples. There was no significant difference between the mean neck-to-shaft angles (Caucasian: 126°; Japanese: 128.2°; Thai: 125.7°; p = 0.198 for Asians vs Caucasians). The developed comprehensive anatomical 3D measurement protocol could serve as standardised approach for anthropometric studies in the future. Our data suggest that the ROC of current nail designs should be reduced from between 1500 and 2000 to 1000 mm to achieve an improved fit for the investigated population.

  10. Biocompatibility of sol-gel-derived titania-silica coated intramedullary NiTi nails.

    PubMed

    Muhonen, V; Kujala, S; Vuotikka, A; Aäritalo, V; Peltola, T; Areva, S; Närhi, T; Tuukkanen, J

    2009-02-01

    We investigated bone response to sol-gel-derived titania-silica coated functional intramedullary NiTi nails that applied a continuous bending force. Nails 26 mm in length, either straight or with a radius of curvature of 28 or 15 mm, were implanted in the cooled martensite form from a proximal to distal direction into the medullary cavity of the right femur in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats. Body temperature restored the austenite form, causing the curved implants to generate a bending force on the bone. The femurs were examined after 24 weeks. Bone length measurements did not reveal any bowing or shortening of the bone in the experimental groups. The results from histomorphometry demonstrated that the stronger bending force, together with sol-gel surface treatment, resulted in more bone deposition around the implant and the formation of significantly less fibrous tissue. Straight intramedullary nails, even those with a titania-silica coating, were poorly attached when compared to the implants with a curved austenite structure.

  11. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a skeletally-immature child - a case report.

    PubMed

    Matava, Matthew J; Kim, Young-Mo

    2011-01-01

    It has been theorized that a traumatic tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (MM) is the cause of the so-called meniscus ossicle (MO). We report the delayed appearance of a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM after a valgus, twisting injury in a 12-year-old boy with open physes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed 3 days after the injury did not demonstrate a definitive tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM; whereas, a repeat MRI for 3 months post-injury did. Medial extrusion of the MM was also noted on the 3 month MRI. Arthroscopic reattachment of the avulsed posterior root of the MM using a trans-physeal nonabsorbable suture tied over a proximal tibia staple was performed. Follow-up MRI at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated healing of the tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in an anatomic position. The patient had a complete resolution of symptoms and there was no angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy at 2 years postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the MM in a skeletally-immature patient successfully treated by a trans-physeal arthroscopic suture. This case also illustrates the development of the MO of the posterior root of the MM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy on femorotibial contact mechanics and stifle kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Stanley E; Pozzi, Antonio; Banks, Scott A; Conrad, Bryan P; Lewis, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on femorotibial contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics in cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifles of dogs. In vitro biomechanical study. Unpaired pelvic limbs from 8 dogs, weighing 28-35 kg. Digital pressure sensors placed subjacent to the menisci were used to measure femorotibial contact force, contact area, peak and mean contact pressure, and peak pressure location with the limb under an axial load of 30% body weight and a stifle angle of 135 degrees. Three-dimensional static poses of the stifle were obtained using a Microscribe digitizing arm. Each specimen was tested under normal, CrCL-deficient, and TPLO-treated conditions. Repeated measures analysis of variance with a Tukey post hoc test (P<.05) was used for statistical comparison. Significant disturbances to all measured contact mechanical variables were evident after CrCL transection, which corresponded to marked cranial tibial subluxation and increased internal tibial rotation in the CrCL-deficient stifle. No significant differences in 3D femorotibial alignment were observed between normal and TPLO-treated stifles; however, femorotibial contact area remained significantly smaller and peak contact pressures in both medial and lateral stifle compartments were positioned more caudally on the tibial plateau, when compared with normal. Whereas TPLO eliminates craniocaudal stifle instability during simulated weight bearing, the procedure fails to concurrently restore femorotibial contact mechanics to normal. Progression of stifle osteoarthritis in dogs treated with TPLO may be partly the result of abnormal stifle contact mechanics induced by altering the orientation of the proximal tibial articulating surface.

  13. Effects of directly autotransplanted tibial bone marrow aspirates on bone regeneration and osseointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Payer, Michael; Lohberger, Birgit; Strunk, Dirk; Reich, Karoline M; Acham, Stephan; Jakse, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Aim of the pilot trial was to evaluate applicability and effects of directly autotransplanted tibial bone marrow (BM) aspirates on the incorporation of porous bovine bone mineral in a sinus lift model and on the osseointegration of dental implants. Six edentulous patients with bilaterally severely resorbed maxillae requiring sinus augmentation and implant treatment were included. During surgery, tibial BM was harvested and added to bone substitute material (Bio-Oss(®) ) at the randomly selected test site. At control sites, augmentation was performed with Bio-Oss(®) alone. The cellular content of each BM aspirate was checked for multipotency and surface antigen expression as quality control. Histomorphometric analysis of biopsies from the augmented sites after 3 and 6 months (during implantation) was used to evaluate effects on bone regeneration. Osseointegration of implants was evaluated with Periotest(®) and radiographic means. Multipotent cellular content in tibial BM aspirates was comparable to that in punctures from the iliac crest. No significant difference in amount of new bone formation and the integration of bone substitute particles was detected histomorphometrically. Periotest(®) values and radiographs showed successful osseointegration of inserted implants at all sites. Directly autotransplanted tibial BM aspirates did not show beneficial regenerative effects in the small study population (N = 6) of the present pilot trial. However, the proximal tibia proved to be a potential donor site for small quantities of BM. Future trials should clarify whether concentration of tibial BM aspirates could effect higher regenerative potency. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of autocontrol micromotion intramedullary interlocking nail on fracture healing: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-zhou; Guo, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Ju-cai; Wang, Yi-jin

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the effect of autocontrol micromotion locking nail (AMLN) on experimental fracture healing and its mechanism. 16 goats undergoing both sides of transverse osteotomy of the femoral shafts were fixed intramedullary with AMLN and Gross-Kempf (GK) nail, respectively. The follow-up time was 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Roentgenographic, biomechanical, histological, scanning electromicroscopic and biochemical analyses were done. (1) The strength of anticompression, antiflexion and antitorsion in the fractural end in the AMLN-fixed group was higher than that of GK nail-fixed group; whereas, the rate of stress shelter in the fractured end decreased significantly (P<0.01). (2) The content of the total collagen, insoluble collagen, calcium and phosphate in the AMLN-fixed group was higher than that in the GK nail-fixed group (P<0.05). (3) Histological observation and quantitative analysis of calluses revealed that AMLN could promote the growth of bridge calluses and periosteum calluses. Hence the fracture healing and remolding process achieved early, which was much better than traditional GK nail fixation. (P<0.05). (4) 7-14 days postoperation, the calluses of AMLN-fixed group was flourish and camellarly arranged and the collagen fibril formed constantly in the absorption lacuna of bone trabecula. 28-56 days postoperation, the collagen fibril was flourish around the absorption lacuna and was parallel to the bone's longitudinal axis. Active bony absorption and formation were seen, so was remolding and rebuilding. Haversian system was intact and the bony structural net was very tenacious because of the deposition of calcium salt. None of the above findings was observed in the GK nail-fixed group. The design of AMLN accords well with the plastic fixation theory. As the geometry ametabolic system constituted by the intramedullary fixation instruments and the proximal and distal end of the fracture is very firm and stable, the disturbance to the physical stress

  15. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  17. Outcome of limb reconstruction system in open tibial diaphyseal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Anand; Verma, Ankit; Agrawal, Mukul; Jain, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Arunangshu

    2015-01-01

    Management of open tibial diaphyseal fractures with bone loss is a matter of debate. The treatment options range from external fixators, nailing, ring fixators or grafting with or without plastic reconstruction. All the procedures have their own set of complications, like acute docking problems, shortening, difficulty in soft tissue management, chronic infection, increased morbidity, multiple surgeries, longer hospital stay, mal union, nonunion and higher patient dissatisfaction. We evaluated the outcome of the limb reconstruction system (LRS) in the treatment of open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss as a definative mode of treatment to achieve union, as well as limb lengthening, simultaneously. Thirty open fractures of tibial diaphysis with bone loss of at least 4 cm or more with a mean age 32.5 years were treated by using the LRS after debridement. Distraction osteogenesis at rate of 1 mm/day was done away from the fracture site to maintain the limb length. On the approximation of fracture ends, the dynamized LRS was left for further 15-20 weeks and patient was mobilized with weight bearing to achieve union. Functional assessment was done by Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Illizarov (ASAMI) criteria. Mean followup period was 15 months. The mean bone loss was 5.5 cm (range 4-9 cm). The mean duration of bone transport was 13 weeks (range 8-30 weeks) with a mean time for LRS in place was 44 weeks (range 24-51 weeks). The mean implant index was 56.4 days/cm. Mean union time was 52 weeks (range 31-60 weeks) with mean union index of 74.5 days/cm. Bony results as per the ASAMI scoring were excellent in 76% (19/25), good in 12% (3/25) and fair in 4% (1/25) with union in all except 2 patients, which showed poor results (8%) with only 2 patients having leg length discrepancy more than 2.5 cm. Functional results were excellent in 84% (21/25), good in 8% (2/25), fair in 8% (2/25). Pin tract infection was seen in 5 cases, out of which 4

  18. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  19. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  20. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  1. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  2. Effects of nail polish on microbial growth of fingernails. Dispelling sacred cows.

    PubMed

    Baumgardner, C A; Maragos, C S; Walz, J; Larson, E

    1993-07-01

    Nail polish worn on short, healthy nails does not appear to be associated with increased microbial counts on the fingernails. Additional studies to examine the effect of wearing nail polish on other aspects of hand hygiene may be warranted, however.

  3. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  4. Knee arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Crockarell, John R; Mihalko, Marc J

    2005-09-01

    Fifteen knee arthrodeses using an intramedullary nail were performed in 15 patients. Indications included 11 failed total knee arthroplasties (10 of 11 septic). A retrospective review revealed 100% fusion rate. Complications included 4 cases of painful hardware, 1 trochanteric bursitis, and 1 deep infection. Ten patients were available for assessment at 7 years follow-up. Average leg length discrepancy was 3.7 cm. Anatomic axis averaged 1.3 degrees valgus. Flexion angle averaged 3.5 degrees . Compared with age-matched controls, our patients fared significantly worse in physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning. Arthrodesis of the knee with an intramedullary nail provides a reliable means of fusion with reasonable alignment. These patients have high rates of pain and diminished functional status.

