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Sample records for naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs

  1. Suppressive effects of rosa damascena essential oil on naloxone- precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in male mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism.

  2. Endomorphin-1 and -2 induce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndromes in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J-C; Tao, P-L; Li, J-Y; Wong, C-H; Huang, E Y-K

    2003-03-01

    In 1997, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and -2 (EM-2) were identified as the most specific endogenous mu-opioid ligands. These two peptides have shown analgesic effects and many other opioid functions. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the possible ability of endomorphins to induce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in comparison with that induced by morphine. Using the previously established scoring system in rats, 12 withdrawal signs (chewing, sniffing, grooming, wet-dog shakes, stretching, yawning, rearing, jumping, teeth grinding, ptosis, diarrhea, and penile erection) were observed and scored following naloxone (4 mg/kg, i.p.) challenge. Compared with the sham control, EM-1 and EM-2 (20 microg, i.c.v., b.i.d. for 5 days) both produced significant naloxone-induced withdrawal syndromes with similar severity to that induced by the same dose of morphine. There was no significant difference between EM-1, EM-2, and morphine-treated group for naloxone-induced withdrawal signs, except for grooming. EM-1 and EM-2 induced more grooming than that caused by morphine. Although EM-1 and EM-2 both led to the withdrawal, they displayed different potency for certain signs and suggest their distinct regulations. The present results indicate EM-1 and EM-2 could initiate certain mechanism involved opiate dependence.

  3. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. ||

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  4. Effects of Exogenous Cholecystokinin Octapeptide on Acquisition of Naloxone Precipitated Withdrawal Induced Conditioned Place Aversion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chunling; Meng, Yanxin; Li, Shujin; Ni, Zhiyu; Cong, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a gut-brain peptide, regulates a variety of physiological behavioral processes. Previously, we reported that exogenous CCK-8 attenuated morphine-induced conditioned place preference, but the possible effects of CCK-8 on aversively motivated drug seeking remained unclear. To investigate the effects of endogenous and exogenous CCK on negative components of morphine withdrawal, we evaluated the effects of CCK receptor antagonists and CCK-8 on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The results showed that CCK2 receptor antagonist (LY-288,513, 10 µg, i.c.v.), but not CCK1 receptor antagonist (L-364,718, 10 µg, i.c.v.), inhibited the acquisition of CPA when given prior to naloxone (0.3 mg/kg) administration in morphine-dependent rats. Similarly, CCK-8 (0.1–1 µg, i.c.v.) significantly attenuated naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA, and this inhibitory function was blocked by co-injection with L-364,718. Microinjection of L-364,718, LY-288,513 or CCK-8 to saline pretreated rats produced neither a conditioned preference nor aversion, and the induction of CPA by CCK-8 itself after morphine pretreatments was not significant. Our study identifies a different role of CCK1 and CCK2 receptors in negative affective components of morphine abstinence and an inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK-8 on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal-induced CPA via CCK1 receptor. PMID:22848639

  5. CB1 antagonism: interference with affective properties of acute naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Kiri L.; Vemuri, Kiran; Kalmar, Alana; Lee, Alan; Limebeer, Cheryl L.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Modulation of the endocannabinoid system has been found to interfere with opiate withdrawal. The potential of activation and blockade of the endocannabinoid system to prevent the aversive-affective state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) was investigated in a one-trial conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. Objective CPA provides a sensitive measure of the motivational effects of acute MWD. The potential of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors, URB597 and PF-3845, the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, and the neutral CB1 antagonists, AM4113 and AM6527 (oral), to interfere with establishment of a MWD-induced CPA was investigated. As well, the potential of AM251 and AM4113 to interfere with reinstatement of a previously established MWD-induced CPA was investigated. Materials and methods Using a one-trial place conditioning paradigm, rats were administered naloxone (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous (sc)) 24 h after receiving a high dose of morphine (20 mg/kg, sc) and were placed on the conditioning floor. To determine the effect of each pretreatment drug on the establishment of the MWD-induced CPA, URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (ip)), PF-3845 (10 mg/kg, ip), AM251 (1 or 2.5 mg/kg, ip), AM4113 (1 or 2.5 mg/kg, ip), and AM6527 (5 mg/kg, oral) were administered prior to conditioning. Results AM251 (2.5, but not 1 mg/k), AM4113, and AM6527, but not URB597 or PF-3845, interfered with the establishment of the MWD-induced CPA. AM251 and AM4113 did not prevent reinstatement of the CPA. Conclusions Neutral antagonism of the CB1 receptor reduces the aversive affective properties of morphine withdrawal. PMID:24770676

  6. Cardiac adverse effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on right ventricle: Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro-Zaragoza, J.; Martínez-Laorden, E.; Mora, L.; Hidalgo, J.; Milanés, M.V.; Laorden, M.L.

    2014-02-15

    Opioid addiction is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms linking opioid addiction and cardiovascular disease remain unclear. This study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor in mediating somatic signs and the behavioural states produced during withdrawal from morphine dependence. Furthermore, it studied the efficacy of CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 to prevent the cardiac sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation pathways were evaluated. Like stress, morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and an enhancement of noradrenaline (NA) turnover. Pre-treatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, NA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser31 in the right ventricle. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In addition, CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss during morphine treatment and suppressed some of morphine withdrawal signs. Altogether, these results support the idea that cardiac sympathetic pathways are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal suggesting that treatment with a CRF1 receptor antagonist before morphine withdrawal would prevent the development of stress-induced behavioural and autonomic dysfunction in opioid addicts. - Highlights: • Morphine withdrawal caused an increase in myocardial sympathetic activity. • ERK regulates TH phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. • CRF1R is involved in cardiac adaptive changes during morphine dependence.

  7. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawalNaloxone-precipitated

  8. Expression of heat shock protein 27 and troponin T and troponin I after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Almela, Pilar; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-11-05

    Heat shock protein (Hsp27) renders cardioprotection from stress situations but little is known about its role in myofilaments. In this study we have evaluated the relationship between Hsp27 and troponin response after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. Rats were treated with two morphine (75 mg) pellets during six days. Precipitated withdrawal was induced by naloxone on day seven. Hsp27 expression, Hsp27 phosphorylated at serine 82 (Ser82), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and µ-calpain were evaluated by immunoblotting in left ventricle. Hsp, cTnT and cTnI was also evaluated by immunofluorescence procedure. Our results show that enhancement in Hsp27 expression and phosphorylation induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal occurs with concomitant increases of cTnT and µ-calpain expression, whereas cTnI was decreased. We also observed co-localization of Hsp27 with cTnT in cardiac tissues. These findings provide new information into the possible role of Hsp27 in the protection of cTnT degradation by µ-calpain (a protease mediating proteolysis of cTnT and cTnI) after morphine withdrawal.

  9. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression.

  10. Effect of Subchronic Intravenous Morphine Infusion and Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal on P-gp and Bcrp at the Rat Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Catarina; Gómez-Zepeda, David; Auvity, Sylvain; Menet, Marie-Claude; Crété, Dominique; Labat, Laurence; Remião, Fernando; Cisternino, Salvatore; Declèves, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic morphine regimen increases P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer-resistance protein (Bcrp) expressions at the rat blood–brain barrier (BBB) but what drives this effect is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to assess subchronic continuous morphine infusion and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal effects on P-gp/Bcrp contents and activities at the rat BBB. Rats were treated either with (i) a continuous i.v. morphine for 120 h, (ii) escalating morphine dosing (10-40 mg/kg, i.p., 5 days), (iii) a chronic morphine regimen (10 mg/kg s.c., 5 days) followed by a withdrawal period (2 days) and treatment for 3 additional days. Animal behavior was assessed after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal (1 mg/kg, s.c.). P-gp/Bcrp expressions and activities were determined in brain microvessels by qRT-PCR, Western blot, UHPLC–MS/MS, and in situ brain perfusion of P-gp or Bcrp substrates. Results show continuous i.v. morphine did not change P-gp/Bcrp protein levels in rat brain microvessels, whereas naloxone-precipitated withdrawal after escalating or chronic morphine dose regimen increased Mdr1a and Bcrp mRNA levels by 1.4-fold and 2.4-fold, respectively. Conversely, P-gp/Bcrp protein expressions remained unchanged after naloxone administration, and brain uptake of [3H]-verapamil (P-gp) and [3H]-mitoxantrone (Bcrp) was not altered. The study concludes subchronic morphine infusion and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal have poor effect on P-gp/Bcrp levels at the rat BBB.

  11. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction.

  12. Activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and social problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT2CR agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT2CR activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT2CR agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT2CR antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT2CR protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT2CR can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT2CR may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:26432939

  13. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Qin; Pang, Gang; Tao, Xinrong; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-02-01

    Opioid abuse and dependence have evolved into an international epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to the opioid, for example morphine, can induce profound, long-lasting behavioral sensitization and physical dependence, which are thought to reflect neuroplasticity in neural circuitry. Central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of dependence on and the expression of withdrawal from morphine. Serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) agonists suppress psychostimulant nicotine or cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and drug-seeking behavior; however, the impact of 5-HT(2C)R agonists on behaviors relevant to opioid abuse and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, the effects of 5-HT(2C)R activation on the behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms were examined in mice underwent repeated exposure to morphine. Male mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) to develop behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin, a 5-HT(2C)R agonist, prevented the induction and expression, but not the development, of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. Pretreatment of lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), ameliorated the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. SB 242084, a selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist, prevented the lorcaserin-mediated suppression of behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Chronic morphine treatment was associated with an increase in the expression of 5-HT(2C)R protein in the ventral tegmental area, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that 5-HT(2C)R can modulate behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice, and the activation of 5-HT(2C)R may represent a new avenue for the treatment of opioid addiction.

  14. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  15. Reducing endocannabinoid metabolism with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, fails to modify reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Amanda L; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2010-10-01

    The potential of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, to modify drug prime-induced reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned floor preference or naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was evaluated. In Experiment 1, morphine-induced conditioned floor preference was established across 4 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (4 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a morphine prime or a saline prime. Morphine reinstated the previously extinguished floor preference, but URB597 did not modify the strength of the reinstated preference. In Experiment 2, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned floor avoidance was established across 2 conditioning trials. Following extinction training (14 trials), rats were pretreated with URB597 or vehicle prior to a saline prime or a morphine withdrawal prime. The morphine withdrawal prime reinstated the previously extinguished floor avoidance, but URB597 did not modify the strength of reinstated avoidance. These results suggest that under the conditions in which URB597 promotes extinction (e.g., Manwell et al. (2009)) it does not interfere with drug-induced reinstatement of either conditioned floor preference or avoidance. That is, although activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system promotes extinction of aversive learning, it may not prevent reinstatement of that aversion by re-exposure to the aversive treatment.

  16. FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, promotes extinction and CB(1) antagonist, SR141716, inhibits extinction of conditioned aversion produced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, but not extinction of conditioned preference produced by morphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Satvat, Elham; Lang, Stefan T; Allen, Craig P; Leri, Francesco; Parker, Linda A

    2009-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in extinction of learned behaviours. Using operant and classical conditioning procedures, the potential of the fatty acid amide (FAAH) inhibitor, URB-597, and the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, SR141716, to promote and inhibit (respectively) extinction of learned responses previously motivated by either rewarding or aversive stimuli was investigated. In the operant conditioning procedure (Expt. 1), rats previously trained to lever press for sucrose reward were administered URB-597 (0.3 mg/kg) or the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist SR141716 (2.5 mg/kg) prior to each of three extinction trials. In the conditioned floor preference procedure (Expts 2a-d), rats trained to associate morphine with one of two distinctive floors were administered one of several doses of the CB(1) antagonist/inverse agonist, AM-251 (Expt 2a) or URB-597 (Expt 2b and 2d) prior to each extinction/test trial wherein a choice of both floors was presented and prior to forced exposure to each floor (Expt 2c). In the conditioned floor aversion procedure (Expt. 3), rats trained to associate a naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal with a floor cue were administered URB-597 or SR141716 prior to each of 24 extinction/testing trials. URB-597 did not promote and SR141716 did not reduce extinction rates for sucrose reward-induced operant responding (Expt. 1) or morphine-induced conditioned floor preference (Expts. 2a-d). In contrast, URB-597 facilitated, whereas SR141716 impaired, extinction of the conditioned floor aversion (Expt. 3). These data support previous reports that the eCB system selectively facilitates extinction of aversive memories. URB-597 may prove useful in targeting extinction of aversively motivated behaviours.

  17. Sex Differences between CRF1 Receptor Deficient Mice following Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal in a Conditioned Place Aversion Paradigm: Implication of HPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R) and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory. Methodology/Principal Finding We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10–60 mg/kg). Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.)-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA) paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29) or CRF1R knockout (KO) mice (n = 29). However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels observed in wild-type (n = 11) mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10). In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished. PMID:25830629

  18. Naloxone-precipitated abstinence in mice, rats and gerbils acutely dependent on morphine.

    PubMed

    Ramabadran, K

    1983-01-01

    Acute dependence on a single dose of morphine in mice, rats and gerbils was assessed by observing several signs of abstinence precipitated by various doses of naloxone, diprenorphine and Mr 2097. In mice and rats acutely dependent on morphine, naloxone, diprenorphine and Mr 2097 precipitated dose-dependently the signs of abstinence such as jumping, urination, teeth chattering, chewing, paw shakes, head shakes and ptosis. In these two species, the precipitation of these signs were mediated by stereospecific opiate receptors, as Mr 2096, the non-antagonistic isomer of Mr 2097, did not precipitate any of them. In gerbils acutely dependent on morphine, naloxone precipitated urination, teeth chattering, chewing, paw shakes, head shakes, "wet dog" shakes, yawning and writhing. In naive animals of all three species, the opioid antagonists produced varying degrees of "abstinoid" signs. The precipitated withdrawal might be the result of "abstinoid" effects superimposed on real abstinence signs. High doses of naloxone and diprenorphine showed a regression of "abstinoid" signs probably because of interfering morphinomimetic properties. The present data indicate that these three rodents may be successfully employed in the rapid identification of drugs to produce morphine-like dependence or to precipitate withdrawal.

  19. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

  20. Description and quantification of cocaine withdrawal signs in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Robert B; Desai, Prarthna

    2005-01-25

    Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine/cocaine group, the cocaine/water group displayed a significant number of atypical behaviors, providing direct evidence of a 'withdrawal phenomenon' in planarians.

  1. Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Receptor-1 on the Catecholaminergic Response to Morphine Withdrawal in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc)

    PubMed Central

    Almela, Pilar; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Mora, Lucía; Hidalgo, Juana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Stress induces the release of the peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and also increases dopamine (DA) levels in brain regions receiving dense VTA input. Since the role of stress in drug addiction is well established, the present study examined the possible involvement of CRF1 receptor in the interaction between morphine withdrawal and catecholaminergic pathways in the reward system. The effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on signs of withdrawal, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) turnover in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and activation of VTA dopaminergic neurons, were investigated in rats pretreated with vehicle or CP-154,526 (selective CRF1R antagonist). CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss and suppressed some of withdrawal signs. Pretreatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist resulted in no significant modification of the increased NA turnover at NAc or plasma corticosterone levels that were seen during morphine withdrawal. However, blockade of CRF1 receptor significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels, DA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 in the NAc. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the number of TH containing neurons expressing c-Fos in the VTA after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Altogether, these results support the idea that VTA dopaminergic neurons are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal and suggest that CRF1 receptors are involved in the activation of dopaminergic pathways which project to NAc. PMID:23071721

  2. Enkephalin release promotes homeostatic increases in constitutively active mu opioid receptors during morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shoblock, J R; Maidment, N T

    2007-11-09

    We previously demonstrated that naloxone administration produces a robust conditioned place aversion (CPA) in opiate-naive rodents by blocking the action of enkephalins at mu opioid receptors (MORs). The aversive response to naloxone is potentiated by prior exposure to morphine. Morphine-induced MOR constitutive activity is hypothesized to underlie this enhanced effect of naloxone, an inverse agonist at the MOR. We sought additional evidence for the role of constitutively active MORs in this morphine-induced enhancement using the pro-enkephalin knockout (pENK(-)/(-)) mouse, which is devoid of naloxone CPA in the morphine-naive state. Naloxone, but not the neutral antagonist, 6-beta-naloxol, produced CPA and physical withdrawal signs in pENK(-)/(-) mice when administered 2 h, but not 20 h, after morphine administration. Naloxone-precipitated physical withdrawal signs were attenuated in the pENK(-)/(-) mice relative to wild-type (WT) animals. In both WT and pENK(-)/(-) mice, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping was greatest when naloxone was administered 2 h after morphine treatment and diminished at 3 h, in agreement with previous estimates of the time course for morphine-induced MOR constitutive activity in vitro. However, naloxone regained an ability to precipitate physical withdrawal in the WT, but not the pENK(-)/(-) mice when administered 4.5 h after morphine administration. Taken together, the data suggest that a compensatory increase in enkephalin release during spontaneous morphine withdrawal promotes a second period of MOR constitutive activity in WT mice that is responsible for the enhanced naloxone aversion observed in such animals even when naloxone is administered 20 h after morphine. The endogenous enkephalin system and MOR constitutive activity may therefore play vital roles in hedonic homeostatic dysregulation following chronic opiate administration.

  3. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M.; Walentiny, D. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone’s abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects. PMID:26491062

  4. Effects of Acute and Repeated Administration of Oxycodone and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Walentiny, D Matthew; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of prescription opioid abuse and overdose, often led by oxycodone, continues to increase, producing twice as many overdose deaths as heroin. Surprisingly, preclinical reports relevant to oxycodone's abuse-related effects are relatively sparse considering its history and patient usage. The goal of this study was to characterize dose- and time-dependent effects of acute and repeated oxycodone administration in a frequency-rate intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure, an assay often predictive of drug-related reinforcing effects, in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that oxycodone would produce a biphasic profile of rate-increasing and rate-decreasing effects maintained by ICSS similar to μ-opioid receptor agonists. Oxycodone (0.03, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) produced dose- and time-dependent alterations on ICSS, with the predicted biphasic profile of rate-increasing effects at lower stimulation frequencies followed by rate-decreasing effects at higher frequencies. Peak effects were observed between 30 and 60 minutes, which were reversed by naloxone pretreatment (30 minutes). Tolerance to rate-decreasing effects was observed over a 5-day period when rats were treated with 1 mg/kg oxycodone twice a day. Subsequently, the dosing regimen was increased to 3 mg/kg twice a day over 10 days, although further marked tolerance did not develop. When then challenged with 10 mg/kg naloxone, a significant suppression below baseline levels of ICSS-maintained responding occurred indicative of dependence that recovered to baseline within 5 hours. The results of this study provide the first report of acute and chronic effects of oxycodone on responding maintained by ICSS presentation and the use of ICSS-maintained responding to characterize its tolerance and dependence effects.

  5. Serotonin mediates beneficial effects of Hypericum perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, C; Pieratti, A; Firenzuoli, F; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

    2007-10-01

    Antidepressants may be effective treatment for smoking cessation and new evidence on relationship between smoking and depression is emerging. Extracts of the plant Hypericum perforatum possess antidepressant activity in humans and reduce nicotine withdrawal signs in mice. Both nicotine and H. perforatum administration elicit changes in serotonin (5-HT) formation in the brain. On this basis, we investigated the possible involvement of 5-HT in the beneficial effects of H. perforatum on nicotine withdrawal signs. With the aim to induce nicotine dependence, nicotine (2 mg/kg, four intraperitoneal injections daily) was administered for 14 days to mice (NM). Saline (controls, M) or H. perforatum extract (Ph 50, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered immediately after the last nicotine injection for 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (14 days) and successively with H. perforatum extract was intraperitoneally co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (WAY) (1 mg/kg). All animals were evaluated for locomotor activity and abstinence signs, 24 after nicotine withdrawal. Brain 5-HT metabolism was evaluated in the cortex of mice sacrificed 30 days after nicotine withdrawal through evaluation of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio. After nicotine withdrawal measurement of 5-HT metabolism in the cortex showed a reduction of 5-HT content while animals treated only with Hypericum extract showed a significant reduction of total abstinence score compared to controls. WAY inhibited the reduction of total abstinence score induced by H. perforatum. Moreover, 5-HT1A expression has been evaluated 30 days after nicotine withdrawal. Our results, show a significant increase of cortical 5-HT content in NM treated with H. perforatum, with a concomitant significant increase of 5-HT1A receptor. So, it is possible to suggest an involvement of 5-HT in beneficial effects of H. perforatum on suffering

  6. Bender-Gestalt signs as indicants of anxiety, withdrawal, and acting-out behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    McCormick, T T; Brannigan, G G

    1984-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of the Bender-Gestalt Test as a measure of acting-out, withdrawal, and anxiety tendencies in adolescents. A heterogeneous group of 40 emotionally disturbed adolescents was administered the Bender-Gestalt Test. Behavior ratings on the Devereux Adolescent Behavior Rating Scale were also obtained for each subject. Although several individual Acting-Out signs were found to be related to specific behavior ratings, the most notable findings were the significant correlations between total Bender-Gestalt Acting-Out signs and Poor Emotional Control and Inability to Delay. Bender-Gestalt Withdrawal and Anxiety signs were not found to be related significantly to specific behavior ratings.

  7. Serotonin involvement in Rhodiola rosea attenuation of nicotine withdrawal signs in rats.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, C; Navarra, M; Calzavara, E; Caputi, A P; Calapai, G

    2012-09-15

    Rhodiola rosea has been used for centuries in the traditional medicine to stimulate nervous system, to enhance physical and mental performance and to treat fatigue. It is known that administration of Rhodiola rosea extract elicits antidepressant activity, but the mechanism of action still remains unclear. Evidence from animal models and human studies show that nicotine reduces symptoms of depression and that nicotine cessation induces depressive-like symptoms. We investigated the effects of Rhodiola rosea on nicotine withdrawal signs. Nicotine dependence was induced by subcutaneous nicotine injection (2 mg/kg, four times daily) for 14 days. Another group of animals treated with nicotine (for 14 days) and successively with Rhodiola rosea extract was co-administered with selective 5-HT receptorial antagonist WAY 100635 (1 mg/kg). After nicotine withdrawal animals were evaluated for behavioural parameters (locomotor activity, abstinence signs, marble burying test), diencephalic serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptor-1A expression. Results show a significant increase of 5-HT content in N treated with R. rosea, with a significant increase of serotonin receptor 1A, suggesting an involvement of serotonin in beneficial effects of R. rosea on suffering produced by nicotine withdrawal.

