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Sample records for naja haje cobra

  1. The Development of the Skull of the Egyptian Cobra Naja h. haje (Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae)

    PubMed Central

    Khannoon, Eraqi R.; Evans, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of craniofacial development is important in understanding the ontogenetic processes behind morphological diversity. A complete morphological description of the embryonic skull development of the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje, is lacking and there has been little comparative discussion of skull development either among elapid snakes or between them and other snakes. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a description of skull development through a full sequence of developmental stages of the Egyptian cobra, and compare it to other snakes. Associated soft tissues of the head are noted where relevant. The first visible ossification centres are in the supratemporal, prearticular and surangular, with slight ossification visible in parts of the maxilla, prefrontal, and dentary. Epiotic centres of ossification are present in the supraoccipital, and the body of the supraoccipital forms from the tectum posterior not the tectum synoticum. The venom glands are visible as distinct bodies as early at stage 5 and enlarge later to extend from the otic capsule to the maxilla level with the anterior margin of the eye. The gland becomes more prominent shortly before hatching, concomitant with the development of the fangs. The tongue shows incipient forking at stage 5, and becomes fully bifid at stage 6. Conclusions/Significance We present the first detailed staging series of cranial development for the Egyptian cobra, Naja h. haje. This is one of the first studies since the classical works of G. de Beer and W. Parker that provides a detailed description of cranial development in an advanced snake species. It allows us to correct errors and misinterpretations in previous accounts which were based on a small sample of specimens of uncertain age. Our results highlight potentially significant variation in supraoccipital formation among squamates and the need for further research in this area. PMID:25860015

  2. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa).

    PubMed

    Muliya, Sanath Krishna; Bhat, Mudraje Narayana

    2016-08-01

    To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations. Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), wild Indian rat snakes (n=10), captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), and captive Indian rat snake (n=10). The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein. Hematological examinations were performed manually and serum biochemistry assays were performed on semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer. The values of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were slightly low in captive spectacled cobras and captive rat snakes compared to wild ones, whereas total leukocyte count was found to be slightly high in wild spectacled cobras compared to captive ones. All the recorded values of biochemical and electrolyte analytes were found to be well within expected range for snakes except for total protein and chloride levels in both the species which was slightly above the expected range. The hematology and serum biochemistry intervals of the two most common Indian snakes are presented here. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations and aiding in better medical management of the species studied. Since this study is the first to report complete hematologic and blood biochemical ranges for the study species, observations made here can also be used as referral intervals for future use.

  3. Hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild-caught Indian cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja. Results Blood samples, taken from the ventral tail vein, were assessed for erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, considering the sex of snakes. Results revealed the erythrocyte numbers (male, 390000 ± 12503.33/mm3 and female, 347500 ± 7505.55/mm3), shapes and the centrally located oval nuclei. Leukocytes were round, circular or disk-shaped, and the mean size was larger in male than female snakes. The maximum number of leukocytes was found to be 11700 ± 100/mm3 in male and 12100 ± 200/mm3 in female snakes, and mean values of differential leukocyte count differed statistically between male and female snakes. The total leukocyte levels were found to be higher in female snakes, but the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV values were higher in male snakes. However, the MCH and MCHC values remained higher in female snakes throughout the study period. Mean protein and cholesterol contents differed significantly between male (45.32 ± 1.76 and 3.76 ± 0.06 mg/mL) and female (12.47 ± 0.82 and 4.72 ± 0.2 mg/mL) snakes. Conclusions In conclusion, monitoring snake hematological and biochemical parameters can serve as a means to evaluate the physiological and health status of N. naja populations, which may be a useful indicator of their environmental status. PMID:24735569

  4. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    PubMed Central

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypothesis, crude lysates of different organs of Naja naja karachiensis (black cobra) were tested for antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were tested against selected bacterial pathogens (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumonia), protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii), and filamentous fungus (Fusarium solani). The findings revealed that plasma and various organ extracts of N. n. karachiensis exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli K1, MRSA, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, A. castellanii, and F. solani in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of this study are promising for the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:24625321

  5. Culturable Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Intestinal Bacterial Flora of Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) in Southern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Junaid; Sagheer, Mehwish; Tabassum, Nazneen; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella sp., Moraxella sp., Bacillus sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Providencia rettgeri. These findings are of concern, as injury from snake bite can result in wound infections and tissue necrosis leading to sepsis/necrotizing fasciitis and/or expose consumers of snake meat/medicine in the community to infections. PMID:25002979

  6. Use of egg yolk antibody (IgY) as an immunoanalytical tool in the detection of Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom in biological samples of forensic origin.

    PubMed

    Brunda, G; Sashidhar, R B; Sarin, R K

    2006-08-01

    An immunoglobulin Y (IgY) based indirect double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom in the biological samples of forensic origin. Polyclonal antibodies were raised and purified from chick egg yolk and rabbit serum. The cobra venom was sandwiched between immobilized affinity purified IgY and the rabbit IgG. The detection concentration of cobra venom was in the range of 0.1 to 300ng. The calibration plot was based on linear regression analysis (y=0.2581x+0.4375, r(2)=0.9886). The limit of detection of the assay was found to be 0.1ng. The coefficient of variation (CV) of different concentrations of working range in inter (n=6) and intra-assay (n=6) was observed to be less than 10%. The recovery of venom was found to be in the range of 80-99%, when different concentrations (0.002, 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 2microg) of cobra venom were spiked to pooled normal human serum (ml(-1)). No cross reactivity was observed with krait and viper venom in the immunoassay system in the concentration range of 0.1-1000ng. The method was initially, validated by analyzing specimens (autopsy) of experimental rats injected with cobra venom (1.2mgkg(-1) body mass). Further, human specimens (autopsy and biopsy) of snake bite victims of forensic origin were also analyzed. The methodology developed may find diagnostic application in forensic laboratories.

  7. Combined venomics, antivenomics and venom gland transcriptome analysis of the monocoled cobra (Naja kaouthia) from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Yin, Yin; Shen, Shan-Shan; Shan, Lin-Lin; Chen, Chuan-Xi; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2017-04-21

    We conducted an omics-analysis of the venom of Naja kaouthia from China. Proteomics analysis revealed six protein families [three-finger toxins (3-FTx), phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ), nerve growth factor, snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), cysteine-rich secretory protein and ohanin], and venom-gland transcriptomics analysis revealed 28 protein families from 79 unigenes. 3-FTx (56.5% in proteome/82.0% in transcriptome) and PLA 2 (26.9%/13.6%) were identified as the most abundant families in venom proteome and venom-gland transcriptome. Furthermore, N. kaouthia venom expressed strong lethality (i.p. LD 50 : 0.79μg/g) and myotoxicity (CK: 5939U/l) in mice, and showed notable activity in PLA 2 but weak activity in SVMP, l-amino acid oxidase or 5' nucleotidase. Antivenomic assessment revealed that several venom components (nearly 17.5% of total venom) from N. kaouthia could not be thoroughly immunocaptured by commercial Naja atra antivenom. ELISA analysis revealed that there was no difference in the cross-reaction between N. kaouthia and N. atra venoms against the N. atra antivenom. The use of commercial N. atra antivenom in treatment of snakebites caused by N. kaouthia is reasonable, but design of novel antivenom with the attention on enhancing the immune response of non-immunocaptured components should be encouraged. The venomics, antivenomics and venom-gland transcriptome of the monocoled cobra (Naja kaouthia) from China have been elucidated. Quantitative and qualitative differences are evident when venom proteomic and venom-gland transcriptomic profiles are compared. Two protein families (3-FTx and PLA 2 ) are found to be the predominated components in N. kaouthia venom, and considered as the major players in functional role of venom. Other protein families with relatively low abundance appear to be minor in the functional significance. Antivenomics and ELISA evaluation reveal that the N. kaouthia venom can be effectively immunorecognized by commercial N. atra

  8. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

    2009-04-01

    Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages.

  9. Development of a polymerase chain reaction to distinguish monocellate cobra (Naja khouthia) bites from other common Thai snake species, using both venom extracts and bite-site swabs.

    PubMed

    Suntrarachun, S; Pakmanee, N; Tirawatnapong, T; Chanhome, L; Sitprija, V

    2001-07-01

    A PCR technique was used in this study to identify and distinguish monocellate cobra snake bites using snake venoms and swab specimens from snake bite-sites in mice from bites by other common Thai snakes. The sequences of nucleotide primers were selected for the cobrotoxin-encoding gene from the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) since the sequences of monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom are still unknown. However, the 113-bp fragment of cDNA of the cobrotoxin-encoding gene was detected in the monocellate cobra venom using RT-PCR. This gene was not found in the venoms of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra), Bungarus fasciatus (banded krait), Daboia russelii siamensis (Siamese Russell's Viper, and Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper). Moreover, direct PCR could detect a 665-bp fragment of the cobrotoxin-encoding gene in the monocellate cobra venom but not the other snake venoms. Likewise, this gene was only observed in swab specimens from cobra snake bite-sites in mice. This is the first report demonstrating the ability of PCR to detect the cobrotoxin-encoding gene from snake venoms and swab specimens. Further studies are required for identification of this and other snakes from the bite-sites on human skin.

  10. Effect of Mucuna pruriens Seed Extract Pretreatment on the Responses of Spontaneously Beating Rat Atria and Aortic Ring to Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Aguiyi, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (velvet bean) has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. Rats pretreated with M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) have been shown to protect against the lethal and cardiovascular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venoms, and the protective effect involved immunological neutralization of the venom toxins. To investigate further the mechanism of the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity, the actions of Naja sputatrix venom on spontaneously beating rat atria and aortic rings isolated from both MPE pretreated and untreated rats were studied. Our results showed that the MPE pretreatment conferred protection against cobra venom-induced depression of atrial contractility and atrial rate in the isolated atrial preparations, but it had no effect on the venom-induced contractile response of aortic ring preparation. These observations suggested that the protective effect of MPE pretreatment against cobra venom toxicity involves a direct protective action of MPE on the heart function, in addition to the known immunological neutralization mechanism, and that the protective effect does not involve action on blood vessel contraction. The results also suggest that M. pruriens seed may contain novel cardioprotective agent with potential therapeutic value. PMID:21785646

  11. Anti-platelet activity of a three-finger toxin (3FTx) from Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Chandrasekhar; Sarkar, Angshuman; Sistla, Srinivas; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2013-11-22

    A low molecular weight anti-platelet peptide (6.9 kDa) has been purified from Naja kaouthia venom and was named KT-6.9. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed the homology of KT-6.9 peptide sequence with many three finger toxin family members. KT-6.9 inhibited human platelet aggregation process in a dose dependent manner. It has inhibited ADP, thrombin and arachidonic acid induced platelet aggregation process in dose dependent manner, but did not inhibit collagen and ristocetin induced platelet aggregation. Strong inhibition (70%) of the ADP induced platelet aggregation by KT-6.9 suggests competition with ADP for its receptors on platelet surface. Anti-platelet activity of KT-6.9 was found to be 25 times stronger than that of anti-platelet drug clopidogrel. Binding of KT-6.9 to platelet surface was confirmed by surface plasma resonance analysis using BIAcore X100. Binding was also observed by a modified sandwich ELISA method using anti-KT-6.9 antibodies. KT-6.9 is probably the first 3 FTx from Indian monocled cobra venom reported as a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Phylogeographical Pattern and Conservation of the Chinese Cobra (Naja atra) across Its Range Based on Mitochondrial Control Region Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Hui; Hua, Lei; Qu, Yan-Fu; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) ranges from southeastern China south of the Yangtze River to northern Vietnam and Laos. Large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence the pattern of genetic diversity of this species. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region (1029 bp) using 285 individuals collected from 23 localities across the species' range and obtained 18 sequences unique to Taiwan from GenBank for phylogenetic and population analysis. Two distinct clades were identified, one including haplotypes from the two westernmost localities (Hekou and Miyi) and the other including haplotypes from all sampling sites except Miyi. A strong population structure was found (Φst = 0.76, P<0.0001) with high haplotype diversity (h = 1.00) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0049). The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains act as historical geographical barriers limiting gene exchange. In the haplotype network there were two “star” clusters. Haplotypes from populations east of the Luoxiao Mountains were represented within one cluster and haplotypes from populations west of the mountain range within the other, with haplotypes from populations south of the Nanling Mountains in between. Lineage sorting between mainland and island populations is incomplete. It remains unknown as to how much adaptive differentiation there is between population groups or within each group. We caution against long-distance transfers within any group, especially when environmental differences are apparent. PMID:25184236

  13. The phylogeographical pattern and conservation of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) across its range based on mitochondrial control region sequences.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Hui; Hua, Lei; Qu, Yan-Fu; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) ranges from southeastern China south of the Yangtze River to northern Vietnam and Laos. Large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence the pattern of genetic diversity of this species. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA control region (1029 bp) using 285 individuals collected from 23 localities across the species' range and obtained 18 sequences unique to Taiwan from GenBank for phylogenetic and population analysis. Two distinct clades were identified, one including haplotypes from the two westernmost localities (Hekou and Miyi) and the other including haplotypes from all sampling sites except Miyi. A strong population structure was found (Φst = 0.76, P<0.0001) with high haplotype diversity (h = 1.00) and low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0049). The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains act as historical geographical barriers limiting gene exchange. In the haplotype network there were two "star" clusters. Haplotypes from populations east of the Luoxiao Mountains were represented within one cluster and haplotypes from populations west of the mountain range within the other, with haplotypes from populations south of the Nanling Mountains in between. Lineage sorting between mainland and island populations is incomplete. It remains unknown as to how much adaptive differentiation there is between population groups or within each group. We caution against long-distance transfers within any group, especially when environmental differences are apparent.

  14. Protein Characterization of Javan Cobra (Naja sputatrix) Venom Following Sun Exposure and Photo-Oxidation Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Biki, R. S.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    Snake venom has always been known for its toxicity that can cause fatality, however, it is also one of the important biological resources to be used for disease treatment. In Indonesia, snake venom previously expose under the sun has been used for alternative treatment of some diseases such as dengue fever, atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes. There has been very little scientific evidence on the use of snake venom of Indonesia origin as well as its protein characteristic. Thus, the objective of this research is to characterize the protein content and the specific activity of the venom of Javan Cobra (N.sputatrix) when treated with sun exposure in comparison with photo-oxidation by ultraviolet. Qualitative analysis of protein contents was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE). The L-amino acid oxidase activity (LAAO) and the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities were determined using spectrophotometry. The venom’s protein was separated into 5 main protein bands with molecular weight ranging from 14 to 108 kDa. A time course study showed that the venom lost 91% of its LAAO activity and 96% of PLA2 activity after 6 hours of sun exposure. UV photo-oxidation carried out for 3 hours decreased 91% of LAAO activity, and almost diminished all of PLA2 activity (99.8%). These findings suggest that the exposure of N. sputatrix venom under the sun and UV photo-oxidation decreased its toxicity as shown by the significant reduction of the enzymes activity, but did not affect the protein’s integrity. Therefore, these approaches produced N.sputatrix venom with less toxicity but still withheld other characters of intact proteins.

  15. Structure of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser of Aβ-peptide with phospholipase A2 from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zeenat; Pillai, Vikram Gopalakrishna; Zhong, Wei-Zhu

    2014-03-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most significant social and health burdens of the present century. Plaques formed by extracellular deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) are the prime player of AD's neuropathology. Studies have implicated the varied role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in brain where it contributes to neuronal growth and inflammatory response. Overall contour and chemical nature of the substrate-binding channel in the low molecular weight PLA2s are similar. This study involves the reductionist fragment-based approach to understand the structure adopted by N-terminal fragment of Alzheimer's Aβ peptide in its complex with PLA2. In the current communication, we report the structure determined by X-ray crystallography of N-terminal sequence Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser (DAEFRHDS) of Aβ-peptide with a Group I PLA2 purified from venom of Andaman Cobra sub-species Naja naja sagittifera at 2.0 Å resolution (Protein Data Bank (PDB) Code: 3JQ5). This is probably the first attempt to structurally establish interaction between amyloid-β peptide fragment and hydrophobic substrate binding site of PLA2 involving H bond and van der Waals interactions. We speculate that higher affinity between Aβ and PLA2 has the therapeutic potential of decreasing the Aβ-Aβ interaction, thereby reducing the amyloid aggregation and plaque formation in AD.

  16. Molecular modeling of NK-CT1, from Indian monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) and its docking interaction with human DNA topoisomerase II alpha

    PubMed Central

    Bandopadhyay, Pathikrit; Halder, Soma; Sarkar, Mrinmoy; Kumar Bhunia, Sujay; Dey, Sananda; Gomes, Antony; Giri, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    A 6.76 kDa molecular weight cardio and cytotoxic protein of 60 amino acids in length called NK-CT1, was purified from the venom of Indian monocellate cobra (Naja kaouthia) by ion-exchange chromatography and HPLC as described in our earlier report. Therefore it is of interest to utlize the sequence of NK-CT1 for further functional inference using molecular modeling and docking. Thus homology model of NK-CT1 is described in this report. The anti-proliferative activity of the protein, binding with human DNA topoisomerase-II alpha was demonstrated using docking data with AUTODOCK and AUTODOCK MGL tools. Data shows that M26, V27 and S28 of NK-CT1 is in close contact with the nucleotides of the oligonucleotide, bound with topoisomerase-II alpha complex. PMID:28149043

  17. Bites by the Monocled Cobra, Naja kaouthia, in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh: Epidemiology, Clinical Features of Envenoming and Management of 70 Identified Cases

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, M. A.; Ahsan, M. F.; Ghose, A.; Rahman, M. R.; Amin, R.; Hossain, M.; Tareq, M. N. U.; Jalil, M. A.; Kuch, U.; Theakston, R. D. G.; Warrell, D. A.; Harris, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    We describe 70 cases of monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) bite admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The biting snakes were identified by examining the dead snake and/or detecting N. kaouthia venom antigens in patients' serum. Bites were most common in the early morning and evening during the monsoon (May–July). Ligatures were routinely applied to the bitten limb before admission. Thirty-seven patients consulted traditional healers, most of whom made incisions around the bite site. Fifty-eight patients experienced severe neurotoxicity and most suffered swelling and pain of the bitten limb. The use of an Indian polyvalent antivenom in patients exhibiting severe neurotoxicity resulted in clinical improvement but most patients experienced moderate-to-severe adverse reactions. Antivenom did not influence local blistering and necrosis appearing in 19 patients; 12 required debridement. Edrophonium significantly improved the ability of patients to open the eyes, endurance of upward gaze, and peak expiratory flow rate suggesting that a longer-acting anticholinesterase drug (neostigmine) could be recommended for first aid. The study suggested that regionally appropriate antivenom should be raised against the venoms of the major envenoming species of Bangladesh and highlighted the need to improve the training of staff of local medical centers and to invest in the basic health infrastructure in rural communities. PMID:28138054

  18. Comparative venom gland transcriptomics of Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) from Malaysia and Thailand: elucidating geographical venom variation and insights into sequence novelty

    PubMed Central

    Chanhome, Lawan; Tan, Nget Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background The monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) is a medically important venomous snake in Southeast Asia. Its venom has been shown to vary geographically in relation to venom composition and neurotoxic activity, indicating vast diversity of the toxin genes within the species. To investigate the polygenic trait of the venom and its locale-specific variation, we profiled and compared the venom gland transcriptomes of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M) and Thailand (NK-T) applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Methods The transcriptomes were sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq platform, assembled and followed by transcript clustering and annotations for gene expression and function. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments were conducted on the toxin genes expressed. Substitution rates were studied for the major toxins co-expressed in NK-M and NK-T. Results and discussion The toxin transcripts showed high redundancy (41–82% of the total mRNA expression) and comprised 23 gene families expressed in NK-M and NK-T, respectively (22 gene families were co-expressed). Among the venom genes, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) predominated in the expression, with multiple sequences noted. Comparative analysis and selection study revealed that 3FTxs are genetically conserved between the geographical specimens whilst demonstrating distinct differential expression patterns, implying gene up-regulation for selected principal toxins, or alternatively, enhanced transcript degradation or lack of transcription of certain traits. One of the striking features that elucidates the inter-geographical venom variation is the up-regulation of α-neurotoxins (constitutes ∼80.0% of toxin’s fragments per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads (FPKM)), particularly the long-chain α-elapitoxin-Nk2a (48.3%) in NK-T but only 1.7% was noted in NK-M. Instead, short neurotoxin isoforms were up-regulated in NK-M (46.4%). Another distinct transcriptional pattern observed is the

  19. Mucuna pruriens Linn. seed extract pretreatment protects against cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular depressant effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Marinello, Enrico; Guerranti, Roberto; Aguiyi, John Chinyere

    2011-04-01

    Mucuna pruriens has been used by native Nigerians as a prophylactic for snakebite. The protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) were investigated against the pharmacological actions of N. sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in rats. The results showed that MPE-pretreatment protected against cardiorespiratory and, to a lesser extent, neuromuscular depressant effects of N. sputatrix venom. These may be explained at least in part by the neutralisation of the cobra venom toxins by anti-MPE antibodies elicited by the MPE pretreatment.

  20. Analysis of the efficacy of Taiwanese freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom against Naja kaouthia, Naja siamensis and Ophiophagus hannah through proteomics and animal model approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Chun; You, Chen-Hsien; Wang, Po-Jung; Yu, Jau-Song; Huang, Guo-Jen; Liu, Chien-Hsin; Hsieh, Wen-Chin; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    In Southeast Asia, envenoming resulting from cobra snakebites is an important public health issue in many regions, and antivenom therapy is the standard treatment for the snakebite. Because these cobras share a close evolutionary history, the amino acid sequences of major venom components in different snakes are very similar. Therefore, either monovalent or polyvalent antivenoms may offer paraspecific protection against envenomation of humans by several different snakes. In Taiwan, a bivalent antivenom-freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom (FNAV)-against Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra is available. However, whether this antivenom is also capable of neutralizing the venom of other species of snakes is not known. Here, to expand the clinical application of Taiwanese FNAV, we used an animal model to evaluate the neutralizing ability of FNAV against the venoms of three common snakes in Southeast Asia, including two 'true' cobras Naja kaouthia (Thailand) and Naja siamensis (Thailand), and the king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (Indonesia). We further applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques to characterize venom proteomes and identify FNAV-recognizable antigens in the venoms of these Asian snakes. Neutralization assays in a mouse model showed that FNAV effectively neutralized the lethality of N. kaouthia and N. siamensis venoms, but not O. hannah venom. MS-based venom protein identification results further revealed that FNAV strongly recognized three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2, the major protein components of N. kaouthia and N. siamensis venoms. The characterization of venom proteomes and identification of FNAV-recognizable venom antigens may help researchers to further develop more effective antivenom designed to block the toxicity of dominant toxic proteins, with the ultimate goal of achieving broadly therapeutic effects against these cobra snakebites.

  1. Purification, partial characterization, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of a novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra (South Anhui) venom

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Hui; Li, Yan; Lou, Xiao-hua

    2007-02-01

    A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein from Naja naja atra was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.35 Å resolution. A novel cardiotoxin-like basic protein was isolated from the venom of the Chinese cobra (Naja naja atra) from the south of Anhui in China. The protein inhibits the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in human lung cancer cell line H1299 and induces the haemolysis of rabbit erythrocytes under low-lecithin conditions. After a two-step chromatographic purification, the resultant 7 kDa protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. A complete data setmore » was collected to 2.35 Å resolution using an in-house X-ray diffraction system. The crystal belongs to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 43.2, c = 147.9 Å. There are two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.« less

  2. Differential Effects of Naja naja atra Venom on Immune Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Jian-Qun; Han, Rong; Xu, Yin-Li; Ding, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Shu-Zhi; Chen, Cao-Xin; Ji, Hong-Zhang; Ding, Zhi-Hui; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) inhibited inflammation and adjuvant arthritis. Here we investigated the role of NNAV in regulation of immune responses in mice. Oral administration of NNAV to normal mice showed significant increase in natural killer cell activity, B lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, and antibody production in response to sheep red blood cells. Meanwhile, NNAV markedly decreased T lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A, arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, and suppressed CD4 and CD8 T cell divisions. Furthermore, NNAV inhibited the dinitrofluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. This modulation of immune responses may be partly attributed to the selective increase in Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4) secretion and inhibition of Th17 cytokine (IL-17) production. In dexamethasone-induced immunosuppressed mice, NNAV restored the concentration of serum IgG and IgM, while decreasing the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. These results indicate that NNAV enhances the innate and humoral immune responses while inhibiting CD4 Th17 and CD8 T cell actions, suggesting that NNAV could be a potential therapeutic agent for autoimmune diseases. PMID:25024726

  3. Why Use COBRA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Explains the benefits of using COBRA model to convert emission reductions into changes in air quality and estimates the number of cases of illness and death avoided as well as the economic value of those benefits.

  4. Collaborative Beamfocusing Radio (COBRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Jeremy P.; Hsu, Mark J.; Smith, David; Husain, Anis

    2013-05-01

    A Ziva team has recently demonstrated a novel technique called Collaborative Beamfocusing Radios (COBRA) which enables an ad-hoc collection of distributed commercial off-the-shelf software defined radios to coherently align and beamform to a remote radio. COBRA promises to operate even in high multipath and non-line-of-sight environments as well as mobile applications without resorting to computationally expensive closed loop techniques that are currently unable to operate with significant movement. COBRA exploits two key technologies to achieve coherent beamforming. The first is Time Reversal (TR) which compensates for multipath and automatically discovers the optimal spatio-temporal matched filter to enable peak signal gains (up to 20 dB) and diffraction-limited focusing at the intended receiver in NLOS and severe multipath environments. The second is time-aligned buffering which enables TR to synchronize distributed transmitters into a collaborative array. This time alignment algorithm avoids causality violations through the use of reciprocal buffering. Preserving spatio-temporal reciprocity through the TR capture and retransmission process achieves coherent alignment across multiple radios at ~GHz carriers using only standard quartz-oscillators. COBRA has been demonstrated in the lab, aligning two off-the-shelf software defined radios over-the-air to an accuracy of better than 2 degrees of carrier alignment at 450 MHz. The COBRA algorithms are lightweight, with computation in 5 ms on a smartphone class microprocessor. COBRA also has low start-up latency, achieving high accuracy from a cold-start in 30 ms. The COBRA technique opens up a large number of new capabilities in communications, and electronic warfare including selective spatial jamming, geolocation and anti-geolocation.

  5. Purification of a post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 from Naja naja venom and its inhibition by a glycoprotein from Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Machiah, Deepa K; Gowda, T Veerabasappa

    2006-06-01

    A post-synaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) has been purified from Indian cobra Naja naja venom. It was associated with a peptide in the venom. The association was disrupted using 8 M urea. It is denoted to be a basic protein by its behavior on both ion exchange chromatography and electrophoresis. It is toxic to mice, LD(50) 1.9 mg/kg body weight (ip). It is proved to be post-synaptic PLA(2) by chymographic experiment using frog nerve-muscle preparation. A glycoprotein, (WSG) was isolated from a folk medicinal plant Withania somnifera. The WSG inhibited the phospholipase A(2) activity of NN-XIa-PLA(2,) isolated from the cobra venom, completely at a mole-to-mole ratio of 1:2 (NN-XIa-PLA(2): WSG) but failed to neutralize the toxicity of the molecule. However, it reduced the toxicity as well as prolonged the death time of the experimental mice approximately 10 times when compared to venom alone. The WSG also inhibited several other PLA(2) isoforms from the venom to varying extent. The interaction of the WSG with the PLA(2) is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical modification of the active histidine residue of PLA(2) using p-brophenacyl bromide resulted in the loss of both catalytic activity as well as neurotoxicity of the molecule. These findings suggest that the venom PLA(2) has multiple sites on it; perhaps some of them are overlapping. Application of the plant extract on snakebite wound confirms the medicinal value associated with the plant.

  6. Naja naja karachiensis Envenomation: Biochemical Parameters for Cardiac, Liver, and Renal Damage along with Their Neutralization by Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Ubaid, Muhammad; Durr-e-Sabih; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Rubada; Mahmood, Qaisar; Ansari, Muhammad Muzzmil; Karim, Sabiha; Mehmood, Zahid; Hussain, Izhar

    2014-01-01

    Naja naja karachiensis envenomation was found to hit more drastically heart, liver, and kidneys. 400 μg/kg of venom-raised moderate serum levels of ALT (72 ± 4.70 U/L, 0.1 > P > 0.05), AST (157 ± 24.24 U/L, 0.1 > P > 0.05), urea (42 ± 3.08 mg/dL, 0.05 > P > 0.02), creatinine (1.74 ± 0.03 mg/dL, 0.01 > P > 0.001), CK-MB (21 ± 1.5 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), and LDH (2064 ± 15.98 U/L, P < 0.001) were injected in experimental rabbits. However, lethality was enhanced with 800 μg/kg of venom in terms of significant release of ALT (86 ± 5.0 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), AST (251 ± 18.2 U/L, 0.01 > P > 0.001), urea (57.6 ± 3.84 mg/dL, 0.02 > P > 0.01), creatinine (2.1 ± 0.10 mg/dL, 0.02 > P > 0.01), CK-MB (77 ± 11.22 U/L, 0.05 > P > 0.02), and LDH (2562 ± 25.14 U/L, P ≪ 0.001). Among twenty-eight tested medicinal plant extracts, only Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem was found the best antivenom (P > 0.5) compared to the efficacy of standard antidote (ALT = 52.5 ± 3.51 U/L, AST = 69.5 ± 18.55 U/L, urea = 31.5 ± 0.50 mg/dL, creatinine = 1.08 ± 0.02 mg/dL, CK-MB = 09 ± 0.85 U/L, and LDH = 763 ± 6.01 U/L). Other plant extracts were proved less beneficial and partly neutralized the toxicities posed by cobra venom. However, it is essential in future to isolate and characterize bioactive compound(s) from Stenolobium stans (L.) Seem extract to overcome the complications of snake bite. PMID:24877153

  7. Elapid snake venom analyses show the specificity of the peptide composition at the level of genera Naja and Notechis.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Hildebrand, Diana; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Behnken, Henning; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir; Spencer, Patrick; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2014-02-28

    Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms-that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja), and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis). A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F) cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467) from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  8. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    PubMed Central

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N.W.; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P.; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C.; Ali, Syed A.; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C.; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M.I.; Vonk, Freek J.; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A.; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G.

    2017-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine sea

  9. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting.

    PubMed

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N W; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C; Ali, Syed A; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M I; Vonk, Freek J; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-03-13

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras ( Ophiophagus ). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja , once within the Asian Naja , and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata , which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine

  10. Spitting cobras: fluid jets in nature as models for technical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmert, Alexander; Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Bleckmann, Horst; Westhoff, Guido

    2011-04-01

    Spitting cobras defend themselves by ejecting rapid jets of venom through their fangs towards the face of an offender. To generate these jets, the venom delivery system of spitting cobras has some unique adaptations, such as prominent ridges on the surface of the venom channel. We examined the fluid acceleration mechanisms in three spitting cobra species of the genus Naja. To investigate the liquid-flow through the venom channel we built a three-dimensional 60:1 scale model. First we determined the three-dimensional structure of the channel by using microcomputer tomography. With help of the micro computer tomographical data we then created a negative form out of wax. Finally, silicon was casted around the wax form and the wax removed, resulting in a completely transparent model of the cobrás venom channel. The physical-chemical properties of the cobra venom were measured by micro rheometry and tensiometry. Thereafter, an artificial fluid with similar properties was generated. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was performed to visualize the flow of the artificial liquid in the three-dimensional model. Our experiments show how the surface structure of the venom channel determines the liquid flow through the channel and ultimately the form of the liquid jet. Understanding the biological mechanisms of venom ejection helps to enhance industrial processes such as water jet cutting and cleaning as well as injection methods in technical and medical sectors, e.g. liquid microjet dissection in microsurgery.

  11. MOFA Software for the COBRA Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Griesemer, Marc; Navid, Ali

    MOFA-COBRA is a software code for Matlab that performs Multi-Objective Flux Analysis (MOFA), a solving of linear programming problems. Teh leading software package for conducting different types of analyses using constrain-based models is the COBRA Toolbox for Matlab. MOFA-COBRA is an added tool for COBRA that solves multi-objective problems using a novel algorithm.

  12. Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of Cyclea peltata root against Naja naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N. S.; Meenatchisundaram, S.; Vadivelan, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. RESULTS: The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD50) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED50) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD50 of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. CONCLUSION: The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja. PMID:29326487

  13. Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of Cyclea peltata root against Naja naja venom.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N S; Meenatchisundaram, S; Vadivelan, R

    2017-01-01

    Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD 50 ) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED 50 ) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD 50 of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja .

  14. Venom-gland transcriptome and venom proteome of the Malaysian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Tan, Choo Hock; Tan, Kae Yi; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong

    2015-09-10

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is widely distributed throughout many parts of Asia. This study aims to investigate the complexity of Malaysian Ophiophagus hannah (MOh) venom for a better understanding of king cobra venom variation and its envenoming pathophysiology. The venom gland transcriptome was investigated using the Illumina HiSeq™ platform, while the venom proteome was profiled by 1D-SDS-PAGE-nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. Transcriptomic results reveal high redundancy of toxin transcripts (3357.36 FPKM/transcript) despite small cluster numbers, implying gene duplication and diversification within restricted protein families. Among the 23 toxin families identified, three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and snake-venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) have the most diverse isoforms. These 2 toxin families are also the most abundantly transcribed, followed in descending order by phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), Kunitz-type inhibitors (KUNs), and L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). Seventeen toxin families exhibited low mRNA expression, including hyaluronidase, DPP-IV and 5'-nucleotidase that were not previously reported in the venom-gland transcriptome of a Balinese O. hannah. On the other hand, the MOh proteome includes 3FTxs, the most abundantly expressed proteins in the venom (43 % toxin sbundance). Within this toxin family, there are 6 long-chain, 5 short-chain and 2 non-conventional 3FTx. Neurotoxins comprise the major 3FTxs in the MOh venom, consistent with rapid neuromuscular paralysis reported in systemic envenoming. The presence of toxic enzymes such as LAAOs, SVMPs and PLA2 would explain tissue inflammation and necrotising destruction in local envenoming. Dissimilarities in the subtypes and sequences between the neurotoxins of MOh and Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra) are in agreement with the poor cross-neutralization activity of N. kaouthia antivenom used against MOh venom. Besides, the presence of cobra venom factor, nerve growth factors

  15. Cobra Hoods Coming At You

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-17

    This 3-D image taken by the left and right eyes of the panoramic camera on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the odd rock formation dubbed Cobra Hoods center. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  16. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  17. Naja naja atra venom ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kui; Kou, Jian-Qun; Gu, Jin-Hua; Han, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Zhen, Xuechu; Qin, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-02

    Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) displays diverse pharmacological actions including analgesia, anti-inflammation and immune regulation.In this study, we investigated the effects of NNAV on pulmonary fibrosis and its mechanisms of action. To determine if Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) can produce beneficial effects on pulmonary fibrosis, two marine models of pulmonary fibrosis were produced with bleomycin (BLM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NNAV (30, 90, 270 μg/kg) was orally administered once a day started five days before BLM and LPS until to the end of experiment. The effects of NNAV treatment on pulmonary injury were evaluated with arterial blood gas analysis, hydroxyproline (HYP) content assessment and HE/Masson staining. The effects of NNAV treatment on inflammatory related cytokines, fibrosis related TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and oxidative stress were examined. The results showed that NNAV improved the lung gas-exchange function and attenuated the fibrotic lesions in lung. NNAV decreased IL-1β and TNF-α levels in serum in both pulmonary fibrosis models. NNAV inhibited the activation of NF-κB in LPS-induced and TGF-β/Smad pathway in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, NNAV also increased the levels of SOD and GSH and reduced the levels of MDA in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. The present study indicates that NNAV attenuates LPS- and BLM-induced lung fibrosis. Its mechanisms of action are associated with inhibiting inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The study suggests that NNAV might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. Popsicle-Stick Cobra Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Jean-Philippe; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Chevy, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    The cobra wave is a popular physical phenomenon arising from the explosion of a metastable grillage made of popsicle sticks. The sticks are expelled from the mesh by releasing the elastic energy stored during the weaving of the structure. Here we analyze both experimentally and theoretically the propagation of the wave front depending on the properties of the sticks and the pattern of the mesh. We show that its velocity and its shape are directly related to the recoil imparted to the structure by the expelled sticks. Finally, we show that the cobra wave can only exist for a narrow range of parameters constrained by gravity and rupture of the sticks.

  19. e-MERLIN and the COBRaS legacy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Luke

    2011-07-01

    As one of the 12 legacy programmes given ~300 hrs observing time on the newly enhanced e-MERLIN; the Cygnus OB2 Radio Survey (COBRaS) (homepage: http://www.homepages.ucl.ac.uk/~ucapdwi/cobras/) is an intensive deep-field mapping of the Cyg OB2 association in the Cygnus region of our Galaxy. This will provide the most detailed census for the most massive OB association in the northern hemisphere. A range of astrophysical problems and themes will be investigated including: mass loss and evolution of massive stars; the formation, dynamics and content of massive OB associations and the frequency of massive binaries and the incidence of non-thermal radiation. As part of of the initial ground work for this project, extensive meta-data catalogues were amalgamated from various catalogues from the Virtual Observatory database. In this talk I will discuss; investigations into JHK photometric techniques which can help identify possible OB candidates and other spectral classes; theoretical mass loss models as described by Vink et al. 2001 along with stellar parameters from Martins et al. 2005, Searle et al. 2008 and Prinja et al 1990 which pave the way to calculate theoretical mass loss rates for smooth winds of O stars and B supergiants, and the predicted 6cm fluxes resulting from the thermal free-free radiation in their winds. This will be essential for the study of clumped winds which is an early goal for this project. Over the months following from when this abstract was written; the first e-MERLIN pointings are expected. In the event of obtaining data, this will also be included in the presentation as part of the 'early science' from e-MERLIN and COBRaS.

  20. Ophidascaris wangi sp. n. and O. najae (Gedoelst, 1916) (Ascaridida: Ascaridoidea) from snakes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-12-01

    Ophidascaris wangi sp. n. collected from the king rat snake Elaphe carinata (Günther) (Serpentes: Colubridae) in China is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the presence of narrow lateral alae originating a short distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, its relatively long oesophagus (3.57-4.54 mm long, representing 6.6-7.6% of body length), its short spicules (1.89-2.14 mm long, representing 3.9-4.3% of body length), the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (49-57 pairs in total, arranged as follows: 43-51 pairs precloacal, 2 pairs joined paracloacal and 4 pairs postcloacal), the presence of a particular papilliform medioventral, postcloacal ornamentation and the morphology of the eggs and tip of the female tail. In addition, Ophidascaris najae (Gedoelst, 1916), collected from the king cobra Ophiophagus hannah Cantor (Serpentes: Elapidae) in China, is also redescribed. The morphology of the cervical papillae, labial denticles and phasmids of the female is described for the first time.

  1. Naja naja atra Venom Protects against Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in MRL/lpr Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiali; Cui, Kui; Kou, Jianqun; Wang, Shuzhi; Xu, Yinli; Ding, Zhihui; Han, Rong; Qin, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and effective therapy for this pathology is currently unavailable. We previously reported that oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) had anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. We speculated that NNAV may have therapeutic effects in MRL/lpr SLE mice. Twelve-week-old MRL/lpr mice received oral administration of NNAV (20, 40, and 80 μg/kg) or Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (10 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks. The effects of NNAV on SLE manifestations, including skin erythema, proteinuria, and anxiety-like behaviors, were assessed with visual inspection and Multistix 8 SG strips and open field test, respectively. The pathology of spleen and kidney was examined with H&E staining. The changes in autoimmune antibodies and cytokines were determined with ELISA kits. The results showed that NNAV protected against the manifestation of SLE, including skin erythema and proteinuria. In addition, although no apparent histological change was found in liver and heart in MRL/lpr SLE mice, NNAV reduced the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, NNAV increased serum C3 and reduced concentrations of circulating globulin, anti-dsDNA antibody, and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. NNAV also reduced lymphadenopathy and renal injury. These results suggest that NNAV may have therapeutic values in the treatment of SLE by inhibiting autoimmune responses.

  2. 3D Printed Shelby Cobra

    ScienceCinema

    Love, Lonnie

    2018-06-12

    ORNL's newly printed 3D Shelby Cobra was showcased at the 2015 NAIAS in Detroit. This "laboratory on wheels" uses the Shelby Cobra design, celebrating the 50th anniversary of this model and honoring the first vehicle to be voted a national monument. The Shelby was printed at the Department of Energy’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility at ORNL using the BAAM (Big Area Additive Manufacturing) machine and is intended as a “plug-n-play” laboratory on wheels. The Shelby will allow research and development of integrated components to be tested and enhanced in real time, improving the use of sustainable, digital manufacturing solutions in the automotive industry.

  3. 'Cobra Hoods' Coming At You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image taken by the left and right eyes of the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the odd rock formation dubbed 'Cobra Hoods' (center). Rover scientists say this resistant rock is unlike anything they've seen on Mars so far. Spirit will investigate the rock in coming sols. The stereo pictures making up this image were captured on sol 156 (June 11, 2004).

  4. Novel Naja atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1) derived antimicrobial peptides with broad spectrum activity

    PubMed Central

    Santospirito, Davide; Polverini, Eugenia; Flisi, Sara; Cavirani, Sandro; Taddei, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Naja atra subsp. atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1), produced by Chinese cobra snakes, belonging to Elapidae family, is included in the three-finger toxin family and exerts high cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity too. Using as template mainly the tip and the subsequent β-strand of the first “finger” of this toxin, different sequences of 20 amino acids linear peptides have been designed in order to avoid toxic effects but to maintain or even strengthen the partial antimicrobial activity already seen for the complete toxin. As a result, the sequence NCP-0 (Naja Cardiotoxin Peptide-0) was designed as ancestor and subsequently 4 other variant sequences of NCP-0 were developed. These synthesized variant sequences have shown microbicidal activity towards a panel of reference and field strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The sequence named NCP-3, and its variants NCP-3a and NCP-3b, have shown the best antimicrobial activity, together with low cytotoxicity against eukaryotic cells and low hemolytic activity. Bactericidal activity has been demonstrated by minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay at values below 10 μg/ml for most of the tested bacterial strains. This potent antimicrobial activity was confirmed even for unicellular fungi Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Malassezia pachydermatis (MBC 50–6.3 μg/ml), and against the fast-growing mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Moreover, NCP-3 has shown virucidal activity on Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1) belonging to Herpesviridae family. The bactericidal activity is maintained even in a high salt concentration medium (125 and 250 mM NaCl) and phosphate buffer with 20% Mueller Hinton (MH) medium against E. coli, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference strains. Considering these in vitro obtained data, the search for active sequences within proteins presenting an intrinsic microbicidal activity could provide a new

  5. Cobra communications switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.; Haworth, Loran A.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Murray, F. Gerald

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a design modification to reduce the visual and manual workload associated with the radio selection and communications tasks in the U.S. Army AH-1 Cobra helicopter. The modification involves the integration of the radio selection and microphone actuating tasks into a single operation controlled by the transmit-intercom switch. Ground-based and flight tests were conducted to evaluate the modified configuration during twelve flight tasks. The results show that the proposed configuration performs twice as fast as the original configuration.

  6. COBRA compliance: how employers can successfully meet today's complexities.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Jim

    2003-03-01

    Although the architects of COBRA had sound and compassionate motivations in place, administration of and compliance with this law are far from easy. COBRA assists employees that lose their jobs by allowing them to purchase insurance benefits from their former employer. Outsourcing COBRA administration can be the best way for some employers to cope with COBRA regulations, contingencies and paperwork and avoid legal fees and penalties. But look for COBRA providers that have a sound track record.

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation against Russell's Viper and Cobra Venom and Screening of Bioactive Components by Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, G.; Dey, Amitabha; Nongalleima, Kh.; Chavali, Murthy; Rimal Isaac, R. S.; Singh, N. Surjit; Deb, Lokesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. which were evaluated against venoms of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper) and Naja naja (Indian cobra). The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal (1 : 1 : 1) formulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed protection against envenomed mice with LD50 doses of 0.44 mg/kg and 0.28 mg/kg against Russell's viper and cobra venom, respectively. In in vitro antioxidant activities sample extracts showed free radical scavenging effects in dose dependent manner. Computational drug design and docking studies were carried out to predict the neutralizing principles of type I phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Indian common krait venom. This confirmed that aristolochic acid and leucasin can neutralize type I PLA2 enzyme. Results suggest that these plants could serve as a source of natural antioxidants and common antidote for snake bite. However, further studies are needed to identify the lead molecule responsible for antidote activity. PMID:23533518

  8. The Crystal Structure of Cobra Venom Factor, a Cofactor for C3- and C5-Convertase CVFBb

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2009-05-26

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The CVF crystal structure, an intermediate between C3b and C3c, lacksmore » the TED domain and has the CUB domain in an identical position to that seen in C3b. The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B.« less

  9. The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Ponnuraj, Karthe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E; Narayana, Sthanam V L

    2009-04-15

    Cobra venom factor (CVF) is a functional analog of human complement component C3b, the active fragment of C3. Similar to C3b, in human and mammalian serum, CVF binds factor B, which is then cleaved by factor D, giving rise to the CVFBb complex that targets the same scissile bond in C3 as the authentic complement convertases C4bC2a and C3bBb. Unlike the latter, CVFBb is a stable complex and an efficient C5 convertase. We solved the crystal structure of CVF, isolated from Naja naja kouthia venom, at 2.6 A resolution. The CVF crystal structure, an intermediate between C3b and C3c, lacks the TED domain and has the CUB domain in an identical position to that seen in C3b. The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B.

  10. Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Kandiah; Jeyaseelan; Armugam, Arunmozhiarasi; Aguiyi, John Chinyere; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-09-01

    Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart.

  11. COBRA ATD multispectral camera response model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, V. Todd; Kenton, Arthur C.; Hilton, Russell J.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2000-08-01

    A new multispectral camera response model has been developed in support of the US Marine Corps (USMC) Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) Program. This analytical model accurately estimates response form five Xybion intensified IMC 201 multispectral cameras used for COBRA ATD airborne minefield detection. The camera model design is based on a series of camera response curves which were generated through optical laboratory test performed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division, Coastal Systems Station (CSS). Data fitting techniques were applied to these measured response curves to obtain nonlinear expressions which estimates digitized camera output as a function of irradiance, intensifier gain, and exposure. This COBRA Camera Response Model was proven to be very accurate, stable over a wide range of parameters, analytically invertible, and relatively simple. This practical camera model was subsequently incorporated into the COBRA sensor performance evaluation and computational tools for research analysis modeling toolbox in order to enhance COBRA modeling and simulation capabilities. Details of the camera model design and comparisons of modeled response to measured experimental data are presented.

  12. Genetic structure and demographic history should inform conservation: Chinese cobras currently treated as homogenous show population divergence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Hui; Qu, Yan-Fu; Li, Hong; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Ji, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of population structure and genetic diversity is crucial for wildlife conservation and for determining the integrity of wildlife populations. The vulnerable Chinese cobra (Naja atra) has a distribution from the mouth of the Yangtze River down to northern Vietnam and Laos, within which several large mountain ranges and water bodies may influence population structure. We combined 12 microsatellite loci and 1117 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to explore genetic structure and demographic history in this species, using 269 individuals from various localities in Mainland China and Vietnam. High levels of genetic variation were identified for both mtDNA and microsatellites. mtDNA data revealed two main (Vietnam + southern China + southwestern China; eastern + southeastern China) and one minor (comprising only two individuals from the westernmost site) clades. Microsatellite data divided the eastern + southeastern China clade further into two genetic clusters, which include individuals from the eastern and southeastern regions, respectively. The Luoxiao and Nanling Mountains may be important barriers affecting the diversification of lineages. In the haplotype network of cytchrome b, many haplotypes were represented within a "star" cluster and this and other tests suggest recent expansion. However, microsatellite analyses did not yield strong evidence for a recent bottleneck for any population or genetic cluster. The three main clusters identified here should be considered as independent management units for conservation purposes. The release of Chinese cobras into the wild should cease unless their origin can be determined, and this will avoid problems arising from unnatural homogenization.

  13. Defense.gov - Special Report: Marine Assault: Operation Cobra's Anger

    Science.gov Websites

    Operation Cobra's Anger. Story Marines Clear Taliban Stronghold During Operation Cobra's Anger HELMAND -scale operation in northern Helmand province. Story Related Sites Marine Corps News White House Fact insurgents Operation Cobra's Anger PHOTOS About This Site DoD Inspector General Freedom of Information

  14. Hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of snake (Naja atra) and turtle (Ocadia sinensis) eggshells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin; Chen, Po-Yu

    2016-02-01

    After hundreds of million years of evolution, natural armors have evolved in various organisms, and has manifested in diverse forms such as eggshells, abalone shells, alligator osteoderms, turtle shells, and fish scales. Eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis, such as protection, moisture control and thermal regulation. Unlike calcareous avian eggshells which are brittle and hard, reptilians have leathery eggshells that are tough and flexible. Reptilian eggshells can withstand collision damages when laid in holes and dropped onto each other, and reduce abrasion caused by buried sand. In this study, we investigate structure and mechanical properties of eggshells of Taiwan cobra snake (Naja atra) and Chinese striped-neck turtle (Ocadia sinensis). From Acid Fuchsin Orange G (AFOG) staining and ATR-FTIR examination, we found that both eggshells are mainly composed of keratin. The mechanical properties of demineralized snake and turtle eggshells were evaluated by tensile and fracture tests and show distinctly difference. Turtle eggshells are relatively stiff and rigid, while snake eggshells behave as elastomers, which are highly extensible and reversible. The exceptional deformability (110-230% tensile strain) and toughness of snake eggshells are contributed by the wavy and random arrangement of keratin fibers as well as collagen layers. Multi-scale toughening mechanisms of snake eggshells were observed and elucidated, including crack deflection and twisting, fibers reorientation, sliding and bridging, inter-laminar shear effect, as well as the α-β phase transition of keratin. Inspirations from the structural and mechanical designs of reptilian eggshells may lead to the synthesis of tough, extensible, lightweight composites which could be further applied in the flexible devices, packaging and bio-medical fields. Amniotic eggshells serve as multifunctional shields for successful embryogenesis. The avian eggshells have been extensively

  15. Proteomic characterization and comparison of venoms from two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lin-Lin; Gao, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Shen, Shan-Shan; He, Ying; Wang, Jin; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2016-04-14

    Bungarus multicinctus (many-banded krait) and Naja atra (Chinese cobra) are widely distributed and medically important venomous snakes in China; however, their venom proteomic profiles have not been fully compared. Here, we fractionated crude venoms and analyzed them using a combination of proteomic techniques. Three-finger toxins (3-FTx) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were most abundant in both species, respectively accounting for 32.6% and 66.4% of total B. multicinctus venom, and 84.3% and 12.2% of total N. atra venom. Venoms from these two species contained one common protein family and six less abundant species-specific protein families. The proteomic profiles of B. multicinctus and N. atra venoms and analysis of toxicological activity in mice suggested that 3-FTx and PLA2 are the major contributors to clinical symptoms caused by envenomation. The venoms differed in enzymatic activity, likely the result of inter-specific variation in the amount of related venom components. Antivenomics assessment revealed that a small number of venom components (3-FTxs and PLA2s in B. multicinctus, and 3-FTxs in N. atra) could not be immunocaptured completely, suggesting that we should pay attention to enhancing the immune response of these components in designing commercial antivenoms for B. multicinctus and N. atra. The proteomic profiles of venoms from two medically important snake species - B. multicinctus and N. atra - have been explored. Quantitative and qualitative differences are evident in both venoms when proteomic profiles and transcriptomic results are compared; this is a reminder that combined approaches are needed to explore the precise composition of snake venom. Two protein families (3-FTx and PLA2) of high abundance in these snake venoms are major players in the biochemical and pharmacological effects of envenomation. Elucidation of the proteomic profiles of these snake venoms is helpful in understanding composition-function relationships and will facilitate the

  16. Cobra Fiber-Optic Positioner Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    A prime focus spectrometer (PFS), along with corrective optics, will mount in place of the secondary mirror of the Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This will allow simultaneous observations of cosmologic targets. It will enable large-scale galactic archeology and dark energy surveys to help unlock the secrets of the universe. To perform these cosmologic surveys, an array of 2,400 optical fibers needs to be independently positioned within the 498-mm-diameter focal plane of the PFS instrument to collect light from galaxies and stars for spectrographic analyses. To allow for independent re-positioning of the fibers, a very small positioner (7.7 mm in diameter) is required. One hundred percent coverage of the focal plane is also required, so these small actuators need to cover a patrol region of 9.5 mm in diameter. To optimize the amount of light that can be collected, the fibers need to be placed within 5 micrometers of their intended target (either a star or galaxy). The Cobra Fiber Positioner was designed to meet the size and accuracy requirements stated above. Cobra is a two-degrees-of-freedom mechanism that can position an optical fiber in the focal plane of the PFS instrument to a precision of 5 micrometers. It is a theta-phi style positioner containing two rotary piezo tube motors with one offset from the other, which enables the optic fibers to be placed anywhere in a small circular patrol region. The patrol region of the actuator is such that the array of 2,400 positioners allows for full coverage of the instrument focal plane by overlapping the patrol areas. A second-generation Cobra positioner was designed based on lessons learned from the original prototype built in 2009. Improvements were made to the precision of the ceramic motor parts, and hard stops were redesigned to minimize friction and prevent jamming. These changes resulted in reducing the number of move iterations required to position the optical fiber within 5 micrometers of its target. At

  17. COBRA ATD minefield detection model initial performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, V. Todd; Kenton, Arthur C.; Hilton, Russell J.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2000-08-01

    A statistical performance analysis of the USMC Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) Minefield Detection (MFD) Model has been performed in support of the COBRA ATD Program under execution by the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Dahlgren Division/Coastal Systems Station . This analysis uses the Veridian ERIM International MFD model from the COBRA Sensor Performance Evaluation and Computational Tools for Research Analysis modeling toolbox and a collection of multispectral mine detection algorithm response distributions for mines and minelike clutter objects. These mine detection response distributions were generated form actual COBRA ATD test missions over littoral zone minefields. This analysis serves to validate both the utility and effectiveness of the COBRA MFD Model as a predictive MFD performance too. COBRA ATD minefield detection model algorithm performance results based on a simulate baseline minefield detection scenario are presented, as well as result of a MFD model algorithm parametric sensitivity study.

  18. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial

    PubMed Central

    ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle MH; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit JSM; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. Methods This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3–6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Results 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI –0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). Conclusions In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting

  19. Cost-utility of COBRA-light versus COBRA therapy in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: the COBRA-light trial.