  5. OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Alvachian Fernandes, Helio Jorge; Saad, Eduardo Abdalla; Reis, Fernando Baldy dos

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive review of the literature emphasizing the use of flexible intramedullary nails in the treatment of fractures in children, focusing the treatment of femoral shaft and forearm fractures and emphasizing the importance of the non-surgical approach. Children's age and weight threshold are not well defined for the use of the method. The removal of implants is a controversial matter in the literature, with a trend towards keeping the implants. PMID:27004183

  6. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  7. Correlation between hindfoot joint three-dimensional kinematics and the changes of the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Ma, Xin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the kinematics of the hindfoot joint and the medial arch angle change in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot three-dimensionally under loading. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 12 healthy feet and 12 feet with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot were taken both in non- and full-body-weight-bearing condition. The CT images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into three-dimensional models with Mimics and Geomagic reverse engineering software. The three-dimensional changes of the hindfoot joint were calculated to determine their correlation to the medial longitudinal arch angle. The medial arch angle change was larger in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot compared to that in healthy foot under loading. The rotation and translation of the talocalcaneal joint, the talonavicular joint and the calcanocuboid joint had little influence on the change of the medial arch angle in healthy foot. However, the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint, the proximal translation of the calcaneus relative to the talus and the dorsiflexion of talonavicular joint could increase the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Joint instability occurred in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Limitation of over movement of the talocalcaneal joint and the talonavicular joint may help correct the medial longitudinal arch in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intramedullary nails with two lag screws.

    PubMed

    Brown, C J; Wang, C J; Yettram, A L; Procter, P

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the structural integrity of intramedullary nails with two lag screws, and to give guidance to orthopaedic surgeons in the choice of appropriate devices. Alternative designs of the construct are considered, and the use of a slotted upper lag screw insertion hole is analysed. Intramedullary fixation devices with a single lag screw have been known to fail at the lag screw insertion hole. Using two lag screws is considered. It has also been proposed to use a slot in the nail for the upper lag screw to prevent the upper lag screw from sticking. Bending and torsion load cases are analysed using finite element method. Consideration of both load conditions is essential. The results present the overall stiffness of the assembly, the load sharing between lag screws, and the possibility for cut-out to occur. While the slot for the upper lag screw might be advantageous with regard to the stresses in the lag screws, it could be detrimental for cut-out occurring adjacent to the lag screws. Comparative analyses demonstrate that two lag screws may be advantageous in patients whose cancellous bone quality is good and who impose large loads on the lag screw/nail interface. However, the use of two screws might pre-dispose to failure by cut-out of the lag screws. The addition of a slotted hole for the upper lag screw appears to do nothing significant to reduce the risk of such a failure. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Continuous decompression with intramedullary nailing for the treatment of unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Masquijo, Julio Javier; Baroni, Eduardo; Miscione, Horacio

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of decompression of unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) of the long bones with intramedullary nailing and to compare responses to treatment according to location. We evaluated 48 consecutive patients treated between January 1988 and June 2000. Mean age was 10.3 years. Mean follow-up was 9.8 years. Evaluation was performed according to the radiographic criteria of Capanna. UBCs were located in the proximal humerus (n = 24), humeral shaft (n = 2), proximal femur (n = 19), distal tibia (n = 2) and fibula (n = 1). A total of 62.5% presented a pathological fracture. Successful results were observed in 89.5% (26 total healing, 17 healing with residual radiolucent areas), and there were four recurrences and, in one case, no response to treatment. There was more healing in the humerus than in the femur (92.3% versus 84.2%), and more tendency to restitution ad integrum, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.1499). Intramedullary nailing is a minimally invasive method, which permits early stability and decompresses the cyst allowing healing. Significant differences were not observed among results from different locations.

  10. Close association between metal allergy and nail lichen planus: detection of causative metals in nail lesions.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, A; Satoh, T; Yokozeki, H

    2013-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology that affects the skin, mucous membranes and nails. Although metal allergies have been implicated in the development of oral LP (OLP), the contribution of these allergies to nail LP (NLP) has yet to be studied in detail. To elucidate the link between metal allergy and NLP. We retrospectively analysed 115 LP patients with respect to the contribution of metals to either NLP or OLP. We also attempted to detect the specific metals involved in these nail lesions. Of the 79 patients that received a metal patch test (PT), 24 (30%) were positive for at least one of the metal compounds tested. Notably, the prevalence of positive reactions to metals in the NLP patients was significantly higher as compared with the OLP patients (59% vs. 27%, P < 0.05). Among the 10 PT-positive patients with NLP, improvement of the skin lesions was seen in six of the patients after removal of dental materials containing causative metals or systemic disodium cromoglycate therapy. On the other hand, only 3 of 16 PT-positive patients with OLP exhibited improvement after the removal of dental materials. Causative metals in the dental fillings/braces were detected in the involved nail tissues. This study suggests that metal allergies are more closely associated with NLP vs. OLP, and that deposited metals in the nail apparatus contribute to the development of lichenoid tissue reactions in the nail bed and matrix. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Mating of a PROSTALAC spacer with an intramedullary nail for reconstruction of an infected interprosthetic femoral shaft fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Atul F; Austin, Daniel; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2012-08-01

    Reconstruction for concurrent infection of an ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenge. We report a 2-stage reconstruction of a THA for chronic infection of both the THA and TKA with severe femoral bone loss secondary to interprosthetic fractures. The reconstruction involved using a custom-made, temporary, antibiotic-impregnated PROSTALAC spacer mated with an intramedullary nail. The acetabulum was then exposed and the necrotic cartilage was removed and curetted. The acetabulum was reamed to accept a PROSTALAC acetabular shell. The shell was cemented into the acetabulum with antibiotic cement. The custom-made spacer was then inserted distally first into the tibia. The distal end of the intramedullary nail was interlocked with a bicortical bolt to minimise nail rotation. Antibiotic-impregnated cement was moulded around the nail and spacer. The proximal end of the spacer was then reduced into the acetabular socket, and the joint was irrigated and the wound closed. A customised abduction brace was fitted, and partial weight bearing was allowed. Sufficient leg length, soft-tissue tension, and range of hip motion were restored, and a total femur and constrained liner was re-implanted 4 months later. Mating of an intramedullary nail with a PROSTALAC spacer is a viable reconstructive option.

  12. The anterolateral acromial approach for fractures of the proximal humerus.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael J; Boraiah, Sreevathsa; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2008-02-01

    Displaced and unstable fractures of the proximal humerus are notoriously difficult to manage. Successful surgical treatment requires finding the appropriate balance between adequate exposure for reduction and rigid fixation and minimizing soft tissue dissection. The anterolateral acromial approach was developed to allow less invasive treatment of proximal humerus fractures. The plane of the avascular anterior deltoid raphe is utilized, and the axillary nerve is identified and protected. Anterior dissection near the critical blood supply is avoided, substantial muscle retraction is minimized, and the lateral plating zone is directly accessed. Over a 4-year period, 52 patients with acute displaced fractures of the proximal humerus were treated with the anterolateral acromial approach and either a locking plate or an intramedullary nail. Twenty-three patients were evaluated clinically at a minimum follow-up of 1 year (average, 28 months) by clinical examination for range of motion and nerve function and a QuickDASH score. There were no axillary nerve deficits postoperatively related to the approach, and the average QuickDASH score was 25.2 (0, best; 100, worst). This approach allowed direct access to the lateral fracture planes for fracture reduction and plate placement or safe nail and interlocking screw placement.

  13. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  14. [Elastic sliding central medullary nailing with osteogenesis imperfecta. Fourteen cases at eight years follow-up].

    PubMed

    Boutaud, B; Laville, J-M

    2004-06-01

    Elastic sliding centromedullary nailing (ESCN) proposed by Métaizeau in 1987 for the prevention and treatment of limb fractures in osteogenesis imperfecta has never been evaluated. A multicentric serie was studied in order to evaluate results of these procedure. Thirty-six ESCN procedures were performed in fourteen patients. Percutaneous pinning was used for the femur and distal tibia and arthrotomy for the distal femur as needed and in all cases for the proximal tibia. The pins were bent in compliance with the principles of the ESCN system. The ends of the pins were bent back to form a U pushed into the epiphysis. Reaxing osteotomies required minimal incisions. Age at the first procedure, the number of procedures and complications, and time between procedures were recorded. Pin overlap and the angle formed were also recorded. Pin gliding was evaluated. Ability to walk with or without assistance was noted. The medullary canal measured 4 to 10 mm. The first procedure was performed at a mean age of four years (range 15 days to 10 years). Follow-up was eight years (range 1-12). There were 2.5 procedures per patient (range 1-5). Pins had to be changed in 75% of the bone segments. Mean time between two procedures was 3.2 years. There were no cases of defective sliding or infection. There were four cases of secondary fracture with a mean 30% pin overlap, two pin migrations, one nonunion, and one shortening. The majority of the complications occurred after the age of five years. At last follow-up, three patients could not walk, four walked with aids, and eight without aids. The advantages of the technique (size of the pins, nailing without reaming, pin sliding in all cases, low cost) must not overshadow the drawbacks (risk of pin deformation and migration, secondary fracture). Secondary fractures might be limited by discrete valgus of the femoral shaft and preventive pin change when the angle formed approaches 30 degrees and when there is only 30% overlap left. Use of

  15. Pediatric Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: Submuscular Plating Compared With Intramedullary Nailing.

    PubMed

    Sutphen, Sean A; Mendoza, Juan D; Mundy, Andrew C; Yang, Jingzhen G; Beebe, Allan C; Samora, Walter P; Klingele, Kevin E

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the radiographic and clinical outcomes of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures treated by submuscular plating, flexible retrograde intramedullary nailing, or rigid antegrade intramedullary nailing with a trochanteric entry point in skeletally immature patients who were 8 years and older. A retrospective review was conducted of skeletally immature patients 8 years and older who were treated for femur fracture with submuscular plating, flexible intramedullary nailing, or rigid intramedullary nailing from 2001 to 2014 with a minimum 12-week follow-up. Treatment outcomes were compared for statistical significance, including time to union, malunion, nonunion, heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, time to full weight bearing, limb length discrepancy, residual limp, painful hardware, and infection. The study identified 198 femur fractures in 196 patients (mean age, 11.9 years). Each femur fracture was treated with submuscular plating (35), flexible intramedullary nailing (61), or rigid intramedullary nailing (102). Mean follow-up across the cohort was 48 weeks, ranging from 12 to 225 weeks. Flexible nailing was associated with an increased incidence of malunion (P<.0001) and hardware irritation (P=.0204) and longer time to full weight bearing (P=.0018). Rigid nailing was associated with an increased incidence of limp at 12-week followup (P=.0412). Additionally, 23.5% of patients who were treated with rigid nailing had heterotopic ossification. Of all surgical methods, submuscular plating allowed for the most rapid return to full weight bearing (mean, 7 weeks) and offered the fastest healing rate (mean, 6 weeks). Submuscular plating resulted in faster times to union and full weight bearing, with minimal complication rates. Rigid intramedullary nailing with trochanteric entry resulted in a lower incidence of malunion and hardware-related complications; however, these patients had an increased incidence of heterotopic ossification and residual

  16. Rupture of the anterior tibial tendon: three clinical cases, anatomical study, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Bachelier, Felix; Fürst, Oliver Alexander; Kelm, Jens

    2006-05-01

    We report three cases of anterior tibial tendon ruptures and the results of an anatomical study in regard to the tendon's insertion site and a literature review. Three patients were referred to our hospital with anterior tibial tendon ruptures. In the anatomical study, 53 feet were dissected, looking in particular for variants of the bony insertion of the tendon. Two patients had surgical treatment (one primary repair and one semimembranosus tendon graft) and one conservative treatment. After a mean followup of 14 weeks all patients had satisfactory outcomes. In the anatomical study, we noted three different insertion sites: in 36 feet the tendon inserted into the medial side of the cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal bone and in 13 feet only into the medial side of the cuneiform bone. In the remaining four feet the tendon inserted into the cuneiform and the first metatarsal bone, but an additional tendon was noted taking its origin from the anterior tibial tendon near its insertion into the medial cuneiform and attaching to the proximal part of the first metatarsal. According to literature, surgical repair is the treatment of choice for acute ruptures and for patients with high activity levels. For chronic ruptures and patients with low demands, conservative management may lead to an equally good outcome. Knowledge of the anatomy in this region may be helpful for diagnosis and for the interpretation of intraoperative findings and choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure.