  8. Concurrent nimodipine attenuates the withdrawal signs and the increase of cerebral dihydropyridine binding after chronic morphine treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Zharkovsky, A; Tötterman, A M; Moisio, J; Ahtee, L

    1993-05-01

    The effect of chronic administration of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist nimodipine (1 mg/kg/day) given concurrently with morphine on the signs of morphine withdrawal and on the [3H]nitrendipine binding in the rat brain has been investigated. Chronic morphine administration in increasing daily doses from 20 mg/kg to 70 mg/kg for 24 days and consequent withdrawal for 24 h induced loss of body weight, wet dog shakes, episodes of writhing and yawning behaviour. The density of [3H]nitrendipine binding was elevated in the cortex and limbic structures but not in the striatum after chronic morphine treatment. Chronic concurrent administration of nimodipine prevented the loss of body weight and reduced the scores of wet dog shakes and writhing, but did not affect yawning behaviour at 24 h after morphine withdrawal. The concurrent nimodipine treatment also prevented the rise in the density of central dihydropyridine binding sites which occurred upon chronic morphine treatment. These results suggest that chronic nimodipine treatment attenuates the development of the withdrawal signs which occur upon the termination of chronic morphine treatment by preventing the up-regulation of the central dihydropyridine-sensitive binding sites.

  9. Effects of high-dose selegiline on morphine reinforcement and precipitated withdrawal in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Grasing, K; He, S

    2005-02-01

    Selegiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with psychostimulant and neuroprotective effects. Several lines of evidence suggest that treatment with selegiline at doses that exceed levels required for inhibition of MAO can produce distinct pharmacologic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with high-dose selegiline on extinction responding, cue-induced reinstatement, morphine reinforcement and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. After pretreatment with noncontingent morphine to establish opiate dependence, rats acquired self-administration of 3.2 mg/kg per injection of morphine under a progressive ratio schedule. Daily treatment with saline or 6.4 mg/kg per day of selegiline was then administered over extinction, reinstatement and re-acquisition of morphine self-administration. To enhance or diminish the potential for psychostimulant effects, selegiline was administered either immediately prior to (pre-session) or 1 h following (post-session) extinction, reinstatement and self-administration sessions. Pre-session selegiline decreased the number of ratios completed on days 2, 3 and 4 of extinction, and decreased morphine self-administration during all four re-acquisition sessions. When administered at the same dose level, post-session selegiline decreased responding on the fourth extinction session, and was ineffective in modifying re-acquisition of self-administration. Selegiline administered by either schedule did not modify cue-induced reinstatement. Daily treatment with 6.4 mg/kg per day of selegiline did not modify self-administration of food under a progressive ratio schedule. Acute treatment with single, 6.4 mg/kg doses of selegiline attenuated naloxone-induced increases in ptosis and global withdrawal score, but did not modify any other sign of withdrawal or global withdrawal score calculated without ratings of ptosis. In conclusion, high-dose selegiline can attenuate extinction responding

  10. Adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area associated with the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Markou, Athina

    2004-09-01

    Chronic administration of nicotine induces adaptations in the brain reward circuit to counteract the acute drug effects; when nicotine administration ceases, these adaptations remain unopposed and lead to drug withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to assess the effects of chronic nicotine administration on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) shell. A discrete-trial intracranial self-stimulation procedure that provides current-intensity thresholds as measures of brain reward function was used in rats. Previous studies have shown that withdrawal from nicotine-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds that are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. We show here that injections of the nAChR antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHbetaE; 0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) into the VTA, but not outside the VTA, resulted in significant elevations in brain reward thresholds in nicotine dependent rats (9 mg/kg/day nicotine hydrogen tartrate) while having no effect in saline-treated controls. By contrast, DHbetaE (0.6-20 microg total bilateral dose) injected into the Nacc shell had no effect on brain reward thresholds of nicotine- or saline-treated rats. The adaptations in cholinergic transmission in the VTA are likely to mediate, at least partly, the affective signs of nicotine withdrawal in humans.

  11. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kia J; Sanjakdar, Sarah S; Chen, Xiangning; Damaj, M Imad

    2012-01-01

    The influx of Ca(2+) through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/-) mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  12. Exploratory behavior and withdrawal signs in crayfish: chronic central morphine injections and termination effects.

    PubMed

    Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Okon, Marvin; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2014-05-01

    Functional and evolutionary conservation of neural circuits of reward seeking >is a symbol of survival. It is found in most animals from insects to humans. Exploration is a component of a wide range of drug-elicited behaviors that reflects an appetitive motivational state when animals seek natural rewards such as food, water, and shelter for survival. Not only does the characterization of exploratory behaviors indicate the specific components of appetitive motor patterns, it also reveals how exploratory behavioral patterns are implemented via increased incentive salience of environmental stimuli. The current work demonstrates that novel stimuli appear to directly augment exploration in crayfish, while injections of morphine directly into the brain of crayfish enhanced robust arousal resulting in increased locomotion and exploration of the environment. Elimination of morphine suppressed exploratory motor patterns. Crayfish displayed atypical behavioral changes evident of withdrawal-like states when saline is injected into the brain. With proven evidence of rewarding to the exposure to mammalian drugs of abuse, modularly organized and experimentally accessible nervous system makes crayfish exceptionally suitable for characterizing the central workings of addiction at its key behavioral and neuroanatomic locations.

  13. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  14. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short term ethanol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perez, EE; De Biasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behavior, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time consuming ethanol treatment. PMID:25817777

  15. Assessment of affective and somatic signs of ethanol withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice using a short-term ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Perez, E E; De Biasi, M

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol is one of the most prevalent addictive substances in the world. Withdrawal symptoms result from abrupt cessation of alcohol consumption in habitual drinkers. The emergence of both affective and physical symptoms produces a state that promotes relapse. Mice provide a preclinical model that could be used to study alcohol dependence and withdrawal while controlling for both genetic and environmental variables. The use of a liquid ethanol diet offers a reliable method for the induction of alcohol dependence in mice, but this approach is impractical when conducting high-throughput pharmacological screens or when comparing multiple strains of genetically engineered mice. The goal of this study was to compare withdrawal-associated behaviors in mice chronically treated with a liquid ethanol diet vs. mice treated with a short-term ethanol treatment that consisted of daily ethanol injections containing the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole. Twenty-four hours after ethanol treatment, mice were tested in the open field arena, the elevated plus maze, the marble burying test, or for changes in somatic signs during spontaneous ethanol withdrawal. Anxiety-like and compulsive-like behaviors, as well as physical signs, were all significantly elevated in mice undergoing withdrawal, regardless of the route of ethanol administration. Therefore, a short-term ethanol treatment can be utilized as a screening tool for testing genetic and pharmacological agents before investing in a more time-consuming ethanol treatment.

  16. Reciprocal Catecholamine Changes during Opiate Exposure and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Fox, Megan E; Rodeberg, Nathan T; Wightman, R Mark

    2017-02-01

    Dysregulated catecholamine signaling has long been implicated in drug abuse. Although much is known about adaptations following chronic drug administration, little work has investigated how a single drug exposure paired with withdrawal influences catecholamine signaling in vivo. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to measure real-time catecholamine overflow during acute morphine exposure and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in two regions associated with the addiction cycle: the dopamine-dense nucleus accumbens (NAc) and norepinephrine-rich ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST). We compared dopamine transients in the NAc with norepinephrine concentration changes in the vBNST, and correlated release with specific withdrawal-related behaviors. Morphine increased dopamine transients in the NAc, but did not elicit norepinephrine responses in the vBNST. Conversely, dopamine output was decreased during withdrawal, while norepinephrine was released in the vBNST during specific withdrawal symptoms. Both norepinephrine and withdrawal symptoms could be elicited in the absence of morphine by administering naloxone with an α2 antagonist. The data support reciprocal roles for dopamine and norepinephrine signaling during drug exposure and withdrawal. The data also support the allostasis model and show that negative-reinforcement may begin working after a single exposure/withdrawal episode.

  17. Attenuation of Withdrawal Signs, Blood Cortisol, and Glucose Level with Various Dosage Regimens of Morphine after Precipitated Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Sadeghi-Hashjin, Goudarz; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem; Karimian, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Morphine withdrawal usually results in unsuccessful outcomes. Despite partial benefits from alternative substances such as methadone, its use may not lead to the desired result due to the lack of mental tranquility during the withdrawal period. In this study, by means of an animal model, morphine itself was used to manage morphine dependence. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups, in which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 7 days (15-45 mg/kg). Afterwards, the animals received morphine for 14 days by either of the following regimens: Once daily 45 mg/kg (positive controls)Increasing the interval (each time 6 hours longer than the previous interval)Irregular interval in every 36, 12 and 24 hours until the 21th day12, 24, 36 hours decreasing doses (each time 2.5 mg/kg less than the former dosage). Negative controls received saline solution only. On day 22, total withdrawal index (TWI) was determined by injecting 3 mg/kg of naloxone. Thereafter, blood samples were taken for the measurement of cortisol and glucose levels. TWI significantly decreased in all test groups in comparison with the positive control animals (P<0.001). Cortisol levels significantly decreased when either the dosage or the administration frequencies were decreased on a regular and gradual basis (P<0.005). Blood glucose levels significantly decreased in animals that received decreasing doses of morphine (P<0.005). This study suggests that no other measures may be required in clinical practice except for changing the dosage regimen of morphine for the cessation of self-administration. PMID:26722146

  18. Oral noribogaine shows high brain uptake and anti-withdrawal effects not associated with place preference in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mash, Deborah C; Ameer, Barbara; Prou, Delphine; Howes, John F; Maillet, Emeline L

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of noribogaine, the principal metabolite of the drug ibogaine, on substance-related disorders. In the first experiment, mice chronically treated with morphine were subjected to naloxone-precipitated withdrawal two hours after oral administration of noribogaine. Oral noribogaine dose dependently decreased the global opiate withdrawal score by up to 88% of vehicle control with an ED50 of 13 mg/kg. In the second experiment, blood and brain levels of noribogaine showed a high brain penetration and a brain/blood ratio of 7±1 across all doses tested. In a third experiment, rats given oral noribogaine up to 100 mg/kg were tested for abuse liability using a standard biased conditioned place paradigm. Noribogaine-treated rats did not display place preference, suggesting that noribogaine is not perceived as a hedonic stimulus in rodents. Retrospective review of published studies assessing the efficacy of ibogaine on morphine withdrawal shows that the most likely cause of the discrepancies in the literature is the different routes of administration and time of testing following ibogaine administration. These results suggest that the metabolite noribogaine rather than the parent compound mediates the effects of ibogaine on blocking naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Noribogaine may hold promise as a non-addicting alternative to standard opiate replacement therapies to transition patients to opiate abstinence.

  19. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals.

  20. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents.

    PubMed

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-05-20

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal.

  1. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. PMID:26744024

  2. Neonatal drug withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Mark L; Tan, Rosemarie C

    2012-02-01

    Maternal use of certain drugs during pregnancy can result in transient neonatal signs consistent with withdrawal or acute toxicity or cause sustained signs consistent with a lasting drug effect. In addition, hospitalized infants who are treated with opioids or benzodiazepines to provide analgesia or sedation may be at risk for manifesting signs of withdrawal. This statement updates information about the clinical presentation of infants exposed to intrauterine drugs and the therapeutic options for treatment of withdrawal and is expanded to include evidence-based approaches to the management of the hospitalized infant who requires weaning from analgesics or sedatives.

  3. Acutely administered clozapine does not modify naloxone-induced withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Ballard, T M; McAllister, K H

    1999-02-01

    A direct comparison of the effects of clozapine and haloperidol upon naloxone-induced withdrawal jumping was investigated in morphine-dependent mice, as this syndrome may provide a behavioral baseline to differentiate between the two neuroleptics. Neither clozapine ((0.03-3.0 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) nor haloperidol (0.01-04).1 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) affected withdrawal jumping precipitated by 0.1 or 15.0 mg/kg i.p. naloxone in morphine-dependent mice. Measurement of locomotor activity immediately prior to naloxone administration revealed a dose-dependent reduction in activity by both compounds, indicating pharmacological effects at the time of naloxone-induced withdrawal. Clonidine (0.02-0.5 mg/kg s.c., n=9-10) also had no affect upon withdrawal jumping, although reductions in locomotor activity prior to naloxone administration were detected. There is no difference in the effects of acutely administered clozapine and haloperidol upon naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

  4. Selegiline modifies the extinction of responding following morphine self-administration, but does not alter cue-induced reinstatement, reacquisition of morphine reinforcement, or precipitated withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Grasing, Kenneth; He, Shaunteng; Li, Ning

    2005-01-01

    Selegiline is an irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with psychostimulant and neuroprotective effects which can prevent decreases in dopamine efflux that follow opiate withdrawal. The present study evaluated effects of selegiline treatment on morphine-seeking behavior and morphine reinforcement in Wistar rats (n = 26). In additional animals (n = 30), the ability of single doses of selegiline to modify naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was determined. After pretreatment with noncontingent morphine to establish opiate dependence, rats acquired self-administration of intravenous morphine. Daily intravenous treatment with saline or 2.0mg kg(-1) doses of selegiline was then initiated and continued over 14 days during extinction, reinstatement, and reacquisition of morphine self-administration. To reduce the potential for psychostimulant effects, selegiline was administered approximately 1h following self-administration, extinction, or reinstatement sessions. In some animals (n = 23), effects of saline or selegiline administration on locomotor activity were determined following extinction sessions. Daily selegiline treatment decreased the number of ratios completed and increased response latency during extinction, without modifying these measures during reinstatement or reacquisition of morphine self-administration. Chronic selegiline treatment increased locomotor activity recorded between 4 and 7h after selegiline administration on day 7 of extinction, but otherwise did not alter locomotor activity. Pretreatment with single, 2.0mg kg(-1) doses of selegiline did not modify naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. In conclusion, pretreatment with selegiline produced only a small decrease in responding during extinction of morphine self-administration and did not modify cue-induced reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior, reacquisition or morphine reinforcement, or precipitated withdrawal.

  5. Intracranial self-stimulation reward thresholds during morphine withdrawal in rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Radke, Anna K.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Harris, Andrew C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Rational Sweet preference is a marker of vulnerability to substance use disorders, and rats selectively bred for high (HiS) vs. low saccharin (LoS) intake display potentiated drug-seeking behaviors. Recent work indicated that LoS rats were more responsive to the negative effects of drugs in several assays. Objective The current study used the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure to investigate the anhedonic component of morphine withdrawal in male HiS and LoS rats. Methods Rats were administered morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for 8 days. To evaluate withdrawal effects, reward thresholds were measured 24 and 28 h following the 8th morphine injection (spontaneous withdrawal) and again for 4 days following daily acute morphine and naloxone (1 mg/kg) administration (precipitated withdrawal). Results Twenty-four hr following the final morphine injection, reward thresholds in LoS rats were significantly elevated compared to reward thresholds in LoS controls, indicating spontaneous withdrawal. This effect was not observed in HiS rats. LoS rats also showed greater elevations of reward thresholds on several days during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal compared to their HiS counterparts. Conclusions LoS rats were more sensitive to morphine withdrawal-mediated elevations in ICSS thresholds than HiS rats. While these differences were generally modest, our data suggest that severity of the negative affective component of opiate withdrawal may be influenced by genotypes related to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25582876

  6. The effect of isoquinoline alkaloids on opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Capasso, A; Piacente, S; De Tommasi, N; Rastrelli, L; Pizza, C

    2006-01-01

    Our interest has been centered on isoquinoline alkaloids obtained from Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae), Aristolochia constricta (Aristolochiaceae) and the opium alkaloid, papaverine. In this respect, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was investigated on contractions induced by naloxone of isolated guinea pig ileum acutely exposed to morphine in vitro. The activity of these alkaloids was compared to the control compound, papaverine. Furthermore, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was also determined on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in isolated guinea pig ileum exposed to DAMGO (highly selective mu opioid receptor agonist) and U50-488H (highly selective kappa opioid receptor agonist) to test whether the possible interaction of isoquinoline alkaloids on opioid withdrawal involves mu- and/or kappa-opioid receptors. Isoquinoline alkaloids from A. mexicana (from 5 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-4) M), from A. constricta (1 x 10(-5) x 10(-5)-1 x 10(-4) M) as well as papaverine treatment (1 x 10(-7)-5 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-6) M) before or after the opioid agonists were able of both preventing and reversing the naloxone-induced contraction after exposure to mu (morphine and DAMGO) or kappa (U50-488H) opiate receptor agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Both acetylcholine response and electrical stimulation were also reduced by isoquinoline alkaloids and papaverine treatment as well as the final opiate withdrawal was still reduced. The results of the present study indicate that isoquinoline alkaloids as well as papaverine were able to produce significant influence on the opiate withdrawal in vitro and these compounds were able to exert their effects both at mu and kappa opioid agonists.

  7. Cocaine withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000947.htm Cocaine withdrawal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine withdrawal occurs when someone who has used a ...

  8. Antidepressant Withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) If you stop taking antidepressants, could you experience antidepressant withdrawal? Do withdrawal symptoms mean you were addicted to the drug? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Antidepressant withdrawal is possible if you ...

  9. Dorsal hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade impairs extinction of naloxone-precipitated conditioned place aversion in acute morphine-treated rats by suppressing ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Sheng; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Liu, Wen-Tao; Chi, Zhi-Qiang; He, Ling; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Substantial evidence shows that negative reinforcement resulting from the aversive affective consequences of opiate withdrawal may play a crucial role in drug relapse. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the loss (extinction) of conditioned aversion of drug withdrawal could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) of Sprague-Dawley rats was used to measure conditioned aversion. An NMDA receptor antagonist and MAPK kinase inhibitor were applied through intracranial injections. The phosphorylation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was detected using Western blot. KEY RESULTS The extinction of CPA behaviour increased the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and basolateral amygdala (BLA), but not in the central amygdala (CeA). Intra-DH injection of AP5 or intra-BLA injection of AP-5 or U0126 before extinction training significantly attenuated ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the BLA and impaired the extinction of CPA behaviour. Although intra-DH injections of AP-5 attenuated extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the BLA, intra-BLA injection of AP5 had no effect on extinction training-induced activation of the ERK-CREB pathway in the DH. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that activation of ERK and CREB in the BLA and DH is involved in the extinction of CPA behaviour and that the DH, via a direct or indirect pathway, modulates the activity of ERK and CREB in the BLA through activation of NMDA receptors after extinction training. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the extinction of conditioned aversion could facilitate the treatment of drug addiction. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24597568

  10. Elevated mu-opioid receptor expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract accompanies attenuated withdrawal signs after chronic low dose naltrexone in opiate-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Rudoy, C; Mannelli, P; Oropeza, V; Qian, Y

    2006-02-15

    We previously described a decrease in withdrawal behaviors in opiate-dependent rats that were chronically treated with very low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. Attenuated expression of withdrawal behaviors correlated with decreased c-Fos expression and intracellular signal transduction elements [protein kinase A regulatory subunit II (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB)] in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. In this study, to determine whether similar cellular changes occurred in forebrain nuclei associated with drug reward, expressions of PKA and pCREB were analyzed in the ventral tegmental area, frontal cortex, striatum, and amygdala of opiate-treated rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water. No significant difference in PKA or pCREB was detected in these regions following drug treatment. To examine further the cellular mechanisms in noradrenergic nuclei that could underlie attenuated withdrawal behaviors following low dose naltrexone administration, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and locus coeruleus (LC) were examined for opioid receptor (OR) protein expression. Results showed a significant increase in muOR expression in the NTS of morphine-dependent rats that received low doses of naltrexone in their drinking water, and increases in muOR expression were also found to be dose dependent. Protein expression of muOR in the LC and deltaOR in either brain region remained unchanged. In conclusion, our previously reported decreases in c-Fos and PKA expression in the NTS following pretreatment with low doses of naltrexone may be partially explained by a greater inhibition of NTS neurons resulting from increased muOR expression in this region.

  11. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine.

  12. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  13. Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds. PMID:22055010

  14. Effects of ethylenediamine on morphine analgesia and tolerance-dependence in mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediamine, a GABA receptor agonist induced a small hyperalgesic state in mice, but increased morphine analgesia. The interaction with this morphine effect was not dose-dependent. Ethylenediamine significantly antagonized tolerance development at relatively low doses (5-10 mg/kg). The GABA mimetic agent increased the frequency of abstinence signs in the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. The effect of ethylenediamine on morphine withdrawal was suppressed by the irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, gamma-vinyl GABA.

  15. Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal requires BDNF expression in the amygdala in acute morphine-dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yun-yue; Long, Jian-dong; Liu, Yao; Liu, Jing-gen

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in learning and memory in multiple brain areas. In the present study, we investigated the roles of BDNF in aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats. Methods: Conditioned place aversion (CPA) was induced in male SD rats exposed to a single dose of morphine (10 mg/kg, sc) followed by naloxone (0.3 mg/kg, sc). In some rats, BDNF receptor antagonist K252a (8.5 ng per side) or BDNF scavenger TrkB-FC (0.65 μg per side) was bilaterally microinjected into amygdala before naloxone injection. BDNF mRNA and protein expression levels in amygdala were detected after the behavior testing. Results: CPA behavior was induced in rats by the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, which was accompanied by significantly increased levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the amygdala. Bilateral microinjection of TrkB-FC or K252a into the amygdala completely blocked CPA behavior in the rats. Conclusion: Formation of aversive memories associated with conditioned drug withdrawal in acute morphine-dependent rats requires BDNF expression in the amygdala. PMID:26567727

  16. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  17. Elevation Withdrawal Letter - signed March 27, 2003

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A letter regarding a recent decision to issue a Clean Water Act Section 404 permit to the Virginia Seafood Council for the trial placement of one million non-native oysters into waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats is blocked by intracerebroventricular infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Brian R; Carlezon, William A; Myers, Karyn M

    2013-04-29

    Maladaptive conditioned responses (CRs) contribute to psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders and addiction. Methods of reducing these CRs have been considered as possible therapeutic approaches. One such method is extinction, which involves exposure to CR-eliciting cues in the absence of the event they once predicted. In animal models, extinction reduces both fear and addiction-related CRs, and in humans, extinction-based cue exposure therapy (CET) reduces fear CRs. However, CET is less effective in drug addicts, for reasons that are not clear. Increased understanding of the neurobiology of extinction of drug-related CRs as compared to fear CRs may help illuminate this issue. Here, we examine the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependence of extinction of conditioned opiate withdrawal in rats. Using a place conditioning paradigm, we trained morphine-dependent rats to associate an environment with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. We then extinguished that association by returning the rats repeatedly to the environment in the absence of acute withdrawal. In some rats we administered the NMDA receptor antagonist d,l-2-amino-5-phosphovaleric acid (AP5) intracerebroventricularly immediately prior to extinction training. In a subsequent test session, these rats avoided the formerly naloxone-paired environment, similar to rats that had not undergone extinction training. By contrast, rats that received vehicle prior to extinction training did not avoid the formerly naloxone-paired environment. This finding indicates that extinction of a drug-related CR (conditioned opiate withdrawal) is dependent on NMDA receptors, similar to extinction of conditioned fear. The locus of the critical NMDA receptors is unclear but may include basolateral amygdala and/or medial prefrontal cortex.