    PubMed

    Ter Wee, Marieke M; Coupé, Veerle Mh; den Uyl, Debby; Blomjous, Birgit S; Kooijmans, Esmee; Kerstens, Pit Jsm; Nurmohamed, Mike T; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Boers, Maarten; Lems, Willem F

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate if COmbinatie therapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy is cost-effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with COBRA therapy. This economic evaluation was performed next to the open-label, randomised non-inferiority COBRA-light trial in 164 patients with early RA. Non-responders to COBRA or COBRA-light received etanercept (50 mg/week) for 3-6 months. The societal perspective analysis took medical direct, non-medical direct and indirect costs into account. Costs were measured with patient cost diaries for the follow-up period of 52 weeks. Bootstrapping techniques estimated uncertainty around the cost-effectiveness ratios, presented in cost-effectiveness planes. 164 patients were randomised to either COBRA or COBRA-light strategy. At week 52, COBRA-light proved to be non-inferior to COBRA therapy on all clinical outcome measures. The results of the base-case cost-utility analysis (intention-to-treat analyses) revealed that COBRA-light strategy is more expensive (k€9.3 (SD 0.9) compared with COBRA (k€7.2 (SD 0.8)), but the difference in costs were not significant (k€2.0; 95% CI -0.3 to 4.4). Also, both strategies produced similar quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The sensitivity analyses showed robustness of these results. In a per-protocol sensitivity analysis, in which costs of etanercept were assumed to be provided as prescribed according to protocol, both arms had much higher costs: COBRA-light: k€11.5 (8.3) compared with k€8.5 (6.8) for COBRA, and the difference in costs was significant (k€2.9; 0.6 to 5.3). In the base-case cost-utility analysis, the two strategies produced similar QALYs for similar costs. But it is anticipated that if protocol had been followed correctly, the COBRA-light strategy would have been more costly due to additional etanercept costs, for a limited health gain. Given the limited added benefit and high costs of starting etanercept in the presence of low disease

  20. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    PubMed

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  1. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) from Naja atra venom.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Goh, King-Xiang; Wu, Wen-guey; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2004-10-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) play an important role in the innate immune system and are transcriptionally regulated by androgens in several tissues. The proteins are mostly found in the epididymis and granules of mammals, whilst a number of snake venoms also contain CRISP-family proteins. The natrin protein from the venom of Naja atra (Taiwan cobra), which belongs to a family of CRISPs and has a cysteine-rich C-terminal amino-acid sequence, has been purified using a three-stage chromatography procedure and crystals suitable for X-ray analysis have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.58 A resolution using synchrotron radiation; the crystals belong to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 59.172, b = 65.038, c = 243.156 A. There are two protein molecules in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient is estimated to be 2.35 A3 Da(-1), corresponding to a solvent content of 47.60%.

  3. 3D Flow in the Venom Channel of a Spitting Cobra: Do the Ridges in the Fangs Act as Fluid Guide Vanes?

    PubMed Central

    Triep, Michael; Hess, David; Chaves, Humberto; Brücker, Christoph; Balmert, Alexander; Westhoff, Guido; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The spitting cobra Naja pallida can eject its venom towards an offender from a distance of up to two meters. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms responsible for the relatively large distance covered by the venom jet although the venom channel is only of micro-scale. Therefore, we analysed factors that influence secondary flow and pressure drop in the venom channel, which include the physical-chemical properties of venom liquid and the morphology of the venom channel. The cobra venom showed shear-reducing properties and the venom channel had paired ridges that span from the last third of the channel to its distal end, terminating laterally and in close proximity to the discharge orifice. To analyze the functional significance of these ridges we generated a numerical and an experimental model of the venom channel. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV) revealed that the paired interior ridges shape the flow structure upstream of the sharp 90° bend at the distal end. The occurrence of secondary flow structures resembling Dean-type vortical structures in the venom channel can be observed, which induce additional pressure loss. Comparing a venom channel featuring ridges with an identical channel featuring no ridges, one can observe a reduction of pressure loss of about 30%. Therefore it is concluded that the function of the ridges is similar to guide vanes used by engineers to reduce pressure loss in curved flow channels. PMID:23671569

  4. 76 FR 51963 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-122-000] Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings Take notice that on August 12, 2011, Cobra Pipeline Ltd. submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under Section 311...

  5. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section 54.4980B-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the...

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section 54.4980B-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the...

  7. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section 54.4980B-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the...

  8. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section 54.4980B-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the...

  9. COBRA: a Bayesian approach to pulsar searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentati, L.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Barr, E.; Torne, P.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce COBRA, a GPU-accelerated Bayesian analysis package for performing pulsar searching, that uses candidates from traditional search techniques to set the prior used for the periodicity of the source, and performs a blind search in all remaining parameters. COBRA incorporates models for both isolated and accelerated systems, as well as both Keplerian and relativistic binaries, and exploits pulse phase information to combine search epochs coherently, over time, frequency or across multiple telescopes. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in a series of simulations that challenge typical search techniques, including highly aliased signals, and relativistic binary systems. In the most extreme case, we simulate an 8 h observation containing 24 orbits of a pulsar in a binary with a 30 M⊙ companion. Even in this scenario we show that we can build up from an initial low-significance candidate, to fully recovering the signal. We also apply the method to survey data of three pulsars from the globular cluster 47Tuc: PSRs J0024-7204D, J0023-7203J and J0024-7204R. This final pulsar is in a 1.6 h binary, the shortest of any pulsar in 47Tuc, and additionally shows significant scintillation. By allowing the amplitude of the source to vary as a function of time, however, we show that we are able to obtain optimal combinations of such noisy data. We also demonstrate the ability of COBRA to perform high-precision pulsar timing directly on the single pulse survey data, and obtain a 95 per cent upper limit on the eccentricity of PSR J0024-7204R of εb < 0.0007.

  10. Patient dumping, COBRA, and the public psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R L

    1993-02-01

    Serious clinical and risk management problems arise when indigent patients with acute medical conditions are transferred from general medical hospitals or emergency departments to public psychiatric hospitals that are ill equipped to provide medical care. To combat such practices, referred to as dumping, Congress included measures in the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA) prohibiting such transfers. Because physicians and administrators in public psychiatric hospitals are generally not aware of the potential usefulness of COBRA in reducing dumping, this paper describes its important provisions. The key to preventing dumping is to educate referral sources to limitations on the medical care available at the receiving hospital and to discourage negligent patient transfers by enforcing COBRA. Public hospital staff and legal counsel who become familiar with COBRA's provisions can develop an antidumping strategy.

  11. COBRA-Seq: Sensitive and Quantitative Methylome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Varinli, Hilal; Statham, Aaron L.; Clark, Susan J.; Molloy, Peter L.; Ross, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) quantifies DNA methylation at a specific locus. It does so via digestion of PCR amplicons produced from bisulfite-treated DNA, using a restriction enzyme that contains a cytosine within its recognition sequence, such as TaqI. Here, we introduce COBRA-seq, a genome wide reduced methylome method that requires minimal DNA input (0.1–1.0 μg) and can either use PCR or linear amplification to amplify the sequencing library. Variants of COBRA-seq can be used to explore CpG-depleted as well as CpG-rich regions in vertebrate DNA. The choice of enzyme influences enrichment for specific genomic features, such as CpG-rich promoters and CpG islands, or enrichment for less CpG dense regions such as enhancers. COBRA-seq coupled with linear amplification has the additional advantage of reduced PCR bias by producing full length fragments at high abundance. Unlike other reduced representative methylome methods, COBRA-seq has great flexibility in the choice of enzyme and can be multiplexed and tuned, to reduce sequencing costs and to interrogate different numbers of sites. Moreover, COBRA-seq is applicable to non-model organisms without the reference genome and compatible with the investigation of non-CpG methylation by using restriction enzymes containing CpA, CpT, and CpC in their recognition site. PMID:26512698

  12. Cobra venom cytotoxins; apoptotic or necrotic agents?

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Karim; Shirazi, Farshad H; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Vatanpour, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Organs homeostasis is controlled by a dynamic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Failure to induction of apoptosis has been implicated in tumor development. Cytotoxin-I (CTX-I) and cytotoxin-II (CTX-II) are two physiologically active polypeptides found in Caspian cobra venom. Anticancer activity and mechanism of cell death induced by these toxins have been studied. The toxins were purified by different chromatographic steps and their cytotoxicity and pattern of cell death were determined by MTT, LDH release, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) double staining, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and neutral red assays. The IC50 of CTX-II in MCF-7, HepG2, DU-145 and HL-60 was 4.1 ± 1.3, 21.2 ± 4.4, 9.4 ± 1.8 μg/mL and 16.3 ± 1.9 respectively while the IC50 of this toxin in normal MDCK cell line was 54.5 ± 3.9 μg/mL. LDH release suddenly increase after a specific toxins concentrations in all cell lines. AO/EtBr double staining, flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity assay confirm dose and time-dependent induction of apoptosis by both toxins. CTX-I and CTX-II treated cells lost their lysosomal membrane integrity and couldn't uptake neutral red day. CTX-I and CTX-II showed significant anticancer activity with minimum effects on normal cells and better IC50 compared to current anticancer drug; cisplatin. They induce their apoptotic effect via lysosomal pathways and release of cathepsins to cytosol. These effects were seen in limited rage of toxins concentrations and pattern of cell death rapidly changes to necrosis by increase in toxin's concentration. In conclusion, significant apoptogenic effects of these toxins candidate them as a possible anticancer agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytogeography of Najas gracillima (Hydrocharitaceae) in North America and its cryptic introduction to California.

    PubMed

    Les, Donald H; Peredo, Elena L; Benoit, Lori K; Tippery, Nicholas P; King, Ursula M; Sheldon, Sallie P

    2013-09-01

    The discontinuous North American distribution of Najas gracillima has not been explained satisfactorily. Influences of extirpation, nonindigenous introduction, and postglacial migration on its distribution were evaluated using field, fossil, morphological, and molecular data. Najas is a major waterfowl food, and appropriate conservation measures rely on accurate characterization of populations as indigenous or imperiled. • Seed lengths of N. gracillima from native Korean populations, a nonindigenous Italian population, and North American populations were compared using digital image analysis. DNA sequence analyses from these regions provided nine nrITS genotypes and eight cpDNA haplotypes. • Najas gracillima seeds from Eurasia and California are shorter than those from eastern North America. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences of N. gracillima from Korea and Italy were identical to California material but differed from native eastern North American plants. Eastern North American specimens of N. gracillima at localities above the last glacial maximum boundary were identical or similar genetically to material from the northeastern United States and Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont but divergent from plants of the Interior Highlands-Mississippi Embayment region. • In California, N. gracillima is nonindigenous and introduced from Asia. In eastern North America, populations that colonized deglaciated areas were derived primarily from refugia in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and Piedmont. Genetic data indicate initial postglacial migration to northeastern North America, with subsequent westward dispersal into the Upper Great Lakes. These results differentiate potentially invasive California populations from seriously imperiled indigenous eastern North American populations.

  14. [Spitting cobras: description of 2 cases in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Rouvin, B; Kone, M; N'diaye, M; Seck, M; Diatta, B

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe two cases involving ophthalmic exposure to venom from spitting cobras. Based on these cases, readers are reminded that eye injury can be prevented by low-cost treatment consisting of prompt, prolonged saline irrigation. This treatment also reduces pain.

  15. MagLev Cobra: Test Facilities and Operational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, G. G.; Dias, D. H. J. N.; de Oliveira, R. A. H.; Ferreira, A. C.; De Andrade, R., Jr.; Stephan, R. M.

    2014-05-01

    The superconducting MagLev technology for transportation systems is becoming mature due to the research and developing effort of recent years. The Brazilian project, named MagLev-Cobra, started in 1998. It has the goal of developing a superconducting levitation vehicle for urban areas. The adopted levitation technology is based on the diamagnetic and the flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) bulk blocks in the interaction with Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. A laboratory test facility with permanent magnet guideway, linear induction motor and one vehicle module is been built to investigate its operation. The MagLev-Cobra project state of the art is presented in the present paper, describing some construction details of the new test line with 200 m.

  16. The Arabidopsis COBRA Protein Facilitates Cellulose Crystallization at the Plasma Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Nadav; Sorek, Hagit; Kijac, Aleksandra; Szemenyei, Heidi J.; Bauer, Stefan; Hématy, Kian; Wemmer, David E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Arabidopsis COBRA gene lead to defects in cellulose synthesis but the function of COBRA is unknown. Here we present evidence that COBRA localizes to discrete particles in the plasma membrane and is sensitive to inhibitors of cellulose synthesis, suggesting that COBRA and the cellulose synthase complex reside in close proximity on the plasma membrane. Live-cell imaging of cellulose synthesis indicated that, once initiated, cellulose synthesis appeared to proceed normally in the cobra mutant. Using isothermal calorimetry, COBRA was found to bind individual β1–4-linked glucan chains with a KD of 3.2 μm. Competition assays suggests that COBRA binds individual β1–4-linked glucan chains with higher affinity than crystalline cellulose. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the cell wall of the cobra mutant also indicated that, in addition to decreases in cellulose amount, the properties of the cellulose fibrils and other cell wall polymers differed from wild type by being less crystalline and having an increased number of reducing ends. We interpret the available evidence as suggesting that COBRA facilitates cellulose crystallization from the emerging β1–4-glucan chains by acting as a “polysaccharide chaperone.” PMID:25331944

  17. Why are Dutch rheumatologists reluctant to use the COBRA treatment strategy in early rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    van Tuyl, Lilian H D; Plass, Anne Marie C; Lems, Willem F; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Background The Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial has proved that combination therapy with prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine is superior to sulphasalazine monotherapy in suppressing disease activity and radiological progression of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, 5 years of follow‐up proved that COBRA therapy results in sustained reduction of the rate of radiological progression. Despite this evidence, Dutch rheumatologists seem reluctant to prescribe COBRA therapy. Objective To explore the reasons for the reluctance in Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe COBRA therapy. Methods A short structured questionnaire based on social–psychological theories of behaviour was sent to all Dutch rheumatologists (n = 230). Results The response rate was 50%. COBRA therapy was perceived as both effective and safe, but complex to administer. Furthermore, rheumatologists expressed their concern about the large number of pills that had to be taken, the side effects of high‐dose prednisolone and the low dose of methotrexate. Although the average attitude towards the COBRA therapy was slightly positive (above the neutral point), the majority of responding rheumatologists had a negative intention (below the neutral point) to prescribe COBRA therapy in the near future. Conclusion The reluctance of Dutch rheumatologists to prescribe effective COBRA therapy may be due to perceptions of complexity of the treatment schedule and negative patient‐related consequences of the therapy. PMID:17392349

  18. Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Results We identified a tomato gene (SlCOBRA-like) homologous to Arabidopsis COBRA, and determined its role in fleshy fruit biology. The SlCOBRA-like gene is highly expressed in vegetative organs and in early fruit development, but its expression in fruit declines dramatically during ripening stages, implying a primary role in early fruit development. Fruit-specific suppression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in impaired cell wall integrity and up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall degradation during early fruit development. In contrast, fruit-specific overexpression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in increased wall thickness of fruit epidermal cells, more collenchymatous cells beneath the epidermis, elevated levels of cellulose and reduced pectin solubilization in the pericarp cells of red ripe fruits. Moreover, transgenic tomato fruits overexpressing SlCOBRA-like exhibited desirable early development phenotypes including enhanced firmness and a prolonged shelf life. Conclusions Our results suggest that SlCOBRA-like plays an important role in fruit cell wall architecture and provides a potential genetic tool for extending the shelf life of tomato and potentially additional fruits. PMID:23140186

  19. Antihemorrhagin in the blood serum of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, Lawan; Khow, Orawan; Omori-Satoh, Tamotsu; Sitprija, Visith

    2003-06-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) serum was found to possess antihemorrhagic activity against king cobra hemorrhagin. The activity was stronger than that in commercial king cobra antivenom. An antihemorrhagin has been purified by ion exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography and gel filtration with a 22-fold purification and an overall yield of 12% of the total antihemorrhagic activity contained in crude serum. The purified antihemorrhagin was homogeneous in disc-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Its apparent molecular weight determined by SDS-PAGE was 120 kDa. The antihemorrhagin was also active against other hemorrhagic snake venoms obtained in Thailand and Japan such as Calloselasma rhodostoma, Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus macrops and Trimeresurus flavoviridis (Japanese Habu). It inhibited the proteolytic activity of king cobra venom. It is an acid- and thermolabile protein and does not form precipitin lines against king cobra venom.

  20. COBRA accelerator for Sandia ICF diode research at Cornell University

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Ingwersen, P.; Bennett, L.F.

    1995-05-01

    The new COBRA accelerator is being built in stages at the Laboratory of Plasma Studies in Cornell University where its applications will include extraction diode and ion beam research in support of the light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories. The 4- to 5-MV, 125- to 250-kA accelerator is based on a four-cavity inductive voltage adder (IVA) design. It is a combination of new ferromagnetically-isolated cavities and self magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) hardware and components from existing Sandia and Cornell facilities: Marx generator capacitors, hardware, and power supply from the DEMON facility; water pulse formingmore » lines (PFL) and gas switch from the Subsystem Test Facility (STF); a HERMES-III intermediate store capacitor (ISC); and a modified ion diode from Cornell`s LION. The present accelerator consists of a single modified cavity similar to those of the Sandia SABRE accelerator and will be used to establish an operating system for the first stage initial lower voltage testing. Four new cavities will be fabricated and delivered in the first half of FY96 to complete the COBRA accelerator. COBRA is unique in the sense that each cavity is driven by a single pulse forming line, and the IVA output polarity may be reversed by rotating the cavities 180{degrees} about their vertical axis. The site preparations, tank construction, and diode design and development are taking place at Cornell with growing enthusiasm as this machine becomes a reality. Preliminary results with the single cavity and short positive inner cylinder MITL configuration will soon be available.« less

  1. COBRA System Engineering Processes to Achieve SLI Strategic Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2003-01-01

    The COBRA Prototype Main Engine Development Project was an endeavor conducted as a joint venture between Pratt & Whitney and Aerojet to conduct risk reduction in LOX/LH2 main engine technology for the NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI). During the seventeen months of the project (April 2001 to September 2002), approximately seventy reviews were conducted, beginning with the Engine Systems Requirements Review (SRR) and ending with the Engine Systems Interim Design Review (IDR). This paper discusses some of the system engineering practices used to support the reviews and the overall engine development effort.

  2. [CO2 Budget and Atmospheric Rectification (COBRA) Over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne (COBRA) study was to assess terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon dioxide using an air-borne study. The study was designed to address the measurement gap between plot-scale direct flux measurements and background hemispheric-scale constraints and to refine techniques for measuring terrestrial fluxes at regional to continental scales. The initial funded effort (reported on here) was to involve two air-borne campaigns over North America, one in summer and one in winter. Measurements for COBRA (given the acronym C02BAR in the initial proposal) were conducted from the University of North Dakota Citation 11, a twin-engine jet aircraft capable of profiling from the surface to 12 km and cruising for up to 4 hours and 175m/s. Onboard instrumentation measured concentrations of CO2, CO, and H2O, and meteorological parameters at high rates. In addition, two separate flask sampling systems collected discrete samples for laboratory analysis of CO2,CO, CH4, N2O, SF6, H2, 13CO2, C18O16O,O2/N2, and Ar/N2. The project involved a collaboration between a number of institutions, including (but not limited to) Harvard, NOAA-CMDL, the University of North Dakota, and Scripps.

  3. COBRA 9121: Federal liability for patient screening and transfer.

    PubMed

    Frew, S A

    1988-01-01

    Health care is no longer a simple cottage industry of individual providers. Increases in competition and government regulation have transformed the old structure of health care into a fend-for-yourself marketplace dominated by multi-institutional corporations. In order to accomplish this change, health care providers have had to alter their locus of attention from the patient to the bottom line. As a result, it is not surprising to find corporate business practices interspersed among the traditional health care practices. On March 1, 1987, the federal government began an assault on a casualty of this new market oriental philosophy, patient transfers or "dumping". COBRA 9121 is an "anti-dumping" law designed to prevent hospitals from continuing this practice. The vehicle for ensuring that the statute's broad provisions are followed is a set of "sudden death" probations. For example, under COBRA, hospitals found guilty of knowing or negligent violations may be suspended or terminated from receiving all Medicare reimbursement. One way to avoid these "sudden death" probations is to understand the implications of this law.

  4. High aryl acylamidase activity associated with cobra venom acetylcholinesterase: biological significance.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Ramanna V; Layer, Paul G; Boopathy, Rathanam

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the non-classical functions of cholinesterases (ChEs) has been the subject of interest in the past three decades. One of which is aryl acylamidase (AAA) activity associated with ChEs, but characterized in in vitro, as an enzyme, splitting the artificial substrate o-nitroacetanilide with unknown physiological function. In the present study, we have compared levels of AAA activity of AChE from different sources like goat brain, electric eel organ and from venoms of different snakes. Remarkably cobra venom showed the highest AAA activity and also high AAA/AChE ratio. Both serotonergenic and cholinergic inhibitors inhibited the cobra venom AAA activity in a concentration dependent manner, which also underlines the association of AAA with AChE of cobra venom. The study becomes interesting because of i) the cobra venom AChE exists in monomeric globular forms; ii) in Alzheimer's disease too the most abundant forms of cholinesterases are monomeric globular forms, thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease; iii) the effect of Alzheimer's disease drugs on the AAA activity of cobra venom, indicated that AAA activity of cobra venom was more sensitive than AChE and iv) Huperzine and Tacrine showed more pronounced effect on AAA. Thus, this study elucidates the high AAA associated with cobra venom AChE may serve as one of the prominent activity to test the pharmacological effect of AD drugs, as other sources were found to have lower activity.

  5. The COBRA demonstrator at the LNGS underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, J.; Fritts, M.; Gehre, D.; Gößling, C.; Göpfert, T.; Hagner, C.; Heidrich, N.; Klingenberg, R.; Köttig, T.; Kröninger, K.; Michel, T.; Neddermann, T.; Nitsch, C.; Oldorf, C.; Quante, T.; Rajek, S.; Rebber, H.; Reinecke, O.; Rohatsch, K.; Schulz, O.; Sörensen, A.; Stekl, I.; Tebrügge, J.; Temminghoff, R.; Theinert, R.; Timm, J.; Wester, T.; Wonsak, B.; Zatschler, S.; Zuber, K.

    2016-01-01

    The COBRA demonstrator, a prototype for a large-scale experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta-decay, was built at the underground laboratory Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It consists of an array of 64 monolithic, calorimetric CdZnTe semiconductor detectors with a coplanar-grid design and a total mass of 380 g. It is used to investigate the experimental challenges faced when operating CdZnTe detectors in low-background mode, to identify potential background sources and to show the long-term stability of the detectors. The first data-taking period started in 2011 with a subset of the detectors, while the demonstrator was completed in November 2013. To date, more than 250 kg d of data have been collected. This paper describes the technical details of the experimental setup and the hardware components.

  6. 75 FR 16841 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; COBRA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Extension of Information Collection Request Submitted for Public Comment; COBRA Notification Requirements--American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 as Amended AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Department of Labor...

  7. CO-Benefits Risk Assessment (COBRA) Health Impacts Screening and Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The COBRA (Co-Benefits Risk Assessment) screening tool can be used by state and local governments to estimate the health and economic benefits of clean energy policies. Find information about how to use the tool here.

  8. Use of Cobra Lily (Darlingtonia californica) & Drosophila for Investigating Predator-Prey Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Carl R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica) and fruit flies (Drosophila virilis) to investigate predator-prey relationships in a classroom laboratory. Suggestions for classroom extension of this experimental system are provided. (ZWH)

  9. COBRA ATD minefield detection results for the Joint Countermine ACTD Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Suzanne P.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H., Jr.; Suiter, Harold R.; Crosby, Frank J.; Hilton, Russell J.; McCarley, Karen A.

    2000-08-01

    The Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis)COBRA) system described here was a Marine Corps Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) development consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) airborne multispectral video sensor system and ground station which processes the multispectral video data to automatically detect minefields along the flight path. After successful completion of the ATD, the residual COBRA ATD system participated in the Joint Countermine (JCM) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Demo I held at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in conjunction with JTFX97 and Demo II held in Stephenville, Newfoundland in conjunction with MARCOT98. These exercises demonstrated the COBRA ATD system in an operational environment, detecting minefields that included several different mine types in widely varying backgrounds. The COBRA system performed superbly during these demonstrations, detecting mines under water, in the surf zone, on the beach, and inland, and has transitioned to an acquisition program. This paper describes the COBRA operation and performance results for these demonstrations, which represent the first demonstrated capability for remote tactical minefield detection from a UAV. The successful COBRA technologies and techniques demonstrated for tactical UAV minefield detection in the Joint Countermine Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations have formed the technical foundation for future developments in Marine Corps, Navy, and Army tactical remote airborne mine detection systems.

  10. Effects of temperature on decomposition of a potential nuisance species: the submerged aquatic macrophyte Egeria najas Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P; Thomaz, S M; Bini, L M

    2005-02-01

    Decomposition of aquatic plants is influenced by several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, temperature plays an important role. Despite the increasing number of studies describing the effects of temperature on the decomposition of aquatic macrophytes, little attention has been given to the decay of submerged macrophytes. In this paper, we assessed the effect of temperature on weight loss and chemical composition of detritus of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Egeria najas Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae). Fresh plant material was maintained at 17 degrees C and 27 degrees C, in the dark, in incubation chambers. The overall decay process was best described by a linear model, with rates of 0.014 day(-1) (R2= 94%) and 0.045 day(-1) (R2= 96%) obtained at 17 degrees C and 27 degrees C, respectively. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated a significant difference between the decomposition rates at the two temperatures. The rapid breakdown of E. najas detritus, indicated by the decay coefficient, may be explained by its low content of resistant compounds such as cellulose and lignin. The variables analyzed in this study (pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen in the water and organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration in detritus) showed accentuated responses at 27 degrees C. It is likely that the higher temperature increased microbial activity and, therefore, oxygen consumption in the water, consequently affecting the pH and the rate of ion and nutrient liberation into the aquatic ecosystem. Due to the rapid decomposition of E. najas at high temperatures, a small exportation is expected of this species from its stands to distant regions in tropical reservoirs, where it is considered a potential nuisance species.

  11. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis.

    PubMed

    Hasson, S S; Al-Jabri, A A; Sallam, T A; Al-Balushi, M S; Mothana, R A A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C(2)C(12) muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 mug/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 mug/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 mug/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5 mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

  12. Detection of Naja atra Cardiotoxin Using Adenosine-Based Molecular Beacon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-01-07

    This study presents an adenosine (A)-based molecular beacon (MB) for selective detection of Naja atra cardiotoxin (CTX) that functions by utilizing the competitive binding between CTX and the poly(A) stem of MB to coralyne. The 5'- and 3'-end of MB were labeled with a reporter fluorophore and a non-fluorescent quencher, respectively. Coralyne induced formation of the stem-loop MB structure through A₂-coralyne-A₂ coordination, causing fluorescence signal turn-off due to fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the fluorophore and quencher. CTX3 could bind to coralyne. Moreover, CTX3 alone induced the folding of MB structure and quenching of MB fluorescence. Unlike that of snake venom α-neurotoxins, the fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes produced a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve in the presence of CTX3 and CTX isotoxins; a turn-on fluorescence signal was noted when CTX concentration was ≤80 nM, while a turn-off fluorescence signal was noted with a further increase in toxin concentrations. The fluorescence signal of coralyne-MB complexes yielded a bell-shaped curve in response to varying concentrations of N. atra crude venom but not those of Bungarus multicinctus and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus venoms. Moreover, N. nigricollis venom also functioned as N. atra venom to yield a bell-shaped concentration-dependent curve of MB fluorescence signal, again supporting that the hairpin-shaped MB could detect crude venoms containing CTXs. Taken together, our data validate that a platform composed of coralyne-induced stem-loop MB structure selectively detects CTXs.

  13. Through thick and thin: cryptic sympatric speciation in the submersed genus Najas (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Les, Donald H; Peredo, Elena L; King, Ursula M; Benoit, Lori K; Tippery, Nicholas P; Ball, Cassandra J; Shannon, Robynn K

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic sympatric species arise when reproductive isolation is established in sympatry, leading to genetically divergent lineages that are highly similar morphologically or virtually indistinguishable. Although cryptic sympatric species have been reported in various animals, fungi, and protists, there are few compelling examples for plants. This investigation presents a case for cryptic sympatric speciation in Najas flexilis, a widespread aquatic plant, which extends throughout northern North America and Eurasia. The taxon is noted for its variable seed morphology, which earlier research associated with cytotypes; i.e., diploids were characterized by thicker seeds and tetraploids by thinner seeds. However, cytotypes are not patterned geographically with diploid and tetraploid plants often found in close proximity within the same lake. Using digital image and DNA sequence analyses, we found that diploids and tetraploids are well-isolated and remain genetically distinct throughout their sympatric range, where sterile hybrids occur frequently. Incorporation of sequence data from the single-copy nuclear phytoene desaturase locus revealed further that the tetraploids are allopolyploid derivatives of N. flexilis and N. guadalupensis, the latter a closely related species with an overlapping distribution. We conclude that the taxon widely known as N. flexilis actually comprises two cryptic, sibling species, which diverged in sympatry by interspecific hybridization and subsequent chromosomal isolation. By comparing seed morphology of type specimens, we associated the names N. flexilis and N. canadensis to the diploids and tetraploids respectively. Additionally, the narrowly restricted taxon known formerly as N. muenscheri is shown via morphological and genetic evidence to be synonymous with N. canadensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytomedical investigation of Najas minor All. in the view of the chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    Topuzovic, Marina D.; Radojevic, Ivana D.; Dekic, Milan S.; Radulovic, Niko S.; Vasic, Sava M.; Comic, Ljiljana R.; Licina, Braho Z.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an abundant natural source of effective antibiotic compounds. Phytomedical investigations of certain plants haven't still been conducted. One of them is Najas minor (N. minor), an aquatic plant with confirmed allelopathy. Research conducted in this study showed the influence of water and ethyl acetate extracts of N. minor on microorganisms, in the view of chemical profiling of volatile constituents and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antimicrobial activity was defined by determining minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations using microdilution method. Influence on bacterial biofilm formation was performed by tissue culture plate method. The total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, aluminum chloride and butanol-HCl colorimetric methods. Chemical profiling of volatile constituents was investigated by GC and GC-MS. Water extract didn't have antimicrobial activity below 5000 µg/mL. Ethyl acetate extract has shown strong antimicrobial activity on G+ bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus PMFKGB12 and Bacillus subtilis (MIC < 78.13 µg/mL). The best antibiofilm activity was obtained on Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (BIC50 at 719 µg/mL). Water extract had higher yield. Ethyl acetate extract had a significantly greater amount of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. As major constituent hexahydrofarnesyl acetone was identified. The ethyl acetate extract effected only G+ bacteria, but the biofilm formation of G-bacteria was suppressed. There was a connection between those in vivo and in vitro effects against pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation. All of this points to a so far unexplored potential of N. minor. PMID:26535038

  15. Staged Z-pinch Experiments on Cobra and Zebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Anderson, A.; Banasek, J. T.; Byvank, T.; Conti, F.; Darling, T. W.; Dutra, E.; Glebov, V.; Greenly, J.; Hammer, D. A.; Potter, W. M.; Rocco, S. V.; Ross, M. P.; Ruskov, E.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; Covington, A.; Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.

    2017-10-01

    A Staged Z-pinch (SZP), configured as a pre-magnetized, high-Z (Ar, or Kr) annular liner imploding onto a low-Z (H, or D) target, was tested on the Cornell University, Cobra Facility and the University of Nevada, Reno, Zebra Facility; each characterized similarly by a nominal 1-MA current and 100-ns risetime while possessing different diagnostic packages. XUV-fast imaging reveals that the SZP implosion dynamics is similar on both machines and that it is more stable with an axial (Bz) magnetic field, a target, or both, than without. On Zebra, where neutron production is possible, reproducible thermonuclear (DD) yields were recorded at levels in excess of 109/shot. Flux compression in the SZP is also expected to produce magnetic field intensities of the order of kilo-Tesla. Thus, the DD reaction produced tritions should also yield secondary DT neutrons. Indeed, secondaries are measured above the noise threshold at levels approaching 106/shot. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, under Grant Number DE-AR0000569.

  16. Performance Evaluation of the COBRA GEM for the Application of the TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaki, Kohei; Hamagaki, Hideki; Gunji, Taku; Yamaguchi, Yorito

    2014-09-01

    Suppression of the back-drifting ions from avalanche region to drift space (IBF: Ion Backflow) is the key for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) since IBF easily distorts the drift field. To suppress IBF, Gating Grid system is widely used for the TPC but this limits the data taking rate. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) has advantages in the reduction of IBF and high rate capability. By adopting GEM, it is possible to run a TPC continuously under high rate and high multiplicity conditions. Motivated by the study of IBF reduction for RICH with Thick COBRA, which has been developed by F. A. Amero et al., we developed COBRA GEMs for the application of a TPC. With a stack configuration, IBF reaches about 0.1 ~ 0.5%, which is ×5--10 better IBF than the standard GEMs. However, the measured energy resolution with COBRA is 20% (σ) and this is much worse than the resolution with standard GEMs. Measurement of long-time stability of gain indicates that gain of COBRA varies significantly due to charging up effect. Simulation studies based on Garfield++ are performed for understanding quantitatively the reasons of worse energy resolution and instability of gain. In this presentation, we will report the simulation studies together with the measured performance of the COBRA GEM.

  17. Synchronization and an application of a novel fractional order King Cobra chaotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Muthukumar, P., E-mail: muthukumardgl@gmail.com; Balasubramaniam, P., E-mail: balugru@gmail.com; Ratnavelu, K., E-mail: kuru052001@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we design a new three dimensional King Cobra face shaped fractional order chaotic system. The multi-scale synchronization scheme of two fractional order chaotic systems is described. The necessary conditions for the multi-scale synchronization of two identical fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems are derived through feedback control. A new cryptosystem is proposed for an image encryption and decryption by using synchronized fractional order King Cobra chaotic systems with the supports of multiple cryptographic assumptions. The security of the proposed cryptosystem is analyzed by the well known algebraic attacks. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness ofmore » the proposed theoretical results.« less

  18. Improvements and applications of COBRA-TF for stand-alone and coupled LWR safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, M.; Cuervo, D.; Ivanov, K.

    2006-07-01

    The advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code COBRA-TF has been recently improved and applied for stand-alone and coupled LWR core calculations at the Pennsylvania State Univ. in cooperation with AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)) and the Technical Univ. of Madrid. To enable COBRA-TF for academic and industrial applications including safety margins evaluations and LWR core design analyses, the code programming, numerics, and basic models were revised and substantially improved. The code has undergone through an extensive validation, verification, and qualification program. (authors)

  19. Validity and reliability of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 26 CFR 54.4980B-8 - Paying for COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employee's family are covered under the plan. The employee experiences a qualifying event that is the termination of the employee's employment. The employee's family qualifies for the disability extension because... with respect to the employee's family for the first 18 months of COBRA continuation coverage, and the...

  1. From the Kiss of a Cobra: A Sidelong View of Snakebite, Antivenin, and Serum Sickness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    Article tells the story of how a New York City customs man was bit by a King Cobra from Thailand and the medical treatment he received. Describes three types of snake venoms: hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and neurotoxins. Explains how horses are used to produce antitoxins and side effects of the antitoxins on humans. (PR)

  2. Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2004-09-01

    Thirteen complete and three partial cDNA sequences were cloned from the constructed king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom gland cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of king cobra with those from other snake venoms revealed that obtained cDNAs are highly homologous to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins. Alignment of deduced mature peptide sequences of the obtained clones with those of other reported alpha-neurotoxins from the king cobra venom indicates that our obtained 16 clones belong to long-chain neurotoxins (seven), short-chain neurotoxins (seven), weak toxin (one) and variant (one), respectively. Up to now, two out of 16 newly cloned king cobra alpha-neurotoxins have identical amino acid sequences with CM-11 and Oh-6A/6B, which have been characterized from the same venom. Furthermore, five long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and two short-chain alpha-neurotoxins were purified from crude venom and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. The cDNAs encoding the putative precursors of the purified native peptide were also determined based on the N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The purified alpha-neurotoxins showed different lethal activities on mice.

  3. Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Lilly, Roderick L.; Duran, Georgia; Lee, Richard M.; Browne, LaVonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes development of a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of data. States that CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to…

  4. Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2006-06-15

    The present study reports the isolation and purification of lupeol acetate from the methanolic root extract of Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA(2) activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate. Snake venom neutralization by lupeol acetate and its possible mechanism of action has been discussed.

  5. Hemostatic interference of Indian king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Venom. Comparison with three other snake venoms of the subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Kumar, M S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2012-06-01

    Unlike Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Echis carinatus, and Daboia/Vipera russellii venoms, Ophiophagus hannah venom is medically ignored in the Indian subcontinent. Being the biggest poisonous snake, O. hannah has been presumed to inject several lethal doses of venom in a single bite. Lack of therapeutic antivenom to O. hannah bite in India makes any attempt to save the victim a difficult exercise. This study was initiated to compare O. hannah venom with the above said venoms for possible interference in hemostasis. Ophiophagus hannah venom was found to actively interfere in hemostatic stages such as fibrin clot formation, platelet activation/aggregation, and fibrin clot dissolution. It decreased partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin clotting time (TCT). These activities are similar to that shown by E. carinatus and D. russellii venoms, and thus O. hannah venom was found to exert procoagulant activity through the common pathway of blood coagulation, while N. naja venom increased aPTT and TCT but not PT, and hence it was found to exert anticoagulant activity through the intrinsic pathway. Venoms of O. hannah, E. carinatus, and D. russellii lack plasminogen activation property as they do not hydrolyze azocasein, while they all show plasmin-like activity by degrading the fibrin clot. Although N. naja venom did not degrade azocasein, unlike other venoms, it showed feeble plasmin-like activity on fibrin clot. Venom of E. carinatus induced clotting of human platelet rich plasma (PRP), while the other three venoms interfered in agonist-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Venom of O. hannah least inhibited the ADP induced platelet aggregation as compared to D. russellii and N. naja venoms. All these three venoms showed complete inhibition of epinephrine-induced aggregation at varied doses. However, O. hannah venom was unique in inhibiting thrombin induced aggregation.

  6. Quantitative prediction of cellular metabolism with constraint-based models: the COBRA Toolbox v2.0

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Jan; Que, Richard; Fleming, Ronan M. T.; Thiele, Ines; Orth, Jeffrey D.; Feist, Adam M.; Zielinski, Daniel C.; Bordbar, Aarash; Lewis, Nathan E.; Rahmanian, Sorena; Kang, Joseph; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing community of researchers has emerged around the use of COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) methods to simulate, analyze and predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes using genome-scale models. The COBRA Toolbox, a MATLAB package for implementing COBRA methods, was presented earlier. Here we present a significant update of this in silico ToolBox. Version 2.0 of the COBRA Toolbox expands the scope of computations by including in silico analysis methods developed since its original release. New functions include: (1) network gap filling, (2) 13C analysis, (3) metabolic engineering, (4) omics-guided analysis, and (5) visualization. As with the first version, the COBRA Toolbox reads and writes Systems Biology Markup Language formatted models. In version 2.0, we improved performance, usability, and the level of documentation. A suite of test scripts can now be used to learn the core functionality of the Toolbox and validate results. This Toolbox lowers the barrier of entry to use powerful COBRA methods. PMID:21886097

  7. A Parametric Regression of the Cost of Base Realignment Action (COBRA) Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-20

    Douglas D. Hardman , Captain, USAF Michael S. Nelson, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENS/93S-03 93 P’ 8 143 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 93... Hardman CLASS: GEE 93S Captain Michael Nelson TITLE: A Parametric Regression of the Cost of Base Realignment Action (COBRA) Model DEFENSE DATE: 20...Science in Engineering and Environmental Management Douglas D. Hardman , B.S.E.E. Michael S. Nelson, B.S.C.E Captain, USAF Captain, USAF September 1993

  8. Functional proteomic approach to discover geographic variations of king cobra venoms from Southeast Asia and China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Ching; Tsai, Tein-Shun; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2013-08-26

    This study deciphers the geographic variations of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom using functional proteomics. Pooled samples of king cobra venom (abbreviated as Ohv) were obtained from Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and two provinces of China, namely Guangxi and Hainan. Using two animal models to test and compare the lethal effects, we found that the Chinese Ohvs were more fatal to mice, while the Southeast Asian Ohvs were more fatal to lizards (Eutropis multifasciata). Various phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and Kunitz-type inhibitors were purified from these Ohvs and compared. Besides the two Chinese Ohv PLA2s with known sequences, eight novel PLA2s were identified from the five Ohv samples and their antiplatelet activities were compared. While two 3FTxs (namely oh-55 and oh-27) were common in all the Ohvs, different sets of 3FTx markers were present in the Chinese and Southeast Asian Ohvs. All the Ohvs contain the Kunitz inhibitor, OH-TCI, while only the Chinese Ohvs contain the inhibitor variant, Oh11-1. Relative to the Chinese Ohvs which contained more phospholipases, the Southeast Asian Ohvs had higher metalloproteinase, acetylcholine esterase, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Remarkable variations in five king cobra geographic samples reveal fast evolution and dynamic translational regulation of the venom which probably adapted to different prey ecology as testified by the lethal tests on mice and lizards. Our results predict possible variations of the king cobra envenoming to human and the importance of using local antivenin for snakebite treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A new standardized data collection system for interdisciplinary thyroid cancer management: Thyroid COBRA.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Luca; Gobitti, Carlo; Colloca, Giuseppe Ferdinando; Boldrini, Luca; Farina, Eleonora; Furlan, Carlo; Paiar, Fabiola; Vianello, Federica; Basso, Michela; Cerizza, Lorenzo; Monari, Fabio; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Lenkowicz, Jacopo; Dinapoli, Nicola; Lanzotti, Vito; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Russi, Elvio; Mangoni, Monica

    2018-07-01

    The big data approach offers a powerful alternative to Evidence-based medicine. This approach could guide cancer management thanks to machine learning application to large-scale data. Aim of the Thyroid CoBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis) project is to develop a standardized web data collection system, focused on thyroid cancer. The Metabolic Radiotherapy Working Group of Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) endorsed the implementation of a consortium directed to thyroid cancer management and data collection. The agreement conditions, the ontology of the collected data and the related software services were defined by a multicentre ad hoc working-group (WG). Six Italian cancer centres were firstly started the project, defined and signed the Thyroid COBRA consortium agreement. Three data set tiers were identified: Registry, Procedures and Research. The COBRA-Storage System (C-SS) appeared to be not time-consuming and to be privacy respecting, as data can be extracted directly from the single centre's storage platforms through a secured connection that ensures reliable encryption of sensible data. Automatic data archiving could be directly performed from Image Hospital Storage System or the Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems. The C-SS architecture will allow "Cloud storage way" or "distributed learning" approaches for predictive model definition and further clinical decision support tools development. The development of the Thyroid COBRA data Storage System C-SS through a multicentre consortium approach appeared to be a feasible tool in the setup of complex and privacy saving data sharing system oriented to the management of thyroid cancer and in the near future every cancer type. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. COBRA: A Computational Brewing Application for Predicting the Molecular Composition of Organic Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Fooshee, David R.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) represent a significant fraction of airborne particulate matter and can impact climate, visibility, and human health. These mixtures are difficult to characterize experimentally due to their complex and dynamic chemical composition. We introduce a novel Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) and apply it to modeling oligomerization chemistry stemming from condensation and addition reactions in OA formed by photooxidation of isoprene. COBRA uses two lists as input: a list of chemical structures comprising the molecular starting pool, and a list of rules defining potential reactions between molecules. Reactions are performed iteratively, with products of all previous iterations serving as reactants for the next. The simulation generated thousands of structures in the mass range of 120–500 Da, and correctly predicted ~70% of the individual OA constituents observed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Select predicted structures were confirmed with tandem mass spectrometry. Esterification was shown to play the most significant role in oligomer formation, with hemiacetal formation less important, and aldol condensation insignificant. COBRA is not limited to atmospheric aerosol chemistry; it should be applicable to the prediction of reaction products in other complex mixtures for which reasonable reaction mechanisms and seed molecules can be supplied by experimental or theoretical methods. PMID:22568707

  11. Development in High-Density Cobra Fiber Positioners for the Subaru Telescope's Prime Focus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Braun, David F.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Seiffert, Mic D.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ellis, Richard S.; Smith, Roger S.

    2012-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a fiber fed multi-object spectrometer for the Subaru Telescope that will conduct a variety of targeted surveys for studies of dark energy, galaxy evolution, and galactic archaeology. The key to the instrument is a high density array of fiber positioners placed at the prime focus of the Subaru Telescope. The system, nicknamed "Cobra", will be capable of rapidly reconfiguring the array of 2394 optical fibers to the image positions of astronomical targets in the focal plane with high accuracy. The system uses 2394 individual "SCARA robot" mechanisms that are 7.7mm in diameter and use 2 piezo-electric rotary motors to individually position each of the optical fibers within its patrol region. Testing demonstrates that the Cobra positioner can be moved to within 5 micrometers of an astronomical target in 6 move iterations with a success rate of 95%. The Cobra system is a key aspect of PFS that will enable its unprecedented combination of high-multiplex factor and observing efficiency on the Subaru telescope. The requirements, design, and prototyping efforts for the fiber positioner system for the PFS are described here as are the plans for modular construction, assembly, integration, functional testing, and performance validation.

  12. Investigation into the efficiency of different bionic algorithm combinations for a COBRA meta-heuristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedova, Sh; Semenkin, E.

    2017-02-01

    Previously, a meta-heuristic approach, called Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms or COBRA, for solving real-parameter optimization problems was introduced and described. COBRA’s basic idea consists of a cooperative work of five well-known bionic algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization, the Wolf Pack Search, the Firefly Algorithm, the Cuckoo Search Algorithm and the Bat Algorithm, which were chosen due to the similarity of their schemes. The performance of this meta-heuristic was evaluated on a set of test functions and its workability was demonstrated. Thus it was established that the idea of the algorithms’ cooperative work is useful. However, it is unclear which bionic algorithms should be included in this cooperation and how many of them. Therefore, the five above-listed algorithms and additionally the Fish School Search algorithm were used for the development of five different modifications of COBRA by varying the number of component-algorithms. These modifications were tested on the same set of functions and the best of them was found. Ways of further improving the COBRA algorithm are then discussed.

  13. COBRA-LIKE2, a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE family, plays a role in cellulose deposition in arabidopsis seed coat mucilage secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-03-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. CobraPLA Insertion by anesthetists and non-anesthetists wearing unconventional protective gear: a prospective study in humans.

    PubMed

    Ben-Abraham, Ron; Flaishon, Ron; Sotman, Alexander; Ekstein, Perla; Ezri, Tiberiu; Ogorek, Daniel; Weinbroum, Avi A

    2008-07-01

    The threat of a mass casualty unconventional attack has challenged the medical community to devise means for providing rapid and reliable emergent airway control under chaotic conditions by inexperienced medical personnel dressed in self protective gear. Since endotracheal intubation may not be feasible under those conditions, other extraglottic devices should be considered. We assessed the performance of anesthesia and non-anesthesia residents in inserting the CobraPLA, a supraglottic airway device, on consecutive anesthetized patients, to assess its potential use under simulated conditions. Anesthesia and non-anesthesia residents wearing either surgical scrubs or complete anti-chemical gear inserted the CobraPLA in anesthetized patients. If post-trial positive pressure ventilation via the CobraPLA was unsuccessful, an LMA or endotracheal tube was inserted in its stead. It took anesthesia residents 57+/-23 sec and 43+/-13 sec (P<0.05) to place the CobraPLA while wearing anti-chemical gear and surgical scrubs, respectively. Non-anesthesia residents wearing anti-chemical gear performed worse than anesthetists in their first insertion (73+/-9 sec, P<0.05), but after the brief training period they performed as well as their colleagues anesthetists (58+/-10 sec, P=NS). Post-trial, twenty-one CobraPLA (42%) leaked, preventing adequate positive-pressure ventilation: 13 devices (26% of the total) required replacements. Anti-chemical protective gear slowed the insertion of the CobraPLA by anesthetists, and more so by other residents inexperienced in airway management. In 26% of the cases CobraPLA was inadequate for positive pressure ventilation.

  15. Cryopreservation and conservation of microalgae: the development of a Pan-European scientific and biotechnological resource (the COBRA project).

    PubMed

    Day, J G; Benson, E E; Harding, K; Knowles, B; Idowu, M; Bremner, D; Santos, L; Santos, F; Friedl, T; Lorenz, M; Lukesova, A; Elster, J; Lukavsky, J; Herdman, M; Rippka, R; Hall, T

    2005-01-01

    Microalgae are one of the most biologically important elements of worldwide ecology and could be the source of diverse new products and medicines. COBRA (The COnservation of a vital european scientific and Biotechnological Resource: microAlgae and cyanobacteria) is the acronym for a European Union, RTD Infrastructures project (Contract No. QLRI-CT-2001-01645). This project is in the process of developing a European Biological Resource Centre based on existing algal culture collections. The COBRA project's central aim is to apply cryopreservation methodologies to microalgae and cyanobacteria, organisms that, to date, have proved difficult to conserve using cryogenic methods. In addition, molecular and biochemical stability tests have been developed to ensure that the equivalent strains of microorganisms supplied by the culture collections give high quality and consistent performance. Fundamental and applied knowledge of stress physiology form an essential component of the project and this is being employed to assist the optimisation of methods for preserving a wide range of algal diversity. COBRA's "Resource Centre" utilises Information Technologies (IT) and Knowledge Management practices to assist project coordination, management and information dissemination and facilitate the generation of new knowledge pertaining to algal conservation. This review of the COBRA project will give a summary of current methodologies for cryopreservation of microalgae and procedures adopted within the COBRA project to enhance preservation techniques for this diverse group of organisms.

  16. The Plastid Genome of Najas flexilis: Adaptation to Submersed Environments Is Accompanied by the Complete Loss of the NDH Complex in an Aquatic Angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Peredo, Elena L.; King, Ursula M.; Les, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    The re-colonization of aquatic habitats by angiosperms has presented a difficult challenge to plants whose long evolutionary history primarily reflects adaptations to terrestrial conditions. Many aquatics must complete vital stages of their life cycle on the water surface by means of floating or emergent leaves and flowers. Only a few species, mainly within the order Alismatales, are able to complete all aspects of their life cycle including pollination, entirely underwater. Water-pollinated Alismatales include seagrasses and water nymphs (Najas), the latter being the only freshwater genus in the family Hydrocharitaceae with subsurface water-pollination. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the plastid genome of Najas flexilis. The plastid genome of N. flexilis is a circular AT-rich DNA molecule of 156 kb, which displays a quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IR) separating the large single copy (LSC) from the small single copy (SSC) regions. In N. flexilis, as in other Alismatales, the rps19 and trnH genes are localized in the LSC region instead of within the IR regions as in other monocots. However, the N. flexilis plastid genome presents some anomalous modifications. The size of the SSC region is only one third of that reported for closely related species. The number of genes in the plastid is considerably less. Both features are due to loss of the eleven ndh genes in the Najas flexilis plastid. In angiosperms, the absence of ndh genes has been related mainly to the loss of photosynthetic function in parasitic plants. The ndh genes encode the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, believed essential in terrestrial environments, where it increases photosynthetic efficiency in variable light intensities. The modified structure of the N. flexilis plastid genome suggests that adaptation to submersed environments, where light is scarce, has involved the loss of the NDH complex in at least some photosynthetic angiosperms. PMID:23861923

  17. COBRA-SFS thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks: Models and methods

    DOE PAGES

    Michener, Thomas E.; Rector, David R.; Cuta, Judith M.

    2017-09-01

    COBRA-SFS, a thermal-hydraulics code developed for steady-state and transient analysis of multi-assembly spent-fuel storage and transportation systems, has been incorporated into the Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation and Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System tool as a module devoted to spent fuel package thermal analysis. This paper summarizes the basic formulation of the equations and models used in the COBRA-SFS code, showing that COBRA-SFS fully captures the important physical behavior governing the thermal performance of spent fuel storage systems, with internal and external natural convection flow patterns, and heat transfer by convection, conduction, and thermal radiation. Of particular significance is themore » capability for detailed thermal radiation modeling within the fuel rod array.« less

  18. NASA TechPort Entry for Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) CL IR&D Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable solution to brine water recovery. The heart of CoBRA is an evaporator that produces water vapor from brine. This evaporator leverages a novel design that enables passive transport of brine from place to place within the system. While it will be necessary to build or modify a system for testing the CoBRA concept, the emphasis of this project will be on developing the evaporator itself. This project will utilize a “test early, test often” approach, building at least one trial evaporator to guide the design of the final product.

  19. COBRA-SFS thermal-hydraulic analysis code for spent fuel storage and transportation casks: Models and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Michener, Thomas E.; Rector, David R.; Cuta, Judith M.

    COBRA-SFS, a thermal-hydraulics code developed for steady-state and transient analysis of multi-assembly spent-fuel storage and transportation systems, has been incorporated into the Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation and Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System tool as a module devoted to spent fuel package thermal analysis. This paper summarizes the basic formulation of the equations and models used in the COBRA-SFS code, showing that COBRA-SFS fully captures the important physical behavior governing the thermal performance of spent fuel storage systems, with internal and external natural convection flow patterns, and heat transfer by convection, conduction, and thermal radiation. Of particular significance is themore » capability for detailed thermal radiation modeling within the fuel rod array.« less

  20. Antiproliferative activity of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Li Lee, Mui; Chung, Ivy; Yee Fung, Shin; Kanthimathi, M S; Hong Tan, Nget

    2014-04-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a heat-stable enzyme, is an extremely potent antiproliferative agent against cancer cells when compared with LAAO isolated from other snake venoms. King cobra venom LAAO was shown to exhibit very strong antiproliferative activities against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells, with an IC50 value of 0.04±0.00 and 0.05±0.00 μg/mL, respectively, after 72-hr treatment. In comparison, its cytotoxicity was about 3-4 times lower when tested against human non-tumourigenic breast (184B5) and lung (NL 20) cells, suggesting selective antitumour activity. Furthermore, its potency in MCF-7 and A549 cell lines was greater than the effects of doxorubicin, a clinically established cancer chemotherapeutic agent, which showed an IC50 value of 0.18±0.03 and 0.63±0.21 μg/mL, respectively, against the two cell lines. The selective cytotoxic action of the LAAO was confirmed by phycoerythrin (PE) annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin (AAD) apoptotic assay, in which a significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed in LAAO-treated tumour cells than in their non-tumourigenic counterparts. The ability of LAAO to induce apoptosis in tumour cells was further demonstrated using caspase-3/7 and DNA fragmentation assays. We also determined that this enzyme may target oxidative stress in its killing of tumour cells, as its cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of catalase (a H2O2 scavenger). In view of its heat stability and selective and potent cytotoxic action on cancer cells, king cobra venom LAAO can be potentially developed for treating solid tumours. © 2013 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  2. PASSIVE HEMOLYSIS BY SERUM AND COBRA VENOM FACTOR: A NEW MECHANISM INDUCING MEMBRANE DAMAGE BY COMPLEMENT*

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, R. J.; Wolfson, M. R.; Good, R. A.; Gewurz, H.