  17. Effectiveness of exchange K-nail and augmented plating in aseptic femoral diaphyseal non-union.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, K H; Pradhan, Chetan; Patil, Atul; Puram, Chetan; Bharti, Parkalp; Sancheti, Parag; Shyam, Ashok

    2017-08-01

    Femoral diaphyseal non-unions present difficult scenario to manage. There are multiple options but most of them still report varying incidences of failure. We combined the principles of augmented plating and exchange nailing and aim to study the effectiveness of this technique. A retrospective study at a tertiary trauma centre was conducted. Seventy patients (60 men, 10 women), average age 40.7±15.27 years (range 18-81 years) with diaphyseal femoral fracture non-unions treated between July 2010 and January 2015 were reviewed. The average interval between first and the last surgery was 18.07±17.65 months (range 4-96 months). Forty six patients had hypertrophic non-union and 24 patients had atrophic non-union. Twenty one patients had undergone a prior surgery for non-union, 13 dynamisation, 4 bone grafting, 1 augmented plating and 3 exchange nailing. Non-unions were treated with implant removal, freshening of bone edges and exchange K-nailing and augmented plating. Autologous bone grafting and raising of osteoperiosteal flaps was done in all cases. Outcome measures were radiographic evidence of fracture union at minimum three out of four cortices, knee range of motion as compared to opposite knee, and study of complications. All patients demonstrated radiographic evidence of fracture union with an average time of 16.77±2.38 weeks (range 12-26 weeks). Mean knee range of motion of unaffected limb was 126±9.76° (range 90-140°) while in operated limb it was 121.1±11.36° (range 80-140°), p>0.01. Patients with hypertrophic non-unions, prior surgery for non-union and supra- or infra-isthmal non-unions had shorter union time. Two patients had superficial infection which was managed by superficial debridement and two patients had pain at proximal nail tip site which was managed by anti-inflammatory medication. None of the patients required additional surgery for implant removal. Exchange K nailing with Bone graft and additional plating technique for non

  18. Fatigue failure of the cephalomedullary nail: revision options, outcomes and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Adam; Warnock, Michael; McDonald, Sinead; Cusick, Laurence; Foster, Andrew P

    2018-04-01

    Cephalomedullary nail (CMN) failure is a rare entity following hip fracture treatment. However, it poses significant challenges for revision surgery, both mechanically and biologically. Nail failure rates have been reported at < 2%; however, no published studies have reported revision surgery procedures and their respective outcomes. We present a regional experience, with outcomes, of the revision options. We identified 20 fatigued CMNs that underwent four different revision procedures. Mean age was 73 ± 15.24 years, with a 3:1 female preponderance, and a median ASA grade of 3. Post-operative CMN radiographs demonstrated a significant number of fractures were fixed in varus, with reductions in neck-shaft angles post-operatively. A "poor" quality of reduction resulted in significantly earlier nail failure, compared to "adequate" and "good" (p = 0.027). Tip-Apex Distance (TAD) mean was 23.2 ± 8.3 mm, and an adequate TAD with three-point fixation was seen in only 35% of cases. Mean time to failure was 401.0 ± 237.2 days, with mean age at failure of 74.0 ± 14.8 years. Options after failure included revision CMN nail, proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP), long-stem or restoration arthroplasty, or femoral endoprosthesis. Barthel Functional Index scores showed no significant difference at 3 and 12 months post-operatively, nor any difference between treatment groups. Mean 12-month mortality was 30%, akin to a primary hip fracture mortality risk according to NICE guidelines. Mortality rates were lowest in revision nails. Subsequent revision rates were higher in the PFLP group. There is no reported evidence on the best surgical technique for managing the failed CMN, with no clear functional benefit in the options above. Good surgical technique at the time of primary CMN surgery is critical in minimising fatigue failure. After revision, overall mortality rates were equivalent to reported primary hip fracture mortality rates. Further multicentre

  19. Histopathological examination of bone debris from reaming of interlocking intra-medullary nail fixation of long bone fractures with concomitant head injury.

    PubMed

    Khallaf, Fathy G; Kehinde, Elijah O

    2015-12-01

    The aim of study was to test, for the presence of osteoblasts in the reaming debris of intramedullary nailing of femoral and tibial fracture in patients with and without severe head injury. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A (n = 32) had long bone fractures in addition to having head injuries. Group B (n = 35) had only long bone fractures. The fractures in the 2 groups of patients was treated by inter medullary nailing. Osteoblasts in the debris of the inter medullary nailing was compared between the 2 groups of patients. The results demonstrated that histopathological specimens from reaming debris of fractured femur and tibia in patients with head injury showed osteoblasts in (82.9%) and in (27.5%) of patients with isolated long bone fractures (p < 0.001). Healing indicators in diaphyseal fractures and concomitant head injury confirm fast and adequate healing in these patients and the presence of plenty of osteoblasts in their reaming debris may reflect a proof of accelerated fracture healing environment.

  20. Evaluating a county-based Healthy nail Salon Recognition Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine whether nail solons that participate in the SF recognition program have reduced measured levels of toluene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)as compared to nail salons that do not participate. We also evaluated changes in worker ...

  1. Chevron nails: a normal variant in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Delano, Sofia; Belazarian, Leah

    2014-01-01

    A 7-month-old girl was evaluated for V-shaped ridging of the fingernails consistent with chevron nails. Chevron nails are a normal variant in the pediatric population that is frequently outgrown. This case nicely demonstrates this normal finding that has so rarely been reported in the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. TOXIC TRACE METALS IN MAMMALIAN HAIR AND NAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data have been compiled from the available world literature on the accumulation and bioconcentration of selected toxic trace metals in human hair and nails and other mammalian hair, fur, nails, claws, and hoofs. The toxic trace metals and metalloids include antimony, arsenic, bor...

  3. Use of flexible facing for soil nail walls.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-11-01

    Soil nail walls are a widely used technology for retaining vertical and nearly vertical cuts in soil. A : significant portion of the cost of soil nail wall construction is related to the construction of a reinforced : concrete face. The potential for...

  4. The Hammer-and-Nail Phenomenon in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the hammer-and-nail metaphor to highlight the rigidity and impulsiveness that can be found in student mathematical behaviour. The hammer-and-nail phenomenon can be attributed to two plausible causes: (1) the way the human mind works; and (2) the way mathematics is traditionally taught in school. In this paper, the following aspects…

  5. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  6. Next generation distal locking for intramedullary nails using an electromagnetic X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Schröder, Malte; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Kammal, Michael; Rueger, Johannes Maria; Herrman Ruecker, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Distal locking marks one challenging step during intramedullary nailing that can lead to an increased irradiation and prolonged operation times. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and efficacy of an X-ray-radiation-free real-time navigation system for distal locking procedures. A prospective randomized cadaver study with 50 standard free-hand fluoroscopic-guided and 50 electromagnetic-guided distal locking procedures was performed. All procedures were timed using a stopwatch. Intraoperative fluoroscopy exposure time and absorbed radiation dose (mGy) readings were documented. All tibial nails were locked with two mediolateral and one anteroposterior screw. Successful distal locking was accomplished once correct placement of all three screws was confirmed. Successful distal locking was achieved in 98 cases. No complications were encountered using the electromagnetic navigation system. Eight complications arose during free-hand fluoroscopic distal locking. Undetected secondary drill slippage on the ipsilateral cortex accounted for most problems followed by undetected intradrilling misdirection causing a fissural fracture of the contralateral cortex while screw insertion in one case. Compared with the free-hand fluoroscopic technique, electromagnetically navigated distal locking provides a median time benefit of 244 seconds without using ionizing radiation. Compared with the standard free-hand fluoroscopic technique, the electromagnetic guidance system used in this study showed high reliability and was associated with less complications, took significantly less time, and used no radiation exposure for distal locking procedures. Therapeutic study, level II.

  7. Radiation-free distal locking of intramedullary nails: evaluation of a new electromagnetic computer-assisted guidance system.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Karampinas, Panagiotis; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios-Stergios; Lampropoulou-Adamidou, Kalliopi; Vlamis, John

    2013-06-01

    Distal locking of intramedullary nails (IMNs) is a difficult part of intramedullary nailing (IMN) that could be time-consuming and expose the surgeon, the surgery personnel and the patient to a considerable amount of radiation as fluoroscopy is usually guiding the procedure. Utilization of electromagnetic fields for that purpose offers an attractive alternative. The SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System (Smith & Nephew, Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) is a novel commercially available radiation-free aiming system that utilizes computerized electromagnetic field tracking technology for the distal locking of IMNs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the system we conducted the present study. Nineteen patients (six females-thirteen males, mean age 39.5 years, range 17-85 years) with closed diaphyseal fracture of the femur (eight patients) or the tibia (eleven patients) were treated with IMN using the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System for the distal interlocking. All targeting attempts were successful at first try and followed by correct positioning of the screws. Mean time for distal locking of tibial IMNs (two screws) was 219sec (range 200-250sec). Mean time for distal locking of femoral IMNs (two screws) was 249 (range 220-330sec). In the current study the SURESHOT™ Distal Targeting System proved to be accurate, fast and easy to learn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcomes following femoral lengthening: An initial comparison of the Precice intramedullary lengthening nail and the LRS external fixator monorail system.