  19. New mechanisms and perspectives in nicotine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K.J.; Muldoon, P.P.; De Biasi, M.; Damaj, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases associated with tobacco use constitute a major health problem worldwide. Upon cessation of tobacco use, an unpleasant withdrawal syndrome occurs in dependent individuals. Avoidance of the negative state produced by nicotine withdrawal represents a motivational component that promotes continued tobacco use and relapse after smoking cessation. With the modest success rate of currently available smoking cessation therapies, understanding mechanisms involved in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome are crucial for developing successful treatments. Animal models provide a useful tool for examining neuroadaptative mechanisms and factors influencing nicotine withdrawal, including sex, age, and genetic factors. Such research has also identified an important role for nicotinic receptor subtypes in different aspects of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome (e.g., physical vs. affective signs). In addition to nicotinic receptors, the opioid and endocannabinoid systems, various signal transduction pathways, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides have been implicated in the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Animal studies have informed human studies of genetic variants and potential targets for smoking cessation therapies. Overall, the available literature indicates that the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is complex, and involves a range of neurobiological mechanisms. As research in nicotine withdrawal progresses, new pharmacological options for smokers attempting to quit can be identified, and treatments with fewer side effects that are better tailored to the unique characteristics of patients may become available. PMID:25433149

  20. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  1. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  2. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  3. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  4. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  5. Morphine withdrawal produces ERK-dependent and ERK-independent epigenetic marks in neurons of the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Alessandro; Calza, Arianna; Santoru, Francesca; Grasso, Fabrizio; Concas, Alessandra; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Giustetto, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    Epigenetic changes such as covalent modifications of histone proteins represent complex molecular signatures that provide a cellular memory of previously experienced stimuli without irreversible changes of the genetic code. In this study we show that new gene expression induced in vivo by morphine withdrawal occurs with concomitant epigenetic modifications in brain regions critically involved in drug-dependent behaviors. We found that naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, but not chronic morphine administration, caused a strong induction of phospho-histone H3 immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell/core and in the lateral septum (LS), a change that was accompanied by augmented H3 acetylation (lys14) in neurons of the NAc shell. Morphine withdrawal induced the phosphorylation of the epigenetic factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in Ser421 both in the LS and the NAc shell. These epigenetic changes were accompanied by the activation of members of the ERK pathway as well as increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEG) c-fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). Using a pharmacological approach, we found that H3 phosphorylation and IEG expression were partially dependent on ERK activation, while MeCP2 phosphorylation was fully ERK-independent. These findings provide new important information on the role of the ERK pathway in the regulation of epigenetic marks and gene expression that may concur to regulate in vivo the cellular changes underlying the onset of the opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  6. Tobacco Withdrawal in Self-Quitters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed self-reported and observer-rated signs and symptoms of nicotine withdrawal precessation and 2, 7, 14, 30, 90, and 180 days postcessation in smokers who quit on their own for 30 days. Anxiety, difficulty concentrating, hunger, irritability, restlessness, and weight gain increased; heart rate decreased postcessation. Postcessation…

  7. Naloxone-induced withdrawal in patients with buprenorphine dependence.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A K; Srivastava, R P; Saxena, S; Chavan, B S; Sundaram, K R

    1994-03-01

    Naloxone-induced withdrawal was studied in seven patients currently dependent only on injecting buprenorphine, within 3 to 6 hours of their last dose. Withdrawal severity began to rise from 5 minutes and reached a peak at 60 minutes after 1.2 mg naloxone given intravenously. The mean withdrawal severity score was significantly higher at 30, 60 and 90 minutes compared to the baseline. The most frequent withdrawal signs and symptoms were mydriasis, systolic hypertension, tachypnoea, muscle pains, yawning, anxiety, restlessness and craving.

  8. Signes Iconiques, Signes Linguistiques (Iconic Signs, Linguistic Signs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besse, Henri

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses the audiovisual image as sign; the classification of signs according to two different semiologies, and two different semantic theories; and the relation to different pedagogical approaches. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  9. Effects of oxytocin on nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Katherine E; Shelley, David; Schmidt, Clare E; Harris, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    Development of medications that attenuate symptoms of nicotine withdrawal may be useful for facilitating smoking cessation. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXY) decreases withdrawal signs and other addiction-related effects of several drugs of abuse in animals, but has not been examined in a preclinical model of nicotine addiction. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of OXY on nicotine withdrawal in rats, measured as increases in somatic signs and elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior) during antagonist-precipitated withdrawal from a chronic nicotine infusion. Effects of OXY on baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats were also evaluated. OXY (0.06 - 1.0mg/kg, i.p.) blocked withdrawal-induced elevations in somatic signs in nicotine-dependent rats without affecting somatic signs in non-dependent rats. In contrast, OXY did not affect nicotine withdrawal-induced elevations in ICSS thresholds. Relatively high doses of OXY (0.75 or 2.0mg/kg) elevated baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats. These findings demonstrate that OXY blocks somatic signs but not elevations in ICSS thresholds during antagonist-precipitated nicotine withdrawal. The ability of higher OXY doses to elevate baseline ICSS thresholds in non-dependent rats may reflect an aversive and/or motoric effect. These data suggest that OXY-based medications may be useful for treating the somatic component of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome, but may not be effective in attenuating withdrawal-induced anhedonia.

  10. The Process of Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.; Hannah, William

    1969-01-01

    Study of college dropouts and students who plan to withdraw from 13 small institutions. Discusses how motivation, personal and financial problems, life styles, goal orientation, parents, friends, college staff and environment contribute to or prevent student withdrawals. Proposes ways of dealing with problem. (AD)

  11. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  12. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  13. Bupropion for the treatment of nicotine withdrawal and craving.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Marc E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade, bupropion has become a major pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in the Western world. Unlike other smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, bupropion is a non-nicotine treatment. Compared with a placebo control, bupropion approximately doubles smoking quit rates. Most smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are thought to work, in part, by reducing nicotine withdrawal and craving. This article reviews preclinical, human laboratory and clinical trial studies of the effect of bupropion on nicotine withdrawal and craving. Preclinical studies demonstrate that in rats undergoing nicotine withdrawal, bupropion can dose-dependently lower changes in brain-reward threshold and somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal. Human laboratory studies have demonstrated that bupropion can alleviate some nicotine withdrawal symptoms, including depressed mood, irritability, difficulty concentrating and increased appetite. Moreover, bupropion has shown some efficacy in alleviating craving to smoke. Clinical trials of bupropion have offered mixed support of its ability to reduce nicotine withdrawal, weight gain during treatment and craving. Strong mediational evidence of bupropion's action through relief of withdrawal and craving in smoking cessation is growing. Greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms of bupropion action will likely be obtained through advances in the conceptualization and measurement of withdrawal and craving. Improvements in the efficacy of bupropion may be achieved through pharmacogenetic studies, with particular emphasis on its metabolites. Ultimately, the efficacy of bupropion may be augmented by combination with other agents that target withdrawal and craving through complementary neurobiological processes.

  14. Insomnia related to biperiden withdrawal in two schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S

    2000-11-01

    It is not uncommon for patients who are receiving antipsychotic medication to be given anticholinergic agents, such as biperiden, despite the relative absence of neurological side-effects. Two cases of schizophrenia are reported in which insomnia developed after biperiden withdrawal or reduction. The insomnia continued until biperiden treatment was reinstated, despite the fact that the patients did not exhibit signs or report symptoms indicative of antipsychotic drug-induced neurological side-effects. The occurrence of insomnia following the withdrawal of biperiden or reduction in the dose has not been previously reported. One potential explanation for the insomnia is cholinergic rebound following the withdrawal of biperiden.

  15. Vital Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your weight. Respiratory rate, which measures your breathing. Mild breathing changes can be from causes such as a ... nose or hard exercise. But slow or fast breathing can also be a sign of a serious ...

  16. Emergent intrathecal baclofen withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Mithal, Divakar S; Park, Anne; Bohnen, Angela; Adel, Joseph; Rosenow, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion has become a common treatment for severe spasticity. Many complications of these drug delivery systems have been reported such as those related to improper dosing, mechanical failure of the implanted pump or catheter, or post-operative wound issues. We report a case of ITB withdrawal after pseudomeningocele aspiration. A 21 year-old male with spastic quadriparesis due to traumatic brian injury (TBI) presented with a pseudomeningocele surrounding an ITB pump (215 mcg/day, continuous) implanted in the abdomen. The pseudomeningocele was percutaneously aspirated and approximately 15 hours later the patient developed signs and symptoms of acute baclofen withdrawal. As a result, the patient underwent an exploration of the ITB infusion system with an intraoperative epidural blood patch. The symptoms of ITB withdrawal improved over the next 18 hours. The subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection partially recurred 48 hours later, but this resolved after a second epidural blood patch. The case illustrates a unique presentation of a serious complication of ITB infusion. This underscores that timely diagnosis and treatment of acute baclofen withdrawal is key to optimal outcomes.

  17. Vital Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an excerpt from the first edition of Vital Signs, a Worldwide Institute publication that provides an annual update on global environmental trends. Includes discussion of the dismantling of nuclear arms, reduction in chlorofluorocarbon production, growth in bicycle production, the decline in cigarette smoking, and decline in military…

  18. Vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... overall health. Normal vital sign ranges for the average healthy adult while resting are: Blood pressure: 90/60 mm/Hg to 120/80 mm/Hg Breathing: 12 to 18 breaths per minute Pulse: 60 to 100 beats per minute Temperature: 97.8°F to 99.1°F (36. ...

  19. Diazepam withdrawal syndrome: its prolonged and changing nature.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, C. S.; Jain, V. K.

    1982-01-01

    The diazepam withdrawal syndrome was studied in 10 patients who had abused the drug for 3 to 14 years. In the previous 6 months their consumption of diazepam had ranged from 60 to 120 mg daily; none had used other drugs during this period. The withdrawal period lasted about 6 weeks. The intensity of the symptoms and signs was high initially, fell during the first 2 weeks, then rose again in the third week, before finally declining. Three groups of symptoms and signs were identified. Group A symptoms occurred throughout withdrawal and included tremor, anorexia, insomnia and myoclonus. Group B symptoms and signs were largely confined to the first 10 days and were those of a toxic psychosis. Group C symptoms reached a peak in the third and fourth weeks of withdrawal and were characterized by sense perceptions that were either heightened or lowered. The symptom groups, the presence of tremor and myoclonus, and the relief of symptoms by a test dose permit diazepam withdrawal to be distinguished from anxiety. The biphasic course of the symptoms is probably related to the pharmacokinetics of diazepam. PMID:7139456

  20. Student Withdrawal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Craig

    This document addresses the problem of students withdrawing from courses before completion and in the process attempts to devise ways that Mendocino College can aid students complete their courses. The report uses findings from two research reports. The first report was completed at the Florida Community College (FCC), which discovered that 75% of…

  1. Hypertension after clonidine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; deCarvalho, J G; Batson, H M; Frohlich, E D

    1978-05-01

    Rebound hypertension occurred in two patients upon clonidine withdrawal. Treatment of the hypertensive crisis consists of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, reserpine, or the reintroduction of clonidine. With effective control of pressure during the crisis, long-term antihypertensive therapy must be resumed.

  2. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruptus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, et al. Coitus interruptus (withdrawal). In: Contraceptive Technology. 20th ed. New York, N.Y.: Ardent Media; 2011. Zieman M. Overview of contraception. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 29, 2015. Lentz GM, et al. Family planning. In: Comprehensive ...

  3. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  4. Social Withdrawal in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Socially withdrawn children frequently refrain from social activities in the presence of peers. The lack of social interaction in childhood may result from a variety of causes, including social fear and anxiety or a preference for solitude. From early childhood through to adolescence, socially withdrawn children are concurrently and predictively at risk for a wide range of negative adjustment outcomes, including socio-emotional difficulties (e.g., anxiety, low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and internalizing problems), peer difficulties (e.g., rejection, victimization, poor friendship quality), and school difficulties (e.g., poor-quality teacher-child relationships, academic difficulties, school avoidance). The goals of the current review are to (a) provide some definitional, theoretical, and methodological clarity to the complex array of terms and constructs previously employed in the study of social withdrawal; (b) examine the predictors, correlates, and consequences of child and early-adolescent social withdrawal; and (c) present a developmental framework describing pathways to and from social withdrawal in childhood. PMID:18851686

  5. A randomized, open-label, controlled trial of gabapentin and phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mariani, John J; Rosenthal, Richard N; Tross, Susan; Singh, Prameet; Anand, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Gabapentin was compared with phenobarbital for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a randomized, open-label, controlled trial in 27 inpatients. There were no significant differences in the proportion of treatment completers between treatment groups or the proportion of patients in each group requiring rescue medication for breakthrough signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There were no significant treatment differences in withdrawal symptoms or psychological distress, nor were there serious adverse events. These findings suggest that gabapentin may be as effective as phenobarbital in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Given gabapentin's favorable pharmacokinetic profile, further study of its effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal is warranted.

  6. Outpatient management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Herbert L; Yasinian, Yasmin; Oge', Linda

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 2% to 9% of patients seen in a family physician's office have alcohol dependence. These patients are at risk of developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome if they abruptly abstain from alcohol use. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome begins six to 24 hours after the last intake of alcohol, and the signs and symptoms include tremors, agitation, nausea, sweating, vomiting, hallucinations, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, delirium, and seizures. Treatment aims to minimize symptoms, prevent complications, and facilitate continued abstinence from alcohol. Patients with mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal syndrome can be treated as outpatients, which minimizes expense and allows for less interruption of work and family life. Patients with severe symptoms or who are at high risk of complications should receive inpatient treatment. In addition to supportive therapy, benzodiazepines, either in a fixed-dose or symptom-triggered schedule, are recommended. Medication should be given at the onset of symptoms and continued until symptoms subside. Other medications, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, valproic acid, and gabapentin, have less abuse potential but do not prevent seizures. Typically, physicians should see these patients daily until symptoms subside. Although effective treatment is an initial step in recovery, long-term success depends on facilitating the patient's entry into ongoing treatment.

  7. Cocaine withdrawal in Planaria.

    PubMed

    Raffa, R B; Valdez, J M

    2001-10-26

    Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8x10(-9) to 8x10(-5) M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83x10(-19) J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.

  8. Zolpidem withdrawal delirium

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Surendra K.; Gaur, Navendu; Das, Partha P.

    2011-01-01

    The Z-category hypnotics are promoted for their relative safety. However, this view is challenged by the emerging clinical evidence in the form of zolpidem related intoxication delirium and seizures, and dependence and complicated withdrawal. We report the case of a zolpidem-naive alcohol-dependent inpatient that, while undergoing alcohol de-addiction, was prescribed zolpidem for insomnia and developed delirium during taper-off. He was successfully detoxified for alcohol, treated for delirium and put on disulfiram prophylaxis. The case highlights the need for being cautious while using zolpidem for insomnia in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:22144786

  9. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  10. Response to anticoagulant drug withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, R

    1987-09-01

    This study evaluated 44 separate medication withdrawal periods in 17 subjects who were attending a hospital anticoagulation clinic for management of anticoagulation medication. The data suggest that when anticoagulant withdrawal is needed for particular dental procedures, a 2-day hold is an effective period of medication withdrawal. No thromboembolic events were observed after any of the withdrawal periods. Further, no posttreatment hemorrhagic episodes were observed when the anticoagulant medication was reinstituted after dental treatment. Prothrombin time blood levels should be determined in the immediate pretreatment period, however, because the prothrombin time can fluctuate even in the best maintained patients.

  11. Confined Selective Withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelio, Alvaro; Campo-Cortes, Francisco; Gordillo, Jose Manuel

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that the controlled production of monodisperse simple and composite emulsions possesses uncountable applications in medicine, pharmacy, materials science and industry. Here we present both experiments and slender-body theory regarding the generation of simple emulsions using a configuration that we have called Confined Selective Withdrawal, since it is an improved configuration of the classical Selective Withdrawal. We consider two different situations, namely, the cases when the outer flow Reynolds number is high and low, respectively. Several geometrical configurations and a wide range of viscosity ratios are analyzed so that the physics behind the phenomenon can be fully understood. In addition, we present both experiments and theory regarding the generation of composite emulsions. This phenomenon is only feasible when the outer flow Reynolds number is low enough. In this case, we propose a more complex theory which requires the simultaneous resolution of two interfaces in order to predict the shape of the jet and the sizes of the drops formed. The excellent agreement between our slender-body approximation and the experimental evidence fully validates our theories.

  12. Student Withdrawal Survey: College Withdrawal, Spring 1986. Research Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, J. Joaquin; And Others

    A sample of students who withdrew from Mesa (Arizona) Community College (MCC) during spring 1986 was surveyed to determine reasons for withdrawal and dropout characteristics. Study findings included the following: (1) the primary reason for withdrawing was conflicting job hours, with 52% of the students who were employed working over 40 hours per…

  13. Signing off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Physics Related Aptitude Test As the teacher shortage bites anyone with a degree in science expects to walk into a school and be received, with open arms, as a physics teacher. Are they really suitable? To help you decide Signing Off provides the following invaluable psychometric test. Extensively researched and, for single users only, it comes completely free to Physics Education subscribers! (Copies of this Physics Related Aptitude Test are available to credit-card customers from prat@realripoff.com priced #35 per client, 125 dollars to US customers.) This invaluable psychometric test has been extensively researched. Your first lesson of the new school year introduces the study of electricity. Do you: A Use the notes prepared by your predecessor. B Find a video on electricity and play it to the class. C Arrange a series of exciting practical demonstrations to stimulate the young inquiring mind. D Let the children design and make their own circuits to light flashlight bulbs. Your 14-year-olds have completed a written test on heat and energy. Do you: A Mark correct only the work of students who have written their names neatly at the top LEFT HAND corner, as required. B Only set multiple choice tests, so that the computer can mark them for you. C Mark carefully by hand, explaining in detail to each student exactly how and why they have made errors and adding encouraging comments with lots of praise. D Give out correct sets of answers and allow students to mark their own work. There is a staff social. Do you: A Ask for a definition of the term 'social'. B Ask for a web-based version. C Determine to go, so that you can discuss setting up cross-curricular links with colleagues. D Join the organizing committee. Who do you admire most? A Sir Isaac Newton. B Bill Gates. C Leonardo da Vinci. D Leonardo di Caprio. You are required to teach biology class. Your response is: A Denial. B To ask for an appropriate computer simulation. C To attend a specialized course for biology

  14. Lorazepam and MK-801 effects on behavioral and electrographic indices of alcohol withdrawal sensitization.

    PubMed

    Veatch, Lynn M; Becker, Howard C

    2005-12-14

    Repeated cycles of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal result in sensitization of withdrawal-related CNS hyperexcitability that generally reflects an imbalance in activity of GABA and glutamate systems. Many pharmacological treatments for ethanol withdrawal target neuroadaptive changes in GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. The present study utilized a mouse model of repeated withdrawals to evaluate the ability of lorazepam and MK-801 treatments to antagonize behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of sensitized withdrawal seizure activity. Adult male C3H/He mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers (16 h/day) and during each withdrawal cycle, separate groups of mice were evaluated for handling-induced convulsions (HIC) or abnormal EEG (high-voltage "brief spindle episodes" (BSE)) activity. Lorazepam (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.1-0.3 mg/kg) treatment at 1 h into each of three withdrawal cycles reduced behavioral (HIC) and electrographic (BSE) signs of seizure activity in a dose-related fashion compared to vehicle-treated mice. During a subsequent untreated withdrawal, mice previously treated with lorazepam or MK-801 for earlier withdrawals exhibited reduced HIC activity during the acute phase but exacerbated HIC activity during the protracted phase of this final (fourth) withdrawal cycle. Both lorazepam and MK-801 treatment conditions resulted in enhanced BSE activity during the entire fourth (untreated) withdrawal episode. Collectively, these results suggest that while treatment of repeated ethanol withdrawals with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) or an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) may have some initial benefits in ameliorating the development of sensitized withdrawal excitability, such treatment may also render subjects more vulnerable to seizure activity at later time points.

  15. Cuesta College Student Withdrawal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Peter F.; Cartnal, Ryan

    The spring 1999 student withdrawal survey was made available for approximately two weeks before the final withdrawal deadline to all students who formally dropped a class through the admissions office at either the North County or San Luis Obsipo campus of Cuesta College in California. A total of 438 useable surveys were collected. The identical…

  16. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    The largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals was from the South Florida Water Management District (46 percent), followed by the St. Johns River Water Management District (20 percent), Southwest Florida Water Management District (19 percent), Northwest Florida Water Management District (9 percent), and Suwannee River Water Management District (6 percent). The South Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for public-supply use (46 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use (24 percent), agricultural self-supplied use (59 percent), and recreational-landscape irrigation use (63 percent). The Northwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of freshwater withdrawals for power-generation use (44 percent), and the Southwest Florida Water Management District accounted for the largest percentage of saline-water withdrawals for power-generation use (58 percent).

  17. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  18. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  19. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  20. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  1. 40 CFR 74.18 - Withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... opt-in source may request to withdraw from the Acid Rain Program by submitting an administrative... paragraph (f)(1) of this section. (b) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw from the Acid Rain Program, the...-in source's prior violations. An opt-in source that withdraws from the Acid Rain Program shall...

  2. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  3. Berberine protects C57BL/6J mice against ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Bhutada, Pravinkumar; Mundhada, Yogita; Bansod, Kuldeep; Hiware, Rahul; Rathod, Sumit; Dixit, Pankaj; Mundhada, Dharmendra

    2011-02-01

    Berberine ([C20H18NO4](+) ), one of the major constituents of the Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, is an isoquinoline alkaloid. Plethora of recent reports has indicated its ability to modulate several neurotransmitter systems, especially those implicated in ethanol dependence. Thus, the influence of berberine treatment on the development and expression of ethanol dependence was tested by using the ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability paradigm. Mice were provided with a nutritionally balanced control liquid diet as the sole nutrient source on day 0; from day 1-4 (ethanol, 3% v/v), from day 5-7 (ethanol, 6% v/v) and from day 8-10 (ethanol, 10% v/v) was incorporated into the liquid diet. On day 11, the ethanol liquid diet was replaced with nutritionally balanced control liquid diet, and ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs were recorded. The results revealed that acute administration of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs, and these results were comparable to diazepam (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). Further, chronic administration of berberine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) to the ethanol diet fed mice markedly attenuated the ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs. In conclusion, the results and evidence suggest that berberine exhibited an inhibitory influence against ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability signs, which could be mediated through its neuromodulatory action.