    1969-01-01

    The studies presented here indicate that activation of the complement (C′) system by a foreign protein will cause membrane injury and passive lysis of unsensitized erythrocytes present at the time of the reaction. These observations suggest that in addition to the classical antibody-C′-induced cytolysis, there are alternative pathways or mechanisms for activation and participation of the terminal C′ components in the production of cell membrane injury. We have shown that a substance derived from cobra venom and eluted from a single protein band on polyacrylamide can promote lysis of unsensitized autologous or heterologous erythrocytes in the presence of fresh guinea pig serum and that this lysis-inducing activity and C′-inhibiting activity appear to reside in the same fractions. The lytic activity is prevented by several agents known to impair classical C′3 activity, but is unaffected by certain procedures which interfere with the function of C′ components C′1 and C′2, a suggestion that this reaction involves chiefly C′3-C′9. Further, the cobra venom (CV) factor depletes C′ activity in cobra serum, and the CV factor (with its 5S serum cofactor) converts purified C′3 to its inactive form,1 indicating that the reaction of this complex with the complement system occurs without participation of antibody. Therefore, since the lysis-inducing and C′-inhibiting activity of the CV factor appear to result from similar interactions with the complement system, these observations suggest that cell membrane damage and cell lysis can be accomplished through activation of the complement system by a mechanism involving little or no participation of classical antibody or C′ components C′1, 4, or 2. Images PMID:4978744

  3. Hematology, morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastuctural characteristics of blood cells in king cobras (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual-Anong; Chanhome, Lawan; Rochanapat, Nirachara

    2002-01-01

    King cobras (Ophiophagus hannah) have been captive-bred at Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute since 1996 to supply venom for antivenom production. Hematologic tests would be useful for evaluating the health of the snakes, however, basic hematologic data and morphology have not been described for this species. The purpose of this study was to determine basic hematologic values and evaluate light microscopic, cytochemical, and electron microscopic characteristics of king cobra blood cells. Blood samples from 13 wild-caught and 15 captive-bred king cobras were collected into EDTA from the ventral caudal vein. A CBC was done using standard methods. Significant differences between groups were determined using t-tests. Cytochemical stains (periodic acid-Schiff [PAS], Sudan black B [SBB], alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], acid phosphatase [AcP], and beta-glucuronidase [beta-glu]), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were done using standard techniques. Eighteen snakes (64.3%) were positive for Hepatozoon infection. Hepatozoon organisms were detected nearly twice as frequently in wild-caught (11/13) as in captive-bred (7/15) snakes. Total WBC, azurophil, and lymphocyte counts were higher and fibrinogen concentration was lower in Hepatozoon-positive snakes. Captive-bred snakes had higher RBC values, lower azurophil, heterophil, and punctate reticulocyte percentages, and higher lymphocyte numbers compared with wild-caught snakes. Lymphocytes were the most commonly observed WBCs, and stained positive with PAS, ANAE, AcP, and beta-glu. Azurophil granules stained positive with SBB, PAS, and ANAE. Heterophils were the largest WBCs; their granules stained with SBB, ANAE, and beta-glu. Basophil granules stained with PAS, SBB, ANAE, and beta-glu. Thrombocytes were strongly positive with PAS. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed organelles within all WBCs except eosinophils and revealed the gamonts of Hepatozoon sp in RBCs and azurophils. These

  4. First Results from the Cornell COBRA Accelerator for Light Ion ICF Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, F.; Krastelev, E. G.; Greenly, J. B.; Kusse, B. R.

    1996-11-01

    COBRA, the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator, is a four-stage linear induction adder based on the Sandia National Laboratories SABRE accelerator design. The full 4 × 1 MV, 200 kA, 40 ns COBRA was completed in June 1996, after a year of initial operation with a single stage. Accelerator operation will be described, and first experimental results of power coupling and ion beam generation using a closely-coupled (short MITL) applied-B extraction ion diode load will be presented. A diagnostic package for beam optics including local microdivergence and aiming measurements is being developed, and results from both the single-stage experiments and new experiments on the full accelerator will be presented. A 20 ns, 15% voltage precursor to the main pulse resulting from coupling through the nonlinear magnetization characteristic of the Metglas^circR core at high magnetization rate was seen in the single-cell experiments. This mechanism will be discussed and its consequences on the full accelerator will be investigated.

  5. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Jansen, Hans J.; McCleary, Ryan J. R.; Kerkkamp, Harald M. E.; Vos, Rutger A.; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E.; Logan, Jessica M.; Harrison, Robert A.; Castoe, Todd A.; de Koning, A. P. Jason; Pollock, David D.; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B.; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Arntzen, Jan W.; van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P.; Spaink, Herman P.; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection. PMID:24297900

  6. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Freek J; Casewell, Nicholas R; Henkel, Christiaan V; Heimberg, Alysha M; Jansen, Hans J; McCleary, Ryan J R; Kerkkamp, Harald M E; Vos, Rutger A; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E; Logan, Jessica M; Harrison, Robert A; Castoe, Todd A; de Koning, A P Jason; Pollock, David D; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S; Ribeiro, José M C; Arntzen, Jan W; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P; Spaink, Herman P; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-12-17

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection.

  7. Merit Pay in Arkansas: An Evaluation of the Cobra Pride Incentive Program in the Fountain Lake School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Nathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Starting in the 2010-11, administrators at the Fountain Lake School District implemented the Cobra Pride Incentive Program (CPIP), a merit pay program designed to financially reward all school employees with year-end bonuses primarily for significant improvements in student achievement. At the conclusion of the 2010-11 school year, over $800,000…

  8. Naja nigricollis CMS-9 enhances the mitochondria-mediated death pathway in adaphostin-treated human leukaemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Chang, Long-Sen

    2011-11-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of the Naja nigricollis phospholipase A(2) CMS-9 on adaphostin-induced death of human leukaemia U937 cells. 2. Leukaemia U937 cells (Bcr/Abl-negative cells) were treated with adaphostin (0-10 μmol/L) and CMS-9 (0-1 μmol/L). The effects of CMS-9, adaphostin and their combination on cell viability, the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS), [Ca(2+) ](i) , p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inactivation, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m) ) and Bcl-2 family proteins were analysed. 3. Both adaphostin and CMS-9 induced U937 cell apoptosis, characterized by dissipation of ΔΨ(m) and ROS generation. Combined treatment further increased ΔΨ(m) loss and reduced the viability of adaphostin-treated cells. Unlike in CMS-9-treated cells, in adaphostin-treated cells ROS-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ](i) were observed. CMS-9-induced ROS generation resulted in p38 MAPK activation, whereas adaphostin treatment elicited ROS/Ca(2+) -mediated inactivation of Akt and ERK. Moreover, Akt was found to be involved in ERK phosphorylation. Suppression of p38 MAPK activation blocked CMS-9-induced ΔΨ(m) loss and Bcl-xL downregulation. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1 rescued adaphostin-induced ΔΨ(m) loss and Bcl-2 downregulation. Similarly, CMS-9 augmented adaphostin toxicity in human leukaemia K562 cells via increased mitochondrial alterations. 4. The results suggest that two distinct pathways mediate adaphostin- and CMS-9-induced mitochondrial damage (i.e. the ROS-Ca(2+) -Akt-ERK and ROS-p38 MAPK pathways, respectively). These distinct pathway explain the augmentation by CMS-9 of ΔΨ(m) loss and apoptosis in adaphostin-treated U937 cells. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Isolation and cloning of a metalloproteinase from king cobra snake venom.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Zeng, Lin; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun; Jin, Yang

    2007-06-01

    A 50 kDa fibrinogenolytic protease, ohagin, from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah was isolated by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange and heparin affinity chromatography. Ohagin specifically degraded the alpha-chain of human fibrinogen and the proteolytic activity was completely abolished by EDTA, but not by PMSF, suggesting it is a metalloproteinase. It dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, TMVA and stejnulxin. The full sequence of ohagin was deduced by cDNA cloning and confirmed by protein sequencing and peptide mass fingerprinting. The full-length cDNA sequence of ohagin encodes an open reading frame of 611 amino acids that includes signal peptide, proprotein and mature protein comprising metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, suggesting it belongs to P-III class metalloproteinase. In addition, P-III class metalloproteinases from the venom glands of Naja atra, Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus were also cloned in this study. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that metalloproteinases from elapid snake venoms form a new subgroup of P-III SVMPs.

  10. Testing and COBRA-SFS analysis of the VSC-17 ventilated concrete, spent fuel storage cask

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1992-04-01

    A performance test of a Pacific Sierra Nuclear VSC-17 ventilated concrete storage cask loaded with 17 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel generating approximately 15 kW was conducted. The performance test included measuring the cask surface, concrete, air channel surface, and fuel temperatures, as well as cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed using vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments. Pretest predictions of cask thermal performance were made using the COBRA-SFS computer code. Analysis results were within 15{degrees}C of measured peak fuel temperature. Peak fuel temperature for normal operation was 321{degrees}C. In general, the surface dose ratesmore » were less than 30 mrem/h on the side of the cask and 40 mrem/h on the top of the cask.« less

  11. U.S. Army dietitians deploy in support of Cobra Gold: a humanitarian mission.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, T; Podojil, R; Sweet, L E

    1999-07-01

    Dietitians are multifunctional and play an important role in humanitarian missions as educators, planners, and consultants. Three dietitians deployed to Thailand in support of the 16th Annual Joint and Combined Exercise, Cobra Gold 1997. The goal of the Medical Civic Assistance Program (MEDCAP) was to promote long-term public health improvements in rural Thai villages. The dietitians counseled 140 patients and taught an additional 5,300 individuals during nutrition classes. The primary nutrition-related clinical diagnoses included malnutrition, anemia, diabetes, hypertension, goiter, and poor appetite. The dietitian who deployed as the medical planner and MEDCAP executive officer facilitated coordination and planning for all phases of the MEDCAP operation. The teams were made up of U.S. and Thai military forces and Thai civilian medical personnel. The mission requirements were established with the Royal Thai Supreme Command, Thai governors, Ministry of Public Health officers, military and medical officers, and veterinarians of the three provinces.

  12. Calibration of CryojetHT and Cobra Plus Cryosystems used in X-ray diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@crys.ras.ru; Verin, I. A.; Smirnova, E. S.

    CryoJetHT (Oxford Instruments) and Cobra Plus (Oxford Cryosystems) cryosystems, which are used for sample cooling in X-ray diffraction experiments, have been calibrated. It is shown that the real temperature in the vicinity of the sample differs significantly (the deviation is as high as 8–10 K at low temperatures) from the temperature recorded by authorized sensors of these systems. The calibration results are confirmed by measurements of the unit-cell parameters of GdFe{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} single crystal in the temperature range of its phase transition. It is shown that, to determine the real temperature of a sample, one must perform anmore » independent calibration of cryosystems rather than rely on their ratings.« less

  13. BiKEGG: a COBRA toolbox extension for bridging the BiGG and KEGG databases.

    PubMed

    Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Motamedian, Ehsan; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh

    2016-10-18

    Development of an interface tool between the Biochemical, Genetic and Genomic (BiGG) and KEGG databases is necessary for simultaneous access to the features of both databases. For this purpose, we present the BiKEGG toolbox, an open source COBRA toolbox extension providing a set of functions to infer the reaction correspondences between the KEGG reaction identifiers and those in the BiGG knowledgebase using a combination of manual verification and computational methods. Inferred reaction correspondences using this approach are supported by evidence from the literature, which provides a higher number of reconciled reactions between these two databases compared to the MetaNetX and MetRxn databases. This set of equivalent reactions is then used to automatically superimpose the predicted fluxes using COBRA methods on classical KEGG pathway maps or to create a customized metabolic map based on the KEGG global metabolic pathway, and to find the corresponding reactions in BiGG based on the genome annotation of an organism in the KEGG database. Customized metabolic maps can be created for a set of pathways of interest, for the whole KEGG global map or exclusively for all pathways for which there exists at least one flux carrying reaction. This flexibility in visualization enables BiKEGG to indicate reaction directionality as well as to visualize the reaction fluxes for different static or dynamic conditions in an animated manner. BiKEGG allows the user to export (1) the output visualized metabolic maps to various standard image formats or save them as a video or animated GIF file, and (2) the equivalent reactions for an organism as an Excel spreadsheet.

  14. Maintaining health insurance during a recession: likely COBRA eligibility: an updated analysis using the Commonwealth Fund 2007 Biennial Health Insurance Survey.

    PubMed

    Doty, Michelle; Rustgi, Sheila D; Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R

    2009-01-01

    As the U.S. economic downturn continues and job losses mount, more working Americans are likely to lose access to affordable health benefits subsidized by their employers. Analysis of the 2007 Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey finds that two of three working adults would be eligible to extend job-based coverage, under the 1985 Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) if they became unemployed. Under COBRA, however, unemployed workers would have to pay four to six times their current contribution at a time of sharply reduced income. In fact, the latest national figures indicate that, because of high premiums, only 9 percent of unemployed workers have COBRA coverage. Substantial financial assistance of 75 percent to 85 percent of premiums could help laid-off workers maintain coverage. In addition, expansion of Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program would benefit low-income, laid-off workers and their families who are ineligible for COBRA.

  15. Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes

    PubMed Central

    Oukkache, Naoual; Jaoudi, Rachid El; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD50 values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD50 values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD50 values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the nature of toxins

  16. Evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; El Jaoudi, Rachid; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-12

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD₅₀ values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD₅₀ values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD₅₀ values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the

  17. [A case of favourable outcome of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra].

    PubMed

    Livanov, G A; Batotsyrenkov, B V; Lodiagin, A N; Andrianov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, O A; Loladze, A T; Baranov, D V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a case of severe acute intoxication with an animal poison after a bite by the monocled cobra. Combined treatment including artificial lung ventilation, infusion-detoxication and desensitizing (hormonal) therapy, hemosorption, correction of metabolic disorders with cytoflavin, antibacterial therapy had positive effect on the patient's condition and ensured the favourable outcome ofpotentially lethal poisoning without the use ofa specific anti-snake venom serum.

  18. Cross-reactivity and neutralization of Indian King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom by polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Girish, K S; K, Kemparaju

    2014-07-01

    The venom of the largest venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), is still out of league for the production of therapeutic polyvalent antivenom nor it is characterized immunologically in the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the king cobra venom is comparatively studied for the cross-reactivity/reactivity and toxicity neutralization by the locally available equine therapeutic polyvalent BSV and VB antivenoms, and monovalent antivenom (OH-IgG) prepared in rabbit. None of the two therapeutic antivenoms procured from two different firms showed any signs of cross-reactivity in terms of antigen-antibody precipitin lines in immunodouble diffusion assay; however, a weak and an insignificant cross-reactivity pattern was observed in ELISA and Western blot studies. Further, both BSV and VB antivenoms failed to neutralize proteolytic, hyaluronidase and phospholipase activities as well as toxic properties such as edema, myotoxicity and lethality of the venom. As expected, OH-IgG showed strong reactivity in immunodouble diffusion, ELISA and in Western blot analysis and also neutralized both enzyme activities as well as the toxic properties of the venom. Thus, the study provides insight into the likely measures that are to be taken in cases of accidental king cobra bites for which the Indian subcontinent is still not prepared for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulse-shape discrimination techniques for the COBRA double beta-decay experiment at LNGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatschler, S.; COBRA Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In modern elementary particle physics several questions arise from the fact that neutrino oscillation experiments have found neutrinos to be massive. Among them is the so far unknown nature of neutrinos: either they act as so-called Majorana particles, where one cannot distinguish between particle and antiparticle, or they are Dirac particles like all the other fermions in the Standard Model. The study of neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay), where the lepton number conservation is violated by two units, could answer the question regarding the underlying nature of neutrinos and might also shed light on the mechanism responsible for the mass generation. So far there is no experimental evidence for the existence of 0νββ-decay, hence, existing experiments have to be improved and novel techniques should be explored. One of the next-generation experiments dedicated to the search for this ultra-rare decay is the COBRA experiment. This article gives an overview of techniques to identify and reject background based on pulse-shape discrimination.

  20. Bell P–63A King Cobra at the Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1944-01-21

    The Army Air Forces lent the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory a Bell P–63A King Cobra in October 1943 to complement the lab's extensive efforts to improve the Allison V–1710 engine. The V–1710-powered P–63A was a single-seat fighter that could reach speeds of 410 miles per hour and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The fighter, first produced in 1942, was an improvement on Bell’s P–39, but persistent performance problems at high altitudes prevented its acceptance by the Air Corps. Instead many of the P–63s were transferred to the Soviet Union. Almost every test facility at the NACA’s engine lab was used to study the Allison V–1710 engine and its supercharger during World War II. Researchers were able to improve the efficiency, capacity and pressure ratio of the supercharger. They found that improved cooling significantly reduced engine knock in the fuel. Once the researchers were satisfied with their improvements, the new supercharger and cooling components were installed on the P–63A. The Flight Research Division first established the aircraft’s normal flight performance parameters such as speed at various altitudes, rate of climb, and peak altitude. Ensuing flights established the performance parameters of the new configuration in order to determine the improved performance. The program increased V–1710’s horsepower from 1650 to 2250.

  1. [Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah (Serpents: Elapidae)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2010-07-01

    We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of King Cobra(GenBank accession number: EU_921899) by Ex Taq-PCR, TA-cloning and primer-walking methods. This genome is very similar to other vertebrate, which is 17 267 bp in length and encodes 38 genes (including 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 23 transfer RNA genes) and two long non-coding regions. The duplication of tRNA-Ile gene forms a new mitochondrial gene rearrangement model. Eight tRNA genes and one protein genes were transcribed from L strand, and the other genes were transcribed genes from H strand. Genes on the H strand show a fairly similar content of Adenosine and Thymine respectively, whereas those on the L strand have higher proportion of A than T. Combined rDNA sequence data (12S+16S rRNA) were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 21 snake species for which complete mitochondrial genome sequences were available in the public databases. This large data set and an appropriate range of outgroup taxa demonstrated that Elapidae is more closely related to colubridae than viperidae, which supports the traditional viewpoints.

  2. Staged Z-pinch experiments on the Mega-Ampere current driver COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Julio; Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Thomas; Conti, Fabio; Greenly, John; Hammer, David; Potter, William; Rocco, Sophia; Ross, Michael; Wessel, Frank; Narkis, Jeff; Rahman, Hafiz; Ruskov, Emil; Beg, Farhat

    2017-10-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Cornell's 1 MA, 100 ns current driver COBRA with the goal of better understanding the Staged Z-pinch physics and validating MHD codes. We used a gas injector composed of an annular (1.2 cm radius) high atomic number (e.g., Ar or Kr) gas-puff and an on-axis plasma gun that delivers the ionized hydrogen target. Liner implosion velocity and stability were studied using laser shadowgraphy and interferometry as well as XUV imaging. From the data, the signature of the MRT instability and zippering effect can be seen, but time integrated X-ray imaging show a stable target plasma. A key component of the experiment was the use of optical Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostics to characterize the liner and target plasmas. By fitting the experimental scattered spectra with synthetic data, electron and ion temperature as well as density can be obtained. Preliminary analysis shows significant scattered line broadening from the plasma on-axis ( 0.5 mm diameter) which can be explained by either a low temperature H plasma with Te =Ti =75eV, or by a hot plasma with Ti =3keV, Te =350eV if an Ar-H mixture is present with an Ar fraction higher than 10%. Funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  3. Ice clouds optical properties in the Far Infrared from the ECOWAR-COBRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Rolando; Tosi, Ennio

    ECOWAR-COBRA (Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission -Campagna di Osservazioni della Banda Rotazionale del vapor d'Acqua) field campaign took place in Italy from 3 to 17 March 2007 with the main goal of studying the scarcely sensed atmospheric emission occurring beyond 17 microns. Instrumentation involved in the campaign included two different Fourier Transforms Spectrometers (FTS) : REFIR-PAD (at Testa Grigia Station, 3500 m a.s.l.) and FTIR-ABB (at Cervinia Station, 1990 m a.s.l.). In this work cloudy sky data have been ana-lyzed. A cloud properties retrieval methodology (RT-RET), based on high spectral resolution measurements in the atmospheric window (800-1000 cm-1), is applied to both FTS sensors. Cloud properties determined from the infrared retrievals are compared with those obtained from Raman lidar taken by the BASIL Lidar system that was operating at Cervinia station. Cloud microphysical and optical properties retrieved by RT-RET are used to perform forward simulations over the entire FTSs measurements spectral interval. Results are compared to FTS data to test the ability of single scattering ice crystals models to reproduce cloudy sky radiances in the Far Infra-Red (FIR) part of the spectrum. New methods to retrieve cloud optical and microphysical properties exploiting high spectral resolution FIR measurements are also investigated.

  4. Early time studies of cylindrical liner implosions at 1 MA on COBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Atoyan, L., E-mail: la296@cornell.edu; Byvank, T., E-mail: la296@cornell.edu; Cahill, A. D., E-mail: la296@cornell.edu

    Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to implode a cylindrical metal liner to compress and heat preheated, magnetized plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are issues that can still be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long and 4 mm diameter metal liners having different wall thicknesses to study the initiation of plasma on the liner’s surface asmore » well as axial magnetic field compression [P.-A. Gourdain et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 083006 (2013)]. This report presents experimental results with non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner’s surface structure has on initiation and ablation. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and optical 12 frame camera imaging were used to observe and assess emission non-uniformities as they developed. Axial and side-on interferometry was used to determine the distribution of plasma near the liner surface, including the impact of non-uniformities during the plasma initiation and ablation phases of the experiments.« less

  5. Early time studies of cylindrical liner implosions at 1 MA on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, L.; Byvank, T.; Cahill, A. D.; Hoyt, C. L.; de Grouchy, P. W. L.; Potter, W. M.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, to implode a cylindrical metal liner to compress and heat preheated, magnetized plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are issues that can still be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long and 4 mm diameter metal liners having different wall thicknesses to study the initiation of plasma on the liner's surface as well as axial magnetic field compression [P.-A. Gourdain et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 083006 (2013)]. This report presents experimental results with non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner's surface structure has on initiation and ablation. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and optical 12 frame camera imaging were used to observe and assess emission non-uniformities as they developed. Axial and side-on interferometry was used to determine the distribution of plasma near the liner surface, including the impact of non-uniformities during the plasma initiation and ablation phases of the experiments.

  6. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  7. Suppression of alpha-induced lateral surface events in the COBRA experiment using CdZnTe detectors with an instrumented guard-ring electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arling, J.-H.; Gerhardt, M.; Gößling, C.; Gehre, D.; Klingenberg, R.; Kröninger, K.; Nitsch, C.; Quante, T.; Rohatsch, K.; Tebrügge, J.; Temminghoff, R.; Theinert, R.; Zatschler, S.; Zuber, K.

    2017-11-01

    The COBRA collaboration searches for neutrinoless double beta-decay (0νββ-decay) using CdZnTe semiconductor detectors with a coplanar-grid readout and a surrounding guard-ring structure. The operation of the COBRA demonstrator at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) indicates that alpha-induced lateral surface events are the dominant source of background events. By instrumenting the guard-ring electrode it is possible to suppress this type of background. In laboratory measurements this method achieved a suppression factor of alpha-induced lateral surface events of 5300+2660-1380, while retaining (85.3 ±0.1%) of gamma events occurring in the entire detector volume. This suppression is superior to the pulse-shape analysis methods used so far in COBRA by three orders of magnitude.

  8. Involvement of p38 MAPK- and JNK-modulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Naja nigricollis CMS-9-induced apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Chang, Long-Sen

    2010-06-15

    CMS-9, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isolated from Naja nigricollis venom, induced apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells, characterized by mitochondrial depolarization, modulation of Bcl-2 family members, cytochrome c release and activation of caspases 9 and 3. Moreover, an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was noted. Pretreatment with BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, ROS scavenger) proved that Ca2+ was an upstream event in inducing ROS generation. Upon exposure to CMS-9, activation of p38 MAPK and JNK was observed in K562 cells. BAPTA-AM or NAC abrogated CMS-9-elicited p38 MAPK and JNK activation, and rescued viability of CMS-9-treated K562 cells. SB202190 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) suppressed CMS-9-induced dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, Bcl-2 down-regulation, Bax up-regulation and increased mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Inactivation of PLA(2) activity reduced drastically the cytotoxicity of CMS-9, and a combination of lysophosphatidylcholine and stearic acid mimicked the cytotoxic effects of CMS-9. Taken together, our data suggest that CMS-9-induced apoptosis of K562 cells is catalytic activity-dependent and is mediated through mitochondria-mediated death pathway triggered by Ca2+/ROS-evoked p38 MAPK and JNK activation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phospholipase A2 activity-dependent and -independent fusogenic activity of Naja nigricollis CMS-9 on zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ying-Jung; Lin, Shinne-Ren; Chang, Long-Sen

    2011-11-01

    CMS-9, a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from Naja nigricollis venom, induced the death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells accompanied with the formation of cell clumps without clear boundaries between cells. Annexin V-FITC staining indicated that abundant phosphatidylserine appeared on the outer membrane of MCF-7 cell clumps, implying the possibility that CMS-9 may promote membrane fusion via anionic phospholipids. To validate this proposition, fusogenic activity of CMS-9 on vesicles composed of zwitterionic phospholipid alone or a combination of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipids was examined. Although CMS-9-induced fusion of zwitterionic phospholipid vesicles depended on PLA(2) activity, CMS-9-induced fusion of vesicles containing anionic phospholipids could occur without the involvement of PLA(2) activity. Membrane-damaging activity of CMS-9 was associated with its fusogenicity. Moreover, CMS-9 induced differently membrane leakage and membrane fusion of vesicles with different compositions. Membrane fluidity and binding capability with phospholipid vesicles were not related to the fusogenicity of CMS-9. However, membrane-bound conformation and mode of CMS-9 depended on phospholipid compositions. Collectively, our data suggest that PLA(2) activity-dependent and -independent fusogenicity of CMS-9 are closely related to its membrane-bound modes and targeted membrane compositions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric Oxidation of Squalene: Molecular Study Using COBRA Modeling and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fooshee, David R.; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-10-22

    Squalene is a major component of skin and plant surface lipids, and is known to be present at high concentrations in indoor dust. Its high reactivity toward ozone makes it an important ozone sink and a natural protectant against atmospheric oxidizing agents. While the volatile products of squalene ozonolysis are known, the condensed-phase products have not been characterized. We present an analysis of condensed-phase products resulting from an extensive oxidation of squalene by ozone probed by electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). A complex distribution of nearly 1,300 peaks assignable to molecular formulas is observed in direct infusion positivemore » ion mode ESI mass spectra. The distribution of peaks in the mass spectra suggests that there are extensive cross-coupling reactions between hydroxy-carbonyl products of squalene ozonolysis. To get additional insights into the mechanism, we apply a Computational Brewing Application (COBRA) to simulate the oxidation of squalene in the presence of ozone, and compare predicted results with those observed by the HR-MS experiments. The system predicts over one billion molecular structures between 0-1450 Da, which correspond to about 27,000 distinct elemental formulas. Over 83% of the squalene oxidation products inferred from the mass spectrometry data are matched by the simulation. Simulation indicates a prevalence of peroxy groups, with hydroxyl and ether groups being the second-most important O-containing functional groups formed during squalene oxidation. These highly oxidized products of squalene ozonolysis may accumulate on indoor dust and surfaces, and contribute to their redox capacity.« less

  11. Viper and Cobra Venom Neutralization by Alginate Coated Multicomponent Polyvalent Antivenom Administered by the Oral Route

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Mukhopadhyay, Piyasi; Kundu, P. P.; Mishra, Roshnara

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this problem, multiple components of polyvalent antivenom were entrapped in alginate. Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom (ASVS) significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom. In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom. Conclusions/Significance Alginate was effective in entrapping all the structural components of ASVS, which on release and intestinal absorption effectively reconstituted the function of antivenom in neutralizing viper and cobra

  12. Cobra venom factor immunoconjugates: effects of carbohydrate-directed versus amino group-directed conjugation.

    PubMed

    Zara, J; Pomato, N; McCabe, R P; Bredehorst, R; Vogel, C W

    1995-01-01

    Human IgM monoclonal antibody 16-88, derived from patients immunized with autologous colon carcinoma cells, was derivatized with two different cross-linkers, S-(2-thiopyridyl)-L-cysteine hydrazide (TPCH), which is carbohydrate-directed, and N-succinimidyl-3-(2- pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP), which is amino group-directed. Two antibody functions, antigen binding and complement activation, were assayed upon derivatization with TPCH and SPDP. TPCH allowed for extensive modification (up to 17 TPCH molecules per antibody) without impairment of antigen binding activity, while this function was significantly compromised upon derivatization with SPDP. Antibody molecules derivatized with 16 SPDP residues showed almost complete loss of their antigen binding function. The complement activating ability of antibody 16-88 was significantly decreased after derivatization with TPCH or SPDP. In the case of SPDP derivatization, this decrease of the complement activating ability is predominantly a consequence of the impaired binding function. Upon conjugation of cobra venom factor (CVF), a nontoxic 137-kDa glycoprotein which is capable of activating the alternative pathway of complement, the antigen binding activity of SPDP-derivatized antibody was further compromised, whereas that of TPCH-derivatized antibody remained unaffected even after attachment of three or four CVF molecules per antibody. In both conjugates CVF retained good functional activity. CVF was slightly more active when attached to SPDP-derivatized antibody, suggesting a better accessibility of amino group-coupled CVF for its interaction with other complement proteins. These results indicate that carbohydrate-directed conjugation compromises the antibody function of complement activation, but allows for the generation of immunoconjugates with unimpaired antigen binding capability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-Like Protein, Functions in Cellulose Assembly through Binding Cellulose Microfibrils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity. PMID:23990797

  14. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Shang-Guan, Keke; Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  15. Developing a guideline to standardize the citation of bioresources in journal articles (CoBRA).

    PubMed

    Bravo, Elena; Calzolari, Alessia; De Castro, Paola; Mabile, Laurence; Napolitani, Federica; Rossi, Anna Maria; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2015-02-17

    Many biomedical publications refer to data obtained from collections of biosamples. Sharing such bioresources (biological samples, data, and databases) is paramount for the present governance of research. Recognition of the effort involved in generating, maintaining, and sharing high quality bioresources is poorly organized, which does not encourage sharing. At publication level, the recognition of such resources is often neglected and/or highly heterogeneous. This is a true handicap for the traceability of bioresource use. The aim of this article is to propose, for the first time, a guideline for reporting bioresource use in research articles, named CoBRA: Citation of BioResources in journal Articles. As standards for citing bioresources are still lacking, the members of the journal editors subgroup of the Bioresource Research Impact Factor (BRIF) initiative developed a standardized and appropriate citation scheme for such resources by informing stakeholders about the subject and raising awareness among scientists and in science editors' networks, mapping this topic among other relevant initiatives, promoting actions addressed to stakeholders, launching surveys, and organizing focused workshops. The European Association of Science Editors has adopted BRIF's suggestion to incorporate statements on biobanks in the Methods section of their guidelines. The BRIF subgroup agreed upon a proposed citation system: each individual bioresource that is used to perform a study and that is mentioned in the Methods section should be cited as an individual "reference [BIORESOURCE]" according to a delineated format. The EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) network mentioned the proposed reporting guideline in their "guidelines under development" section. Evaluating bioresources' use and impact requires that publications accurately cite such resources. Adopting the standard citation scheme described here will improve the quality of bioresource

  16. COBRA: A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, N; Riklund, K; Andersson, M; Axelsson, J; Ögren, M; Lövdén, M; Lindenberger, U; Bäckman, L; Nyberg, L

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline is a characteristic feature of normal human aging. Previous work has demonstrated marked interindividual variability in onset and rate of decline. Such variability has been linked to factors such as maintenance of functional and structural brain integrity, genetics, and lifestyle. Still, few, if any, studies have combined a longitudinal design with repeated multimodal imaging and a comprehensive assessment of cognition as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. Participants will be followed longitudinally over a 10-year period, resulting in a total of three equally spaced measurement occasions. The measurement protocol at each occasion comprises a comprehensive set of behavioral and imaging measures. Cognitive performance is evaluated via computerized testing of working memory, episodic memory, perceptual speed, motor speed, implicit sequence learning, and vocabulary. Brain imaging is performed using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]-raclopride to assess dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for assessment of white and gray-matter integrity and cerebrovascular perfusion, and functional MRI maps brain activation during rest and active task conditions. Lifestyle descriptives are collected, and blood samples are obtained and stored for future evaluation. Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opening of brain blood barrier induced by red light and central analgesic improvement of cobra neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Li, Yue; Fang, Fei

    2014-05-05

    Cobra neurotoxin (NT) has central analgesic effects, but it is difficult to pass through brain blood barrier (BBB). A novel method of red light induction is designed to help NT across BBB, which is based on photosensitizer activation by red light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to open BBB. The effects were evaluated on cell models and animals in vivo with illumination by semiconductor laser at 670nm on photosensitizer pheophorbide isolated from silkworm excrement. Brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes were co-cultured to build up BBB cell model. The radioactivity of (125)I-NT was measured in cells and tissues for NT permeation. Three ways of cranial irradiation, nasal cavity and intravascular irradiation were tested with combined injection of (125)I-NT 20μg/kg and pheophorbide 100μg/kg to rats, and organs of rats were separated and determined the radioactivity. Paw pressure test in rats, hot plate and writhing test in mice were applied to appraise the analgesic effects. NT across BBB cell model increased with time of illumination, and reached stable level after 60min. So did ROS in cells. NT mainly distributed in liver and kidney of rats, significantly increased in brain after illumination, and improved analgesic effects. Excitation of pheophorbide at red light produces ROS to open BBB, help NT enter brain, and enhance its central action. This research provides a new method for drug across BBB to improve its central role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hearing loss screening tool (COBRA score) for newborns in primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    Poonual, Watcharapol; Navacharoen, Niramon; Kangsanarak, Jaran; Namwongprom, Sirianong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate a simple screening tool to assess hearing loss in newborns. A derived score was compared with the standard clinical practice tool. Methods This cohort study was designed to screen the hearing of newborns using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brain stem response, and to determine the risk factors associated with hearing loss of newborns in 3 tertiary hospitals in Northern Thailand. Data were prospectively collected from November 1, 2010 to May 31, 2012. To develop the risk score, clinical-risk indicators were measured by Poisson risk regression. The regression coefficients were transformed into item scores dividing each regression-coefficient with the smallest coefficient in the model, rounding the number to its nearest integer, and adding up to a total score. Results Five clinical risk factors (Craniofacial anomaly, Ototoxicity, Birth weight, family history [Relative] of congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Apgar score) were included in our COBRA score. The screening tool detected, by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, more than 80% of existing hearing loss. The positive-likelihood ratio of hearing loss in patients with scores of 4, 6, and 8 were 25.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.69–43.26), 58.52 (95% CI, 36.26–94.44), and 51.56 (95% CI, 33.74–78.82), respectively. This result was similar to the standard tool (The Joint Committee on Infant Hearing) of 26.72 (95% CI, 20.59–34.66). Conclusion A simple screening tool of five predictors provides good prediction indices for newborn hearing loss, which may motivate parents to bring children for further appropriate testing and investigations. PMID:29234358

  19. Pulse-shape discrimination of surface events in CdZnTe detectors for the COBRA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, M.; Tebrügge, J.; Durst, J.; Ebert, J.; Gößling, C.; Göpfert, T.; Gehre, D.; Hagner, C.; Heidrich, N.; Homann, M.; Köttig, T.; Neddermann, T.; Oldorf, C.; Quante, T.; Rajek, S.; Reinecke, O.; Schulz, O.; Timm, J.; Wonsak, B.; Zuber, K.

    2014-06-01

    Events near the cathode and anode surfaces of a coplanar grid CdZnTe detector are identifiable by means of the interaction depth information encoded in the signal amplitudes. However, the amplitudes cannot be used to identify events near the lateral surfaces. In this paper a method is described to identify lateral surface events by means of their pulse shapes. Such identification allows for discrimination of surface alpha particle interactions from more penetrating forms of radiation, which is particularly important for rare event searches. The effectiveness of the presented technique in suppressing backgrounds due to alpha contamination in the search for neutrinoless double beta decay with the COBRA experiment is demonstrated.

  20. Ophiophagus hannah venom: proteome, components bound by Naja kaouthia antivenin and neutralization by N. kaouthia neurotoxin-specific human ScFv.

    PubMed

    Danpaiboon, Witchuda; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Dong-din-on, Fonthip; Srimanote, Potjanee; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-05-13

    Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5'-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins.

  1. COBRA-LIKE2, a Member of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored COBRA-LIKE Family, Plays a Role in Cellulose Deposition in Arabidopsis Seed Coat Mucilage Secretory Cells1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tov, Daniela; Abraham, Yael; Stav, Shira; Thompson, Kevin; Loraine, Ann; Elbaum, Rivka; de Souza, Amancio; Pauly, Markus; Kieber, Joseph J.; Harpaz-Saad, Smadar

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of the maternally derived seed coat epidermal cells into mucilage secretory cells is a common adaptation in angiosperms. Recent studies identified cellulose as an important component of seed mucilage in various species. Cellulose is deposited as a set of rays that radiate from the seed upon mucilage extrusion, serving to anchor the pectic component of seed mucilage to the seed surface. Using transcriptome data encompassing the course of seed development, we identified COBRA-LIKE2 (COBL2), a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored COBRA-LIKE gene family in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), as coexpressed with other genes involved in cellulose deposition in mucilage secretory cells. Disruption of the COBL2 gene results in substantial reduction in the rays of cellulose present in seed mucilage, along with an increased solubility of the pectic component of the mucilage. Light birefringence demonstrates a substantial decrease in crystalline cellulose deposition into the cellulosic rays of the cobl2 mutants. Moreover, crystalline cellulose deposition into the radial cell walls and the columella appears substantially compromised, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and in situ quantification of light birefringence. Overall, the cobl2 mutants display about 40% reduction in whole-seed crystalline cellulose content compared with the wild type. These data establish that COBL2 plays a role in the deposition of crystalline cellulose into various secondary cell wall structures during seed coat epidermal cell differentiation. PMID:25583925

  2. Venom Proteomics of Indonesian King Cobra, Ophiophagus hannah: Integrating Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches.

    PubMed

    Petras, Daniel; Heiss, Paul; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Calvete, Juan J

    2015-06-05

    We report on the first application of top-down mass spectrometry in snake venomics. De novo sequence tags generated by, and ProSight Lite supported analysis of, combined collisional based dissotiations (CID and HCD) recorded in a hybrid LTQ Orbitrap instrument in data-dependent mode identified a number of proteins from different toxin families, namely, 11 three-finger toxins (7-7.9 kDa), a Kunitz-type inhibitor (6.3 kDa), ohanin (11.9 kDa), a novel phospholipase A2 molecule (13.8 kDa), and the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) ophanin (25 kDa) from Indonesian king cobra venom. Complementary bottom-up MS/MS analyses contributed to the completion of a locus-resolved venom phenotypic map for Ophiophagus hannah, the world's longest venomous snake and a species of medical concern across its wide distribution range in forests from India to Southeast Asia. Its venom composition, comprising 32-35 proteins/peptides from 10 protein families, is dominated by α-neurotoxins and convincingly explains the main neurotoxic effects of human envenoming caused by king cobra bite. The integration of efficient chromatographic separation of the venom's components and locus-resolved toxin identification through top-down and bottom-up MS/MS-based species-specific database searching and de novo sequencing holds promise that the future will be bright for the field of venom research.

  3. Anti-cobra venom activity of plant Andrographis paniculata and its comparison with polyvalent anti-snake venom

    PubMed Central

    Premendran, S. Jhon; Salwe, Kartik J.; Pathak, Swanand; Brahmane, Ranjana; Manimekalai, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To investigate the anti-cobra venom effect of alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata. Materials and Methods: After calculating the LD99 of snake venom, the venom-neutralizing ability of plant extract at the dose 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg was determined using in vitro and in vivo methods. The alleviation in the mean survival time of the animals were used to infer the antivenom property of the drug after challenging with LD99 of snake venom. Results: The ethanolic extract of plant A. paniculata significantly increases mean survival time and the protection fold, but could not protect animals from death when used alone. The higher dose, i.e., 2 g/kg was found better than that of the lower. ASV was found more effective than the plant extract. When ASV was given along with plant extract, it potentiates its effect. Conclusion: The observation demonstrates the anti-cobra venom activity of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata which is comparable with ASV. PMID:22346236

  4. Effects of snake venom from Saudi cobras and vipers on hormonal levels in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Galil, Khidir A; Al-Hazimi, Awdah M

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge about the effects of snake venoms on endocrine glands in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is meager. The aim of the present study is to investigate the acute and chronic envenomation from 4 snakes out of 8 species of Saudi Cobras and Vipers on the tissues of endocrine glands and peripheral hormonal levels in male rats. The peripheral blood levels of 4 hormones mainly testosterone, cortisol, insulin and thyroxin were investigated in male Wistar rats following acute and chronic treatment of the rats with poisonous snake venoms at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2000 to May 2001. Using radio immunoassay for hormonal analysis, a rise in testosterone levels in peripheral blood was obtained following acute treatment, which is due to the effect of the venoms on vascular permeability and increased blood flow. In contrast, the chronic treatment with venoms resulted in a delayed effect on vascular permeability and testicular degeneration resulting in a decreased blood flow and a significant drop in testosterone concentration. Cortisol levels were no different from the controls during acute treatment but it demonstrates gradual rise following chronic treatment to withstand the stress imposed on the animals. Similar results were obtained for insulin, which showed normal values with acute treatment but decreased levels of chronic treatment suggesting insulin insufficiently. Likewise, the thyroxin levels were decreased with chronic treatment suggesting a toxic effect of the poison on the rich blood supply of the thyroid follicles with a subsequent decrease in blood flow to the tissues and therefore, decreased thyroid hormone levels. The effects of venom toxicity on testosterone levels were either normal or stimulatory with acute treatment or inhibitory with chronic treatment depending on the vascular blood flow and testicular degeneration. Cortisol levels were normal at

  5. COBRA-WC pretest predictions and post-test analysis of the FOTA temperature distribution during FFTF natural-circulation transients

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, E.U.; George, T.L.; Rector, D.R.

    The natural circulation tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) demonstrated a safe and stable transition from forced convection to natural convection and showed that natural convection may adequately remove decay heat from the reactor core. The COBRA-WC computer code was developed by the Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) to account for buoyancy-induced coolant flow redistribution and interassembly heat transfer, effects that become important in mitigating temperature gradients and reducing reactor core temperatures when coolant flow rate in the core is low. This report presents work sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the objective of checking themore » validity of COBRA-WC during the first 220 seconds (sec) of the FFTF natural-circulation (plant-startup) tests using recorded data from two instrumented Fuel Open Test Assemblies (FOTAs). Comparison of COBRA-WC predictions of the FOTA data is a part of the final confirmation of the COBRA-WC methodology for core natural-convection analysis.« less

  6. Histamine release, formation of prostaglandin-like activity (SRS-C) and mast cell degranulation by the direct lytic factor (DLF) and phospholipase A of cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Damerau, B; Lege, L; Oldigs, H D; Vogt, W

    1975-01-01

    Cobra venom, alone and in combination, on mast cell degranulation, histamine release and formation of prostaglandin-like activity (SRS-C) was studied in perfused guinea-pig lungs and in mast cell-containing rat peritoneal cell suspensions. For comparison, the effect of equivalent doses of whole cobra venom was investigated. 1. Cobra venom caused mast cell degranulation, histamine release and SRS-C formation in both systems. For comparable effects much higher doses had to be used in guine-pig lungs than in rat peritoneal cell suspensions. 2. Phase A showed little degranulation of mast cells in both systems, a limited histamine release in rat peritoneal cell suspensions and none in perfused guinea-pig lungs. It caused a considerable SRS-C formation in both, lung tissue and peritoneal cell suspensions. 3. DLF caused histamine release, SRS-C formation and mast cell degranulation in both systems; in rat peritoneal cell suspensions it acted almost as strong as equivalent doses of cobra venom, in guinea pig lungs it was much less active. 4. In rat peritoneal cell suspensions the effects of DLF and phase A in combination did not exceed the sum of their single effects. In guinea-pig lungs these two substances interacted in a potentiating synergism. It is concluded that DLF is the main cytotoxic principle of cobra venom, whereas ph-ase A alone is not cytotoxic. The difference in the synergism of DLF and ph-ase A between rat peritoneal cells and guinea-pig lungs may be due to two different actions of DLF and species differences as regards sensitivity against these actions.

  7. The New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™)1 Is as Efficient as the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™)2, But Provides Better Airway Sealing Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Ozan; Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Hanni, Keith; Wenke, Mary; Yücel, Yüksel; Lenhardt, Rainer; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2006-01-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities. PMID:15281543

  8. Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Costa, Gislaine F; Nocchi, Samara R; Ceole, Ligia F; de Mello, João Carlos P; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Temponi, Livia G; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania

    2012-09-28

    A considerable percentage of global biodiversity is located in Brazil, a country that also has rich cultural and ethnic diversity. In the community of Rio das Cobras, Paraná, plants are still widely used in the health care not only by indigenous people but also by the non-indigenous population that inhabits the region. The investigation of the efficacy and safety of these plants in the treatment of infectious diseases provides insights for future studies of these species allowing the appropriated use by the indigenous people, since few or none study has been conducted so far. Evaluate the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of some plants used as medicinal on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil. The aqueous extracts were obtained by decoction and the 50% and 70% hydroalcoholic extracts by turbo extraction. The extracts were tested against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Leishmania amazonensis, Poliovirus and HSV-1. Cytotoxicity assay using VERO cells were also performed. None of the extracts had a selectivity index (SI)>1 for any of the tested bacteria. Only Campomanesia eugenioides and Schinus terebinthifolius had an SI>1.0 for all of the tested Candida species. The best anti-Leishmania activity was obtained with Zanthoxylum rhoifolium and Schinus terebinthifolius. Extracts of Cordia americana were the most effective against herpes simplex virus type 1. Zanthoxylum rhoifolium was the most effective against Poliovirus, and Ocimum gratissimum was effective against both Poliovirus and Herpes Simplex virus. Among the plants investigated in the present study, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium had the fewest cytotoxic effect. The plants investigated in the present study exhibited potential for future pharmacological uses, but additional studies, especially with regard to in vivo toxicity, must be conducted. The results of this

  9. Development of burnup dependent fuel rod model in COBRA-TF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Mine Ozdemir

    The purpose of this research was to develop a burnup dependent fuel thermal conductivity model within Pennsylvania State University, Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) version of the subchannel thermal-hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF). The model takes into account first, the degradation of fuel thermal conductivity with high burnup; and second, the fuel thermal conductivity dependence on the Gadolinium content for both UO2 and MOX fuel rods. The modified Nuclear Fuel Industries (NFI) model for UO2 fuel rods and Duriez/Modified NFI Model for MOX fuel rods were incorporated into CTF and fuel centerline predictions were compared against Halden experimental test data and FRAPCON-3.4 predictions to validate the burnup dependent fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF. Experimental test cases from Halden reactor fuel rods for UO2 fuel rods at Beginning of Life (BOL), through lifetime without Gd2O3 and through lifetime with Gd 2O3 and a MOX fuel rod were simulated with CTF. Since test fuel rod and FRAPCON-3.4 results were based on single rod measurements, CTF was run for a single fuel rod surrounded with a single channel configuration. Input decks for CTF were developed for one fuel rod located at the center of a subchannel (rod-centered subchannel approach). Fuel centerline temperatures predicted by CTF were compared against the measurements from Halden experimental test data and the predictions from FRAPCON-3.4. After implementing the new fuel thermal conductivity model in CTF and validating the model with experimental data, CTF model was applied to steady state and transient calculations. 4x4 PWR fuel bundle configuration from Purdue MOX benchmark was used to apply the new model for steady state and transient calculations. First, one of each high burnup UO2 and MOX fuel rods from 4x4 matrix were selected to carry out single fuel rod calculations and fuel centerline temperatures predicted by CTF/TORT-TD were compared against CTF /TORT-TD /FRAPTRAN

  10. Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, Partha Pratim; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

    2014-08-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68-122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1 > NKCT1 > Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1.

  11. Experimental Analysis of Steady-State Maneuvering Effects on Transmission Vibration Patterns Recorded in an AH-1 Cobra Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Edward M.; Dzwonczyk, Mark; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Flight experiment was designed primarily to determine the extent to which steady-state maneuvers influence characteristic vibration patterns measured at the input pinion and output annulus gear locations of the main transmission. If results were to indicate that maneuvers systematically influence vibration patterns, more extensive studies would be planned to explore the response surface. It was also designed to collect baseline data for comparison with experimental data to be recorded at a later date from test stands at Glenn Research Center. Finally, because this was the first vibration flight study on the Cobra aircraft, considerable energy was invested in developing an in-flight recording apparatus, as well as exploring acceleration mounting methods, and generally learning about the overall vibratory characteristics of the aircraft itself.

  12. Biobankers: Treat the Poison of Invisibility with CoBRA, a Systematic Way of Citing Bioresources in Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Alessia; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mabile, Laurence; Rossi, Anna Maria; De Castro, Paola; Bravo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Even though an increasing portion of biomedical research today relies on the use of bioresources, at present biobankers are not able to trace this use in scientific literature and measure its impact with a variety of citation metrics. The “BRIF (Bioresource Research Impact Factor) and journal editors” subgroup was created precisely with the aim to study this issue and to build a standardized system to cite bioresources in journal articles. This report aims at presenting a guideline for Citation of BioResources in journal Articles (CoBRA). The guideline offers for the first time a standard for citing bioresources (including biobanks) within journal articles. It will increase their visibility and promote their sharing. PMID:27314833

  13. COBRA encodes a putative GPI-anchored protein, which is polarly localized and necessary for oriented cell expansion in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Schindelman, G; Morikami, A; Jung, J; Baskin, T I; Carpita, N C; Derbyshire, P; McCann, M C; Benfey, P N

    2001-05-01

    To control organ shape, plant cells expand differentially. The organization of the cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall is a key determinant of differential expansion. Mutations in the COBRA (COB) gene of Arabidopsis, known to affect the orientation of cell expansion in the root, are reported here to reduce the amount of crystalline cellulose in cell walls in the root growth zone. The COB gene, identified by map-based cloning, contains a sequence motif found in proteins that are anchored to the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. In animal cells, this lipid linkage is known to confer polar localization to proteins. The COB protein was detected predominately on the longitudinal sides of root cells in the zone of rapid elongation. Moreover, COB RNA levels are dramatically upregulated in cells entering the zone of rapid elongation. Based on these results, models are proposed for the role of COB as a regulator of oriented cell expansion.

  14. COBRA encodes a putative GPI-anchored protein, which is polarly localized and necessary for oriented cell expansion in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Schindelman, Gary; Morikami, Atsushi; Jung, Jee; Baskin, Tobias I.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2001-01-01

    To control organ shape, plant cells expand differentially. The organization of the cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall is a key determinant of differential expansion. Mutations in the COBRA (COB) gene of Arabidopsis, known to affect the orientation of cell expansion in the root, are reported here to reduce the amount of crystalline cellulose in cell walls in the root growth zone. The COB gene, identified by map-based cloning, contains a sequence motif found in proteins that are anchored to the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. In animal cells, this lipid linkage is known to confer polar localization to proteins. The COB protein was detected predominately on the longitudinal sides of root cells in the zone of rapid elongation. Moreover, COB RNA levels are dramatically upregulated in cells entering the zone of rapid elongation. Based on these results, models are proposed for the role of COB as a regulator of oriented cell expansion. PMID:11331607

  15. [Thoracoscopic, epicardial ablation of atrial fibrillation using the COBRA Fusion system as the first part of hybrid ablation].

    PubMed

    Budera, P; Osmančík, P; Talavera, D; Fojt, R; Kraupnerová, A; Žďárská, J; Vaněk, T; Straka, Z

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation is not successfully managed by methods of catheter ablation or pharmacotherapy. Hybrid ablation (i.e. combination of minimally invasive surgical ablation, followed by electrophysiological assessment and subsequent endocardial catheter ablation to complete the entire intended procedure) presents an ever more used and very promising treatment method. Patients underwent thoracoscopic ablation of pulmonary veins and posterior wall of the left atrium (the box-lesion) with use of the COBRA Fusion catheter; thoracoscopic occlusion of the left atrial appendage using the AtriClip system was also done in later patients. After 23 months, electrophysiological assessment and catheter ablation followed. In this article we summarize a strategy of the surgical part of the hybrid procedure performed in our centre. We describe the surgery itself (including possible periprocedural complications) and we also present our short-term results, especially with respect to subsequent electrophysiological findings. Data of the first 51 patients were analyzed. The first 25 patients underwent unilateral ablation; the mean time of surgery was 102 min. Subsequent 26 patients underwent the bilateral procedure with the mean surgery time of 160 min. Serious complications included 1 stroke, 1 phrenic nerve palsy and 2 surgical re-explorations for bleeding. After 1 month, 65% of patients showed sinus rhythm. The box-lesion was found complete during electrophysiological assessment in 38% of patients and after catheter ablation, 96% of patients were discharged in sinus rhythm. The surgical part of the hybrid procedure with use of the minimally invasive approach and the COBRA Fusion catheter is a well-feasible method with a low number of periprocedural complications. For electrophysiologists, it provides a very good basis for successful completion of the hybrid ablation.Key words: atrial fibrillation hybrid ablation - thoracoscopy

  16. Mapping Proteoforms and Protein Complexes From King Cobra Venom Using Both Denaturing and Native Top-down Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Melani, Rafael D; Skinner, Owen S; Fornelli, Luca; Domont, Gilberto B; Compton, Philip D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing whole proteins by top-down proteomics avoids a step of inference encountered in the dominant bottom-up methodology when peptides are assembled computationally into proteins for identification. The direct interrogation of whole proteins and protein complexes from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) provides a sharply clarified view of toxin sequence variation, transit peptide cleavage sites and post-translational modifications (PTMs) likely critical for venom lethality. A tube-gel format for electrophoresis (called GELFrEE) and solution isoelectric focusing were used for protein fractionation prior to LC-MS/MS analysis resulting in 131 protein identifications (18 more than bottom-up) and a total of 184 proteoforms characterized from 14 protein toxin families. Operating both GELFrEE and mass spectrometry to preserve non-covalent interactions generated detailed information about two of the largest venom glycoprotein complexes: the homodimeric l-amino acid oxidase (∼130 kDa) and the multichain toxin cobra venom factor (∼147 kDa). The l-amino acid oxidase complex exhibited two clusters of multiproteoform complexes corresponding to the presence of 5 or 6 N-glycans moieties, each consistent with a distribution of N-acetyl hexosamines. Employing top-down proteomics in both native and denaturing modes provides unprecedented characterization of venom proteoforms and their complexes. A precise molecular inventory of venom proteins will propel the study of snake toxin variation and the targeted development of new antivenoms or other biotherapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Intensive combination treatment regimens, including prednisolone, are effective in treating patients with early rheumatoid arthritis regardless of additional etanercept: 1-year results of the COBRA-light open-label, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    ter Wee, Marieke M; den Uyl, Debby; Boers, Maarten; Kerstens, Pit; Nurmohamed, Mike; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Lems, Willem F

    2015-06-01

    Recently, we documented the likely non-inferiority of Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis (COBRA)-light therapy (methotrexate increased to 25 mg/week with initial prednisolone 30 mg/day) compared with the original COBRA therapy (methotrexate 7.5 mg/week, sulfasalazine 2 g/day, with initial prednisolone 60 mg/day) after 26 weeks in patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To assess the non-inferiority of COBRA-light versus COBRA after 1 year in terms of disease activity (DAS44), functional outcome (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)) and radiographic progression (Sharp/van der Heijde score (SHS)), and to assess the effect of adding etanercept. An open-label, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial of 162 patients with active early RA, following a treat-to-target protocol incorporating the addition of etanercept if DAS44 ≥1.6 at weeks 26 or 39. Both groups showed major improvements in DAS44 after 52 weeks: mean (SD) -2.41 (1.2) in the COBRA and -2.02 (1.0) in the COBRA-light group (p=ns). In both groups, functional ability improved and radiological progression of joints was minimal. At least one adverse event was reported in 96% of the patients in both groups. In total, 25 serious adverse events occurred: 9 vs 16 in COBRA and COBRA-light, respectively. Treatment actually instituted was often less intensive than required by the protocol: of the total population, 108 patients (67%) required etanercept (more in the COBRA-light group), but only 67 of these (62%) actually received it. Intensive COBRA or COBRA-light therapy has major, comparably favourable effects on disease activity, functional ability and radiological outcome after 1 year in patients with early RA. Protocolised addition of etanercept was often not implemented by treating rheumatologists, and patients receiving it appeared to have limited added benefit, probably because of low disease activity levels at its initiation. ISRCTN55552928. Published by the BMJ

  18. A Turn-on Fluorescence Sensor for Heparin Detection Based on a Release of Taiwan Cobra Cardiotoxin from a DNA Aptamer or Adenosine-Based Molecular Beacon.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi-Jun; Wang, Liang-Jun; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chia-Hui; Hu, Wan-Ping; Chang, Long-Sen

    2018-02-19

    This study presents two sensitive fluorescent assays for sensing heparin on the basis of the electrostatic interaction between heparin and Naja naja atra cardiotoxin 3 (CTX3). Owing to CTX3-induced folded structure of an adenosine-based molecular beacon (MB) or a DNA aptamer against CTX3, a reduction in the fluorescent signal of the aptamer or MB 5'-end labeled with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and 3'-end labeled with 4-([4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]azo)-benzoic acid (DABCYL) was observed upon the addition of CTX3. The presence of heparin and formation of the CTX3-heparin complex caused CTX3 detachment from the MB or aptamer, and restoration of FAM fluorescence of the 5'-FAM-and-3'-DABCYL-labeled MB and aptamer was subsequently noted. Moreover, the detection of heparin with these CTX3-aptamer and CTX3-MB sensors showed high sensitivity and selectivity toward heparin over chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid regardless of the presence of plasma. The limit of detection for heparin in plasma was determined to be 16 ng/mL and 15 ng/mL, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. This study validates the practical utility of the CTX3-aptamer and CTX3-MB systems for determining the concentration of heparin in a biological matrix.