    PubMed

    Laubscher, M; Mitchell, C; Timms, A; Goodier, D; Calder, P

    2016-10-01

    Patients undergoing femoral lengthening by external fixation tolerate treatment less well when compared to tibial lengthening. Lengthening of the femur with an intramedullary device may have advantages. We reviewed all cases of simple femoral lengthening performed at our unit from 2009 to 2014. Cases of nonunions, concurrent deformities, congenital limb deficiencies and lengthening with an unstable hip were excluded, leaving 33 cases (in 22 patients; 11 patients had bilateral procedures) for review. Healing index, implant tolerance and complications were compared. In 20 cases (15 patients) the Precice lengthening nail was used and in 13 cases (seven patients) the LRS external fixator system. The desired length was achieved in all cases in the Precice group and in 12 of 13 cases in the LRS group. The mean healing index was 31.3 days/cm in the Precice and 47.1 days/cm in the LRS group (p < 0.001). This was associated with an earlier ability to bear full weight without aids in the Precice group. There were more complications with LRS lengthening, including pin site infections and regenerate deformity. Implant tolerance and the patients' perception of the cosmetic result were better with the Precice treatment. Femoral lengthening with the Precice femoral nail achieved excellent functional results with fewer complications and greater patient satisfaction when compared with the LRS system in our patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1382-8. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shulin; Fu, Jingshu; Xie, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation in the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects. A retrospective analyses for 67 cases of tibialosteomyelitis defects were admitted to our department between September 2012 to February 2015, which were treated with induced membrane technique. At the first stage, implanted with a PMMA cement spacer in the defects after radical debridement and fixed with reconstructive locked plate. Bone grafting and exchanged the plate with intramedullary nail at the second stage. In current study, all patients were followed up for 18-35 months. Sixty-six patients achieved bone union with the average radiographic and clinical healing times of 5.55±2.19 and 7.45±1.69months, respectively. Seven patients required a second debridement before grafting, while four patients experienced a recurrence of infection or a relapse following second stage treatment. Twelve patients experienced either knee or ankle dysfunctions and 2 patients faced delayed wound healing. Donor site complications includes pain and infection were found in 7 and 3 patients, respectively with delayed stress fracture in 1 patient only. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects, seems a reliable method. The use of reconstructive locked plate as a temporary internal fixation at the first stage and exchanged with intramedullary nail at the second stage, potentially achieves good clinical efficacy. Care should be taken to restore the joint function especially in distal tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Nails: A Comparison of Nails With and Without Internal Compression.

    PubMed

    Taylor, James; Lucas, Douglas E; Riley, Aimee; Simpson, G Alex; Philbin, Terrence M

    2016-03-01

    Hindfoot arthrodesis with tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) intramedullary nails is used commonly when treating ankle and subtalar arthritis and other hindfoot pathology. Adequate compression is paramount to avoid nonunion and fatigue fracture of the hardware. Arthrodesis systems with internal compression have demonstrated superior compression to systems relying on external methods. This study examined the speed of union with TTC fusion nails with internal compression over nails without internal compression. A retrospective review was performed identifying nail type and time to union of the subtalar joint (STJ) and tibiotalar joint (TTJ). A total of 198 patients were included from 2003 to 2011. The median time to STJ fusion without internal compression was 104 days compared to 92 days with internal compression (P = .044). The median time to TTJ fusion without internal compression was 111 days compared to 93 days with internal compression (P = .010). Adjusting for diabetes, there was no significant difference in fusion speed with or without internal compression for the STJ (P = .561) or TTJ (P = .358). Nonunion rates were 24.5% for the STJ and 17.0% for the TTJ with internal compression, and 43.4% for the STJ and 42.1% for the TTJ without internal compression. This difference remained statistically significant after adjusting for diabetes for the TTJ (P = .001) but not for the STJ (P = .194). The intramedullary hindfoot arthrodesis nail was a viable treatment option in degenerative joint disease of the TTC joint. There appeared to be an advantage using systems with internal compression; however, there was no statistically significant difference after controlling for diabetes. Level III, retrospective comparative series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Impact of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren: a controlled pretest-posttest study.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were collected with a demographic form, a nail-biting follow-up form, and photographs of the fingernails. It was found that 68.9% of students were biting seven or more of their nails; 46.6% had damaged nail beds. In the intervention group, the rate of the children who were not biting their nails (baseline = 0%, 4th week = 56.0%, 8th week = 64.0%) increased significantly compared to the control group (baseline = 0%, 4th week = 15.1%, 8th week = 18.9%). Outcomes indicate the efficacy of the healthy nails program in reducing the nail-biting problem in schoolchildren.

  12. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  13. Impingement of the Mobile Bearing on the Lateral Wall of the Tibial Tray in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Shirakawa, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-07-01

    Tilting of the mobile bearing relative to the tibial tray in the flexion position may result from the implantation of femoral components more laterally relative to tibial components during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) using the Oxford Knee. The purpose of the present study was to compare femoral component positions after UKA using the phase 3 device and a novel device. We further evaluated the placement of the femoral components with the new device in the flexion position to determine the association with short-term prognosis. The location of femoral and tibial components in the flexion position of 38 knees implanted using the phase 3 device and 49 knees using a novel device was assessed at 1 year postoperatively using radiography of the proximal tibia and distal femur in the flexion position. The femoral component was implanted more laterally using the new device than using the phase 3 device in the flexion position (P = .012), which caused the impingement of the mobile bearing against the lateral wall of the tibial tray. After UKA using the new device, 10% of patients exhibited the tilting phenomenon of the mobile bearing because of the lateral implantation of the femoral implant. To prevent implantation of the femoral component too laterally using the new device during UKA, knee surgeons should set the drill guide more medially such that the center of the drill is aligned with the middle of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Post-traumatic cerebral fat embolism prior to operative repair of femoral and tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Cheon; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2008-02-01

    Rare cases of primary cerebral fat embolism as a postoperative complication have been reported. In addition, cerebral fat embolism occurring before operative repair without shunt lesion are more rarely reported. We report a patient with a posttraumatic cerebral fat embolism resulting in severe neurologic dysfunction without right to left shunt. A 25-year-old man was brought to the hospital immediately after a traffic accident. He sustained a right segmental femoral shaft fracture and a left tibial shaft fracture. The patient was alert with no neurological deficits. Approximately 13 hours after injury, the patient developed acute mental status deterioration and dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive multifocal infarction owing to embolic showering throughout nearly the entire brain parenchyma. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed no evidence of embolism in the lung, abdomen, and pelvis. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram revealed no circulating embolic particles or intracardiac shunt. The patient underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with a reamed intramedullary nail in the tibia and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a reamed nail in the femur at 5 days after injury. We performed decompression of a hematoma containing a large number of lipid droplets via a small incision in the femur shaft fracture, established suction drainage of the tibia medullar cavity, and applied a tourniquet to the thigh in the tibia shaft fracture. Supportive medical treatment included endotracheal ventilatory support and tracheostomy. The patient was discharged from the hospital 50 days after admission. On follow-up 2 months later, he had returned to activities of daily living, however a speech disturbance remained.

  15. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  16. Electrodiagnostic Examination of the Tibial Nerve in Clinically Normal Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Ezio; Callegari, Daniela; Ravera, Manuela; Dondi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Tibial nerves of 10 normal domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were evaluated by means of electrodiagnostic tests: motor nerve conduction studies (MNCSs), supramaximal repetitive nerve stimulation (SRNS), F waves, and cord dorsum potentials (CDPs). Values of conduction velocity, proximal and distal compound muscular action potentials, and amplitudes of MNCS were, respectively, 63.25 ± 7.56 m/sec, 10.79 ± 2.75 mV, and 13.02 ± 3.41 mV. Mean decrements in amplitude and area of compound muscular action potentials of wave 9 with low frequency SRNS were 0.3 ± 3.83% and 0.1 ± 3.51%. The minimum latency of the F waves and the F ratio were, respectively, 8.49 ± 0.65 ms and 1.92 ± 0.17. Onset latency of CDP was 1.99 ± 0.03 ms. These tests may help in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders and in better characterizing the hindlimb paresis reported in many ferrets with systemic illnesses. PMID:20706690

  17. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  18. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  19. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  20. Rap system of stress stimulation can promote bone union after lower tibial bone fracture: a clinical research.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jian-fei; Shen, Jia-zuo; Li, Da-kun; Lin, Da-sheng; Li, Lin; Li, Qiang; Qi, Peng; Lian, Ke-jian; Ding, Zhen-qi

    2012-01-01

    Lower tibial bone fracture may easily cause bone delayed union or nonunion because of lacking of dynamic mechanical load. Research Group would design a new instrument as Rap System of Stress Stimulation (RSSS) to provide dynamic mechanical load which would promote lower tibial bone union postoperatively. This clinical research was conducted from January 2008 to December 2010, 92 patients(male 61/female 31, age 16-70 years, mean 36.3 years) who suffered lower tibial bone closed fracture were given intramedullary nail fixation and randomly averagely separated into experimental group and control group(according to the successively order when patients went for the admission procedure). Then researchers analysed the clinical healing time, full weight bearing time, VAS (Visual Analogue Scales) score and callus growth score of Lane-Sandhu in 3,6,12 months postoperatively. The delayed union and nonunion rates were compared at 6 and 12 months separately. All the 92 patients had been followed up (mean 14 months). Clinical bone healing time in experimental group was 88.78±8.80 days but control group was 107.91±9.03 days. Full weight bearing time in experimental group was 94.07±9.81 days but control group was 113.24±13.37 days respectively (P<0.05). The delayed union rate in 6 months was 4.3% in experimental group but 10.9% in control group(P<0.05). The nonunion rate in 12 months was 6.5% in experimental group but 19.6% in control group(P<0.05). In 3, 6, 12 months postoperatively, VAS score and Lane-Sandhu score in experimental group had more significantly difference than them in control group. RSSS can intermittently provide dynamic mechanical load and stimulate callus formation, promote lower tibial bone union, reduce bone delayed union or nonunion rate. It is an adjuvant therapy for promoting bone union after lower tibial bone fracture.

  1. Eyelid Dermatitis Caused by Allergic Contact to Acrylates in Artificial Nails

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increase in cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates, because of the growing popularity of artificial nails. Pathological reactions to artificial nails typically occur on or around the nail area. Eyelid contact dermatitis due to artificial nails is rarely seen, especially in a nonoccupational setting. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old female accountant who developed eyelid dermatitis due to artificial nails. PMID:28603598

  2. Eyelid Dermatitis Caused by Allergic Contact to Acrylates in Artificial Nails.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jorge; Gonçalves, Rita; Coelho, Pedro; Maio, Tiago

    2017-03-13

    Over the past few years, there has been an increase in cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates, because of the growing popularity of artificial nails. Pathological reactions to artificial nails typically occur on or around the nail area. Eyelid contact dermatitis due to artificial nails is rarely seen, especially in a nonoccupational setting. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old female accountant who developed eyelid dermatitis due to artificial nails.