  4. Danger signs in drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J

    2010-07-01

    ADRs are frequently considered iatrogenic complications and, therefore, pose a specific challenge for the physician-patient relationship. Early recognition of a potential ADR is possible, especially on the skin, in addition to characteristic clinical danger signs. Cutaneous manifestations are variable, depending on the causative pathomechanism. It is impossible to conclude the causative agent from the morphology of the cutaneous lesions. The intake of several drugs in the time before the elicitation of the drug reaction usually poses a diagnostic challenge. It is crucial for the precision of any further allergological work-up to document the type of rash precisely as well as the time course of drug intake and appearance of the first symptoms. involvement of internal organs or circulating blood cells. Timely recognition of such cutaneous lesions and the correct differential diagnosis with prompt withdrawal of the putative culprit drug are essential to reducing morbidity and preventing mortality. This article discusses risk factors, early symptoms, and danger signs indicating a possibly severe course of an ADR and advises on early actions.

  5. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework.

  6. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Adel; Hashem, Tahia; Mohamed, Mahmoud; Ashry, Esraa

    2003-05-01

    The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome.

  7. Increased non-rapid eye movement sleep by cocaine withdrawal: possible involvement of A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Long; Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Yun-Bae; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2011-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify whether cocaine withdrawal altered sleep architecture and the role of adenosine receptors in this process. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once per day for 7 days to rat implanted with sleep/wake recording electrode. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep/wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration (basal recording as control); withdrawal-day 1 (after 1 day of repeated cocaine administration), withdrawal-day 8 (after 8 days of repeated cocaine administration), and withdrawal-day 14 (after 14 days of repeated cocaine administration), respectively. On cocaine withdrawal-day 1, wakefulness was significantly increased, total sleep was decreased, non-rapid eye movement sleep was markedly reduced, and rapid eye movement sleep was enhanced. Sleep/wake cycles were also increased on cocaine withdrawal day 1. However, non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas rapid eye movement sleep was decreased and no significant changes were observed in the total sleep and sleep/wake cycles during these periods. Adenosine A(2A) receptors expression was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas A(1) receptors levels were reduced after 14 days of withdrawal and the A(2B) receptors remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that alterations of sleep and sleep architecture during cocaine subacute and subchronic withdrawals after repeated cocaine administration may be partially involved in A(2A) receptors over-expression in the rat hypothalamus.

  8. Clonidine withdrawal induced sympathetic surge.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Michael; Matsa, Ramprasad

    2015-06-02

    A 30-year-old man with a history of epilepsy and substance misuse presented to the hospital with status epilepticus. Difficult seizure control necessitated anaesthetising the patient followed by intubation and ventilation. A clonidine infusion was started as the patient developed withdrawal syndrome and was difficult to wean off mechanical ventilation. Once the withdrawal syndrome was controlled, the clonidine was abruptly stopped. Two hours after stopping the infusion, the patient developed high-grade fever, severe hypertension, tachycardia, profound sweating and lacrimation. The patient then developed respiratory distress syndrome secondary to acute pulmonary oedema. Clonidine withdrawal as a cause of such response was proposed. Reversal of symptoms and successful reweaning was achieved by restarting a low-dose clonidine infusion followed by slow downward titration and use of oral clonidine as a step-down measure. The patient was subsequently discharged from the intensive care unit.

  9. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala κ-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6 μg) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. PMID:26105136

  10. Agmatine: identification and inhibition of methamphetamine, kappa opioid, and cannabinoid withdrawal in planarians.

    PubMed

    Rawls, Scott M; Gerber, Kristin; Ding, Zhe; Roth, Christopher; Raffa, Robert B

    2008-12-01

    Agmatine blocks morphine physical dependence in mammals, but its effects on withdrawal signs caused by other abused drugs have been less studied. One of the reasons is that withdrawal to some of these drugs is difficult to quantify in mammals. An alternative to mammals is planarians, a type of flatworm. Planarians possess mammalian-like neurotransmitters and display withdrawal from amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids. The withdrawal is manifested as a reduction in locomotor behavior following discontinuation of drug exposure. In the present study, our goal was to identify agmatine in planarians and to determine if planarians exposed to agmatine display withdrawal to methamphetamine, a cannabinoid receptor agonist (WIN 55,212-2), or a kappa-opioid receptor agonist (U-50,488H). Neurochemical experiments revealed that the concentration of agmatine in planarians was 185 +/- 33.7 pmol per mg of planarian weight (dry weight). In behavioral experiments, withdrawal (i.e., reduced locomotor activity) was observed when planarians exposed to each drug (10 microM) for 60 min were placed into water. The withdrawal was attenuated when methamphetamine- or U-50,488H-exposed planarians were tested in agmatine (100 microM). Withdrawal was inhibited similarly when planarians coexposed to agmatine (100 microM) plus methamphetamine (10 microM), WIN 55,212-2 (10 microM), or U-50,488H (10 microM) were tested in water. Arginine, the metabolic precursor to agmatine, was ineffective. Our results identify endogenous agmatine in planarians and demonstrate that agmatine exposure blocks withdrawal to three different drugs in planarians. This suggests that a change in agmatine signaling is a common mechanism in the withdrawal caused by these drugs, at least in planarians.

  11. Null mutation of the β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit attenuates nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Astrid K; Marks, Michael J; Markou, Athina

    2015-04-15

    The anhedonic signs of nicotine withdrawal are predictive of smoking relapse rates in humans. Identification of the neurobiological substrates that mediate anhedonia will provide insights into the genetic variations that underlie individual responses to smoking cessation and relapse. The present study assessed the role of β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nACh receptor) subunits in nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia using β2 nACh receptor subunit knockout (β2(-/-)) and wildtype (β2(+/+)) mice. Anhedonia was assessed with brain reward thresholds, defined as the current intensity that supports operant behavior in the discrete-trial current-intensity intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Nicotine was delivered chronically through osmotic minipumps for 28 days (40 mg/kg/day, base), and withdrawal was induced by either administering the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (i.e., antagonist-precipitated withdrawal) in mice chronically treated with nicotine or terminating chronic nicotine administration (i.e., spontaneous withdrawal). Mecamylamine (6 mg/kg, salt) significantly elevated brain reward thresholds in nicotine-treated β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) mice and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal similarly resulted in significant elevations in thresholds in nicotine-withdrawing β2(+/+) mice compared with saline-treated β2(+/+) and nicotine-treated β2(-/-) mice, which remained at baseline levels. These results showed that precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal-induced anhedonia was attenuated in β2(-/-) mice. The reduced expression of anhedonic signs during nicotine withdrawal in β2(-/-) mice may have resulted from the lack of neuroadaptations in β2 nACh receptor subunit expression and function that may have occurred during either nicotine exposure or nicotine withdrawal in wildtype mice. In conclusion, individuals with genetic variations that result in diminished

  12. Warning Signs After Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... what moms and moms-to-be need to know GO donate sign-up sign-in Sign out account center dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & ...

  13. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  14. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  15. Lorazepam withdrawal catatonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thanapal; Yadav, Anil; Sood, Mamta; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2013-12-01

    Catatonia is a rare manifestation of benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly patients who have used it for a long time. We present a case of lorazepam withdrawal catatonia and highlight issues in diagnosis and management.

  16. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... diligence; (3) Use after marketing demonstrates that postmarketing restrictions are inadequate to...

  17. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...

  18. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...

  19. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... Evaluation and Research (CDER) will give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing on...

  20. A drug-paired taste cue elicits withdrawal and predicts cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Nyland, Jennifer E; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-01

    Addiction is a chronic disease where periods of abstinence are riddled with instances of craving, withdrawal, and eventual relapse to escalated drug use. Cues previously associated with drug use can have a deleterious effect on this cycle by precipitating withdrawal symptoms. Here we focus specifically on the relationship between avoidance of a drug-paired taste cue and the ability of the drug-paired cue to elicit withdrawal and, ultimately, drug seeking and taking. We used a rat model of drug addiction and naloxone-induced loss of body weight to test whether a taste cue elicits withdrawal in anticipation of drug availability. Experiment 1 investigated the ability of a taste cue to elicit signs of withdrawal when it predicted experimenter-administered morphine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). In Experiment 2, a saccharin taste cue was paired with the opportunity to actively self-administer cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion, i.v.). The results show that presentation of a morphine- or cocaine-paired taste cue is sufficient to elicit naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, and greater withdrawal predicts greater cocaine self-administration in rats.

  1. Investigation of allyphenyline efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Del Bello, Fabio; Domi, Esi; Pigini, Maria; Nasuti, Cinzia

    2015-08-05

    We have recently demonstrated that allyphenyline, behaving as α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and α2A-adrenoceptor antagonist, in mice enhanced morphine analgesia, attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed significant antidepressant-like activity and was devoid of sedative side effects. Opioid and alcohol withdrawal shares several common neurobiological and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we expanded our analysis of the pharmacological properties of allyphenyline by investigating its ability to prevent the expression of somatic withdrawal signs, anxiety-like behavior and hyperlocomotion associated with chronic ethanol intoxication. Rats were subjected to induction of ethanol dependence via repeated daily intragastric ethanol (20%) administration for 4 consecutive days. Twelve hours after the last alcohol administration, somatic alcohol withdrawal signs were scored. Results revealed a significant expression of physical withdrawal signs that were not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of allyphenyline at the doses of 0.05, 0.275 and 0.5 mg/kg. In contrast, allyphenyline (0.05 and 0.275 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced hyperanxiety-like behavior observed 6 days after alcohol intoxication as measured using the defensive burying test. Allyphenyline also reduced open field hyperlocomotor activity associated with alcohol withdrawal. Notably, the anxiolytic effect of the compound, as well as the already reported antidepressant action, was observed at very low doses, suggesting the involvement of its α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Therefore, the present investigation suggests that allyphenyline might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to investigate the potential of compounds exhibiting α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism and α2A-adrenoceptor antagonism in the treatment of hyperanxiety and hyperlocomotion occurring during alcohol withdrawal in dependent subjects.

  2. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Texas, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Texas by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: self-supplied irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, industrial and mining, and other (domestic, commercial, livestock). Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, thermoelectric-power generation, water supply, and industrial and mining are illustrated in this report, although all data are tabulated.

  3. Alcohol Withdrawal and Cerebellar Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jung, Marianna E

    2015-08-01

    Cerebellar disorders trigger the symptoms of movement problems, imbalance, incoordination, and frequent fall. Cerebellar disorders are shown in various CNS illnesses including a drinking disorder called alcoholism. Alcoholism is manifested as an inability to control drinking in spite of adverse consequences. Human and animal studies have shown that cerebellar symptoms persist even after complete abstinence from drinking. In particular, the abrupt termination (ethanol withdrawal) of long-term excessive ethanol consumption has shown to provoke a variety of neuronal and mitochondrial damage to the cerebellum. Upon ethanol withdrawal, excitatory neurotransmitter molecules such as glutamate are overly released in brain areas including cerebellum. This is particularly relevant to the cerebellar neuronal network as glutamate signals are projected to Purkinje neurons through granular cells that are the most populated neuronal type in CNS. This excitatory neuronal signal may be elevated by ethanol withdrawal stress, which promotes an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) level and a decrease in a Ca(2+)-binding protein, both of which result in the excessive entry of Ca(2+) to the mitochondria. Subsequently, mitochondria undergo a prolonged opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and the overproduction of harmful free radicals, impeding adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating function. This in turn provokes the leakage of mitochondrial molecule cytochrome c to the cytosol, which triggers a cascade of adverse cytosol reactions. Upstream to this pathway, cerebellum under the condition of ethanol withdrawal has shown aberrant gene modifications through altered DNA methylation, histone acetylation, or microRNA expression. Interplay between these events and molecules may result in functional damage to cerebellar mitochondria and consequent neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Mitochondria-targeting research may help develop a powerful new

  4. 29 CFR 4208.7 - Adjustment of withdrawal liability for subsequent withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY... a partial or complete withdrawal from a plan subsequent to a partial withdrawal from that plan in a prior plan year shall be reduced in accordance with part 4206 of this chapter....

  5. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw. 4219.18 Section 4219.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination...

  6. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...

  7. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...

  8. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping... TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1) A qualified withdrawal is one made from the fund during the taxable year which is in accordance with...

  9. A Detection Model of College Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleskac, Timothy J.; Keeney, Jessica; Merritt, Stephanie M.; Schmitt, Neal; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Many students during their college careers consider withdrawing from their respective college or university. Understanding why some students decide to withdraw yet others persist has implications for both the well being of students as well as for institutes of higher education. The present study develops a model of the decision to withdraw drawing…

  10. Student Withdrawal Survey. Research Report 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, J. Joaquin; And Others

    In spring 1984, a three-part withdrawal study was conducted at Glendale (Arizona) Community College (GCC) to investigate reasons for course withdrawal, and official and unofficial college withdrawal. Study findings, based on responses from 138 students who withdrew from courses, 282 students who officially withdrew from GCC, and 9 students who…

  11. 46 CFR 390.10 - Nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonqualified withdrawals. 390.10 Section 390.10 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.10 Nonqualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. Any withdrawal from a...

  12. Sign language Web pages.

    PubMed

    Fels, Deborah I; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G

    2006-01-01

    The WORLD WIDE WEB has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The present article describes a system that allows sign language-only Web pages to be created and linked through a video-based technique called sign-linking. In two studies, 14 Deaf participants examined two iterations of signlinked Web pages to gauge the usability and learnability of a signing Web page interface. The first study indicated that signing Web pages were usable by sign language users but that some interface features required improvement. The second study showed increased usability for those features; users consequently couldnavigate sign language information with ease and pleasure.

  13. [Computerizing the radiological sign].

    PubMed

    Bertaud, V; Belhadj, I; Dameron, O; Garcelon, N; Hendaoui, L; Marin, F; Duvauferrier, R

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to present to the radiologist the different theories of the sign and their consequences for sign representation in computer systems. All the theories of the sign are presented, but the most relevant are highlighted in order to explain the great modeling systems currently in use (such as DICOM-SR or the UMLS). The constructivist approach of the notion of disease, the semiosis process, which starting from signs produces new signs, and the structuralist analysis of sign through language are emphasized. The purpose of this analysis is to end up with a consensual representation of the sign that can be understood by human beings and processed by machines. Such a representation, also known as an ontology, is based on a semantic organization of language, thus allowing medicine to become a truly scientific discipline. It aims at disambiguating the symbols given to machines, which will help us in our reasoning.

  14. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.

  15. Withdrawal from dialysis: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H

    1998-04-01

    Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.

  16. Sign language and autism.

    PubMed

    Bonvillian, J D; Nelson, K E; Rhyne, J M

    1981-03-01

    Research findings and issues in teaching sign language to nonspeaking autistic children are reviewed. Data on over 100 children indicate that nearly all autistic children learn receptive and expressive signs, and many learn to combine signs. These children also exhibit marked improvement in adaptive behaviors. Speech skills are acquired by fewer children and may be developed through simultaneous speech and sign training. Possible explanations for these results are given, together with suggestions for future research and data collection. Recommended innovations include exposure to fluent signers and training in discourse and code-switching. Different sign language teaching methods need to be investigated more fully, including emphasis on training sign language within the children's total environment and with greater staff and parental participation.

  17. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  18. UCR Library Sign System Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Riverside. Library.

    This manual outlines the procedures to be used for producing and placing signs within the libraries of the University of California, Riverside and presents examples of signs which conform to the library sign policy. The sign policy itself is described as well as procedures for requesting new or revised signs and for sign removal. Drawings of…

  19. The blockade of GABAA receptors attenuates the inhibitory effect of orexin type 1 receptors antagonist on morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Mahnaz; Azizi, Hossein; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Semnanian, Saeed

    2016-03-23

    The aim of present study was to investigate the involvement of orexin-A neuropeptide in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome via modulating neurons bearing GABAA receptors. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a sensitive site for expression of the somatic aspects of morphine withdrawal. Intra-LC microinjection of GABAA receptor agonist attenuates morphine withdrawal signs in rats. Here we studied the influence of LC orexin type 1 receptors blockade by SB-334867 in presence of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 250-300 g, were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of increasing morphine doses (6, 16, 26, 36, 46, 56 and 66 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg) at set intervals of 24 h for 7 days. On 8th day, naloxone (3 mg/kg, s.c.) was injected and the somatic signs of morphine withdrawal were evaluated. Intra-LC microinjections (0.2 μl) of either bicuculline (15 μM) or SB-334867 (3 mM) or a combination of both chemicals were done immediately before naloxone injection. Intra-LC microinjection of bicuculline (15 μM) had no significant effect on morphine withdrawal signs, whereas intra-LC microinjection of SB-334867 considerably attenuated morphine withdrawal signs. However, the effect of SB-334867 in attenuating naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs was blocked in presence of bicuculline. This finding, for the first time, indicated that orexin-A may participate in expression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal syndrome partly through decreasing the activity of neurons bearing GABAA receptors.

  20. Dependence on delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: studies on precipitated and abrupt withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Aceto, M D; Scates, S M; Lowe, J A; Martin, B R

    1996-09-01

    A cannabinoid antagonist, SR 141716A, dose dependently precipitated a behavioral withdrawal syndrome in rats continuously infused i.p. for only 4 days with relatively low-dose regimens of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. The following dose regimens, expressed as mg/kg/24 hr, were used for days 1 through 4: high-12.5, 25, 50 and 100; medium-2.5, 5, 10 and 20; and low-0.5, 1, 2 and 4. The major withdrawal signs of the syndrome were scratching, rubbing face with paws, licking, wetdog shakes, arched back and ptosis (at least 50% closure of eyelids). At the highest dose regimen, other signs noted in fewer subjects were biting, tongue rolling, retropulsion, head shakes, extended limbs or high stepping, ataxia, myoclonic spasms and front paw treading. During abrupt withdrawal (delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol was discontinued and vehicle substituted) abstinence signs were also noted; however, except during a 48-hr observation period, withdrawal was not sufficiently robust to achieve statistical significance. The results of this study provide evidence that a modest course of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol can produce physical dependence. Hence, the risk and incidence of marijuana dependence in humans may be greater than previously projected.

  1. Sign-a-Palooza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorran, Charles; Reynolds, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    A halo of signs, some stuffed into thick plastic sheaths while others curled under yellow tape, cluttered the service desks of the New City Library. They bleated out messages of closings, procedures, and warnings. Their number undermined their cause. All too often a customer would ask a question that was answered by the very sign they had pushed…

  2. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  3. Connecting the Equals Sign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Pratt, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to view the equals sign as an operator symbol bereft of the rich relational properties of equality statements. It has been argued by some that this restricted view of the equals sign is due to cultural or cognitive factors. We suggest a significant factor is that rich relational meanings lack relevance within the context of…

  4. The novel anticonvulsant, gabapentin, protects against both convulsant and anxiogenic aspects of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Watson, W P; Robinson, E; Little, H J

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, were investigated, in mice, on the withdrawal convulsive behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour that are produced by cessation of prolonged intake of ethanol. When given at 50 or 100 mg/kg, this compound decreased the rise in handling-induced hyperexcitability which occurs during the withdrawal period; the effects were most pronounced for the first 4 hr after administration. Gabapentin also decreased the convulsive response to an audiogenic stimulus during the withdrawal period. The elevated plus-maze, with both traditional and ethological indices of activity was used as a test of anxiety-related behaviour after cessation of chronic ethanol treatment. Gabapentin, at 50 and 100 mg/kg, was found to decrease some, although not all, of the signs of withdrawal-induced anxiety. At doses up to and including 200 mg/kg, gabapentin had no effect on motor co-ordination or spontaneous locomotor activity in control animals. The results demonstrated that gabapentin has a selective action in decreasing both convulsive and anxiety-related aspects of withdrawal behaviour after chronic ethanol treatment. It is possible that further studies with this compound may shed further light on the mechanisms involved in the withdrawal syndrome.

  5. Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kayir, Hakan; Celik, Turgay; Yüksel, Nevzat

    2006-05-01

    Effects of acute and chronic tianeptine treatments on ethanol withdrawal syndrome were investigated in rats. Ethanol (7.2% v/v) was given to adult male Wistar rats by a liquid diet for 30 days. Acute or chronic (twice daily) tianeptine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally. Acute and last chronic tianeptine injections and saline were done 30 min before ethanol withdrawal testing. After 2nd, 4th and 6th hours of ethanol withdrawal, rats were observed for 5 min, and withdrawal signs which included locomotor hyperactivity, agitation, tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behavior and audiogenic seizures were recorded or rated. Locomotor activity in naive (no ethanol-dependent rats) was also tested after acute tianeptine treatments. Acute but not chronic tianeptine treatment attenuated locomotor hyperactivity and agitation in ethanol-dependent rats. Both acute and chronic tianeptine treatment produced some significant inhibitory effects on tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behaviors and audiogenic seizures during the ethanol withdrawal. Our results suggest that acute or chronic tianeptine treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats and this drug may be useful for treatment of ethanol-type dependence.

  6. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E

    2008-05-15

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pre-treatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional 4 h. At the end of the experiment

  7. Estimated freshwater withdrawals in Washington, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Ron C.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2015-03-18

    The amount of public- and self-supplied water used for domestic, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power was estimated for state, county, and eastern and western regions of Washington during calendar year 2010. Withdrawals of freshwater for offstream uses were estimated to be about 4,885 million gallons per day. The total estimated freshwater withdrawals for 2010 was approximately 15 percent less than the 2005 estimate because of decreases in irrigation and thermoelectric power withdrawals.

  8. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal with gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Bozikas, Vasilis; Petrikis, Petros; Gamvrula, Katerina; Savvidou, Ioanna; Karavatos, Athanasios

    2002-01-01

    Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant agent, also effective in the treatment of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Three cases of alcohol withdrawal treated with gabapentin are presented. All patients received gabapentin 400 mg tid for 3 days, 400 mg bid for 1 day, and finally 400 mg for 1 day. Withdrawal symptoms subsided and no adverse effects were observed. The possible effectiveness of gabapentin in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal warrants further investigation by systematic and well-designed studies.

  9. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  10. Dystonia in Methylphenidate Withdrawal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grau-López, Lara; Daigre, Constanza; Mercado, Nestor; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    Few studies have described movement disorders as withdrawal symptoms during psychostimulant detoxification. Although dystonia has been reported as an uncommon adverse effect of methylphenidate treatment, it has not been described in the context of methylphenidate withdrawal. We report a case of dystonia as the main withdrawal symptom in a methylphenidate-dependent adult participating in an inpatient methylphenidate detoxification program. Although movement disorders such as dystonia are very rare adverse effects of methylphenidate withdrawal, practitioners need to be alert to this risk in order to initiate appropriate treatment.