  19. Antibacterial action of a heat-stable form of L-amino acid oxidase isolated from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-03-01

    The major l-amino acid oxidase (LAAO, EC 1.4.3.2) of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom is known to be an unusual form of snake venom LAAO as it possesses unique structural features and unusual thermal stability. The antibacterial effects of king cobra venom LAAO were tested against several strains of clinical isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli using broth microdilution assay. For comparison, the antibacterial effects of several antibiotics (cefotaxime, kanamycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and penicillin) were also examined using the same conditions. King cobra venom LAAO was very effective in inhibiting the two Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. epidermidis) tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78μg/mL (0.006μM) and 1.56μg/mL (0.012μM) against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, respectively. The MICs are comparable to the MICs of the antibiotics tested, on a weight basis. However, the LAAO was only moderately effective against three Gram-negative bacteria tested (P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli), with MIC ranges from 25 to 50μg/mL (0.2-0.4μM). Catalase at the concentration of 1mg/mL abolished the antibacterial effect of LAAO, indicating that the antibacterial effect of the enzyme involves generation of hydrogen peroxide. Binding studies indicated that king cobra venom LAAO binds strongly to the Gram-positive S. aureus and S. epidermidis, but less strongly to the Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, indicating that specific binding to bacteria is important for the potent antibacterial activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ENT COBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis): interdisciplinary standardized data collection system for head and neck patients treated with interventional radiotherapy (brachytherapy).

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Luca; Kovács, György; Autorino, Rosa; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Guinot, Jose Luis; Hildebrand, Guido; Johansson, Bengt; Monge, Rafael Martìnez; Meyer, Jens E; Niehoff, Peter; Rovirosa, Angeles; Takàcsi-Nagy, Zoltàn; Dinapoli, Nicola; Lanzotti, Vito; Damiani, Andrea; Soror, Tamer; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    Aim of the COBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis) project is to create a multicenter group (consortium) and a web-based system for standardized data collection. GEC-ESTRO (Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie - European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology) Head and Neck (H&N) Working Group participated in the project and in the implementation of the consortium agreement, the ontology (data-set) and the necessary COBRA software services as well as the peer reviewing of the general anatomic site-specific COBRA protocol. The ontology was defined by a multicenter task-group. Eleven centers from 6 countries signed an agreement and the consortium approved the ontology. We identified 3 tiers for the data set: Registry (epidemiology analysis), Procedures (prediction models and DSS), and Research (radiomics). The COBRA-Storage System (C-SS) is not time-consuming as, thanks to the use of "brokers", data can be extracted directly from the single center's storage systems through a connection with "structured query language database" (SQL-DB), Microsoft Access(®), FileMaker Pro(®), or Microsoft Excel(®). The system is also structured to perform automatic archiving directly from the treatment planning system or afterloading machine. The architecture is based on the concept of "on-purpose data projection". The C-SS architecture is privacy protecting because it will never make visible data that could identify an individual patient. This C-SS can also benefit from the so called "distributed learning" approaches, in which data never leave the collecting institution, while learning algorithms and proposed predictive models are commonly shared. Setting up a consortium is a feasible and practicable tool in the creation of an international and multi-system data sharing system. COBRA C-SS seems to be well accepted by all involved parties, primarily because it does not influence the center's own data storing technologies, procedures, and habits. Furthermore, the method

  1. Effect of complement depletion by cobra venom factor on fowlpox virus infection in chickens and chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Komine, K; Ishijima, Y; Okada, H

    1986-01-01

    The course of infection with an attenuated strain of fowlpox virus (FPV), which is known to induce antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway, was investigated in 1- to 3-day-old chickens and 14-day-old chicken embryos by treatment with cobra venom factor (CVF). CVF was found to inhibit complement activity transiently via the alternative pathway but not via the classical pathway. In chickens treated with CVF, virus growth in the skin was enhanced, and pock lesions tended to disseminate, leading to fatal infection in some birds. Histologically, an acute inflammation at an early stage of infection (within 3 days) was inhibited, and virus content in the pock lesion was increased. In chicken embryos with immature immune capacities, CVF treatment caused changes in pock morphology from clear pocks to diffuse ones, an increase in virus content in the pock, and inhibition of cell infiltration. Thus, FPV infection was aggravated in both CVF-treated chickens and chicken embryos. These results are discussed in relation to roles of complement in the elimination of virus at an early stage of FPV infection. Images PMID:3003397

  2. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  3. King cobra peptide OH-CATH30 as a potential candidate drug through clinic drug-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Lan, Xin-Qiang; Du, Yan; Chen, Pei-Yi; Zhao, Jiao; Zhao, Fang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2018-03-18

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as important candidate therapeutic agents, which exert potent microbicidal properties against bacteria, fungi and some viruses. Based on our previous findings king cobra cathelicidin (OH-CATH) is a 34-amino acid peptide that exerts strong antibacterial and weak hemolytic activity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of both OH-CATH30 and its analog D-OH-CATH30 against clinical isolates comparing with routinely utilized antibiotics in vitro. In this study, 584 clinical isolates were tested (spanning 2013-2016) and the efficacy of the candidate peptides and antibiotics were determined by a broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Among the 584 clinical isolates, 85% were susceptible to OH-CATH30 and its analogs. Both L- and D-OH-CATH30 showed higher efficacy against (toward) Gram-positive bacteria and stronger antibacterial activity against nearly all Gram-negative bacteria tested compare with antibiotics. The highest bactericidal activity was detected against Acinetobacter spp., including multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The overall efficacy of OH-CATH30 and its analogs was higher than that of the 9 routinely used antibiotics. OH-CATH30 is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of a wide variety of bacterial infections which are resistant to many routinely used antimicrobial agents.

  4. Structural and functional characterization of a novel homodimeric three-finger neurotoxin from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra).

    PubMed

    Roy, Amrita; Zhou, Xingding; Chong, Ming Zhi; D'hoedt, Dieter; Foo, Chun Shin; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Bertrand, Daniel; Sivaraman, J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2010-03-12

    Snake venoms are a mixture of pharmacologically active proteins and polypeptides that have led to the development of molecular probes and therapeutic agents. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a novel neurotoxin, haditoxin, from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra). Haditoxin exhibited novel pharmacology with antagonism toward muscle (alphabetagammadelta) and neuronal (alpha(7), alpha(3)beta(2), and alpha(4)beta(2)) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with highest affinity for alpha(7)-nAChRs. The high resolution (1.5 A) crystal structure revealed haditoxin to be a homodimer, like kappa-neurotoxins, which target neuronal alpha(3)beta(2)- and alpha(4)beta(2)-nAChRs. Interestingly however, the monomeric subunits of haditoxin were composed of a three-finger protein fold typical of curaremimetic short-chain alpha-neurotoxins. Biochemical studies confirmed that it existed as a non-covalent dimer species in solution. Its structural similarity to short-chain alpha-neurotoxins and kappa-neurotoxins notwithstanding, haditoxin exhibited unique blockade of alpha(7)-nAChRs (IC(50) 180 nm), which is recognized by neither short-chain alpha-neurotoxins nor kappa-neurotoxins. This is the first report of a dimeric short-chain alpha-neurotoxin interacting with neuronal alpha(7)-nAChRs as well as the first homodimeric three-finger toxin to interact with muscle nAChRs.

  5. Isolation, expression and characterization of a novel dual serine protease inhibitor, OH-TCI, from king cobra venom.

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Liu, Shu-Bai; Lee, Wen-Hui; Qian, Jin-Qiao; Zhang, Yun

    2008-10-01

    Snake venom Kunitz/BPTI members are good tools for understanding of structure-functional relationship between serine proteases and their inhibitors. A novel dual Kunitz/BPTI serine proteinase inhibitor named OH-TCI (trypsin- and chymotrypsin-dual inhibitor from Ophiophagus hannah) was isolated from king cobra venom by three chromatographic steps of gel filtration, trypsin affinity and reverse phase HPLC. OH-TCI is composed of 58 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 6339Da. Successful expression of OH-TCI was performed as the maltose-binding fusion protein in E. coli DH5alpha. Much different from Oh11-1, the purified native and recombinant OH-TCI both had strong inhibitory activities against trypsin and chymotrypsin although the sequence identity (74.1%) between them is very high. The inhibitor constants (K(i)) of recombinant OH-TCI were 3.91 x 10(-7) and 8.46 x10(-8)M for trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively. To our knowledge, it was the first report of Kunitz/BPTI serine proteinase inhibitor from snake venom that had equivalent trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Micrometer Scale Areal Density Variations in Metal Liners Driven by the 1 MA COBRA Pulsed Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atoyan, Levon; Pikuz, Sergei; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David; Byvank, Tom

    2017-10-01

    On the 20 MA Z machine, the seed for the MRT instability was mitigated in the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiment using a thick dielectric coating. We have used high-resolution radiography to study the development of small-scale ( 10-30 μm) features in thin foils on the 1 MA, 100-200 ns COBRA pulsed power generator. We examined those features quantitatively in a 16 µm thick cylindrical Al liner, where we show areal density variation of up to 40-50%. We then show how the features' wavelength decreases when the material is changed from Al to Ni, Cu, and Ti, going from 21 +/-4 µm for Al to 11 +/-2 µm for Ti. Moreover, we show that expansion inhibition on both sides by dielectric material reduces small-scale feature size and density, and we show how pattern seeding can affect those parameters. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836 as well as by the Department of Energy Grant Number DE-NA0002952.

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of the COBRA-Like (COBL) Gene Family in Gossypium Identifies Two COBLs Potentially Associated with Fiber Quality

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Erli; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Bao, Jianghao; Zeng, Yanda; Cai, Caiping; Du, Xiongming; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    COBRA-Like (COBL) genes, which encode a plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, have been proven to be key regulators in the orientation of cell expansion and cellulose crystallinity status. Genome-wide analysis has been performed in A. thaliana, O. sativa, Z. mays and S. lycopersicum, but little in Gossypium. Here we identified 19, 18 and 33 candidate COBL genes from three sequenced cotton species, diploid cotton G. raimondii, G. arboreum and tetraploid cotton G. hirsutum acc. TM-1, respectively. These COBL members were anchored onto 10 chromosomes in G. raimondii and could be divided into two subgroups. Expression patterns of COBL genes showed highly developmental and spatial regulation in G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. Of them, GhCOBL9 and GhCOBL13 were preferentially expressed at the secondary cell wall stage of fiber development and had significantly co-upregulated expression with cellulose synthase genes GhCESA4, GhCESA7 and GhCESA8. Besides, GhCOBL9 Dt and GhCOBL13 Dt were co-localized with previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the favorable allele types of GhCOBL9 Dt had significantly positive correlations with fiber quality traits, indicating that these two genes might play an important role in fiber development. PMID:26710066

  8. Joseph Clover and the cobra: a tale of snake envenomation and attempted resuscitation with bellows in London, 1852.

    PubMed

    Ball, C

    2010-07-01

    The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.

  9. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behavioural therapy for depression (COBRA): a qualitative process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Finning, Katie; Moore, Lucy; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Farrand, Paul A; O’Mahen, Heather A; Watkins, Edward R; Wright, Kim A; Fletcher, Emily; Rhodes, Shelley; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Wray, Faye

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore participant views on acceptability, mechanisms of change and impact of behavioural activation (BA) delivered by junior mental health workers (MHWs) versus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by professional psychotherapists. Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using a framework approach. Participants 36 participants with major depressive disorder purposively sampled from a randomised controlled trial of BA versus CBT (the COBRA trial). Setting Primary care psychological therapies services in Devon, Durham and Leeds, UK. Results Elements of therapy considered to be beneficial included its length and regularity, the opportunity to learn and not dwelling on the past. Homework was an important, although challenging aspect of treatment. Therapists were perceived as experts who played an important role in treatment. For some participants the most important element of therapy was having someone to talk to, but for others the specific factors associated with BA and CBT were crucial, with behavioural change considered important for participants in both treatments, and cognitive change unsurprisingly discussed more by those receiving CBT. Both therapies were considered to have a positive impact on symptoms of depression and other areas of life including feelings about themselves, self-care, work and relationships. Barriers to therapy included work, family life and emotional challenges. A subset (n=2) of BA participants commented that therapy felt too simple, and MHWs could be perceived as inexperienced. Many participants saw therapy as a learning experience, providing them with tools to take away, with work on relapse prevention essential. Conclusions Despite barriers for some participants, BA and CBT were perceived to have many benefits, to have brought about cognitive and behavioural change and to produce improvements in many domains of participants’ lives. To optimise the delivery of BA, inexperienced junior MHWs should

  10. Molecular mechanism of cell death induced by king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom l-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Fung, Shin Yee; Lee, Mui Li; Tan, Nget Hong

    2015-03-01

    Snake venom LAAOs have been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic, edema-inducing, platelet aggregation-inducing/platelet aggregation-inhibiting, bactericidal and antiviral activities. A heat-stable form of l-amino acid oxidase isolated from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom (OH-LAAO) has been shown to exhibit very potent cytotoxicity against human tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts, and the cytotoxicity was due to the apoptosis-inducing effect of the enzyme. In this work, the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by OH-LAAO was investigated. The enzyme exerts its apoptosis-inducing effect presumably via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways as suggested by the increase in caspase-8 and -9 activities. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis showed that the expression of a total of 178 genes was significantly altered as a result of oxidative stress induced by the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme. Of the 178 genes, at least 27 genes are involved in apoptosis and cell death. These alterations of gene expression was presumably caused by the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidative modifications of signaling molecules that eventually lead to apoptosis and cell death. The very substantial up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes may also contribute to the potent cytotoxic action of OH-LAAO by producing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, the potent apoptosis inducing activity of OH-LAAO was likely due to the direct cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction, as well as the non-specific oxidation of signalling molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost and outcome of behavioural activation versus cognitive behavioural therapy for depression (COBRA): a qualitative process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Finning, Katie; Richards, David A; Moore, Lucy; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Farrand, Paul A; O'Mahen, Heather A; Watkins, Edward R; Wright, Kim A; Fletcher, Emily; Rhodes, Shelley; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Wray, Faye

    2017-04-13

    To explore participant views on acceptability, mechanisms of change and impact of behavioural activation (BA) delivered by junior mental health workers (MHWs) versus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by professional psychotherapists. Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using a framework approach. 36 participants with major depressive disorder purposively sampled from a randomised controlled trial of BA versus CBT (the COBRA trial). Primary care psychological therapies services in Devon, Durham and Leeds, UK. Elements of therapy considered to be beneficial included its length and regularity, the opportunity to learn and not dwelling on the past. Homework was an important, although challenging aspect of treatment. Therapists were perceived as experts who played an important role in treatment. For some participants the most important element of therapy was having someone to talk to, but for others the specific factors associated with BA and CBT were crucial, with behavioural change considered important for participants in both treatments, and cognitive change unsurprisingly discussed more by those receiving CBT. Both therapies were considered to have a positive impact on symptoms of depression and other areas of life including feelings about themselves, self-care, work and relationships. Barriers to therapy included work, family life and emotional challenges. A subset (n=2) of BA participants commented that therapy felt too simple, and MHWs could be perceived as inexperienced. Many participants saw therapy as a learning experience, providing them with tools to take away, with work on relapse prevention essential. Despite barriers for some participants, BA and CBT were perceived to have many benefits, to have brought about cognitive and behavioural change and to produce improvements in many domains of participants' lives. To optimise the delivery of BA, inexperienced junior MHWs should be supported through good quality training and ongoing

  12. Structure-function relationship in the binding of snake neurotoxins to the torpedo membrane receptor.

    PubMed

    Chicheportiche, R; Vincent, J P; Kopeyan, C; Schweitz, H; Lazdunski, M

    1975-05-20

    The Cys30-Cus34 bridge present in all long neutotoxins (71-74 amino acids, 5 disulfide bridges), but not in short toxins (60-63 amino acids, 4 disulfide bridges), is exposed at the surface since it can be reduced rapidly and selectively by sodium borohydride. Reduction and alkylation of the Cys30-Cys34 bridge of Naja haje neurotoxin III hardly alter the conformational properties of this model long toxin. Although alkylation by iodoacetic acid of th -SH groups liberated by reduction abolishes the toxicity, alkylation by iodoacetamide or ethylenimine does not affect the curarizing efficacy of the toxin. The Cys30-Cys34 bridge is not very important for the toxic activity of long neurotoxins. Reduction of the Cys30-Cys34 bridge followed by alkylation with radioactive iodoacetamide gave a labeled and active toxin which is a convenient derivative for binding experiments to the toxin receptor in membranes of the Torpedo electric organ. The binding capacity of these membrane is 1200 pmol of toxin/mg of membrane protein. The dissociation constant of the modified toxin-receptor complex at pH 7.4, 20 degrees is 10 minus 8m. Reduction with carbroxamidomethylation of the Cys30-Cys34 bridge decreases the affinity of the native Naja haje toxin only by a factor of 15. Carboxymethylation after reduction prevents binding to the membrane receptor. The binding properties of the derivative obtained by reduction and aminoethylation of Cys30-Cys34 are very similar to those of native neurotoxin III; the affinity is decreased only by a factor of 5. Binding properties to Toredo membrane of long neurotoxins (Naja haje neurotoxin III) and short neurotoxins (Naje haje toxin I and Naja mossambica toxin I) have been compared. Dissociation constants of receptor-long neurotoxin and receptor-short neurotoxin complexes are very similar (5.7 minus 8.2 times 10(-10) M at pH 7.4, 20degrees. However, the kinetics of complex formation and complex dissociation are quite different. Short neurotoxins

  13. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  14. Modelling of three dimensional equilibrium and stability of MAST plasmas with magnetic perturbations using VMEC and COBRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, C. J., E-mail: christopher.ham@ccfe.ac.uk; Chapman, I. T.; Kirk, A.

    2014-10-15

    It is known that magnetic perturbations can mitigate edge localized modes (ELMs) in experiments, for example, MAST [Kirk et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 043007 (2013)]. One hypothesis is that the magnetic perturbations cause a three dimensional corrugation of the plasma and this corrugated plasma has different stability properties to peeling-ballooning modes compared to an axisymmetric plasma. It has been shown in an up-down symmetric plasma that magnetic perturbations in tokamaks will break the usual axisymmetry of the plasma causing three dimensional displacements [Chapman et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 105013 (2012)]. We produce a free boundary three-dimensional equilibrium ofmore » a lower single null MAST relevant plasma using VMEC [S. P. Hirshman and J. C. Whitson, Phys. Fluids 26, 3553 (1983)]. The safety factor and pressure profiles used for the modelling are similar to those deduced from axisymmetric analysis of experimental data with ELMs. We focus on the effect of applying n = 3 and n = 6 magnetic perturbations using the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils. A midplane displacement of over ±1 cm is seen when the full current is applied. The current in the coils is scanned and a linear relationship between coil current and midplane displacement is found. The pressure gradient in real space in different toroidal locations is shown to change when RMPs are applied. This effect should be taken into account when diagnosing plasmas with RMPs applied. The helical Pfirsch-Schlüter currents which arise as a result of the assumption of nested flux surfaces are estimated for this equilibrium. The effect of this non-axisymmetric equilibrium on infinite n ballooning stability is investigated using COBRA [Sanchez et al., J. Comput. Phys. 161, 576–588 (2000)]. The infinite n ballooning stability is analysed for two reasons; it may give an indication of the effect of non-axisymmetry on finite n peeling-ballooning modes, responsible for ELMs

  15. In-flight measurements of propeller blade deformation on a VUT100 cobra aeroplane using a co-rotating camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, F.; Stasicki, B.; Szypuła, M.; Ružička, P.; Tvrdik, Z.; Ludwikowski, K.

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of propeller or rotor blade behaviour under real operating conditions is crucial for optimizing the performance of a propeller or rotor system. A team of researchers, technicians and engineers from Avia Propeller, DLR, EVEKTOR and HARDsoft developed a rotating stereo camera system dedicated to in-flight blade deformation measurements. The whole system, co-rotating with the propeller at its full speed and hence exposed to high centrifugal forces and strong vibration, had been successfully tested on an EVEKTOR VUT 100 COBRA aeroplane in Kunovice (CZ) within the project AIM2—advanced in-flight measurement techniques funded by the European Commission (contract no. 266107). This paper will describe the work, starting from drawing the first sketch of the system up to performing the successful flight test. Apart from a description of the measurement hardware and the applied IPCT method, the paper will give some impressions of the flight test activities and discuss the results obtained from the measurements.

  16. Cobra CRISP functions as an inflammatory modulator via a novel Zn2+- and heparan sulfate-dependent transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Kuo, Je-Hung; Lee, Shao-Chen; Liu, Jai-Shin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Shih, Yu-Tsung; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2010-11-26

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) have been identified as a toxin family in most animal venoms with biological functions mainly associated with the ion channel activity of cysteine-rich domain (CRD). CRISPs also bind to Zn(2+) at their N-terminal pathogenesis-related (PR-1) domain, but their function remains unknown. Interestingly, similar the Zn(2+)-binding site exists in all CRISP family, including those identified in a wide range of organisms. Here, we report that the CRISP from Naja atra (natrin) could induce expression of vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules, i.e. intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin, to promote monocytic cell adhesion in a heparan sulfate (HS)- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Using specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, the activation mechanisms are shown to involve both mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB. Biophysical characterization of natrin by using fluorescence, circular dichroism, and x-ray crystallographic methods further reveals the presence of two Zn(2+)-binding sites for natrin. The strong binding site is located near the putative Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the N-terminal domain. The weak binding site remains to be characterized, but it may modulate HS binding by enhancing its interaction with long chain HS. Our results strongly suggest that natrin may serve as an inflammatory modulator that could perturb the wound-healing process of the bitten victim by regulating adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells. Our finding uncovers a new aspect of the biological role of CRISP family in immune response and is expected to facilitate future development of new therapeutic strategy for the envenomed victims.

  17. Mode of Action of Membrane Perturbing Agents: Snake Venom Cardiotoxins and Phospholipases A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-30

    with the PLA2 neurotoxins. CTXs are potent membrane perturbing agents and PLA2s hydrolyze diacylphosphoglycerides at the two position, generating two...The bee and cobra (Naja naJa) venom PLA2 enzymes readily hydrolyze biological phospholipid substrates, but are unable to penetrate membrane bilayers...Zwaal et al., 1975; Sundler et al., 1978; Fletcher et al., 1987). The inability to hydrolyze the inner phospholipids of the bilayer does not relate to

  18. Mode of Action of Membrane Perturbing Agents: Snake Venom Cardiotoxins and Phospholipases A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    if the CTXs act synergistically with the PLA2 neurotoxins. CTXs are potent membrane perturbing agents and PLA2s hydrolyze diacylphosphoglycerides at...unsaturated free fatty acids (Hanahan et al., 1960). The bee and cobra (Naja naja) venom PLAz enzymes readily hydrolyze biological phospholipid substrates...but are unable to penetrate membrane bilayers (Zwaal et al., 1975; Sundler et al., 1978; Fletcher et al., 1987). The inability to hydrolyze the

  19. Safety and efficacy of low-dose paclitaxel utilizing the cobra-P drug-eluting stent system with a novel biodegradable coating in de novo coronary lesions: the PLUS-ONE first-in-man study.

    PubMed

    Calderas, Carlos; Condado, Jose Francisco; Condado, Jose Antonio; Flores, Alejandra; Mueller, Amy; Thomas, Jack; Nakatani, Daisaku; Honda, Yasuhiro; Waseda, Katsuhisa; Fitzgerald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Cobra-P drug-eluting stent (DES) system consists of cobalt chromium alloy with bio-absorbable siloxane sol-gel matrix coating that elutes low dose paclitaxel within 6 months. The aim of this first-in-man trial was to evaluate the safety and performance of 2 doses of the Cobra-P DES. A total of 60 lesions (54 patients) were sequentially assigned to 2 different paclitaxel doses: group A (3.7 μg/18mm, n=30) or group B (8 μg/18mm, n=30). The primary endpoint was MACE at 4 months defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization. Patient and lesion characteristics were matched between the 2 groups except for male sex. MACE at 4 months was 3.3% and 0% respectively (P=1.000) and at 1-year follow-up remained unchanged. In-stent late loss at 4 months was similar in both groups (0.36 ± 0.30mm and 0.34 ± 0.20mm P=.773). In this FIM study, implantation of the Cobra-P low dose paclitaxel-eluting stent with a bioabsorbable sol-gel coating was proven to be feasible and safe. Moderate neointimal proliferation was observed as well as an acceptable MACE rate up to 1 year. © 2014.

  20. Maize Brittle stalk2 encodes a COBRA-like protein expressed in early organ development but required for tissue flexibility at maturity.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S; McCann, Maureen C; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-12-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  1. Maize Brittle stalk2 Encodes a COBRA-Like Protein Expressed in Early Organ Development But Required for Tissue Flexibility at Maturity1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sindhu, Anoop; Langewisch, Tiffany; Olek, Anna; Multani, Dilbag S.; McCann, Maureen C.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Johal, Gurmukh

    2007-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) brittle stalk2 (bk2) is a recessive mutant, the aerial parts of which are easily broken. The bk2 phenotype is developmentally regulated and appears 4 weeks after planting, at about the fifth-leaf stage. Before this time, mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings. Afterward, all organs of the bk2 mutants turn brittle, even the preexisting ones, and they remain brittle throughout the life of the plant. Leaf tension assays and bend tests of the internodes show that the brittle phenotype does not result from loss of tensile strength but from loss in flexibility that causes the tissues to snap instead of bend. The Bk2 gene was cloned by a combination of transposon tagging and a candidate gene approach and found to encode a COBRA-like protein similar to rice (Oryza sativa) BC1 and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) COBRA-LIKE4. The outer periphery of the stalk has fewer vascular bundles, and the sclerids underlying the epidermis possess thinner secondary walls. Relative cellulose content is not strictly correlated with the brittle phenotype. Cellulose content in mature zones of bk2 mature stems is lowered by 40% but is about the same as wild type in developing stems. Although relative cellulose content is lowered in leaves after the onset of the brittle phenotype, total wall mass as a proportion of dry mass is either unchanged or slightly increased, indicating a compensatory increase in noncellulosic carbohydrate mass. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated an increase in phenolic ester content in the walls of bk2 leaves and stems. Total content of lignin is unaffected in bk2 juvenile leaves before or after appearance of the brittle phenotype, but bk2 mature and developing stems are markedly enriched in lignin compared to wild-type stems. Despite increased lignin in bk2 stems, loss of staining with phloroglucinol and ultraviolet autofluorescence is observed in vascular bundles and sclerid layers. Consistent with the infrared

  2. CASL VMA FY16 Milestone Report (L3:VMA.VUQ.P13.07) Westinghouse Mixing with COBRA-TF

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Natalie

    2016-09-30

    COBRA-TF (CTF) is a low-resolution code currently maintained as CASL's subchannel analysis tool. CTF operates as a two-phase, compressible code over a mesh comprised of subchannels and axial discretized nodes. In part because CTF is a low-resolution code, simulation run time is not computationally expensive, only on the order of minutes. Hi-resolution codes such as STAR-CCM+ can be used to train lower-fidelity codes such as CTF. Unlike STAR-CCM+, CTF has no turbulence model, only a two-phase turbulent mixing coefficient, β. β can be set to a constant value or calculated in terms of Reynolds number using an empirical correlation. Resultsmore » from STAR-CCM+ can be used to inform the appropriate value of β. Once β is calibrated, CTF runs can be an inexpensive alternative to costly STAR-CCM+ runs for scoping analyses. Based on the results of CTF runs, STAR-CCM+ can be run for specific parameters of interest. CASL areas of application are CIPS for single phase analysis and DNB-CTF for two-phase analysis.« less

  3. COBRA, an Arabidopsis Extracellular Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl Inositol-Anchored Protein, Specifically Controls Highly Anisotropic Expansion through Its Involvement in Cellulose Microfibril OrientationW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G.; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H.H.; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I.; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis. PMID:15849274

  4. COBRA, an Arabidopsis extracellular glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, specifically controls highly anisotropic expansion through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation.

    PubMed

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H H; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Benfey, Philip N

    2005-06-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis.

  5. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    PubMed

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis).

  6. Paratesticular desmoplastic small round cell tumour: an unusual tumour with an unusual fusion; cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis combining RT-PCR and COBRA-FISH.

    PubMed

    Cliteur, Vincent Pm; Szuhai, Károly; Baelde, Hans J; van Dam, Jurriaan; Gelderblom, Hans; Hogendoorn, Pancras Cw

    2012-01-25

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare malignant tumour with a male to female ratio of 4:1. It manifests mostly at serosal sites. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old male patient, who presented with a fast growing paratesticular mass. On biopsy nests and cords of small round cells, without a clear morphological lineage of differentiation were seen. Occasionally desmoplatic small round cell tumour shows different lines of differentiation. An unequivocal histological diagnosis might be difficult in such cases. Here we demonstrate by a combination of methods the characteristic immunohistochemical profile and - albeit unusual - molecular background and discuss the eventual link with Ewing sarcoma.Immunohistochemical studies showed a membranous staining of Keratine AE1/3 and a dot-like staining of Desmine, confirming its diagnosis. Using COBRA-FISH following a metaphase approach we demonstrated a balanced translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12) and in RT-PCR formation of the EWSR1-WT1 fusion product, a specific translocation of desmoplastic round cell tumour. The fusion involves exon 9 of EWSR1 to exon 8 of WT1, an unusual fusion product, though earlier described in a case of a desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the hand. The EWSR1-WT1 chimera seems to function as an oncogenic transcription factor. Here the zinc finger domain of the WT1 acts with affinity with certain promoter domains influencing the expression of various downstream proteins such as: PDGFA, PAX2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, IL2 receptor beta, BAIAP3, MLF1, TALLA-1, LRRC15 and ENT. We discuss their potential oncogenic roles and potential therapeutic consequences.

  7. Paratesticular desmoplastic small round cell tumour: an unusual tumour with an unusual fusion; cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis combining RT-PCR and COBRA-FISH

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare malignant tumour with a male to female ratio of 4:1. It manifests mostly at serosal sites. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old male patient, who presented with a fast growing paratesticular mass. On biopsy nests and cords of small round cells, without a clear morphological lineage of differentiation were seen. Occasionally desmoplatic small round cell tumour shows different lines of differentiation. An unequivocal histological diagnosis might be difficult in such cases. Here we demonstrate by a combination of methods the characteristic immunohistochemical profile and - albeit unusual - molecular background and discuss the eventual link with Ewing sarcoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed a membranous staining of Keratine AE1/3 and a dot-like staining of Desmine, confirming its diagnosis. Using COBRA-FISH following a metaphase approach we demonstrated a balanced translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12) and in RT-PCR formation of the EWSR1-WT1 fusion product, a specific translocation of desmoplastic round cell tumour. The fusion involves exon 9 of EWSR1 to exon 8 of WT1, an unusual fusion product, though earlier described in a case of a desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the hand. The EWSR1-WT1 chimera seems to function as an oncogenic transcription factor. Here the zinc finger domain of the WT1 acts with affinity with certain promoter domains influencing the expression of various downstream proteins such as: PDGFA, PAX2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, IL2 receptor beta, BAIAP3, MLF1, TALLA-1, LRRC15 and ENT. We discuss their potential oncogenic roles and potential therapeutic consequences. PMID:22587803

  8. Quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in the promoter region of the methylguanine-O(6) -DNA-methyltransferase gene by COBRA and subsequent native capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Simon; Mühlisch, Jörg; Hempel, Georg; Frühwald, Michael C; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    Along with histone modifications, RNA interference and delayed replication timing, DNA methylation belongs to the key processes in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Therefore, reliable information about the methylation level of particular DNA fragments is of major interest. Herein the methylation level at two positions of the promoter region of the gene methylguanine-O(6) -DNA-Methyltransferase (MGMT) was investigated. Previously, it was demonstrated that the epigenetic status of this DNA region correlates with response to alkylating anticancer agents. An automated CGE method with LIF detection was established to separate the six DNA fragments resulting from combined bisulfite restriction analysis of the methylated and non-methylated MGMT promoter. In COBRA, the DNA was treated with bisulfite converting cytosine into uracil. During PCR uracil pairs with adenine, which changes the original recognition site of the restriction enzyme Taql. Artificial probes generated by mixing appropriate amounts of DNA after bisulfite treatment and PCR amplification were used for validation of the method. The methylation levels of these samples could be determined with high accuracy and precision. DNA samples prepared by mixing the corresponding clones first and then performing PCR amplification led to non-linear correlation between the corrected peak areas and the methylation levels. This effect is explained by slightly different PCR amplification of DNA with different sequences present in the mixture. The superiority of CGE over PAGE was clearly demonstrated. Finally, the established method was used to analyze the methylation levels of human brain tumor tissue samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-25

    to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light

  11. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.

  12. Glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane insertion and internalization of cobra cardiotoxin. The sulfatide.cardiotoxin complex structure in a membrane-like environment suggests a lipid-dependent cell-penetrating mechanism for membrane binding polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Hui; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Lee, Shao-Chen; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2006-01-06

    Cobra cardiotoxins, a family of basic polypeptides having lipid- and heparin-binding capacities similar to the cell-penetrating peptides, induce severe tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in snakebite victims. Whereas cardiotoxins are specifically retained on the cell surface via heparan sulfate-mediated processes, their lipid binding ability appears to be responsible, at least in part, for cardiotoxin-induced membrane leakage and cell death. Although the exact role of lipids involved in toxin-mediated cytotoxicity remains largely unknown, monoclonal anti-sulfatide antibody O4 has recently been shown to inhibit the action of CTX A3, the major cardiotoxin from Taiwan cobra venom, on cardiomyocytes by preventing cardiotoxin-induced membrane leakage and CTX A3 internalization into mitochondria. Here, we show that anti-sulfatide acts by blocking the binding of CTX A3 to the sulfatides in the plasma membrane to prevent sulfatide-dependent CTX A3 membrane pore formation and internalization. We also describe the crystal structure of a CTX A3-sulfatide complex in a membrane-like environment at 2.3 angstroms resolution. The unexpected orientation of the sulfatide fatty chains in the structure allows prediction of the mode of toxin insertion into the plasma membrane. CTX A3 recognizes both the headgroup and the ceramide interfacial region of sulfatide to induce a lipid conformational change that may play a key role in CTX A3 oligomerization and cellular internalization. This proposed lipid-mediated toxin translocation mechanism may also shed light on the cellular uptake mechanism of the amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptides known to involve multiple internalization pathways.

  13. Evaluation of COBRA III-C and SABRE-I (wire wrap version) computational results by comparison with steady-state data from a 19-pin internally guard heated sodium cooled bundle with a six-channel central blockage (THORS bundle 3C). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J F; Rose, S D; Nelson, W R

    The predicted computational results of two well-known sub-channel analysis codes, COBRA-III-C and SABRE-I (wire wrap version), have been evaluated by comparison with steady state temperature data from the THORS Facility at ORNL. Both codes give good predictions of transverse and axial temperatures when compared with wire wrap thermocouple data. The crossflow velocity profiles predicted by these codes are similar which is encouraging since the wire wrap models are based on different assumptions.

  14. The Ex vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) model as a mean of improving venom ophthalmia understanding.

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, Marie; Panfil, Claudia; Spöler, Felix; Kray, Stefan; Burgher, François; Mathieu, Laurence; Blomet, Joël; Schrage, Norbert F; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2018-06-08

    Snakes belonging to the genus Naja (Elapid family), also known as "spitting cobras", can spit venom towards the eyes of the predator as a defensive strategy, causing painful and potentially blinding ocular envenoming. Venom ophthalmia is characterized by pain, hyperemia, blepharitis, blepharospasm and corneal erosions. Elapid venom ophthalmia is not well documented and no specific treatment exists. Furthermore, accidental ejection of venom by non-spitting vipers, as Bothrops, also occurs. The Ex vivo Eye Irritation Test model (EVEIT) has enabled important progress in the knowledge of chemical ocular burns. Considering the lack of experimental animal model, we adapted the EVEIT to study venom ophthalmia mechanisms. Ex vivo rabbit corneas were exposed to venoms from spitting (Naja mossambica, Naja nigricollis) and non-spitting (Naja naja, Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops lanceolatus) snakes, and rinsed or not with water. The corneal thickness and the depth of damage were assessed using high-resolution optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT) imaging and histological analysis. All Naja venoms induced significant corneal edema, collagen structure disorganization and epithelial necrosis. Corneas envenomed by African N. mossambica and N. nigricollis venoms were completely opaque. Opacification was not observed in corneas treated with venoms from non-spitting snakes, such as the Asian cobra, N. naja, and the vipers, B. jararaca and B. lanceolatus. Moreover, Bothrops venoms were able to damage the epithelium and cause collagen structure disorganization, but not edema. Immediate water rinsing improved corneal status, though damage and edema could still be observed. In conclusion, the present study shows that the EVEIT model was successfully adapted to set a new experimental ex vivo animal model of ophthalmia, caused by snake venoms, which will enable to explore new therapies for venom ophthalmia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The New MODIS-Terra, and the Proposed COBRA Mission: First Global Aerosol Distribution and Properties Over Land and Ocean, and Plans to Measure Global Black Carbon Absorption Over the Ocean Glint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Martins, Vanderlei; Schoeberl, Mark; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS instrument was launched on the NASA Terra satellite in Dec. 1999. Since last Oct, the sensor and the aerosol algorithm reached maturity and provide global daily retrievals of aerosol optical thickness and properties. MODIS has 36 spectral channels in the visible to IR with resolution down to 250 m. This allows accurate cloud screening and multi-spectral aerosol retrievals. We derive the aerosol optical thickness over the ocean and most of the land areas, distinguishing between fine (mainly man-made aerosol) and coarse (mainly natural) aerosol particles. New methods to derive the aerosol absorption of sunlight are also being developed. These measurements are use to track different aerosol sources, transport and the radiative forcing at the top and bottom of the atmosphere. However MODIS or any present satellite sensor cannot measure absorption by Black Carbon over the oceans, a critical component in studying climate change and human health. For this purpose we propose the COBRA mission that observes the ocean at glint and off glint simultaneously measuring the spectral polarized light and deriving precisely the aerosol absorption.

  16. COBRA Health Benefits Extension Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2010-05-20

    Senate - 05/20/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Equal Access to COBRA Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2011-03-10

    Senate - 03/10/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Equal Access to COBRA Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Boxer, Barbara [D-CA

    2010-03-25

    Senate - 03/25/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Comprehensive Oculomotor Behavioral Response Assessment (COBRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S. (Inventor); Liston, Dorion B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An eye movement-based methodology and assessment tool may be used to quantify many aspects of human dynamic visual processing using a relatively simple and short oculomotor task, noninvasive video-based eye tracking, and validated oculometric analysis techniques. By examining the eye movement responses to a task including a radially-organized appropriately randomized sequence of Rashbass-like step-ramp pursuit-tracking trials, distinct performance measurements may be generated that may be associated with, for example, pursuit initiation (e.g., latency and open-loop pursuit acceleration), steady-state tracking (e.g., gain, catch-up saccade amplitude, and the proportion of the steady-state response consisting of smooth movement), direction tuning (e.g., oblique effect amplitude, horizontal-vertical asymmetry, and direction noise), and speed tuning (e.g., speed responsiveness and noise). This quantitative approach may provide fast and results (e.g., a multi-dimensional set of oculometrics and a single scalar impairment index) that can be interpreted by one without a high degree of scientific sophistication or extensive training.

  20. COBRA Coverage Extension Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Burris, Roland [D-IL

    2009-07-21

    Senate - 07/21/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Comparison of COBRA III-C and SABRE-1 (wire-wrap version) computational results with steady-state data from a 19-pin internally guard heated sodium-cooled bundle with a six-channel central blockage (THORS Bundle 3C). [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J F; Nelson, W R; Rose, S D

    Computational thermal-hydraulic models of a 19-pin, electrically heated, wire-wrap liquid-metal fast breeder reactor test bundle were developed using two well-known subchannel analysis codes, COBRA III-C and SABRE-1 (wire-wrap version). These two codes use similar subchannel control volumes for the finite difference conservation equations but vary markedly in solution strategy and modeling capability. In particular, the empirical wire-wrap-forced diversion crossflow models are different. Surprisingly, however, crossflow velocity predictions of the two codes are very similar. Both codes show generally good agreement with experimental temperature data from a test in which a large radial temperature gradient was imposed. Differences between data andmore » code results are probably caused by experimental pin bowing, which is presently the limiting factor in validating coded empirical models.« less

  2. The protective effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds against snake venom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Marinello, Enrico; Guerranti, Roberto; Aguiyi, John C

    2009-06-22

    The seed, leaf and root of Mucuna pruriens have been used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. To study the protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against the lethalities of various snake venoms. Rats were pre-treated with Mucuna pruriens seed extract and challenged with various snake venoms. The effectiveness of anti-Mucuna pruriens (anti-MPE) antibody to neutralize the lethalities of snake venoms was investigated by in vitro neutralization. In rats, MPE pre-treatment conferred effective protection against lethality of Naja sputatrix venom and moderate protection against Calloselasma rhodostoma venom. Indirect ELISA and immunoblotting studies showed that there were extensive cross-reactions between anti-MPE IgG and venoms from many different genera of poisonous snakes, suggesting the involvement of immunological neutralization in the protective effect of MPE pre-treatment against snake venom poisoning. In vitro neutralization experiments showed that the anti-MPE antibodies effectively neutralized the lethalities of Asiatic cobra (Naja) venoms, but were not very effective against other venoms tested. The anti-MPE antibodies could be used in the antiserum therapy of Asiatic cobra (Naja) bites.

  3. Scales microstructure of snakes from the Egyptian area.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed A; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha E

    2012-11-01

    The morphology of many organisms seems to be related to the environments in which they live. Many snakes are so similar in their morphological patterns that it becomes quite difficult to distinguish any adaptive divergence that may have occurred. Many authors have suggested that the microstructure of the reptile's scales has important functional value. Herein, we investigate variations on the micromorphology of the external surface of dorsal scales on the head, the mid-body region (trunk), and the tail of Rhomphotyphlops braminus (Typhlopidae), Eryx jaculus (Boidae), Psammophis sibilans (Colubridae), Naja haje (Elapidae) and Echis carinatus (Viperidae). The specimens were metallized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All species displayed unique dorsal scale surface microstructures of the investigated regions. The microstructural pattern of the scales of head, trunk, and tail differs in different species of these snakes. In conclusion, we detected ecomorphologic relationships between extant dorsal scale microstructures and snake microhabitat, enabling us to hypothesize that environmental pressures have significant influences not only on these animals' macrostructure, but also on its microstructure as well.

  4. Prevalence of snake bites in Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia: a retrospective study (January 1999-December 2000).

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Roshalina, R; Undan, R C

    2004-12-01

    The records of 284 snake bite cases presenting to the Kangar District Hospital, Perlis, west Malaysia, from January 1999 till December 2000 were carefully reviewed. Data on prevalence and types of snake bites, were recorded. The majority of the cases were among Malays (60.2%), followed by Chinese (16.9%), Indians (13%), and others which include Thai nationals, army personnel from Sabah and Sarawak, and foreign tourists (9.8%). A higher incidence was found in males (60.2%) and most cases were seen in the age group of 10-19 years (33%). Snake bites were more common between 2 PM and 9 PM (47.6%) and from 7 AM to 2 PM (33.4%). The snakes were positively identified in 68 cases, of which 50 were common cobras (Naja naja) (73%), 16 were Malayan pit vipers (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) (24%) and two were sea-snakes (3%).

  5. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications.

  6. North American coral snake antivenin for the neutralization of non-native elapid venoms in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Richardson, William H; Tanen, David A; Tong, Tri C; Betten, David P; Carstairs, Shaun D; Williams, Saralyn R; Cantrell, Frank L; Clark, Richard F

    2006-02-01

    North American coral snake antivenin (CSAV; Wyeth Antivenin [Micrurus fulvius], equine origin) is approved for the treatment of coral snake envenomations in the United States. The coral snake is the only elapid that is native to North America, but envenomations from non-native elapids are occurring more commonly in this country. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of CSAV in the neutralization of two exotic elapid envenomations: Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Dendroaspis polylepsis (black mamba). A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled murine model of intraperitoneal venom injection was employed. Venom potency was determined in preliminary dosing studies. Study animals then were divided into five groups: 1) N. naja venom + CSAV, 2) N. naja venom + 0.9% normal saline (NS), 3) D. polylepsis venom + CSAV, 4) D. polylepsis venom + NS, and 5) CSAV + NS. The venom dose was chosen to be twice the estimated LD50. The amount of CSAV injected was ten times the amount necessary for neutralization of a 2 x LD50 dose of M. f. fulvius venom in a murine model. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact and log-rank testing to compare survival rates and times. Preliminary studies estimated the venom LD50 to be 2.58 mg/kg and 0.45 mg/kg, respectively, for the N. naja and D. polylepsis. A significant difference was shown in comparison of survival times between CSAV-venom groups and normal saline-venom groups despite all animals in both treatment and control arms dying. Animals receiving CSAV and N. naja venom survived (mean +/- SD) 24.4 +/- 3.0 minutes, versus 17.8 +/- 1.3 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001), whereas those receiving CSAV and D. polylepsis venom survived 203.8 +/- 37.0 minutes versus 130.0 +/- 42.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001). All animals in the CSAV + NS group survived to the conclusion of the study. When premixed with venom, CSAV increased survival time in a murine model of intraperitoneal N. naja and D. polylepsis venom injection

  7. Prevalence of Amblyomma gervaisi ticks on captive snakes in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Catherine, B R; Jayathangaraj, M G; Soundararajan, C; Bala Guru, C; Yogaraj, D

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi ). Overall occurrence of tick infestation on snakes was 66.13%. Highest prevalence of tick infestation was observed more on Reticulated Python ( Python reticulatus , 90.91%) followed by Indian Rock Python ( Python molurus , 88.89%), Spectacled cobra ( Naja naja, 33.33%) and Rat snake ( Ptyas mucosa, 21.05%). Highest prevalence of ticks were observed on snakes reared at Chennai Snake Park Trust, Guindy (83.33%), followed by Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur (60.00%) and low level prevalence of 37.50% on snakes at Rescue centre, Velachery. Among the system of management, the prevalence of ticks were more on captive snakes (70.37%) than the free ranging snakes (37.5%). The presences of ticks were more on the first quarter when compared to other three quarters and were highly significant ( P  ≤ 0.01).

  8. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  9. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (for example, because of a divorce), the family deductible may be computed separately for each... the year. The plan provides that upon the divorce of a covered employee, coverage will end immediately... family had accumulated $420 of covered expenses before the divorce, as follows: $70 by each parent, $200...

  10. Cobra Strikes! High-Performance Car Inspires Students, Markets Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    Nestled in the Lower Piedmont region of upstate South Carolina, Piedmont Technical College (PTC) is one of 16 technical colleges in the state. Automotive technology is one of its most popular programs. The program features an instructive, motivating activity that the author describes in this article: building a high-performance car. The Cobra…

  11. Simulator Sickness in the AH-1S (Cobra) Flight Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    ADJUSTABLE ARMAMENT BOMB LUG (upper rack use only) AFT ATTACHING POINT SWAY GRACE PAD HANS DEBRIS DIRECTOR ~~ CAPTIVE LOCKINGPI FORWARDHARNESS...Qualification training) Training Stage : Qualification Continuation Refresher AAPART (Check Ride) Mission All rights reserved Essex Corporation 1040 Woodcock Road

  12. Dr. Phil's Art Corner: Searching and Cobra Canyon.

    PubMed

    2018-01-01

    Philip Alexander, M.D., is a native Texan, retired physician, and accomplished musician and artist. After 41 years as an internal medicine physician, Dr. Phil retired from his practice in College Station in 2016. A lifelong musician and former music professor, he often performs as an oboe soloist for the Brazos Valley Symphony Orchestra. He began exploring visual art in 1980, evolving from pencil sketches-including an official White House portrait of President Ronald Reagan-to the computer-generated drawings featured in this journal. His images, which first appeared in this journal in the spring of 2012, are his own original creations.

  13. Analysis of a Light Cross Country Combat Vehicle - The Cobra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1951-06-01

    34-’"- _.-- ; ..-".’ ;" - -; - Regular fracks > Beguiar tracks, baled on the conventional :d©«= trend defined i>y the close spacing of track links...Annex .2 ). The complexity of conventional steering mechanisms is high. Plan- etary gears «, hydraulic controls., brakes, and other accessories...sntiite vehicle« i£n straight ^ruaning*. the joint is completely closed and is held In that position by the two hydraulic cylinders» ’To mate

  14. 78 FR 13662 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... determining the appropriate action to be taken, but will not serve to make protestants parties to the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. Such notices, motions, or protests must be filed on or before the date as indicated...

  15. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P.; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate “first aid” measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  16. Computational and in vitro insights on snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibitor of phytocompound ikshusterol3-O-glucoside of Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karthikeyan; Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-12-14

    Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside was isolated from Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. root. A structure of the isolated compound was determined on the basis of various spectroscopic interpretations (UV, NMR, FTIR, and GC-MS-EI). This structure was submitted in the PubChem compound database (SID 249494133). SID 249494133 was carried out by density functional theory calculation to observe the chemical stability and electrostatic potential of this compound. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion property of this compound was predicted to evaluate the drug likeness and toxicity. In addition, molecular docking, quantum polarized ligand docking, prime MMGBSA calculation, and induced fit docking were performed to predict the binding status of SID 249494133 with the active site of phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) (PDB ID: 1A3D). The stability of the compound in the active site of PLA 2 was carried out using molecular dynamics simulation. Further, the anti-venom activity of the compound was assessed using the PLA 2 assay against Naja naja (Indian cobra) crude venom. The results strongly show that Ikshusterol3-O-glucoside has a potent snake-venom neutralizing capacity and it might be a potential molecule for the therapeutic treatment for snakebites.

  17. New and already known acanthocephalans from amphibians and reptiles in Vietnam, with keys to species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1956 (Echinorhynchidae) and Sphaerechinorhynchus Johnston and Deland, 1929 (Plagiorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species in 2 orders of acanthocephalans obtained from the intestines of terrestrial amphibians and reptiles collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam are described here. Pseudoacanthocephalus nguyenthileae n. sp. (Palaeacnthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) was collected from 5 species of terrestrial amphibians: (1) the common Sunda toad Bufo melanostictus Schneider (Bufonidae); (2) Paa verucospinosa (Bourret); (3) Gunther's Amoy frog Rana guentheri Boulenger; (4) Taipei frog R. taipehensis Denburgh (Ranidae), and (5) the Burmese whipping frog Polypedates mutus (Smith) (Racophoridae); as well as from the Chinese cobra Naja atra Cantor (Reptilia: Elapidae) and house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Sphaerechinorhynchus maximesospinus n. sp. (Plagiorhynchidae: Sphaerechinorhynchinae) was isolated from a king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (cantor) (Reptilia: Elapidae). Cystacanths of Porrorchis houdemeri (Joyeux and Baer, 1935) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1967 (Plagiorhynchidae: Porrorchinae) obtained from the mesenteries of banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Reptilia: Elapidae), a paratenic host, are reported for the first time. Keys to the species of Pseudoacanthocephalus and Sphaerechinorhynchus are included. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from related taxa include: P. nguyenthileae has 15-19 (usually 16-18) proboscis hook rows, each with 5-6 hooks that progressively increase in length and size posteriorly. The largest, intermediate, and smallest proboscis hooks of S. maximesospinus are the middle, anterior, and posterior hooks, respectively; the proboscis and neck are enclosed in a membrane. Morphometric characteristics of P. nguyenthileae show host-related variability.

  18. Mad, bad and dangerous to know: the biochemistry, ecology and evolution of slow loris venom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Only seven types of mammals are known to be venomous, including slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.). Despite the evolutionary significance of this unique adaptation amongst Nycticebus, the structure and function of slow loris venom is only just beginning to be understood. Here we review what is known about the chemical structure of slow loris venom. Research on a handful of captive samples from three of eight slow loris species reveals that the protein within slow loris venom resembles the disulphide-bridged heterodimeric structure of Fel-d1, more commonly known as cat allergen. In a comparison of N. pygmaeus and N. coucang, 212 and 68 compounds were found, respectively. Venom is activated by combining the oil from the brachial arm gland with saliva, and can cause death in small mammals and anaphylactic shock and death in humans. We examine four hypotheses for the function of slow loris venom. The least evidence is found for the hypothesis that loris venom evolved to kill prey. Although the venom’s primary function in nature seems to be as a defense against parasites and conspecifics, it may also serve to thwart olfactory-orientated predators. Combined with numerous other serpentine features of slow lorises, including extra vertebra in the spine leading to snake-like movement, serpentine aggressive vocalisations, a long dark dorsal stripe and the venom itself, we propose that venom may have evolved to mimic cobras (Naja sp.). During the Miocene when both slow lorises and cobras migrated throughout Southeast Asia, the evolution of venom may have been an adaptive strategy against predators used by slow lorises as a form of Müllerian mimicry with spectacled cobras. PMID:24074353

  19. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... without children who is receiving employer-paid coverage under a group health plan voluntarily terminates... dependent child's ceasing to be a dependent child under the generally applicable requirements of the plan or a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer...