  3. All-polyethylene tibial components in distal femur limb-salvage surgery: a finite element analysis based on promising clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fan; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wenli; Min, Li; Shi, Rui; Luo, Yi; Duan, Hong; Tu, Chongqi

    2017-04-04

    Whether all-polyethylene tibial (APT) components are beneficial to patients who received distal femur limb-salvage surgery lacks high-quality clinical follow-up and mechanical evidence. This study aimed to investigate the biomechanics of the distal femur reconstructed with APT tumor knee prostheses using finite element (FE) analysis based on our previous, promising clinical outcome. Three-dimensional FE models that use APT and metal-backed tibial (MBT) prostheses to reconstruct distal femoral bone defects were developed and input into the Abaqus FEA software version 6.10.1. Mesh refinement tests and gait simulation with a single foot both in the upright and 15°-flexion positions with mechanical loading were conducted. Stress distribution analysis was compared between APT and MBT at the two static positions. For both prosthesis types, the stress was concentrated on the junction of the stem and shaft, and the maximum stress in the femoral axis base was more than 100 Mpa. The stress on the tibial surface was relatively distributed, which was 1-19 MPa. The stress on the tibial bone-cement layer of the APT prosthesis was approximately 20 times higher than that on the MBT prosthesis in the same region. The stress on the proximal tibial cancellous bone and cortical bone of the APT prosthesis was 3-5 times greater than that of the MBT prosthesis, and it was more distributed. Although the stress of bone-cement around the APT component is relatively high, the stress was better distributed at the polyethylene-cement-bone interface in APT than in MBT prosthesis, which effectively protects the proximal tibia in distal femur tumor knee prosthesis replacement. These results should be considered when selecting the appropriate tibial component for a patient, especially under the foreseeable conditions of osteoporosis.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Proximal Humerus Fractures: Evaluation and Management in the Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Grawe, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal humerus fractures are common in the elderly. The evaluation and management of these injuries is often controversial. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence and provide updated recommendations for treating proximal humerus fractures in the elderly. Methods: A literature review of peer-reviewed publications related to the evaluation and management of proximal humerus fractures in the elderly was performed. There was a focus on randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews published within the last 5 years. Results: The incidence of proximal humerus fractures is increasing. It is a common osteoporotic fracture. Bone density is a predictor of reduction quality and can be readily assessed with anteroposterior views of the shoulder. Social independence is a predictor of outcome, whereas age is not. Many fractures are minimally displaced and respond acceptably to nonoperative management. Displaced and severe fractures are most frequently treated operatively with intramedullary nails, locking plates, percutaneous techniques, or arthroplasty. Discussion: Evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews is insufficient to recommend a treatment; however, most techniques have acceptable or good outcomes. Evaluation should include an assessment of the patient’s bone quality, social independence, and surgical risk factors. With internal fixation, special attention should be paid to medial comminution, varus angulation, and restoration of the calcar. With arthroplasty, attention should be paid to anatomic restoration of the tuberosities and proper placement of the prosthesis. Conclusion: A majority of minimally displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with early physical therapy. Treatment for displaced fractures should consider the patient’s level of independence, bone quality, and surgical risk factors. Fixation with percutaneous techniques, intramedullary nails, locking plates, and arthroplasty are all

  6. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI analysis of tibial PCL attachment in a large population of adult patients: reference data for anatomic PCL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuanjun; Guo, Laiwei; Wu, Meng; Xu, Tianen; Zhao, Lianggong; Jiang, Jin; Sheng, Xiaoyun; Xu, Lihu; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Ning; Xia, Yayi

    2016-09-05

    Consistent reference data used for anatomic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is not well defined. Quantitative guidelines defining the location of PCL attachment would aid in performing anatomic PCL reconstruction. The purpose was to characterize anatomic parameters of the PCL tibial attachment based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of adult knees. The PCL tibial attachment site was examined in 736 adult knees with an intact PCL using 3.0-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI. The outcomes measured were the anterior-posterior diameter (APD) of the tibial plateau; angle between the tibial plateau and the posterior tibial 'shelf' (the slope where the PCL tibial attachment site was) (PTS); length of the PTS; proximal, central, and distal PCL attachment positions as well as the width of the PCL attachment site; and vertical dimension of the PCL attachment site inferior from the tibial plateau. The average APD of the tibia plateau was 33.6 ± 3.5 mm, yielding significant differences between males (35.5 ± 3.0 mm) and females (31.6 ± 2.7 mm), P <.05, and there was a significantly decreasing trend with increasing age in males (P <.05). Mean angle between the tibial plateau and the PTS was 122.4° ± 8.1°, and subgroup analysis showed that the young group had a differently smaller angle (120.9° ± 7.5°) than the middle-aged (123.7° ± 8.2°) and the old (123.4° ± 7.7°) in males population, while there were no significant differences between sexes (P >.05). The proximal, central positions and width of the PCL attachment site were 13.4 ± 3.0 mm, 17.8 ± 3.0 mm and 9.6 ± 2.4 mm along the PTS, with significant differences between males and females (P <.05), and accounted for 60.0 % ± 9.1 %, 80.0 % ± 4.6 % and 43.3 % ± 9.7 % of the PTS respectively, with no significant differences between sexes and among age groups (all P >.05). This study provides reference

  8. 77 FR 27421 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... limited to, nails made of round wire and nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction or constructed of two or more pieces. Certain steel nails may be produced from any type of steel... following products: Non-collated (i.e., hand-drive or bulk), two-piece steel nails having plastic or steel...

  9. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  10. [APPLICATION OF V-Y ADVANCED SENSE-REMAINED POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY PERFORATOR FLAP IN REPAIRING WOUND AROUND ANKLE].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiujun; Wang, Bo; Wei, Zairong; Wang, Dali; Han, Wenjie; Zhang, Wenduo; Li, Shujun

    2015-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of V-Y advanced sense-remained posterior tibial artery perforator flap in repairing wound around the ankle. METHODS Between March 2012 and January 2015, 11 patients with wounds around the ankle were treated by V-Y advanced sense-remained posterior tibial artery perforator flap. There were 6 males and 5 females with a median age of 37 years (range, 21-56 years). The causes were traffic accident injury in 3 cases, thermal injury in 2 cases, burn in 2 cases, iatrogenic wounds in 2 cases, and local contusion in 2 cases. The disease duration ranged from 1 to 3 weeks (mean, 2 weeks). Injury was located at the medial malleolus in 4 cases, at the lateral malleolus in 3 cases, and at the heel in 4 cases. All had exposure of bone, tendon, or plate. The defect area ranged from 4 cmx2 cm to 5 cmx3 cm; the area of the flap ranged from 11 cmx4 cm to 15 cmx6 cm. Necrosis of distal flap occurred in 1 case after operation; re-operation to amputate the posterior tibial artery was given and the wound was repaired by proximal skin graft. Light necrosis of distal end was observed in 2 cases, and wound healed at 3 weeks after dressing. And other flaps successfully survived, and primary healing of wounds were obtained. The patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 11 months). The flaps were good in color, texture, and appearance. The ankle joint had normal activity. At last follow-up, 10 cases restored fine sense, and 1 case restored protective feeling with posterior tibial artery advanced flap after amputation. V-Y advanced sense-remained posterior tibial artery perforator flap has the advantages of reliable blood supply, simple operation, good appearance, and sensory recovery. Therefore, it is an ideal method to repair wound around the ankle.

  11. 'Trampoline fracture' of the proximal tibia in children: report of 3 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bruyeer, E; Geusens, E; Catry, F; Vanstraelen, L; Vanhoenacker, F

    2012-01-01

    We present three cases of fracture of the proximal tibia in young children who were jumping on a trampoline. The typical radiological findings and the underlying mechanism of trauma are discussed. The key radiological features are: a transverse hairline fracture of the upper tibia often accompanied by a buckle fracture of the lateral or medial tibial cortex, buckling of the anterior upper tibial cortex and anterior tilting of the epiphyseal plate. New types of injuries related to specific recreational activities are recognized. It is often helpful to associate a typical injury with a particular activity. Trampoline related injuries have increased dramatically over the last years. The most common lesions are fractures and ligamentous injuries, in particular a transverse fracture of the proximal tibia. However the radiological findings can be very subtle and easily overlooked. It is therefore important to be aware of the typical history and radiological findings.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Neurography Visualizes Abnormalities in Sciatic and Tibial Nerves in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vaeggemose, Michael; Pham, Mirko; Ringgaard, Steffen; Tankisi, Hatice; Ejskjaer, Niels; Heiland, Sabine; Poulsen, Per L; Andersen, Henning

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates whether diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance neurography (DTI-MRN), T2 relaxation time, and proton spin density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 49) were included-11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN), and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)-along with 30 healthy control subjects (HCs). Clinical examinations, nerve conduction studies, and vibratory perception thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN. DTI-MRN covered proximal (sciatic nerve) and distal (tibial nerve) nerve segments of the lower extremity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, as were T2 relaxation time and proton spin density obtained from DTI-MRN. All magnetic resonance findings were related to the presence and severity of neuropathy. FA of the sciatic and tibial nerves was lowest in the sDPN group. Corresponding with this, proximal and distal ADCs were highest in patients with sDPN compared with patients with mDPN and nDPN, as well as the HCs. DTI-MRN correlated closely with the severity of neuropathy, demonstrating strong associations with sciatic and tibial nerve findings. Quantitative group differences in proton spin density were also significant, but less pronounced than those for DTI-MRN. In conclusion, DTI-MRN enables detection in peripheral nerves of abnormalities related to DPN, more so than proton spin density or T2 relaxation time. These abnormalities are likely to reflect pathology in sciatic and tibial nerve fibers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases

  14. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  16. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  17. The floating knee: a review on ipsilateral femoral and tibial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Vives, Josep; Bel, Jean-Christophe; Capel Agundez, Arantxa; Chana Rodríguez, Francisco; Palomo Traver, José; Schultz-Larsen, Morten; Tosounidis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Blake and McBryde established the concept of ‘floating knee’ to describe ipsilateral fractures of the femur and tibia.1 This combination is much more than a bone lesion; the mechanism is usually a high-energy trauma in a patient with multiple injuries and a myriad of other lesions. After initial evaluation patients should be categorised, and only stable patients should undergo immediate reduction and internal fixation with the rest receiving external fixation. Definitive internal fixation of both bones yields the best results in almost all series. Nailing of both bones is the optimal fixation when both fractures (femoral and tibial) are extra-articular. Plates are the ‘standard of care’ in cases with articular fractures. A combination of implants are required by 40% of floating knees. Associated ligamentous and meniscal lesions are common, but may be irrelevant in the case of an intra-articular fracture which gives the worst prognosis for this type of lesion. Cite this article: Muñoz Vives K, Bel J-C, Capel Agundez A, Chana Rodríguez F, Palomo Traver J, Schultz-Larsen M, Tosounidis, T. The floating knee. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:375-382. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000042. PMID:28461916

  18. Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Using a Nitinol Intramedullary Hindfoot Nail.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Ellington, J Kent; Adams, Samuel B

    2015-10-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis using an intramedullary hindfoot nail is a common procedure for deformity correction and the treatment of combined tibiotalar and subtalar end-stage arthritis. Nonunion at one or both fusion sites is a difficult complication that can result in reoperation, significant morbidity, and below-knee amputation. There is currently a need for sustained compression across fusion sites using a TTC hindfoot nail with good mechanical stability. The DynaNail TTC Fusion System (MedShape, Inc, Atlanta, GA) uses an internal nitinol compression element to apply sustained compression across the tibiotalar and subtalar joints after surgery. In preliminary clinical cases, we have found that the nail is safe, reliable, and has promising clinical and radiographic results in settings of hindfoot arthritis, complex deformity, Charcot arthropathy, and talar avascular necrosis. Expert opinion, Level V. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  20. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  1. [Treatment of calcaneal fractures with a locking nail (C-Nail)].