  11. 5 CFR 1604.7 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the spouse of a civilian participant covered under the Federal Employees' Retirement System; those... account contains combat zone contributions, the withdrawal will be distributed pro rata from all...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  13. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  14. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  15. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  16. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  17. Signs of Overload

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Overload Page Content Article Body Although stress is a ... 12 (Copyright © 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be ...

  18. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  19. Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Signs and Symptoms ...

  20. Detecting Signs of Intrusion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    your systems, you should investigate any warnings they sound. Although monitors are not fool- proof, they can be part of an effective early warning ...Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Detecting Signs of Intrusion Robert Firth Gary Ford Barbara Fräser John Kochmar...1997 Detecting Signs of Intrusion Robert Firth Gary Ford Barbara Fräser John Kochmar Suresh Konda John Richael Derek Simmel Networked Systems

  1. The Effect of Intermittent Alcohol Vapor or Pulsatile Heroin on Somatic and Negative Affective Indices during Spontaneous Withdrawal in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Angela M.; Reis, Daniel J.; Powell, Alexa S.; Neira, Louis J.; Nealey, Kathryn A.; Ziegler, Cole E.; Kloss, Nina; Bilimoria, Jessica L.; Smith, Chelsea E.; Walker, Brendan M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to “self-medicate” in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated drug or alcohol use. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a reliable animal model to assess symptoms that occur during spontaneous alcohol and opioid withdrawal. Methods Dependence was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure or pulsatile heroin delivery and assessed for the presence of withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal by measuring somatic signs, behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and air-puff induced 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Additional animals subjected to eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure were evaluated for altered somatic signs, operant alcohol self-administration and 22-kHz USV production, as well as performance in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Results During spontaneous withdrawal from pulsatile heroin or intermittent alcohol vapor, animals displayed increased somatic withdrawal signs, FST immobility and 22-kHz USV production, but did not show any behavioral change in the EPM unless the duration of exposure was extended to four weeks. Following eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure, animals displayed somatic withdrawal signs, escalated alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz USVs. Conclusions These paradigms provide consistent methods to evaluate the behavioral ramifications, and neurobiological substrates, of alcohol and opioid dependence during spontaneous withdrawal. As immobility in the FST and percent open-arm time in the EPM were dissociable, with 22-kHz USVs paralleling immobility in the FST, assessment of air-puff induced 22-kHz USVs could provide an ethologically-valid alternative to the FST. PMID:22461104

  2. The alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist idazoxan, but not the serotonin-2A receptor antagonist M100907, partially attenuated reward deficits associated with nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2010-10-01

    Based on phenomenological similarities between anhedonia (reward deficits) associated with drug withdrawal and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, we showed previously that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine attenuated reward deficits associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. Antagonism of alpha(2) adrenergic and 5-HT(2A) receptors may contribute to these effects of clozapine. We investigated here whether blockade of alpha(2) or 5-HT(2A) receptors by idazoxan and M100907, respectively, would reverse anhedonic aspects of psychostimulant withdrawal. Idazoxan treatment facilitated recovery from spontaneous nicotine, but not amphetamine, withdrawal by attenuating reward deficits and increase the number of somatic signs. Thus, alpha(2) adrenoceptor blockade may have beneficial effects against nicotine withdrawal and may be involved in the effects of clozapine previously observed. M100907 worsened the anhedonia associated with nicotine and amphetamine withdrawal, suggesting that monotherapy with M100907 may exacerbate the expression of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia or nicotine withdrawal symptoms in people, including schizophrenia patients, attempting to quit smoking.

  3. 5 CFR 1604.7 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... spousal rights in the context of a withdrawal (and the process by which a service member may obtain an... any) can be transferred only if the IRA or plan accepts such funds. (d) Separation. The definition of separation from service at § 1604.2 applies when determining a service member's eligibility for a withdrawal....

  4. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... amendment, or any portion of a proposed State plan or plan amendment, at any time during the review...

  5. Spinal Surgery and Abrupt Intrathecal Baclofen Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Karl; Brodsky, Jay B

    2015-11-01

    Abrupt cessation of intrathecal baclofen can lead to a serious withdrawal syndrome. The anesthesiologist must be prepared to avoid intraoperative interruption of baclofen delivery before starting spinal surgery and to recognize and treat the symptoms of baclofen withdrawal in the immediate postoperative period.

  6. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  7. Behavioral measures of anxiety during opiate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Grasing, K; Wang, A; Schlussman, S

    1996-10-01

    Heightened anxiety is a major component of the withdrawal syndromes associated with ethanol and sedative hypnotic medications. Because of similarities between the opiate and sedative-hypnotic withdrawal syndromes as well as data implicating heightened noradrenergic tone with opiate withdrawal, we investigated changes in anxiety measures identified by plus-maze and social interaction testing during opiate withdrawal. Because Sprague Dawley rats had very low levels of entry into plus-maze open arms, further studies were conducted using the Long-Evans strain. Long-Evans rats received continuous infusions of morphine sulfate at 44 mg/kg per day delivered by osmotic pump over 7 days while control animals received inert implants. During the first 3 days of withdrawal, the number and time of entries into open and closed arms of a plus-maze was recorded. Both social and aggressive behaviors were scored durings pairings of groups of two socially naive animals. Body weight was significantly reduced in morphine-treated animals prior to and during withdrawal. Both the number of entries into open plus-maze arms and the time spent in open areas increased over the 3 days of testing. However, no difference in plus-maze activity was detected between morphine-treated and control subjects. On the third day of withdrawal, social interaction time was greater in pairs of withdrawn and control subjects compared to pairs of two control subjects. In conclusion, behavioral measures of anxiety are not increased during opiate withdrawal.

  8. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air Carrier IFR... essential air service operations or eliminating slots. Before withdrawing any slots under this section to.... (d) The following withdrawal priority rule shall be used to permit application of the...

  9. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  10. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  11. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  12. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  13. 27 CFR 28.153 - Withdrawal procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....153 Section 28.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Specially Denatured Spirits, Free of Tax, for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.153 Withdrawal procedure. The...

  14. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 390.9 Section 390.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.9 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general—(1) Defined. In accordance with 46 U.S.C....

  15. 46 CFR 391.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 391.5 Section 391.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 FEDERAL INCOME TAX ASPECTS OF THE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FUND § 391.5 Qualified withdrawals. (a) In general. (1)...

  16. Amphetamine withdrawal and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M R; Bradley, B P; Brewis, R K

    1982-01-01

    Sleep duration and indices of disturbed sleep, such as night-time waking and day-time sleep, were investigated in amphetamine users following hospital admission and withdrawal from the drug. Compared to controls, the amphetamine group showed an initial period of oversleeping and, towards the end of the first week, they showed a considerable degree of reduced sleep which persisted for the 20 days of this study. There was greater variability in sleep duration within the amphetamine group on almost all nights, and the variability in sleep duration from one night to the next was also greater. More night-time sleep disturbance was evident among the amphetamine ex-users. These results are discussed with respect to previous work and the pattern is seen to be more complex than had been imagined. A tentative neurochemical model is suggested and clinical implications are considered.

  17. A Case Report of Clonazepam Dependence: Utilization of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring During Withdrawal Period.

    PubMed

    Kacirova, Ivana; Grundmann, Milan; Silhan, Petr; Brozmanova, Hana

    2016-03-01

    Clonazepam is long-acting benzodiazepine agonist used in short-acting benzodiazepine withdrawal; however, recent observations suggest the existence of its abuse. We demonstrate a 40-year-old man with a 20-year history of psychiatric care with recently benzodiazepine dependence (daily intake of ∼60 mg of clonazepam and 10 mg of alprazolam). High serum levels of both drugs were analyzed 3 weeks before admission to hospitalization (clonazepam 543.9 ng/mL, alprazolam 110 ng/mL) and at the time of admission (clonazepam 286.2 ng/mL, alprazolam 140 ng/mL) without any signs of benzodiazepine intoxication. Gradual withdrawal of clonazepam with monitoring of its serum levels and increase of gabapentin dose were used to minimize physical signs and symptoms of clonazepam withdrawal. Alprazolam was discontinued promptly. Clinical consequences of the treatment were controllable tension, intermittent headache, and rarely insomia. It is the first case report showing utilization of therapeutic drug monitoring during withdrawal period in the patient with extreme toleration to severe benzodiazepine dependence.

  18. The Meaning of Signs:

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This article reconstructs the diagnostic act of the French pox in the French-disease hospital of sixteenth-century Augsburg. It focuses on how the participants in the clinical encounter imagined the configuration of the pox and its localization in the human body. Of central importance for answering this question is the early modern conception of physical signs. It has been argued that it was due to a specific understanding of bodily signs and their relationship to a disease and its causes, that disease definition and classification in the early modern period showed a high degree of flexibility and fluidity. This paper looks at how the sixteenth-century theoretical conception of physical signs not only shaped the diagnosis and treatment of the pox but also reflected the overall organization of institutions. PMID:17242549

  19. Vital Signs Rate Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    S15 VITAL SIGNS RTE NETER(U) TEXAS R FW4D A UNIV COLLEGE 1/1 STATION IENGINEERING PROGM C S LESSAD ET RL. SEP 8? USRFSN-TR-$?-14 F33615-S3-D-0602...UNCLMSIFIED F/O 6/12 ML IIB 125 11 128 11.2.5_ ka7 U S S SS S S S S S0 02.2 36 * . * * * . - * . - .. . - - . Q -- .* USAFSAM-TR-87-1 4 VITAL SIGNS RATE...UNIT ELEMENT NO. INO.I NO. IACESSION NO. 622027 2729 02 21 11 TITLE ft ml’S111111:1111"ll vital Signs Rae ~t= 12. PERSONAL AUTWOR(S) Lessard, Cierles

  20. Eponymous signs in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Madke, Bhushan; Nayak, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Clinical signs reflect the sheer and close observatory quality of an astute physician. Many new dermatological signs both in clinical and diagnostic aspects of various dermatoses are being reported and no single book on dermatology literature gives a comprehensive list of these “signs” and postgraduate students in dermatology finds it difficult to have access to the description, as most of these resident doctor do not have access to the said journal articles. “Signs” commonly found in dermatologic literature with a brief discussion and explanation is reviewed in this paper. PMID:23189246

  1. Reexposure to nicotine during withdrawal increases the pacemaking activity of cholinergic habenular neurons

    PubMed Central

    Görlich, Andreas; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Ables, Jessica L.; Frahm, Silke; Ślimak, Marta A.; Dougherty, Joseph D.; Ibañez-Tallon, Inés

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of genetic variants in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster associated with heavy smoking and higher relapse risk has led to the identification of the midbrain habenula–interpeduncular axis as a critical relay circuit in the control of nicotine dependence. Although clear roles for α3, β4, and α5 receptors in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been established, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that participate in signaling nicotine use and contribute to relapse have not been identified. Here, using translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) profiling, electrophysiology, and behavior, we demonstrate that cholinergic neurons, but not peptidergic neurons, of the medial habenula (MHb) display spontaneous tonic firing of 2–10 Hz generated by hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) pacemaker channels and that infusion of the HCN pacemaker antagonist ZD7288 in the habenula precipitates somatic and affective signs of withdrawal. Further, we show that a strong, α3β4-dependent increase in firing frequency is observed in these pacemaker neurons upon acute exposure to nicotine. No change in the basal or nicotine-induced firing was observed in cholinergic MHb neurons from mice chronically treated with nicotine. We observe, however, that, during withdrawal, reexposure to nicotine doubles the frequency of pacemaking activity in these neurons. These findings demonstrate that the pacemaking mechanism of cholinergic MHb neurons controls withdrawal, suggesting that the heightened nicotine sensitivity of these neurons during withdrawal may contribute to smoking relapse. PMID:24082085

  2. Signs in Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of signs in Elizabeth George Speare's "The Sign of the Beaver," in which a settler youth and a young Indian learn to communicate by signs, and how the signs reveal much about each character's culture. Summarizes the plot elements of the book, including characters who are not as sympathetic to the Indian point of view.…

  3. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  4. Derivative Sign Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the patterns of signs of infinitely differentiable real functions shows that only four patterns are possible if the function is required to exhibit the pattern at all points in its domain and that domain is the set of all real numbers. On the other hand all patterns are possible if the domain is a bounded open interval.

  5. Sign Language Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  6. Signing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes British Sign Language (BSL) as a viable option for teaching science. BSL is used by a vast number of people in Britain but is seldom taught in schools or included informally alongside lessons. With its new addition of a large scientific glossary, invented to modernise the way science is taught to deaf children, BSL breaks…

  7. Warning Signs of Bullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from home, harming themselves, or talking about suicide If you know someone in serious distress or danger, don’t ignore the problem. Get help right away . Back to top Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  8. Sign-away Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Catherine E.

    1976-01-01

    Why would mental health clients sign release-of-information forms unless they thought a refusal to do so would jeopardize their access to service? The author believes that the practice of not advising clients of their rights to privacy has ethical implications that can compromise the value of the treatment. (Author)

  9. Treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome with gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, U; Banger, M; Leweke, F M; Maschke, M; Kowalski, T; Gastpar, M

    1999-05-01

    Four in-patients with moderate alcohol-withdrawal syndromes benefited from treatment with gabapentin administered in an add-on fashion to clomethiazole. In comparison with the amount of clomethiazole required as estimated using a specially developed score during previous detoxifications of these patients at our hospital, gabapentin (400 mg q.i.d.) clearly reduced the amount of clomethiazole needed now Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and tolerability, and with no known risk of dependence, may therefore be a useful new drug in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We believe that the potential value of gabapentin in alcohol withdrawal deserves further controlled studies.

  10. l-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Premaratne, Ishani D; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H; Hughes, Larry D; Harris, Louis S; Aceto, Mario D

    2012-12-01

    l-theanine, 2-amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that l-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine's stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that l-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal signs. Additionally, l-theanine produces anxiolytic effects in humans indicating that it has anti-anxiety properties. Thus, in these studies we determined whether l-theanine attenuates opioid-withdrawal signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys, a model for spontaneous opioid withdrawal in human opioid addicts. We also evaluated whether l-theanine decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, using the elevated plus maze and marble burying assays. l-theanine significantly attenuated designated opioid withdrawal signs, including fighting, rigid abdominal muscles, vocalizing on palpation of abdomen, pacing, retching, wet-dog shakes, and masturbation. It had a relatively quick onset of action that persisted for at least 2.5h. l-theanine also produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and the marble burying assay in naïve mice at doses that did not significantly affect motor behavior. The results of these studies suggest that l-theanine may be useful in the pharmacotherapy of treating opioid withdrawal as well as anxiety-associated behaviors.

  11. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  12. IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Mirijello, Antonio; D’Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop within 6–24 hours after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is represented by benzodiazepines. Among them, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as alpha2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and beta-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptics can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin, and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents will be discussed in the text. PMID:25666543

  13. Estimated Freshwater Withdrawals in Oklahoma, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents 1990 freshwater withdrawal estimates for Oklahoma by source and category. Withdrawal source is either ground water or surface water. Withdrawal categories include: irrigation, water supply, livestock, thermoelectric-power generation, domestic and commercial, and industrial and mining. Withdrawal data are aggregated by county, major aquifer, and principal river basin. Only the four major categories of irrigation, water supply, livestock, and thermoelectric-power generation are illustrated in this report, although data for all categories are tabulated. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established the National Water-Use Information Program in 1977 to collect uniform, current, and reliable information on water use. The Oklahoma District of the USGS and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board participate in a cooperative program to collect and publish water-use information for Oklahoma. Data contained in this report were made available through the cooperative program.

  14. Manual Signing in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Influence of Sign Characteristics on Functional Sign Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; De Meyer, Anne-Marie; Zink, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sign characteristics in a key word signing (KWS) system on the functional use of those signs by adults with intellectual disability (ID). Method: All 507 signs from a Flemish KWS system were characterized in terms of phonological, iconic, and referential characteristics.…

  15. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394

  16. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    During 1990, the amount of water withdrawn from ground- and surface-water sources in Mississippi was about 3,600 Mgal/d (million gallons per day). Of this amount, 91 percent, or 3,300 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from freshwater sources. Of the total freshwater withdrawals, about 82 percent, or 2,700 Mgal/d, was withdrawn from ground-water sources. Total water withdrawals in Mississippi in 1990 for eight categories of use were as follows: irrigation, 1,900 Mgal/d; thermoelectric power, 700 Mgal/d; aquaculture, 400 Mgal/d; public supply, 320 Mgal/d; industrial and mining, 270 Mgal/d; domestic, 33 Mgal/d; commercial, 16 Mgal/d; and livestock, 16 Mgal/d. Overall, total withdrawals increased by 20 percent from 1985 to 1990, although the total population decreased about 2 percent. During the same period, total freshwater withdrawals increased by about 17 percent. Total saline with- drawals increased by about 60 percent from 1985 due to an increase in salin withdrawals for thermo- electric power generation. Total fresh and saline surface-water withdrawals decreased by about 6 percent from 1985, due to decrease in surface-water withdrawals for irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals in Mississippi increased by about 33 percent, primarily due to an increase in irrigation. Since 1960, total ground- and surface-water with- drawals increased 70 percent for the same period. Irrigation had the greatest increase in with- drawals since 1960, with a 269 percent increase. Public supply had the second greatest, with a 178 percent increase.

  17. 5 CFR 1620.22 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...

  18. 5 CFR 1620.22 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...

  19. 5 CFR 1620.22 - Withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subpart can make a post-employment withdrawal election described at 5 U.S.C. 8433(b): (1) Upon separation... section, a post-employment withdrawal election can be made by: (i) A justice or judge of the United States (as defined in 28 U.S.C. 451) who retires under 28 U.S.C. 317(a) or (b) or 372(a); (ii) A...

  20. Vital signs monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Dale A. (Inventor); Sturm, Ronald E. (Inventor); Rinard, George A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system is disclosed for monitoring vital physiological signs. Each of the system components utilizes a single hybrid circuit with each component having high accuracy without the necessity of repeated calibration. The system also has low power requirements, provides a digital display, and is of sufficiently small size to be incorporated into a hand-carried case for portable use. Components of the system may also provide independent outputs making the component useful, of itself, for monitoring one or more vital signs. The overall system preferably includes an ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner unit, an impedance pneumograph and respiration rate signal conditioner unit, a heart/breath rate processor unit, a temperature monitoring unit, a selector switch, a clock unit, and an LCD driver unit and associated LCDs, with the system being capable of being expanded as needed or desired, such as, for example, by addition of a systolic/diastolic blood pressure unit.

  1. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  3. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  5. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of students... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution. Withdrawal of Students (APR 1984) (a) The Government may, at its option and at any time, withdraw any...

  6. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  7. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  8. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  9. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  10. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  11. Patterns of Withdrawal Behaviors. Working Paper 83-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosse, Joseph G.

    Studies of employee tardiness, absence, and turnover generally adhere to one of five models: generalized withdrawal, which proposes positive intercorrelations among withdrawal behaviors; independent forms, which hypothesizes non-significant correlations among withdrawal behaviors; progression of withdrawal, which suggests that individuals engage…

  12. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  13. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.38 Withdrawal for consumption. (a) Form. Withdrawals for consumption of merchandise in bonded warehouses shall... any correction thereof reported after the filing of the warehouse entry. Additionally, on...

  14. 19 CFR 144.31 - Right to withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.31 Right to withdraw. Withdrawals from bonded warehouse may be made only by the person primarily liable for the payment of duties on the merchandise being withdrawn, i.e., the importer of record on the warehouse...

  15. 29 CFR 4207.8 - Liability for subsequent partial withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... immediately preceding the plan year in which the partial withdrawal occurs include a plan year during the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liability for subsequent partial withdrawals. 4207.8... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY §...

  16. 43 CFR 2310.4 - Review and extensions of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....

  17. 43 CFR 2310.4 - Review and extensions of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....

  18. 43 CFR 2310.4 - Review and extensions of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review and extensions of withdrawals. 2310... Withdrawals, General: Procedure § 2310.4 Review and extensions of withdrawals. (a) Discretionary withdrawals... provisions of section 204(c) of the Act (43 U.S.C. 1714(c)), or section 204(d) of the Act (43 U.S.C....

  19. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...

  20. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...

  1. 12 CFR 1263.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 1263.26... BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 1263.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank written notice of...

  2. 12 CFR 925.26 - Voluntary withdrawal from membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary withdrawal from membership. 925.26... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Withdrawal and Removal From Membership § 925.26 Voluntary withdrawal from membership. (a) In general. (1) Any institution may withdraw from membership by providing to the Bank...

  3. The Integral Sign Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith

    2007-07-01

    We will observe the unusual warped disk galaxy known as the Integral Sign Galaxy, UGC 3697, with a small two-position WFPC2 mosaic. Observations will be obtained in three broad band filters and the resulting image will be released on the 19th anniversary of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope on ~April 24, 2009. Multidrizzled mosaics will be made available through the archive.

  4. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  5. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  6. Withdrawing Benzodiazepines in Patients With Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lader, Malcolm; Kyriacou, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The large class of CNS-depressant medications-the benzodiazepines-have been extensively used for over 50 years, anxiety disorders being one of the main indications. A substantial proportion (perhaps up to 20-30 %) of long-term users becomes physically dependent on them. Problems with their use became manifest, and dependence, withdrawal difficulties and abuse were documented by the 1980s. Many such users experience physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms on attempted cessation and may develop clinically troublesome syndromes even during slow tapering. Few studies have been conducted to establish the optimal withdrawal schedules. The usual management comprises slow withdrawal over weeks or months together with psychotherapy of various modalities. Pharmacological aids include antidepressants such as the SSRIs especially if depressive symptoms supervene. Other pharmacological agents such as the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil, and the hormonal agent, melatonin, remain largely experimental. The purpose of this review is to analyse the evidence for the efficacy of the usual withdrawal regimes and the newer agents. It is concluded that little evidence exists outside the usual principles of drug withdrawal but there are some promising leads.

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  8. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  9. Use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S D; Devlin, L A

    2013-04-01

    Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist used primarily as a muscle relaxant to treat spasticity in children and adults. Withdrawal of oral baclofen is known to cause a withdrawal syndrome in adults. Only one previous case describes a withdrawal syndrome in a term infant, manifested by seizures, associated with the use of oral baclofen in the mother. This case describes a withdrawal syndrome and the unique use of baclofen for withdrawal in a preterm infant.

  10. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.

    2009-02-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.