  20. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... without children who is receiving employer-paid coverage under a group health plan voluntarily terminates... dependent child's ceasing to be a dependent child under the generally applicable requirements of the plan or a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer...

  1. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... without children who is receiving employer-paid coverage under a group health plan voluntarily terminates... dependent child's ceasing to be a dependent child under the generally applicable requirements of the plan or a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer...

  2. 26 CFR 54.4980B-6 - Electing COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a divorce or legal separation of a covered employee. The group health plan is not required to offer... divorce or legal separation of a covered employee, a timely notice of the divorce or legal separation that... qualifying event. An election on behalf of a minor child can be made by the child's parent or legal guardian...

  3. North to the Euphrates: Part 1. The Taking of FOB Cobra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    update to Ltc Hancock "Binnie you’re about to make air assault history. Don’t fuck it up!" LTG Luck’s, Commander of XVIII Airborne Corps...who called the information into the battery. Although this was a little awkward, it was the best way at the time to get the calls for fires

  4. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following questions-and-answers address how the taking of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of... circumstances does a qualifying event occur if an employee does not return from leave taken under FMLA? A-1: (a) The taking of leave under FMLA does not constitute a qualifying event. A qualifying event under Q&A-1...

  5. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following questions-and-answers address how the taking of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of... circumstances does a qualifying event occur if an employee does not return from leave taken under FMLA? A-1: (a) The taking of leave under FMLA does not constitute a qualifying event. A qualifying event under Q&A-1...

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following questions-and-answers address how the taking of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of... circumstances does a qualifying event occur if an employee does not return from leave taken under FMLA? A-1: (a) The taking of leave under FMLA does not constitute a qualifying event. A qualifying event under Q&A-1...

  7. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following questions-and-answers address how the taking of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of... circumstances does a qualifying event occur if an employee does not return from leave taken under FMLA? A-1: (a) The taking of leave under FMLA does not constitute a qualifying event. A qualifying event under Q&A-1...

  8. 26 CFR 54.4980B-10 - Interaction of FMLA and COBRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following questions-and-answers address how the taking of leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act of... circumstances does a qualifying event occur if an employee does not return from leave taken under FMLA? A-1: (a) The taking of leave under FMLA does not constitute a qualifying event. A qualifying event under Q&A-1...

  9. From COBRA to the Seine, August 1944: A Microcosm of the Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-09

    while Patto , c,,rducted operational maneuvers in the German rear. Hill 217 was decisive t erra i r. The 2nd SS Piz Div reached almost to St.Hilaire by...with Eberbach as a r-eplacement for- vonr Funick. But the combined effects oif TOTALIZE, stiffening pressure at lortamii aria Patto -n’ 5 cuit north

  10. The cobra's tongue: Rethinking the function of the "fishtail appendage" on the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica.

    PubMed

    Armitage, David W

    2016-04-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants employ a variety of putative adaptations for prey attraction and capture. One example is the peculiar forked "fishtail appendage", a foliar structure widely presumed to function as a prey attractant on adult leaves of Darlingtonia californica (Sarraceniaceae). This study tests the prediction that the presence of the appendage facilitates prey capture and can be considered an example of an adaptation to the carnivorous syndrome. In a field experiment following a cohort of Darlingtonia leaves over their growing season, before the pitcher traps opened, the fishtail appendages from half of the leaves were removed. Additionally, all appendages were removed from every plant at two small, isolated populations. After 54 and 104 d, prey items were collected to determine whether differences in prey composition and biomass existed between experimental and unmanipulated control leaves. Removal of the fishtail appendage did not reduce pitcher leaves' prey biomass nor alter their prey composition at either the level of individual leaves or entire populations. Fishtail appendages on plants growing in shaded habitats contained significantly greater chlorophyll concentrations than those on plants growing in full sun. These results call into question the longstanding assumption that the fishtail appendage on Darlingtonia is an adaptation critical for the attraction and capture of prey. I suggest alternative evolutionary explanations for the role of the fishtail structure and repropose a hypothesis on the mutualistic nature of pitcher plant-arthropod trophic interactions. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Aridopsis COBRA-LIKE 10, a GPI-anchored protien, mediates directional growth of pollen tubes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful reproduction of flowering plants requires constant communication between female tissues and growing pollen tubes. Female cells secrete molecules and peptides as nutrients or guidance cues for fast and directional tube growth, which is executed by dynamic changes of intracellular activitie...

  12. Operation Cobra: Organizational Pooling and Operational Art in the European Theater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    an organizational structure based on the idea of “task organizing” and “force pooling.” Task organizing involves the development of situation...essential equipment and personnel based on the day-to-day needs of that unit. A unit that carried enough bridging equipment or truck transport to...in two forms: MSC’s Afloat Pre-positioning Force (APF) and land- based pre-positioned equipment . In the APF, all ships are self-sustaining and have

  13. Report on the Audit of Performnce and Reliability of Cobra Helicopter Rotor Blades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-21

    We are providing this final report for your information and use. The audit was made from January to March 1991. The audit objective was to evaluate...internal controls. The audit was made in response to concerns raised by personnel at the Sharpe Army Depot about the K747 blade’s performance, maintenance, and reliability.

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-7 - Duration of COBRA continuation coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... day for which timely payment is not made to the plan with respect to the qualified beneficiary (see Q... provide any group health plan (including successor plans) to any employee; (4) The date, after the date of... plan, as described in Q&A-2 of this section; (5) The date, after the date of the election, upon which...

  15. AVERT, COBRA, GHG Inventory and GreenHouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Program (2017 EIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    AVERT captures the actual historical behavior of electricity generating units' (EGUs’) operation on an hourly basis to predict how EGUs will operate with additional EE/RE delivered to the electricity grid.

  16. 76 FR 18750 - Humble Gas Pipeline Company; Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Baseline Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... file a motion to intervene or to protest this filing in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the... Commission in determining the appropriate action to be taken, but will not serve to make protestants parties to the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion...

  17. 77 FR 71190 - Cobra Pipeline Ltd.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... determining the appropriate action to be taken, but will not serve to make protestants parties to the proceeding. Any person wishing to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. Such notices, motions, or protests must be filed on or before the date as indicated...

  18. Trypanosoma cf. varani in an imported ball python (Python reginus) from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Une, Yumi; Watanabe, Haruo; Mukhtar, Maowia M

    2009-08-01

    Peripheral blood from a ball python (Python reginus) imported from Ghana was cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium for Borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. The molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rDNA, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to Trypanosoma varani Wenyon, 1908, originally described in the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) from Sudan. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of both isolates showed few differences. Giemsa-stained blood smears, prepared from the infected python 8 mo after the initial observation of trypanosomes in hemoculture, contained trypomastigotes with a broad body and a short, free flagellum; these most closely resembled the original description of T. varani, or T. voltariae Macfie, 1919 recorded in a black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) from Ghana. It is highly possible that lizards and snakes could naturally share an identical trypanosome species. Alternatively, lizards and snakes in the same region might have closely related, but distinct, Trypanosoma species as a result of sympatric speciation. From multiple viewpoints, including molecular phylogenetic analyses, reappraisal of trypanosome species from a wide range of reptiles in Africa is needed to clarify the relationship of recorded species, or to unmask unrecorded species.

  19. Naturally occurring disulfide-bound dimers of three-fingered toxins: a paradigm for biological activity diversification.

    PubMed

    Osipov, Alexey V; Kasheverov, Igor E; Makarova, Yana V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Vorontsova, Olga V; Ziganshin, Rustam Kh; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Serebryakova, Marina V; Benoit, Audrey; Hogg, Ronald C; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2008-05-23

    Disulfide-bound dimers of three-fingered toxins have been discovered in the Naja kaouthia cobra venom; that is, the homodimer of alpha-cobratoxin (a long-chain alpha-neurotoxin) and heterodimers formed by alpha-cobratoxin with different cytotoxins. According to circular dichroism measurements, toxins in dimers retain in general their three-fingered folding. The functionally important disulfide 26-30 in polypeptide loop II of alpha-cobratoxin moiety remains intact in both types of dimers. Biological activity studies showed that cytotoxins within dimers completely lose their cytotoxicity. However, the dimers retain most of the alpha-cobratoxin capacity to compete with alpha-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as well as to Lymnea stagnalis acetylcholine-binding protein. Electrophysiological experiments on neuronal nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes have shown that alpha-cobratoxin dimer not only interacts with alpha7 nAChR but, in contrast to alpha-cobratoxin monomer, also blocks alpha3beta2 nAChR. In the latter activity it resembles kappa-bungarotoxin, a dimer with no disulfides between monomers. These results demonstrate that dimerization is essential for the interaction of three-fingered neurotoxins with heteromeric alpha3beta2 nAChRs.

  20. Identification and characterization of novel reptile cathelicidins from elapid snakes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Gan, Tong-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Jin, Yang; Lee, Wen-Hui; Shen, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Yun

    2008-10-01

    Three cDNA sequences coding for elapid cathelicidins were cloned from constructed venom gland cDNA libraries of Naja atra, Bungarus fasciatus and Ophiophagus hannah. The open reading frames of the cloned elapid cathelicidins were all composed of 576bp and coded for 191 amino acid residue protein precursors. Each of the deduced elapid cathelicidin has a 22 amino acid residue signal peptide, a conserved cathelin domain of 135 amino acid residues and a mature antimicrobial peptide of 34 amino acid residues. Unlike the highly divergent cathelicidins in mammals, the nucleotide and deduced protein sequences of the three cloned elapid cathelicidins were remarkably conserved. All the elapid mature cathelicidins were predicted to be cleaved at Valine157 by elastase. OH-CATH, the deduced mature cathelicidin from king cobra, was chemically synthesized and it showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentration of 1-20microg/ml in the presence of 1% NaCl. Meanwhile, the synthetic peptide showed no haemolytic activity toward human red blood cells even at a high dose of 200microg/ml. Phylogenetic analysis of cathelicidins from vertebrate suggested that elapid and viperid cathelicidins were grouped together in the tree. Snake cathelicidins were evolutionary closely related to the neutrophilic granule proteins (NGPs) from mouse, rat and rabbit. Snake cathelicidins also showed a close relationship with avian fowlicidins (1-3) and chicken myeloid antimicrobial peptide 27. Elapid cathelicidins might be used as models for the development of novel therapeutic drugs.

  1. Hyaluronidase and protease activities from Indian snake venoms: neutralization by Mimosa pudica root extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2004-06-01

    The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation of the AH-1S (Modernized Cobra) with the HELLFIRE, TOW, and Stinger Missiles Installed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    is ready for engagement. The SCAS pitch, roll, and yaw engage switches energize the appropriate channels of the SCAS and the electrical solenoid valves ...I 4i TFF FF iff iT1Ii F1T ’I" 114~~~~7. FF+4441UF - - 4-� 1;4 444 1~ FF1 111410 4 IB1: TIF FF 1F V4j UVFFtli T FF’HI F F FF F F tF1 F ’’ ’-FF11 1

  3. From ACTS (Air Corps Tactical School) to COBRA: Evolution of Close Air Support Doctrine in World War Two.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    cooperated and coordinated their activities in absolute precision cieated by total nental telepathy . Although XIX Tactice.1 Air Coeeand and Third Aray did...capture of the Romanian oil fields and increased production of synthetic oil, Germany produced enough oil to meet her military needs. By 1944, the

  4. Statistical process control and verifying positional accuracy of a cobra motion couch using step-wedge quality assurance tool.

    PubMed

    Binny, Diana; Lancaster, Craig M; Trapp, Jamie V; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-09-01

    This study utilizes process control techniques to identify action limits for TomoTherapy couch positioning quality assurance tests. A test was introduced to monitor accuracy of the applied couch offset detection in the TomoTherapy Hi-Art treatment system using the TQA "Step-Wedge Helical" module and MVCT detector. Individual X-charts, process capability (cp), probability (P), and acceptability (cpk) indices were used to monitor a 4-year couch IEC offset data to detect systematic and random errors in the couch positional accuracy for different action levels. Process capability tests were also performed on the retrospective data to define tolerances based on user-specified levels. A second study was carried out whereby physical couch offsets were applied using the TQA module and the MVCT detector was used to detect the observed variations. Random and systematic variations were observed for the SPC-based upper and lower control limits, and investigations were carried out to maintain the ongoing stability of the process for a 4-year and a three-monthly period. Local trend analysis showed mean variations up to ±0.5 mm in the three-monthly analysis period for all IEC offset measurements. Variations were also observed in the detected versus applied offsets using the MVCT detector in the second study largely in the vertical direction, and actions were taken to remediate this error. Based on the results, it was recommended that imaging shifts in each coordinate direction be only applied after assessing the machine for applied versus detected test results using the step helical module. User-specified tolerance levels of at least ±2 mm were recommended for a test frequency of once every 3 months to improve couch positional accuracy. SPC enables detection of systematic variations prior to reaching machine tolerance levels. Couch encoding system recalibrations reduced variations to user-specified levels and a monitoring period of 3 months using SPC facilitated in detecting systematic and random variations. SPC analysis for couch positional accuracy enabled greater control in the identification of errors, thereby increasing confidence levels in daily treatment setups. © 2017 Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Metro North Hospital and Health Service. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Providing the Persistent Data Storage in a Software Engineering Environment Using Java/COBRA and a DBMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhaliwal, Swarn S.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to build the software foundation for the WHERE (Web-based Hyper-text Environment for Requirements Engineering) project. The TCM (Toolkit for Conceptual Modeling) was chosen as the foundation software for the WHERE project which aims to provide an environment for facilitating collaboration among geographically distributed people involved in the Requirements Engineering process. The TCM is a collection of diagram and table editors and has been implemented in the C++ programming language. The C++ implementation of the TCM was translated into Java in order to allow the editors to be used for building various functionality of the WHERE project; the WHERE project intends to use the Web as its communication back- bone. One of the limitations of the translated software (TcmJava), which militated against its use in the WHERE project, was persistent data management mechanisms which it inherited from the original TCM; it was designed to be used in standalone applications. Before TcmJava editors could be used as a part of the multi-user, geographically distributed applications of the WHERE project, a persistent storage mechanism must be built which would allow data communication over the Internet, using the capabilities of the Web. An approach involving features of Java, CORBA (Common Object Request Broker), the Web, a middle-ware (Java Relational Binding (JRB)), and a database server was used to build the persistent data management infrastructure for the WHERE project. The developed infrastructure allows a TcmJava editor to be downloaded and run from a network host by using a JDK 1.1 (Java Developer's Kit) compatible Web-browser. The aforementioned editor establishes connection with a server by using the ORB (Object Request Broker) software and stores/retrieves data in/from the server. The server consists of a CORBA object or objects depending upon whether the data is to be made persistent on a single server or multiple servers. The CORBA object providing the persistent data server is implemented using the Java progranu-ning language. It uses the JRB to store/retrieve data in/from a relational database server. The persistent data management system provides transaction and user management facilities which allow multi-user, distributed access to the stored data in a secure manner.

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Casablanca | Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov Websites

    (Badajoz) Owner(s): ACS - COBRA group (100%) Technology: Parabolic trough Turbine Capacity: Net: 50.0 MW Participants Developer(s): ACS - COBRA group Owner(s) (%): ACS - COBRA group (100%) EPC Contractor: Cobra

  7. Antivenom for Neuromuscular Paralysis Resulting From Snake Envenoming

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anjana; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.

    2017-01-01

    Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pre-clinical tests of antivenom efficacy for neurotoxicity include rodent lethality tests, which are problematic, and in vitro pharmacological tests such as nerve-muscle preparation studies, that appear to provide more clinically meaningful information. We searched MEDLINE (from 1946) and EMBASE (from 1947) until March 2017 for clinical studies. The search yielded no randomised placebo-controlled trials of antivenom for neuromuscular dysfunction. There were several randomised and non-randomised comparative trials that compared two or more doses of the same or different antivenom, and numerous cohort studies and case reports. The majority of studies available had deficiencies including poor case definition, poor study design, small sample size or no objective measures of paralysis. A number of studies demonstrated the efficacy of antivenom in human envenoming by clearing circulating venom. Studies of snakes with primarily pre-synaptic neurotoxins, such as kraits (Bungarus spp.) and taipans (Oxyuranus spp.) suggest that antivenom does not reverse established neurotoxicity, but early administration may be associated with decreased severity or prevent neurotoxicity. Small studies of snakes with mainly post-synaptic neurotoxins, including some cobra species (Naja spp.), provide preliminary evidence that neurotoxicity may be reversed with antivenom, but placebo controlled studies with objective outcome measures are required to confirm this. PMID:28422078

  8. Myocardial injury in dogs with snake envenomation and its relation to systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Langhorn, Rebecca; Persson, Frida; Ablad, Björn; Goddard, Amelia; Schoeman, Johan P; Willesen, Jakob L; Tarnow, Inge; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the presence of myocardial injury in dogs hospitalized for snake envenomation and to examine its relationship with systemic inflammation. Prospective case-control study. University teaching hospital and small animal referral hospital. Dogs naturally envenomed by the European viper (Vipera berus; n = 24), African puff adder (Bitis arietans; n = 5), or snouted cobra (Naja annulifera; n = 9). Blood was collected from dogs envenomed by V. berus at admission, 12-24 hours postadmission, and 5-10 days postadmission. Blood was collected from dogs envenomed by B. arietans or N. annulifera at admission, and 12, 24, and 36 hours postadmission. Concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a marker of myocardial injury, and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, were measured in each blood sample. Evidence of myocardial injury was found in 58% of dogs envenomed by V. berus at one or more time points. A significant correlation between cTnI and CRP concentrations was found at all time points. Evidence of myocardial injury was found in 80% of dogs envenomed by B. arietans at one or more time points; however, no correlation was found between cTnI and CRP concentrations. Evidence of myocardial injury was found in 67% of dogs envenomed by N. annulifera at one or more time points. A significant correlation between cTnI and CRP concentrations was found at admission, but not at other time points. Myocardial injury frequently occurred in dogs with snake envenomation. While the degree of systemic inflammation was significantly correlated with degree of myocardial injury in V. berus envenomation at all time points, this was not the case in dogs envenomed by N. annulifera or B. arietans. This could be due to differences in the toxic substances of the snake venoms or to differences in the cytokines induced by the venom toxins. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  9. Development of Hybrid Computer Programs for AAFSS/COBRA/COIN Weapons Effectiveness Studies. Volume I. Simulating Aircraft Maneuvers and Weapon Firing Runs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    for the game. Subsequent duels , flown with single armed escorts, calculated reduction in losses and damage states. For the study, hybrid computer...6) a duel between a ground weapon, armed escort, and formation of lift aircraft. (Author)

  10. Cost and Outcome of BehaviouRal Activation (COBRA): a randomised controlled trial of behavioural activation versus cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Richards, David A; Rhodes, Shelley; Ekers, David; McMillan, Dean; Taylor, Rod S; Byford, Sarah; Barrett, Barbara; Finning, Katie; Ganguli, Poushali; Warren, Fiona; Farrand, Paul; Gilbody, Simon; Kuyken, Willem; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Ed; Wright, Kim; Reed, Nigel; Fletcher, Emily; Hollon, Steven D; Moore, Lucy; Backhouse, Amy; Farrow, Claire; Garry, Julie; Kemp, Deborah; Plummer, Faye; Warner, Faith; Woodhouse, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a common, debilitating and costly disorder. The best-evidenced psychological therapy - cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) - is complex and costly. A simpler therapy, behavioural activation (BA), may be an effective alternative. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of BA compared with CBT for depressed adults at 12 and 18 months' follow-up, and to investigate the processes of treatments. Randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial stratified by depression severity, antidepressant use and recruitment site, with embedded process evaluation; and randomisation by remote computer-generated allocation. Three community mental health services in England. Adults aged ≥ 18 years with major depressive disorder (MDD) recruited from primary care and psychological therapy services. BA delivered by NHS junior mental health workers (MHWs); CBT by NHS psychological therapists. Primary: depression severity (as measured via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PHQ-9) at 12 months. Secondary: MDD status; number of depression-free days; anxiety (as measured via the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7); health-related quality of life (as measured via the Short Form questionnaire-36 items) at 6, 12 and 18 months; and PHQ-9 at 6 and 18 months, all collected by assessors blinded to treatment allocation. Non-inferiority margin was 1.9 PHQ-9 points. We undertook intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. We explored cost-effectiveness by collecting direct treatment and other health- and social-care costs and calculating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) using the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, three-level version, at 18 months. We recruited 440 participants (BA, n  = 221; CBT, n  = 219); 175 (79%) BA and 189 (86%) CBT participants provided ITT data and 135 (61%) BA and 151 (69%) CBT participants provided PP data. At 12 months we found that BA was non-inferior to CBT {ITT: CBT 8.4 PHQ-9 points [standard deviation (SD) 7.5 PHQ-9 points], BA 8.4 PHQ-9 points (SD 7.0 PHQ-9 points), mean difference 0.1 PHQ-9 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.3 to 1.5 PHQ-9 points, p  = 0.89; PP: CBT 7.9 PHQ-9 points (SD 7.3 PHQ-9 points), BA 7.8 PHQ-9 points (SD 6.5 PHQ-9 points), mean difference 0.0 PHQ-9 points, 95% CI -1.5 to 1.6 PHQ-9 points, p  = 0.99}. We found no differences in secondary outcomes. We found a significant difference in mean intervention costs (BA, £975; CBT, £1235; p  < 0.001), but no differences in non-intervention (hospital, community health, social care and medication costs) or total (non-intervention plus intervention) costs. Costs were lower and QALY outcomes better in the BA group, generating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -£6865. The probability of BA being cost-effective compared with CBT was almost 80% at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's preferred willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000-30,000 per QALY. There were no trial-related adverse events. In this pragmatic trial many depressed participants in both groups were also taking antidepressant medication, although most had been doing so for a considerable time before entering the trial. Around one-third of participants chose not to complete a PP dose of treatment, a finding common in both psychotherapy trials and routine practice. We found that BA is as effective as CBT, more cost-effective and can be delivered by MHWs with no professional training in psychological therapies. Settings and countries with a paucity of professionally qualified psychological therapists, might choose to investigate the delivery of effective psychological therapy for depression without the need to develop an extensive and costly professional infrastructure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment ; Vol. 21, No. 46. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

  11. Mode of Action of Membrane Perturbing Agents: Snake Venom Cardiotoxins and Phospholipases A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-15

    PLAz neurotoxins. Experimental Methods: Materials. Vencm from 1 nAjA atra, CTX from Naja n9ja kaouthia venom (Lots 125F-4007), bee venom PLAz ( Apis ... mellifera ), melittin, B-bungarotoxin, Tris base, Hepes (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-piperazineethanesulfonic acid), Mes (4- morpholineethanesulfonic acid), bovine

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Extresol-2 | Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov Websites

    Sesmero (Badajoz) Owner(s): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) Technology: Parabolic trough Turbine Capacity: Net : 158,000 MWh/yr (Expected/Planned) Contact(s): Manuel Cortes; Ana Salazar Company: ACS/Cobra Group Break Project Type: Commercial Participants Developer(s): ACS/Cobra Group Owner(s) (%): ACS/Cobra Group (100

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Extresol-3 | Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov Websites

    Sesmero (Badajoz) Owner(s): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) Technology: Parabolic trough Turbine Capacity: Net : 158,000 MWh/yr (Expected/Planned) Contact(s): Manuel Cortes; Ana Salazar Company: ACS/Cobra Group Break years Project Type: Commercial Participants Developer(s): ACS/Cobra Group Owner(s) (%): ACS/Cobra Group

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Manchasol-2 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov Websites

    Juan (Ciudad Real) Owner(s): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) Technology: Parabolic trough Turbine Capacity: Net : ACS/Cobra Group Break Ground: May 2009 Start Production: April 2011 Construction Job-Years: 600 Annual : Commercial Participants Developer(s): ACS/Cobra Group Owner(s) (%): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) EPC Contractor

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Manchasol-1 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov Websites

    Juan (Ciudad Real) Owner(s): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) Technology: Parabolic trough Turbine Capacity: Net : ACS/Cobra Group Break Ground: October 2008 Start Production: January 2011 Construction Job-Years: 600 : Commercial Participants Developer(s): ACS/Cobra Group Owner(s) (%): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) EPC Contractor

  16. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Andasol-2 | Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov Websites

    ): ACS/Cobra Group Owner(s) (%): ACS/Cobra Group (100%) EPC Contractor: UTE CT Andasol-2: Cobra (80%) and (Model): UTE CT Andasol-2 (SKAL-ET) Mirror Manufacturer (Model): Flabeg (RP3) # of Heat Collector

  17. Natural and synthetic cathelicidin peptides with anti-microbial and anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Dean, Scott N; Bishop, Barney M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2011-05-23

    Chronic, infected wounds typically contain multiple genera of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, many of which are strong biofilm formers. Bacterial biofilms are thought to be a direct impediment to wound healing. New therapies that focus on a biofilm approach may improve the recovery and healing rate for infected wounds. In this study, cathelicidins and related short, synthetic peptides were tested for their anti-microbial effectiveness as well as their ability to inhibit the ability of S. aureus to form biofilms. The helical human cathelicidin LL-37 was tested against S. aureus, and was found to exhibit effective anti-microbial, anti-attachment as well as anti-biofilm activity at concentrations in the low μg/ml range. The effect of peptide chirality and associated protease-resistance was explored through the use of an all-D amino acid peptide, D-LL-37, and in turn compared to scrambled LL-37. Helical cathelicidins have been identified in other animals such as the Chinese cobra, Naja atra (NA-CATH). We previously identified an 11-residue imperfectly repeated pattern (ATRA motif) within the sequence of NA-CATH. A series of short peptides (ATRA-1, -2, -1A), as well as a synthetic peptide, NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1, were designed to explore the significance of the conserved residues within the ATRA motif for anti-microbial activity. The CD spectrum of NA-CATH and NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1 revealed the structural properties of these peptides and suggested that helicity may factor into their anti-microbial and anti-biofilm activities. The NA-CATH:ATRA1-ATRA1 peptide inhibits the production of biofilm by S. aureus in the presence of salt, exhibiting anti-biofilm activity at lower peptide concentrations than NA-CATH, LL-37 and D-LL-37; and demonstrates low cytoxicity against host cells but does not affect bacterial attachment. The peptides utilized in this anti-biofilm approach may provide templates for a new group of anti-microbials and potential future topical

  18. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of combination therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis: randomized comparison of combined step-down prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine with sulphasalazine alone. COBRA Trial Group. Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, A C; Bibo, J C; Boers, M; Engel, G L; van der Linden, S

    1998-10-01

    Assessment of the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of early intervention in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with combined step-down prednisolone, methotrexate and sulphasalazine, compared to sulphasalazine alone. Multicentre 56 week randomized double-blind trial with full economic analysis of direct costs and utility analysis with rating scale and standard gamble measurement techniques. The combined-treatment group included 76 patients and the sulphasalazine group 78 patients. The mean total costs per patient in the first 56 weeks of follow-up were $5519 for combined treatment and $6511 for treatment with sulphasalazine alone (P = 0.37). Out-patient care, in-patient care and non-health care each contributed about one-third to the total costs. The combined-treatment group appeared to generate savings in the length of hospital stay for RA, non-protocol drugs and costs of home help, but comparisons were not statistically significant. Protocol drugs and monitoring were slightly more expensive in the combined-treatment group. Clinical, radiographic and functional outcomes significantly favoured combined treatment at week 28 (radiography also at week 56). Utility scores also favoured combined treatment. Combined treatment is cost-effective due to enhanced efficacy at lower or equal direct costs.

  19. Simulation Of Combat With An Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed expert system predicts outcomes of combat situations. Called "COBRA", combat outcome based on rules for attrition, system selects rules for mathematical modeling of losses and discrete events in combat according to previous experiences. Used with another software module known as the "Game". Game/COBRA software system, consisting of Game and COBRA modules, provides for both quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects in simulations of battles. COBRA intended for simulation of large-scale military exercises, concepts embodied in it have much broader applicability. In industrial research, knowledge-based system enables qualitative as well as quantitative simulations.

  20. Efficacy evaluations of Mimosa pudica tannin isolate (MPT) for its anti-ophidian properties.

    PubMed

    Ambikabothy, Jamunaa; Ibrahim, Halijah; Ambu, Stephen; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Awang, Khalijah; Vejayan, Jaya

    2011-09-01

    Evaluations of the anti-snake venom efficacy of Mimosa pudica tannin isolate (MPT) obtained from root of the plant. MPT was investigated in vitro and in vivo for its efficacy against the venom of Naja kaouthia snake. In vitro: (1) mice injected i.p. with MPT pre-incubated with Naja kaouthia venom at concentrations as low as 0.625 mg/ml showed 100% survival after a 24-h observation period. (2) In the proteomics study, mice injected with MPT pre-incubated with the Naja kaouthia venom showed down-regulation of five serum proteins. (3) In the protein-dye-binding study, the percentage of Bradford dye-protein binding showed a reduction relative to the decrease in MPT concentration used to incubate with the venom. In vivo: the results from the animal studies showed that MPT had no in vivo protection against the Naja kaouthia venom (0.875 mg/kg) in four different rescue modes and in an oral pre-treatment experiment. The study indicated the promising ability of MPT to neutralize the Naja kaouthia venom in in vitro experiments but fell short in its in vivo potential. As such, the use of Mimosa pudica (Mimosaceae) as therapeutics for snake bites is questionable as all the possible in vivo rescue studies and pre-treatment of the active constituents showed no protection against the affected mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 29 CFR 2590.701-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Health Coverage Portability, Nondiscrimination... coverage, under a group health plan, that satisfies an applicable COBRA continuation provision. (3) COBRA...

  2. 42 CFR 411.108 - Taking into account entitlement to Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Terminating coverage because the individual has become entitled to Medicare, except as permitted under COBRA..., instructions to bill Medicare first for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries without stipulating that... employment status, the GHP coverage is by virtue of the COBRA law rather than by virtue of the current...

  3. 42 CFR 411.108 - Taking into account entitlement to Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Terminating coverage because the individual has become entitled to Medicare, except as permitted under COBRA..., instructions to bill Medicare first for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries without stipulating that... employment status, the GHP coverage is by virtue of the COBRA law rather than by virtue of the current...

  4. 42 CFR 411.108 - Taking into account entitlement to Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Terminating coverage because the individual has become entitled to Medicare, except as permitted under COBRA..., instructions to bill Medicare first for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries without stipulating that... employment status, the GHP coverage is by virtue of the COBRA law rather than by virtue of the current...

  5. 42 CFR 411.108 - Taking into account entitlement to Medicare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Terminating coverage because the individual has become entitled to Medicare, except as permitted under COBRA..., instructions to bill Medicare first for services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries without stipulating that... employment status, the GHP coverage is by virtue of the COBRA law rather than by virtue of the current...

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Andasol-1 | Concentrating Solar Power

    Science.gov Websites

    : UTE CT Andasol-1: Cobra (80%) and Sener (20%) Operator(s): Cobra O&M Generation Offtaker(s # of Modules per SCA: 12 SCA Manufacturer (Model): UTE CT Andasol-1 (SKAL-ET) Mirror Manufacturer

  7. Next-generation genome-scale models for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    King, Zachary A; Lloyd, Colton J; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-12-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) methods have become widely used tools for metabolic engineering in both academic and industrial laboratories. By employing a genome-scale in silico representation of the metabolic network of a host organism, COBRA methods can be used to predict optimal genetic modifications that improve the rate and yield of chemical production. A new generation of COBRA models and methods is now being developed--encompassing many biological processes and simulation strategies-and next-generation models enable new types of predictions. Here, three key examples of applying COBRA methods to strain optimization are presented and discussed. Then, an outlook is provided on the next generation of COBRA models and the new types of predictions they will enable for systems metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. COBRApy: COnstraints-Based Reconstruction and Analysis for Python.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Ali; Lerman, Joshua A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Hyduke, Daniel R

    2013-08-08

    COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) methods are widely used for genome-scale modeling of metabolic networks in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Due to the successes with metabolism, there is an increasing effort to apply COBRA methods to reconstruct and analyze integrated models of cellular processes. The COBRA Toolbox for MATLAB is a leading software package for genome-scale analysis of metabolism; however, it was not designed to elegantly capture the complexity inherent in integrated biological networks and lacks an integration framework for the multiomics data used in systems biology. The openCOBRA Project is a community effort to promote constraints-based research through the distribution of freely available software. Here, we describe COBRA for Python (COBRApy), a Python package that provides support for basic COBRA methods. COBRApy is designed in an object-oriented fashion that facilitates the representation of the complex biological processes of metabolism and gene expression. COBRApy does not require MATLAB to function; however, it includes an interface to the COBRA Toolbox for MATLAB to facilitate use of legacy codes. For improved performance, COBRApy includes parallel processing support for computationally intensive processes. COBRApy is an object-oriented framework designed to meet the computational challenges associated with the next generation of stoichiometric constraint-based models and high-density omics data sets. http://opencobra.sourceforge.net/

  9. Resistance of the Opossum (Didelphis Virginiana) to Envenomation by Snakes of the Crotalidae Family.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    ni., .d in Eiock 20. If dtli.r., ( ha. R.p.f ) IS S UPPL€ MEN TA RY NOTES Animal studies in relation to chemical agents 5 I E Y WO RDS (Co&Mu. ., r...cobra 1 .07 mg/kg, iv Died in 30 mm Na/a na/a atra 0 Snakebite Died in 45 min Chinese cobra Na/a nivea 03 1.38 mg/kg, iv Died in 1 hr Cape cobra Micn

  10. Design and Characterization of a Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Vaccine for H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Donald M.; Darby, Christopher A.; Lefoley, Bradford C.; Crevar, Corey J.; Alefantis, Timothy; Oomen, Raymond; Anderson, Stephen F.; Strugnell, Tod; Cortés-Garcia, Guadalupe; Vogel, Thorsten U.; Parrington, Mark; Kleanthous, Harold

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the challenges of developing influenza A vaccines is the diversity of antigenically distinct isolates. Previously, a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza was derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). This COBRA HA elicited a broad antibody response against H5N1 isolates from different clades. We now report the development and characterization of a COBRA-based vaccine for both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolates. Nine prototype H1N1 COBRA HA proteins were developed and tested in mice using a virus-like particle (VLP) format for the elicitation of broadly reactive, functional antibody responses and protection against viral challenge. These candidates were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 30 years. In addition, several COBRA candidates were designed based on sequences of H1N1 viruses spanning the past 100 years, including modern pandemic H1N1 isolates. Four of the 9 H1N1 COBRA HA proteins (X1, X3, X6, and P1) had the broadest hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against a panel of 17 H1N1 viruses. These vaccines were used in cocktails or prime-boost combinations. The most effective regimens that both elicited the broadest HAI response and protected mice against a pandemic H1N1 challenge were vaccines that contained the P1 COBRA VLP and either the X3 or X6 COBRA VLP vaccine. These mice had little or no detectable viral replication, comparable to that observed with a matched licensed vaccine. This is the first report describing a COBRA-based HA vaccine strategy that elicits a universal, broadly reactive, protective response against seasonal and pandemic H1N1 isolates. IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccine approaches have the potential to be paradigm shifting for the influenza vaccine field, with the goal of replacing the current standard of care with broadly cross-protective vaccines. We have used COBRA technology to develop an HA head

  11. The summer drought related hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) decline in eastern North America 5,700 to 5,100 years ago

    Treesearch

    Jean Nicolas Haas; John H. McAndrews

    2000-01-01

    High resolution paleoecological analyses from Shepherd Lake, Ontario, Canada, show that 10 to 100 year lake level fluctuations due to climatic change were responsible for alterations in the aquatic biodiversity 5,700 to 5,100 years ago. Thermophilic aquatics such as the Bushy pondweed Najas flexilis, charophyte algae and aquatic invertebrates...

  12. Snake bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... larger. Southeast Asia, India, Brazil, and areas of Africa have the most deaths due to snakebite. Considerations ... of the following: Cobra Copperhead Coral snake Cottonmouth (water moccasin) Rattlesnake Various snakes found at zoos Most ...

  13. 77 FR 21586 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act Health Benefits... Reconciliation Act Health Benefits Subsidy Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Evaluation... health benefits under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) that the American...

  14. 18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL LIGHT STANDARD, WITH REPLACEMENT BRACKET AND COBRA-HEAD LAMP - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  15. Intensity Changes in Typhoon Sinlaku and Typhoon Jangmi in Response to Varying Ocean and Atmospheric Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    FIGURES Figure 1.  Radar image of the eye of Typhoon Cobra on 18 December 1944 from a ship located at the center of the area shown (from NOAA Library at...System Research and Predictability Experiment T- PARC : THORPEX-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign TS: Tropical Storm TUTT: Tropical Upper...Figure 1. Radar image of the eye of Typhoon Cobra on 18 December 1944 from a ship located at the center of the area shown (from NOAA Library at

  16. Best Value Analysis of Tool/Individual Material Readiness List (IMRL) Items for Carrier Air Wing Five (CVW-5) F/A-18 Hornet Squadrons from NAF Atsugi to MCAS Iwakuni, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    assets; or Cobra Gold, a six-week exercise conducted jointly with the Royal Thai Armed Forces (U.S. Army, Pacific, 2012). Because these operations do...point of use. An example of this type of mobilization is Cobra Gold, a six-week exercise conducted jointly with the Royal Thai Armed Forces...in the same theatre , and to discontinue the loss of maintenance man-hours in packing and unpacking the entire support package upon each deployment

  17. Proposals to Subsidize Health Insurance for the Unemployed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    firms with 20 or more employees to continue offering health coverage to workers who separate from the firm. However, firms may charge former employees ...employment-based health plans must make continuation coverage available to former employees and covered family members. Sepated workers may continue COBRA... workers in firms of 20 or more employees who participate in an existing employer-sponsored health plan are eligible to continue coverage under COBRA

  18. ARC-1969-AC90-0178-97

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-06-04

    Bell NAH-1G (USA 70-15979 NASA-736) FLITE Cobra helicopter hovering on Ames ramp is successor to the original FLITE Cobra. It has been used extensively in joint NASA/Army human factors research in the areas of night vision displays and voice communications since its arrival in 1987. Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig 140

  19. Complement Depletion Protects Lupus-prone Mice from Ischemia-reperfusion-initiated Organ Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-25

    injury, we sought to evaluate whether complement inhibition mitigates organ damage. We found that complement deple- tion with cobra venom factor... venom factor and C5a receptor antagonist were able to protect mice from local tissue damage, treatment with C5a receptor antagonist was not able to...Complement depletion or blockage of the complement pathway using molecules such as cobra venom factor (CVF) (24, 33) and C5a receptor antagonists (C5aRA

  20. Elicitation of Protective Antibodies against a Broad Panel of H1N1 Viruses in Ferrets Preimmune to Historical H1N1 Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Carter, Donald M; Darby, Christopher A; Johnson, Scott K; Carlock, Michael A; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Allen, James D; Vogel, Thorsten U; Delagrave, Simon; DiNapoli, Joshua; Kleanthous, Harold; Ross, Ted M

    2017-12-15

    Most preclinical animal studies test influenza vaccines in immunologically naive animal models, even though the results of vaccination may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of vaccine candidates in humans that have preexisting immunity to influenza. In this study, novel, broadly reactive influenza vaccine candidates were assessed in preimmune ferrets. These animals were infected with different H1N1 isolates before being vaccinated or infected with another influenza virus. Previously, our group has described the design and characterization of computationally optimized broadly reactive hemagglutinin (HA) antigens (COBRA) for H1N1 isolates. Vaccinating ferrets with virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines expressing COBRA HA proteins elicited antibodies with hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against more H1N1 viruses in the panel than VLP vaccines expressing wild-type HA proteins. Specifically, ferrets infected with the 1986 virus and vaccinated with a single dose of the COBRA HA VLP vaccines elicited antibodies with HAI activity against 11 to 14 of the 15 H1N1 viruses isolated between 1934 and 2013. A subset of ferrets was infected with influenza viruses expressing the COBRA HA antigens. These COBRA preimmune ferrets had superior breadth of HAI activity after vaccination with COBRA HA VLP vaccines than COBRA preimmune ferrets vaccinated with VLP vaccines expressing wild-type HA proteins. Overall, priming naive ferrets with COBRA HA based viruses or using COBRA HA based vaccines to boost preexisting antibodies induced by wild-type H1N1 viruses, COBRA HA antigens elicited sera with the broadest HAI reactivity against multiple antigenic H1N1 viral variants. This is the first report demonstrating the effectiveness of a broadly reactive or universal influenza vaccine in a preimmune ferret model. IMPORTANCE Currently, many groups are testing influenza vaccine candidates to meet the challenge of developing a vaccine that elicits broadly reactive and long

  1. Elicitation of Protective Antibodies against a Broad Panel of H1N1 Viruses in Ferrets Preimmune to Historical H1N1 Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Donald M.; Darby, Christopher A.; Johnson, Scott K.; Carlock, Michael A.; Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; Allen, James D.; Vogel, Thorsten U.; Delagrave, Simon; DiNapoli, Joshua; Kleanthous, Harold

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most preclinical animal studies test influenza vaccines in immunologically naive animal models, even though the results of vaccination may not accurately reflect the effectiveness of vaccine candidates in humans that have preexisting immunity to influenza. In this study, novel, broadly reactive influenza vaccine candidates were assessed in preimmune ferrets. These animals were infected with different H1N1 isolates before being vaccinated or infected with another influenza virus. Previously, our group has described the design and characterization of computationally optimized broadly reactive hemagglutinin (HA) antigens (COBRA) for H1N1 isolates. Vaccinating ferrets with virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines expressing COBRA HA proteins elicited antibodies with hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against more H1N1 viruses in the panel than VLP vaccines expressing wild-type HA proteins. Specifically, ferrets infected with the 1986 virus and vaccinated with a single dose of the COBRA HA VLP vaccines elicited antibodies with HAI activity against 11 to 14 of the 15 H1N1 viruses isolated between 1934 and 2013. A subset of ferrets was infected with influenza viruses expressing the COBRA HA antigens. These COBRA preimmune ferrets had superior breadth of HAI activity after vaccination with COBRA HA VLP vaccines than COBRA preimmune ferrets vaccinated with VLP vaccines expressing wild-type HA proteins. Overall, priming naive ferrets with COBRA HA based viruses or using COBRA HA based vaccines to boost preexisting antibodies induced by wild-type H1N1 viruses, COBRA HA antigens elicited sera with the broadest HAI reactivity against multiple antigenic H1N1 viral variants. This is the first report demonstrating the effectiveness of a broadly reactive or universal influenza vaccine in a preimmune ferret model. IMPORTANCE Currently, many groups are testing influenza vaccine candidates to meet the challenge of developing a vaccine that elicits broadly reactive and long

  2. Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Hemagglutinin Elicits Hemagglutination Inhibition Antibodies against a Panel of H3N2 Influenza Virus Cocirculating Variants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Terianne M.; Allen, James D.; Bebin-Blackwell, Anne-Gaelle; Carter, Donald M.; Alefantis, Timothy; DiNapoli, Joshua; Kleanthous, Harold

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Each influenza season, a set of wild-type viruses, representing one H1N1, one H3N2, and one to two influenza B isolates, are selected for inclusion in the annual seasonal influenza vaccine. In order to develop broadly reactive subtype-specific influenza vaccines, a methodology called computationally optimized broadly reactive antigens (COBRA) was used to design novel hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine immunogens. COBRA technology was effectively used to design HA immunogens that elicited antibodies that neutralized H5N1 and H1N1 isolates. In this report, the development and characterization of 17 prototype H3N2 COBRA HA proteins were screened in mice and ferrets for the elicitation of antibodies with HA inhibition (HAI) activity against human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were isolated over the last 48 years. The most effective COBRA HA vaccine regimens elicited antibodies with broader HAI activity against a panel of H3N2 viruses than wild-type H3 HA vaccines. The top leading COBRA HA candidates were tested against cocirculating variants. These variants were not efficiently detected by antibodies elicited by the wild-type HA from viruses selected as the vaccine candidates. The T-11 COBRA HA vaccine elicited antibodies with HAI and neutralization activity against all cocirculating variants from 2004 to 2007. This is the first report demonstrating broader breadth of vaccine-induced antibodies against cocirculating H3N2 strains compared to the wild-type HA antigens that were represented in commercial influenza vaccines. IMPORTANCE There is a need for an improved influenza vaccine that elicits immune responses that recognize a broader number of influenza virus strains to prevent infection and transmission. Using the COBRA approach, a set of vaccines against influenza viruses in the H3N2 subtype was tested for the ability to elicit antibodies that neutralize virus infection against not only historical vaccine strains of H3N2 but also a set of cocirculating variants that

  3. Overcorrection during treatment of pectus deformities with DCC orthoses: experience in 17 cases

    PubMed Central

    Haje, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum with dynamic chest compressor (DCC) orthoses have been reported by Haje and others. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that overcorrection during orthotic treatment of children and adolescents with pectus deformities can occur and requires medical attention. Of 3,028 children and adolescents with pectus deformities, observed between 1977 and October 2005, 1,824 were prescribed treatment with DCC orthoses and, after a few months of treatment, some overcorrection was noted in 30 patients. Of the patients who received orthoses, 738 had a minimum follow-up of 1 year and 17 of these, 2 with pectus excavatum and 15 with pectus carinatum, presented overcorrection and were studied. The dynamic remodeling method (DCC orthoses + exercises) was applied. The procedures, adopted according to each patient’s needs, were: decreasing the time of orthosis wear and/or the tightening of the screws, introducing a second orthosis, and improving the prescribed exercises and/or encouraging the patient to perform them more intensively. The therapy was successful in all patients, and the result was maintained in one case of pectus excavatum followed up until adulthood. It was concluded that overcorrection during DCC orthosis wear can occur and that careful medical follow-up is necessary if this complication is to be successfully reversed. PMID:16474937

  4. Growth in the Number of SSN Tracked Orbital Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2004-01-01

    The number of objects in earth orbit tracked by the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) has experienced unprecedented growth since March, 2003. Approximately 2000 orbiting objects have been added to the "Analyst list" of tracked objects. This growth is primarily due to the resumption of full power/full time operation of the AN/FPS-108 Cobra Dane radar located on Shemya Island, AK. Cobra Dane is an L-band (23-cm wavelength) phased array radar which first became operational in 1977. Cobra Dane was a "Collateral Sensor" in the SSN until 1994 when its communication link with the Space Control Center (SCC) was closed. NASA and the Air Force conducted tests in 1999 using Cobra Dane to detect and track small debris. These tests confirmed that the radar was capable of detecting and maintaining orbits on objects as small as 5-cm diameter. Subsequently, Cobra Dane was reconnected to the SSN and resumed full power/full time space surveillance operations on March 4, 2003. This paper will examine the new data and its implications to the understanding of the orbital debris environment and orbital safety.

  5. Submersed Littoral Vegetation Distribution: Field Quantification and Experimental Analysis of Sediment Types from Onondaga Lake, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    dubia X IX X .Juncus pelocarpus XI Myrophyyllum spicatum X ? Nalas flexilis X Najas marina X Nitella sp ?____ 4 14uphar luteum X Nymphaea odorata IX...Onondaga Lake sediments: Elodea canadensis (EC), Myriophyllum spicatum (MS), Nymphaea odorata (NO), Potamogeton crispus (PC), P. nodosus (PN), P... Nymphaea odorata , S. rigida, and T. latifolia all did poorly on Onondaga Lake sediments and/or water, and are not recommended for transplant efforts

  6. Development of a new polyspecific antivenom for snakebite envenoming in Sri Lanka: Analysis of its preclinical efficacy as compared to a currently available antivenom.

    PubMed

    Villalta, Mauren; Sánchez, Andrés; Herrera, María; Vargas, Mariángela; Segura, Álvaro; Cerdas, Maykel; Estrada, Ricardo; Gawarammana, Indika; Keyler, Dan E; McWhorter, Kimberly; Malleappah, Roy; Alape-Girón, Alberto; León, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-11-01

    A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A 2 . Both antivenoms neutralized, to a different extent, these activities of the venom of D. russelii, E. carinatus, and N. naja. In general, the polyspecific Sri Lankan antivenom was more effective than the Indian antivenom in the neutralization of the venoms of D. russelii and E. carinatus, whereas the Indian antivenom showed a higher efficacy against the venom of N. naja. Regarding H. hypnale, the new Sri Lankan antivenom was effective in the neutralization of all activities tested, whereas the Indian antivenom neutralized lethality but not hemorrhagic, coagulant, proteinase and PLA 2 activities, in agreement with the fact that this venom is not included in the immunization mixture for this antivenom. Results suggest that the new polyspecific Sri Lankan antivenom has a satisfactory preclinical neutralizing profile and compares favorably with the Indian antivenom. This is ready to be tested in a clinical trial to evaluate its efficacy and safety in human victims of snakebite envenomings by D. russelii, E. carinatus and H. hypnale in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New host and locality records of snake intestinal nematode Kalicephalus spp in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Mumpuni

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe three species of Kalicephalus found in three species of snake (Ophiophagus hannah, Ptyas mucosus, and Naja Sputatrix) during research on Capture Snake for Trading in Java and Snake Biodiversity in Kalimantan Islands. Methods Specimens for light microscopy examination were fixed with warm 70% alcohol, cleared and mounted in lactophenol for wet mounting. Drawings were made with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a Nikon compound microscope. Measurements were given in micrometers (µ) as the average of findings, followed by the range in parentheses, unless otherwise stated. Results Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus was found from 7 Ptyas mucosus, Kalicephalus bungari from 2 Naja sputatrix and 1 Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus and Kalicephalus assimilis found from 1 Ophiophagus hannah. The morphology and measurement of three species of Kalicephalus found in this study were close to those described before. Conclusions New finding of host of Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus and Kalicephalus bungari was a snake species of Naja sputatrix. New records of locality were Kalimantan island as the new locality of Kalicephalus assimilis, and Java island was new locality of Kalicephalus (Costatus) indicus. PMID:23569740

  8. A proof for loop-law constraints in stoichiometric metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constraint-based modeling is increasingly employed for metabolic network analysis. Its underlying assumption is that natural metabolic phenotypes can be predicted by adding physicochemical constraints to remove unrealistic metabolic flux solutions. The loopless-COBRA approach provides an additional constraint that eliminates thermodynamically infeasible internal cycles (or loops) from the space of solutions. This allows the prediction of flux solutions that are more consistent with experimental data. However, it is not clear if this approach over-constrains the models by removing non-loop solutions as well. Results Here we apply Gordan’s theorem from linear algebra to prove for the first time that the constraints added in loopless-COBRA do not over-constrain the problem beyond the elimination of the loops themselves. Conclusions The loopless-COBRA constraints can be reliably applied. Furthermore, this proof may be adapted to evaluate the theoretical soundness for other methods in constraint-based modeling. PMID:23146116

  9. The Multipurpose Black Hawk Utility Helicopter: Rotary-wing Versatility Required for U.S. Marine Corps Enhanced Company Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    THE FOREGOING STATEMENT. QUOTATION FROM, ABSTRACTION FROM, OR REPRODUCTION OF ALL OR ANY PART OF THIS DOCVMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPER...Capabilities and Limitations 7 AH-IW/Z Cobra’s Role in Support ofECO 8 CH-53E Super Stallion Capabilities and Limitations 9 CH-53E Super Stallion’s Role...of aircraft. Analysis of the roles and capabilities of the AH-IW Super Cobra, CH-53E Super Stallion , MV-22B Osprey, and the UH- IN Huey will identify

  10. Host Defense against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    patients were total hemolytic complement (CH5 0 ), C3 conversion by inulin and cobra venom factor (CoVF), and itmunochemical concentrations of Clq, C4, C2...were normal or elevated for the entire study period. C3 conversion by inulin and CoVF and the concentration of properdin were reduced in the sera of the...measured in all patients were total hemolytic complement (CH5 0), C3 conversion by inulin and cobra venom factor (CoVF), and inunochemical

  11. Selective recruitment of the lower fibers of the trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Arlotta, Melissa; Lovasco, Gina; McLean, Linda

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to determine the effectiveness of five isometric exercises at maximally activating the lower trapezius muscle in healthy subjects. Surface electromyography data were recorded from the upper, middle, and lower fibers of the trapezius muscle bilaterally while 18 healthy subjects performed five different exercises: Latissimus Pull-down, Prone Row, Prone V-Raise, Posterior Fly and Modified Prone Cobra. The peak activation was determined from the rectified and smoothed data to determine which exercise generated the highest amount of lower trapezius activity, and to determine which exercise best resulted in activation of the lower fibers of trapezius while minimizing activation of the upper and middle fibers of trapezius. Males and females demonstrated different patterns of lower trapezius recruitment and therefore the data were analyzed separately for each sex. For the males, the Prone Row exercise (2.84 ± 1.67 mV), the Posterior Fly (2.23 ± 1.00 mV) and the Modified Prone Cobra (2.26 ± 1.19 mV) exercises generated the highest EMG activity in the lower trapezius muscle. For the females, the Modified Prone Cobra (2.40 ± 1.32 mV) and the Prone Row (2.37 ± 1.14 mV) exercises generated higher activation than the Latissimus Pull Down (1.04 ± 0.56 mV), the Posterior Fly (1.62 ± 1.044 mV) and the Prone V-Raise (1.32 ± 1.07 mV). In both sexes, the Modified Prone Cobra, the Prone Row and the Latissimus Pull Down outperformed the other exercises in terms of maximizing lower trapezius activation while minimizing activation of the upper and middle fibers of trapezius. The Modified Prone Cobra showed lower relative activation of the upper trapezius muscle than did the Prone Row exercise. The Modified Prone Cobra and Prone Row exercises are the most effective exercises for targeted strengthening of the lower trapezius muscle in both sexes. The Modified Prone Cobra is somewhat better than the Prone Row due to the low activation of the upper trapezius muscle during

  12. ABSENCE OF LECITHIN FROM THE STROMATA OF THE RED CELLS OF CERTAIN ANIMALS (RUMINANTS), AND ITS RELATION TO VENOM HEMOLYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joseph C.

    1957-01-01

    Lipide extracts of the red cells of several animal species have been analyzed chromatographically. Genetically determined differences in phospholipide composition were found. Lecithin is absent from the cells of ox, sheep, and goat. Cells containing lecithin are susceptible to the direct hemolysin of cobra venom while cells not containing lecithin are resistant. The facts indicate that the direct hemolysin is a lecithinase. PMID:13406178

  13. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonucleasemore » I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.« less

  14. Operational Issues in the Development of a Cost-Effective Reusable LOX/LH2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: SLI initiated under NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 8-30. Strategic Objectives. Make spaceflight safer (1 in 10000 mission LOV). Make spaceflight cheaper ($1000/lb payload). Two prototype LOX/LH2 engine systems funded under Cycle-1 of NRA8-30. COBRA (Pratt & Whitney / Aerojet). RS-83 (Rocketdyne).