    PubMed

    Pompach, M; Carda, M; Amlang, M; Zwipp, H

    2016-06-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the posterior facet by primary stabilization of the calcaneal fracture with a locking nail. All intraarticular calcaneal fractures and unstable two-part fractures independent of the degree of closed/open soft tissue trauma. High perioperative risk, soft tissue infection, beak fracture (type II fracture) and still open apophysis. Anatomic reduction of the posterior facet using a sinus tarsi approach. Reduction and temporary fixation of the sustentacular, tuberosity, and anterior process fragments with 1.8-2.0 mm Kirschner wires. Thereafter, the C-Nail (calcaneus nail) is introduced with its guiding device stabilizing the sustentacular, tuberostity, and anterior process fragments through its three guiding arms with 6 or 7 locking screws. Passive and active motion starts on postoperative day 2. Lymph drains help reduce swelling. Partial weightbearing with 20 kg for 6-8 weeks in the patient's own shoes is recommended. X‑ray controls are done at 4 and 8 weeks as well as after 6 and 12 months. A total of 107 calcaneal fractures treated with the C-Nail between 2011 and 2014 were evaluated according to the AOFAS score 6 months and 1 year after surgery. The measured values were on average 93.0 (range 65-100) points at 6 months and 94.1 (range 75-100) points 12 months after the surgery. Böhler's angle with initial traumatic values of 6.2° (-30 to +13°) improved postoperatively to 31.8°, after 3 months slightly decreased to 29.6°, and after 12 months to 28.3°. There were 2 cases of superficial wound necrosis (1.9 %) and 1 case a deep infection (0.93 %) with need of early C-Nail removal.

  2. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  3. A 28-Year-Old Male Patient with Nail Tumors, Skin Lesions, and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Balak, Deepak M W; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Spitzer-Naaijkens, Juliette M J; Hulshof, Mieke M

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of benign hamartomas in multiple organs. Most patients with TSC exhibit cutaneous manifestations. We report a 28-year-old patient with multiple pink papules at the proximal nail fold of several toes. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of a papule was consistent with an ungual fibroma. Histopathological analysis of a biopsy of an elevated skin-colored plaque at the lower back was diagnostic for a Shagreen patch. These findings were consistent with a clinical diagnosis of TSC. This patient was subsequently referred to a multidisciplinary TSC clinic for further screening, which revealed a giant cell astrocytoma and multiple subependymal tubers. Annual monitoring was recommended. The skin lesions were treated with topical rapamycin ointment. Recognizing dermatological manifestations of TSC is of importance to allow early diagnosis. TSC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the case of ungual fibromas, even in older patients.

  4. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  5. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  6. A fatal nail gun injury--an unusual ricochet?

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-old construction worker suddenly collapsed while handling a power-actuated nail gun and died shortly after. A neat, almost circular puncture wound was found on the front of his left chest. No fire-arm residues were detected on the surrounding skin. The police stated that it was an accidental injury, at a construction site, where a nail fired from a nail gun by the deceased had deflected off the wall and struck him on the front of the chest. Since the entry wound appeared to be a neat hole, and that too on the front of the left chest overlying the heart area, there was reluctance on the part of the pathologist to accept it as an accidental injury due to a ricochet. A visit to the scene, interrogation of witnesses, examination of the alleged tool and post-mortem X-ray of the deceased were undertaken prior to autopsy. A bent nail was found in the heart. The scene visit and the subsequent autopsy revealed that the nail took a roughly circular flightpath after it had struck the wall, all the while travelling with its pointed end directed forward. Within the body too, the nail maintained the same path. Various medicolegal issues are discussed pertaining to nail-gun injuries. The importance of a visit to the scene, examination of the alleged tool, interrogation of witnesses and the X-ray of the body, all prior to autopsy, are emphasized. The conclusion was: accidental death due to the unusual ricochet of a nail.

  7. Modelling the strength of an aluminium-steel nailed joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldspiegel, Fabien; Mocellin, Katia; Michel, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    For multi-material applications in automotive industry, a cast aluminium (upper layer) and dual-phase steel (lower layer) superposition joined with High-Speed Nailing process is investigated through an experimental vs numerical framework. Using FORGE® finite-element software, results from joining simulations have been inserted into models in charge of nailed-joint mechanical testings. Numerical Shear and Cross-tensile tests are compared to experimental ones to discuss discrepancy and possible improvements.

  8. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, David; Kochkin, Vladimir

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  9. New Proximal Femoral Compaction Blade Provides Strong Antirotation Stability of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hirata, Yukiaki; Okamoto, Daiki; Kakunai, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Shingo; Takayama, Koji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Niikura, Takahiro; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hiranaka, Takafumi; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the mechanical properties of a new rectangular compaction blade and compared this blade with other types of nail. Three types of nail were tested: the Magnum lag screw (Robert Reid Inc, Tokyo, Japan), proximal femoral nail, and Magnum Fid blade (Robert Reid Inc). The nails were inserted into solid rigid polyurethane foam, and the torsional moments were loaded with an Instron testing machine (Instron, Kanagawa, Japan). The force curve was recorded, and the average maximum torque was calculated from this curve. A simulation study was performed with finite element models to determine the mechanism underlying differences in rotational stability. Mechanical testing showed that the new compaction blade had stronger resistance against rotational force than the helical blade and lag screw implants. Finite element analysis also showed that the new compaction blade had stronger resistance to migration of the polyurethane foam cylinder than the other implant types. In addition, the new compaction blade had strong rotational stability. This implant should be useful for the treatment of unstable trochanteric fracture in patients with osteoporosis. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e491-e494.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. 76 FR 16379 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...) Maanshan Longer Nail Product Co., Ltd. (24) Nanjing Dayu Pneumatic Gun Nails Co., Ltd. (25) Qingdao.... (71) Tianjin Shishun Metallic Products Co., Ltd. (72) Tianjin Xiantong Fucheng Gun Nail Manufacture Co...

  11. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Jo; Iyer, Sravisht

    2016-05-01

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following adult spinal deformity surgery. It is defined by two criteria: a proximal junctional sagittal Cobb angle (1) ≥ 10° and (2) at least 10° greater than the preoperative measurement. PJK is multifactorial in origin and likely stems from surgical, radiographic, and patient-related risk factors. The diagnosis of PJK represents a broad spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic patients with recurrence of deformity to those presenting with increased pain, functional deficit, and, in the most severe cases, neurologic deficits. Recent studies have demonstrated increased pain levels in select patients with PJK. In keeping with the broad spectrum of the disease, classification schemes are needed to better describe and stratify the severity of PJK. The most severe form is proximal junctional failure. A consensus on a uniform definition of proximal junctional failure is needed to allow for more systematic study of this phenomenon.

  12. Investigating relations among stress, sleep and nail cortisol and DHEA.

    PubMed

    Doan, Stacey N; DeYoung, Gerrit; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Liu, Cindy; Meyer, Jerrold

    2018-03-01

    In the current study, we present data investigating the relationships among stress, sleep disturbance, self-control, and levels of cortisol (CORT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in fingernail clippings. Currently, hair CORT is the only routinely used noninvasive, validated, biomarker of chronic exposure to stress-related hormones. Nail clippings represent an important potential alternative sample matrix for assessing chronic hormone exposure, as it offers a different timeline of hormone incorporation than scalp hair, and may be obtainable from populations in which hair either is lacking or is unavailable for cultural reasons. Moreover, there is established precedent for using fingernail clippings to attain biomarker data. However, the value of nail hormone assessment for psychological research is currently unknown due to a paucity of information on the relations between nail hormone concentrations and environmental or psychological variables. In the present study, we collected data from a low income, minority population (N = 47; 97% African American) to demonstrate feasibility and acceptability of nail collection and analysis of the adrenal steroids CORT and DHEA. Participants reported on perceived stress, sleep and self-control abilities. Correlational analyses suggest that exposure to stressful events, disturbances in sleep and waking were associated with higher levels of nail DHEA, while self-control was associated with higher levels of nail CORT. We discuss the potential importance of this methodology for investigating biological, behavioral, and subjective indices of stress and well-being.

  13. Augmentation plating in management of failed femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rahul; Sharma, Pulak; Gaur, Sanjiv

    2017-08-01

    Non-union following interlocking nailing is a troubling complication in treatment of shaft femur fractures. There is no clear consensus on the treatment of this problem. This research was undertaken to study the role of augmentation plating combined with exchange nailing in such cases. A prospective clinical study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2015. Patients with aseptic femoral shaft non-union, with or without implant failure following intramedullary nailing were included in the study. Augmentation plating combined with Exchange Nailing with a 4.5mm LCP was done. Fifteen patients (nine male and six female) with an average age of 43.7 years (range 18-67 years) were treated. Average timing from the first surgery was 7.3 months. Complete clinical and radiological union was achieved in all cases in a mean duration of 5.2 months. Average duration of follow up was 12.6 months. All the patients retained the preoperative hip and knee range of motion till the last follow up. Augmentation plating combined with exchange nailing in non-unions following intramedullary nailing of femur shaft fractures is a reasonably good and effective procedure with a very high success rate. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [A favourable outcome in yellow nail syndrome: role of respiratory physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Fournier, C; Just, N; Leroy, S; Wallaert, B

    2003-12-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare condition that is easily diagnosed but the nail manifestations are poorly understood. A 51 year old patient presented with a chronic cough. The diagnosis was based on the typical appearance of the nails. The patient had bilateral basal bronchiectasis. Daily physiotherapy with bronchial drainage lead to a progressive improvement in the respiratory symptoms without recourse to antibiotics. Surprisingly the abnormalities of the nails disappeared after 2 years treatment. This observation illustrates the possibility of spontaneous resolution of severe nail abnormalities during the course of the yellow nail syndrome.

  15. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  16. Management of Nail Bed Injuries Associated with Fingertip Injuries.