  11. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Tyrone, Martha E.; Mauk, Claude E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech. PMID:20607146

  12. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  13. L-type calcium channels and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II differentially mediate behaviors associated with nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, K J; Damaj, M I

    2009-07-01

    Smoking is a widespread health problem. Because the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is a major contributor to continued smoking and relapse, it is important to understand the molecular and behavioral mechanisms of nicotine withdrawal to generate more effective smoking cessation therapies. Studies suggest a role for calcium-dependent mechanisms, such as L-type calcium channels and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), in the effects of nicotine dependence; however, the role of these mechanisms in nicotine-mediated behaviors is unclear. Thus, the goal of this study was to elucidate the role of L-type calcium channels and CaMKII in nicotine withdrawal behaviors. Using both pharmacological and genetic methods, our results show that L-type calcium channels are involved in physical, but not affective, nicotine withdrawal behaviors. Although our data do provide evidence of a role for CaMKII in nicotine withdrawal behaviors, our pharmacological and genetic assessments yielded different results concerning the specific role of the kinase. Pharmacological data suggest that CaMKII is involved in somatic signs and affective nicotine withdrawal, and activity level is decreased after nicotine withdrawal, whereas the genetic assessments yielded results suggesting that CaMKII is involved only in the anxiety-related response, yet the kinase activity may be increased after nicotine withdrawal; thus, future studies are necessary to clarify the precise behavioral specifics of the relevance of CaMKII in nicotine withdrawal behaviors. Overall, our data show that L-type calcium channels and CaMKII are relevant in nicotine withdrawal and differentially mediate nicotine withdrawal behaviors.

  14. Sign of coma.

    PubMed

    Skjaerlund, J M

    1988-06-15

    The oblique focusing defect of spherical lenses, known as coma, is described by Seidel as the second of five correction terms (third order) to the Gauss theory. The concept is clear for a refracting surface that is free of spherical aberration; however, the impossibility of eliminating spherical aberration from a single lens with spherical surfaces can confuse the understanding of the second aberration, coma. A way of understanding the comatic effect even in the presence of spherical aberration is described. Confusion over the sign of coma, as indicated by mistakes in optics textbooks, is addressed. This paper suggests corrections to some interpretations of coma found in the literature.

  15. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  16. INFINITY construction contract signed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  17. Analysis of the chronic intake of and withdrawal from diazepam on emotional reactivity and sensory information processing in rats.

    PubMed

    De Ross, J; Castilho, V M; Brandão, M L; Nobre, M J

    2008-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that, on abrupt withdrawal, patients with chronic exposure can experience a number of symptoms indicative of a dependent state. In clinical patients, the earliest to arise and most persistent signal of withdrawal from chronic benzodiazepine (Bzp) treatment is anxiety. In laboratory animals, anxiety-like effects following abrupt interruption of chronic Bzp treatment can also be reproduced. In fact, signs that oscillate from irritability to extreme fear behaviours and seizures have been described already. As anxiety remains one of the most important symptoms of Bzp withdrawal, in this study we evaluated the anxiety levels of rats withdrawn from diazepam. Also studied were the effects on the motor performance and preattentive sensory gating process of rats under diazepam chronic treatment and upon 48-h withdrawal on three animal models of anxiety, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and startle+prepulse inhibition tests. Data obtained showed an anxiolytic- and anxiogenic-like profile of the chronic intake of and withdrawal from diazepam regimen in the EPM test, 22-KHz USV and startle reflex. Diazepam chronic effects or its withdrawal were ineffective in promoting any alteration in the prepulse inhibition (PPI). However, an increase of PPI was achieved in both sucrose and diazepam pretreated rats on 48-h withdrawal, suggesting a procedural rather than a specific effect of withdrawal on sensory gating processes. It is also possible that the prepulse can function as a conditioned stimulus to informing the delivery of an aversive event, as the auditory startling-eliciting stimulus. All these findings are indicative of a sensitization of the neural substrates of aversion in diazepam-withdrawn animals without concomitant changes on the processing of sensory information.

  18. Withdrawal From Coparenting Interactions During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Elliston, Donna; McHale, James; Talbot, Jean; Parmley, Meagan; Kuersten-Hogan, Regina

    2009-01-01

    This study examines early withdrawal in the coparenting system, and the utility of a brief problem-solving discussion about coparenting responsibilities as a means for evaluating such withdrawal. One hundred and fifteen couples were evaluated both prenatally and at 3 months postpartum. During prenatal assessments, parents rated their personalities and completed marital assessments. After the baby arrived, they completed a negotiation task in which they discussed disputes about parenting roles and responsibilities, and interacted together with the baby in a triadic play assessment. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was associated with greater disengagement and less warmth during triadic play and with fathers’ feelings that mothers did not respect their parenting. Fathers’ but not mothers’ withdrawal during coparenting negotiations was also forecast by low ego resilience and by an increase in depressive symptomatology during the postpartum. As the negotiation task appeared to be an effective provocateur of withdrawal when confronting coparenting disagreement, it may prove useful for eliciting this aspect of coparental process in work with couples. PMID:19130789

  19. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor.

    PubMed

    Chartoff, Elena H; Carlezon, William A

    2014-09-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress.

  20. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy.

  1. Drug withdrawal conceptualized as a stressor

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Carlezon, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is often conceptualized as an aversive state that motivates drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in humans. Stress is more difficult to define, but is also frequently associated with aversive states. Here we describe evidence for the simple theory that drug withdrawal is a stress-like state, on the basis of common effects on behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular endpoints. We also describe data suggesting a more complex relationship between drug withdrawal and stress. As one example, we will highlight evidence that, depending on drug class, components of withdrawal can produce effects that have characteristics consistent with mood elevation. In addition, some stressors can act as positive reinforcers, defined as having the ability to increase the probability of a behavior that produces it. As such, accumulating evidence supports the general principles of opponent process theory, whereby processes that have an affective valence are followed in time by an opponent process that has the opposite valence. Throughout, we identify gaps in knowledge and propose future directions for research. A better understanding of the similarities, differences, and overlaps between drug withdrawal and stress will lead to the development of improved treatments for addiction, as well as for a vast array of neuropsychiatric conditions that are triggered or exacerbated by stress. PMID:25083570

  2. Quine and the Segregrational Sign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, George

    1999-01-01

    In the context of theory of integrational linguistics, the segregational sign is distinguished from the integrational sign, and the operation of the former is analyzed. Focus is on how logic guides the sign, and how the theory of W. V. Quine accounts for these issues. (MSE)

  3. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  4. Divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Myrick, H; Brady, K T; Malcolm, R

    2000-02-01

    The present study represents an open-label clinical trial comparing treatment with a benzodiazepine (lorazepam) to divalproex in 11 inpatients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The trial used the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) scale. There were no significant differences in demographics or substance use parameters between the divalproex group (n = 6) or the lorazepam group (n = 5). A significant Group x CIWA-Ar score interaction [F(8,72) = 2.57, p < or = .01] was confirmed and further substantiated by a quadratic trend component for the interaction [F(1,9) = 24.9, p < or = .001]. This preliminary study supports further investigation of divalproex in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal.

  5. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  6. Gabapentin for the treatment of ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Voris, John; Smith, Nancy L; Rao, Subba M; Thorne, Diana L; Flowers, Queen J

    2003-06-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the drug of choice for the suppression of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Gabapentin, a drug approved for use as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures, has none of the BZD-type difficulties (drug interactions, abuse potential). We retrospectively report on the use of gabapentin for ethanol withdrawal in 49 patients. Thirty-one patients were treated in the outpatient program and 18 in the general inpatient psychiatric unit. Positive outcomes as evidenced by completion of gabapentin therapy were achieved in 25 out of 31 outpatients and 17 out of 18 inpatients. Statistical significance was reached regarding the positive relationship between prior ethanol use and inpatient "as needed" benzodiazepine use. Both sets of data suggest that gabapentin works well for the mild to moderate alcohol withdrawal patient.

  7. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign.

  8. A DOUBLE BLIND TRIAL OF GABAPENTIN VS. LORAZEPAM IN THE TREATMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Malcolm, Robert; Randall, Patrick K.; Boyle, Elizabeth; Anton, Raymond F.; Becker, Howard C.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Some anticonvulsants ameliorate signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, but have an unacceptable side effect burden. Among the advantages of using anticonvulsant agents in this capacity is their purported lack of interaction with alcohol that could increase psychomotor deficits, increase cognitive impairment, or increase intoxication. The aim of the current study was to evaluate alcohol use and symptom reduction of gabapentin as compared to lorazepam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in a double-blinded randomized clinical trial. Methods One hundred individuals seeking outpatient treatment of alcohol withdrawal with Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar) ratings ≥10 were randomized to double-blind treatment with two doses of gabapentin (900 mg tapering to 600 mg or 1200 tapering to 800 mg) or lorazepam (6 mg tapering to 4 mg) for four days. Severity of alcohol withdrawal was measured by the CIWA-Ar on days 1-4 of treatment and on days 5, 7 and 12 post-treatment and alcohol use monitored by verbal report and breath alcohol levels Results CIWA-Ar scores decreased over time in all groups; high-dose gabapentin was statistically superior but clinically similar to lorazepam (p=0.009). During treatment, lorazepam-treated participants had higher probabilities of drinking on the first day of dose decrease (day 2) and the second day off medication (day 6) as compared to gabapentin-treated participants (p=.0002). Post-treatment, gabapentin-treated participants had less probability of drinking during the follow-up post-treatment period (probability=.2 for 900 mg and probability=.3 for 1200mg) compared to the lorazepam-treated participants (probability=.55). The gabapentin groups also had less craving, anxiety, and sedation compared to lorazepam. Conclusions Gabapentin was well tolerated and effectively diminished the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal in our population especially at the higher target dose (1200mg) used in this

  9. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to iatrogenic methadone withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Saiful, Faisal B; Lafferty, James; Jun, Chin Hee; Teli, Sumaya; Duvvuri, Srinivas; Khattri, Saakshi; Bhat, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome characterized by transient apical ballooning or reversible midventricular systolic dysfunction. Most cases occur in postmenopausal women and are typically triggered by an acute medical illness or emotional or physical stress. Its presentation is highly suggestive of myocardial ischemia, but there is little or no evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease. To our knowledge there are only three reported cases in the literature of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by opioid agonist withdrawal in adults; ours is the first reported case of iatrogenic methadone withdrawal leading to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  10. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  11. Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training.

  12. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/.

  13. 77 FR 26602 - Withdrawal of Notice of Receipt of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Withdrawal of Notice of Receipt of Petition AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice withdrawal. SUMMARY: On April 23, 2012,...

  14. 75 FR 1658 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    .... Valentin, Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 7.5 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal...

  15. 38 CFR 77.7 - Withdrawal of grant application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR ADAPTIVE SPORTS PROGRAMS FOR DISABLED VETERANS AND DISABLED MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES § 77.7 Withdrawal of grant application. An applicant may withdraw its application by submitting...

  16. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the... in the future to consider SMS for other product/service providers. DATES: The advance notice of... July 2012, the FAA has decided not to immediately address SMS for other product/service providers....

  17. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Approval of New Drugs When Human Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to...

  18. 46 CFR 390.9 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified withdrawals. 390.9 Section 390.9 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL..., including a corporate merger, where the party obtains a proprietary interest in an existing vessel and...

  19. 31 CFR 1010.714 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 1010.714 Section 1010.714 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS Administrative Rulings §...

  20. 31 CFR 103.84 - Withdrawing requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawing requests. 103.84 Section 103.84 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.84...

  1. 21 CFR 314.530 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal procedures. 314.530 Section 314.530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG Accelerated Approval of New Drugs...

  2. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  3. 75 FR 22868 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebecca L. Karas... Determination of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion,'' dated March 1997. RG 1.165 provides general...-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion.'' The withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.165 does not alter the...

  4. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors: Integrating Theory and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The article aims to investigate the relationships between different dimensions of organizational ethics and different withdrawal symptoms--lateness, absence, and intent to leave work. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. A joint model of Glimmix procedure of SAS was used for…

  5. Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shainline, Michael

    At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

  6. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the party shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce a direct connection between incurring... withdrawals unless the party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce that no part of..., and with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce and which is for the...

  7. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the party shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce a direct connection between incurring... withdrawals unless the party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce that no part of..., and with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce and which is for the...

  8. 26 CFR 3.5 - Qualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the party shows to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce a direct connection between incurring... withdrawals unless the party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Commerce that no part of..., and with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce and which is for the...

  9. Helping Individuals Withdraw from Psychiatric Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Many counselors, psychologists, and social workers assist clients to take psychotropic drugs but recoil from helping clients to rethink drug use or stop taking drugs. They might fear resisting the prevailing ideology, violating "standards of care," or contradicting physicians' advice. This article discusses withdrawal emergent reactions from…

  10. Stop Sign Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With its rim eroded off by catastrophic floods in Tiu Vallis and its strangely angular shape, this 12 km diameter crater looks vaguely like a stop sign.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 329.2 East (30.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  11. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  12. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  13. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  14. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  15. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  16. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  17. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible...

  18. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  19. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government employment is eligible...

  20. 5 CFR 1650.31 - Age-based withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age-based withdrawals. 1650.31 Section... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.31 Age-based withdrawals. (a) A participant who has reached age 591/2 and who has not separated from Government service is eligible...

  1. 17 CFR 49.4 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal from registration... REPOSITORIES § 49.4 Withdrawal from registration. (a)(1) A registered swap data repository may withdraw its registration by giving notice in writing to the Commission requesting that its registration as a swap...

  2. 12 CFR 341.5 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from registration. 341.5 Section 341... POLICY REGISTRATION OF SECURITIES TRANSFER AGENTS § 341.5 Withdrawal from registration. (a) Notice of withdrawal from registration. Any transfer agent registered under this part that ceases to engage in...

  3. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors and Their Relationship with Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdemli, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Situation: People experience ups and downs in their job satisfaction and motivation levels at different points of their work lives for various reasons. One of the outputs of low job satisfaction and motivation is defined as "withdrawal behaviors" in the literature. Withdrawal behaviors are any employee behavior of withdrawal from…

  4. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  5. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVE PETITIONS General Provisions § 171.7 Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a.... This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing. Upon refiling, the time limitation...

  6. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  7. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  8. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  9. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  10. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  11. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  12. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  13. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien... Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status...

  14. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien... Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status...

  15. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien... Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status...

  16. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien... Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status...

  17. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien... Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status...

  18. 29 CFR 4207.6 - Partial withdrawals after reentry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF COMPLETE WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4207.6 Partial... for a partial withdrawal occurring upon the employer's reentry before the plan sponsor has determined.... The plan sponsor shall determine whether there is a partial withdrawal described in section...

  19. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  20. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  1. 27 CFR 19.424 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.424 Section 19.424 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawals Spirits Withdrawn Free of Tax § 19.424 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. A proprietor may withdraw spirits from bonded premises free of tax as provided in this chapter: (a) Upon receipt of a...

  2. 8 CFR 235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of application for admission. 235.4 Section 235.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS... right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission to withdraw an application...

  3. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  4. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  5. 46 CFR 391.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., changes in partnerships, and transfers by reason of death), any withdrawal from a fund which is not a... is to be paid at the rate of interest determined for the year of withdrawal under paragraph (e)(2) of... qualified withdrawals described in § 391.6(e), the applicable rate of interest for any...

  6. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  7. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  8. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  9. Dynamics of Lip Dyskinesia Associated with Neuroleptic Withdrawal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.; Bodfish, James W.; Mahorney, Steven L.; Sprague, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    The lip movements associated with dyskinesia in six adults with mental retardation were investigated through analysis at medication baseline, at the highest level of withdrawal dyskinesia, and at the lowest level of dyskinesia following medication withdrawal. Lip oscillations following withdrawal were linked to changes in structural complexity of…

  10. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  11. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  12. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  13. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  14. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can you withdraw your application? 408.355 Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your...

  15. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  16. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  17. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  18. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... Unit Opt-ins § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw... 90 days prior to the requested effective date of withdrawal. (b) Conditions for withdrawal. Before...

  19. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... Unit Opt-ins § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw... 90 days prior to the requested effective date of withdrawal. (b) Conditions for withdrawal. Before...

  20. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... Unit Opt-ins § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To withdraw... 90 days prior to the requested effective date of withdrawal. (b) Conditions for withdrawal. Before...

  1. 29 CFR 4206.3 - Credit against liability for a subsequent withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS ADJUSTMENT OF LIABILITY FOR A WITHDRAWAL SUBSEQUENT TO A PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL § 4206.3 Credit against liability for a subsequent withdrawal. Whenever an employer that was assessed withdrawal liability for a partial withdrawal from a plan partially...

  2. Symmetry in Sign Language Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Kaneko, Michiko

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the range of ways that sign languages use geometric symmetry temporally and spatially to create poetic effect. Poets use this symmetry in sign language art to highlight duality and thematic contrast, and to create symbolic representations of beauty, order and harmony. (Contains 8 tables, 14 figures and 6 notes.)

  3. NUHOMS{reg_sign} update

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, N.

    1995-12-31

    NUHOMS{reg_sign} is the dry spent fuel storage and transportation technology selected to date by the majority of commercial nuclear utilities. The author first gives a system overview of the NUHOMS{reg_sign}. Next she discusses the project status and licensing status. She closes with an update of the multi-purpose canister.

  4. The Typology of Literary Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Robert M.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness for literary studies of some of Pierce's key terms and concepts: icon, index, symbol, image, and diagram. Argues that Pierce's description of signs may be usefully applied to literary signs and particularly to the problem of symbolism. Charts. (RB)

  5. Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Walter P.; McGregor, Tony L.

    This paper describes the use of Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language (KPISL) in one small, Keresan-speaking pueblo in central New Mexico, where 15 out of 650 tribal members have severe to profound hearing loss (twice the national average). KPISL did not originate for the same purposes as the Plains Indian Sign Language, (PISL) which was developed…

  6. Signing Apes and Evolving Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    Linguistics retains from its antecedents, philology and the study of sacred writings, some of their apologetic and theological bias. Thus it has not been able to face squarely the question how linguistic function may have evolved from animal communication. Chimpanzees' use of signs from American Sign Language forces re-examination of language…

  7. Speech Cues and Sign Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Ignatius G.

    Parallels between sign stimuli and speech cues suggest some interesting speculations about the origins of language. Speech cues may belong to the class of human sign stimuli which, as in animal behavior, may be the product of an innate releasing mechanism. Prelinguistic speech for man may have functioned as a social-releaser system. Human language…

  8. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Signing Statements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 9, 2009 Presidential Signing Statements Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For nearly two centuries, Presidents have issued statements addressing constitutional or...

  9. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  10. Activation Cascading in Sign Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Peressotti, Francesca; Lerose, Luigi; Miozzo, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how activation unfolds in sign production by examining whether signs that are not produced have their representations activated by semantics (cascading of activation). Deaf signers were tested with a picture-picture interference task. Participants were presented with pairs of overlapping pictures and named the green…

  11. Mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin self-administration: pharmacologic modulation of heroin vs food choice in heroin-dependent rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Negus, S Stevens; Rice, Kenner C

    2009-03-01

    Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-h heroin self-administration sessions. One hour after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys chose between heroin (0-0.1 mg/kg per injection) and food (1 g pellets) during 2-h choice sessions. Under these conditions, heroin maintained a dose-dependent increase in heroin choice, such that monkeys responded primarily for food when low heroin doses were available (0-0.01 mg/kg per injection) and primarily for heroin when higher heroin doses were available (0.032-0.1 mg/kg per injection). Periods of spontaneous withdrawal were intermittently introduced by omitting one 21-h heroin self-administration session, and test drugs were administered during these withdrawal periods. Untreated withdrawal robustly increased heroin choice during choice sessions. Withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice were completely suppressed by the mu opioid agonist morphine (0.032-0.32 mg/kg/h, i.v.), but not by the alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist clonidine (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/h, i.v.), the dopamine/norepinephrine releaser amphetamine (0.032-0.1 mg/kg/h, i.v.), or the kappa-opioid antagonist 5'-guanidinonaltrindole (1.0 mg/kg, i.m.). The corticotropin-releasing factor 1 antagonist antalarmin (1.0-10 mg/kg per day, i.m.) produced a morphine-like suppression of withdrawal-associated increases in heroin choice in one of three monkeys. These results suggest that mechanisms of withdrawal-associated increases in the relative reinforcing efficacy of opioid agonists may be different from mechanisms of many other somatic, mood-related, and motivational signs of opioid withdrawal.

  12. Gabapentin withdrawal presenting as status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Barrueto, Fermin; Green, Jonah; Howland, Mary Ann; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old male with lumbar disc disease and surgery was placed on gabapentin daily for chronic back pain. He remained on a steady dose of 8000 mg/day for 9 months, almost doubled what is considered therapeutic. He ran out of medication, was unable to refill his prescription for 2 days and presented to the emergency department in status epilepticus. There was no previous history of seizure disorder and he was on no other medications. A medical evaluation for an alternative etiology of his seizures was negative. Although gabapentin withdrawal has been previously reported and usually consists of anxiety, diaphoresis, and palpitations, this is the first reported patient with generalized seizures and status epilepticus secondary to gabapentin withdrawal.

  13. Identification and management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) may develop within 6-24 h after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for AWS is with benzodiazepines (BZDs). Among the BZDs, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed-dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as α2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and β-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptic agents can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for AWS have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents are discussed.

  14. Ground-water-withdrawal component of the Michigan water-withdrawal screening tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  15. [Hemiplegia with two Babinski's sign].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Montoya, María C; Camacho, John E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Neurological signs and symptoms are very important to establish a correct neurological diagnosis. We present here a Colombian female patient, 60 years-old, who had ischaemic stroke in the left cerebral media artery. It produced right hemiplegia, motor aphasia, "central" facial palsy and atrophy of right platysma muscle. This latter finding, described originally by Joseph Babinski as "The Babinski Sign" was observed only two years and seven months after the ictus even when she had, previously, been evaluated by several neurologists. The underdiagnosis of clinical signs like the one described here may lead to erroneous diagnosis that will, ultimately, affect neurorehabilitation measures.

  16. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  17. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Bilir, Erhan; Erdem, Atilla; Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kurt, G Semiha; Serdaroglu, Ayse

    2005-05-01

    Neurologists have been analyzing the clinical behaviors that occur during seizures for many years. Several ictal behaviors have been defined in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal behaviors are especially important in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates. We propose a new lateralizing sign in TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere-the "hush" sign. Our patients were 30- and 21-year old women (Cases 1 and 2, respectively). Their epileptogenic foci were localized to the right mesial temporal region after noninvasive presurgical investigations. Case 1 had no cranial MRI abnormality, whereas cranial MRI revealed right hippocampal atrophy in Case 2. These women repeatedly moved their right index fingers to their mouth while puckering their lips during complex partial seizures. We have named this ictal behavior the "hush" sign. Anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in both patients, and pathological examinations revealed hippocampal sclerosis. The "hush" sign no longer occurred after seizures were controlled. They were seizure free as of 30 and 31 months of follow-up, respectively. We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere.