  15. Learning from Their Own Learning: How Metacognitive and Meta-Affective Reflections Enhance Learning in Race-Related Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Nancy; Karis, Terri; Kernahan, Cyndi

    2009-01-01

    This interdisciplinary project examined how students think and feel about their learning in race-related diversity courses. Students in four classes (literature, psychology, geography) reflected on cognitive and affective dimensions of their own and their classmates' learning. The Color Blind Racial Attitudes Scales (CoBRAS) confirmed qualitative…

  16. Speeches

    Science.gov Websites

    Zealand | March 5, 2018 | As Prepared for Delivery ... MORE Exercise Cobra Gold Combined Arms Live-Fire Combined Arms Live-Fire Exercise (CALFEX) | Ban Chan Krem, Thailand | February 22, 2018 | As Delivered . Many of them are within the Ring of Fire and pron... Twitter Logo Even after over a century of military

  17. Special Course on Subsonic/Transonic Aerodynamic Interference for Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    SHOCKS H = .83. CL = .40. COW .0005. A = 6.0 Fig. 25 Iteration history for transonic airfoil b) REDESIGNED WING design (M = .77) with weak shock Fig. 27...Finished Wing (King Cobra). RAE TN Aero. 2383, 1950. 10. Holstein , H.: Messungen zur Laminarhaltung der Grenzchicht an elnem Flugel. Lilenthal-Bericht

  18. Technology in HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on technology in human resource development (HRD). "COBRA, an Electronic Performance Support System for the Analysis of Jobs and Tasks" (Theo J. Bastiaens) is described as an integrated computerized environment that provides tools, information, advice, and training to help employees do…

  19. 75 FR 26276 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... with the Secretaries of the Treasury and Health and Human Services, develop model notices. These models... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Publication of Model Notices for... (COBRA) and Other Health Care Continuation Coverage, as Required by the American Recovery and...

  20. What's Race Got to Do with It? Preservice Teachers and White Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Terri; Margolin, Marcia; Fragnoli, Kristi; Bloom, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined changes in student teachers' White racial identity and color-blindness (using scores on the WRCDS-R and CoBRAS), as well as their perceptions of working with students of color, following a semester of student teaching in diverse classrooms. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated student teachers were more color-blind about…

  1. Ophidophobia!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Addresses irrational fears of snakes and how an understanding of snakes can alleviate this fear. For example, the survival methods of the Eastern Hognose snake, which inhabits upland hillsides and woodland meadows, include impersonating a cobra and playing dead. Although this snake looks and acts dangerous, it is quite harmless to humans. (LP)

  2. Ebb and Flow: Maintaining the Close Air Support Relationship through History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-10

    and ground forces should shape the CAS relationship for the future . Thesis Since the appearance of aircraft on the battlefield, ground forces in...campaigned for the primacy of airpower in national defense , but ultimately air and ground leaders alike share the responsibility for the failure to... for Operation Cobra involved a bold breakthrough of the German defenses , but Bradley anticipated

  3. Post Conflict Reconstruction: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    www.heritage.org/research/nation alsecurity/bg1859.cfm Clover, Jenny, and Richard Cornwell , eds. Supporting Sustainable Livelihoods: A Critical Review of...and Bernard E. Trainor. “Starting from Scratch.” In Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq, 475-496. New York: Pantheon

  4. Reptiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of various reptiles. Contains teaching activities including making reptile number books and identification keys, flip-ups about cobras, puzzles involving graphing, and group presentations. Includes reproducible handouts to be used with some of the activities. (TW)

  5. Support to 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    In this final report regarding support to the second generation RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) propulsion project office, a list of tasks accomplished is presented. During this period, Lee & Associates, LLC participated in numerous Systems Requirements Reviews (SRR) related to the Cobra development program.

  6. Journal of Special Operations Medicine Volume 1, Edition 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    the enemy, and generally regard them with unspo- ken respect. The feelings they must have for those who are realistically threatening their lives...Cobras from the 1st Cav Division area of operation just down to the south of us, Loaches , even a Chi- nook. And fixed wing! We had everything but a B-52

  7. 26 CFR 54.4980B-0 - Table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements apply to cafeteria plans and other flexible benefit arrangements? Q-9: What is the effect of a... employer withdrawals from multiemployer plans. § 54.4980B-10Interaction of FMLA and COBRA. List of... purposes of section 4980B, what is a group health plan? Q-2: For purposes of section 4980B, what is the...

  8. Platelets Orchestrate Remote Tissue Damage After Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    Medicine , Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Ave., CLS-928, Boston, MA 02115 (e-mail: gtsokos@bidmc.harvard.edu). Am...Guikema BJ, Fritzinger DC, Vogel CW, Stahl GL. Humanized cobra venom factor decreases myocardial ischemia-reperfu- sion injury. Mol Immunol 47: 506–510

  9. ARC-1978-AC78-1040-172

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-11-14

    Lockheed YO-3A (USA 69-18010 NASA 718) A/C & BELL COBRA HELICOPTER FLIGHT & GROUND TESTS AT EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE. Rotorcraft Research. NASA SP-1998-3300 Flight Research at Ames: 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology Fig. 143

  10. 78 FR 59065 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Notice Requirements of the Health Care Continuation Coverage... of the Health Care Continuation Coverage Provisions,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB..., under certain circumstances, a group health plan participant or beneficiary who meets the COBRA...

  11. 75 FR 2562 - Publication of Model Notices for Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... Health Care Continuation Coverage Provided Pursuant to the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) and Other Health Care Continuation Coverage, as Required by the American Recovery and... Availability of the Model Health Care Continuation Coverage Notices Required by ARRA, as amended. SUMMARY: On...

  12. Iterative Covariance-based Removal of Time-Synchronous Artifacts: Application to Gastrointestinal Electrical Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Joy; Hilbert, Douglas; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Cheng, Leo K.; O'Grady, Greg; Angeli, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop, validate, and apply a fully automated method for reducing large temporally synchronous artifacts present in electrical recordings made from the gastrointestinal (GI) serosa, which are problematic for properly assessing slow wave dynamics. Such artifacts routinely arise in experimental and clinical settings from motion, switching behavior of medical instruments, or electrode array manipulation. Methods A novel iterative COvaraiance-Based Reduction of Artifacts (COBRA) algorithm sequentially reduced artifact waveforms using an updating across-channel median as a noise template, scaled and subtracted from each channel based on their covariance. Results Application of COBRA substantially increased the signal-to-artifact ratio (12.8±2.5 dB), while minimally attenuating the energy of the underlying source signal by 7.9% on average (-11.1±3.9 dB). Conclusion COBRA was shown to be highly effective for aiding recovery and accurate marking of slow wave events (sensitivity = 0.90±0.04; positive-predictive value = 0.74±0.08) from large segments of in vivo porcine GI electrical mapping data that would otherwise be lost due to a broad range of contaminating artifact waveforms. Significance Strongly reducing artifacts with COBRA ultimately allowed for rapid production of accurate isochronal activation maps detailing the dynamics of slow wave propagation in the porcine intestine. Such mapping studies can help characterize differences between normal and dysrhythmic events, which have been associated with GI abnormalities, such as intestinal ischemia and gastroparesis. The COBRA method may be generally applicable for removing temporally synchronous artifacts in other biosignal processing domains. PMID:26829772

  13. Enhanced recovery after surgery and video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy: the Italian VATS Group**List of collaborators of the Italian ERAS Group: Jacopo Vannucci, MD (University of Perugia); Antonio D’Andrilli, MD (S. Andrea Hospital, Roma); Majed Refai, MD (Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona); Guendalina Graffigna, MD (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano); Stefano Lovadina, MD (Ospedali Riuniti, Trieste); Marzia Umari (Ospedali Riuniti, Trieste), Paolo Ferrari, MD (IRCCS ISMETT-UPMC, University of Pittsburgh, Palermo); Michele Zuliani, MD (Ospedali Riuniti, Trieste); Marco Taurchini, MD (Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo); Carlo Del Naja, MD (Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo); Domenico Massullo, MD (S. Andrea Hospital, Roma), Olha Putina, MD (ASST Mantova), Nicoletta Pia Ardò (University of Foggia). surgical protocol

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Domenico; Voltolini, Luca; Bertani, Alessandro; Bertolaccini, Luca; Crisci, Roberto; Droghetti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS®) is a strategy that seeks to reduce patients’ perioperative stress response, thereby reducing potential complications, decreasing hospital length of stay and enabling patients to return more quickly to their baseline functional status. The concept was introduced in the late 1990s and was first adopted in patients undergoing open colorectal surgery. Since then, the concept of ERAS has been adopted by multiple surgical specialties. The diffusion of video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy (VATS-L) sets also the surgical treatment of lung cancer as a new area for ERAS development. In this paper, we present the Italian VATS Group (www.vatsgroup.org) surgical protocol as part of the ERAS clinical pathway belonging to the VATS-L national database. PMID:29629203

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles: sensitivity of phospholipases to matrix phase state.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, N E; Agman, N V; Roberts, M F

    1987-11-17

    Short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles (SLUVs), unlike pure long-chain lecithin vesicles, are excellent substrates for water-soluble phospholipases. Hemolysis assays show that greater than 99.5% of the short-chain lecithin is partitioned in the bilayer. In these binary component vesicles, the short-chain species is the preferred substrate, while the long-chain phospholipid can be treated as an inhibitor (phospholipase C) or poor substrate (phospholipase A2). For phospholipase C Bacillus cereus, apparent Km and Vmax values show that bilayer-solubilized diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine (diheptanoyl-PC) is nearly as good a substrate as pure micellar diheptanoyl-PC, although the extent of short-chain lecithin hydrolysis depends on the phase state of the long-chain lipid. For phospholipase A2 Naja naja naja, both Km and Vmax values show a greater range: in a gel-state matrix, diheptanoyl-PC is hydrolyzed with micellelike kinetic parameters; in a liquid-crystalline matrix, the short-chain lecithin becomes comparable to the long-chain component. Both enzymes also show an anomalous increase in specific activity toward diheptanoyl-PC around the phase transition temperature of the long-chain phospholipid. Since the short-chain lecithin does not exhibit a phase transition, this must reflect fluctuations in head-group area or vertical motions of the short-chain lecithin caused by surrounding long-chain lecithin molecules. These results are discussed in terms of a specific model for SLUV hydrolysis and a general explanation for the "interfacial activation" observed with water-soluble phospholipases.

  15. Structure-Function Relationship of Hydrophiidae Postsynaptic Neurotoxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-18

    24 hr. Buffer F consisted of 10 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.5. containing 0.02% (w/v) lauryl sulfate (SDS), and 0.04% (w/v) sodium cholate. The...subjected to gel filtration on Sephadex G-50-50 using 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 0.1 M NaCl. Samples were dissolved in 3.5 ml buffer...sequencing. Isolation of Cobrotoxin. The venom from NaJa naia atra was subjected to Sephadex G50-50 gel filtration pre-equilibrated with 10 mM sodium

  16. Comparison of Three Biomass Sampling Techniques on Submersed Aquatic Plants in a Northern Tier Lake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    distribution in 3 out of 14 species when comparing the box-core sampler and the rake method. These included forked duckweed (Lemna trisulca L, p...each site did not exhibit differences. These included coontail (p=0.2949), muskgrass (p=0.2746), American elodea (p=0.7622), forked duckweed (p...collected by the PVC-core sampler. These included coontail (p=0.000), chara (p=0.0219), American elodea (p=0.0061), forked duckweed (p=0.0000), najas (p

  17. Hydrology, water quality, trophic status, and aquatic plants of Fowler Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The low annual phosphorus input (28 pounds per square mile) to the lake from the Oconomowoc River shows the benefit of upstream lakes on the Oconomowoc River. Fourteen percent of the phosphorus input load to Fowler Lake is deposited in the lake sediments and the rest is transported through the lake by surface-water flow to downstream Lac La Belle. Dense growths of macrophytes in the lake change in composition seasonally; chara sp. (muskgrass) and Myriophyllum sp. (milfoil) are abundant in June and Najas marina and Vallesneria Americana (wild celery) are abundant in August.

  18. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    2003-05-01

    The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

  19. Differential action of medically important Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms on rodent blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Vilas; Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Savitha, M N; Urs Amog, Prathap; Rudresha, G V; Yariswamy, M; Vishwanath, B S

    2016-02-01

    Snakebite is a global health problem affecting millions of people. According to WHO, India has the highest mortality and/or morbidity due to snakebite. In spite of commendable research on Indian BIG FOUR venomous species; Naja naja and Bungarus caeruleus (elapid); Daboia russelii and Echis carinatus (viperid), no significant progress has been achieved in terms of diagnosis and management of biting species with appropriate anti-snake venom. Major hurdle is identification of offending species. Present study aims at differentiation of Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms based on their distinguish action on rodent blood coagulation. Assessment of coagulation alterations by elapid venoms showed negligible effect on re-calcification time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and factors assay (I, II, V, VIII and X) both in vitro and in vivo. However, viperid venoms demonstrated significant anticoagulant status due to their remarkable fibrinogen degradation potentials as supported by fibrinogenolytic activity, fibrinogen zymography and rotational thromboelastometry. Though results provide hint on probable alterations of Indian BIG FOUR snake venoms on blood coagulation, the study however needs validation from human victim's samples to ascertain its reliability for identification of biting snake species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prey specificity, comparative lethality and compositional differences of coral snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Jorge da Silva, N; Aird, S D

    2001-03-01

    Toxicities of crude venoms from 49 coral snake (Micrurus sp.) populations, representing 15 nominal taxa, were examined in both laboratory mice and in native prey animals and compared with data gathered from two non-micrurine elapids and a crotalid, which served as outgroups. These venoms were further compared on the basis of 23 enzymatic activities. Both toxicities and enzymatic activities were analyzed with respect to natural prey preferences, as determined from stomach content analyses and literature reports. Venoms of nearly all Micrurus for which prey preferences are known, are more toxic to natural prey than to non-prey species. Except for amphisbaenians, prey are more susceptible to venoms of Micrurus that feed upon them, than to venoms of those that eat other organisms. All venoms were more toxic i.v.>i.p.>i.m. Route-specific differences in toxicity are generally greatest for preferred prey species. Cluster analyses of venom enzymatic activities resulted in five clusters, with the fish-eating M. surinamensis more distant from other Micrurus than even the crotalid, Bothrops moojeni. Ophiophagous and amphisbaenian-eating Micrurus formed two close subclusters, one allied to the outgroup species Naja naja and the other to the fossorial, ophiophagous Bungarus multicinctus. Prey preference is shown to be the most important determinant of venom composition in Micrurus.

  1. Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes.

    PubMed

    Ariaratnam, Christeine A; Sheriff, Mohamed H Rezvi; Arambepola, Carukshi; Theakston, R David G; Warrell, David A

    2009-10-01

    Of 860 snakes brought to 10 hospitals in Sri Lanka with the patients they had bitten, 762 (89%) were venomous. Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii) and hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale) were the most numerous and H. hypnale was the most widely distributed. Fifty-one (6%) were misidentified by hospital staff, causing inappropriate antivenom treatment of 13 patients. Distinctive clinical syndromes were identified to aid species diagnosis in most cases of snake bite in Sri Lanka where the biting species is unknown. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of these syndromes for envenoming were 78% and 96% by Naja naja, 66% and 100% by Bungarus caeruleus, 14% and 100% by Daboia russelii, and 10% and 97% by Hypnale hypnale, respectively. Although only polyspecific antivenoms are used in Sri Lanka, species diagnosis remains important to anticipate life-threatening complications such as local necrosis, hemorrhage and renal and respiratory failure and to identify likely victims of envenoming by H. hypnale who will not benefit from existing antivenoms. The technique of hospital-based collection, labeling and preservation of dead snakes brought by bitten patients is recommended for rapid assessment of a country's medically-important herpetofauna.

  2. Ethnozoological study of traditional medicinal appreciation of animals and their products among the indigenous people of Metema Woreda, North-Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kendie, Fasil Adugna; Mekuriaw, Sileshi Andualem; Dagnew, Melkamu Andargie

    2018-05-23

    Using animals for different purposes goes back to the dawn of mankind. Animals served as a source of food, medicine, and clothing for humans and provided other services. This study was designed to undertake a cross-sectional ethnozoological field survey among the residents of Metema Woreda from November 2015 to May 2016. Data were collected through studied questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions with 36 purposively selected respondents. Ethnozoological data were collected of the local name of the animals, part of the animal used, mode of preparation and administration, and of additional information deemed useful. A total of 51 animal species were identified to treat around 36 different ailments. Of the animals used therapeutically, 27 species were mammals, 9 were birds, 7 arthropods, 6 reptiles, and 1 species each represented fish and annelids. Furthermore, the honey of the bee Apis mellifera was used to relieve many ailments and scored the highest fidelity value (n = 35.97%). The snake (Naja naja) and the teeth of crocodiles (Crocodylus spp.) had the lowest fidelity value (n = 2.56%). The results show that there is a wealth of ethnozoological knowledge to be documented which could be of use in developing new drugs. Hence, it is hoped that the information contained in this paper will be useful in future ethnozoological, ethnopharmacological, and conservation-related research of the region.

  3. Factor V activation and inactivation by venom proteases.

    PubMed

    Rosing, J; Govers-Riemslag, J W; Yukelson, L; Tans, G

    2001-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor V is a single-chain glycoprotein with M(r) = 330,000 which plays an important role in the procoagulant and anticoagulant pathways. Thrombin activates factor V into factor Va, a two-chain molecule which is composed of a heavy (M(r) = 105,000) and a light chain (M(r) = 71,000/74,000). Factor Va accelerates factor Xa-catalysed prothrombin activation more than 1,000-fold and under physiological conditions the cofactor activity of factor Va in prothrombin activation is down-regulated by activated protein C. Factor V can also be activated by a wide variety of snake venoms (e.g. from Vipera species, Naja naja oxiana, Bothrops atrox) and by proteases present in the bristles of a South American caterpillar (Lonomia achelous). Some venoms, notably of Vipera lebetina turanica and Lonomia achelous, contain proteases that are able to inactivate factor V or factor Va. Venom factor V activators are excellent tools in studying the structure-function relationship of factor V(a) and they are also used in diagnostic tests for quantification of plasma factor V levels and for the screening of defects in the protein C pathway. In this review, the structural and functional properties of animal venom factor V activators and inactivators is described. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Phospholipase a properties of several snake venom preparations.

    PubMed

    Nutter, L J; Privett, O S

    1966-07-01

    The hydrolytic properties of the venoms of seven species of snakes,Crotalus adamanteus, Ancistrodon contortrix, Naja naja, Bothrops atrox, Ophiophagus hannah, Crotalus atrox andVipera russeli, were studied with purified lecithins and mixtures of lecithins of known fatty acid and class composition as substrates.The relative rates of hydrolysis of the fatty acids by the above venoms were studied by analysis of the products of the reaction at intervals during the course of the reaction. Of the seven venoms studied, that ofOphiophagus hannah was the only one which did not give some degree of preferential rate of hydrolysis of individual fatty acids.In general, saturated fatty acids were liberated faster than unsaturated fatty acids; differences in the rates of the hydrolysis of individual saturate and unsaturated fatty acids were also observed. Individual classes of lecithin were also hydrolyzed at different rates. For the determination of the distribution of the fatty acids between the alpha- and beta-position of lecithin, the reaction should be carried to completion. If the reaction requires a prolonged time to go to completion, it should be carried out under nitrogen to prevent autoxidation.

  5. A comparative study on the distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents of retinas of some vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, H R; Tewari, H B

    1979-01-01

    A wide coverage of the retinae of a large number of animals (Calotes, Varanus, Naja, Athene, Passer, Streptopelia, Psittacula and Funambulus) from the point of view of the histoenzymological distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents reveals mostly identical patterns. They are as follows: 1. Outer segments - positive in all cases. 2. Outer plexiform layer - equipped with enzymatic activity in all the instances. 3. Inner nuclear layer - thin cytoplasmic rim of the neurons characterized by positive activity; the nuclei of the neurons are completely negative. 4. Inner plexiform layer - this layer is endowed with the enzymatic activity. 5. Ganglion cells - negative in all cases. 6. Nerve fibres of the layer of nerve fibres, situated adjasent to ganglion cells are positive in all the animals; in case of squirrel oligodandroglial cells present in the region have demonstrated activity of a high order. On of the high-lights of the present contribution is demarcation of the inner plexiform layer into three stratified zones, equipped with enzymatic activity in Calotes, Streptopelia, Naja and Funambulus. Such stratifications are not seen in Varanus, Passer and Psittacula. The significance of the various patterns and the equipment of the enzyme in various constituents at various locals have been discussed in relation to the metabolic functions, zone-wise and interzone-wise in visual processes of various animals.

  6. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, X., E-mail: xavier.urbain@uclouvain.be; Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H{sub 3} into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atomsmore » are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.« less

  7. A 1 MA, variable risetime pulse generator for high energy density plasma research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, J. B.; Douglas, J. D.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Glidden, S. C.; Sanders, H. D.

    2008-07-01

    COBRA is a 0.5Ω pulse generator driving loads of order 10nH inductance to >1MA current. The design is based on independently timed, laser-triggered switching of four water pulse-forming lines whose outputs are added in parallel to drive the load current pulse. The detailed design and operation of the switching to give a wide variety of current pulse shapes and rise times from 95to230ns is described. The design and operation of a simple inductive load voltage monitor are described which allows good accounting of load impedance and energy dissipation. A method of eliminating gas bubbles on the underside of nearly horizontal insulator surfaces in water was required for reliable operation of COBRA; a novel and effective solution to this problem is described.

  8. Transient Vibration Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Load-dependent Non-linear Bearing Stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic transient analysis requires bearing forces to be determined at each step of the transient solution. Analyses have been carried out to show the effect of accurate bearing transient forces (accounting for non-linear speed and load dependent bearing stiffness) as compared to conventional use of average rolling-element bearing stiffness. Bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball and Roller Bearing Analysis - Advanced High Speed) and supplied to the rotordynamics code ARDS (Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Systems) for accurate simulation of rotor transient behavior. COBRA-AHS is a fast-running 5 degree-of-freedom computer code able to calculate high speed rolling-element bearing load-displacement data for radial and angular contact ball bearings and also for cylindrical and tapered roller beatings. Results show that use of nonlinear bearing characteristics is essential for accurate prediction of rotordynamic behavior.

  9. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  10. Bolometric detector systems for IR and mm-wave space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, S. E.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Hristov, V.; Bock, J. J.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Griffin, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in bolometric detector systems for millimeter and submillimeter wave space astronomy are described. Current technologies meet all the requirements for the high frequency instrument onboard the cosmic background radiation anisotropy satellite/satellite for the measurement of background anisotropies (COBRAS/SAMBA) platform. It is considered that the technologies that are currently being developed will significantly reduce the effective time constant and/or the cooling requirements of bolometric detectors. These technologies lend themselves to the fabrication of the large format arrays required for the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Space Telescope (FIRST). The scientific goals and detector requirements of the COBRAS/SAMBA platform that will use infrared bolometers are reviewed and the baseline detector system is described, including the feed optics, the infrared filters, the cold amplifiers and the warm readout electronics.

  11. The Role of Ethics in International Arms Transfers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    PAKISTAN F-16C/D CASE………………………………………21 3 THE SAUDI ARABIA F-15 SA CASE.……………………………….. 33 4 THE NIGERIA COBRA HELICOPTER CASE……………………….. 48 5...to Pakistan in 2006, the sale of F-15’s to Saudi Arabia in 2011, and the decision to deny the transfer of Cobra attack helicopters to Nigeria in 2014...chapters will evaluate the decision-making process for three difficult arms transfer cases in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Nigeria using the jus ad

  12. AH-1S communication switch integration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haworth, Loran; Szoboszlay, Zoltan; Shively, Robert; Bick, Frank J.

    1989-01-01

    The C-6533/ARC communication system as installed on the test AH-1E Cobra helicopter was modified to allow discrete radio selection of all aircraft radios at the cyclic radio/intercommunication system switch. The current Cobra-fleet use of the C-6533 system is cumbersome, particularly during low-altitude operations. Operationally, the current system C-6533 configuration and design requires the pilot to estimate when he can safely remove his hand from an active flight control to select radios during low-altitude flight. The pilot must then physically remove his hand from the flight control, look inside the cockpit to select and verify the radio selection and then effect the selected radio transmission by activating the radio/ICS switch on the cyclic. This condition is potentially hazardous, especially during low-level flight at night in degraded weather. To improve pilot performance, communications effectiveness, and safety, manprint principles were utilized in the selection of a design modification. The modified C-6533 design was kept as basic as possible for potential Cobra-fleet modification. The communications system was modified and the design was subsequently flight-tested by the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate and NASA at the NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California. The design modification enables the Cobra pilot to maintain hands-on flight controls while selecting radios during nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight without looking inside the cockpit which resulted in reduced pilot workload ratings, better pilot handling quality ratings and increased flight safety for the NOE flight environment.

  13. Why Wargaming Works

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Clinton read The Cobra Event. What makes telling a good story more powerful than other forms of communication ? The Power of Prose To explore this...reaction as any story. But high-engagement games are more than simple narratives; they employ ranges of physical cues, as do movies or stage plays. The...relationships can reflect and help organize hierarchical or communications rela- tionships. The venue also organizes players and their interactions into group

  14. The Interaction of Decision Aid Usage, Training Methodology, and Personality Construct on Decision Making Among Dyadic Air Crews in a Military Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    34action orientetion ". T^ks concerned pre-flight safety assessments for military combat aircraft and were performed 1^ Army Cobra aviators. Dependent...evaluations are vital during future assessments of team performance and especially for modeling purposes, as the literature lacks empirical...a similar scale, and then assign probabilities to likelihood’s for these in the future . Once completed, one can multiply expected feature values of

  15. Building a Better Ace: Restructuring The Marine Expeditionary Unit’s Air Combat Elements in the MV-22 ERA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    FROM, ABSTRACTION FROM, OR REPRODUCTION OF ALL OR ANY PART OF THIS DOCUMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPER ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE. 1 Executive Summary...aft slash) typically reserved for two CH-53E Super Stallions and all six AV-8B Harriers, and a forward aircraft staging area (forward slash). The...Ospreys, with detachments of four CH-53Es Super Stallions , four AH-lW Cobras, two UH-IN Hueys, and six AV-8B Harriers. This configuration can be

  16. Defense Technology Objectives of the Joint Warfighting Science and Technology Plan and the Defense Technology Area Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    isolated targets, significantly reduce false alarms ( PFA = 0.01/km2), and recognize force structure (e.g., maneuver battalions). During FY97, a laboratory...probability of false alarm ( Pfa ) of 0.3 at an altitude of 500-1,000 ft and at airspeeds of 60-100 kn is planned. Enhanced COBRA optics-including a...hibiting the desired properties and initiate agent sorption assessments. The FY00 goal is to com- plete performance evaluations of candidate

  17. The Strategic Expeditionary Command: Filling the Interagency Void

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-19

    Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (New York: Pantheon Books, 2006), 463. 30 Whitaker, 2.. 31 Ibid. 32 Thomas E . Ricks, Fiasco: The...2007), 53. 15 Ibid. 16 Thomas Donnelly, Margaret Roth, and Caleb Baker, Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington Books, 1991...Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 1 March 2006), 10. 28 Ibid., 2. 21 29 Michael R. Gordon and General Bernard E . Trainor, COBRA II: The

  18. An Automated Tool to Enable the Distributed Operations of Air Force Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    workstations, home PCs, PDAs, pagers) over connections with various bandwidths (e.g., dial-up 56k , wireless 9.6k), SERS has different USis to support the...demonstration and evaluation activities, and (3) CERES employs more modem and open ground systems than are currently deployed in the space operations...COTS or custom tools. • Yes, we demonstrated that our software can interface with a modem Air Force ground system (CERES’ COBRA). • We identified new

  19. Joint-Basing Funding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-17

    expressed in this academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the...EDUCATION 1975 - High school graduate, Anna- Jonesboro Community High School, Anna, Illinois 1980 - Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering...premise for savings appears to be reductions in military and civilian manpower. Per the COBRA reports noted previously, reductions are exclusively from

  20. U.S. Marine Corps Concepts & Programs 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    war efforts in the CENTCOM AOR — that will demand balanced apportionment of limited re- sources . In this, the Marine Corps has identified four...Strike Fighter (JSF) Transition Plan 123 MV-22 Osprey Program 125 H-1 Upgrade (UH-1Y Huey/AH-1Z Cobra) 127 KC-130 Hercules 129 CH-53K Heavy Lift...leading joint-service development of our light, medium and heavy tactical wheeled vehicles for the joint force. The Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV

  1. The development of IgY(DeltaFc) antibody based neuro toxin antivenoms and the study on their neutralization efficacies.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Victor Y-Neng

    2008-07-01

    Immunotherapy for treatment of snake bites has been based on mammalian IgG. Recently, polyvalent ovine Fab has become available. However, papain, used in the Fab fragmentation process, is a human allergen. Avian eggs are a source of antibodies and a truncated version of IgY, IgY(DeltaFc), is found in ducks. In this study, we induced duck antibodies by using detoxified cobra and krait venoms and then purified IgY(DeltaFc) antibodies from the hyperimmune duck egg yolk. Ducks were used for immunization and their eggs were collected for antibody production. ICR strain female mice were used in the in vivo neutralization test. Monovalent antivenoms to Formosan cobra venom and Formosan multi-banded krait venom were raised and purified from hyper-immune duck egg yolk individually. The LD(50) of venoms were determined by subcutaneous injection of different venom doses into the mice. The survival/death ratios were recorded after 24 hours. The antibody purified from egg yolk showed high titer response to its immunogen (cobra or krait venom) by an ELISA. Overall, the antibodies from duck eggs efficiently protected mice from envenomations. The antivenoms purified from the egg yolk of ducks immunized with cobra venom and krait venom neutralized the lethal effects of these venoms with good efficacy in a mouse model. The antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality in mice injected at 4xLD(50) of venoms. These results indicate that antibodies derived from ducks can serve as a new source for the generation of antivenoms.

  2. JPRS Report - Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-22

    Demand for Cobra Venom Increases 7 Effect of Piracetam on Resistance of Higher Nervous Activity to Informational Overloads [E.G. Chkhubianishvili...gram, giving people health and life. 13227 Effect of Piracetam on Resistance of Higher Nervous Activity to Informational Overloads 18400140...Institute of Physiology imeni I.S. Beritashvili; presented by Academician S.P. Narikashvili 21 Apr 86] [Abstract] Although piracetam is a cyclic derivative

  3. Translations on Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 59.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-14

    14 COBRA Official Seeks CAPRE Criteria Applied Throughout Industry (JORNAL DO BRASIL, 4 Oct 78) 16 EMFA Supports Incentives for Digital ...Terminals (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 29 Sep 78) 22 CUBA Telephone Service Expansion in Holguin ( JUVENTUD REBELDE, 22 Sep 78) 23 Briefs Direct...that next year it plans to be the second, overcoming Burroughs in invoicing. 12,116 CSO: 5500 17 BRAZIL EMFA SUPPORTS INCENTIVES FOR DIGITAL

  4. US Army Attack Aviation in a Decisive Action Environment: History, Doctrine, and a Need for Doctrinal Refinement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    flight. The design used the engine, transmission, and rotor system of the UH-1 design. In doing so, Bell helicopters publicly declared that the Cobra...Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The attack helicopter airframe and role evolved slowly, over time, to...attack helicopter doctrine, heavily influenced by the Global War on Terror and the 11th Attack Helicopter Regiment’s disastrous deep attack during

  5. Augmentation of Antitumor T-Cell Responses by Increasing APC T-Cell C5a/C3a-C5aR/C3aR Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    the surface of cells after incorporation of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) into their membranes. The Journal of experimental medicine . 1984;160(5...cell immunity. The Journal of experimental medicine . 2005;201(10):1523-30. PubMed PMID: 15883171. 3. Vogel CW, Wilkie SD, Morgan AC. In vivo studies...with covalent conjugates of cobra venom factor and monoclonal antibodies to human tumors. Haematology and blood transfusion. 1985;29:514- 7. Epub

  6. Radial and circumferential flow surveys at the inlet and exit of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Fuel Turbine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, S. T.; Bordelon, W. J., Jr.; Smith, A. W.; Ramachandran, N.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this test was to obtain detailed radial and circumferential flow surveys at the inlet and exit of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbine model using three-hole cobra probes, hot-film probes, and a laser velocimeter. The test was designed to meet several objectives. First, the techniques for making laser velocimeter, hot-film probe, and cobra probe measurements in turbine flows were developed and demonstrated. The ability to use the cobra probes to obtain static pressure and, therefore, velocity had to be verified; insertion techniques had to be established for the fragile hot-film probes; and a seeding method had to be established for the laser velocimetry. Once the measurement techniques were established, turbine inlet and exit velocity profiles, temperature profiles, pressure profiles, turbulence intensities, and boundary layer thicknesses were measured at the turbine design point. The blockage effect due to the model inlet and exit total pressure and total temperature rakes on the turbine performance was also studied. A small range of off-design points were run to obtain the profiles and to verify the rake blockage effects off-design. Finally, a range of different Reynolds numbers were run to study the effect of Reynolds number on the various measurements.

  7. Advanced Software for Analysis of High-Speed Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, J. V.; Rumbarger, J. H.; Peters, S. M.; Galatis, H.; Flower, R.

    2003-01-01

    COBRA-AHS is a package of advanced software for analysis of rigid or flexible shaft systems supported by rolling-element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loads. These loads can include centrifugal and thermal loads generated by motions of bearing components. COBRA-AHS offers several improvements over prior commercial bearing-analysis programs: It includes innovative probabilistic fatigue-life-estimating software that provides for computation of three-dimensional stress fields and incorporates stress-based (in contradistinction to prior load-based) mathematical models of fatigue life. It interacts automatically with the ANSYS finite-element code to generate finite-element models for estimating distributions of temperature and temperature-induced changes in dimensions in iterative thermal/dimensional analyses: thus, for example, it can be used to predict changes in clearances and thermal lockup. COBRA-AHS provides an improved graphical user interface that facilitates the iterative cycle of analysis and design by providing analysis results quickly in graphical form, enabling the user to control interactive runs without leaving the program environment, and facilitating transfer of plots and printed results for inclusion in design reports. Additional features include roller-edge stress prediction and influence of shaft and housing distortion on bearing performance.

  8. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis for brain tissue identification.

    PubMed

    Samsuwan, Jarunya; Muangsub, Tachapol; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Kitkumthorn, Nakarin

    2018-05-01

    According to the tissue-specific methylation database (doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.09.060), methylation at CpG locus cg03096975 in EML2 has been preliminarily proven to be specific to brain tissue. In this study, we enlarged sample size and developed a technique for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis-for EML2 (COBRA-EML2) technique was established and validated in various organ samples obtained from 108 autopsies. In addition, this technique was also tested for its reliability, minimal DNA concentration detected, and use in aged samples and in samples obtained from specific brain compartments and spinal cord. COBRA-EML2 displayed 100% sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing brain tissue from other tissues, showed high reliability, was capable of detecting minimal DNA concentration (0.015ng/μl), could be used for identifying brain tissue in aged samples. In summary, COBRA-EML2 is a technique to identify brain tissue. This analysis is useful in criminal cases since it can identify the vital organ tissues from small samples acquired from criminal scenes. The results from this analysis can be counted as a medical and forensic marker supporting criminal investigations, and as one of the evidences in court rulings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High Cellular Monocyte Activation in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Lifestyle-Matched Controls Is Associated With Greater Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Maurer, Irma; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Prins, Maria; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Franceschi, Claudio; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gisslén, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Reiss, P.; Wit, F. W. N. M.; Schouten, J.; Kooij, K. W.; van Zoest, R. A.; Elsenga, B. C.; Janssen, F. R.; Heidenrijk, M.; Zikkenheiner, W.; van der Valk, M.; Kootstra, N. A.; Booiman, T.; Harskamp-Holwerda, A. M.; Boeser-Nunnink, B.; Maurer, I.; Mangas Ruiz, M. M.; Girigorie, A. F.; Villaudy, J.; Frankin, E.; Pasternak, A.; Berkhout, B.; van der Kuyl, T.; Portegies, P.; Schmand, B. A.; Geurtsen, G. J.; ter Stege, J. A.; Klein Twennaar, M.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; Caan, M. W. A.; Su, T.; Weijer, K.; Bisschop, P. H. L. T.; Kalsbeek, A.; Wezel, M.; Visser, I.; Ruhé, H. G.; Franceschi, C.; Garagnani, P.; Pirazzini, C.; Capri, M.; Dall’Olio, F.; Chiricolo, M.; Salvioli, S.; Hoeijmakers, J.; Pothof, J.; Prins, M.; Martens, M.; Moll, S.; Berkel, J.; Totté, M.; Kovalev, S.; Gisslén, M.; Fuchs, D.; Zetterberg, H.; Winston, A.; Underwood, J.; McDonald, L.; Stott, M.; Legg, K.; Lovell, A.; Erlwein, O.; Doyle, N.; Kingsley, C.; Sharp, D. J.; Leech, R.; Cole, J. H.; Zaheri, S.; Hillebregt, M. M. J.; Ruijs, Y. M. C.; Benschop, D. P.; Burger, D.; de Graaff-Teulen, M.; Guaraldi, G.; Bürkle, A.; Sindlinger, T.; Moreno-Villanueva, M.; Keller, A.; Sabin, C.; de Francesco, D.; Libert, C.; Dewaele, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from BBD. Principal component analysis revealed that 57.5% of PLHIV and 62.5% of HIV-negative individuals had a high monocyte activation profile compared with 2.9% of BBD. Cellular monocyte activation in the COBRA cohort was strongly associated with soluble markers of monocyte activation and inflammation in the CSF. Conclusions. People living with HIV and HIV-negative COBRA participants had high levels of cellular monocyte activation compared with age-matched BBD. High monocyte activation was predictive for inflammation in the CSF. PMID:28680905

  10. Navy/Marine Corps innovative science and technology developments for future enhanced mine detection capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, John H., Jr.; Witherspoon, Ned H.; Miller, Richard E.; Davis, Kenn S.; Suiter, Harold R.; Hilton, Russell J.

    2000-08-01

    JMDT is a Navy/Marine Corps 6.2 Exploratory Development program that is closely coordinated with the 6.4 COBRA acquisition program. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. The objective of the program is to develop innovative science and technology to enhance future mine detection capabilities. Prior to transition to acquisition, the COBRA ATD was extremely successful in demonstrating a passive airborne multispectral video sensor system operating in the tactical Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), combined with an integrated ground station subsystem to detect and locate minefields from surf zone to inland areas. JMDT is investigating advanced technology solutions for future enhancements in mine field detection capability beyond the current COBRA ATD demonstrated capabilities. JMDT has recently been delivered next- generation, innovative hardware which was specified by the Coastal System Station and developed under contract. This hardware includes an agile-tuning multispectral, polarimetric, digital video camera and advanced multi wavelength laser illumination technologies to extend the same sorts of multispectral detections from a UAV into the night and over shallow water and other difficult littoral regions. One of these illumination devices is an ultra- compact, highly-efficient near-IR laser diode array. The other is a multi-wavelength range-gateable laser. Additionally, in conjunction with this new technology, algorithm enhancements are being developed in JMDT for future naval capabilities which will outperform the already impressive record of automatic detection of minefields demonstrated by the COBAR ATD.

  11. Comparison of 4 supraglotttic devices used by paramedics during simulated CPR : a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Szarpak, Łukasz; Kurowski, Andrzej; Truszewski, Zenon; Robak, Oliver; Frass, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring an open airway during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is fundamental. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of blind intubation during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation by untrained personnel. Four devices were compared in a simulated resuscitation scenario: ILMA (Intavent Direct Ltd, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom), Cobra PLA (Engineered Medical Systems Inc, Indianapolis, IN), Supraglottic Airway Laryngopharyngeal Tube (SALT) (ECOLAB, St. Paul, MN), and Air-Q (Mercury Medical, Clearwater, FL). A group of 210 paramedics intubated a manikin with continuous chest compressions. The mean times to intubation were 40.46 ± 4.64, 33.96 ± 6.23, 17.2 ± 4.63, and 49.23 ± 13.19 seconds (SALT vs ILMA, Cobra PLA, and Air-Q; P < .05). The success ratios of blind intubation for the devices were 86.7%, 85.7%, 100%, and 71.4% (SALT vs ILMA, Cobra PLA, and Air-Q; P < .05). The study showed that the most efficient device with the shortest blind intubation time was the SALT device. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Constrained optimization by radial basis function interpolation for high-dimensional expensive black-box problems with infeasible initial points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regis, Rommel G.

    2014-02-01

    This article develops two new algorithms for constrained expensive black-box optimization that use radial basis function surrogates for the objective and constraint functions. These algorithms are called COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF and, unlike previous surrogate-based approaches, they can be used for high-dimensional problems where all initial points are infeasible. They both follow a two-phase approach where the first phase finds a feasible point while the second phase improves this feasible point. COBRA and Extended ConstrLMSRBF are compared with alternative methods on 20 test problems and on the MOPTA08 benchmark automotive problem (D.R. Jones, Presented at MOPTA 2008), which has 124 decision variables and 68 black-box inequality constraints. The alternatives include a sequential penalty derivative-free algorithm, a direct search method with kriging surrogates, and two multistart methods. Numerical results show that COBRA algorithms are competitive with Extended ConstrLMSRBF and they generally outperform the alternatives on the MOPTA08 problem and most of the test problems.

  13. CTF Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, Maria N.; Salko, Robert K.

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, andmore » subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.« less

  14. Maintaining the competitiveness of the American fisheries society journals: an assessment based on influence and cost-effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Link, Jason S.; Steinich, Dave R.; Wahl, David H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in the landscape of scientific publishing prompted the Publications Overview Committee of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) to review the Society's portfolio of scientific journals. We evaluated journals based on metrics in two categories: (1) citation-based measures of the influence of a journal on the scientific literature, and (2) measures of the cost-effectiveness of a journal (citation rate adjusted for subscription cost). Over the long-term, we found that ecology journals had far stronger citation-based influence than fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, and that journals publishing primarily basic research had stronger influence than journals publishing applied research (including four AFS journals and Fisheries magazine). In evaluating the current status of fisheries and aquatic sciences journals, we found that metrics of influence and cost-effectiveness provided considerably different portrayals of journals relative to their peers. In terms of citation-based influence, we found that the AFS journal Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (TAFS) and Fisheries magazine were competitive with highly regarded peer fisheries journals, but that North American Journal of Aquaculture (NAJA) and Journal of Aquatic Animal Health (JAAH) were less influential than their peers. The citation-based influence of North American Journal of Fisheries Management (NAJFM) was intermediate between TAFS/Fisheries and NAJA/JAAH. For journals like NAJFM and NAJA, we expect that much of the scientific influence on policy and management is not captured by citations in the primary literature, and alternative methods of evaluation may be needed. All of the AFS journals ranked highly with regard to cost-effectiveness because their subscription costs are low, and these rankings are in accordance with membership needs and the strategic mission of AFS to provide broad and timely dissemination of scientific information. We conclude by suggesting

  15. Quantifying Demyelination in NK venom treated nerve using its electric circuit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, H. K.; Das, D.; Doley, R.; Sahu, P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Reduction of myelin in peripheral nerve causes critical demyelinating diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. Clinical monitoring of these diseases requires rapid and non-invasive quantification of demyelination. Here we have developed formulation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in terms of demyelination considering electric circuit model of a nerve having bundle of axons for its quantification from NCV measurements. This approach has been validated and demonstrated with toad nerve model treated with crude Naja kaouthia (NK) venom and also shows the effect of Phospholipase A2 and three finger neurotoxin from NK-venom on peripheral nerve. This opens future scope for non-invasive clinical measurement of demyelination.

  16. The Need Of A Phenological Spectral Library Of Submersed Macrophytes For Lake Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Patrick; Robler, Sebastian; Schneider, Thomas; Melzer, Arnulf

    2013-12-01

    Submersed macrophytes are bio-indicators for water quality. For plant monitoring by remote sensing, in-situ reflectance measurements are necessary. Hence, systematic measurements were carried out at Lake Starnberg and Lake Tegernsee (Germany) in the year 2011. Besides two wide-spread species (Chara spp. and Potamogeton perfoliatus), the invasive species Elodea nuttallii and Najas marina were investigated. Remote sensing reflectances were calculated from downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance. Those were collected with RAMSES spectroradiometers (320nm-950nm, 3.3nm step). As data collection took place several times, changes in the spectral responses within the growing season were detected and could be linked to population density, growing height, biomass and pigmentation. Additionally, a stable sampling method and a processing chain for the in-situ reflectance measurements were developed. Part of the processing was a water column correction, including WASI (water colour simulator). Principal component analysis showed separability of sediment from vegetation and species differentiation.

  17. [Herpetological data and management of ophidian envenomation at university hospitals in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Djohan, V; Menan, E I H; Yavo, W; Barro, P C K; Vanga, H; Dempah, J A; N'Dri, D K; Mignonsin, D; Akaffou, M H; Koné, K

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried in the intensive care units of Abidjan university hospitals and in the herpetology department of Pasteur Institute between January 2001 and April 2003. The purpose was to identify ophidian species that were dangerous for man and to document cases of snakebite in Abidjan. The study was carried out in two phases, i.e., collection and identification of snake species followed by review of case records involving snake envenomation at Cocody and Treichville university hospitals. A total of 5 snake families, 14 genera and 17 species including some that were dangerous for man were identified. All species except Naja nigricollis live in forest areas. Most snakebites led to simple clinical signs that regressed within 72 hours with only symptomatic treatment. However, a few cases required immunotherapy. Traditional methods of snakebite treatment were used for first line treatment in 50% of cases.

  18. Quantifying Demyelination in NK venom treated nerve using its electric circuit model

    PubMed Central

    Das, H. K.; Das, D.; Doley, R.; Sahu, P. P.

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of myelin in peripheral nerve causes critical demyelinating diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. Clinical monitoring of these diseases requires rapid and non-invasive quantification of demyelination. Here we have developed formulation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in terms of demyelination considering electric circuit model of a nerve having bundle of axons for its quantification from NCV measurements. This approach has been validated and demonstrated with toad nerve model treated with crude Naja kaouthia (NK) venom and also shows the effect of Phospholipase A2 and three finger neurotoxin from NK-venom on peripheral nerve. This opens future scope for non-invasive clinical measurement of demyelination. PMID:26932543

  19. Quantifying Demyelination in NK venom treated nerve using its electric circuit model.

    PubMed

    Das, H K; Das, D; Doley, R; Sahu, P P

    2016-03-02

    Reduction of myelin in peripheral nerve causes critical demyelinating diseases such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. Clinical monitoring of these diseases requires rapid and non-invasive quantification of demyelination. Here we have developed formulation of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in terms of demyelination considering electric circuit model of a nerve having bundle of axons for its quantification from NCV measurements. This approach has been validated and demonstrated with toad nerve model treated with crude Naja kaouthia (NK) venom and also shows the effect of Phospholipase A2 and three finger neurotoxin from NK-venom on peripheral nerve. This opens future scope for non-invasive clinical measurement of demyelination.

  20. Potential effects of shipping on submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1989-01-01

    An extensive survey of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers revealed statistically significant differences in the composition and density of macrophyte beds in shipping channels (used by commercial vessels passing between Lakes Huron and Erie) and non-shipping channels. Of nine common macrophyte taxa, four (Characae, Potamogeton richardsonii, Potamogeton spp. narrow-leaf forms, and Najas flexilis) were found more frequently and three (Myriophyllum spicatum, Elodea canadensis, and Heteranthera dubia) less frequently in shipping than in non-shipping channels. In general, macrophyte beds were less dense in shipping channels than in non-shipping channels. We postulate that disruption of the prevailing unidirectional current patterns and erosion of suitable substrate or breakage of plant stems by passing vessels caused the observed differences in the composition and density of macrophyte beds in shipping and non-shipping channels in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers.

  1. Fate of psychoactive compounds in wastewater treatment plant and the possibility of their degradation using aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and characterized 29 psychoactive remedies, illicit drugs and their metabolites in single stages of wastewater treatment plants in the capital city of Slovakia. Psychoactive compounds were present within all stages, and tramadol was detected at a very high concentration (706 ng/L). Significant decreases of codeine, THC-COOH, cocaine and buprenorphine concentration were observed in the biological stage. Consequently, we were interested in the possibility of alternative tertiary post-treatment of effluent water with the following aquatic plants: Cabomba caroliniana, Limnophila sessiliflora, Egeria najas and Iris pseudacorus. The most effective plant for tertiary cleansing was I. pseudacorus which demonstrated the best pharmaceutical removal capacity. After 48 h codeine and citalopram was removed with 87% efficiency. After 96 h were all analyzed compounds were eliminated with efficiencies above 58%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on camel IgG purification

    PubMed Central

    Khamehchian, Sedigheh; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour; Tebianian, Majid; Madani, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    A combined process of ammonium sulfate precipitation (salting out) and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B was used to prepare camel antivenom (IgG) against Naja Naja Oxiana for therapy. In the ammonium sulfate precipitation, the best condition for fractionation of IgG from the other proteins in camel serum was 55% precipitate. The camel IgG presented as 2 bands with molecular masses of 250 and 100 kDa, the latter corresponding to heavy chain IgG, on 10% gel electrophoresis. A trace amount of non-IgG proteins was not isolated and remained in this precipitate. Therefore in order to effectively separate albumin and the other nonspecific proteins from the IgG, the 25% precipitate of ammonium sulfate precipitation of serum was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. A peak of antibody (IgG) could be obtained by elution with sodium phosphate buffer. In this stage, 2 bands of molecular masses of 150 and 75 kDa were observed on 7% gel electrophoresis. A comparative study was performed between camel IgG and conventional horse F(ab)2 antivenoms in term of potency (serum neutralization test and ELISA). Our results showed that the potency of camel antivenom was 4-fold higher than that of horse. It is suggested the combined ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography process effectively removed residual proteins in the final camel IgG preparation and can be a suitable method for large-scale refinement of therapeutic camel antivenoms. PMID:24642472

  4. Site-specific epsilon-NH2 monoacylation of pancreatic phospholipase A2. 2. Transformation of soluble phospholipase A2 into a highly penetrating "membrane-bound" form.

    PubMed

    Van der Wiele, F C; Atsma, W; Roelofsen, B; van Linde, M; Van Binsbergen, J; Radvanyi, F; Raykova, D; Slotboom, A J; De Haas, G H

    1988-03-08

    Long-chain lecithins present in bilayer structures like vesicles or membranes are only very poor substrates for pancreatic phospholipases A2. This is probably due to the fact that pancreatic phospholipases A2 cannot penetrate into the densely packed bilayer structures. To improve the weak penetrating properties of pancreatic phospholipases A2, we prepared and characterized a number of pancreatic phospholipase A2 mutants that have various long acyl chains linked covalently to Lys116 in porcine and to Lys10 in bovine phospholipase A2 [Van der Wiele, F.C., Atsma, W., Dijkman, R., Schreurs, A.M.M., Slotboom, A.J., & De Haas, G.H. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)]. When monomolecular surface layers of L- and D-didecanoyllecithin were used, it was found that the introduction of caprinic, lauric, palmitic, and oleic acid at Lys116 in the porcine enzyme increases its penetrating power from 13 to about 17, 20, 32, and 22 dyn/cm, respectively, before long lag periods were obtained. Incorporation of a palmitoyl moiety at Lys10 in the bovine enzyme shifted the penetrating power from 11 to about 25 dyn/cm. Only the best penetrating mutant, viz., porcine phospholipase A2 having a palmitoyl moiety at Lys116, was able to cause complete leakage of 6-carboxyfluorescein entrapped in small unilamellar vesicles of egg lecithin under nonhydrolytic conditions. Similarly, only this latter palmitoylphospholipase A2 completely hydrolyzed all lecithin in the outer monolayer of the human erythrocyte at a rate much faster than Naja naja phospholipase A2, the most powerful penetrating snake venom enzyme presently known.

  5. Hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease inhibitory activity of plants used in traditional treatment of snakebite-induced tissue necrosis in Mali, DR Congo and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Molander, Marianne; Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Søren; Staerk, Dan; Rønsted, Nina; Diallo, Drissa; Chifundera, Kusamba Zacharie; van Staden, Johannes; Jäger, Anna K

    2014-11-18

    Snakebite envenomation, every year, causes estimated 5-10,000 mortalities and results in more than 5-15,000 amputations in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Antiserum is not easily accessible in these regions or doctors are simply not available, thus more than 80% of all patients seek traditional practitioners as first-choice. Therefore it is important to investigate whether the plants used in traditional medicine systems contain compounds against the necrosis-inducing enzymes of snake venom. Extracts from traditionally used plants from DR Congo, Mali and South Africa were tested in hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 and protease enzyme bioassays using Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis as enzyme source. A total of 226 extracts from 94 different plant species from the three countries, Mali, Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa were tested in phospholipase A2, proteases and hyaluronidase enzyme assays. Forty plant species showed more than 90% inhibition in one or more assay. Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae and Malvaceae were the families with the highest number of active species, and the active compounds were distributed in different plant parts depending on plant species. Polyphenols were removed in the search for specific enzyme inhibitors against hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2 or proteases from extracts with IC50 values below 100µg/ml. Water extracts of Pupalia lappacea, Combretum molle, Strychnos innocua and Grewia mollis and ethanol extract of Lannea acida and Bauhinia thonningii still showed IC50 values below 100µg/ml in either the hyaluronidase or protease bioassay after removal of polyphenols. As four of the active plants are widely distributed in the areas where the snake species Bitis arietans and Naja nigricollis occur a potential inhibitor of the necrotic enzymes is accessible for many people in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening for target toxins of the antiophidic protein DM64 through a gel-based interactomics approach.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Surza L G; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Trugilho, Monique R O; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Valente, Richard H; Domont, Gilberto B; Perales, Jonas

    2017-01-16

    DM64 is a glycosylated protein with antivenom activity isolated from the serum of the opossum Didelphis aurita. It binds non-covalently to myotoxins I (Asp49) and II (Lys49) from Bothrops asper venom and inhibits their myotoxic effect. In this study, an affinity column with immobilized DM64 as bait was used to fish potential target toxins. All ten isolated myotoxins tested were able to effectively bind to the DM64 column. To better access the specificity of the inhibitor, crude venoms from Bothrops (8 species), Crotalus (2 species) and Naja naja atra were submitted to the affinity purification. Venom fractions bound and nonbound to the DM64 column were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Although venom fractions bound to the column were mainly composed of basic PLA 2 , a few spots corresponding to acidic PLA 2 were also observed. Some unexpected protein spots were also identified: C-type lectins and CRISP may represent putative new targets for DM64, whereas the presence of serine peptidases in the venom bound fraction is likely a consequence of nonspecific binding to the column matrix. The present results contribute to better delineate the inhibitory potential of DM64, providing a framework for the development of more specific antivenom therapies. Local tissue damage induced by myotoxic PLA 2 remains a serious consequence of snake envenomation, since it is only partially neutralized by traditional antivenom serotherapy. Myotoxin inhibition by highly specific molecules offers great promise in the treatment of snakebites, a health problem largely neglected by governments and pharmaceutical industries. Bioactive compounds such as DM64 can represent a valuable source of scaffolds for drug development in this area. The present study has systematically profiled the binding specificity of DM64 toward a variety of snake venom toxin classes and therefore can lead to a better understanding of the structure-function relationship of this

  7. Holocene Vegetation and Climate Shifts from Sutherland Fen, Black Rock Forest, New York - Plant Macrofossils, Charcoal, and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peteet, D. M.; Guilderson, T.