    PubMed

    George, Alexander; Alexander, Reena; Manju, C

    2017-01-01

    Management of nail injuries can often be a challenging experience, especially in presence of complex fingertips' injuries that include soft tissue loss and distal phalanx injury. Most studies found in the literature focus on individual injuries and describe methods to tackle those injuries, notwithstanding the fact that the nail, nailbed, distal phalanx, soft tissue and skin of the finger tip form a complex and often more than one element of this complex is injured. This retrospective study therefore focuses on the management of nail bed injuries as a part of the complex finger tip injury and outlines the surgical principles and techniques that were used in their management. Two hundred and forty patients from a tertiary care center in different clinical settings where a wide variety of cases involving the nail bed injuries were included in this study. Patients comprised of 192 (80%) males and 48 (20%) females with the average male age of 37.3 years (range 1-66 years) and average female age of 29 years (range 1-59 years). 210 patients had single finger involment, 30 patients had two finger involvement (total fingers involved- 270). The middle finger was most commonly involved while the index finger was the second most commonest finger involved. In 198 (89.18%) patients local anaesthesia was used while in the rest: regional blocks [ n = 10 (4.5%)] and general anaesthesia [ n = 14 (6.3%)] were used. In this retrospective study, out of the total of two hundred and forty patients, 222 (92.5%) patients underwent surgery, while the rest 18 (7.5%) were treated conservatively. Two hundred and ten patients who underwent surgery had complete healing over the course of treatment and followup, while four patients needed secondary interventional. Eight patients who had surgery were migrant workers were lost to follow up after surgery. Eight patients had postoperative complications that included infection, secondary necrosis, wound breakdown and non healing fractures. Accurate

  17. Partial proximal tibia fractures

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Michael J.; Kittl, Christoph; Domnick, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Partial tibial plateau fractures may occur as a consequence of either valgus or varus trauma combined with a rotational and axial compression component. High-energy trauma may result in a more complex and multi-fragmented fracture pattern, which occurs predominantly in young people. Conversely, a low-energy mechanism may lead to a pure depression fracture in the older population with weaker bone density. Pre-operative classification of these fractures, by Müller AO, Schatzker or novel CT-based methods, helps to understand the fracture pattern and choose the surgical approach and treatment strategy in accordance with estimated bone mineral density and the individual history of each patient. Non-operative treatment may be considered for non-displaced intra-articular fractures of the lateral tibial condyle. Intra-articular joint displacement ⩾ 2 mm, open fractures or fractures of the medial condyle should be reduced and fixed operatively. Autologous, allogenic and synthetic bone substitutes can be used to fill bone defects. A variety of minimally invasive approaches, temporary osteotomies and novel techniques (e.g. arthroscopically assisted reduction or ‘jail-type’ screw osteosynthesis) offer a range of choices for the individual and are potentially less invasive treatments. Rehabilitation protocols should be carefully planned according to the degree of stability achieved by internal fixation, bone mineral density and other patient-specific factors (age, compliance, mobility). To avoid stiffness, early functional mobilisation plays a major role in rehabilitation. In the elderly, low-energy trauma and impression fractures are indicators for the further screening and treatment of osteoporosis. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160067. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630761

  18. Boomerang proximal tibial osteotomy for the treatment of severe varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Sangkaew, Chanchit; Piyapittayanun, Peerapong

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the results of modified infratubercle displacement osteotomy in patients with severe varus gonarthrosis and to determine the factors influencing outcomes. A total of 177 knees in 133 patients with severe varus gonarthrosis were treated with infratubercle boomerang-shaped osteotomy, stabilised with dual plates. The mean age of the patients was 63.8 years (range 43-80 years), and the mean follow-up period was 61.4 months (range 24 -139 months). The factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes were analysed including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), preoperative and post-operative femorotibial angle and femorotibial angle at one year after surgery. Using the Knee Society clinical rating system 149 knees or 84.2 % were rated as having good to excellent results and 21 knees or 15.8 % as having fair to poor results. Overall, the mean preoperative knee score of 33.6 points had improved significantly to 80.7 points at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). Using Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis the five-year survival was 97.1 % with conversion to arthroplasty or second osteotomy as the end point and 89.2 % with a knee score of under 70 points as the end point. The anatomical femorotibial angle at one year after osteotomy had the most significant positive effect on the clinical (p < 0.001) and survival outcomes for all end points (p = 0.002 for conversion to arthroplasty or second osteotomy and p < 0.001 for knee score less than 70 points). The boomerang osteotomy can create adequate valgus alignment in severe varus gonarthrosis. The one-year post-operative knee alignment of 11° valgus provided the most satisfactory results and that between six and 15° valgus the longest survival time.

  19. Intramedullary nailing: evolutions of femoral intramedullary nailing: first to fourth generations.

    PubMed

    Russell, Thomas A

    2011-12-01

    Intramedullary femoral nailing is the gold standard for femoral shaft fixation but only in the past 27 years. This rapid replacement of closed traction and cast techniques in North America was a controversial and contentious evolution in surgery. As we enter the fourth generation of implant design, capabilities, and surgical technique, it is important to understand the driving forces for this technology. These forces included changes in radiographic imaging capabilities, biomaterial design and computer-assisted manufacturing, and the recognition of the importance of mobilization of the trauma patient to avoid systemic complications and optimize functional recovery.

  20. A comparative biomechanical analysis of implants for the stabilization of proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Füchtmeier, B; May, R; Fierlbeck, J; Hammer, J; Nerlich, M

    2006-01-01

    A new humerus nail (Sirus) has become available for the treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was the biomechanical comparison of this implant with established systems. 12 matched pairs of human humeri were employed for testing. Three randomized groups were formed (n = 4 pairs). A bending moment of 7.5 Nm and a torsional moment of 8.3 Nm were applied in a test of five loading cycles to all intact bones. Loading was consistently initiated at the distal epiphysis. The consequent deformation at the distal epiphysis was continuously recorded. Then an osteotomy with a defect of 5 mm was created to simulate an unstable subcapital humerus fracture. For paired comparison, one of each pair was stabilized with the Sirus proximal humerus nail. The other side was fixed with a reference implant. The following groups were created.: Group I: Sirus versus Proximal humerus nail (PHN) with spiral blade. Group II: Sirus versus PHILOS plate. Group III: Sirus versus 4.5 mm AO T-plate. The proximal humerus nail (Sirus) demonstrated significantly higher stiffness values than the reference implants for both bending and torsional load. The following values were recorded at a bending moment of 7.5 Nm: Sirus 14.2 mm, PHN 20.7 mm, PHILOS plate 28.1 mm, 4.5 AO T-plate 29.3 mm p < 0.0012). The values at 8.3 Nm torsional moment were: Sirus 8.5 degrees , PHN 12.3 degrees , PHILOS plate 16.4 degrees , 4.5 AO T-Platte 15.6 degrees (p < 0.002). The intramedullary load carriers were biomechanically superior when compared to the plating systems in the fracture model presented here. Supplementary, the Sirus Nail showed higher stiffness values than the PHN. However, the latter are gaining in importance due to the possibility of minimal invasive implantation. Whether this will be associated with functional advantages requires further clinical investigation.

  1. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  2. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  3. Osteoinductive composite coatings for flexible intramedullary nails.

    PubMed

    Bolbasov, E N; Popkov, A V; Popkov, D A; Gorbach, E N; Khlusov, I A; Golovkin, A S; Sinev, A; Bouznik, V M; Tverdokhlebov, S I; Anissimov, Y G

    2017-06-01

    This work presents composite coatings based on a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with tetrafluoroethylene (VDF-TeFE) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for flexible intramedullary nails (FIN). The effect of the proportion of VDF-TeFE (100-25% wt.) on physicochemical and biological properties of the composite coatings was investigated. It was shown that a decrease of VDF-TeFE in the coating hinders its crystallization in β and γ forms which have piezoelectric properties. The decrease also reduces an adhesive strength to 9.9±2.4MPa and a relative elongation to 5.9±1.2%, but results in increased osteogenesis. It was demonstrated that the composite coatings with 35% VDF-TeFE has the required combination of physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity. Comparative studies of composite coatings (35% VDF-TeFE) and calcium phosphate coatings produced using micro-arc oxidation, demonstrated comparable results for strength of bonding of these FINs with trabecular bones (~530MPa). It was hypothesized that the high osteoinductive properties of the composite coatings are due to their piezoelectric properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  5. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  6. Nail haemorrhages in native highlanders of the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Donald; Harris, Peter; Williams, David; Krüger, Hever

    1981-01-01

    Nail haemorrhages are of interest to the chest physician and cardiologist. While the common type in the distal part of the nail is produced by the minor trauma of daily life, the rarer form—scattered through the nail substance—appears to be related to hypoxaemia brought about by heart and lung disease. We thought it would be of interest to study a population which was naturally hypoxaemic because of living at high altitude. Accordingly we have studied the frequency and types of nail haemorrhage in Quechua Indians who are permanently exposed to the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andes. We found the haemorrhages to be common both in mestizos living on the coastal plain and in the native highlanders. They appeared to increase in frequency with altitude but were of the distal type and would thus seem to be the result of minor trauma as at sea level. However, just as in cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease at low altitude, those with exaggerated hypoxaemia and pronounced elevation of haematocrit—namely, subjects with Monge's disease (chronic mountain sickness)—had scattered haemorrhages in the nail substance. Images

  7. Patterns of clinical nail appearances in patients with cutaneous psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    MARINA, ELENA MIHAELA; BOTAR-JID, CAROLINA; BOLBOACA, SORANA DANIELA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; SENILA, CORINA SIMONA; MIHU, CARMEN MIHAELA; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Nail manifestations are often an overlooked aspect in psoriatic disease, cutaneous and joint involvement being far more often reported and investigated. The reported prevalence of nail changes varies in literature, specific fingernail clinical features having different degrees of occurrence. The aim of this study was to describe specific clinical patterns of fingernail alterations in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis in a university hospital in the North-West of Romania. Methods Clinical data of 35 patients with fingernail psoriasis were collected and analyzed. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores were used to quantify disease extension in each patient. Results PASI score proved linearly correlated with NAPSI score (p<0.05). The age of onset of fingernail psoriasis was positively correlated with age of onset cutaneous psoriasis (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the duration of cutaneous involvement and NAPSI proved significantly related (p<0.05). The third fingernail in the right hand and first fingernail in the left hand were in most of the cases severely affected. The most common observed nail pattern was pitting, followed by salmon patches and subungual hyperkeratosis. Conclusion Important nail changes appear even in moderate forms of cutaneous psoriasis. Particular localization of specific fingernail psoriasis pattern enables the possibility of detecting early stage disease. PMID:28246493

  8. [Scabies of the nail unit in an infant].

    PubMed

    Finon, A; Desoubeaux, G; Nadal, M; Georgescou, G; Baran, R; Maruani, A

    2017-05-01

    There are no guidelines regarding the management of scabies in infants and recurrence is common at this age. We report the case of an infant with subungual hyperkeratosis and ungual lesions subsequent to classic scabies. A 7-month-girl, treated 6 weeks earlier with esdepallethrin for scabies, consulted for acquired lesions on 3 toe nails. These nails were thickened and displayed subungual hyperkeratosis. Physical examination of the skin, the finger nails and mucous membranes was otherwise normal. Fungal analyses were negative, but direct microscopic examination revealed numerous larvae of Sarcoptes scabiei as well as ovular debris. The child was treated with urea 40% to obtain chemical avulsion of the nails, and with topical esdepallethrin and a quarter tablet of ivermectin orally; there was no follow-up of the child. Ungual scabies has already been reported in crusted scabies and very rarely in classic scabies. Subungual and ungual locations of S. scabiei may constitute a source of reinfestation with scabies in infants. Treatment is not well defined and currently involves chemical avulsion of the nails and the application of topical antiscabies treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Pseudoelastic intramedullary nailing for tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Yakacki, Christopher M; Gall, Ken; Dirschl, Douglas R; Pacaccio, Douglas J

    2011-03-01

    Tibio-talo-calcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is a procedure to treat severe ankle arthropathy by providing a pain-free and stable fusion. Intramedullary (IM) nails offer a method of internal fixation for TTC arthrodesis by providing compressive stability, as well as shear and torsional rigidity. IM nails have been developed to apply compression to the TTC complex during installation; however, current designs are highly susceptible to a loss of compression when exposed to small amounts of bone resorption and cyclic loading. Nickel titanium (NiTi) is a shape-memory alloy capable of recovering large amounts of deformation via shape-memory or pseudoelasticity. Currently, the next generation of IM nails is being developed to utilize the adaptive, pseudoelastic properties of NiTi and provide a fusion nail that is resistant to loss of compression or loosening. Specifically, the pseudoelastic IM nail contains an internal NiTi compression element that applies sustained compression during the course of fusion, analogous to external fixators. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd

  10. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  11. Stretching the indications: high tibial osteotomy used successfully to treat isolated ankle symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Elson, David W; Paweleck, James E; Shields, David W; Dawson, Matthew J; Ferrier, Gail M

    2013-01-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is successful in treating symptomatic varus arthritis of the knee. We present a case where ankle pain and instability were attributed to varus ankle malalignment. This was found to be secondary to constitutional varus of the proximal tibia but the patient's knee was asymptomatic. The decision to operate on an asymptomatic knee in the hope of improving ankle symptoms took a period of careful consideration, planning and discussion. HTO was performed without immediate complication and the patient reported an excellent outcome with marked improvement in Mazur's foot and ankle score from 18 to 85. In well selected and planned cases, HTO may be considered as an instrument of deformity correction with improvement in symptoms from joints distant to the surgical site. PMID:24022901

  12. Nail involvement in patients with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata treated with oral tofacitinib.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Su; Huh, Chang-Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2018-05-07

    A few anecdotal case reports demonstrated that tofacitinib improved nail changes associated with AA. To investigate nail changes in patients with AA treated with tofacitinib and evaluate the relationship between nail and hair responses to tofacitinib. This is a retrospective study of 33 adult patients with moderate-to-severe AA treated with oral tofacitinib monotherapy for at least 4 months. Fifteen patients had nail involvement and demonstrated more severe hair loss than those without nail involvement (p = .040). However, there was no significant difference in hair regrowth between two groups. Of 15 patients with nail involvement, 11 (73.3%) showed improvement regardless of type of nail change; the first improvement was observed at a median of 5 months (range, 1-11) after administration. Nail improvement was associated with neither initial severity of hair loss nor hair response to tofacitinib. Nail improvement tended to occur later than hair regrowth. Oral tofacitinib monotherapy improves nail involvement associated with AA. Nail involvement is not a poor prognosis factor in hair regrowth with tofacitinib treatment and there is no evident relationship between nail and hair responses.

  13. Creep behavior of soil nail walls in high plasticity index (PI) soils : technical report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    An aspect of particular concern in the Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7: Soil Nail Walls (i.e., the soil : nail wall manual and construction guidelines) is the creep behavior of soil nail systems in high-plasticity : clays. This research proje...

  14. Withdrawal strength of ring-shank nails embedded in southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    M. J. Skulteti; D. A. Bender; S. G. Winistorfer; D. G. Pollock

    1997-01-01

    Ring-shank nails are used extensively in post-frame construction due to their superior performance, yet surprisingly little testing has been done on nail sizes above 12d Experience in the post-frame industry suggests that published allowable design values for ring-shank nails may be overly conservative and need revision. The goal of the research reported herein was to...

  15. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1185 (Final)] Certain Steel Nails From... is materially injured by reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails... of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of...

  16. 76 FR 29266 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1185 Preliminary] Certain Steel Nails... Emirates of certain steel nails, provided for in subheadings 7317.00.55, 7317.00.65 and 7317.00.75 of the... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of certain steel nails from the United Arab...

  17. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  18. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  19. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  20. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable.The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR.In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained.The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1-19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1-30.9) s] (P < 0.001).Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867.

  1. Open unstable metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in adolescents: treatment by flexible intramedullary nails augmented by external fixator.

    PubMed

    Atef, Ashraf; El Tantawy, Ahmad

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of open and unstable metaphyseo-diaphyseal fractures of the tibia in adolescents is challenging. It is important to choose a fixation method that can maintain alignment, allow wound care and not violate the growth plate. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of using flexible intramedullary nails (FIN) augmented by external fixator (EF) in the management of such fractures. A total of 26 males, with a mean age of 14.08 years and average body weight of 49.8 kg, presented with open metaphyseo-diaphyseal tibial fractures. All cases were treated using FIN augmented by mono-lateral EF. The fractures were located at the upper third in 17 cases and at the lower third in nine cases. The fracture pattern was spiral in eight cases, oblique in seven and multi-fragmentary in 11. The results were evaluated according to the scoring system for femoral TENs. All fractures united primarily after an average eight to 12 weeks with no evident angular deformity or limb-length discrepancy. None of the cases required cast immobilization or revision procedure. Twenty patients had excellent results, six patients showed good results and none had poor results. Fracture characteristics as well as patients' characteristics had no statistically significant effect (p > 0.005) on the final end results. The use of FIN augmented by EF is a good alternative in the management of open metaphyseo-diaphyseal tibial fractures in adolescents. This fixation provides more stability, allows easy access to the wound and early patients' ambulation.

  2. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  3. Histological Analysis of the Tibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Rainer; Oka, Shinya; Traut, Ulrike; Schuhmacher, Peter; Kirsch, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion by histological assessment in the sagittal plane. Methods: For histology the native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into 4 sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. The slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analyzed at a magnification of ×20. Results: From medial to lateral the anterior-posterior lengths of the ACL insertion were an average of 10.2, 9.3, 7.6 and 5.8 mm. The anterior margin of the tibial ACL insertion raised from an anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibers rose along with a peak of the anterior part of the medial tibial spine in which the direct insertion was adjacent to the articular cartilage. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact to the lateral ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the tibial ACL insertion. There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibers in the area intercondylaris anterior. Conclusion: The functional intraligamentous midsubstance ACL fibers arose from the most posterior part of its bony tibial insertion in a flat and “C-shape” way. The anterior border of this functional ACL started from a bony ‘anterior ridge’ and the medial border was along with a peak of the medial tibial spine.

  4. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  5. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  6. Using external and internal locking plates in a two-stage protocol for treatment of segmental tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yeh, Jih-Hsi; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2011-09-01

    The tibial segmental fractures usually follow high-energy trauma and are often associated with many complications. We designed a two-stage protocol for these complex injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of tibial segmental fractures treated according to this protocol. A prospective series of 25 consecutive segmental tibial fractures were treated using a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, a low-profile locking plate was applied as an external fixator to temporarily immobilize the fractures after anatomic reduction had been achieved followed by soft-tissue reconstruction. The second stage involved definitive internal fixation with a locking plate using a minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis technique. The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 20-44 months). All fractures achieved union. The median time for the proximal fracture union was 23 weeks (range, 12-30 weeks) and that for distal fracture union was 27 weeks (range, 12-46 weeks; p = 0.08). Functional results were excellent in 21 patients and good in 4 patients. There were three cases of delayed union of distal fracture. Valgus malunion >5 degrees occurred in two patients, and length discrepancy >1 cm was observed in two patients. Pin tract infection occurred in three patients. Use of the two-stage procedure for treatment of segmental tibial fractures is recommended. Surgeons can achieve good reduction with stable temporary fixation, soft-tissue reconstruction, ease of subsequent definitive fixation, and high union rates. Our patients obtained excellent knee and ankle joint motion, good functional outcomes, and a comfortable clinical course.

  7. The preclinical sheep model of high tibial osteotomy relating basic science to the clinics: standards, techniques and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Pape, Dietrich; Madry, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To develop a preclinical large animal model of high tibial osteotomy to study the effect of axial alignment on the lower extremity on specific issues of the knee joint, such as in articular cartilage repair, development of osteoarthritis and meniscal lesions. Preoperative planning, surgical procedure and postoperative care known from humans were adapted to develop a HTO model in the adult sheep. Thirty-five healthy, skeletally mature, female Merino sheep between 2 and 4 years of age underwent a HTO of their right tibia in a medial open-wedge technique inducing a normal (group 1) and an excessive valgus alignment (group 2) and a closed-wedge technique (group 3) inducing a varus alignment with the aim of elucidating the effect of limb alignment on cartilage repair in vivo. Animals were followed up for 6 months. Solid bone healing and maintenance of correction are most likely if the following surgical principles are respected: (1) medial and longitudinal approach to the proximal tibia; (2) biplanar osteotomy to increase initial rotatory stability regardless of the direction of correction; (3) small, narrow but long implant with locking screws; (4) posterior plate placement to avoid slope changes; (5) use of bicortical screws to account for the brittle bone of the tibial head and to avoid tibial head displacement. Although successful high tibial osteotomy in sheep is complex, the sheep may--because of its similarities with humans--serve as an elegant model to induce axial malalignment in a clinically relevant environment, and osteotomy healing under challenging mechanical conditions.

  8. The Chinese Nail Murders: forensic medicine in Imperial China.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    Robert van Gulik was a respected Dutch sinologist and author who first translated a collection of traditional Chinese detective stories into English and then created additional fictional stories based on the same characters and setting in the Tang dynasty. One of these stories, The Chinese Nail Murders, draws on van Gulik's professional interest in law and his knowledge of early Chinese works on forensic medicine. This novel develops a common theme in Chinese detective fiction, murder by a nail wound to the head. The difficulty in detection of this mode of violence posed a particular problem for the examining magistrate because postmortem examination was mostly limited to external observations. This essay compares the development of Chinese and Western forensic medicine in the context of the nail murder motif. PMID:11138936

  9. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.