  18. Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghannadi, A; Hajhashemi, V; Abrishami, R

    2012-07-01

    Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25-30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30-90 mg/kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P<0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P<0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions.

  19. Sex differences in acute ethanol withdrawal severity after adrenalectomy and gonadectomy in Withdrawal Seizure-Prone and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant mice.

    PubMed

    Strong, Moriah N; Kaufman, Katherine R; Crabbe, John C; Finn, Deborah A

    2009-08-01

    Recent findings suggest that the ability of ethanol (EtOH) to increase the levels of neurosteroids with potent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic properties can influence measures of EtOH sensitivity. Earlier studies determined that removal of the adrenals and gonads diminished the steroidogenic effect of EtOH and significantly increased acute EtOH withdrawal severity in two inbred mouse strains that differed in withdrawal severity, suggesting the contribution of anticonvulsant GABAergic steroids to acute withdrawal in intact animals. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate the consequence of steroid removal on acute EtOH withdrawal through excision of the adrenals and gonads, in another genetic animal model of EtOH withdrawal differences, the Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) and Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) selected lines. Male and female WSP and WSR mice underwent surgical removal of the adrenals and gonads or no organ removal (SHAM). One to 2 weeks later, baseline handling-induced convulsions (HICs) were assessed, mice were given a 4 g/kg dose of EtOH, and HICs were measured hourly for 12 h and then at 24 h. The combination surgery significantly increased EtOH withdrawal in WSP and WSR female mice, as measured by area under the curve (AUC) and peak HIC scores. The AUC was significantly positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels and significantly negatively correlated with progesterone levels. In contrast, surgical status did not alter withdrawal severity in male WSP and WSR mice. Overall, the increase in acute EtOH withdrawal severity in female WSP and WSR mice after adrenalectomy and gonadectomy corroborate our recent evidence that withdrawal from a high dose of EtOH can be modulated by anticonvulsant steroids produced in the periphery.

  20. Combined Treatment with Morphine and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Rhesus Monkeys: Antinociceptive Tolerance and Withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Gerak, L R; France, C P

    2016-05-01

    Opioid receptor agonists are effective for treating pain; however, tolerance and dependence can develop with repeated use. Combining opioids with cannabinoids can enhance their analgesic potency, although it is less clear whether combined treatment alters opioid tolerance and dependence. In this study, four monkeys received 3.2 mg/kg morphine alone or in combination with 1 mg/kg Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) twice daily; the antinociceptive effects (warm water tail withdrawal) of morphine, the cannabinoid receptor agonists WIN 55,212 [(R)-(1)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate] and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol), and the κ opioid receptor agonist U-50,488 (trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl]benzenacetamide methanesulfonate) were examined before, during, and after treatment. To determine whether concurrent THC treatment altered morphine dependence, behavioral signs indicative of withdrawal were monitored when treatment was discontinued. Before treatment, each drug increased tail withdrawal latency to 20 seconds (maximum possible effect). During treatment, latencies did not reach 20 seconds for morphine or the cannabinoids up to doses 3- to 10-fold larger than those that were fully effective before treatment. Rightward and downward shifts in antinociceptive dose-effect curves were greater for monkeys receiving the morphine/THC combination than monkeys receiving morphine alone. When treatment was discontinued, heart rate and directly observable withdrawal signs increased, although they were generally similar in monkeys that received morphine alone or with THC. These results demonstrated that antinociceptive tolerance was greater during treatment with the combination, and although treatment conditions were sufficient to result in the development of dependence on morphine, withdrawal was not

  1. Dysregulation of kappa-opioid receptor systems by chronic nicotine modulate the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in an age-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Tejeda, Hugo A.; Natividad, Luis A.; Orfila, James E.; Torres, Oscar V.; O’Dell, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The mechanisms that mediate age differences during nicotine withdrawal are unclear. Objective This study compared kappa opioid receptor (KOR) activation in naïve and nicotine-treated adolescent and adult rats using behavioral and neurochemical approaches to study withdrawal. Methods The behavioral models used to assess withdrawal included conditioned place and elevated plus maze procedures. Deficits in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) were examined using microdialysis procedures. Lastly, the effects of KOR stimulation and blockade on physical signs produced upon removal of nicotine were examined in adults. Results Nicotine-treated adults displayed a robust aversion to an environment paired with a KOR agonist versus naïve adults. Neither of the adolescent groups displayed a place aversion. KOR activation produced an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was highest in nicotine-treated adults versus all other groups. KOR activation produced a decrease in NAcc dopamine that was largest in nicotine-treated adults versus all other groups. Lastly, KOR activation facilitated physical signs of upon removal of nicotine and KOR blockade reduced this effect. Conclusion Chronic nicotine enhanced the affective, anxiogenic, and neurochemical effects produced by KOR activation in adult rats. Our data suggest that chronic nicotine elicits an increase in KOR function, and this may contribute to nicotine withdrawal since KOR activation facilitated and KOR blockade prevented withdrawal signs upon removal of nicotine. Given that chronic nicotine facilitated the neurochemical effects of KOR agonists in adults but not adolescents, it is suggested that KOR regulation of mesolimbic dopamine may contribute to age differences in nicotine withdrawal. PMID:22659976

  2. Warning Signs of Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents and Fellows Medical Students International close menu Psychiatrists Education Practice Cultural Competency Awards & Leadership Opportunities Advocacy & APAPAC Meetings ...

  3. Signs and Symptoms of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serology Publications and Resources Multimedia MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Signs & Symptoms of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  4. Aging changes in vital signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004019.htm Aging changes in vital signs To use the sharing ... Normal body temperature does not change much with aging. But as you get older, it becomes harder ...

  5. Sign Language Versus Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokoe, William C.

    1978-01-01

    In the debate over continuities versus discontinuities in the emergence of language, sign language is not taken to be the antithesis, but is presented as the antecedent of spoken languages. (Author/HP)

  6. Diagnosing Dementia--Positive Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  7. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Patrick; Garfinkel, Doron; Laudon, Moshe; Nir, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM) 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation. Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment. Methods Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary), adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]). Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM. Results Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as “good” or “very good” was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production. Conclusion Results support the efficacy and safety of PRM in primary insomnia patients aged 20–80 throughout 6–12 months of continuous therapy. PRM discontinuation even after 12 months was not associated with adverse events, withdrawal symptoms, or suppression of endogenous melatonin production. PMID:21845053

  8. Drug withdrawal convulsions and susceptibility to convulsants after short-term selective breeding for acute ethanol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Metten, P; Belknap, J K; Crabbe, J C

    1998-09-01

    High Alcohol Withdrawal (HAW) and Low Alcohol Withdrawal (LAW) mice were selectively bred from a foundation population of C57BL6/J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) F2 intercross progeny for display of intense or mild handling-induced withdrawal convulsions, respectively, following a single injection of a hypnotic dose of ethanol (alcohol; 4 g/kg). The HAW line had significantly greater alcohol withdrawal severity scores compared to the LAW line after only a single generation of selection; the magnitude of the line difference was 8-fold by the fourth selected generation. We tested these lines for severity of withdrawal convulsions following the benzodiazepine, diazepam; the gaseous anesthetic, nitrous oxide; the imidazopyridine, zolpidem and the barbiturate, pentobarbital. In all cases, HAW mice had significantly greater withdrawal severity than mice of the LAW line. These results indicate that some genes influencing withdrawal convulsion severity following ethanol also affect withdrawal from other CNS depressants. D2 mice are more sensitive to a variety of convulsants than B6 mice (and have more severe withdrawal convulsions). We, therefore, tested separate groups of mice of both selectively bred lines for threshold sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA). No line differences were detected. These results indicate that genes influencing severity of withdrawal from several depressant drugs are largely different from those affecting susceptibility to GABAergic or glutamatergic convulsants.

  9. Repeated dosing with oral cocaine in humans: assessment of direct effects, withdrawal, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sharon L; Stoops, William W; Moody, David E; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E

    2009-08-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n = 9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses; 875 mg/day) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) two to threefold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects (liking, high, good effects) and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours.

  10. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  11. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  12. Dextromethorphan psychosis, dependence and physical withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon C

    2005-12-01

    As part of a synthesis of evidence regarding the abuse and addiction liability of dextromethorphan (DM), an over-the-counter cough medicine available in over 140 preparations, an uncommonly published case of dextromethorphan dependence (addiction) is described, with specific, rarely published complications. The individual was interviewed and several medical databases were also reviewed (Medline, 1966-present; PubMed) for all content relating to the Keywords: dextromethorphan, abuse, dependence, cough medicine, addiction, withdrawal, psychosis. The patient evidenced history suggesting substance dependence, substance-induced psychosis and substance withdrawal in relation to DM. A literature review revealed that DM has specific serotonergic and sigma-1 opioidergic properties. Dextrorphan (DOR), the active metabolite of DM, has similar properties; however, DOR is a weaker sigma opioid receptor agonist, and a stronger NMDA receptor antagonist. DM and DOR display specific biological features of addiction, and are capable of inducing specific psychiatric sequelae. A specific, reproducible toxidrome with significant psychiatric effects occurred, when DM was abused at greater than indicated doses, with more profound and potentially life-threatening effects at even higher doses. DM withdrawal appears evident. DM's active metabolite, DOR, has pharmacodynamic properties and intoxication effects similar to dissociatives, and may be more responsible for the dissociative effect that this DM abuser sought. However, it is this same metabolite that may be fraught with the potentially life-threatening psychoses and dissociative-induced accidents, as well as addiction. While DM has been hypothesized as the most commonly abused dissociative, health-care providers seem largely unaware of its toxidrome and addiction liability.

  13. Nucleus Accumbens AMPA Receptors Are Necessary for Morphine-Withdrawal-Induced Negative-Affective States in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Shayla E.; Puttick, Daniel J.; Sawyer, Allison M.; Potter, David N.; Mague, Stephen; Carlezon, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Dependence is a hallmark feature of opiate addiction and is defined by the emergence of somatic and affective withdrawal signs. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to mediate rewarding and aversive properties of opiates. Evidence suggests that AMPA glutamate-receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity within the NAc underlies aspects of addiction. However, the degree to which NAc AMPA receptors (AMPARs) contribute to somatic and affective signs of opiate withdrawal is not fully understood. Here, we show that microinjection of the AMPAR antagonist NBQX into the NAc shell of morphine-dependent rats prevented naloxone-induced conditioned place aversions and decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward, but had no effect on somatic withdrawal signs. Using a protein cross-linking approach, we found that the surface/intracellular ratio of NAc GluA1, but not GluA2, increased with morphine treatment, suggesting postsynaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Consistent with this, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine trihydrochloride (NASPM), an antagonist of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, attenuated naloxone-induced decreases in sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. Naloxone decreased the surface/intracellular ratio and synaptosomal membrane levels of NAc GluA1 in morphine-dependent rats, suggesting a compensatory removal of AMPARs from synaptic zones. Together, these findings indicate that chronic morphine increases synaptic availability of GluA1-containing AMPARs in the NAc, which is necessary for triggering negative-affective states in response to naloxone. This is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that activation of NAc neurons produces acute aversive states and raises the possibility that inhibiting AMPA transmission selectively in the NAc may have therapeutic value in the treatment of addiction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Morphine dependence and withdrawal result in profound negative-affective states that play a major role in the

  14. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit.

  15. Spontaneous reduction of prolactinoma post cabergoline withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sampath Kumar; Kothari, Deepak; Manchanda, Smita; Taneja, Anil; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2012-01-01

    Prolactinomas are common pituitary tumors usually highly responsive to dopamine agonists. Around 70-90% of the prolactinomas exhibit decrease in tumor size, though variably with these agents. Uncommonly, there may be little or no shrinkage in pituitary tumor. In the absence of medical therapy, pituitary apoplexy may also result in tumor shrinkage, albeit rarely. We report here a case showing only modest reduction in prolactinoma with cabergoline given for a period of one and a half years. Surprisingly, this tumor showed a 40% reduction in the tumor size 3 months after cabergoline withdrawal in the absence of clinical or radiological evidence of apoplexy. PMID:23087877

  16. Tracheal allotransplantation after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Delaere, Pierre; Vranckx, Jan; Verleden, Geert; De Leyn, Paul; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2010-01-14

    Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects requires a vascularized allograft. We report successful tracheal allotransplantation after indirect revascularization of the graft in a heterotopic position. Immunosuppressive therapy was administered before the operation, and the tracheal allograft was wrapped in the recipient's forearm fascia. Once revascularization was achieved, the mucosal lining was replaced progressively with buccal mucosa from the recipient. At 4 months, the tracheal chimera was fully lined with mucosa, which consisted of respiratory epithelium from the donor and buccal mucosa from the recipient. After withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy, the tracheal allograft was moved to its correct anatomical position with an intact blood supply. No treatment-limiting adverse effects occurred.

  17. [Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a novel beta-adrenergic blocker withdrawal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tomcsányi, János; Jávor, Kinga; Arabadzisz, Hrisula; Zsoldos, András; Wagner, Vince; Sármán, Balázs

    2013-02-17

    The authors describe two cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy developing after an abrupt withdrawal of carvedilol and bisoprolol. Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute and reversible cardiac dysfunction without coronary artery disease. It is triggered by acute emotional or physical stress, drugs or drug withdrawal. The immediate discontinuation of the long acting vasodilator beta-blocker, carvedilol has not yet been described to cause takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The authors recommend cautious withdrawal of beta-blockers.

  18. The interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Brian R; Dickenson, Janna A; Atkins, David C; Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f₀) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f₀ in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f₀. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages.

  19. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Constructive deposits and withdrawals... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Constructive deposits and withdrawals... year for which Interim CCF Agreement is effective. 259.33 Section 259.33 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... “Period (cc)”. (b) Constructive deposits and withdrawals (before Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness date..., before the end of Period (cc). If, however, the Secretary receives the completed application in proper... the consent given before the end of Period (bb) or Period (cc), whichever applies, then the burden...

  2. What Are the Signs of Alzheimer's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contents It's important to know the signs of Alzheimer's disease. If you know the signs, you can get help right away. Some signs of the disease are listed here: Diagnosis Doctors now have several methods and tools to ...

  3. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming.

  4. Effect of the selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist JDTic on nicotine antinociception, reward, and withdrawal in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, K. J.; Negus, S. S.; Damaj, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Several lines of evidence support a role for the endogenous opioid system in mediating behaviors associated with drug dependence. Specifically, recent findings suggest that the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) may play a role in aspects of nicotine dependence, which contribute to relapse and continued tobacco smoking. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the involvement of the KOR in the initial behavioral responses of nicotine, nicotine reward, and nicotine withdrawal using the highly selective KOR antagonist JDTic. JDTic doses of 1, 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg were administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 18 h prior to nicotine treatment. Results JDTic dose-dependently blocked acute nicotine-induced antinociception in the tail-flick but not the hot-plate test and did not significantly attenuate morphine’s antinociceptive effect in either the tail-flick or hot-plate test. Furthermore, JDTic (8 and 16 mg/kg, s.c.) failed to block the expression of nicotine reward as measured by the conditioned place preference model. In contrast, JDTic and the KOR antagonist norBNI attenuated the expression of both the physical (somatic signs and hyperalgesia) and affective (anxiety-related behavior and conditioned place aversion) nicotine withdrawal signs. Conclusions Our findings clearly show that the KOR is involved in mediating the withdrawal aspects of nicotine dependence. The results from this study suggest that blockade of the KOR by selective KOR antagonists may be useful smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:20232057

  5. Extended access to nicotine self-administration leads to dependence: Circadian measures, withdrawal measures, and extinction behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Laura E; Chen, Scott A; Smith, Ron T; Specio, Sheila E; Balster, Robert L; Paterson, Neil E; Markou, Athina; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2007-01-01

    The present study characterized nicotine intake, circadian patterns of food and water intake, precipitated somatic signs of withdrawal, and extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats with 23-h access to intravenous self-administration (IVSA). Separate groups of animals were allowed access to nicotine IVSA (0.015, n = 9; 0.03, n = 14; 0.06, n = 16; mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion/s; fixed ratio 1) and trained to nosepoke for food and water 23 h/day for 40 consecutive days. Somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were examined following saline or mecamylamine administration (1.5 mg/kg i.p.), and extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior was assessed. A dose-dependent decrease in lever responding and an increase in nicotine intake were observed, with the highest nicotine dose producing the lowest amount of lever responding and the highest amount of nicotine intake. Nicotine acutely reduced diurnal and nocturnal food intake, producing smaller and fewer meals, and an increased rate of eating. Differences in rate of nicotine intake between the light and dark phase decreased significantly, especially in rats receiving higher unit nicotine doses (0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg), along with long-term decreases in the circadian profile and amplitude of feeding. Mecamylamine precipitated robust withdrawal signs, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with the total amount of self-administered nicotine. Extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior was observed and was facilitated by removal of nicotine-associated cues. The results demonstrate that rats will self-administer nicotine to the point of producing dependence, as measured by somatic signs, resistance to extinction, and measures of food intake.

  6. Withdrawal and bidirectional cross-withdrawal responses in rats treated with adenosine agonists and morphine.

    PubMed

    Coupar, I M; Tran, B L

    2001-07-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the A1/A2 receptor agonist, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), and the selective A1 agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), induced physical dependence by quantifying specific antagonist-precipitated withdrawal syndromes in conscious rats. In addition, the presence of bidirectional cross-withdrawal was also investigated. The agonists were administered s.c. to groups of rats at 12 h intervals. Antagonists were administered s.c., 12 hours after the last dose, followed by observation and measurement of faecal output for 20 min. NECA (4 x 0.03 mg kg(-1), s.c) and CPA (4 x 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) induced physical dependence, as shown by the expression of a significant withdrawal syndrome when challenged with the adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and the A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPDPX, 0.1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) respectively. The syndromes consisted of teeth chattering and shaking behaviours shown to occur in morphine-dependent animals withdrawn with naloxone viz, paw, body and 'wet-dog' shakes, but with the additional behaviours of head shaking and yawning. In further contrast to the opiate withdrawal syndrome, no diarrhoea occurred in the groups of animals treated with adenosine agonists and withdrawn with their respective antagonists. Bidirectional cross-withdrawal syndromes were also revealed when naloxone (3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) was administered to adenosine agonist pre-treated rats and adenosine antagonists were given to morphine pre-treated rats. This study provides further information illustrating that close links exist between the adenosine and opiate systems.

  7. 5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withdrawal. 1650.24 Section 1650.24 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To request a post-employment withdrawal,...

  8. 5 CFR 1650.42 - How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withdrawal. 1650.42 Section 1650.42 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.42 How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal. (a) To request a financial hardship withdrawal,...

  9. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To... than 90 days prior to the requested effective date of withdrawal. (b) Conditions for withdrawal....

  10. 5 CFR 1650.24 - How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... withdrawal. 1650.24 Section 1650.24 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.24 How to obtain a post-employment withdrawal. To request a post-employment withdrawal,...

  11. 5 CFR 1650.42 - How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... withdrawal. 1650.42 Section 1650.42 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Procedures for In-Service Withdrawals § 1650.42 How to obtain a financial hardship withdrawal. (a) To request a financial hardship withdrawal,...

  12. 29 CFR 4208.8 - Multiple partial withdrawals in one plan year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple partial withdrawals in one plan year. 4208.8... WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS REDUCTION OR WAIVER OF PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY § 4208.8 Multiple partial withdrawals in one plan year. (a) General rule. If an employer partially withdraws...

  13. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  14. Ivy Sign in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Saglam, Muzaffer; Yildiz, Bulent; Anagnostakou, Vania; Kizilkilic, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the progressive stenosis and collateral development of the distal internal carotid arteries. In this disease, several collateral vascular structures develop following stenosis and occlusion. The ivy sign is a characteristic Magnetic rezonance imaging (MRI) finding frequently encountered in patients with moyamoya. It can be observed both in post contrast T1-weighted images and Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. While this sign manifests in the form of contrasting on the cortical surfaces due to the formation of leptomeningeal collateral development and increased numbers of pial vascular webs on post contrast images, in FLAIR images it originates from the slow arterial flow in the leptomeningeal collateral vascular structures. In this case, we presented the Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) signs of moyamoya disease and “ivy sign” in MRI and its development mechanism in a 16 years old female patient. PMID:27026766

  15. Opioid craving and seeking behavior in physically dependent volunteers: effects of acute withdrawal and drug reinforcement opportunity.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Mark K

    2005-02-01

    This study examined whether acute opioid withdrawal and drug reinforcement opportunity increase opioid craving and seeking behavior. The author used a 3 x 2 within-subject randomized crossover design to assess craving and operant behavioral effects of 3 pretreatments (naloxone 0.1 mg/70 kg, fentanyl 0.75 mg/70 kg, or saline iv) and drug or money reinforcement opportunity in 8 methadone-maintained volunteers. Each pretreatment was paired with response-contingent (15 x fixed-ratio 100) delivery of drug (fentanyl 1.5 mg/70 kg iv) and money (rated equivalent of fentanyl) in different sessions. Naloxone significantly increased opioid craving, withdrawal signs, and symptoms, but not operant behavior, relative to saline and fentanyl pretreatment. However, drug versus money reinforcement opportunity did not significantly increase opioid craving or seeking behavior.

  16. Sign Language Interpreter Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) in order to evaluate the need for a proposed Sign Language Interpreter program. OCC's study focused on validating and updating findings from a similar research project begun in fall 1989 by Macomb Community College (MCC) in Warren, Michigan. Federal and state legislation, data from…

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: ...

  18. NEW APPROACHES: Questions of sign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunt, G.

    1998-07-01

    Positive and negative signs are frequently misapplied. In textbooks, the subject of their correct use is often ignored. This might not be because the subject is trivial. Misuse in those same books suggests it might be because authors are unaware of some basic rules.

  19. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 By themselves, any one ... faster. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  20. The Sociolinguistics of Sign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ceil, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

  1. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  2. 7 CFR 62.203 - How to withdraw service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions Service § 62.203 How to withdraw service. Service may be withdrawn by the applicant at any time... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to withdraw service. 62.203 Section 62.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  7. 40 CFR 63.96 - Review and withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review and withdrawal of approval. 63.96 Section 63.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions. (ii) Upon withdrawal, the State...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  10. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  11. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  12. 8 CFR 1003.4 - Withdrawal of appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of appeal. 1003.4 Section 1003.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Board of Immigration Appeals § 1003.4 Withdrawal of appeal. In...

  13. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards & Technology at any time. Such action will be taken if, after consultation with the Standing... determines that the requested standard or standards shall be withdrawn, the stay will remain in effect, if an... the Federal Register and such withdrawal will take effect 60 days from the date the withdrawal...

  14. 24 CFR 13.3 - Withdrawal of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of data. 13.3 Section 13.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development USE OF PENALTY MAIL IN THE LOCATION AND RECOVERY OF MISSING CHILDREN § 13.3 Withdrawal of data....

  15. 39 CFR 955.27 - Withdrawal of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of attorney. 955.27 Section 955.27 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE BEFORE THE POSTAL SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.27 Withdrawal of attorney. Any attorney for either party who has filed...

  16. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.23 Standards for water withdrawals. (a) The project sponsors of...

  17. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Standards for Review and Approval § 806.23 Standards for water withdrawals. (a) The project sponsors of...

  18. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 29 CFR 528.5 - Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RETAIL OR SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS AT SPECIAL MINIMUM WAGE RATES § 528.5 Proceedings for withdrawal or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proceedings for withdrawal or annulment. 528.5 Section 528.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 27 CFR 13.22 - Withdrawal of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications. 13.22 Section 13.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING PROCEEDINGS Applications § 13.22 Withdrawal of applications....

  4. 27 CFR 13.22 - Withdrawal of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications. 13.22 Section 13.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... label approval, or distinctive liquor bottle approval, may withdraw such application at any time...

  5. 27 CFR 13.22 - Withdrawal of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications. 13.22 Section 13.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... label approval, or distinctive liquor bottle approval, may withdraw such application at any time...

  6. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  7. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  8. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  9. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  10. 39 CFR 233.4 - Withdrawal of mail privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of mail privileges. 233.4 Section 233.4... § 233.4 Withdrawal of mail privileges. (a) False representation and lottery orders—(1) Issuance... evidentiary basis, may issue a mail-stop order against anyone seeking mailed remittance of money or...

  11. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.378 Withdrawing a request. The...

  12. 42 CFR 411.378 - Withdrawing a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Withdrawing a request. 411.378 Section 411.378 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.378 Withdrawing a request. The...

  13. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  14. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  15. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  16. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future...

  17. 20 CFR 726.108 - Withdrawal of negotiable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.108 Withdrawal of negotiable securities. No withdrawal of negotiable securities deposited by a self-insurer, shall be made except upon authorization by the Office. A self-insurer discontinuing business, or discontinuing operations within the purview...

  18. 75 FR 60113 - Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Science Policy; Notice of Withdrawal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA announces the withdrawal of the pesticide science policy document ``Use of... pesticides, the Agency uses a variety of data and different models. This science policy document...

  19. Conceptions of Aggression and Withdrawal in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Jessica W.; Heyman, Gail D.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigate young children's beliefs about aggression and withdrawal in others with reference to the possibility of stability and change. Study 1 (N = 41) provides evidence that preschool children (1) view aggression in more essentialist ways (i.e. they believe it to be more stable and less changeable) than withdrawal and (2) believe…

  20. 20 CFR 416.1555 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawing charges against a representative. 416.1555 Section 416.1555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1555 Withdrawing charges...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1755 - Withdrawing charges against a representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawing charges against a representative. 404.1755 Section 404.1755 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1755 Withdrawing charges...

  2. 20 CFR 410.690 - Withdrawal of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of charges. 410.690 Section 410.690 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.690 Withdrawal of charges. If...

  3. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an alien's status under paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to 8 CFR 103.8(a)(2). If the ground for withdrawal is 8 CFR 244.14(a)(3), the notice... Status. (a) Authority of USCIS. USCIS may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary...

  4. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an alien's status under paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to 8 CFR 103.8(a)(2). If the ground for withdrawal is 8 CFR 244.14(a)(3), the notice... Status. (a) Authority of USCIS. USCIS may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary...

  5. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Status. (b) Decision by director. (1) Withdrawal of an alien's status under paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground... Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of an alien granted...

  6. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Status. (b) Decision by director. (1) Withdrawal of an alien's status under paragraph (a) of this section shall be in writing and served by personal service pursuant to § 103.5(a) of this chapter. If the ground... Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of an alien granted...

  7. 37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section 2.68 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. (a) Written...

  8. 7 CFR 28.68 - Withdrawal of application for review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of application for review. 28.68 Section 28.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Reviews § 28.68 Withdrawal of application for review. Any application for review may be withdrawn by...

  9. The Relationship between Academic Self-Concept and School Withdrawal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a four-year longitudinal study of 2,544 college students to determine the relationship between academic self-concept and withdrawal from school. Finds that the most significant predictor of school withdrawal was the students' self-concept of their overall academic ability. (CFR)

  10. Factors Related to Persistence and Withdrawal among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmann, Jack E.; Kirk, Barbara A.

    1970-01-01

    School and College Ability Tests (SCAT), the Omnibus Personality Inventory, and questionnaire data collected indicated that, as compared to persisting students, voluntary withdrawals had higher verbal ability and were more intellectually oriented. Voluntary withdrawals had significantly higher SCAT scores than the failures and the female…

  11. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  12. 5 CFR 1650.16 - Required withdrawal date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... participant must withdraw his or her account under § 1650.12, or begin receiving payments under §§ 1650.13 or... or separates from Government service, whichever is later. (b) For account balances of $200 or more, a separated participant may elect to withdraw his or her account or to begin receiving payments before...

  13. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as otherwise... account after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures...

  14. Anhedonia as a component of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jessica W; Piper, Megan E; Leventhal, Adam M; Schlam, Tanya R; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2015-02-01

    Animal research suggests that anhedonia is a tobacco withdrawal symptom, but this topic has not been addressed definitively in research with humans. This research sought to determine whether anhedonia is (a) an element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans and (b) an impediment to successful tobacco cessation. Data were from 1,175 smokers (58.3% women; 85.5% White) participating in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Ecological momentary assessments for 5 days before and 10 days after the target quit day were used to assess anhedonia and other established withdrawal symptoms. Consistent with drug withdrawal, anhedonia showed an inverted-U pattern of change in response to tobacco cessation and was associated with the severity of other withdrawal symptoms and tobacco dependence. Postquit anhedonia was associated with decreased latency to relapse (hazard ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.02, 1.17]) and with lower 8-week point-prevalence abstinence (odds ratio = .91, 95% CI [.86, .97])-relations that remained significant when other withdrawal symptoms were included as predictors. Finally, nicotine replacement therapy nearly fully suppressed the increase in abstinence-related anhedonia (β = -.66, p < .001), suggesting agonist suppression of withdrawal. Results suggest that anhedonia is a unique and motivationally significant element of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome in humans. These results have implications for defining and assessing tobacco use disorder and for understanding and treating tobacco addiction.

  15. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be... of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal...

  16. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be... of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal...

  17. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be... of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal...

  18. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be... of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal...

  19. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be... of bids. 14.303 Section 14.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal...

  20. 27 CFR 19.536 - Authorized withdrawals free of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... free of tax. 19.536 Section 19.536 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Withdrawal of Spirits Free of Tax § 19.536 Authorized withdrawals free of tax. Pursuant to the regulations in this chapter, spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises free of tax— (a) On receipt of a...

  1. 21 CFR 900.24 - Withdrawal of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of approval. 900.24 Section 900.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MAMMOGRAPHY QUALITY STANDARDS ACT MAMMOGRAPHY States as Certifiers § 900.24 Withdrawal of approval. If...

  2. 7 CFR 54.1032 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 54.1032 Section 54.1032 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1032 Denial or withdrawal of service....

  3. 7 CFR 54.1032 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 54.1032 Section 54.1032 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1032 Denial or withdrawal of service....

  4. 7 CFR 54.1032 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 54.1032 Section 54.1032 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1032 Denial or withdrawal of service....

  5. 7 CFR 54.1032 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 54.1032 Section 54.1032 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1032 Denial or withdrawal of service....

  6. 7 CFR 54.1032 - Denial or withdrawal of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Denial or withdrawal of service. 54.1032 Section 54.1032 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING..., Processing, and Packaging of Livestock and Poultry Products § 54.1032 Denial or withdrawal of service....

  7. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of petition. 102.104 Section 102.104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Declaratory... petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion....

  8. 30 CFR 27.12 - Withdrawal of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of certification. 27.12 Section 27.12 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS General Provisions § 27.12 Withdrawal...

  9. Neural substrates of psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Markou, Athina

    2010-01-01

    Psychostimulant drugs have powerful reinforcing and hedonic properties and are frequently abused. Cessation of psychostimulant administration results in a withdrawal syndrome characterized by anhedonia (i.e., an inability to experience pleasure). In humans, psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia can be debilitating and has been hypothesized to play an important role in relapse to drug use. Hence, understanding the neural substrates involved in psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia is essential. In this review, we first summarize the theoretical perspectives of psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia. Experimental procedures and measures used to assess anhedonia in experimental animals are also discussed. The review then focuses on neural substrates hypothesized to play an important role in anhedonia experienced after termination of psychostimulant administration, such as with cocaine, amphetamine-like drugs, and nicotine. Both neural substrates that have been extensively investigated and some that need further evaluation with respect to psychostimulant withdrawal-induced anhedonia are reviewed. In the context of reviewing the various neurosubstrates of psychostimulant withdrawal, we also discuss pharmacological medications that have been used to treat psychostimulant withdrawal in humans. This literature review indicates that great progress has been made in understanding the neural substrates of anhedonia associated with psychostimulant withdrawal. These advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of anhedonia may also shed light on the neurobiology of nondrug-induced anhedonia, such as that seen as a core symptom of depression and a negative symptom of schizophrenia.

  10. 42 CFR 456.508 - Withdrawal of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal of waiver. 456.508 Section 456.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Variances for Hospitals and Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Waiver of Requirements § 456.508 Withdrawal of...

  11. 42 CFR 456.508 - Withdrawal of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Withdrawal of waiver. 456.508 Section 456.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Variances for Hospitals and Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Waiver of Requirements § 456.508 Withdrawal of...

  12. 42 CFR 456.508 - Withdrawal of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of waiver. 456.508 Section 456.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Variances for Hospitals and Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Waiver of Requirements § 456.508 Withdrawal of...

  13. 42 CFR 456.508 - Withdrawal of waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal of waiver. 456.508 Section 456.508 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Variances for Hospitals and Mental Hospitals Ur Plan: Waiver of Requirements § 456.508 Withdrawal of...

  14. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  15. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  16. 8 CFR 1235.4 - Withdrawal of application for admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 1235.4 Section 1235.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.4 Withdrawal of... construed as to give an alien the right to withdraw his or her application for admission. Permission...

  17. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  18. 26 CFR 3.7 - Tax treatment of nonqualified withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... partnerships, and transfers by reason of death), any withdrawal from a fund which is not a qualified withdrawal... item included in gross income under paragraph (d) of this section is to be paid at the rate of interest...), the applicable rate of interest for any nonqualified withdrawal— (i) Made in a taxable year...

  19. 75 FR 12804 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of...: Harriet Karagiannis, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone:...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. (a) OPM will honor, without question, an applicant's request to...

  2. The Relationship of Personality Variables to Organizational Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardin, H. John

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of personality characteristics to organizational withdrawal and tests the Porter and Steers "polar" hypothesis, i.e., employees with high levels of emotional instability, anxiety, achievement orientation, aggression, independence, self-confidence and sociability were more apt to withdraw from organizations…

  3. 18 CFR 806.23 - Standards for water withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for water withdrawals. 806.23 Section 806.23 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... the withdrawal will not cause significant adverse impacts to the water resources of the basin....

  4. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal...

  5. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. 831.406 Section 831.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of...

  6. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal...

  7. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. 831.406 Section 831.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal...

  9. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. 831.406 Section 831.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of...

  10. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal...

  11. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Withdrawal of voluntary contributions. 831.406 Section 831.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.406 Withdrawal of...

  12. 78 FR 28163 - Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Zentox Corporation; Withdrawal of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal. SUMMARY:...

  13. Morphine withdrawal syndrome and its prevention with baclofen: Autoradiographic study of mu-opioid receptors in prepubertal male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Barros, Virginia G; Antonelli, Marta C; Rubio, Modesto C; Balerio, Graciela N

    2006-08-01

    Although the expression of the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome is more marked in male mice than in females, we have demonstrated that the GABAB agonist baclofen (BAC) is able to attenuate MOR withdrawal signs in either sex. In order to extend these previous observations, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the mu-opioid receptor labeling in various brain areas in mice of either sex, during MOR withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Prepubertal Swiss-Webster mice were rendered dependent by intraperitonial (i.p.) injection of MOR (2 mg/kg) twice daily for 9 days. On the 10th day, dependent animals received naloxone (NAL; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 60 min after MOR, and another pool of dependent mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) previous to NAL. Thirty minutes after NAL, mice were sacrificed and autoradiography with [3H]-[D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, -glycol5] enkephalin (DAMGO) was carried out on mice brains at five different anatomical levels. Autoradiographic mapping showed a significant increase of mu-opioid receptor labeling during MOR withdrawal in nucleus accumbens core (NAcC), caudate putamen (CPu), mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTh), basolateral and basomedial amygdala, and ventral tegmental area vs. respective control groups in male mice. In contrast, opiate receptor labeling was not significantly modified in any of the brain areas studied in withdrawn females. BAC reestablished mu-opioid receptor binding sites during MOR withdrawal only in NAcC of males, and a similar tendency was observed in CPu and MDTh, even when it was not statistically significant. The sexual dimorphism observed in the present study confirms previous reports indicating a greater sensitivity of males in response to MOR pharmacological properties. The present results suggest that the effect of BAC in preventing the expression of MOR withdrawal signs could be related with the ability of BAC to reestablish the mu-opioid receptor labeling in certain brain areas.

  14. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:21838872

  15. Are withholding and withdrawing therapy always morally equivalent?

    PubMed Central

    Sulmasy, D P; Sugarman, J

    1994-01-01

    Many medical ethicists accept the thesis that there is no moral difference between withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy. In this paper, we offer an interesting counterexample which shows that this thesis is not always true. Withholding is distinguished from withdrawing by the simple fact that therapy must have already been initiated in order to speak coherently about withdrawal. Provided that there is a genuine need and that therapy is biomedically effective, the historical fact that therapy has been initiated entails a claim to continue therapy that cannot be attributed to patients who have not yet received therapy. This intrinsic difference between withholding and withdrawing therapy is of moral importance. In many instances, patients will waive this claim. But when one considers withdrawing therapy from one patient to help another in a setting of scarce resources, this intrinsic moral difference comes into sharp focus. In an era of shrinking medical resources, this difference cannot be ignored. PMID:7861426

  16. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  17. Lexical Borrowing in American Sign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battison, Robbin

    This book is written primarily for those studying linguistic topics in the area of sign language, but also can be useful to sign language teachers who want to understand more about American Sign Language (ASL). Pen-and-ink illustrations allow the reader with no knowledge of sign language to follow the discussion. The hypothesis examined in this…

  18. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  19. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  20. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  1. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating...

  2. Tactile Signing with One-Handed Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Tactile signing among persons with deaf-blindness is not homogenous; rather, like other forms of language, it exhibits variation, especially in turn taking. Early analyses of tactile Swedish Sign Language, tactile Norwegian Sign Language, and tactile French Sign Language focused on tactile communication with four hands, in which partially blind or…

  3. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore;...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1830 - Warning sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning sign. 154.1830 Section 154.1830 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1830 Warning sign. (a) The master... a warning sign: (1) At the gangway facing the shore so that the sign may be seen from the shore;...

  5. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  6. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models

  7. Prolonged cannabis withdrawal in young adults with lifetime psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A

    2017-02-27

    Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting.

  8. The "guitar pick" sign: a novel sign of retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Theoret, Jonathan; Sanz, Geoffrey E; Matero, David; Guth, Todd; Erickson, Catherine; Liao, Michael M; Kendall, John L

    2011-05-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a rare complication of blunt ocular trauma. Without prompt intervention, permanent reduction in visual acuity can develop in as little as 90 minutes. We report a novel bedside ultrasound finding of conical deformation of the posterior ocular globe: the "guitar pick" sign. In our elderly patient, the ocular globe shape normalized post-lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis. Identifying this sonographic finding may add to the clinical examination when deciding whether to perform decompression.

  9. Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Andrew M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on withdrawal symptoms by giving 109 smokers nicotine gum or placebo. Subjects who believed they had nicotine gum reported fewer physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked fewer cigarettes than did those who thought they had placebo. Actual nicotine content of gum had no…

  10. Withdrawing to a Virtual World: Associations between Subtypes of Withdrawal, Media Use, and Maladjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N.

    2016-01-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to…

  11. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  12. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome--an auto-immune disease? A neuroimmunologic model for pathogenesis of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schubert, S

    1990-08-01

    A neuroimmunologic model of alcohol withdrawal symptoms is developed according to which these may be considered as an idiopathic auto-immune disease. During the alcohol abuse period of non-addicts, homeostasis may alter pathologically by gradual adaptation of the organism: auto-sensitisation develops and finally leads to the breakdown of auto-immune tolerance of the structural modifications set by alcohol withdrawal. The immunosystem regards the existing assimilation of alcohol as self, the withdrawal of alcohol as non-self. Alcohol withdrawal may be considered as an acknowledged physical stressor, and physical stressors as potential triggers of auto-immune diseases. Some so-called alcohol-induced diseases may originate in the pathogenic effects of preceding auto-immune responses to repeated alcohol withdrawals. Neuroimmunologic preconditions of potential auto-immune diseases exactly fit the alcohol withdrawal situation. Neuroimmunologic diseases themselves show close analogies respectively to alcohol withdrawal symptoms as well as to some alcohol-induced diseases. The myelin basis protein is assumed to be a potential auto-allergen. Finally withdrawal symptoms being the expression of physical dependence on alcohol, the model may highlight the very nature of physical dependence.

  13. Old Signs, New Signs, Whose Signs? Sociolinguistic Variation in the NZSL Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rachel; McKee, David

    2011-01-01

    Lexicographers, teachers and interpreters of New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are challenged by the degree of lexical variation that exists in this young language. For instance, most numerals between one and twenty have two or more variants in common use (McKee, McKee, and Major 2008), a situation that contrasts with most established spoken…

  14. The pivotal sign of CANVAS.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jens Alexander; Wichmann, Werner W; Weber, Konrad Peter

    2013-10-29

    A 75-year-old woman complained about insecure gait since age 55. Clinical examination revealed signs of cerebellar ataxia, bilateral vestibulopathy, and peripheral sensory impairment. Sensory nerve action potentials were absent. The visually enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VVOR) was impaired (video on the Neurology(®) Web site at www.neurology.org, figure 1) and the diagnosis of cerebellar ataxia (figure 2) with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) was made.(1) CANVAS is considered to be a recessive disorder with a mean age at onset of 60 years.(2) VVOR impairment is its characteristic clinical sign.(2) It can only be elicited if both smooth-pursuit eye movements and the vestibulo-ocular reflex are deficient. Normally, both are redundant at low head velocities.(2.)

  15. Escalating morphine exposures followed by withdrawal in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats: a model for HIV infection in chronic opiate abusers.

    PubMed

    Barr, Margaret C; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Henriksen, Steven J; Phillips, Tom R

    2003-11-24

    Opiate abuse is a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the direct effects of opiates on HIV infection are difficult to determine epidemiologically, animal models of lentivirus infection are relied upon to study the effects of opiates in the absence of confounding factors. Morphine, the predominant metabolite of heroin, is used in most experimental systems examining heroin abuse. In this study, morphine treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats modeled a typical pattern of escalating drug use interspersed with withdrawals. Plasma cortisol levels were measured for evidence of stress associated with morphine withdrawal. In the morphine-treated cats, cortisol levels peaked at time points corresponding to morphine withdrawal and returned to baseline levels during treatment and several weeks after the final withdrawal. Morphine-treated cats displayed clear behavioral and physical signs of opiate exposure and evidence of withdrawal when the drug was stopped. Morphine-exposed cats did not experience enhanced severity of FIV-related disease; in fact, morphine demonstrated a protective effect on FIV-associated changes in brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Our research suggests that opiate exposure is unlikely to adversely affect the progression of acute lentivirus infection and might be beneficial in controlling associated neurological disease.

  16. Baclofen prevented the changes in c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor expressions during mecamylamine-precipitated nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Varani, Andrés P; Moutinho Machado, Lirane; Balerio, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that baclofen (BAC, GABAB receptor agonist) prevented the behavioral and neurochemical alterations of nicotine (NIC) withdrawal syndrome. To further investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we analyzed the c-Fos and brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) expression during NIC withdrawal and its prevention with BAC. Swiss-Webster mice received NIC (2.5 mg/kg, sc) four times daily, for 7 days. On the 8th day, NIC-treated mice received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (MEC; 2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of NIC. A second group of NIC-treated mice received BAC (2 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to MEC administration. Thirty minutes after MEC, mice were sacrificed and the immunohistochemistry assays (c-Fos and BDNF) were performed at different anatomical levels. c-Fos expression decreased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), and increased in the habenular (Hb), accumbens shell (AcbSh) nuclei during NIC withdrawal. BAC re-established the modified c-Fos expression only in the DG, BST and AcbSh during NIC withdrawal. Conversely, BDNF expression decreased in the CA1 and CA3 area of the hippocampus, the Hb, and caudate putamen (CPu) during NIC withdrawal. Finally, BAC restored the decreased BDNF expression during NIC withdrawal in the CA1, CA3, Hb, and CPu. The results suggest a relationship between BAC's preventive effect of the expression of NIC withdrawal signs, and its ability to restore the changes in c-Fos and BDNF expression, observed in specific brain areas of NIC-withdrawn mice.

  17. CERN single sign on solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormancey, E.

    2008-07-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page.

  18. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Khor, Beng-Siang; Jamil, Mohd Fadzly Amar; Adenan, Mohamad Ilham; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway.

  19. Sociability and social withdrawal in childhood: stability and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rubin, K H; Hymel, S; Mills, R S

    1989-06-01

    The stability and long-term correlates of both social withdrawal and sociability were investigated in a longitudinal study of normal children in kindergarten through the fifth grade. Both observational and peer assessment indices of withdrawal and sociability were considered; furthermore, a distinction was made between observed active versus passive solitude. Of particular interest was whether social withdrawal in early childhood was predictive of subsequent internalizing problems, as assessed by self-reports of social competence, overall self-worth, loneliness, and depression as well as teacher ratings of shy/anxious behavior, in later childhood. Results indicated a modest degree of stability for observed social withdrawal but not for observed sociability, nor for active or passive forms of solitude. Somewhat higher stability correlations were obtained for peer assessments of both sociability and withdrawal. In terms of predictive outcomes, significant relations were found between early social withdrawal in kindergarten and Grade 2 and subsequent internalizing problems in Grades 4 and 5, although the pattern of results was mixed. These data suggest that social withdrawal in early childhood may be predictive of risk for internalizing difficulties in later childhood.

  20. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (10≥cig/day; N=286) attended two counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1-hour vs. 17-hours). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically-unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814