    2008-12-01

    Sutherland Fen formed about 12,600 C-14 years ago (15,000 calendar years), the same time as adjacent Sutherland Pond and regional deglaciation. High-resolution (2 cm) analysis of the 3.2 m fen core indicates three major macrofossils zones indicative of climate shifts. These climate shifts were defined over fifty years ago through pollen stratigraphy of the regional northeastern US, but macrofossils provide new details concerning hydrological and ecological shifts. The lowest (SUB-1) dated to the late-glacial, is indicative of a shallow pond characterized by Najas, Nuphar, and Potamogeton seeds and containing Salix (willow) buds, a Rubus (berry) seed, and Picea glauca (white spruce) needles and sterigmata from the surrounding upland. Sedimention rates are highest in this boreal environmental zone. The overlying zone (SUB-2) beginning at 11,500 years ago (Holocene) indicates a continuing pond environment with aquatics such as Najas, Nuphar, and Brasenia, but Picea disappears and Pinus strobus (white pine) dominates the lower section of the zone. A warmer, drier climate produces sustained charcoal in the record at the Holocene boundary. Pinus strobus needles and seeds subsequently disappear and are replaced from 9000 to 7500 years ago by Pinus rigida (pitch pine), Betula populifolia/papyrifera (grey/paper birch), and emergent wetland plants such as Decodon, Cladium, and Cephalanthus, as well as Dulichium, Eleocharis, and Carex, suggesting a shallowing pond and a drier climate. Chara oospores indicate probably groundwater influx into the fen. About 4000 years ago, charcoal again is present. In the subsequent late Holocene a more acidic, moist, fen environment is characterized by Sphagnum, Rubus, Hypericum, Viola, Chamaedaphne, and Carex, though Brasenia and Potamogeton (pond indicators) are occasionally present. The continued presence of Sphagnum led to high carbon accumulation because of less decomposition. This increase in Sphagnum in recent millennia with aquatics

  8. Dissipation of deltamethrin, triazophos, and endosulfan in ready mix formulations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Aman

    2015-09-01

    Persistence of delltamethrin, endosulfan, and triazophos in egg plant and tomato was studied following application of two ready mix formulations of insecticides viz. deltametrhin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000; 0.75% deltamethrin + 29.5% endosulfan) and deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus; 1% deltamethrin + 35% triazophos) at recommended (1.0 L/ha and double dose 2.0 L/ha). The residues of deltamethrin persisted till 7 and 5 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively, in the ready mix formulation of Cobra 5000 whereas endosulfan persisted till 15 and 10 days in tomato and egg plant fruits, respectively. Dissipation of the insecticides followed first-order kinetics with half-life values of deltamethrin and endosulfan ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 and 1.4 to 1.7 days, respectively, for both the vegetables. In case of combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos (Annaconda Plus), deltamethrin persisted beyond 5 days in both tomato and egg plant fruits, while triazophos persisted till 10 days in both the vegetables. Residues of deltamethrin and triazophos dissipated with half-life of 2.6-4.2 and 1.7-4.1 days, respectively, on tomato and egg plant fruits. Based on the Codex MRL limits, a safe waiting period of 5 and 3 days is suggested for tomato and egg plant, respectively, for the ready mix formulation of deltamethrin and endosulfan (Cobra 5000), and 5-day waiting period is suggested for tomato and egg plant for the combination mix of deltamethrin and triazophos.

  9. The effect of a preoperative warm-up with a custom-made Nintendo video game on the performance of laparoscopic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Jalink, M B; Heineman, E; Pierie, J P E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, H O

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been shown that short, pre-operative practice with a simulator, box trainer, or certain video games can temporarily improve one's basic laparoscopic skills; the so-called warm-up effect. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that Underground video game made for training basic laparoscopic skills, can also be used for a pre-operative warm-up. 29 laparoscopic experts were randomized into two different groups, which were tested on two different days. Group 1 (n = 16) did a laparoscopic skill baseline measurement using the FLS peg transfer test and the Top Gun cobra rope drill on day 1, and did the same tests on day 2 after a 15 min session with the Underground game. Group 2 (n = 13) did the same, but started with the video game, followed by baseline measurement on day 2. This way, each participant served as its own control. Video recordings of both tasks were later analyzed by two blinded reviewers. On day 1, group 2 was 14.33 % (P = 0.037) faster in completing the peg transfer test. A trend toward better cobra rope scores is also seen. When comparing the average improvement between both days, group 1--which used the game as a warm-up on day 2--showed a 19.61 % improvement in cobra rope score, compared to a 0.77 % score decrease in group 2 (P = 0.002). This study shows that the Underground video game can be used as a pre-operative warm-up in an experimental setting.

  10. High Cellular Monocyte Activation in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Lifestyle-Matched Controls Is Associated With Greater Inflammation in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W; Maurer, Irma; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Harskamp, Agnes M; Prins, Maria; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Franceschi, Claudio; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gisslén, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2017-01-01

    Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from BBD. Principal component analysis revealed that 57.5% of PLHIV and 62.5% of HIV-negative individuals had a high monocyte activation profile compared with 2.9% of BBD. Cellular monocyte activation in the COBRA cohort was strongly associated with soluble markers of monocyte activation and inflammation in the CSF. People living with HIV and HIV-negative COBRA participants had high levels of cellular monocyte activation compared with age-matched BBD. High monocyte activation was predictive for inflammation in the CSF. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Terminal differentiation of T cells is strongly associated with CMV infection and increased in HIV-positive individuals on ART and lifestyle matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Booiman, Thijs; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Girigorie, Arginell F.; Maurer, Irma; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A.; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Prins, Maria; Franceschi, Claudio; Deeks, Steven G.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-positive individuals on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reported to have higher rates of age-associated non-communicable comorbidities (AANCCs). HIV-associated immune dysfunction has been suggested to contribute to increased AANCC risk. Here we performed a cross-sectional immune phenotype analysis of T cells in ART-treated HIV-1-positive individuals with undetectable vireamia (HIV-positives) and HIV-1-negative individuals (HIV-negatives) over 45 years of age. In addition, two control groups were studied: HIV negative adults selected based on lifestyle and demographic factors (Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS, or COBRA) and unselected age-matched donors from a blood bank. Despite long-term ART (median of 12.2 years), HIV-infected adults had lower CD4+ T-cell counts and higher CD8+ T-cell counts compared to well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+ and PD-1+ CD4+ T-cells was higher in HIV-positive cohort compared to the two HIV-negative cohorts. The proportion CD57+ and CD27−CD28− cells of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in HIV-positives was higher compared to unselected adults (blood bank) as reported before but this difference was not apparent in comparison with well-matched HIV-negative COBRA participants. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of an increased proportion of terminally differentiated T cells was strongly associated with CMV infection. Compared to appropriately selected HIV-negative controls, HIV-positive individuals on ART with long-term suppressed viraemia exhibited incomplete immune recovery and increased immune activation/exhaustion. CMV infection rather than treated HIV infection appears to have more consistent effects on measures of terminal differentiation of T cells. PMID:28806406

  12. Robust control for fractional variable-order chaotic systems with non-singular kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuñiga-Aguilar, C. J.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.; Romero-Ugalde, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaos control for a class of variable-order fractional chaotic systems using robust control strategy. The variable-order fractional models of the non-autonomous biological system, the King Cobra chaotic system, the Halvorsen's attractor and the Burke-Shaw system, have been derived using the fractional-order derivative with Mittag-Leffler in the Liouville-Caputo sense. The fractional differential equations and the control law were solved using the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton algorithm. To test the control stability efficiency, different statistical indicators were introduced. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed robust control.

  13. Tip aerodynamics and acoustics test: A report and data survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jeffrey L.; Watts, Michael E.

    1988-01-01

    In a continuing effort to understand helicopter rotor tip aerodynamics and acoustics, a flight test was conducted by NASA Ames Research Center. The test was performed using the NASA White Cobra and a set of highly instrumented blades. All aspects of the flight test instrumentation and test procedures are explained. Additionally, complete data sets for selected test points are presented and analyzed. Because of the high volume of data acquired, only selected data points are presented. However, access to the entire data set is available to the researcher on request.

  14. An Experimental Study into the Scaling of an Unswept-Sharp-Fin-Generated Shock/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Influence Scaling of 2D and 3D Shock/Turbulent ioundary Layer Interactions at Compression Corners." AIM Paper 81-334, January 1981. 5. Kubota, H...generating 3D shock wave/boundary layer interactions 2 Unswept sharp fin interaction and coordinate system 3 Cobra probe measurements of Peake (4) at Mach 4...were made by two Druck 50 PSI transducers, each in- stalled in a computer-controlled 48-port Model 48J4 Scani- valve and referenced to vacuum. A 250

  15. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 85, Number 4, July-August 1942

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-08-01

    Panay and T olur rivers and in the mountains. The sap of this tree is so poisonous that its entry into the body of man or animal is fatal. The dalit is a...aroused: that is the famous king cobra of India and Luzon." Passing of the GIP’s The War Department is gradually replacing the Gun- ners’ Instruction...Scie~tists of the United Nations, especially in this country, Britain and India , have found new secrets of the behavior of steel and other metallic

  16. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2009-01-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms.

  17. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-11-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms.

  18. Asian herbals and aphrodisiacs used for managing ED

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the East, many herbal tonics and preparations are used to assist the aging male improve his sexual drive or ability to perform penetrative sex by increasing sexual stimulation, erectile, ejaculatory, orgasmic and other responses for sexual function and satisfaction. The herbs and tonics act as or as “pick-me-ups” and energizing tonics which help the tired and fatigued male and those with sexual asthenia. The myths and realities concerning Tongkat Ali, sea horse, cobra meat and blood, animal penises and testicles amongst many other herbs and portions for oral intake or local application used by traditional “medical” practitioners and village doctors will be discussed. PMID:28540223

  19. Attempted suicide by snake bite: A case study.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Subhendu; Singh, Sudipta Ranjan; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Padhy, Niranjan

    2016-07-14

    Snake bite is an important public health issue in India and is almost always accidental in manner. Suicide by snake bite or injection of snake venom is extremely rare. Suicidal ideation and behavior is known to be influenced by various socio-economic and psychological factors. The method employed for suicide is also influenced by the occupation of the victim. We report a case where a snake charmer had attempted suicide by inflicting a bite by a monocled cobra. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 7, Spring 1995

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    Rangers boarding Thai helicopter during Cobra Gold ’94. U .S . A rm y (B ria n G av in ) 0507 Macke 3/3/04 1:50 PM Page 14 Spring 1995...L D W A T E R - N I C H O L S Rangers aboard USS George Washington. U .S . N av y (S te ve M ill er ) 1307 Adolph 3/3/04 2:59 PM Page 50 Spring... Galaxy . C om b at C am er a Im ag er y (M ar vi n K ra us e) Combat Camera Imagery (Chris U. Putnam) M–113A2 rolling onto ramp at Entebbe,

  1. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Strike ( Malaysia ) Garuda Shield (Indonesia) Orient Shield (Japan) 15-1 Jan. – May 2015 2-25 Stryker BCT ~880 personnel Cobra Gold (Thailand) Foal...Keris Strike ( Malaysia ) 15-3 June-July, Aug. – Nov. 2015 1-25 Stryker BCT ~420 personnel Khan Quest (Mongolia) Orient Shield (Japan) Hoguk...Strike ( Malaysia ) Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Army Pacific data. | GAO-17-126 aIn addition to the brigades identified here, other units and personnel

  2. The physics of a popsicle stick bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautel, Jérémy; Bourges, Andréane; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Popsicle sticks can be interlocked in the so-called "cobra weave" to form a chain under tension. When one end of the chain is released, the sticks rapidly disentangle, forming a traveling wave that propagates down the chain. In this paper, the properties of the traveling front are studied experimentally, and classical results from the theory of elasticity allow for a dimensional analysis of the height and speed of the traveling wave. The study presented here can help undergraduate students familiarize themselves with experimental techniques of image processing, and it also demonstrates the power of dimensional analysis and scaling laws.

  3. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  4. The transition of a real-time single-rotor helicopter simulation program to a supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the conversion effort and results of a real-time flight simulation application transition to a CONVEX supercomputer. Enclosed is a detailed description of the conversion process and a brief description of the Langley Research Center's (LaRC) flight simulation application program structure. Currently, this simulation program may be configured to represent Sikorsky S-61 helicopter (a five-blade, single-rotor, commercial passenger-type helicopter) or an Army Cobra helicopter (either the AH-1 G or AH-1 S model). This report refers to the Sikorsky S-61 simulation program since it is the most frequently used configuration.

  5. A simple algorithm for quantifying DNA methylation levels on multiple independent CpG sites in bisulfite genomic sequencing electropherograms.

    PubMed

    Leakey, Tatiana I; Zielinski, Jerzy; Siegfried, Rachel N; Siegel, Eric R; Fan, Chun-Yang; Cooney, Craig A

    2008-06-01

    DNA methylation at cytosines is a widely studied epigenetic modification. Methylation is commonly detected using bisulfite modification of DNA followed by PCR and additional techniques such as restriction digestion or sequencing. These additional techniques are either laborious, require specialized equipment, or are not quantitative. Here we describe a simple algorithm that yields quantitative results from analysis of conventional four-dye-trace sequencing. We call this method Mquant and we compare it with the established laboratory method of combined bisulfite restriction assay (COBRA). This analysis of sequencing electropherograms provides a simple, easily applied method to quantify DNA methylation at specific CpG sites.

  6. Tabulation of data from the tip aerodynamics and acoustics test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jeffrey L.; Tu, Wilson

    1990-01-01

    In a continuing effort to understand helicopter rotor tip aerodynamics and acoustics, researchers at Ames Research Center conducted a flight test. The test was performed using the NASA White Cobra and a set of highly instrumented blades. Tabular and graphic summaries of two data subsets from the Tip Aerodynamics and Acoustics Test are given. The data presented are for airloads, blade structural loads, blade vibrations, with summary tables of the aircraft states for each test point. The tabular data consist of the first 15 harmonics only, whereas the plots contain the entire measured frequency content.

  7. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Validation Exercises During Summer 2004 Field Campaigns over North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmons, L. K.; Pfister, G. G.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Sachse, G.; Blake, D.; Wofsy, S.; Gerbig, C.; Matross, D.; Nedelec, P.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) made as part of three aircraft experiments during the summer of 2004 over North America have been used for the continued validation of the CO retrievals from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on board the Terra satellite. Vertical profiles measured during the NASA INTEX-A campaign, designed to be coincident with MOPITT overpasses, as well as measurements made during the COBRA-2004 and MOZAIC experiments, provided valuable validation comparisons. On average, the MOPITT CO retrievals are biased slightly high for these North America locations. While the mean bias differs between the different aircraft experiments (e.g., 7.0 ppbv for MOZAIC to 18.4 ppbv for COBRA at 700 hPa), the standard deviations are quite large, so the results for the three data sets can be considered consistent. On average, it is estimated that MOPITT is 7- 14% high at 700 hPa and 03% high at 350 hPa. These results are consistent with the validation results for the Carr, Colorado, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and Poker Flats, Alaska, aircraft profiles for "phase 2" presented by Emmons et al. (2004) and are generally within the design criteria of 10% accuracy.

  8. North Carolina high-risk insurance pools.

    PubMed

    Moore, David R

    2006-01-01

    Imagine this: You are a 58-year-old man. You have worked all your life, paid taxes, and helped support your family. Two years ago you had a mild heart attack. Your wife has diabetes and high blood pressure. Luckily, you had health insurance through your job that helped you pay for the hospitalization, doctor's visits, and necessary medications for you and your wife. With a new diet, exercise, and the medications, you both are doing well managing your health problems. A little over a year ago, you lost your insurance when your company downsized. You found another job, but your current employer doesn't offer insurance. Your wife also works, but she works for a small employer that does not offer coverage. So, you pay approximately dollar 600/month for continuation coverage (COBRA) for your wife and yourself through your former employer. Last month, you found out your COBRA coverage is about to end. You want to continue to buy insurance coverage, but you were told that purchasing a comprehensive policy with a dollar 1,000 deductible (70% coinsurance) that covers your needed medications would cost more than dollar 4,000/month for your wife and yourself.

  9. Software Developed for Analyzing High- Speed Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    2005-01-01

    COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball & Roller Bearing Analysis--Advanced High Speed, J.V. Poplawski & Associates, Bethlehem, PA) is used for the design and analysis of rolling element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loading. The code estimates bearing fatigue life by calculating three-dimensional subsurface stress fields developed within the bearing raceways. It provides a state-of-the-art interactive design environment for bearing engineers within a single easy-to-use design-analysis package. The code analyzes flexible or rigid shaft systems containing up to five bearings acted upon by radial, thrust, and moment loads in 5 degrees of freedom. Bearing types include high-speed ball, cylindrical roller, and tapered roller bearings. COBRA-AHS is the first major upgrade in 30 years of such commercially available bearing software. The upgrade was developed under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the NASA Glenn Research Center, and incorporates the results of 30 years of NASA and industry bearing research and technology.

  10. Hot gas ingestion effects on fuel control surge recovery and AH-1 rotor drive train torque spikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarski, Frank; Desai, Mihir; Books, Martin; Zagranski, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished through computer simulation to understand the impact of the hydromechanical turbine assembly (TA) fuel control on rocket gas ingestion induced engine surges on the AH-1 (Cobra) helicopter. These surges excite the lightly damped torsional modes of the Cobra rotor drive train and can cause overtorqueing of the tail rotor shaft. The simulation studies show that the hydromechanical TA control has a negligible effect on drive train resonances because its response is sufficiently attenuated at the resonant frequencies. However, a digital electronic control working through the TA control's separate, emergency fuel metering system has been identified as a solution to the overtorqueing problem. State-of-the-art software within the electronic control can provide active damping of the rotor drive train to eliminate excessive torque spikes due to any disturbances including engine surges and aggressive helicopter maneuvers. Modifications to the existing TA hydromechanical control are relatively minor, and existing engine sensors can be utilized by the electronic control. Therefore, it is concluded that the combination of full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) with hydromechanical backup using the existing TA control enhances flight safety, improves helicopter performance, reduces pilot workload, and provides a substantial payback for very little investment.

  11. SciTech Connect

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, weremore » achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.« less

  12. MapMaker and PathTracer for tracking carbon in genome-scale metabolic models

    PubMed Central

    Tervo, Christopher J.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) modeling results can be difficult to interpret given the large numbers of reactions in genome-scale models. While paths in metabolic networks can be found, existing methods are not easily combined with constraint-based approaches. To address this limitation, two tools (MapMaker and PathTracer) were developed to find paths (including cycles) between metabolites, where each step transfers carbon from reactant to product. MapMaker predicts carbon transfer maps (CTMs) between metabolites using only information on molecular formulae and reaction stoichiometry, effectively determining which reactants and products share carbon atoms. MapMaker correctly assigned CTMs for over 97% of the 2,251 reactions in an Escherichia coli metabolic model (iJO1366). Using CTMs as inputs, PathTracer finds paths between two metabolites. PathTracer was applied to iJO1366 to investigate the importance of using CTMs and COBRA constraints when enumerating paths, to find active and high flux paths in flux balance analysis (FBA) solutions, to identify paths for putrescine utilization, and to elucidate a potential CO2 fixation pathway in E. coli. These results illustrate how MapMaker and PathTracer can be used in combination with constraint-based models to identify feasible, active, and high flux paths between metabolites. PMID:26771089

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of hemextin A: a unique anticoagulant protein from Hemachatus haemachatus venom

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Kumar, Sundramurthy; Jobichen, Chacko

    2007-08-01

    Crystals of hemextin A, a three-finger toxin isolated and purified from African Ringhals cobra (H. haemachatus), are orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.27, b = 49.51, c = 57.87 Å, and diffract to 1.5 Å resolution. Hemextin A was isolated and purified from African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus). It is a three-finger toxin that specifically inhibits blood coagulation factor VIIa and clot formation and that also interacts with hemextin B to form a unique anticoagulant complex. Hemextin A was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method by equilibration against 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1more » M sodium acetate trihydrate pH 4.6 and 30% PEG 4000 as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.27, b = 49.51, c = 57.87 Å and two molecules in the asymmetric unit. They diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution at beamline X25 at BNL.« less

  14. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-Storm 100S-218 Version B Storage Modules at Hope Creek Cuclear Power Station ISFSI

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-30

    As part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development, a consortium of national laboratories and industry is performing visual inspections and temperature measurements of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States. This report documents thermal analyses in in support of the inspections at the Hope Creek Nuclear Generating Station ISFSI. This site utilizes the HI-STORM100 vertical storage system developed by Holtec International. This is a vertical storage module design, and the thermal models are being developed using COBRA-SFS (Michener, et al.,more » 1987), a code developed by PNNL for thermal-hydraulic analyses of multi assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. This report describes the COBRA-SFS model in detail, and presents pre-inspection predictions of component temperatures and temperature distributions. The final report will include evaluation of inspection results, and if required, additional post-test calculations, with appropriate discussion of results.« less

  15. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  16. The effect of video game "warm-up" on performance of laparoscopic surgery tasks.

    PubMed

    Rosser, James C; Gentile, Douglas A; Hanigan, Kevin; Danner, Omar K

    2012-01-01

    Performing laparoscopic procedures requires special training and has been documented as a significant source of surgical errors. "Warming up" before performing a task has been shown to enhance performance. This study investigates whether surgeons benefit from "warming up" using select video games immediately before performing laparoscopic partial tasks and clinical tasks. This study included 303 surgeons (249 men and 54 women). Participants were split into a control (n=180) and an experimental group (n=123). The experimental group played 3 previously validated video games for 6 minutes before task sessions. The Cobra Rope partial task and suturing exercises were performed immediately after the warm-up sessions. Surgeons who played video games prior to the Cobra Rope drill were significantly faster on their first attempt and across all 10 trials. The experimental and control groups were significantly different in their total suturing scores (t=2.28, df=288, P<.05). The overall Top Gun score showed that the experimental group performed marginally better overall. This study demonstrates that subjects completing "warming-up" sessions with select video games prior to performing laparoscopic partial and clinical tasks (intracorporeal suturing) were faster and had fewer errors than participants not engaging in "warm-up." More study is needed to determine whether this translates into superior procedural execution in the clinical setting.

  17. The carbohydrate-binding module (CBM)-like sequence is crucial for rice CWA1/BC1 function in proper assembly of secondary cell wall materials.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kanna; Ito, Sachiko; Fujii, Takeo; Suzuki, Ryu; Takenouchi, Sachi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Funada, Ryo; Sano, Yuzou; Kajita, Shinya; Kitano, Hidemi; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2010-11-01

    We recently reported that the cwa1 mutation disturbed the deposition and assembly of secondary cell wall materials in the cortical fiber of rice internodes. Genetic analysis revealed that cwa1 is allelic to bc1, which encodes glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored COBRA-like protein with the highest homology to Arabidopsis COBRA-like 4 (COBL4) and maize Brittle Stalk 2 (Bk2). Our results suggested that CWA1/BC1 plays a role in assembling secondary cell wall materials at appropriate sites, enabling synthesis of highly ordered secondary cell wall structure with solid and flexible internodes in rice. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CWA1/BC1, as well as its orthologs (COBL4, Bk2) and other BC1-like proteins in rice, shows weak similarity to a family II carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2) of several bacterial cellulases. To investigate the importance of the CBM-like sequence of CWA1/BC1 in the assembly of secondary cell wall materials, Trp residues in the CBM-like sequence, which is important for carbohydrate binding, were substituted for Val residues and introduced into the cwa1 mutant. CWA1/BC1 with the mutated sequence did not complement the abnormal secondary cell walls seen in the cwa1 mutant, indicating that the CBM-like sequence is essential for the proper function of CWA1/BC1, including assembly of secondary cell wall materials.

  18. Prophylactic action of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of hepatic and gastric tissues in rats injected with a snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rahmy, T R; Hemmaid, K Z

    2001-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the prophylactic action of oral administration of two doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of the gastric and hepatic tissues in rats envenomed with cobra snake. The study included the following groups: Group I contained control rats orally administered distilled water for ten days. Group II included rats orally administered daily for ten days with the equivalent therapeutic dose of garlic to rat (18 mg/kg body weight). Group III included rats orally administered daily for ten days with double the equivalent therapeutic dose of garlic to rat (36 mg/kg body weight). Group IV contained rats intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 1/2 LD50 of cobra venom (0.0125 microg venom/gm body weight) and dissected after 6 hr from injection. Groups V and VI contained rats daily administered with the previous two doses of garlic for ten days, respectively, followed by a single i.m. injection of the above dose of cobra venom after 24 hr from the last garlic application. Rats of these two groups were dissected after 6 hr from venom injection. Administration of the therapeutic dose of garlic induced slight cytoplasmic granulation in some hepatic cells. However, administration of double the therapeutic dose caused swelling, necrosis, and damage of the gastric glandular epithelia together with signs of erosion, exfoliation, and necrosis of the surface mucosal cells. It also induced swelling and coalescence of the hepatic cells, loss of the normal arrangement of the hepatic cords, and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells. Injection with cobra venom caused loss of the normal characteristic appearance of the gastric glands and the epithelial lining cells of the gastric folds and the appearance of numerous inflammatory cells in the lamina properia. It also induced the occurrence of highly swollen hepatic cells, hepatic cellular necrosis and damage, as well as activated Kupffer cells. Nevertheless, pretreatment with the therapeutic dose of

  19. The "Body Mass Index" of Flexible Ureteroscopes.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Silvia; Somani, Bhaskar; Sofer, Mario; Pietropaolo, Amelia; Rosso, Marco; Saitta, Giuseppe; Gaboardi, Franco; Traxer, Olivier; Giusti, Guido

    2017-10-01

    To assess the "body mass index" (BMI) (weight and length) of 12 flexible ureteroscopes (digital and fiber optic) along with the light cables and camera heads, to make the best use of our instruments. Twelve different brand-new flexible ureteroscopes from four different manufacturers, along with eight camera heads and three light cables were evaluated. Each ureteroscope, camera head, and light cable was weighted; the total length of each ureteroscope, shaft, handle, flexible end-tip, and cable were all measured. According to our measurements (in grams [g]), the lightest ureteroscope was the LithoVue (277.5 g), while the heaviest was the URF-V2 (942.5 g). The lightest fiber optic endoscope was the Viper (309 g), while the heaviest was the Cobra (351.5 g). Taking into account the entirety of the endoscopes, the lightest ureteroscope was the Lithovue and the heaviest was the Wolf Cobra with the Wolf camera "3 CHIP HD KAMERA KOPF ENDOCAM LOGIC HD" (1474 g). The longest ureteroscope was the URF-P6 (101.6 cm) and the shortest was the LithoVue (95.5 cm); whereas the Viper and Cobra had the longest shaft (69 cm) and URF-V had the shortest shaft (67.2 cm). The URF-V2 had the longest flexible end-tip (7.6 cm), while the LithoVue had the shortest end-tip (5.7 cm) in both directions (up/down), while the URF-V had the shortest upward deflection (3.7 cm). Newer more versatile digital endoscopes were lighter than their traditional fiber optic counterparts in their entirety, with disposable endoscope having a clear advantage over other reusable ureteroscopes. Knowing the "BMI" of our flexible ureteroscopes is an important information that every endourologist should always take into consideration.

  20. Coupled optical and thermal detailed simulations for the accurate evaluation and performance improvement of molten salts solar towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Mutuberria, Amaia; Palacin, Luis G.; Sanz, Javier L.; Pereira, Daniel; Bernardos, Ana; Sanchez, Marcelino; Rocha, Alberto R.

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain, CENER, and the Technology & Innovation area of ACS Cobra, as a result of their long term expertise in the CSP field, have developed a high-quality and high level of detail optical and thermal simulation software for the accurate evaluation of Molten Salts Solar Towers. The main purpose of this software is to make a step forward in the state-of-the-art of the Solar Towers simulation programs. Generally, these programs deal with the most critical systems of such plants, i.e. the solar field and the receiver, on an independent basis. Therefore, these programs typically neglect relevant aspects in the operation of the plant as heliostat aiming strategies, solar flux shapes onto the receiver, material physical and operational limitations, transient processes as preheating and secure cloud passing operating modes, and more. The modelling approach implemented in the developed program consists on effectively coupling detailed optical simulations of the heliostat field with also detailed and full-transient thermal simulations of the molten salts tube-based external receiver. The optical model is based on an accurate Monte Carlo ray-tracing method which solves the complete solar field by simulating each of the heliostats at once according to their specific layout in the field. In the thermal side, the tube-based cylindrical external receiver of a Molten Salts Solar Tower is modelled assuming one representative tube per panel, and implementing the specific connection layout of the panels as well as the internal receiver pipes. Each tube is longitudinally discretized and the transient energy and mass balances in the temperature dependent molten salts and steel tube models are solved. For this, a one dimensional radial heat transfer model based is used. The thermal model is completed with a detailed control and operation strategy module, able to represent the appropriate operation of the plant. An integration framework has been

  1. MSP-HTPrimer: a high-throughput primer design tool to improve assay design for DNA methylation analysis in epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ram Vinay; Pulverer, Walter; Kallmeyer, Rainer; Beikircher, Gabriel; Pabinger, Stephan; Kriegner, Albert; Weinhäusel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Bisulfite (BS) conversion-based and methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (MSRE)-based PCR methods have been the most commonly used techniques for locus-specific DNA methylation analysis. However, both methods have advantages and limitations. Thus, an integrated approach would be extremely useful to quantify the DNA methylation status successfully with great sensitivity and specificity. Designing specific and optimized primers for target regions is the most critical and challenging step in obtaining the adequate DNA methylation results using PCR-based methods. Currently, no integrated, optimized, and high-throughput methylation-specific primer design software methods are available for both BS- and MSRE-based methods. Therefore an integrated, powerful, and easy-to-use methylation-specific primer design pipeline with great accuracy and success rate will be very useful. We have developed a new web-based pipeline, called MSP-HTPrimer, to design primers pairs for MSP, BSP, pyrosequencing, COBRA, and MSRE assays on both genomic strands. First, our pipeline converts all target sequences into bisulfite-treated templates for both forward and reverse strand and designs all possible primer pairs, followed by filtering for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and known repeat regions. Next, each primer pairs are annotated with the upstream and downstream RefSeq genes, CpG island, and cut sites (for COBRA and MSRE). Finally, MSP-HTPrimer selects specific primers from both strands based on custom and user-defined hierarchical selection criteria. MSP-HTPrimer produces a primer pair summary output table in TXT and HTML format for display and UCSC custom tracks for resulting primer pairs in GTF format. MSP-HTPrimer is an integrated, web-based, and high-throughput pipeline and has no limitation on the number and size of target sequences and designs MSP, BSP, pyrosequencing, COBRA, and MSRE assays. It is the only pipeline, which automatically designs primers on both genomic

  2. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-01-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4–13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15–16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6–early 5b (~ 138–94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94–87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87–77 ka).

  3. Comparative sensitivity of five species of macrophytes and six species of algae to atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, James F.; Ruessler, Shane; Carlson, A. Ron

    1998-01-01

    This study determined the relative sensitivity of five species of aquatic macrophytes and six species of algae to four commonly used herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, and metolachlor). Toxicity tests consisted of 96-h (duckweed and algae) or 14-d (submerged macrophytes) static exposures. The triazine herbicides (atrazine and metribuzin) were significantly more toxic to aquatic plants than were the acetanilide herbicides (alachlor and metolachlor). Toxicity studies ranked metribuzin > atrazine > alachlor > metolachlor in decreasing order of overall toxicity to aquatic plants. Relative sensitivities of macrophytes to these herbicides decreased in the order of Ceratophyllum > Najas > Elodea > Lemna > Myriophyllum. Relative sensitivities of algae to herbicides decreased in the order of Selenastrum > Chlorella > Chlamydomonas > Microcystis > Scenedesmus > Anabaena. Algae and macrophytes were of similar overall sensitivities to herbicides. Data indicated that Selenastrum, a commonly tested green alga, was generally more sensitive compared to other plant species. Lemna minor, a commonly tested floating vascular plant, was of intermediate sensitivity, and was fivefold less sensitive than Ceratophyllum, which was the most sensitive species tested. The results indicated that no species was consistently most sensitive, and that a suite of aquatic plant test species may be needed to perform accurate risk assessments of herbicides.

  4. The occurrence of the strongylid nematodes Kalicephalus brachycephalus, K. bungari and K. indicus in snake species from Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Wang, T; Liu, T B; Tan, L; Lv, C C; Liu, Y

    2017-05-01

    Kalicephalus is a genus of strongylid nematodes infecting snakes and causing serious diseases and even death when it is complicated with secondary bacterial infections. The infection of snakes with Kalicephalus has been reported in many countries in the world. However, little information is available on the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in China. In the present study, the prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes was investigated. The worms were examined, counted and identified to species according to existing keys and descriptions. Three species of Kalicephalus, namely K. indicus, K. bungari and K. brachycephalus, were found in six species of snakes (Elaphe carinata, Zaocys dhumnade, Naja najaatra, Elaphe taeniura, Bungarus multicinctus and Dinodon rufozonatum). The total prevalence of Kalicephalus in snakes in Hunan Province was 39.7%. The most common species was K. indicus, with the highest prevalence 72.8%, followed by K. bungari (24.0%). The prevalence of K. brachycephalus was 0.9%. This is the first report on the prevalence of Kalicephalus species in snakes in China, and the findings have important implications for the control of Kalicephalus infections in snakes in China.

  5. Freshwater plants synthesize sulfated polysaccharides: heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway.

  6. Freshwater Plants Synthesize Sulfated Polysaccharides: Heterogalactans from Water Hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes)

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Santos, Nednaldo; Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Costa, Leandro Silva; Cordeiro, Sara Lima; Costa, Mariana Santos Santana Pereira; Trindade, Edvaldo Silva; Franco, Célia Regina Chavichiolo; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Leite, Edda Lisboa; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) are found mainly in seaweeds and animals. To date, they have only been found in six plants and all inhabit saline environments. Furthermore, there are no reports of SP in freshwater or terrestrial plants. As such, this study investigated the presence of SP in freshwaters Eichhornia crassipes, Egeria densa, Egeria naja, Cabomba caroliniana, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Nymphaea ampla. Chemical analysis identified sulfate in N. ampla, H. bonariensis and, more specifically, E. crassipes. In addition, chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), as well as agarose gel electrophoresis detected SP in all parts of E. crassipes, primarily in the root (epidermis and vascular bundle). Galactose, glucose and arabinose are the main monosaccharides found in the sulfated polysaccharides from E. crassipes. In activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test, to evaluate the intrinsic coagulation pathway, SP from the root and rhizome prolonged the coagulation time to double the baseline value, with 0.1 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. However, SP from the leaf and petiole showed no anticoagulant activity. Eichornia SP demonstrated promising anticoagulant potential and have been selected for further studies on bioguided fractionation; isolation and characterization of pure polysaccharides from this species. Additionally in vivo experiments are needed and are already underway. PMID:22312297

  7. Removal of Metal Nanoparticles Colloidal Solutions by Water Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Svietlova, Nataliia; Konotop, Yevheniia; Karaushu, Olena; Hrechishkina, Svitlana

    2016-11-01

    The ability of seven species of aquatic plants ( Elodea canadensis, Najas guadelupensis, Vallisneria spiralis L., Riccia fluitans L., Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia natans L.) to absorb metal nanoparticles from colloidal solutions was studied. It was established that investigated aquatic plants have a high capacity for removal of metal nanoparticles from aqueous solution (30-100%) which indicates their high phytoremediation potential. Analysis of the water samples content for elements including the mixture of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag + Ag2O) before and after exposure to plants showed no significant differences when using submerged or free-floating hydrophytes so-called pleuston. However, it was found that the presence of submerged hydrophytes in aqueous medium ( E. canadensis, N. guadelupensis, V. spiralis L., and R. fluitans L.) and significant changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, unlike free-floating hydrophytes ( L. laevigatum, P. stratiotes L., S. natans L.), had occur. Pleuston possesses higher potential for phytoremediation of contaminated water basins polluted by metal nanoparticles. In terms of removal of nanoparticles among studied free-floating hydrophytes, P. stratiotes L. and S. natans L. deserve on special attention.

  8. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  9. Snake venoms from Angola: Intra-specific variations and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paula Regina Simões de; França, Felipe Silva de; Villas Boas, Isadora Maria; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira da; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2018-06-15

    Snakebite is a public health problem in many countries of world. These accidents are considered a Neglected Tropical Disease and are responsible for a high morbidity and mortality index in the South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Angolan snake venoms are poorly investigated and no specific antivenom against them is available in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and immunogenic properties of male and female venoms from Naja nigricollis, Bitis arietans and Bitis gabonica snakes. These animals were collected during an expedition covering 1350 km of Angola, including the Provinces of Cuanza Sul, Benguela, Huíla and Malanje. Results showed that Angolan snake venoms present distinctive immunogenic properties and large intra-specific variations, associated to the gender and the geographic origin of the animals. Thus, it is possible to suggest that for the preparation of a therapeutic antivenom, intra-species variability should be taken into account, in order to obtain an efficient serum to neutralize the toxic effects of the Angolan snake venoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pioneers of anti-venomous serotherapy: Dr Vital Brazil (1865-1950).

    PubMed

    Hawgood, B J

    1992-01-01

    Dr Vital Brazil was a great humanitarian and pioneer of medical science. His main work arose from his concern with poisonous snakebite accidents to labourers working the land. Vital Brazil estimated that, at the beginning of this century, deaths due to crotaline snakebites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were nearly 3000 per year, representing a mortality rate of about 25%, the majority being due to bothropic envenomation. After reading a report of Calmette's anti-Naja serum, Vital Brazil raised monovalent serum against the venom of Bothrops jararaca and the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus. In 1989 this led to the first demonstration of the specificity of anti-venomous serum and later, the first production of polyvalent serum for therapeutic use. As Director of the newly founded Institute Butantan in São Paulo, Vital Brazil was actively engaged in every aspect of serotherapeutic treatment. This included organizing a unique system of exchanging anti-ophidic serum for snakes as well as a wide-ranging teaching programme. His many outstanding contributions to the fields of immunology, public health, toxinology and herpetology required not only a very high level of observational, deductive and practical ability but also an unswerving vision and sense of duty; this was allied to great administrative skill and exceptional energy.

  11. Fall and winter foods of northern pintails in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Food habits of northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated on 3 national wildlife refuges in the western portion of the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails consumed 97% (aggregate % dry wt) plant food during diurnal foraging on national wildlife refuge rice, summer-irrigated, and summer-dry habitats from August through January. Invertebrate use increased to 28.9-65.6% of the diet in these habitats during February and March. Rice, swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis), and smartweed (Polygonum spp.) seeds, miscellaneous vegetation, snails (Gastropoda), and midge (Diptera) and water beetle (Coleoptera) larvae were most important. These foods usually were taken proportional to or greater than availability. Rice was the most important food of pintails feeding nocturnally off the refuges in harvested rice fields from October through January (99.7%) and February and March (63%; barnyardgrass formed 31% of the diet). In August and October, some pintails consumed invertebrates or bulrush (Scirpus spp. ) seedlings in marshes soon after feeding in refuge rice (Aug) or harvested commercial rice fields (Oct), thereby increasing dietary protein. In late winter, females and males obtained similar (P > 0.05) percentages of invertebrates from refuge habitats. Important dietary seeds and invertebrates contained high protein or metabolizable energy content. Management should maintain adequate seed production in fall and mid-winter and invertebrate biomass in late winter.

  12. Cytoskeletal rearrangements in human red blood cells induced by snake venoms: light microscopy of shapes and NMR studies of membrane function.

    PubMed

    Yau, Tsz Wai; Kuchel, Rhiannon P; Koh, Jennifer M S; Szekely, David; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-01-01

    RBCs (red blood cells) circulating through narrow blood capillaries withstand major deformation. The mechanical and chemical stresses commonly exerted on RBCs continue to attract interest for the study of membrane structure and function. Snake venoms are lethal biochemical 'cocktails' that often contain haemotoxins, metalloproteinases, myotoxins, neurotoxins, phosphodiesterases, phospholipases and proteases. We have monitored the effects of 4 snake venoms (Pseudechis guttatus, Oxyuranus scutellatus, Notechis scutatus and Naja kaouthia) on human RBCs using NMR spectroscopy, DIC (differential interference contrast) and confocal light microscopy. RBCs underwent reproducible stomatocytosis, with unusual geographical-like indentations, spherocytosis, followed by rapid lysis. Confocal micrographs using a fluorescent dye linked to phalloidin showed that the change in morphology was associated with the aggregation of actin in the cytoskeleton. (31)P NMR saturation transfer experiments recorded transport of the univalent anion HPA (hypophosphite) on a subsecond time scale, thereby reporting on the function of capnophorin or Band 3 linked to the cytoskeleton; anion-exchange activity was substantially reduced by venom treatment. We propose a molecular-cytological hypothesis for the shape and functional changes that is different from, or supplementary to, the more 'traditional' bilayer-couple hypothesis more often used to account for similar morphological changes invoked by other reagents. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2012 Portland Press Limited

  13. Significance of Two New Pleistocene Plant Records from Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Michael H.; Velichkevich, Felix Y.; Andrieu-Ponel, Valerie; Woltz, Phillipe

    2000-09-01

    The first records of extinct Caulinia goretskyi (Dorofeev) Dorofeev (synonym Najas goretskyi Dorofeev) in western Europe and of Potamogeton occidentalis M.H. Field sp. nov. were obtained from plant macrofossil analyses of Middle Pleistocene temperate stage deposits exposed at Trez Rouz, Brittany, France. Palynological assemblages recovered suggest correlation with the Holsteinian Stage. This discovery greatly expands the western limit of the paleogeographical distribution of Caulinia goretskyi. The record of Potamogeton occidentalis indicates an affinity with the eastern Asiatic flora, as the fruits resemble those of the extant Potamogeton maackianus A. Bennett. Other extinct Pleistocene species related to P. maackianus have been described, and it is possible to follow the development of this group through the Pleistocene in the European fossil record. These new finds illustrate the importance of a complete paleobotanical approach (both plant macrofossil and palynological analyses). The plant macrofossil assemblages not only provide detailed insight into local vegetation and environment, because they are often not transported long distances (in temperate areas) and can frequently be identified to species level; they can also offer the opportunity to investigate Pleistocene evolutionary trends.

  14. Phylogenetic relationship of Hepatozoon blood parasites found in snakes from Africa, America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Haklová, B; Majláthová, V; Majláth, I; Harris, D J; Petrilla, V; Litschka-Koen, T; Oros, M; Peťko, B

    2014-03-01

    The blood parasites from the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adeleida: Hepatozoidae) represent the most common intracellular protozoan parasites found in snakes. In the present study, we examined 209 individuals of snakes, from different zoogeographical regions (Africa, America, Asia and Europe), for the occurrence of blood parasites using both molecular and microscopic examination methods, and assess phylogenetic relationships of all Hepatozoon parasites from snakes for the first time. In total, 178 blood smears obtained from 209 individuals, representing 40 species, were examined, from which Hepatozoon unicellular parasites were found in 26 samples (14·6% prevalence). Out of 180 samples tested by molecular method polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of parasites was observed in 21 individuals (prevalence 11·6%): 14 snakes from Africa belonging to six genera (Dendroaspis, Dispholidus, Mehelya, Naja, Philothamnus and Python), five snakes from Asia from the genus Morelia and two snakes from America, from two genera (Coluber and Corallus). The intensity of infection varied from one to 1433 infected cells per 10 000 erythrocytes. Results of phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood) revealed the existence of five haplotypes divided into four main lineages. The present data also indicate neither geographical pattern of studied Hepatozoon sp., nor congruency in the host association.

  15. Identification and phylogeny of Arabian snakes: Comparison of venom chromatographic profiles versus 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohammed Abbas; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Identification of snake species is important for various reasons including the emergency treatment of snake bite victims. We present a simple method for identification of six snake species using the gel filtration chromatographic profiles of their venoms. The venoms of Echis coloratus, Echis pyramidum, Cerastes gasperettii, Bitis arietans, Naja arabica, and Walterinnesia aegyptia were milked, lyophilized, diluted and centrifuged to separate the mucus from the venom. The clear supernatants were filtered and chromatographed on fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). We obtained the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the above species and performed phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. The chromatograms of venoms from different snake species showed peculiar patterns based on the number and location of peaks. The dendrograms generated from similarity matrix based on the presence/absence of particular chromatographic peaks clearly differentiated Elapids from Viperids. Molecular cladistics using 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in jumping clades while separating the members of these two families. These findings suggest that chromatographic profiles of snake venoms may provide a simple and reproducible chemical fingerprinting method for quick identification of snake species. However, the validation of this methodology requires further studies on large number of specimens from within and across species.

  16. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    PubMed

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  17. Distribution and habitat of Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1986-01-01

    Nitellopsis obtusa, a macroalga (Characeae) native to Europe and Asia, was found in U.S. waters of the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1983, thus extending the range of this taxon into the Laurentian Great Lakes about 850 km from the St. Lawrence River where it was first discovered in North America in 1978. Its occurrence only in water frequented by commercial shipping vessels suggests that it is distributed via this mechanism. In the St. Clair-Detroit River system, N. obtusa was collected with a Ponar grab at four locations, and with a grapnel at one additional location. It was the ninth most frequently found macrophyte and it was most abundant at Belle Isle in the Detroit River, where the mean dry-weight biomass in Ponar samples was 0 g m-2 in June, 37 g m-2 in August, and 32 g m−2 in September. Maximum biomass of this taxon in one Ponar grab at this location was 289 g m-2 in September. The alga occurred primarily in water of relatively low current velocity (11.3 cm s−1) and in association with Vallisneria americana, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton richardsonii, Najas flexilis, and Elodea canadensis.

  18. Distribution and habitat of Nitellopsis obtuse (Characeae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1986-01-01

    Nitellopsis obtuse, a macroalga (Characeae) native to Europe and Asia, was found in U.S. waters of the St. Clair-Detroit River system in 1983, thus extending the range of this taxon into the Laurentian Great Lakes about 850 km from the St. Lawrence River where it was first discovered in North America in 1978. Its occurrence only in water frequented by commercial shipping vessels suggests that it is distributed via this mechanism. In the St. Clair-Detroit River system, N. obtuse was collected with a Ponar grab at four locations, and with a grapnel at one additional location. It was the ninth most frequently found macrophyte and it was most abundant at Belle Isle in the Detroit River, where the mean dry-weight biomass in Ponar samples was 0 g m-2 in June, 37 g m-2 in August, and 32 g m-2 in September. Maximum biomass of this taxon in one Ponar grab at this location was 289 g m-2 in September. The alga occurred primarily in water of relatively low current velocity (11.3 cm s-1) and in association with Vallisneria americana, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton richardsonii, Najas flexilis, and Elodea canadensis.

  19. Correlation between pollen morphology and pollination mechanisms in the Hydrocharitaceae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Norio; Uehara, Koichi; Murata, Jin

    2004-08-01

    The pollen morphology of 11 genera and 11 species of the Hydrocharitaceae and one species of the Najadaceae was studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, and the exine structures and sculptures are discussed in relation to pollination mechanisms and the molecular phylogeny. The pollen grains of the Hydrocharitaceae are spherical, inaperturate, and form monads or tetrads, while those of the Najadaceae are elliptical, inaperturate, and form monads. The entomophilous genera Egeria, Blyxa, Ottelia, Stratiotes, and Hydrocharis share pollen grains that have projections like spines or bacula. The anemophilous genus Limnobium has reticulate pollen grains. The hypohydrophilous genera Thalassia and Najas are characterized by pollen grains with reduced exine structures. The pollen-epihydrophilous genera Elodea and Hydrilla have tightly arranged small spinous pollen grains, and the male flower-epihydrophilous genera Enhalus and Vallisneria have reduced reticulate or gemmate exines. Character state reconstruction of the exine structures and sculptures using a molecular phylogenetic tree suggests that variation in the exine is generally correlated with the pollination mechanism; the selective pressures acting on the pollination mechanisms have reduced the exine structure in hypohydrophilous plants and resulted in various exine sculptures that are adapted to the different pollination mechanisms in entomophilous, anemophilous, and pollen-epihydrophilous plants.

  20. Molecular barcoding of venomous snakes and species-specific multiplex PCR assay to identify snake groups for which antivenom is available in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Supikamolseni, A; Ngaoburanawit, N; Sumontha, M; Chanhome, L; Suntrarachun, S; Peyachoknagul, S; Srikulnath, K

    2015-10-30

    DNA barcodes of mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes were constructed from 54 specimens of 16 species for species identification. Intra- and interspecific sequence divergence of the COI gene (10 times) was greater than that of the Cytb gene (4 times), which suggests that the former gene may be a better marker than the latter for species delimitation in snakes. The COI barcode cut-off scores differed by more than 3% between most species, and the minimum interspecific divergence was greater than the maximum intraspecific divergence. Clustering analysis indicated that most species fell into monophyletic clades. These results suggest that these species could be reliably differentiated using COI DNA barcodes. Moreover, a novel species-specific multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish between Naja spp, Ophiophagus hannah, Trimeresurus spp, Hydrophiinae, Daboia siamensis, Bungarus fasciatus, and Calloselasma rhodostoma. Antivenom for these species is produced and kept by the Thai Red Cross for clinical use. Our novel PCR assay could easily be applied to venom and saliva samples and could be used effectively for the rapid and accurate identification of species during forensic work, conservation study, and medical research.

  1. Molecular evidence for the first records of facultative parthenogenesis in elapid snakes

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction by which embryos develop from unfertilized eggs. Parthenogenesis occurs in reptiles; however, it is not yet known to occur in the widespread elapid snakes (Elapidae), which include well-known taxa such as cobras, mambas, taipans and sea snakes. Here, we describe the production of viable parthenogens in two species of Australo-Papuan elapids with divergent reproductive modes: the oviparous coastal/Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) and the viviparous southern death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus). Analyses of nuclear SNP data excluded paternity for putative fathers and convincingly demonstrated asexual reproduction, thus representing the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in Elapidae. Our finding has broad implications for understanding the evolution of reproductive diversity in snakes, as well as managing the conservation of genetic diversity in wild and captive populations. PMID:29515892

  2. Bites by the white-lipped pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) and other species in Hong Kong. A survey of 4 years' experience at the Prince of Wales Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cockram, C S; Chan, J C; Chow, K Y

    1990-04-01

    The case records of 242 snake bite victims admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong between September 1984 and October 1988 were studied retrospectively. When the snake was identified, the White-lipped pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) was by far the commonest species involved. In addition to local oedema and inflammation, evidence of a significant blood clotting disturbance was present in at least 10% of cases, defibrination and thrombocytopenia being the commonest findings. Since such abnormality was not always sought the true figure is likely to be higher. Three fatalities occurred, one of which was secondary to a probable White-lipped pit viper bite, one to a bite by Chinese cobra and one to a bite by Russell's viper.

  3. Flow fields behind a variable-area nozzle for radial turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Hyun, Yong-Ik; Senoo, Yasutoshi; Yamaguchi, Michiteru

    The flow fields behind a variable-area nozzle for radial turbines were measured in detail using a three-hole cobra probe in 15 cases, which are a combination of three nozzle throat areas (0.8, 1.0, and 1.4 times the rated area) and five values of the tip-clearance to blade-height ratio (between 0.0 to 0.099). The flow fields at different tip clearances are presented in contour maps, and the pitch mean values are discussed as spanwise distributions of total pressure loss, flow angle, and radial and tangential velocity components. It is shown that the intensity of swirl behind the nozzle is decreased and the pressure loss is increased with the tip clearance, and the effect is magnified as the blade loading is higher.

  4. Alternative complement pathway activation increases mortality in a model of burn injury in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, J A; Donelan, M; Hawiger, A; Burke, J F

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the role of the complement system in burn injury in an experimental model in mice. A 25% body surface area, full-thickness scald wound was produced in anesthetized animals. Massive activation of the alternative complement pathway, but not the classical pathway, was seen. This activation was associated with the generation of neutrophil aggregating activity in the plasma, neutrophil aggregates in the lungs, increased pulmonary vascular permeability, and increased lung edema formation. Decomplementation with cobra venom factor (CVF) or genetic C5 deficiency diminished these pathologic changes, and CVF pretreatment substantially reduced burn mortality in the first 24 h. Preliminary data show that human burn patients have a similar pattern of complement activation involving predominantly the alternative pathway, indicating the possible relevance of the murine model to human disease. Images PMID:7174787

  5. Planning and Investing for a Maritime Reconnaissance Strike Complex: The U.S. Navy in the 21ST Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    field casualties of the First World War, when as a result of dramatic improvements in -the accuracy and lethality of artillery, barbed wire, and the...l Cobra · · · · · · · 48 (USMC)UH-l Huey · · · · · 48 (USMC)CH-46 Sea Knight · · · · 86 (18 USN, 68 USMC)CH-53 Sea stallion 50 (USMC) SH-2/SH-60...17 (USMC)UH-1 Huey · · · · · · · · 17 (USMC)V-22 · · · · · · · · · · 45 (13 USN, 32 USMC)CH-53 Sea Stallion · · · 52 (USMC)SH-2/SH-60

  6. The effect of the federal Family and Medical Leave Act upon employee benefits.

    PubMed

    Brislin, J A

    1993-09-01

    FMLA will substantially influence the administration of employee benefits. The plan sponsor, trustees, plan administrator and collective bargaining parties must make a number of policy decisions. These include employer reporting and contribution procedures, settlement of eligibility questions, delinquency procedures, coordination with COBRA, substitution of vacation and sick leave rights and procedures, restrictions on participants working during leave, procedures for the non-forfeiture of accrued benefits and restoration of benefits. After the policy decisions are made and the procedures are established, the proper notices and caveats must be communicated to plan participants, and the plan must update the SPD. Each of the policy decisions, administrative procedures and participant communications must be carefully thought out before implementation. Plan sponsors, trustees and plan administrators should seek the help, advice and assistance of the plan's professional advisers.

  7. Tulip deformity with Cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device.

  8. Helicopter pilot estimation of self-altitude in a degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, John S.; Haworth, Loran A.; Szoboszlay, Zoltan P.; Lee, Alan G.

    2000-06-01

    The effect of night vision devices and degraded visual imagery on self-attitude perception is unknown. Thirteen Army aviators with normal vision flew five flights under various visual conditions in a modified AH-1 (Cobra) helicopter. Subjects estimated their altitude or flew to specified altitudes while flying a series of maneuvers. The results showed that subjects were better at detecting and controlling changes in altitude than they were at flying to or naming a specific altitude. In cruise flight and descent, the subjects tended to fly above the desired altitude, an error in the safe direction. While hovering, the direction of error was less predictable. In the low-level cruise flight scenario tested in this study, altitude perception was affected more by changes in image resolution than by changes in FOV or ocularity.

  9. Implementation of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, J.; Cao, L.; Ohkawa, K.

    2012-07-01

    The non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is important for a realistic LOCA safety analysis code. A condensation suppression model for direct contact condensation was previously developed by Westinghouse using first principles. The model is believed to be an accurate description of the direct contact condensation process in the presence of non-condensable gases. The Westinghouse condensation suppression model is further revised by applying a more physical model. The revised condensation suppression model is thus implemented into the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 LOCA safety evaluation code for both 3-D module (COBRA-TF) and 1-D module (TRAC-PF1). Parametric study using the revised Westinghouse condensation suppression model ismore » conducted. Additionally, the performance of non-condensable gases condensation suppression model is examined in the ACHILLES (ISP-25) separate effects test and LOFT L2-5 (ISP-13) integral effects test. (authors)« less

  10. Human factors issues associated with the use of speech technology in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersteen, Z. A.; Damos, D.

    1983-01-01

    The human factors issues associated with the use of voice technology in the cockpit are summarized. The formulation of the LHX avionics suite is described and the allocation of tasks to voice in the cockpit is discussed. State-of-the-art speech recognition technology is reviewed. Finally, a questionnaire designed to tap pilot opinions concerning the allocation of tasks to voice input and output in the cockpit is presented. This questionnaire was designed to be administered to operational AH-1G Cobra gunship pilots. Half of the questionnaire deals specifically with the AH-1G cockpit and the types of tasks pilots would like to have performed by voice in this existing rotorcraft. The remaining portion of the questionnaire deals with an undefined rotorcraft of the future and is aimed at determining what types of tasks these pilots would like to have performed by voice technology if anything was possible, i.e. if there were no technological constraints.

  11. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2009-01-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms. PMID:21686401

  12. Exotic snakes are not always found in exotic places: how poison centres can assist emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Lubich, Carol; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2007-01-01

    Emergency departments throughout the USA may have some familiarity with the management of envenomation from indigenous snake species such as Crotalinae (rattlesnakes) and Micrurus (coral snakes). However, venomous species may include exotic reptiles whose bites pose substantial treatment challenges due to both a lack of experience and the difficulty in obtaining antivenoms. Two pet cobra envenomation incidents illustrate the challenges that face emergency departments, especially in urban settings, that are confronted with these exposures. It is important for emergency departments to be aware of the large underground presence of exotic venomous reptile pets and to utilise the expertise of regional poison centres that will also assist in the procurement of exotic antivenoms. PMID:17954846

  13. Enhancing the x-ray output of a single-wire explosion with a gas-puff based plasma opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Joseph T.; Ouart, Nicholas D.; Qi, Niansheng; de Grouchy, Philip W.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Banasek, Jacob T.; Potter, William M.; Rocco, Sophia V.; Hammer, David A.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Giuliani, John L.

    2018-02-01

    We present experiments performed on the 1 MA COBRA generator using a low density, annular, gas-puff z-pinch implosion as an opening switch to rapidly transfer a current pulse into a single metal wire on axis. This gas-puff on axial wire configuration was studied for its promise as an opening switch and as a means of enhancing the x-ray output of the wire. We demonstrate that current can be switched from the gas-puff plasma into the wire, and that the timing of the switch can be controlled by the gas-puff plenum backing pressure. X-ray detector measurements indicate that for low plenum pressure Kr or Xe shots with a copper wire, this configuration can offer a significant enhancement in the peak intensity and temporal distribution of radiation in the 1-10 keV range.

  14. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  15. NASA Tech Briefs, August 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Topics include: Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights; Using G(exp 4)FETs as a Data Router for In-Plane Crossing of Signal Paths; Two Algorithms for Processing Electronic Nose Data; Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus; General-Purpose Front End for Real-Time Data Processing; Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells; Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill, Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors; Photocatalytic/Magnetic Composite Particles; Separation and Sealing of a Sample Container Using Brazing; Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF; Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples; High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System; Detergent-Specific Membrane Protein Crystallization Screens; Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters; Plasmonic Antenna Coupling for QWIPs; Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors; Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm; A Method of Partly Automated Testing of Software; Rover Wheel-Actuated Tool Interface; and Second-Generation Electronic Nose.

  16. Wide distribution of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in snake venoms: isolation and cloning of novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Hyodo, Fumiko; Morita, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are found in epididymis and granules of mammals, and they are thought to function in sperm maturation and in the immune system. Recently, we isolated and obtained clones for novel snake venom proteins that are classified as CRISP family proteins. To elucidate the distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins, we evaluated a wide range of venoms for immuno-cross-reactivity. Then we isolated, characterized, and cloned genes for three novel CRISP family proteins (piscivorin, ophanin, and catrin) from the venom of eastern cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). Our results show the wide distribution of snake venom CRISP family proteins among Viperidae and Elapidae from different continents, indicating that CRISP family proteins compose a new group of snake venom proteins.

  17. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Hemextin A: A Unique Anticoagulant Protein from Hemachatus haemachatus Venom

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee,Y.; Kumar, S.; Jobichen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Hemextin A was isolated and purified from African Ringhals cobra (Hemachatus haemachatus). It is a three-finger toxin that specifically inhibits blood coagulation factor VIIa and clot formation and that also interacts with hemextin B to form a unique anticoagulant complex. Hemextin A was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method by equilibration against 0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M sodium acetate trihydrate pH 4.6 and 30% PEG 4000 as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 49.27, b = 49.51, c = 57.87 {angstrom} and two molecules in the asymmetricmore » unit. They diffracted to 1.5 {angstrom} resolution at beamline X25 at BNL.« less

  18. Evolutionary fuzzy modeling human diagnostic decisions.

    PubMed

    Peña-Reyes, Carlos Andrés

    2004-05-01

    Fuzzy CoCo is a methodology, combining fuzzy logic and evolutionary computation, for constructing systems able to accurately predict the outcome of a human decision-making process, while providing an understandable explanation of the underlying reasoning. Fuzzy logic provides a formal framework for constructing systems exhibiting both good numeric performance (accuracy) and linguistic representation (interpretability). However, fuzzy modeling--meaning the construction of fuzzy systems--is an arduous task, demanding the identification of many parameters. To solve it, we use evolutionary computation techniques (specifically cooperative coevolution), which are widely used to search for adequate solutions in complex spaces. We have successfully applied the algorithm to model the decision processes involved in two breast cancer diagnostic problems, the WBCD problem and the Catalonia mammography interpretation problem, obtaining systems both of high performance and high interpretability. For the Catalonia problem, an evolved system was embedded within a Web-based tool-called COBRA-for aiding radiologists in mammography interpretation.

  19. Molecular evidence for the first records of facultative parthenogenesis in elapid snakes.

    PubMed

    Allen, L; Sanders, K L; Thomson, V A

    2018-02-01

    Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction by which embryos develop from unfertilized eggs. Parthenogenesis occurs in reptiles; however, it is not yet known to occur in the widespread elapid snakes (Elapidae), which include well-known taxa such as cobras, mambas, taipans and sea snakes. Here, we describe the production of viable parthenogens in two species of Australo-Papuan elapids with divergent reproductive modes: the oviparous coastal/Papuan taipan ( Oxyuranus scutellatus ) and the viviparous southern death adder ( Acanthophis antarcticus ). Analyses of nuclear SNP data excluded paternity for putative fathers and convincingly demonstrated asexual reproduction, thus representing the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in Elapidae. Our finding has broad implications for understanding the evolution of reproductive diversity in snakes, as well as managing the conservation of genetic diversity in wild and captive populations.

  20. Snakebite in bedroom kills a physician in Cameroon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nkwescheu, Armand; Mbasso, Leopold Cyriaque Donfack; Pouth, Franky Baonga Ba; Dzudie, Anastase; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Ngouakam, Hermann; Diffo, Joseph Le Doux; Eyongorock, Hanny; Mbacham, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies snake bites as neglected public health problem affecting mostly tropical and subtropical countries. In Africa there are an estimated 1 million snake bites annually with about half needing a specific treatment. Women, children and farmers in poor rural communities in developing countries are the most affected. Case management of snake bites are not adequate in many health facilities in developing countries where personnel are not always abreast with the new developments in snake bite management and in addition, quite often the anti-venom serum is lacking. We report the case of a medical doctor bitten by a cobra in the rural area of Poli, Cameroon while asleep in his bedroom. Lack of facilities coupled with poor case management resulted in a fatal outcome.

  1. Genetic assemblage of Sarcocystis spp. in Malaysian snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sarcocystis species are protozoan parasites with a wide host range including snakes. Although there were several reports of Sarcocytis species in snakes, their distribution and prevalence are still not fully explored. Methods In this study, fecal specimens of several snake species in Malaysia were examined for the presence of Sarcocystis by PCR of 18S rDNA sequence. Microscopy examination of the fecal specimens for sporocysts was not carried as it was difficult to determine the species of the infecting Sarcocystis. Results Of the 28 snake fecal specimens, 7 were positive by PCR. BLASTn and phylogenetic analyses of the amplified 18S rDNA sequences revealed the snakes were infected with either S. nesbitti, S. singaporensis, S. zuoi or undefined Sarcocystis species. Conclusion This study is the first to report Sarcocystis infection in a cobra, and S. nesbitti in a reticulated python. PMID:24010903

  2. Further Simplification of the Simple Erosion Narrowing Score With Item Response Theory Methodology.

    PubMed

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A H; Schenk, Olga; Ten Klooster, Peter M; Vonkeman, Harald E; Bernelot Moens, Hein J; Boers, Maarten; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2016-08-01

    To further simplify the simple erosion narrowing score (SENS) by removing scored areas that contribute the least to its measurement precision according to analysis based on item response theory (IRT) and to compare the measurement performance of the simplified version to the original. Baseline and 18-month data of the Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis (COBRA) trial were modeled using longitudinal IRT methodology. Measurement precision was evaluated across different levels of structural damage. SENS was further simplified by omitting the least reliably scored areas. Discriminant validity of SENS and its simplification were studied by comparing their ability to differentiate between the COBRA and sulfasalazine arms. Responsiveness was studied by comparing standardized change scores between versions. SENS data showed good fit to the IRT model. Carpal and feet joints contributed the least statistical information to both erosion and joint space narrowing scores. Omitting the joints of the foot reduced measurement precision for the erosion score in cases with below-average levels of structural damage (relative efficiency compared with the original version ranged 35-59%). Omitting the carpal joints had minimal effect on precision (relative efficiency range 77-88%). Responsiveness of a simplified SENS without carpal joints closely approximated the original version (i.e., all Δ standardized change scores were ≤0.06). Discriminant validity was also similar between versions for both the erosion score (relative efficiency = 97%) and the SENS total score (relative efficiency = 84%). Our results show that the carpal joints may be omitted from the SENS without notable repercussion for its measurement performance. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Validation and Implementation of BRCA1/2 Variant Screening in Ovarian Tumor Tissue.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Marthe M; Ruano, Dina; van Eijk, Ronald; van der Stoep, Nienke; Nielsen, Maartje; Wijnen, Juul T; Ter Haar, Natalja T; Baalbergen, Astrid; Bos, Monique E M M; Kagie, Marjolein J; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; Kroep, Judith R; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Bosse, Tjalling; van Wezel, Tom; van Asperen, Christi J

    2018-06-21

    BRCA1/2 variant analysis in tumor tissue could streamline the referral of patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer to genetic counselors and select patients who benefit most from targeted treatment. We investigated the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 variant analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue using a combination of next-generation sequencing and copy number variant multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. After optimization using a training cohort of known BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, validation was performed in a prospective cohort (Clinical implementation Of BRCA1/2 screening in ovarian tumor tissue: COBRA-cohort) in which screening of BRCA1/2 tumor DNA and leukocyte germline DNA was performed in parallel. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation and pedigree analysis were also performed. In the training cohort 45 of 46 germline BRCA1/2 variants were detected (sensitivity 98%). In the COBRA cohort (n=62), all six germline variants were identified (sensitivity 100%), together with five somatic BRCA1/2 variants and eight cases with BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation. In four BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients, surveillance or prophylactic management options were offered based on positive family histories. We conclude that BRCA1/2 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue analysis reliably detects BRCA1/2 variants. When taking family history of BRCA1/2 variant-negative patients into account, tumor BRCA1/2 variant screening allows more efficient selection of epithelial ovarian cancer patients for genetic counselling and simultaneously selects patients who benefit most from targeted treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) modelmore » and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). In conclusion, using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch

  5. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; ...

    2014-12-19

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) modelmore » and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). In conclusion, using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch

  6. Hepatozoon and Theileria species detected in ticks collected from mammals and snakes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumrandee, Chalao; Baimai, Visut; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Ahantarig, Arunee

    2015-04-01

    We report the detection of Hepatozoon and Theileria in 103 ticks from mammals and snakes in Thailand. By using a genus-specific 18S rRNA PCR, Hepatozoon and Theileria spp. were detected in 8% and 18%, respectively, of ticks (n=79) removed from mammals. Of the ticks removed from snakes (n=24), 96% were infected with Hepatozoon spp., but none were infected with Theileria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hepatozoon spp. detected from Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks from Wild boar (Sus scrofa) formed a phylogenetic group with many isolates of Hepatozoon felis that were distantly related to a species group containing Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum. In contrast, a phylogenetic analysis of the Hepatozoon sequences of snake ticks revealed that Hepatozoon spp. from Amblyomma varanense from King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) and Amblyomma helvolum ticks from Indochinese rat snake (Ptyas korros), and Asiatic water snake (Xenochrophis piscator) are grouped with Hepatozoon spp. recently isolated from Monocellate cobras, Reticulated pythons and Burmese pythons, all of Thai origin, and with Hepatozoon sp. 774c that has been detected from a tick species obtained from Argus monitors in Australia. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Theileria spp. from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haemaphysalis obesa, and Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks from Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) cluster with the Theileria cervi isolates WU11 and 239, and Theileria sp. Iwate 141. We report for the first time a Hepatozoon species that shares genetic similarity with Hepatozoon felis found in Dermacentor astrosignatus and Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from Wild boars in Thailand. In addition, we found the presence of a Theileria cervi-like sp. which suggests the potential role of Haemaphysalis lagrangei as a Theileria vector in Thailand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content. PMID

  8. Real-time implementation of a multispectral mine target detection algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Joseph W.; Witter, Lester J.; Kenton, Arthur C.; Holloway, John H., Jr.

    2003-09-01

    Spatial-spectral anomaly detection (the "RX Algorithm") has been exploited on the USMC's Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) and several associated technology base studies, and has been found to be a useful method for the automated detection of surface-emplaced antitank land mines in airborne multispectral imagery. RX is a complex image processing algorithm that involves the direct spatial convolution of a target/background mask template over each multispectral image, coupled with a spatially variant background spectral covariance matrix estimation and inversion. The RX throughput on the ATD was about 38X real time using a single Sun UltraSparc system. A goal to demonstrate RX in real-time was begun in FY01. We now report the development and demonstration of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) solution that achieves a real-time implementation of the RX algorithm at video rates using COBRA ATD data. The approach uses an Annapolis Microsystems Firebird PMC card containing a Xilinx XCV2000E FPGA with over 2,500,000 logic gates and 18MBytes of memory. A prototype system was configured using a Tek Microsystems VME board with dual-PowerPC G4 processors and two PMC slots. The RX algorithm was translated from its C programming implementation into the VHDL language and synthesized into gates that were loaded into the FPGA. The VHDL/synthesizer approach allows key RX parameters to be quickly changed and a new implementation automatically generated. Reprogramming the FPGA is done rapidly and in-circuit. Implementation of the RX algorithm in a single FPGA is a major first step toward achieving real-time land mine detection.

  9. Comparison of Flexible Ureterorenoscope Quality of Vision: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Talso, Michele; Proietti, Silvia; Emiliani, Esteban; Gallioli, Andrea; Dragos, Laurian; Orosa, Andrea; Servian, Pol; Barreiro, Aaron; Giusti, Guido; Montanari, Emanuele; Somani, Bhaskar; Traxer, Olivier

    2018-06-01

    Flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS) is one of the best solutions for treatment of renal calculi <2 cm and for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma conservative treatment. An adequate quality of vision is mandatory to help surgeon get better outcomes. No studies have been done, to our knowledge, about what fURS in the market has the best quality of vision. Seven different fURS were used to compare the image quality (Lithovue, Olympus V, Olympus V2, Storz Flex XC-in White Light and in Clara+Chroma mode-Wolf Cobra Vision, Olympus P6, and Storx Flex X2). Two standardized grids to evaluate contrast and image definition and three stones of different composition were filmed in four standardized different scenarios. These videos were shown to 103 subjects (51 urologists and 52 nonurologists) who had to evaluate them with a rating scale from 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). No difference in terms of scores was observed for sex of the participants. Digital (D) ureterorenoscopes were rated better than fiber optics (FOs) ureterorenoscopes. Overall, Flex XC White Light and XC Clara+Chroma image quality resulted steadily better than other fURS (p < 0.0001). Olympus V generally provided a vision better than Lithovue. Cobra Vision and Olympus V2 had superimposable values that were significantly lower than Lithovue's ones. Olympus P6 and Storz X2 offered a low quality of vision compared to the others. In the medium simulating bleeding, Olympus V and V2 significantly improved their scores of 12% and 8.1%, contrary to rest of the ureterorenoscopes. D ureterorenoscopes have a better image quality than FO ones. The only disposable ureterorenoscope tested was comparable to the majority of other D ureterorenoscopes. The best image quality was provided by Storz D ureterorenoscopes, being Clara Chroma the favorite Spies Mode, according to literature.

  10. Complexity analysis of the cost effectiveness of PI-led NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, J.; Cowdin, M.; Mize, T.; Kellogg, R.; Bearden, D.

    For the last 20 years, NASA has allowed Principal Investigators (PIs) to manage the development of many unmanned space projects. Advocates of PI-led projects believe that a PI-led implementation can result in a project being developed at lower cost and shorter schedule than other implementation modes. This paper seeks to test this hypothesis by comparing the actual costs of NASA and other comparable projects developed under different implementation modes. The Aerospace Corporation's Complexity-Based Risk Assessment (CoBRA) analysis tool is used to normalize the projects such that the cost can be compared for equivalent project complexities. The data is examined both by complexity and by launch year. Cost growth will also be examined for any correlation with implementation mode. Defined in many NASA Announcements of Opportunity (AOs), a PI-led project is characterized by a central, single person with full responsibility for assembling a team and for the project's scientific integrity and the implementation and integrity of all other aspects of the mission, while operating under a cost cap. PIs have larger degrees of freedom to achieve the stated goals within NASA guidelines and oversight. This study leverages the definitions and results of previous National Research Council studies of PI-led projects. Aerospace has defined a complexity index, derived from mission performance, mass, power, and technology choices, to arrive at a broad representation of missions for purposes of comparison. Over a decade of research has established a correlation between mission complexity and spacecraft development cost and schedule. This complexity analysis, CoBRA, is applied to compare a PI-led set of New Frontiers, Discovery, Explorers, and Earth System Science Pathfinder missions to the overall NASA mission dataset. This reveals the complexity trends against development costs, cost growth, and development era.

  11. Hypermethylation of miR-203 in endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Goodfellow, Paul J; Huang, Tim H-M; Rader, Janet S; Uyar, Denise S

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant expression of SOX4 in endometrial cancer has been identified and partially was contributed to hypermethylation of miR-129-2. Other miRNAs are suspected to influence SOX 4 as well. The current study seeks to identify other hypermethylated miRNAs that regulate SOX4 in endometrial carcinomas. Methylation levels of miRNA promoter regions were measured by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and pyrosequencing assays. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. Methylation level of a miRNA locus was corrected with clinicopathologic factors for 252 gynecological specimens. In silico analysis identified 13 miRNA loci bound on the 3'-UTR of SOX4. Using COBRA assays, increased methylation of miR-203, miR-219-2, miR-596, and miR-618 was detected in endometrial cancer cells relative to those seen in a normal cell line and in normal endometrium. Transfection of a miR-203 mimic decreased SOX4 gene expression. Hypermethylation of miR-203 was detected in 52% of type I endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (n=131) but was not seen in any of 10 uninvolved normal endometria (P<0.001). Methylation status of miR-203 was significantly associated with microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation in endometrial tumors (P<0.001). Furthermore, hypermethylation of miR-203 was found in endometrioid and clear endometrial subtype tumors, but not in cervical squamous cell and ovarian carcinomas. Hypermethylation of miR-203 is a frequent event in endometrial carcinomas and is strongly associated with microsatellite instability and MLH1 methylation status. Thus, miR-203 methylation level might represent a marker for patients with endometrioid and clear endometrial sub-cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Method of Adrenal Venous Sampling via an Antecubital Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiongjing, E-mail: jxj103@hotmail.com; Dong, Hui; Peng, Meng

    PurposeCurrently, almost all adrenal venous sampling (AVS) procedures are performed by femoral vein access. The purpose of this study was to establish the technique of AVS via an antecubital approach and evaluate its safety and feasibility.Materials and MethodsFrom January 2012 to June 2015, 194 consecutive patients diagnosed as primary aldosteronism underwent AVS via an antecubital approach without ACTH simulation. Catheters used for bilateral adrenal cannulations were recorded. The success rate of bilateral adrenal sampling, operation time, fluoroscopy time, dosage of contrast, and incidence of complications were calculated.ResultsA 5F MPA1 catheter was first used to attempt right adrenal cannulation in all patients.more » Cannulation of the right adrenal vein was successfully performed in 164 (84.5%) patients. The 5F JR5, Cobra2, and TIG catheters were the ultimate catheters for right adrenal cannulation in 16 (8.2%), 5 (2.6%), and 9 (4.6%) patients, respectively. For left adrenal cannulation, JR5 and Cobra2 catheters were used in 19 (9.8%) and 10 (5.2%) patients, respectively, while only TIG catheters were used in the remaining 165 (85.1%) patients. The rate of successful adrenal sampling on the right, left, and bilateral sides was 91.8%, 93.3%, and 87.6%, respectively. The mean time of operation was (16.3 ± 4.3) minutes, mean fluoroscopy time was (4.7 ± 1.3) minutes, and the mean use of contrast was (14.3 ± 4.7) ml. The incidence of adrenal hematoma was 1.0%.ConclusionsThis study showed that AVS via an antecubital approach was safe and feasible, with a high rate of successful sampling.« less

  13. G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction

    PubMed Central

    Gritsch, Cristina; Wan, Yongfang; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.; Hanley, Steven J.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are important as a potential feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. Previous work suggested that reaction wood (RW) formation could be a desirable trait for biofuel production in willows as it is associated with increased glucose yields, but willow RW has not been characterized for cell wall components. Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) proteins are highly up-regulated in RW of poplars and are considered to be involved in cell adhesion and cellulose biosynthesis. COBRA genes are involved in anisotropic cell expansion by modulating the orientation of cellulose microfibril deposition. This study determined the temporal and spatial deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of the tension wood (TW) component of willow RW and compared it with opposite wood (OW) and normal wood (NW) using specific antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization. Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1–4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself. Of particular interest was that the G-layer itself can be highly enriched in (1–4)-β-D-galactan, especially in G-fibres where the G-layer is still thickening, which contrasts with previous studies in poplar. Only xylan showed a similar distribution in TW, OW, and NW, being restricted to the secondary cell wall layers. SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance. A model of polysaccharides distribution in developing willow G-fibre cells is presented. PMID:26220085

  14. Acetylcholinesterases from Elapidae snake venoms: biochemical, immunological and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Frobert, Y; Créminon, C; Cousin, X; Rémy, M H; Chatel, J M; Bon, S; Bon, C; Grassi, J

    1997-05-23

    We analyzed 45 batches of venom from 20 different species belonging to 11 genera from the 3 main families of venomous snakes (Elapidae, Viperidae and Crotalidae). We found high acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in all venoms from Elapidae, except in those from the Dendroaspis genus. AChE was particularly abundant in Bungarus venoms which contain up to 8 mg of enzyme per gram of dried venom. We could not detect acetylcholinesterase activity in any batch of venom from Viperidae or Crotalidae. Titration of active sites with an organophosphorous agent (MPT) revealed that the AChE of all venoms have similar turnovers (6000 to 8000 s(-1)) which are clearly higher than those of Torpedo and mammalian enzymes but lower than that of Electrophorus. AChEs from the venom of elapid snakes of the Bungarus, Naja, Ophiophagus and Haemacatus genera were purified by affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE analysis and sucrose gradient centrifugation demonstrated that AChE is exclusively present as a nonamphiphilic monomer. These enzymes are true AChEs, hydrolyzing acetylthiocholine faster than propionylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine and exhibiting excess substrate inhibition. Twenty-seven different monoclonal antibodies directed against AChE from Bungarus fasciatus venom were raised in mice. Half of them recognized exclusively the Bungarus enzyme while the others cross-reacted with AChEs from other venoms. Polyspecific mAbs were used to demonstrate that venoms from Dendroaspis, which contain the AChE inhibitor fasciculin but lack AChE activity, were also devoid of immunoreactive AChE protein. AChE inhibitors acting at the active site (edrophonium, tacrine) and at the peripheral site (propidium, fasciculin), as well as bis-quaternary ligands (BW284C51, decamethonium), were tested against the venom AChEs from 11 different species. All enzymes had a very similar pattern of reactivity with regard to the different inhibitors, with the exception of fasciculin. AChEs from Naja and

  15. OPHIDIAN L-AMINO ACID OXIDASE. THE NATURE OF THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEXES.

    PubMed

    ZELLER, E A; RAMACHANDER, G; FLEISHER, G A; ISHIMARU, T; ZELLER, V

    1965-04-01

    1. To investigate the kinetics of ophidian l-amino acid oxidase, V and K(m) were determined for phenylalanines that were substituted in every ring position with groups of various size and reactivity, and for a few ring-substituted tryptophans and histidines. The venom of one representative from each of three major classes of poisonous snakes, Naja melanoleuca, Vipera russelli and Crotalus adamanteus, served as a source of the ophidian l-amino acid oxidase. Both crude and crystalline enzyme from the venom of C. adamanteus were tested. 2. The introduction of a benzene ring into glycine and alanine caused some increase of V and a very marked depression of K(m). 3. With the exception of fluorine, residues in the ortho position of phenylalanine led to a decrease of V. The rates induced by various substitutions follow the pattern: meta >/= para >/= ortho. Within the halogen series, the effects become more pronounced with increasing atomic number. 4. Ring substitution in heterocyclic amino acids also affected the V values markedly. For methyl-substituted tryptophans the pattern was: 5-methyl >/= 6-methyl >/= 4-methyl. In a few instances ring substitution accounts for a considerable elevation of V, as shown for beta-quinol-4-ylalanine and its 6-methoxy derivative. 5. The kinetic constants appear to be unaffected by relatively high concentrations of the corresponding d-amino acids. 6. A general principle that permits a uniform interpretation of a vast body of information is suggested. It is based on the assumption that most substrates form not only eutopic but also dystopic complexes with the enzyme. The latter, in contrast with the former, do not permit the formation of reaction products. K values for eutopic and dystopic complexes are computed. Similar concepts have been presented to elucidate the action of alpha-chymotrypsin (Hein & Niemann, 1962) and of monoamine oxidase.

  16. Snake Cytotoxins Bind to Membranes via Interactions with Phosphatidylserine Head Groups of Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Konshina, Anastasia G.; Boldyrev, Ivan A.; Utkin, Yuri N.; Omel'kov, Anton V.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2011-01-01

    The major representatives of Elapidae snake venom, cytotoxins (CTs), share similar three-fingered fold and exert diverse range of biological activities against various cell types. CT-induced cell death starts from the membrane recognition process, whose molecular details remain unclear. It is known, however, that the presence of anionic lipids in cell membranes is one of the important factors determining CT-membrane binding. In this work, we therefore investigated specific interactions between one of the most abundant of such lipids, phosphatidylserine (PS), and CT 4 of Naja kaouthia using a combined, experimental and modeling, approach. It was shown that incorporation of PS into zwitterionic liposomes greatly increased the membrane-damaging activity of CT 4 measured by the release of the liposome-entrapped calcein fluorescent dye. The CT-induced leakage rate depends on the PS concentration with a maximum at approximately 20% PS. Interestingly, the effects observed for PS were much more pronounced than those measured for another anionic lipid, sulfatide. To delineate the potential PS binding sites on CT 4 and estimate their relative affinities, a series of computer simulations was performed for the systems containing the head group of PS and different spatial models of CT 4 in aqueous solution and in an implicit membrane. This was done using an original hybrid computational protocol implementing docking, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, at least three putative PS-binding sites with different affinities to PS molecule were delineated. Being located in different parts of the CT molecule, these anion-binding sites can potentially facilitate and modulate the multi-step process of the toxin insertion into lipid bilayers. This feature together with the diverse binding affinities of the sites to a wide variety of anionic targets on the membrane surface appears to be functionally meaningful and may adjust CT action against different types of

  17. Generic phylogeny, historical biogeography and character evolution of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant family Hydrocharitaceae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-Yun; Chen, Jin-Ming; Gituru, Robert Wahiti; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2012-03-10

    Hydrocharitaceae is a fully aquatic monocot family, consists of 18 genera with approximately 120 species. The family includes both fresh and marine aquatics and exhibits great diversity in form and habit including annual and perennial life histories; submersed, partially submersed and floating leaf habits and linear to orbicular leaf shapes. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution and is well represented in the Tertiary fossil record in Europe. At present, the historical biogeography of the family is not well understood and the generic relationships remain controversial. In this study we investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of Hydrocharitaceae by integrating fossils and DNA sequences from eight genes. We also conducted ancestral state reconstruction for three morphological characters. Phylogenetic analyses produced a phylogeny with most branches strongly supported by bootstrap values greater than 95 and Bayesian posterior probability values of 1.0. Stratiotes is the first diverging lineage with the remaining genera in two clades, one clade consists of Lagarosiphon, Ottelia, Blyxa, Apalanthe, Elodea and Egeria; and the other consists of Hydrocharis-Limnobium, Thalassia, Enhalus, Halophila, Najas, Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Nechamandra and Maidenia. Biogeographic analyses (DIVA, Mesquite) and divergence time estimates (BEAST) resolved the most recent common ancestor of Hydrocharitaceae as being in Asia during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene (54.7-72.6 Ma). Dispersals (including long-distance dispersal and migrations through Tethys seaway and land bridges) probably played major roles in the intercontinental distribution of this family. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that in Hydrocharitaceae evolution of dioecy is bidirectional, viz., from dioecy to hermaphroditism, and from hermaphroditism to dioecy, and that the aerial-submerged leaf habit and short-linear leaf shape are the ancestral states. Our study has shed light on the previously controversial

  18. Short-chain consensus alpha-neurotoxin: a synthetic 60-mer peptide with generic traits and enhanced immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guillermo; Corrales-García, Ligia L; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ximena; López-Vera, Estuardo; Corzo, Gerardo

    2018-07-01

    The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx. The synthetic ScNtx gene was de novo constructed and cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-Tag and an FXa proteolytic cleavage region. Escherichia coli Origami cells transfected with the pQE30/ScNtx vector expressed the recombinant consensus neurotoxin in a soluble form with a yield of 1.5 mg/L of culture medium. The 60-amino acid residue ScNtx contains canonical structural motifs similar to α-neurotoxins from African elapids and its LD 50 of 3.8 µg/mice is similar to the most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from elapid venoms. Furthermore, ScNtx was also able to antagonize muscular, but not neuronal, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Rabbits immunized with ScNtx were able to immune-recognize short-chain α-neurotoxins within whole elapid venoms. Type I neurotoxins are difficult to isolate and purify from natural sources; therefore, the heterologous expression of molecules such ScNtx, bearing crucial motifs and key amino acids, is a step forward to create common immunogens for developing cost-effective antivenoms with a wider spectrum of efficacy, quality and strong therapeutic value.

  19. Modulation of A-type K+ channels by the short-chain cobrotoxin through the protein kinase C-delta isoform decreases membrane excitability in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Jiang, You-Jing; Jin, Hong; Jiang, Xing-Hong; Gu, Bo; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Jian-Gong; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Tao, Jin

    2013-05-01

    A-type K(+) channels are crucial in controlling neuronal excitability, and their regulation in sensory neurons may alter pain sensation. In this study, we identified the functional role of cobrotoxin, the short-chain α-neurotoxin isolated from Naja atra venom, which acts in the regulation of the transient A-type K(+) currents (IA) and membrane excitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons via the activation of the muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R). Our results showed that cobrotoxin increased IA in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the sustained delayed rectifier K(+) currents (IDR) were not affected. Cobrotoxin did not affect the activation of IA markedly, however, it shifted the inactivation curve significantly in the depolarizing direction. The cobrotoxin-induced IA response was blocked by the M3R-selective antagonists DAU-5884 and 4-DAMP. An siRNA targeting the M3R in small DRG neurons abolished the cobrotoxin-induced IA increase. In addition, dialysis of the cells with the novel protein kinase C-delta isoform (PKC-δ) inhibitor δv1-1 or an siRNA targeting PKC-δ abolished the cobrotoxin-induced IA response, whereas inhibition of PKA or classic PKC activity elicited no such effects. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in the firing rate of the neuronal action potential induced by M3R activation. Pretreatment of the cells with 4-aminopyridine, a selective blocker of IA, abolished this effect. Taken together, these results suggest that the short-chain cobrotoxin selectively enhances IA via a novel PKC-δ-dependent pathway. This effect occurred via the activation of M3R and might contribute to its neuronal hypoexcitability in small DRG neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic Activity and Stability of Oxides: The Role of Near-Surface Atomic Structures and Compositions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenxing; Hong, Wesley T; Fong, Dillon D; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Yacoby, Yizhak; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-05-17

    Electrocatalysts play an important role in catalyzing the kinetics for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions for many air-based energy storage and conversion devices, such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Although noble metals have been extensively used as electrocatalysts, their limited natural abundance and high costs have motivated the search for more cost-effective catalysts. Oxides are suitable candidates since they are relatively inexpensive and have shown reasonably high activity for various electrochemical reactions. However, a lack of fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanisms has been a major hurdle toward improving electrocatalytic activity. Detailed studies of the oxide surface atomic structure and chemistry (e.g., cation migration) can provide much needed insights for the design of highly efficient and stable oxide electrocatalysts. In this Account, we focus on recent advances in characterizing strontium (Sr) cation segregation and enrichment near the surface of Sr-substituted perovskite oxides under different operating conditions (e.g., high temperature, applied potential), as well as their influence on the surface oxygen exchange kinetics at elevated temperatures. We contrast Sr segregation, which is associated with Sr redistribution in the crystal lattice near the surface, with Sr enrichment, which involves Sr redistribution via the formation of secondary phases. The newly developed coherent Bragg rod analysis (COBRA) and energy-modulated differential COBRA are uniquely powerful ways of providing information about surface and interfacial cation segregation at the atomic scale for these thin film electrocatalysts. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) studies under electrochemical operating conditions give additional insights into cation migration. Direct COBRA and APXPS evidence for surface Sr segregation was found for La1-xSrxCoO3-δ and (La1-ySry)2CoO4±δ/La1-xSrxCoO3-δ oxide thin films, and

  1. Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation

  2. Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopic Studies of Dimethyl Ether and Ethylene Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Wullenkord, Julia; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Hansen, Nils

    2017-06-01

    Microwave spectroscopy has been a proven technique for the detection of short-lived molecules produced from a variety of molecular sources. With the goal of observing more reactive intermediates produced in combustion reactions, the products of a home-built flat flame burner were measured on a coaxially oriented beam resonator arrangement (COBRA) Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The products are coupled into a molecular beam using a fast-mixing nozzle styled after the work of Gutowsky and co-workers. Probing the flame at various positions, the relative abundance of products can be observed as a function of flame depth. One dimensional intensity profiles are available for formaldehyde, ketene, acetaldehyde, and dimethyl ether, where either a dimethyl ether fuel or an ethylene fuel was burned in the presence of oxygen. The current arrangement allows only for stable species produced in the flame to be observed in the molecular beam. This combination of species source and detection shows promise for future work in observing new, short-lived, combustion intermediates. J.-U. Grabow, W. Stahl, H. Dreizler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 4072, 1996 T. Emilsson, T. D. Klots, R. S. Ruoff, H.S. Gutowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6971, 1990

  3. optGpSampler: an improved tool for uniformly sampling the solution-space of genome-scale metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Megchelenbrink, Wout; Huynen, Martijn; Marchiori, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Constraint-based models of metabolic networks are typically underdetermined, because they contain more reactions than metabolites. Therefore the solutions to this system do not consist of unique flux rates for each reaction, but rather a space of possible flux rates. By uniformly sampling this space, an estimated probability distribution for each reaction's flux in the network can be obtained. However, sampling a high dimensional network is time-consuming. Furthermore, the constraints imposed on the network give rise to an irregularly shaped solution space. Therefore more tailored, efficient sampling methods are needed. We propose an efficient sampling algorithm (called optGpSampler), which implements the Artificial Centering Hit-and-Run algorithm in a different manner than the sampling algorithm implemented in the COBRA Toolbox for metabolic network analysis, here called gpSampler. Results of extensive experiments on different genome-scale metabolic networks show that optGpSampler is up to 40 times faster than gpSampler. Application of existing convergence diagnostics on small network reconstructions indicate that optGpSampler converges roughly ten times faster than gpSampler towards similar sampling distributions. For networks of higher dimension (i.e. containing more than 500 reactions), we observed significantly better convergence of optGpSampler and a large deviation between the samples generated by the two algorithms. optGpSampler for Matlab and Python is available for non-commercial use at: http://cs.ru.nl/~wmegchel/optGpSampler/.

  4. Visual cueing considerations in Nap-of-the-Earth helicopter flight head-slaved helmet-mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, Silvia

    1993-01-01

    The pilot's ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays, commonly used in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, originates from a relatively narrow field-of-view Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the nose of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, in order to obtain a wide-angle field-of-regard. Pilots have encountered considerable difficulties in controlling the aircraft by these devices. Experimental simulator results presented here indicate that part of these difficulties can be attributed to head/camera slaving system phase lags and errors. In the presence of voluntary head rotation, these slaving system imperfections are shown to impair the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the perception of the anticipated flight path or the vehicle yaw rate. Since, in the presence of slaving system imperfections, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle field-of-regard of the line-of-sight slaved Helmet-Mounted Display, is not always fully utilized.

  5. Visual field information in Nap-of-the-Earth flight by teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Arthur J.; Kohn, S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The human ability to derive Control-Oriented Visual Field Information from teleoperated Helmet-Mounted displays in Nap-of-the-Earth flight, is investigated. The visual field with these types of displays originates from a Forward Looking Infrared Radiation Camera, gimbal-mounted at the front of the aircraft and slaved to the pilot's line-of-sight, to obtain wide-angle visual coverage. Although these displays are proved to be effective in Apache and Cobra helicopter night operations, they demand very high pilot proficiency and work load. Experimental work presented in the paper has shown that part of the difficulties encountered in vehicular control by means of these displays can be attributed to the narrow viewing aperture and head/camera slaving system phase lags. Both these shortcomings will impair visuo-vestibular coordination, when voluntary head rotation is present. This might result in errors in estimating the Control-Oriented Visual Field Information vital in vehicular control, such as the vehicle yaw rate or the anticipated flight path, or might even lead to visuo-vestibular conflicts (motion sickness). Since, under these conditions, the pilot will tend to minimize head rotation, the full wide-angle coverage of the Helmet-Mounted Display, provided by the line-of-sight slaving system, is not always fully utilized.

  6. Correlation between ZBED6 Gene Upstream CpG Island methylation and mRNA expression in cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Zi-Jing; He, Hua; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Song, Cheng-Chuang; Liu, Kun-Peng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Qi, Xing-Lei; Bai, Yue-Yu; Chen, Hong

    2017-04-03

    DNA methylation is essential for the regulation of gene expression and important roles in muscle development. To assess the extent of epigenetic modifications and gene expression on the differentially methylated region (DMR) in ZBED6, we simultaneously examined DNA methylation and expression in six tissues from two different developmental stages (fetal bovine and adult bovine). The DNA methylation pattern was compared using bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). The result of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that ZBED6 has a broad tissue distribution and is highly expressed in adult bovine (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The DNA methylation level was significantly different in liver, lung and spleen between the two cattle groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The adult bovine group exhibited a significantly higher mRNA level and lower DNA methylation level than the fetal bovine group in liver, lung, and spleen. No significant association was detected between DNA methylation level and muscle, heart, and kidney at two different stages. In this study, the statistical analyses indicated that DNA methylation patterns are associated with mRNA level in some tissues, these results may be a useful parameter to investigate muscle developmental in cattle and as a model for studies in other species, potentially contributing to an improvement of growth performance selection in beef cattle breeding program.

  7. Adjustment of multi-CCD-chip-color-camera heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyenot, Volker; Tittelbach, Guenther; Palme, Martin

    1999-09-01

    The principle of beam-splitter-multi-chip cameras consists in splitting an image into differential multiple images of different spectral ranges and in distributing these onto separate black and white CCD-sensors. The resulting electrical signals from the chips are recombined to produce a high quality color picture on the monitor. Because this principle guarantees higher resolution and sensitivity in comparison to conventional single-chip camera heads, the greater effort is acceptable. Furthermore, multi-chip cameras obtain the compete spectral information for each individual object point while single-chip system must rely on interpolation. In a joint project, Fraunhofer IOF and STRACON GmbH and in future COBRA electronic GmbH develop methods for designing the optics and dichroitic mirror system of such prism color beam splitter devices. Additionally, techniques and equipment for the alignment and assembly of color beam splitter-multi-CCD-devices on the basis of gluing with UV-curable adhesives have been developed, too.

  8. T'ao-t'ieh, a motif of Chinese funerary art as the iconographic counterpart of Cinnabar, an alchemical drug.

    PubMed

    Mahdihassan, S

    1982-01-01

    The agency conferring resurrection is soul or its emblem. The earliest conception of soul is blood. Its Redness penetrates subsoil and is taken up by serpent, from whence arises snake-soul, later snake-god. Blood vapours is the other fraction arising upwards. It becomes wraith bird, later soul bird, and finally bird god. Blood as whole gave snake-god plus bird-god. A winged-cobra became snake-god and bird-god or together, one-as-all. Red Cock was its equivalent. As substance came cinnabar, red like blood and sublimable like soul. Dragon was idealized snake-god. Then Dragon-god plus Bird-god became the equal of blood soul, the magical power. T'ao-t'ieh is Dragon-plus-Bird, snake-god plus bird-god, the equivalent of Cosmic soul. Then cinnabar as the equal of blood soul and T'ao-t'ieh, the emblem of Cosmic soul, each were capable of conferring resurrection and have been interred in Chinese graves.

  9. Temperature Evolution of a 1 MA Triple-Nozzle Gas-Puff Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grouchy, Philip; Banasek, Jacob; Engelbrecht, Joey; Qi, Niansheng; Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Moore, Hannah; Potter, William; Ransohoff, Lauren; Hammer, David; Kusse, Bruce; Laboratory of Plasma Studies Team

    2015-11-01

    Mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) plays a critical role in optimizing x-ray output at high-energy ~ 13 keV using the triple-nozzle Krypton gas-puff at Sandia National Laboratory. RTI mitigation by gas-puff density profiling using a triple-nozzle gas-puff valve has recently been recently demonstrated on the COBRA 1MA z-pinch at Cornell University. In support of this work we investigate the role of shell cooling in the growth of RTI during gas-puff implosions. Temperature measurements within the imploding plasma shell are recorded using a 527 nm, 10 GW Thomson scattering diagnostic for Neon, Argon and Krypton puffs. The mass-density profile is held constant at 22 microgram per centimeter for all three puffs and the temperature evolution of the imploding material is recorded. In the case of Argon puffs we find that the shell ion and electron effective temperatures remain in equilibrium at around 1keV for the majority of the implosion phase. In contrast scattered spectra from Krypton are dominated by of order 10 keV effective ion temperatures. Supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs.

  10. Radial and Azimuthal Velocity Profiles in Gas-Puff Z-Pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocco, Sophia; Engelbrecht, Joseph; Banasek, Jacob; de Grouchy, Philip; Qi, Niansheng; Hammer, David

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of neon, argon, and krypton (either singly or in combination) gas puff z-pinch plasmas are studied on Cornell's 1MA, 100-200ns rise-time COBRA pulsed power generator. The triple-nozzle gas puff valve, consisting of two annular gas puffs and a central jet, allows radial tailoring of the gas puff mass-density profile and the use of 1, 2 or 3 different gases at different pressures. Interferometry supplies information on sheath thickness and electron density, variously filtered PCDs and silicon diodes measure hard and soft x-ray production, and multi frame visible and extreme UV imaging systems allow tracking of the morphology of the plasma. A 527nm, 10J Thomson scattering diagnostic system is used to determine radial and azimuthal velocities. Implosion velocities of 170km/s (Kr) and 300km/s (Ne/Ar) are observed. We are investigating the correlations between instability growth, plasma density profile, velocity partitioning as a function of radius, and radiation production. Research supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  11. Streaked Thomson Scattering on Laboratory Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasek, Jacob; Byvank, Tom; Rocco, Sophia; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David

    2017-10-01

    Streaked Thomson scattering measurements have been performed on plasma jets created from a 15 μm thick radial Al or Ti foil load on COBRA, a 1 MA pulsed power machine. The goal was to measure the electron temperatures inside the center of the plasma jet created by the radial foil. The laser used for these measurements had a maximum energy of 10 J at 526.5 nm in a 3 ns duration pulse. Early experiments showed using the full energy significantly heats the 5 ×1018 cm-3 jet by inverse bremsstrahlung radiation. Here we used a streak camera to record the scattered spectrum and measure the evolving electron temperature of this laser heated jet. Analysis of the streak camera image showed that the electron temperature of the Al jet was increased from about 25 eV to 80-100 eV within about 2 ns. The Ti jets showed even stronger interaction with the laser, being heated to over 150 eV, and showed some heating even when only 1 J of laser energy was used. Also, the ion-acoustic peaks in the scattered spectrum from the Ti jets were significantly narrower than those from Al jets. Initial results will also be presented with scattered spectra taken at two different times within a single experiment by splitting the probe beam. This research is supported by the NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  12. Functional genomics analysis of low concentration of ethanol in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Role of genes involved in transcriptional and translational processes.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Francisco; Rosin-Steiner, Sigrid; Jung, Klaus

    2006-12-21

    We previously found that ethanol at millimolar level (1 mM) activates the expression of transcription factors with subsequent regulation of apoptotic genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. However, the role of ethanol on the expression of genes implicated in transcriptional and translational processes remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the effect of low concentration of ethanol on gene expression profiling in HepG2 cells using cDNA microarrays with especial interest in genes with transcriptional and translational function. The gene expression pattern observed in the ethanol-treated HepG2 cells revealed a relatively similar pattern to that found in the untreated control cells. The pairwise comparison analysis demonstrated four significantly up-regulated (COBRA1, ITGB4, STAU2, and HMGN3) genes and one down-regulated (ANK3) gene. All these genes exert their function on transcriptional and translational processes and until now none of these genes have been associated with ethanol. This functional genomic analysis demonstrates the reported interaction between ethanol and ethanol-regulated genes. Moreover, it confirms the relationship between ethanol-regulated genes and various signaling pathways associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis. The data presented in this study represents an important contribution toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ethanol at low concentration in HepG2 cells, a HCC-derived cell line.

  13. Functional genomics analysis of low concentration of ethanol in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Role of genes involved in transcriptional and translational processes

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Francisco; Rosin-Steiner, Sigrid; Jung, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    We previously found that ethanol at millimolar level (1 mM) activates the expression of transcription factors with subsequent regulation of apoptotic genes in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells. However, the role of ethanol on the expression of genes implicated in transcriptional and translational processes remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the effect of low concentration of ethanol on gene expression profiling in HepG2 cells using cDNA microarrays with especial interest in genes with transcriptional and translational function. The gene expression pattern observed in the ethanol-treated HepG2 cells revealed a relatively similar pattern to that found in the untreated control cells. The pairwise comparison analysis demonstrated four significantly up-regulated (COBRA1, ITGB4, STAU2, and HMGN3) genes and one down-regulated (ANK3) gene. All these genes exert their function on transcriptional and translational processes and until now none of these genes have been associated with ethanol. This functional genomic analysis demonstrates the reported interaction between ethanol and ethanol-regulated genes. Moreover, it confirms the relationship between ethanol-regulated genes and various signaling pathways associated with ethanol-induced apoptosis. The data presented in this study represents an important contribution toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ethanol at low concentration in HepG2 cells, a HCC-derived cell line. PMID:17211498

  14. Determining the Effect of External Stressors on Laparoscopic Skills and Performance Between Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Gaby N; Tyan, Paul; Kumar, Dipti; Krapf, Jill; Marfori, Cherie; Abi Khalil, Elias D; Robinson, James

    To evaluate the effect of stress on laparoscopic skills between obstetrics and gynecology residents. Observational prospective cohort study. Prospective cohort. Urban teaching university hospital. Thirty-one obstetrics and gynecology residents, postgraduate years 1 to 4. We assessed 4 basic laparoscopic skills at 2 sessions. The first session was the baseline; 6 months later the same skills were assessed under audiovisual stressors. We compared the effect of stress on accuracy and efficiency between the 2 sessions. A linear model was used to analyze time. Under stress, residents were more efficient in 3 of the 4 modules. Ring transfer (hand-eye coordination and bimanual dexterity), p = 0.0304. Ring of fire (bimanual dexterity and measure of depth perception), p = 0.0024 and dissection glove (respect of delicate tissue planes), p = 0.0002. Poisson regression was used to analyze the total number of penalties. Residents were more likely to acquire penalties under stress. Ring transfer, p = 0.0184 and cobra (hand-to-hand coordination), p = 0.0487 yielded a statistically significant increase in penalties in the presence of stressors. Dissection glove p = 0.0605 yielded a nonsignificant increase in penalties. Our work confirmed that while under stress residents were more efficient, this translated into their ability to complete tasks faster in all the tested skills. Efficiency, however, came at the expense of accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-Empirical Validation of the Cross-Band Relative Absorption Technique for the Measurement of Molecular Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narasimha S

    2013-01-01

    Studies were performed to carry out semi-empirical validation of a new measurement approach we propose for molecular mixing ratios determination. The approach is based on relative measurements in bands of O2 and other molecules and as such may be best described as cross band relative absorption (CoBRA). . The current validation studies rely upon well verified and established theoretical and experimental databases, satellite data assimilations and modeling codes such as HITRAN, line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM), and the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA). The approach holds promise for atmospheric mixing ratio measurements of CO2 and a variety of other molecules currently under investigation for several future satellite lidar missions. One of the advantages of the method is a significant reduction of the temperature sensitivity uncertainties which is illustrated with application to the ASCENDS mission for the measurement of CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). Additional advantages of the method include the possibility to closely match cross-band weighting function combinations which is harder to achieve using conventional differential absorption techniques and the potential for additional corrections for water vapor and other interferences without using the data from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models.

  16. A 3D imaging system for the non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation of an aircraft propeller and a helicopter rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight deformation measurement and the resulting local pitch of an aircraft propeller or helicopter rotor blade is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the air-craft propeller has already been presented at the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as in-flight on the Cobra VUT100 of Evektor Aerotechnik, Kunovice (CZ). The major aim of the EU FP7 project AIM2 ("Advanced In-flight Measurement techniques 2" - contract No. 266107) was to ascertain the feasibility of this technique under extreme conditions - vibration and large centrifugal forces - to real flight testing. Based on the gained experience a new rotating system for the application on helicopter rotors has recently been constructed and tested on the whirl tower of Airbus Helicopters, Donauwoerth (D). In this paper the principle of the applied Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT), a specialized type of Digital Image Correlation (DIC), is outlined and the construction of both rotating 3D image acquisition systems dedicated to the in-flight deformation measurement of the aircraft propeller and helicopter rotor are described. Furthermore, the results of the ground and in-flight tests of these systems will be shown and discussed. The obtained results will be helpful for manufacturers in the design of their future aircrafts.

  17. A translocation t(6;14) in two cases of leiomyosarcoma: Molecular cytogenetic and array-based comparative genomic hybridization characterization.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, Marieke A; de Jong, Daniëlle; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Bovée, Judith V M G; Szuhai, Károly

    2015-11-01

    Leiomyosarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors that recapitulate smooth muscle cell differentiation. Tumors are characterized by a genetic heterogeneity with complex karyotypes without a tumor-specific genetic aberration. Their pathobiology is still poorly understood and no specific targeted treatment is currently available for these aggressive tumors. For six leiomyosarcomas, cells were cultured and analyzed by combined binary ratio labeling fluorescence in situ hybridization (COBRA-FISH) karyotyping. A t(6;14) was identified in two cases. FISH breakpoint mapping of case L1339 reveals a breakpoint at chromosome 6p21.31 close to HMGA1, and a small deletion was observed on the distal side of the gene. A small homozygous deletion was also found in the breakpoint region of chromosome 14q24.1 involving ACTN1. The second case revealed a der(6)t(6;14)(p21.1;q21.3), with a duplication adjacent to the breakpoint at chromosome 6. Confirmatory FISH revealed a second leiomyosarcoma with an aberration at 14q24.1. Alterations at this locus were found in 5% (2 of 39) of the leiomyosarcomas in this study. The other identified breakpoints appeared to be non-recurrent, because they were not detected in other leiomyosarcomas, uterine leiomyomas, undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas, or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mongoose: Creation of a Rad-Hard MIPS R3000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, Dan; Smith, Brian

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a 32 Bit, full MIPS R3000 code-compatible Rad-Hard CPU, code named Mongoose. Mongoose progressed from contract award, through the design cycle, to operational silicon in 12 months to meet a space mission for NASA. The goal was the creation of a fully static device capable of operation to the maximum Mil-883 derated speed, worst-case post-rad exposure with full operational integrity. This included consideration of features for functional enhancements relating to mission compatibility and removal of commercial practices not supported by Rad-Hard technology. 'Mongoose' developed from an evolution of LSI Logic's MIPS-I embedded processor, LR33000, code named Cobra, to its Rad-Hard 'equivalent', Mongoose. The term 'equivalent' is used to infer that the core of the processor is functionally identical, allowing the same use and optimizations of the MIPS-I Instruction Set software tool suite for compilation, software program trace, etc. This activity was started in September of 1991 under a contract from NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)-Flight Data Systems. The approach affected a teaming of NASA-GSFC for program development, LSI Logic for system and ASIC design coupled with the Rad-Hard process technology, and Harris (GASD) for Rad-Hard microprocessor design expertise. The program culminated with the generation of Rad-Hard Mongoose prototypes one year later.

  19. KSC-2014-3962

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-18

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Members of an ISS Research and Technology Panel brief media representatives in Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium in preparation for the launch of the SpaceX CRS-4 mission to resupply the International Space Station. From left are Duane Ratliff, chief operating officer, CASIS, Mike Yagley, COBRA PUMA Golf, director of Research and Testing, Dr. Eugene Boland, Techshot chief scientist, Jason Gilbert, scientific associate, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, and Niki Werkheiser, 3D Printing in Zero-G project manager. The mission is the fourth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the fifth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory. The spacecraft’s 2.5 tons of supplies, science experiments, and technology demonstrations include critical materials to support 255 science and research investigations that will occur during the station's Expeditions 41 and 42. Liftoff is targeted for an instantaneous window at 2:14 a.m. EDT. To learn more about the mission, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  20. KSC-2014-3963

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-18

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Media representatives ask questions of the ISS Research and Technology Panel in Kennedy Space Center’s Press Site auditorium in preparation for the launch of the SpaceX CRS-4 mission to resupply the International Space Station. On the dais from left are Michael Curie, NASA Public Affairs, Duane Ratliff, chief operating officer, CASIS, Mike Yagley, COBRA PUMA Golf, director of Research and Testing, Dr. Eugene Boland, Techshot chief scientist, Jason Gilbert, scientific associate, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, and Niki Werkheiser, 3D Printing in Zero-G project manager. The mission is the fourth of 12 SpaceX flights NASA contracted with the company to resupply the space station. It will be the fifth trip by a Dragon spacecraft to the orbiting laboratory. The spacecraft’s 2.5 tons of supplies, science experiments, and technology demonstrations include critical materials to support 255 science and research investigations that will occur during the station's Expeditions 41 and 42. Liftoff is targeted for an instantaneous window at 2:14 a.m. EDT. To learn more about the mission, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/structure/launch/index.html. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann