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Sample records for nam attractive

  1. Viet Nam -- attractive plays in a new geological province

    SciTech Connect

    Canh, T.; Ha, D.V. ); Carstens, H.; Berstad, S. )

    1994-03-14

    Vietnam Oil and Gas Corp. (Petrovietnam) has, through 1993 and since the Vietnamese government first declared its new open door policy more than 6 years ago, issued 27 production sharing contracts to Asian, Australian, European, and North American companies. The most prospective part of Viet Nam's shallow water acreage is now being explored intensely. This acreage is concentrated in the Nam Con Son basin, the Cuu Long basin (previously known as the Mekong basin), the Malay-Thochusia basin (all off southern Viet Nam) and the Quang Ngai graben, the Song Hong basin, and the Red River delta (all off northern Viet Nam). With 6.3 million metric tons of crude oil pumped in 1993 from White Tiger (Bach Ho) field, and with Dragon (Rong) and Big Bear (Dai Hung) fields soon to be brought on stream, offshore Viet Nam is considered to be very attractive by the international oil industry, and the country's potential is still far from being fully appraised. The paper describes the exploration history of Viet Nam, sedimentary basins, play types, source rocks, and terms and conditions of licensing.

  2. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  3. NASA Access Mechanism (NAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 user survey indicated that NASA users want (1) access to diverse sources of information; (2) an intuitive approach to system use; (3) avoidance of system query languages; (4) access to peers and other informal sources of information; and (5) simplified and enhanced presentation of search results. Based on these requirements and the use of an intelligent gateway processor, the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) is being developed to provide the users with the semblance of a one stop shopping environment for information management.

  4. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  5. Nam June Paik: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbrugg, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nam June Paik, a seminal figure in video art, who candidly discusses his working processes and values. Offers his comments on such diverse problems as technology, cost, collaboration, MTV, and the artist's ego. Discusses also the values and the artists associated with the artistic movement Fluxus. (SR)

  6. Nam June Paik: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbrugg, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nam June Paik, a seminal figure in video art, who candidly discusses his working processes and values. Offers his comments on such diverse problems as technology, cost, collaboration, MTV, and the artist's ego. Discusses also the values and the artists associated with the artistic movement Fluxus. (SR)

  7. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  8. Researching the Viet Nam War inside Viet Nam: U.S. Student Teachers Explore War Myths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadas, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The author asserts that it is time for social studies teachers to engage students in a review of the rift between historical reality and mythology about Viet Nam, especially in light of recent comparisons that many have made between the Viet Nam War and the current situation in Iraq. Few teachers dealt with Viet Nam at the time of the war, and…

  9. Verify MesoNAM Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and

  10. Neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (NAM).

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ellen E; Hymowitz, Michelle; Schmidt, Cathleen E; Montana, Steve; Foda, Hussein; Zucker, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated a novel soluble factor(s), neutrophil activator of matrix metalloproteinases (NAM), secreted by unstimulated normal human peripheral blood neutrophils that causes the activation of cell secreted promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2). Partially purified preparations of NAM have been isolated from the conditioned media of neutrophils employing gelatin-Sepharose chromatography and differential membrane filter centrifugation. NAM activity, as assessed by exposing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or HT1080 cells to NAM followed by gelatin zymography, was seen within one hour. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and hydroxamic acid derived inhibitors of MMPs (CT1746 and BB94) abrogated the activation of proMMP-2 by NAM, while inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases showed no effect. NAM also produced an increase in TIMP-2 binding to HUVEC and HT1080 cell surfaces that was inhibited by TIMP-2, CT1746, and BB94. Time-dependent increases in MT1-MMP protein and mRNA were seen following the addition of NAM to cells. These data support a role for NAM in cancer dissemination.

  11. Health Data Publications No. 5 (Revised). The Republic of Viet-Nam (South Viet-Nam).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Animals of medical importance; Plants of medical importance; Water supply; Sanitation and waste disposal; Food and nutrition; Diseases of South Viet-Nam; Medical organization, administration, manpower; Veterinary facilities.

  12. News and Views: YAM@NAM 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    The Young Astronomers' Meeting (YAM) sessions at NAM focused on extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology, with six invited up-and-coming speakers who showcased their work - and signed the YAM banner in true celebrity style! Organizers Mark Westmoquette, Anaïs Rassat and Joe Zuntz (pictured with the RAS President Michael Rowan-Robinson), believe that encouraging the nation's younger generation of astronomers is of primary importance for developing and sustaining the health of the UK astronomy community, and look forward to seeing YAM playing an increasingly central role in the future.

  13. Genetic characterization of the soybean Nested Association Mapping (NAM) population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A population of nested association mapping (NAM) families can be a valuable resource to a research community. A set of NAM families were developed by crossing 40 diverse soybean genotypes to the common hub cultivar IA 3023. The 41 parents were sequenced with next generation sequencing for single nuc...

  14. MesoNAM Verification Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2011-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts to support launch weather operations. In Phase I, the performance of the model at KSC/CCAFS was measured objectively by conducting a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature, and dew point to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. In Phase II, the AMU modified the current tool by adding an additional 15 months of model output to the database and recalculating the verification statistics. The bias, standard deviation of bias, Root Mean Square Error, and Hypothesis test for bias were calculated to verify the performance of the model. The results indicated that the accuracy decreased as the forecast progressed, there was a diurnal signal in temperature with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, and there was a diurnal signal in dewpoint temperature with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night.

  15. Depression in veterans two years after Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nace, E P; Meyers, A L; O'Brien, C P; Ream, N; Mintz, J

    1977-02-01

    The authors evaluated the incidence of depression in a sample of 202 Viet Nam veterans an average of 28 months after their return from Viet Nam. Approximately one-third of the sample fell within the clinically depressed range of the Beck Depression Inventory. Comparison of the depressed and nondepressed groups indicated that the former had higher frequencies of drug abuse (particularly while in Viet Nam), more marital difficulties, a higher unemployment rate, and more current legal problems. This high incidence of depression, coupled with the finding that few of these men were being treated for the illness, indicates the need for an outreach approach to this population.

  16. Facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. News and Views: Bottom-up boost at NAM; Spreading the word from the NAM; S3 gets together at the NAM; YAM@NAM 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    Delegates at the simultaneous National Astronomy Meeting, UK Solar Physics meeting and Spring MIST meeting were impressed by the warm welcome and efficient organization from the hosts, the University of Central Lancaster in Preston. The meetings were successful in terms of the number of participants and the breadth and depth of science discussed, but also in terms of the spread of that science across the media. The newly formed Solar System Science (S3) group (see A&G 47 4.39) met at the National Astronomy Meeting hosted by the University of Central Lancaster at Preston in April. The meeting was well attended and many pressing issues were discussed, reflecting a productive first year. The Young Astronomers' Meeting (YAM) sessions at NAM focused on extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology, with six invited up-and-coming speakers who showcased their work - and signed the YAM banner in true celebrity style! Organizers Mark Westmoquette, Anaïs Rassat and Joe Zuntz (pictured with the RAS President Michael Rowan-Robinson), believe that encouraging the nation's younger generation of astronomers is of primary importance for developing and sustaining the health of the UK astronomy community, and look forward to seeing YAM playing an increasingly central role in the future.

  18. Acute viral hepatitis in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Corwin, A L; Dai, T C; Duc, D D; Suu, P I; Van, N T; Ha, L D; Janick, M; Kanti, L; Sie, A; Soderquist, R; Graham, R; Wignall, S F; Hyams, K C

    1996-01-01

    A study of acute hepatitis was conducted in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from January 1993 to February 1995; 188 sera from clinical hepatitis cases were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin (Ig) M anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV), IgM anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc), IgG anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), IgG anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) and IgM anti-HEV. Additionally, 187 sera from control subjects, matched by age, sex and month of admission, with no recent history of hepatitis, were tested for comparative purposes. There was serological evidence of recent HAV (29%) and hepatitis B virus (24%) infection in 53% of cases (2 mixed infections), compared with 2% of controls. HCV infections were detected in 10% of cases (with no IgM anti-HAV or IgM anti-HBc) and in 1% of control sera. There was no significant difference in the proportion of IgG anti-HEV positive sera between cases (in the absence of IgM anti-HAV or IgM anti-HBc) (21%) and controls (14%); 3% of all case sera were IgM anti-HEV positive. Younger cases (< 20 years) were more likely to have recent HAV infections (41%) than those aged > or = 20 years (21%) (P < 0.01). In contrast, a higher percentage of adult cases had IgM anti-HBc, IgG anti-HCV and IgG anti-HEV (in the absence of recent HAV or HBV infection) than did children. No seasonal trend in hepatitis admissions was detected, nor an association between water-borne infections (HAV and HEV) and the warmer months. Hepatitis patients lived throughout Hanoi and surrounding areas, with no identifiable geographical clustering, regardless of serological marker.

  19. Disability from Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia and Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hills, Susan L; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Touch, Sok; Mai, Hoang Hong; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lien, Tran Thi Huong; Samnang, Chham; Sovann, Ly; Van Diu, Pham; Lac, Luc Duy; Heng, Seng; Huong, Vu Minh; Grundy, John J; Huch, Chea; Lewthwaite, Penny; Solomon, Tom; Jacobson, Julie A

    2011-08-01

    A cohort of Japanese encephalitis (JE) survivors in Cambodia and Viet Nam were assessed at least 4 months after hospital discharge in order to understand the extent of disability after JE. We used a simple assessment tool which focuses on the impact on daily life. In total, 64 disability assessments were conducted: 38 in Cambodia and 26 in Viet Nam. In Cambodia, 4 (11%) children had severe sequelae, suggesting the children would likely be dependent, 15 (39%) had moderate sequelae and 17 (45%) had mild sequelae. In Viet Nam, two (8%) persons had severe sequelae, five (19%) had moderate sequelae and eight (31%) had mild sequelae. In many JE-endemic areas there are no multi-disciplinary teams with sophisticated equipment to assess patients after JE disease. This assessment tool can assist with patient management and generate data to support the need for programmes to prevent disease and improve outcomes for survivors.

  20. NAM-1gene polymorphism and grain protein content in Hordeum.

    PubMed

    Jamar, Catherine; Loffet, Francois; Frettinger, Patrick; Ramsay, Luke; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; du Jardin, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    Grain protein content (GPC) is a key quality factor for malting and brewing process. In wheat, a QTL explaining a large part of GPC variation was identified, which co-localizes with a gene encoding a NAC transcription factor (TtNAM-B1). NAC transcription factors influence GPC by their role in the regulation of senescence and in protein remobilization. An orthologous gene was discovered on barley chromosome 6H where a GPC QTL was mapped. In this study, we identify allelic variation of the NAM-1 gene for three species of Hordeum representing wild and cultivated barley and we investigate the possible link with GPC. Three haplotypes were identified, one corresponds to the sequences of 11 European varieties representing H. vulgare, one corresponds to the sequence found in H. spontaneum and one represents the sequence of H. bulbosum. Three SNPs were identified between H. spontaneum sequence and H. vulgare sequence. One of the H. bulbosum polymorphisms leads to the introduction of a stop codon and a non-functional protein. Differences in GPC between the 11 varieties were found but no polymorphism in the NAM-1 gene was observed, suggesting that differences in expression of the HvNAM-1 gene or other genes should play a role in GPC regulation. Nevertheless based on published values for GPC of H. bulbosum and H. spontaneum compared to GPC measured here in H. vulgare, the non-functional protein is associated with the lower GPC, suggesting that loss of functionality of the NAM-1 gene in Hordeum is related to lower GPC. Moreover H. spontaneum GPC seems to be higher than H. vulgare GPC, suggesting also that allelic variation of the functional NAM-1 gene could be associated with GPC variation within the genus Hordeum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Eigenvalue Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2016-02-01

    We prove that the complex conjugate (c.c.) eigenvalues of a smoothly varying real matrix attract (Eq. 15). We offer a dynamical perspective on the motion and interaction of the eigenvalues in the complex plane, derive their governing equations and discuss applications. C.c. pairs closest to the real axis, or those that are ill-conditioned, attract most strongly and can collide to become exactly real. As an application we consider random perturbations of a fixed matrix M. If M is Normal, the total expected force on any eigenvalue is shown to be only the attraction of its c.c. (Eq. 24) and when M is circulant the strength of interaction can be related to the power spectrum of white noise. We extend this by calculating the expected force (Eq. 41) for real stochastic processes with zero-mean and independent intervals. To quantify the dominance of the c.c. attraction, we calculate the variance of other forces. We apply the results to the Hatano-Nelson model and provide other numerical illustrations. It is our hope that the simple dynamical perspective herein might help better understanding of the aggregation and low density of the eigenvalues of real random matrices on and near the real line respectively. In the appendix we provide a Matlab code for plotting the trajectories of the eigenvalues.

  2. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  3. Attracting Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jay

    1979-01-01

    The artcile answers some questions frequently asked by growing numbers of bird and animal feeders regarding what types of feeders and seed to use and what kinds of birds can be attracted to a given area. It discusses problems which can arise from this enjoyable year-round recreation. (SB)

  4. Depression in Viet Nam veterans and civilian controls.

    PubMed

    Helzer, J E; Robins, L N; Wish, E; Hesselbrock, M

    1979-04-01

    In order to investigate the long-term psychological consequences of Viet Nam combat, the authors located and personally interviewed a group of 571 randomly selected Viet Nam veterans and 284 matched civilian controls 3 years after the veterans returned to the United States. In the veterans they found a weak association between combat and subsequent depressive symptoms, but the association did not persist after controlling for preservice factors. The incidence of depressive symptoms and syndromes was similar when veterans were compared with nonveterans. Results are contrasted with a 12-month follow-up study of the same veterans in which a stronger association between combat and later depression was found.

  5. Viet Nam steps up offshore E and D push

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-22

    This paper reports on Viet Nam's offshore exploration and development. Hanoi tentatively awarded three of five remaining blocks of prime offshore South China Sea acreage to companies from Europe and the Far East, with a fourth such award reported imminent. And state owned Petrovietnam signed a production sharing contract (PSC) covering acreage in the same area to a combine of British Petroleum Co. plc and Norway's Den norske stats oljeselskap AS. Retention of one block in the area covered by Viet Nam's second bidding round fueled speculation Hanoi is holding it in reserve for U.S. companies to enter bidding, pending easing of U.S. trade sanctions against Viet Nam, Agence France France (AFP) reported. Second round blocks have been carved from a concession held by Vietsovpetro, a joint venture of Petrovietnam and the former Soviet Union. All are in the southern Con Sun basin of the South China Sea off the port of Vung Tao and on trend with Viet Nam's only producing oil fields.

  6. Neurology in a combat zone: Viet Nam 1966.

    PubMed

    Daroff, R B

    1999-11-30

    I summarize my experience as the first neurologist serving the US Forces in Viet Nam, 24 December, 1965 to 18 November, 1966. Stationed at the 93rd Evacuation Hospital in Long Binh, and working with a KO (neuro-psychiatric) team, I saw a wide variety of patients under conditions unique for a neurologist.

  7. Educating the educators at Hue Medical College, Hue, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Pron, A L; Zygmont, D; Bender, P; Black, K

    2008-06-01

    In June 2005, four faculty members from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA, conducted a nursing educator workshop in Hue, Viet Nam. Didactic and clinical instruction addressed paediatric, maternity, psychiatric and surgical nursing content as well as instructional methods and student evaluation techniques. This educator workshop was requested as means of increasing the professionalization of nursing in Viet Nam. Student nurses in Viet Nam are taught by physician-faculty. Between the cultural and economic factors that contribute to the current status and practice of nursing in Viet Nam and the lack of nurse educator role models, the nursing profession has many obstacles to overcome in their quest for increased autonomy. During the workshop, in addition to modelling interactive teaching methods as they taught the classroom and clinical content, these authors also demonstrated the level of knowledge expected of nurses in the USA. Despite much advance planning for this workshop, there were many challenges for the USA faculty. Some of the lessons learned which might help others included having a sense of humour, maintaining flexibility in teaching styles and content, being prepared for the cultural and religious influences on health care, and utilizing all of one's nursing skills to find creative solutions when teaching nursing in another country.

  8. Phenotypic assessments of peanut nested association mapping (NAM) populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nested association mapping (NAM) is a valuable innovation and multi-parental mapping population strategy in peanut genetics which increases the power to map quantitative trait loci and assists in extending the gene pool of elite peanut lines. In the peanut research community, two structured mapping ...

  9. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  10. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  11. On the Armillary Sphere of Nam Byong-Chul - I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sang-Hyuk; Nam, Moon-Hyon

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we have reconstructed an armillary sphere based on the 'Method of an Armillary Sphere Making' described in the Volume 1 of 'The Collection of Writings on the Scientific Instruments - Uigijipsol'(two volumes) edited in the 1850's by Nam Byong-Chul(1817-1863) who was a famous Korean statesman-scientist. Nam achieved convenience and accuracy in the measurements of stellar positions in the manner of selective settings the equatorial, ecliptic and horizontal poles by adding a pole axis exchange ring called 'Jaigeukkwon' between the Three Arrangers of Time and Four Displacements. We made use of 3-dimensional graphic software for modelling Nam's armillary sphere which consisted of five layers-eight rings. Results of simulation showed that the pole axis exchange ring functioned properly in setting the equatorial, ecliptic and horizontal coordinates simply by exchange of positions of specified holes on the ring. We ascertained that the invention of 'Jaigeukkwon' solved inherent problems in the conventional Chinese armillary sphere in computation of real ecliptic coordinates. It was revealed that Nam Byong-Chul made great contributions in the East Asian history of armillary sphere making.

  12. Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

  13. Tuberculosis case notification data in Viet Nam, 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Hennig, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and Viet Nam ranks 12 among the 22 high-TB burden countries. This study analyses surveillance data of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Viet Nam for the six-year period 2007 to 2012. During the study period, 598,877 TB cases (all forms) were notified, and 313,225 (52.3%) were new smear-positive cases. The case notification rate of new smear-positive cases was decreased, from 65 per 100,000 population in 2007 to 57 per 100,000 population in 2012; this decrease was observed for males and females in all age groups except males aged 0-14 and females aged 15-24 years. The male-to-female ratio of new smear-positive TB cases increased from 2.85 in 2007 to 3.02 in 2012. The average annual cure rate of new smear-positive cases was 90.3%. The high male-to-female ratio for new smear-positive TB cases in this notification data was lower than that from the 2007 TB prevalence survey in Viet Nam, suggesting a lower case detection for males. The decrease in new smear-positive case notification rates may reflect a decline in TB incidence in Viet Nam as several programmatic improvements have been made, although further research is required to increase case detection among young males and children.

  14. Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

  15. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  16. Enterovirus D68 in Viet Nam (2009-2015)

    PubMed Central

    Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ha, Do Quang; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Ha, Do Lien Anh; McBride, Angela; Tuan, Ha Manh; Baker, Stephen; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Phuc, Tran My; Huong, Dang Thao; Loi, Tran Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Tran Anh; Hung, Nguyen Van; Minh, Tran Thi Thuy; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Anscombe, Catherine; Le Van, Tan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Methods: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. Results: EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4%) enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 – 24.5 months) and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E -3 substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters separately from

  17. Enterovirus D68 in Viet Nam (2009-2015).

    PubMed

    Ny, Nguyen Thi Han; Anh, Nguyen To; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Nguyet, Lam Anh; Thanh, Tran Tan; Ha, Do Quang; Minh, Ngo Ngoc Quang; Ha, Do Lien Anh; McBride, Angela; Tuan, Ha Manh; Baker, Stephen; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Phuc, Tran My; Huong, Dang Thao; Loi, Tran Quoc; Vu, Nguyen Tran Anh; Hung, Nguyen Van; Minh, Tran Thi Thuy; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H Rogier; Anscombe, Catherine; Le Van, Tan

    2017-01-01

    Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4%) enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 - 24.5 months) and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E (-3) substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters separately from recent US and European viruses that were

  18. Swedish spring wheat varieties with the rare high grain protein allele of NAM-B1 differ in leaf senescence and grain mineral content.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes.

  19. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  20. Combiner L'Education Et Le Travail; Experiences en Asie et en Oceanie: Viet Nam (Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Viet Nam).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Hguyen Khac

    Educational policy in Viet Nam has closely followed the revolutionary movement. In the essentially democratic period from 1945 to 1960, Viet Nam created a nationwide 10-grade school system and fought illiteracy on a large scale. By 1960, as socialism began to predominate, especially in the North, traditional educational methods and values began to…

  1. Surge of wildcat drilling seen for Viet Nam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    Exploratory drilling in Viet Nam will peak next year at 15 wells, says County Natwest Woodmac's Southeast Asia Oil Report. The paper also predicts production, including production from probable field developments and future offshore discoveries, could climb to about 500,000 b/d by the turn of the century from 70,000 b/d this year from a single field, Bach Ho (White Tiger) in the South China Sea.

  2. Personality Characteristics of Viet Nam veterans identified as heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Black, F W

    1975-07-01

    The author presents data on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) characteristics of a sample of enlisted Army men returning from Viet Nam identified as heroin abusers. Although a marked heterogeneity of MMPI profile types was found, a significant percentage of the subjects showed indications of marked psychopathology, and only a minority performed within normal limits on the MMPI. Theses military subjects showed neither greater nor less psychopathology and sociopathology than previously reported samples of civilian addicts.

  3. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  4. Beyond Super-Parameterization: Multiresolutional Analysis Approach: NAM- SCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J.

    2008-12-01

    The use of CSRM in place of conventional parameterizations, such as in super-parameterization, tends to give a misleading impression that the parameterization problem is resolved in the manner. However, the present session emphasizes that CSRM itself is built up on various subgrid-scale parameterizations. Thus we should move "beyond" super-parameterization by seeking methodologies (not necessarily parameterization) for correctly and more efficiently representing complex atmospheric processes of smaller and smaller scales. In order to advance towards this goal, we propose the approach of NAM-SCA: Nonhydrostatic Anelastic Model under Segmentally-Constant Approximation. The idea for this model is inspired from various different sources. First of all, a branch of mathematics called the multiresolutional analysis provides a philosophical basis for pursuing this possibility: in the same sense as wavelet can extensively compress an image, the multiresolutional analysis provides extensive possibilities for compressing numerical models. Application of this principle into practice leads to a very flexible time-dependent mesh refinement or nesting, far more extensively than conventional approaches could provide. A "deconstruction" analysis of the mass flux convective analysis, on the other hand, reveals that the mass flux decomposition itself can be used for this purpose: NAM (or CSRM) is simply decomposed into an ensemble of mass flux modes, purely as a geometrical representation, under a spirit of multiresolutional analysis, but without any further approximations. We call this representation as SCA due to its geometrical constraint. NAM-SCA can run much efficiently than conventional CSRM by adopting high resolutions only where they are required, and potentially it can achieve a much higher resolution than the current CSRM can achieve. A two-dimensional version will be presented, which is already ready for operational implementation.

  5. National survey of tuberculosis prevalence in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Tiemersma, Edine W; Borgdorff, Martien W; Cobelens, Frank GJ

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis in Viet Nam with data from a population-based survey, compare it with the prevalence estimated by the World Health Organization, and identify major demographic determinants of tuberculosis prevalence. Methods A cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling, stratified by urban, rural and remote areas, was done in 2006–2007 in 70 communes. All inhabitants aged ≥ 15 years were invited for cough and chest X-ray examination. Participants with findings suggestive of tuberculosis provided sputum specimens for smear examination and culture. Point prevalence estimates, 95% confidence intervals and design effects were calculated. Confidence intervals and P-values were adjusted for the cluster design. Findings Of 114 389 adult inhabitants, 94 179 (82.3%) were screened. Of 87 314 (92.7%) screened by both questionnaire and chest X-ray, 3522 (4.0%) had productive cough, 518 (0.6%) had a recent history of tuberculosis and 2972 (3.4%) had chest X-ray abnormalities suggestive of tuberculosis. Sputum tests were done for 7648 participants. Sputum test, bacterial culture or both confirmed 269 tuberculosis cases, 174 of which were smear-positive. The prevalence rate of smear-positive tuberculosis was 145 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval: 110–180) assuming no tuberculosis in persons aged < 15 years. Prevalence was 5.1 times as high in men as in women, increased with age, was higher in rural than in urban or remote areas and showed a north-to-south gradient. Conclusion In Viet Nam, the tuberculosis prevalence rate based on positive sputum smear tests was 1.6 times as high as previously estimated. Age and sex patterns were consistent with notification data. Tuberculosis control should remain a high priority in Viet Nam. PMID:20431791

  6. Age at first marriage in Viet Nam: patterns and determinants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H M

    1997-06-01

    "Using data from the 1991 Viet Nam Life History Survey, this article examines the patterns and determinants of age at first marriage. It shows that socio-economic and political changes during the last few decades are associated with a shift to older ages of first marriage. It identifies regional variations and discusses the significant impact of warfare on the country's age patterns of marriage. It concludes by bringing out the implications of the study for policy purposes." The full text is of this article is available electronically through www.undp.org/popin.

  7. Walking the Line: Quality Assurance Policy Development and Implementation in Vi?t Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meggan

    2014-01-01

    Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…

  8. Home From the War: A Study of Psychiatric Problems in Viet Nam Returnees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, Robert E.; Brown, Dudley E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fifty patients who developed psychiatric problems after return from tours of Viet Nam combat duty were compared with a group of patients who had not had such duty. The Viet Nam returnees reported more conflicts in intimate relationships and had a higher incidence of depression and somatization than did the noncombat group. A study was made of…

  9. Walking the Line: Quality Assurance Policy Development and Implementation in Vi?t Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meggan

    2014-01-01

    Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…

  10. Home From the War: A Study of Psychiatric Problems in Viet Nam Returnees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strange, Robert E.; Brown, Dudley E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Fifty patients who developed psychiatric problems after return from tours of Viet Nam combat duty were compared with a group of patients who had not had such duty. The Viet Nam returnees reported more conflicts in intimate relationships and had a higher incidence of depression and somatization than did the noncombat group. A study was made of…

  11. Mandatory helmet legislation and the print media in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Ngo, Anh D; Khuong, Tuan A; Dao, Huong L; Hoang, Hanh T M; Trinh, Hang T; Nguyen, Lien T N; Nguyen, Phong H

    2009-07-01

    With motorcycle ownership high and rising in Viet Nam, and motorcycle riders vulnerable to both fatal and non-fatal injury, the re-introduction of mandatory helmet legislation in 2007 has been a priority for the Vietnamese government. The paper uses a qualitative analysis of web-based versions of the eight most popular newspapers in Viet Nam to track reporting over four phases of the implementation of the legislation, identifying codes and constructing the dominant themes of the media coverage. The study documents the justification and promotion of the legislation, and the mechanisms for preparing for its implementation at a national and local level, developing solutions and encouraging the replication of successful strategies. It records opposition and obstacles to helmet use, and concerns raised around the quality of helmets purchased. In return, the press notes the response of the market in innovative solutions to these problems. With the successful implementation of the legislation, the functions of the print media in promulgating and promoting the legislation, together with the reporting of ongoing resistance to the process, serve to enable a dialogue between the State and population around expressed concerns. In highlighting quality control of helmets as a key issue, the media have identified a potential ongoing role in monitoring the state's initiative in reducing the road toll from traumatic brain injury in motorcyclists.

  12. The commodification of obstetric ultrasound scanning in Hanoi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuý

    2007-05-01

    Growing numbers of pregnant women across the world now routinely have ultrasound scans as part of antenatal care, including in low-income countries. This article presents the findings of anthropological research on the use of obstetric ultrasonography in routine antenatal care in Hanoi, Viet Nam. The findings come from observation, a survey and interviews with women seeking ultrasound scans at a main maternity hospital and interviews with doctors providing ultrasound there. We found a dramatic overuse of ultrasound scanning; the 400 women surveyed had had an average of 6.6 scans and 8.3 antenatal visits during pregnancy, while one-fifth had had ten scans or more. Doctors considered obstetric ultrasound an indispensable part of modern antenatal care. For two-thirds of the women, the main reason for frequent scans was reassurance of normal fetal development. However, the women often also said their doctor had recommended the scans. This overuse must be seen in the context of growing commercialisation in the Vietnamese health care system, where ultrasound provides an important source of revenue for both private and public providers. There is an urgent need in Viet Nam for policy and practice guidelines on the appropriate use of ultrasonography in pregnancy and how best to combine it with essential antenatal care, and information dissemination to women.

  13. Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V; Huong, L T; Suntsova, N I; Gratz, N G

    1997-01-01

    Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

  14. The tomato NAC transcription factor SlNAM2 is involved in flower-boundary morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hendelman, Anat; Stav, Ran; Zemach, Hanita; Arazi, Tzahi

    2013-12-01

    Being composed of several whorls of distinct floral organs, the flower is one of the most complex organs in the plant. As such, the formation and maintenance of boundaries that separate the meristem from the floral organ primordium and adjacent organs are critical for its normal development. In Arabidopsis, the miR164-regulated NAM genes play key roles in floral-boundary specification. By contrast, much less is known about floral-boundary establishment in the model crop tomato. It was found that the miR164-regulated NAM gene GOBLET is expressed in the floral meristem-organ boundaries and its loss-of-function mutant produces flowers with fused organs, indicating its requirement for tomato floral-boundary formation. It was found here that sly-miR164 targets the transcripts of three additional uncharacterized NAM genes in developing flowers. It is shown that, after floral-boundary initiation, the NAM gene Solyc03g115850 (SlNAM2) is expressed as stripes that mark the boundaries between sepals and between different floral whorls. Furthermore, ectopic accumulation of SlNAM2-encoding transcripts caused various growth-suppression and extraorgan phenotypes typically observed in plants over-expressing known boundary genes. Flower-specific silencing of sly-miR164-targeted NAM genes (AP1>MIR164) caused defects in the separation of sepals and floral whorls indicating abnormal boundary specification. However, supplementing these NAM-deficient flowers with miR164-resistant SlNAM2 suppressed their fusion phenotypes and completely restored floral boundaries. Together, our results strongly suggest that SlNAM2 participates in the establishment of tomato flower whorl and sepal boundaries.

  15. NAM-TMS Mechanism of α-Amino Acid N-Carboxyanhydride Polymerization: A DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Bai, Tianwen; Ling, Jun

    2017-06-15

    The normal amine mechanism via the proton-transfer route (NAM-H) is widely accepted for the synthesis of polypeptides with nonionic initiators. Besides proton transfer, the trimethylsilyl (TMS) group transfer process has been found in living/controlled polymerization initiated by N-TMS amine in experiments, but the corresponding mechanism has never been proposed. In this work, we employed density functional theory (DFT) with the solvation model to investigate the details of the TMS-transfer mechanism, defined as NAM-TMS, for the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride. The TMS transfer process of NAM-TMS is thermodynamically more favored than the NAM-H mechanism according to the lower addition energy barrier observed. The rate-determining step (RDS) in NAM-TMS is the decarboxylation step, i.e., the release of CO2, rather than carbonyl addition in NAM-H because of the low dipole stable precursor enlarged energy gap of decarboxylation. It is the first calculation evidence supporting decarboxylation as RDS in the NAM mechanism.

  16. Harm reduction and "clean" community: can Viet Nam have both?

    PubMed

    Khuat, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Van Anh Thi; Jardine, Melissa; Moore, Timothy; Bui, Thu Huong; Crofts, Nick

    2012-07-09

    The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks - especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other - as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center.The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level.To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the "new society" movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws.Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal.

  17. Control of malaria: a successful experience from Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Q.; Vries, Peter J. de; Giao, Phan T.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Binh, Tran Q.; Chong, M. T.; Quoc, N. T. T. A.; Thanh, T. N.; Hung, L. N.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To follow malaria prospectively in an ethnic minority commune in the south of Viet Nam with high malaria transmission and seasonal fluctuation, during malaria control interventions using insecticide-treated bednets (ITBNs) and early diagnosis and treatment (EDT) of symptomatic patients. METHODS: From 1994 onwards the following interventions were used: distribution of ITBNs to all households with biannual reimpregnation; construction of a health post and appointment of staff trained in microscopic diagnosis and treatment of malaria; regular supply of materials and drugs; annual cross-sectional malaria surveys with treatment of all parasitaemic subjects, and a programme of community involvement and health education. Surveys were held yearly at the end of the rainy season. During the surveys, demographic data were updated. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria were free of charge. Plasmodium falciparum infection was treated with artesunate and P. vivax infection with chloroquine plus primaquine. FINDINGS: The baseline survey in 1994 recorded 716 inhabitants. Of the children under 2 years of age, 37% were parasitaemic; 56% of children aged 2-10 years, and 35% of the remaining population were parasitaemic. P. falciparum accounted for 73-79% of these infections. The respective splenomegaly rates for the above-mentioned age groups were 20%, 56%, and 32%. In 1999, the proportion of parasitaemic subjects was 4%, 7% and 1%, respectively, of which P.falciparum contributed 56%. The splenomegaly rate was 0%, 5% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of ITBNs and EDT, provided free of charge, complemented by annual diagnosis and treatment during malaria surveys and community involvement with health education successfully brought malaria under control. This approach could be applied to other regions in the south of Viet Nam and provides a sound basis for further studies in other areas with different epidemiological patterns of malaria. PMID:12219158

  18. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J. ); Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  19. Neogene sequence stratigraphy, Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.; Do Van Luu; Lee, E.K.; Hong, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    An integrated well log, biostratigraphic, and seismic stratigraphic study of Miocene to Recent deltaic sediments deposited in the Nam Con Son Basin offshore from southern Vietnam shows the influence of eustacy and tectonics on sequence development. Sediments consist of Oligocene non-marine rift-basin fill (Cau Formation), early to middle Miocene tide-dominated delta plain to delta front sediments (TB 1.5 to TB 2.5, Due and Thong Formations), and late Miocene to Recent marine shelf sediments (TB. 2.6 to TB 3.1 0, Mang Cau, Nam Con Son, and Bien Dong Formations). Eustacy controlled the timing of key surfaces and sand distribution in the tectonically-quiet early Miocene. Tectonic effects on middle to late Miocene sequence development consist of thick transgressive systems tracts due to basin-wide subsidence and transgression, sand distribution in the basin center, and carbonate sedimentation on isolated fault blocks within the basin. Third-order sequence boundaries (SB) are identified by spore peaks, sand stacking patterns, and channel incision. In the basin center, widespread shale beds with coal occur above sequence boundaries followed by transgressive sandstone units. These TST sandstones merge toward the basin margin where they lie on older HST sandstones. Maximum flooding surfaces (MFS) have abundant marine microfossils and mangrove pollen, a change in sand stacking pattern, and often a strong seismic reflection with downlap. Fourth-order genetic-type sequences are also interpreted. The MFS is the easiest marker to identify and correlate on well logs. Fourth-order SB occur within these genetic units but are harder to identify and correlate.

  20. mim3 and nam3 omnipotent suppressor genes similarly affect the polypeptide composition of yeast mitoribosomes.

    PubMed

    Mieszczak, M; Zagórski, W

    1987-05-01

    Yeast informational suppressors of mit- mutations coded for by nuclear (nam3-1, nam3-2) or by mitochondrial DNA (mim3-1) affect the mitoribosome. Nuclear mutations result in the appearance of an additional polypeptide called SI in the small mitoribosomal subunit. An identical polypeptide, not detected in the wild type 37S subunit, is present in crude preparations of mitoribosomes isolated from a mim3-1 suppressor carrying strain. Traces of the SI polypeptide may be found in highly purified small subunits from the mim3-1 strain. Therefore, mutations affecting either mitochondrial rRNA (mim3-1) or mitochondrial r-proteins (nam3-1, nam3-2) could be followed by similar changes in overall mitoribosome structure. This may explain the functional similarity of nuclear and mitochondrially coded suppressors.

  1. Water Level Changes of Nam-Co Lake Based on Satellite Altimetry Data Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Qiao, G.; Li, H. W.

    2017-09-01

    Nam-Co Lake is the largest saltwater lake in Tibet and less influenced by human activity. In order to study the change of water level of Nam-Co Lake over the past decades and the impacts of climate change on the region, this paper combined height measurements of ERS-1, ERS-2, ENVISAT, ICESat-2 and CryoSat-2. We found that the water level of Nam Co Lake experienced three periods of change, namely, slightly decreasing period (1992-1993), significantly increasing period (1995-2005), and stable period (2006-2015). The change is consistent with the change of meteorological factors in the Nam-Co Basin. The increase of glacier melt water and precipitation in the basin is considered to be the cause of the overall trend of water level.

  2. The Scientific and Technical Revolution in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Nguyen Khac

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the reasons for the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam's scientific backwardness. A development project which will enable this country to become a modern, economically self-sufficient country by the year 2000 is outlined. (BT)

  3. The Scientific and Technical Revolution in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vien, Nguyen Khac

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the reasons for the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam's scientific backwardness. A development project which will enable this country to become a modern, economically self-sufficient country by the year 2000 is outlined. (BT)

  4. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  5. Shining Light on an mGlu5 Photoswitchable NAM: A Theoretical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, James A.R.; Lans, Isaias; Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Gómez-Santacana, Xavier; Pittolo, Silvia; Gorostiza, Pau; Llebaria, Amadeu; Goudet, Cyril; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important drug targets because of their involvement in several neurological diseases. Among mGluRs, mGlu5 is a particularly high-profile target because its positive or negative allosteric modulation can potentially treat schizophrenia or anxiety and chronic pain, respectively. Here, we computationally and experimentally probe the functional binding of a novel photoswitchable mGlu5 NAM, termed alloswitch-1, which loses its NAM functionality under violet light. We show alloswitch-1 binds deep in the allosteric pocket in a similar fashion to mavoglurant, the co-crystallized NAM in the mGlu5 transmembrane domain crystal structure. Alloswitch-1, like NAM 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), is significantly affected by P655M mutation deep in the allosteric pocket, eradicating its functionality. In MD simulations, we show alloswitch-1 and MPEP stabilize the co-crystallized water molecule located at the bottom of the allosteric site that is seemingly characteristic of the inactive receptor state. Furthermore, both NAMs form H-bonds with S809 on helix 7, which may constitute an important stabilizing interaction for NAM-induced mGlu5 inactivation. Alloswitch-1, through isomerization of its amide group from trans to cis is able to form an additional interaction with N747 on helix 5. This may be an important interaction for amide-containing mGlu5 NAMs, helping to stabilize their binding in a potentially unusual cis-amide state. Simulated conformational switching of alloswitch-1 in silico suggests photoisomerization of its azo group from trans to cis may be possible within the allosteric pocket. However, photoexcited alloswitch-1 binds in an unstable fashion, breaking H-bonds with the protein and destabilizing the co-crystallized water molecule. This suggests photoswitching may have destabilizing effects on mGlu5 binding and functionality. PMID:26391742

  6. Shining Light on an mGlu5 Photoswitchable NAM: A Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Dalton, James A R; Lans, Isaias; Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Gómez-Santacana, Xavier; Pittolo, Silvia; Gorostiza, Pau; Llebaria, Amadeu; Goudet, Cyril; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important drug targets because of their involvement in several neurological diseases. Among mGluRs, mGlu5 is a particularly high-profile target because its positive or negative allosteric modulation can potentially treat schizophrenia or anxiety and chronic pain, respectively. Here, we computationally and experimentally probe the functional binding of a novel photoswitchable mGlu5 NAM, termed alloswitch-1, which loses its NAM functionality under violet light. We show alloswitch-1 binds deep in the allosteric pocket in a similar fashion to mavoglurant, the co-crystallized NAM in the mGlu5 transmembrane domain crystal structure. Alloswitch-1, like NAM 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), is significantly affected by P655M mutation deep in the allosteric pocket, eradicating its functionality. In MD simulations, we show alloswitch-1 and MPEP stabilize the co-crystallized water molecule located at the bottom of the allosteric site that is seemingly characteristic of the inactive receptor state. Furthermore, both NAMs form H-bonds with S809 on helix 7, which may constitute an important stabilizing interaction for NAM-induced mGlu5 inactivation. Alloswitch-1, through isomerization of its amide group from trans to cis is able to form an additional interaction with N747 on helix 5. This may be an important interaction for amide-containing mGlu5 NAMs, helping to stabilize their binding in a potentially unusual cis-amide state. Simulated conformational switching of alloswitch-1 in silico suggests photoisomerization of its azo group from trans to cis may be possible within the allosteric pocket. However, photoexcited alloswitch-1 binds in an unstable fashion, breaking H-bonds with the protein and destabilizing the co-crystallized water molecule. This suggests photoswitching may have destabilizing effects on mGlu5 binding and functionality.

  7. Application of tank, NAM, ARMA and neural network models to flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingsanchali, Tawatchai; Gautam, Mahesh Raj

    2000-10-01

    Two lumped conceptual hydrological models, namely tank and NAM and a neural network model are applied to flood forecasting in two river basins in Thailand, the Wichianburi on the Pasak River and the Tha Wang Pha on the Nan River using the flood forecasting procedure developed in this study. The tank and NAM models were calibrated and verified and found to give similar results. The results were found to improve significantly by coupling stochastic and deterministic models (tank and NAM) for updating forecast output. The neural network (NN) model was compared with the tank and NAM models. The NN model does not require knowledge of catchment characteristics and internal hydrological processes. The training process or calibration is relatively simple and less time consuming compared with the extensive calibration effort required by the tank and NAM models. The NN model gives good forecasts based on available rainfall, evaporation and runoff data. The black-box nature of the NN model and the need for selecting parameters based on trial and error or rule-of-thumb, however, characterizes its inherent weakness. The performance of the three models was evaluated statistically.

  8. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, M N T; Tiemersma, E W; Kremer, K; de Haas, P; Lan, N T N; Buu, T N; Sola, C; Cobelens, F G J; van Soolingen, D

    2013-11-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests. We quantified the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains lacking IS6110 in rural Viet Nam and studied their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Consecutively diagnosed adult TB patients in rural Southern Viet Nam submitted two sputum samples for culture, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) spoligotyping and 15-loci variable number tandem repeat typing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm the absence of IS6110 elements in strains lacking IS6110 hybridisation in RFLP. Among 2664 TB patient isolates examined, 109 (4.1%) had no IS6110 element. Compared to other strains, these no-copy strains were less often resistant to anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly to streptomycin (adjusted OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5), and showed significant geographic variation. No associations with TB history or demographic factors were found. Strains without the IS6110 target pose a problem in Viet Nam as regards false-negative molecular TB diagnosis in PCR. Compared to other strains circulating in Viet Nam, no-copy strains are more susceptible to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  9. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  10. [Sexual attraction: its dimensionality].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María Angeles; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a new Sexual Attraction Questionnaire (SAQ) [Cuestionario de Atracción Sexual, CAS]. The goal was to determine whether sexual attraction could be represented as two different clusters (Attraction to men and Attraction to women), which would imply two negatively correlated factors or a bipolar one. Three studies were carried out with 182, 118, and 425 participants, respectively. Cluster and exploratory factor analyses were performed. The results obtained show satisfactory psychometric properties for the SAQ, the two clusters, and the two predicted negatively related factors or the bipolar factor. Results are discussed in the context of the different conceptions of sexual attraction and the fourfold typology: attracted to both sexes, to men, to women, or to neither sex.

  11. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  12. An Active Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joseph C.; Buzzelli, Cary

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit on magnetism that utilizes hands-on activities in which students make hypotheses for discrepant behavior, discover whether a magnet attracts one object through another, measure the strength of magnets, explore levitating paper clips, and play a game dependent on magnetic attraction. (MDH)

  13. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  14. American Cockroach Sex Attractant.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Beroza, M

    1965-02-12

    The structure (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclopropyl propionate) previously assigned to the sex attractant of the American cockroach has now been shown by additional physical and chemical data and biological inactivity of the synthetic preparation to be incorrect. The structure of this attractant remains to be determined.

  15. Assertiveness and Physical Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleim, David M.; And Others

    Earlier research investigating the relationship between physical attractiveness and assertiveness found that physically attractive females were more assertive than other females. To investigate this relationship further and to broaden the scope of the study, 69 students were videotaped in groups of five to ten while responding to open-ended…

  16. The effects of placing an operational research fellow within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Programme

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. V.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    In April 2009, an operational research fellow was placed within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). Over the 6 years from 2010 to 2015, the OR fellow co-authored 21 tuberculosis research papers (as principal author in 15 [71%]). This constituted 23% of the 91 tuberculosis papers published in Viet Nam during this period. Of the 21 published papers, 16 (76%) contributed to changes in policy (n = 8) and practice (n = 8), and these in turn improved programme performance. Many papers also contributed important evidence for better programme planning. Highly motivated OR fellows embedded within NTPs can facilitate high-quality research and research uptake. PMID:28123967

  17. The effects of placing an operational research fellow within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Programme.

    PubMed

    Hoa, N B; Nhung, N V; Kumar, A M V; Harries, A D

    2016-12-21

    In April 2009, an operational research fellow was placed within the Viet Nam National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP). Over the 6 years from 2010 to 2015, the OR fellow co-authored 21 tuberculosis research papers (as principal author in 15 [71%]). This constituted 23% of the 91 tuberculosis papers published in Viet Nam during this period. Of the 21 published papers, 16 (76%) contributed to changes in policy (n = 8) and practice (n = 8), and these in turn improved programme performance. Many papers also contributed important evidence for better programme planning. Highly motivated OR fellows embedded within NTPs can facilitate high-quality research and research uptake.

  18. The promises and perils of hospital autonomy: reform by decree in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    London, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    This article investigates impacts of hospital autonomization in Viet Nam employing a "decision-space" framework that examines how hospitals have used their increased discretion and to what effect. Analysis suggests autonomization is associated with increased revenue, increasing staff pay, and greater investment in infrastructure and equipment. But autonomization is also associated with more costly and intensive treatment methods of uncertain contribution to the Vietnamese government's stated goal of quality healthcare for all. Impacts of autonomization in district hospitals are less striking. Despite certain limitations, the analysis generates key insights into early stages of hospital autonomization in Viet Nam.

  19. Gross CO2 and CH4 emissions from the Nam Ngum and Nam Leuk sub-tropical reservoirs in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Harby, Atle; Sundt, Håkon; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Brakstad, Odd; Serça, Dominique; Guerin, Frédéric

    2011-11-15

    Gross CO2 and CH4 emissions (degassing and diffusion from the reservoir) and the carbon balance were assessed in 2009-2010 in two Southeast Asian sub-tropical reservoirs: the Nam Ngum and Nam Leuk Reservoirs (Lao PDR). These two reservoirs are within the same climatic area but differ mainly in age, size, residence time and initial biomass stock. The Nam Leuk Reservoir was impounded in 1999 after partial vegetation clearance and burning. However, GHG emissions are still significant 10 years after impoundment. CH4 diffusive flux ranged from 0.8 (January 2010) to 11.9 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (April 2009) and CO2 diffusive flux ranged from -10.6 (October 2009) to 38.2 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (April 2009). These values are comparable to other tropical reservoirs. Moreover, degassing fluxes at the outlet of the powerhouse downstream of the turbines were very low. The tentative annual carbon balance calculation indicates that this reservoir was a carbon source with an annual carbon export (atmosphere+downstream river) of about 2.2±1.0 GgC yr(-1). The Nam Ngum Reservoir was impounded in 1971 without any significant biomass removal. Diffusive and degassing CO2 and CH4 fluxes were lower than for other tropical reservoirs. Particularly, CO2 diffusive fluxes were always negative with values ranging from -21.2 (April 2009) to -2.7 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (January 2010). CH4 diffusive flux ranged from 0.1 (October 2009) to 0.6 mmol m(-2) d(-1) (April 2009) and no degassing downstream of the turbines was measured. As a consequence of these low values, the reservoir was a carbon sink with an estimated annual uptake of - 53±35 GgC yr(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ranking facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Knight, Helen; Keith, Olly

    2005-08-01

    The first aim of this investigation was to assemble a group of photographs of 30 male and 30 female faces representing a standardized spectrum of facial attractiveness, against which orthognathic treatment outcomes could be compared. The second aim was to investigate the influence of the relationship between ANB differences and anterior lower face height (ALFH) percentages on facial attractiveness. The initial sample comprised standardized photographs of 41 female and 35 male Caucasian subjects. From these, the photographs of two groups of 30 male and 30 female subjects were compiled. A panel of six clinicians and six non-clinicians ranked the photographs. The results showed there to be a good level of reliability for each assessor when ranking the photographs on two occasions, particularly for the clinicians (female subjects r = 0.76-0.97, male subjects r = 0.72-0.94). Agreement among individuals within each group was also high, particularly when ranking facial attractiveness in male subjects (female subjects r = 0.57-0.84, male subjects r = 0.91-0.94). Antero-posterior (AP) discrepancies, as measured by soft tissue ANB, showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, a trend emerged that would suggest that in faces where the ANB varies widely from 5 degrees, the face is considered less attractive. The ALFH percentage also showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, there was a trend that suggested that greater ALFH percentages are considered less attractive in female faces, while in males the opposite trend was seen. Either of the two series of ranked photographs as judged by clinicians and non-clinicians could be used as a standard against which facial attractiveness could be assessed, as both were in total agreement about the most attractive faces. However, to judge the outcome of orthognathic treatment, the series of ranked photographs produced by the non-clinician group should be used as the 'standard' to reflect lay

  1. Haynaldia villosa NAM-V1 is linked with the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 and contributes to increasing grain protein content in wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuanzhi; Lv, Xindi; Li, Yinghui; Li, Feng; Geng, Miaomiao; Mi, Yangyang; Ni, Zhongfu; Wang, Xingjun; Xie, Chaojie; Sun, Qixin

    2016-06-14

    The 6AL/6VS translocation lines, carrying the wheat powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, are planted on more than 3.4 million hectares. The NAM-A1 gene, located on chromosome 6AS of hexaploid wheat, has been implicated with increased wheat grain protein content (GPC). However, the NAM-A1 gene was removed from the 6AL/6VS translocation lines after the original chromosome 6AS was replaced by chromosome 6VS of Haynaldia villosa. The present study aimed to clone the NAM homologous gene from chromosome 6VS, to analyze the changes of GPC in the 6AL/6VS translocation lines, and to develop related molecular markers for wheat molecular breeding. A new NAM family gene, NAM-V1, was cloned from 6VS of H. villosa (GenBank ACC. no. KR873101). NAM-V1 contained an intact open reading frame (ORF) and putatively encodes a protein of 407 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NAM-V1 was an orthologous gene of NAM-A1, B1, and D1. The determination of GPC in four Pm21 F2 segregation populations demonstrated that the replacement of NAM-A1 by NAM-V1 confers increased GPC in hexaploid wheat. Multiple sequence alignment of NAM-A1, B1, B2, D1, D2, and V1 showed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites for each of the NAM genes, allowing us to develop a molecular marker, CauNAM-V1, for the specific detection of NAM-V1 gene. Our results indicate that CauNAM-V1 can be used as a novel DNA marker for NAM-V1, and can also be used for selecting Pm21 in wheat breeding programs. Further, we developed a marker, CauNAM-ABD, for the amplification and simultaneously distinguish among the NAM-A1, NAM-B1, NAM-B2, NAM-D1, and NAM-D2 genes in a single step. CauNAM-ABD enabled us to develop an efficient "one-marker-for-five-genes" procedure for identifying genes and its copy numbers related with grain protein content. Here, we report the isolation of the NAM-V1 gene of H. villosa. This gene contributes to increasing GPC in 6AL/6VS translocation wheat lines. We developed a molecular marker

  2. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  3. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.

  4. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  5. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Irwin

    1971-01-01

    This study shows a high and disquieting degree of similarity in physical attractiveness between dating partners, and suggests also that more similar partners tend to form stronger romantic attachments. (Author)

  6. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  7. Genetic Architecture of Maize Kernel Quality in the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many studies have been conducted to identify genes (quantitative trait loci; QTL) underlying kernel quality traits. However, these studies were limited to analyzing two parents at once and often resulted in low resolution mapping of QTL. The maize nested association mapping (NAM) population is a r...

  8. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  9. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  10. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay; Lauritsen, Jens M; Rieder, Hans L

    2011-05-23

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007) were obtained for comparison. A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively.The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Characteristics of patients greatly differed between countries and between patient categories. In Cambodia

  11. Surface ozone at Nam Co in the inland Tibetan Plateau: variation, synthesis comparison and regional representativeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiufeng; Kang, Shichang; de Foy, Benjamin; Cong, Zhiyuan; Luo, Jiali; Zhang, Lang; Ma, Yaoming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Zhang, Qianggong

    2017-09-01

    Ozone is an important pollutant and greenhouse gas, and tropospheric ozone variations are generally associated with both natural and anthropogenic processes. As one of the most pristine and inaccessible regions in the world, the Tibetan Plateau has been considered as an ideal region for studying processes of the background atmosphere. Due to the vast area of the Tibetan Plateau, sites in the southern, northern and central regions exhibit different patterns of variation in surface ozone. Here, we present continuous measurements of surface ozone mixing ratios at Nam Co Station over a period of ˜ 5 years (January 2011 to October 2015), which is a background site in the inland Tibetan Plateau. An average surface ozone mixing ratio of 47.6 ± 11.6 ppb (mean ± standard deviation) was recorded, and a large annual cycle was observed with maximum ozone mixing ratios in the spring and minimum ratios during the winter. The diurnal cycle is characterized by a minimum in the early morning and a maximum in the late afternoon. Nam Co Station represents a background region where surface ozone receives negligible local anthropogenic emissions inputs, and the anthropogenic contribution from South Asia in spring and China in summer may affect Nam Co Station occasionally. Surface ozone at Nam Co Station is mainly dominated by natural processes involving photochemical reactions, vertical mixing and downward transport of stratospheric air mass. Model results indicate that the study site is affected differently by the surrounding areas in different seasons: air masses from the southern Tibetan Plateau contribute to the high ozone levels in the spring, and enhanced ozone levels in the summer are associated with air masses from the northern Tibetan Plateau. By comparing measurements at Nam Co Station with those from other sites on the Tibetan Plateau, we aim to expand the understanding of ozone cycles and transport processes over the Tibetan

  12. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Levin, Carol E; Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-08-01

    To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for hpv vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services.

  13. Delivery cost of human papillomavirus vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Odaga, John; Rout, Swampa Sarit; Ngoc, Diep Nguyen Thi; Menezes, Lysander; Araujo, Maria Ana Mendoza; LaMontagne, D Scott

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the incremental delivery cost of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam. Methods Data were collected from a sample of facilities that participated in five demonstration projects for HPV vaccine delivery: school-based delivery was used in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam; health-centre-based delivery was also used in Viet Nam; and integrated delivery, which involved existing health services, was also used in Uganda. Microcosting methods were used to guide data collection on the use of resources (i.e. staff, supplies and equipment) and data were obtained from government, demonstration project and health centre administrative records. Delivery costs were expressed in 2009 United States dollars (US$). Exclusively project-related expenses and the cost of the vaccine were excluded. Findings The economic delivery cost per vaccine dose ranged from US$ 1.44 for integrated outreach in Uganda to US$ 3.88 for school-based delivery in Peru. In Viet Nam, the lowest cost per dose was US$ 1.92 for health-centre-based delivery. Cost profiles revealed that, in general, the largest contributing factors were project start-up costs and recurrent personnel costs. The delivery cost of HPV vaccine was higher than published costs for traditional vaccines recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Conclusion The cost of delivering HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls in Peru, Uganda and Viet Nam was higher than that for vaccines currently in the EPI schedule. The cost per vaccine dose was lower when delivery was integrated into existing health services. PMID:23940406

  14. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  15. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  16. Correlates of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisbell, Marshall

    A study assessed the relationship of the independent variables of interpersonal attraction to the dependent variables of feeling good, relational safety, and uncertainty level. Subjects were 75 elementary and secondary school teachers, 61 communication students, 18 child development professionals, and 8 service club members. Each subject completed…

  17. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  18. Attracting Philosophy Students--1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coole, Walter A., Ed.

    This is the first in a series of occasional papers designed as a vehicle for the collection and dissemination of ideas for increasing philosophy course enrollments in two-year colleges. A project of the Subcommittee on Attracting Philosophy Students of the American Philosophical Association's Committee on Teaching Philosophy in Two-Year Colleges,…

  19. Adolescent Attraction to Cults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Eagan

    1998-01-01

    Details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. and distinguishes functions of cults and the term "cult." Identifies various cults, and describes the process of involvement. Notes that in the absence of authentic, stabilizing standards, some youth are especially vulnerable. Provides recommendations for adults working with…

  20. Science Can Be Attractive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the properties of neodymium magnets and magnets in general and how magnets can be used to teach students important scientific principles, such as attraction, repulsion, and polarity; the role of magnetic forces in electronic communications and computers; the magnetic properties of the earth and compasses; and the relationship between…

  1. Marketing to attract women.

    PubMed

    Dearing, R H

    1987-01-01

    Patient care and marketing programs sensitive to women can help Catholic facilities increase maternity care patient volumes. Four factors influence hospitals' ability to attract women. Women today are better educated and more sophisticated than ever before about health care needs, and they have more providers from which to choose. With limited resources, providers must be discriminating in the type of services they deliver and how. Finally, women make most of the health care decisions for the families. To attract women, providers should offer them personalized care, participation in decisions, information about treatment, attractive facilities, convenience, and affordable costs. Many providers believe Catholic facilities fail to attract maternity patients because they do not perform tubal ligations; however, parents generally see childbirth as a separate event from sterilization. Providers also believe that non-Catholic patients will not use their facilities, but today's patients choose a hospital because of what it offers, not sponsorship. Some patients may not choose Catholic facilities because they see them as less progressive, but this image can be corrected through marketing Catholic facilities' common strengths include their focus on care rather than profit, their compassionate, individualized care, the image of women caring for women, and their stability. Catholic facilities have built on their strengths to attract women patients by reinforcing positive perceptions with innovative programs, marketing directly to women, educating physicians in how to respond to women's needs, increasing linkages with all women in the community, ensuring that the mission of care is reflected in the physical plant, using a marketing program to help employees carry out compassionate care, and surveying patients for feedback on how their needs are met.

  2. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  3. Stakeholder perceptions of a total market approach to family planning in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Thi Thanh, Luu Huong; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Thi Thu, Ha Phan; Vail, Janet G

    2010-11-01

    Viet Nam has high modern contraceptive prevalence (68%), with most services received through the public sector. As the country transitions to middle-income status, Viet Nam's donors have ceased donations of contraceptive supplies, causing a large projected shortfall in the family planning budget. In response, the Ministry of Health has decided to prioritize free or subsidized contraceptives for poor and vulnerable groups, while enhancing social marketing and sales of contraceptives in the free market. To support planning for this "total market approach", a descriptive exploratory study was conducted with 38 public and private sector family planning stakeholders to gain their perceptions of the proposals. There was a high level of support for government leadership of public-private coordination and stewardship of the entire family planning system. Key information gaps were identified regarding how the reforms can promote equitable access to family planning and financial sustainability in pricing. The government's experience with this transition may yield valuable guidance for other settings.

  4. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-03

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine.

  5. Antipsychotics and physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-10-01

    Antipsychotics are effective in treating the symptoms of schizophrenia, but they may induce adverse effects, some of which-those that impact negatively on physical appearance-have not been sufficiently discussed in the psychiatric literature. Through a narrative review, to catalog antipsychotic side effects that interfere with physical attractiveness and to suggest ways of addressing them. PubMed databases were searched for information on the association between "antipsychotic side effects" and "attractiveness" using those two search phrases plus the following terms: "weight," "teeth," "skin," "hair," "eyes," "gait," "voice," "odor." Data from relevant qualitative and quantitative articles were considered, contextualized, and summarized. Antipsychotics, as a group, increase weight and may lead to dry mouth and bad breath, cataracts, hirsutism, acne, and voice changes; they may disturb symmetry of gait and heighten the risk for tics and spasms and incontinence, potentially undermining a person's attractiveness. Clinicians need to be aware of the impact of therapeutic drugs on appearance and how important this issue is to patients. Early in treatment, they need to plan preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  6. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. Approach On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. Local setting The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Relevant changes Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law’s introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Lessons learnt Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed. PMID:20931064

  7. Player or referee? Aid effectiveness and the governance of health policy development: Lessons from Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Rebecca; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Viet Nam is one of the brightest stars in the constellation of developing countries. Its remarkable achievements in reducing poverty and improving health and education outcomes are well known, and as a result it has enjoyed generous aid programmes. Viet Nam also has a reputation for taking a strong lead in disciplining its donors and pushing for more efficient and effective forms of aid delivery, both at home and internationally. This article discusses how efforts to improve the effectiveness of aid intersect with policy-making processes in the health sector. It presents a quantitative review of health aid flows in Viet Nam and a qualitative analysis of the aid environment using event analysis, participant observation and key informant interviews. The analysis reveals a complex and dynamic web of incentives influencing the implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda in the health sector. There are contradictory forces within the Ministry of Health, within government as a whole, within the donor community and between donors and government. Analytical frameworks drawn from the study of policy networks and governance can help explain these tensions. They suggest that governance of health aid in Viet Nam is characterised by multiple, overlapping 'policy networks' which cut across the traditional donor-government divide. The principles of aid effectiveness make sense for some of these communities, but for others they are irrational and may lead to a loss of influence and resources. However, sustained engagement combined with the building of strategic coalitions can overcome individual and institutional incentives. This article suggests that aid reform efforts should be understood not as a technocratic agenda but as a political process with all the associated tensions, perverse incentives and challenges. Partners thus need to recognise - and find new ways of making sense of - the complexity of forces affecting aid delivery.

  8. Evaluation of NOAA's High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), 12 km North America Model (NAM12) and 4km North America Model (NAM 4) hub-height wind speed forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, W.; Vogel, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    As an outcome of discussions between Duke Energy Generation and NOAA/ARL following the 2009 AMS Summer Community Meeting, in Norman Oklahoma, ARL and Duke Energy Generation (Duke) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) which allows NOAA to conduct atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research using Duke renewable energy sites as research testbeds. One aspect of this research has been the evaluation of forecast hub-height winds from three NOAA atmospheric models. Forecasts of 10m (surface) and 80m (hub-height) wind speeds from (1) NOAA/GSD's High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model, (2) NOAA/NCEP's 12 km North America Model (NAM12) and (3) NOAA/NCEP's 4k high resolution North America Model (NAM4) were evaluated against 18 months of surface-layer wind observations collected at the joint NOAA/Duke Energy research station located at Duke Energy's West Texas Ocotillo wind farm over the period April 2011 through October 2012. HRRR, NAM12 and NAM4 10m wind speed forecasts were compared with 10m level wind speed observations measured on the NOAA/ATDD flux-tower. Hub-height (80m) HRRR , NAM12 and NAM4 forecast wind speeds were evaluated against the 80m operational PMM27-28 meteorological tower supporting the Ocotillo wind farm. For each HRRR update, eight forecast hours (hour 01, 02, 03, 05, 07, 10, 12, 15) plus the initialization hour (hour 00), evaluated. For the NAM12 and NAM4 models forecast hours 00-24 from the 06z initialization were evaluated. Performance measures or skill score based on absolute error 50% cumulative probability were calculated for each forecast hour. HRRR forecast hour 01 provided the best skill score with an absolute wind speed error within 0.8 m/s of observed 10m wind speed and 1.25 m/s for hub-height wind speed at the designated 50% cumulative probability. For both NAM4 and NAM12 models, skill scores were diurnal with comparable best scores observed during the day of 0.7 m/s of observed 10m wind speed and 1.1 m/s for hub

  9. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-11-05

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. RESULTS: The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. CONCLUSION: Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified.

  10. The mechanism behind the selection of two different cleavage sites in NAG-NAM polymers

    PubMed Central

    Mihelič, Marko; Vlahoviček-Kahlina, Kristina; Renko, Miha; Mesnage, Stephane; Doberšek, Andreja; Taler-Verčič, Ajda; Jakas, Andreja; Turk, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is a giant molecule that forms the cell wall that surrounds bacterial cells. It is composed of alternating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) residues connected by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and cross-linked with short polypeptide chains. Owing to the increasing antibiotic resistance against drugs targeting peptidoglycan synthesis, studies of enzymes involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, such as N-acetylglucos­aminidases, may expose new, valuable drug targets. The scientific challenge addressed here is how lysozymes, muramidases which are likely to be the most studied enzymes ever, and bacterial N-acetylglucosaminidases discriminate between two glycosidic bonds that are different in sequence yet chemically equivalent in the same NAG-NAM polymers. In spite of more than fifty years of structural studies of lysozyme, it is still not known how the enzyme selects the bond to be cleaved. Using macromolecular crystallography, chemical synthesis and molecular modelling, this study explains how these two groups of enzymes based on an equivalent structural core exhibit a difference in selectivity. The crystal structures of Staphylococcus aureus N-acetylglucosaminidase autolysin E (AtlE) alone and in complex with fragments of peptidoglycan revealed that N-acetylglucosaminidases and muramidases approach the substrate at alternate glycosidic bond positions from opposite sides. The recognition pocket for NAM residues in the active site of N-acetylglucosaminidases may make them a suitable drug target. PMID:28250957

  11. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007–2014). Methods Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. Results The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009–2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere’s influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. Discussion The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future. PMID:26798557

  12. Transport of semivolatile organic compounds to the Tibetan Plateau: Monthly resolved air concentrations at Nam Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hang; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Han, Wenwu; Loewen, Mark; Wong, Fiona; Hung, Hayley; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank

    2010-08-01

    A flow-through sampler was deployed to record the seasonal variability of the atmospheric concentrations of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) at a remote research station located close to Nam Co Lake on the Tibetan plateau. Between October 2006 and February 2008, fifteen consecutive one month-long samples, with air volumes ranging from 4,500 to 16,000 m3, were taken and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Separate analysis of three polyurethane plugs in series in combination with frontal chromatographic theory allows for the correction of the break-through observed for the most volatile SOCs. The concentrations of Σ56PCB in air range from 0.10 to 2.6 pg·m-3 and are among the lowest values ever reported. Levels of OCPs at Nam Co are generally also very low, particularly during wintertime. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), endosulfans, and various dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances display a distinct seasonal variability consistent with the monsoon. Back-trajectory analysis reveals that higher OCP levels during summer correlate with air mass origin south of the Himalayas. A high α/γ-HCH ratio and a non-racemic composition of α-HCH during July/August suggest that evaporation from Nam Co Lake contributes to the relatively high concentrations of α-HCH (averaging ca. 91 pg·m-3) recorded in the summertime atmosphere.

  13. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  14. Disease spectrum and management of children admitted with acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-06-01

    To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were <2 years of age. Influenza/pneumonia accounted for 69.4% of admissions; tuberculosis for only 0.3%. Overall 284 (0.8%) children died; most deaths (269/284; 94.7%) occurred at the tertiary referral hospital. The average duration of hospitalisation was 7.6 days (median 7 days). The average direct hospitalisation cost per ARI admission was 157.5 USD in Da Nang Provincial Hospital. In total, 62.6% of admissions were covered by health insurance. Acute respiratory infection is a major cause of paediatric hospitalisation in Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Circulation of influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Thanh; Pham, Thu Hang; Pham, Thi Hien; Nguyen, Le Khanh Hang; Nguyen, Co Thach; Hoang, Vu Mai Phuong; Tran, Thu Huong; Nguyen, Vu Son; Ngo, Huong Giang; Le, Quynh Mai

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B viruses circulate throughout Viet Nam, and their activities vary by region. There have been two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses co-circulating in the past 20 years; however, only one lineage is selected as a component of contemporary trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines. To improve the understanding of circulating influenza B lineages and influenza vaccine mismatches, we report the virus lineages circulating in northern Viet Nam over an eight-year period (2007-2014). Lineages of 331 influenza B viruses were characterized by haemagglutination inhibition assay against standard reference ferret (Yamagata) and sheep (Victoria) antisera. Sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene was performed in 64 selected influenza B isolates. The proportion of influenza B lineages changed by year. The Yamagata lineage predominated in 2007, 2008 and 2012; the Victoria lineage predominated in 2009-2014 except 2012. The two lineages showed continuous evolution over time. The Northern Hemisphere's influenza vaccine components were mismatched with the predominant circulating viruses in 2007, 2009 and 2014. The seasonality of influenza B activity is more variable in tropical and subtropical regions than in temperate zones. Our data showed a common co-circulation of both influenza B lineages in northern Viet Nam, and it was difficult to predict which one was the predominant lineage. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing both lineages may improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccine programmes in the future.

  16. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Background In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. Method An exploratory qualitative research was carried out among health workers in two provinces in North Viet Nam so as to identify entry points for developing strategies that improve staff performance in rural areas. The study aimed to determine the major motivating factors and it is the first in Viet Nam that looks at health workers' job perception and motivation. Apart from health workers, managers at national and at provincial level were interviewed as well as some community representatives. Results The study showed that motivation is influenced by both financial and non-financial incentives. The main motivating factors for health workers were appreciation by managers, colleagues and the community, a stable job and income and training. The main discouraging factors were related to low salaries and difficult working conditions. Conclusion Activities associated with appreciation such as performance management are currently not optimally implemented, as health workers perceive supervision as control, selection for training as unclear and unequal, and performance appraisal as not useful. The kind of non-financial incentives identified should be taken into consideration when developing HRM strategies. Areas for further studies are identified. PMID:14613527

  17. The mechanism behind the selection of two different cleavage sites in NAG-NAM polymers.

    PubMed

    Mihelič, Marko; Vlahoviček-Kahlina, Kristina; Renko, Miha; Mesnage, Stephane; Doberšek, Andreja; Taler-Verčič, Ajda; Jakas, Andreja; Turk, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    Peptidoglycan is a giant molecule that forms the cell wall that surrounds bacterial cells. It is composed of alternating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) residues connected by β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and cross-linked with short polypeptide chains. Owing to the increasing antibiotic resistance against drugs targeting peptidoglycan synthesis, studies of enzymes involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, such as N-acetylglucos-aminidases, may expose new, valuable drug targets. The scientific challenge addressed here is how lysozymes, muramidases which are likely to be the most studied enzymes ever, and bacterial N-acetylglucosaminidases discriminate between two glycosidic bonds that are different in sequence yet chemically equivalent in the same NAG-NAM polymers. In spite of more than fifty years of structural studies of lysozyme, it is still not known how the enzyme selects the bond to be cleaved. Using macromolecular crystallography, chemical synthesis and molecular modelling, this study explains how these two groups of enzymes based on an equivalent structural core exhibit a difference in selectivity. The crystal structures of Staphylococcus aureusN-acetylglucosaminidase autolysin E (AtlE) alone and in complex with fragments of peptidoglycan revealed that N-acetylglucosaminidases and muramidases approach the substrate at alternate glycosidic bond positions from opposite sides. The recognition pocket for NAM residues in the active site of N-acetylglucosaminidases may make them a suitable drug target.

  18. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  19. Structure, stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.J.; Matthews, S.J.; Lowe, S.; Todd, S.P.; Simon, P. Peel, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Recent exploration of the south east Nam Con Son Basin, offshore Vietnam, by BP in alliance with Statoil has involved acquisition of new seismic and well data. These new data have allowed re-evaluation of the tectono-stratigraphic development and petroleum geology, and have provided additional constraints on the regional tectonic evolution. The offshore Vietnamese basins have evolved in response to the complex relative motions of Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and the South China Sea during the Cenozoic. On the regional scale these motions have been accommodated by strike-slip fault development, rifting and contraction. In the Nam Con Son Basin these motions have interacted in different ways from the Palaeogene to recent. Two rifting episodes are recognized; a Palaeogene phase dominated by E-W trending extensional faults, and a Miocene phase dominated by N-S to NE-SW trending faults. The structural evolution is complicated by a pulse of mild contraction during the Middle Miocene. The sedimentary fill of the basin evolves from continental fluvio-lacustrine in the Palaeogene through to fully marine following the second phase of rifting in the Miocene. This pulsed structural and stratigraphic evolution has resulted in basinwide deposition of source, reservoir and seal facies, and produced a variety of potential trapping styles. This paper describes the hydrocarbon habitat of the south east Nam Con Son Basin within the context of the regional tectono-stratigraphic model.

  20. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. IMPORTANCE EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a

  1. Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions. Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Methods Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam. Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Results Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common – often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking. Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms

  2. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71

  3. Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kinh Van; Thi Do, Nga Thuy; Chandna, Arjun; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Pham, Ca Van; Doan, Phuong Mai; Nguyen, An Quoc; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Larsson, Mattias; Escalante, Socorro; Olowokure, Babatunde; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Gelband, Hellen; Horby, Peter; Thi Ngo, Ha Bich; Hoang, Mai Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2013-12-10

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam.Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common - often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking.Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms, place additional strain on

  4. Are Brazil Nuts Attractive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Duncan A.; Swift, Michael R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.

  5. Biobutanol: an attractive biofuel.

    PubMed

    Dürre, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Biofuels are an attractive means to prevent a further increase of carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, gasoline is blended with ethanol at various percentages. However, butanol has several advantages over ethanol, such as higher energy content, lower water absorption, better blending ability, and use in conventional combustion engines without modification. Like ethanol, it can be produced fermentatively or petrochemically. Current crude oil prices render the biotechnological process economic again. The best-studied bacterium to perform a butanol fermentation is Clostridium acetobutylicum. Its genome has been sequenced, and the regulation of solvent formation is under intensive investigation. This opens the possibility to engineer recombinant strains with superior biobutanol-producing ability.

  6. Pattern formation in the monocot embryo as revealed by NAM and CUC3 orthologues from Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Roman; Werr, Wolfgang

    2005-07-01

    All aerial parts of a higher plant originate from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is initiated during embryogenesis as a part of the basic body plan. In contrast to dicot species, the SAM in Zea mays is not established at an apico-central, but at a lateral position of the transition stage embryo. Genetic and molecular studies in dicots have revealed that members of the NAC gene family of plant-specific transcription factors such as NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) from Petunia or the CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes from Arabidopsis contribute essential functions to the establishment of the SAM and cotyledon separation. As an approach to the understanding of meristem formation in a monocot species, members of the maize NAC family highly related to the NAM/CUC genes were isolated and characterized. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that two distinct NAM and CUC3 precursors already existed prior to the separation of mono- and dicot species. The allocation of the two maize paralogues, ZmNAM1 and ZmNAM2 together with PhNAM, AtCUC2 and AmCUP in one sub-branch and the corresponding expression patterns support their contribution to SAM establishment. In contrast, the ZmCUC3 orthologue is associated with boundary specification at the SAM periphery, where it visualizes which fraction of cells in the SAM is committed to a new leaf primordium. Other maize NAC gene family members are clearly positioned outside of this NAM/CUC3 branch and also exhibit highly cell type-specific expression patterns.

  7. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  8. Rules of Attraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image composite shows two of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's magnets, the 'capture' magnet (upper portion of left panel) and the 'filter' magnet (lower portion of left panel). Scientists use these tools to study the origins of martian dust in the atmosphere. The left panel was taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The four panels to the right, taken by the microscopic imager, show close-up views of the two magnets. The bull's-eye appearance of the capture magnet is a result of alternating magnetic fields, which are used to increase overall magnetic force. The filter magnet lacks these alternating fields and consequently produces a weaker magnetic force. This weaker force selectively attracts only strong magnetic particles.

    Scientists were surprised by the large dark particles on the magnets because airborne particles are smaller in size. They theorize that these spots might be aggregates of small particles that clump together in a magnetic field.

  9. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    PubMed

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-04-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day" - a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its importance for the development of knowledge and skills. Viet Nam also aims to implement lifelong learning (LLL) activities in libraries, museums, cultural centres and clubs. The government of Viet Nam currently operates more than 11,900 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) and is in the process of both renovating and innovating public libraries and museums throughout the country. In addition to the work undertaken by the Viet Nam government, a number of enterprises have been initiated by non-governmental organisations and non-profit organisations to promote literacy and lifelong learning. This paper investigates some government initiatives focused on libraries and CLCs and their impact on reading promotion. Proposing a way forward, the paper confirms that Viet Nam's libraries and CLCs play an essential role in promoting reading and building a LLL Society.

  11. Presurgical Nasoalveolar Molding Therapy Using Figueroa's NAM Technique in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Koya, Shafees; Shetty, Sandeep; Husain, Akhter; Khader, Mustafa

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of nasoalveolar molding (NAM) in the treatment of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate using a modified technique in a South Indian population. The design was a prospective study with blinded measurements. The sample constituted 10 complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients who underwent NAM therapy by the same operator. Direct extra and intra oral anthropometric measurements were done using a digital vernier caliper before and after NAM therapy. A photographic evaluation was also done to rate the nasal deformity post NAM therapy. The differences between measurements were statistically analyzed using paired t tests. The extra oral measurements revealed a statistically significant increase in bi-alar width, columellar length and width. The intraoral measurements demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in anterior alveolar cleft width. There was also a significant increase in arch width and greater and lesser segments length. All cases were rated as improved by the surgeons in photographic analysis. The study has quantitatively shown that the modified NAM therapy improved nasal asymmetry by columellar lengthening and effectively molded the maxillary alveolar arch.

  12. Variation and their relationship of NAM-G1 gene and grain protein content in Triticum timopheevii Zhuk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Gui; Wu, Bi-Hua; Liu, Deng-Cai; Wei, Yu-Ming; Gao, Shi-Bin; Zheng, You-Liang

    2013-02-15

    NAM is an important domestication gene and valuable to enhance grain protein contents (GPCs) of modern wheat cultivars. In the present study, 12 NAM-G1 genes in Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. (AAGG, 2n=4x=28) were cloned. These genes had the same length of 1546 bp including two introns and three exons, and encoded a polypeptide of 407 amino acid residues which contained a N-terminal NAC domain with five sub-domains, and a C-terminal transcriptional activation region (TAR). They were highly similar to the previously published functional NAM-B1 gene DQ871219 from T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides Körn. (AABB, 2n=4x=28) in both the nucleotide and protein sequences, with a very high identity of 99.5%. The differences among the 12 NAM-G1 genes resulted from 17 SNPs including 14 transitions and 3 transversions. They had outstandingly different expression levels in qRT-PCR. And, their relative expression quantities were significantly positively correlated with GPC of the accessions. In addition, the difference in amino acid sequences of the NAM-G1 genes may also affect the GPC variation.

  13. Communication and Culture: Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lydia Ledesma; Emry, Robert A.

    Cultural differences in interpersonal attraction were studied using 93 black, 112 Chicano, and 112 white college students who completed 40 Likert-type rating scales for each of four concepts of attraction (intimate, friendship, acquaintance, and stranger attraction). When a factor solution was generated, differences were noted in the amount of…

  14. Perceived Attractiveness and Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Adams and Cohen (1974) demonstrated that facial attractiveness was a salient factor in differential student-teacher interactions. This research investigates further the interaction between teachers and children perceived to be attractive or unattractive by those teachers. It was hypothesized that attractive children would exhibit more "positive,"…

  15. Continued optimization of the M5 NAM ML375: Discovery of VU6008667, an M5 NAM with high CNS penetration and a desired short half-life in rat for addiction studies.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin M; Nance, Kellie D; Cho, Hykeyung P; Bridges, Thomas M; Jeffrey Conn, P; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-03-15

    This letter describes the continued optimization of M5 NAM ML375 (VU0483253). While a valuable in vivo tool compound, ML375has an excessively long elimination half-life in rat (t1/2=80h), which can be problematic in certain rodent addiction paradigms (e.g., reinstatement). Thus, we required an M5 NAM of comparable potency to ML375, but with a rat t1/2 of less than 4h. Steep SAR plagued this chemotype, and here we detail aniline replacements that offered some improvements over ML375, but failed to advance. Ultimately, incorporation of a single methyl group to the 9b-phenyl ring acted as a metabolic shunt, providing (S)-11 (VU6008667), an equipotent M5 NAM, with high CNS penetration, excellent selectivity versus M1-4 and the desired short half-life (t1/2=2.3h) in rat.

  16. From research evidence to policy: Mental health care in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Harpham, T.; Tuan, T.

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM: The use of evidence-based policy is gaining attention in developing countries. Frameworks to analyse the process of developing policy and to assess whether evidence is likely to influence policy-makers are now available. However, the use of evidence in policies on caring for people with mental illness in developing countries has rarely been analysed. APPROACH: This case study from Viet Nam illustrates how evidence can be used to influence policy. We summarize evidence on the burden of mental illness in Viet Nam and describe attempts to influence policy-makers. We also interviewed key stakeholders to ascertain their views on how policy could be affected. We then applied an analytical framework to the case study; this framework included an assessment of the political context in which the policy was developed, the links between organizations needed to influence policy, external influences on policy-makers and the nature of evidence required to influence policy-makers. LOCAL SETTING: The burden of mental illness among various population groups was large but there were few policies aimed at providing care for people with mental illness, apart from policies for providing hospital-based care for people with severe mental illness. RELEVANT CHANGES: The national plan proposes to incorporate screening for mental illness among women and children in order to implement early detection and treatment. LESSONS LEARNED: Evidence on the burden of mental ill-health in Viet Nam is patchy and research in this area is still relatively undeveloped. Nonetheless the policy process was influenced by the evidence from research because key links between organizations and policy-makers were established at an early stage, the evidence was regarded as rigorous and the timing was opportune. PMID:16917656

  17. 39Ar groundwater dating of a coastal aquifer in the Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Christoph; Purtschert, Roland; Larsen, Flemming; Hoang, Hoan V.; Tran, Long V.; Tran, Luu T.; Pham, Nhan Q.; Sültenfuss, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the south of Nam Dinh Province, Red River Delta, Vietnam, fresh Pleistocene groundwater has been identified to exist next to brackish pore waters in the Red River area (WAGNER et al. 2011). Extensive exploitation of the fresh water results in decreasing groundwater heads and migration of brackish water towards the freshwater (WAGNER et al., 2012). In order to understand the dynamics and origin of the fresh and saltwater and to predict the future evolution of the resource an extensive investigation using environmental tracers has been carried out. 39Ar, 85Kr, 3H/3He and stable noble gas measurements have been used for groundwater dating. Stable isotopes and other geochemical parameters (stable isotopes of the water molecule, water chemistry and gas composition) provide crucial information about the genesis of the water. Groundwater ages are modern in the recharge area and increase to > 1000 years towards the coast and northwards based on the 39Ar data (T1-2: 269 years). Depleted stable noble gas concentrations correlate with high concentrations of dissolved methane suggesting degassing due to the high methane partial pressure. Physical modelling of the degassing process (AESCHBACH-HERTIG et al., 2008) supported by concentrations of accumulated radiogenic 4He indicates that diffusion controlled the observed degassing at a late stage of the groundwater evolution path. References Aeschbach-Hertig, W., El-Gamal, H., Wieser, M., Palcsu, L., 2008. Modeling excess air and degassing in groundwater by equilibrium partitioning with a gas phase. Water Resour Res 44:W08449. Wagner, F., Trung, Ð. T., Phúc, H. Ð., Lindenmaier, F., 2011, Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nam Dinh Province, Final Technical Report, Part A, Improvement of Groundwater Protection in Vietnam. Wagner, F., Ludwig, R. R., Noell, U., Hoang, H. V., Pham, N. Q., Larsen, F., Lindenmaier, F., 2012, Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh

  18. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding. PMID:26483818

  19. Multiple types of child maltreatment and adolescent mental health in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Michael P; Le, Anh Vu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment (MTM), potentially confounding factors and associations with depression, anxiety and self-esteem among adolescents in Viet Nam. Methods In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2591 students (aged 12–18 years; 52.1% female) from randomly-selected classes in eight secondary schools in urban (Hanoi) and rural (Hai Duong) areas of northern Viet Nam (response rate, 94.7%). Sequential multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the relative influence of individual, family and social characteristics and of eight types of maltreatment, including physical, emotional and sexual abuse and physical or emotional neglect, on adolescent mental health. Findings Females reported more neglect and emotional abuse, whereas males reported more physical abuse, but no statistically significant difference was found between genders in the prevalence of sexual abuse. Adolescents were classified as having nil (32.6%), one (25.9%), two (20.7%), three (14.5%) or all four (6.3%) maltreatment types. Linear bivariate associations between MTM and depression, anxiety and low self-esteem were observed. After controlling for demographic and family factors, MTM showed significant independent effects. The proportions of the variance explained by the models ranged from 21% to 28%. Conclusion The combined influence of adverse individual and family background factors and of child maltreatment upon mental health in adolescents in Viet Nam is consistent with research in non-Asian countries. Emotional abuse was strongly associated with each health indicator. In Asian communities where child abuse is often construed as severe physical violence, it is important to emphasize the equally pernicious effects of emotional maltreatment. PMID:20428350

  20. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    The origin, evolution, and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-grain protein content (GPC). Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73 to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44%) than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7) caused by a base mutations (at position 544) in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding.

  1. Discriminant analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder among a group of Viet Nam veterans.

    PubMed

    Frye, J S; Stockton, R A

    1982-01-01

    The authors designed a study to identify those independent variables which would statistically discriminate between a group of Viet Nam veterans who were experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder and those who were not. DSM-III criteria for diagnosis were used to measure and operationally define posttraumatic stress disorder. Five variables distinguished between groups: veterans with the disorder reported a negative perception of their family's helpfulness on return home, a higher level of combat, a more immediate discharge after the war, an external locus of control, and a more supportive attitude toward the war before they entered the service. The authors discuss the implications and limitations of these findings.

  2. Assessment of Viet Nam veterans for posttraumatic stress disorder in Veterans Administration disability claims.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R M; Henderson, R G; Sparr, L F; Deale, S

    1982-09-01

    Since the Veterans Administration (VA) authorized compensation and other benefits for posttraumatic stress disorder, delayed type, in October 1980, the agency has received an increasingly large number of claims--mainly from Viet Nam veterans--for this disorder. An unprecedented challenge of the adequacy of psychiatric disability evaluation in the VA has thus been created. The authors describe efforts in one large program to meet this challenge and review 12 problems in the diagnostic process. Cooperation of all parties in claims transactions, thorough claimant assessment, reliance on DSM-III criteria and methods and consultation with examiners are essential principles for this work.

  3. The Viet Nam Era prisoner of war: precaptivity personality and the development of psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Ursano, R J

    1981-03-01

    The author examines the role of the preexisting personality structure in the development of psychiatric illness after prisoner of war (POW) experience using case studies of six repatriated Viet Nam POWs who were coincidentally evaluated before their captivity. Findings indicate that the presence of psychiatric illness or predisposition to psychiatric illness is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of psychiatric illness after repatriation. Personality changes reflect both adaptation to the captivity environment and the impact of the ego-ideal over that of the punitive elements of the superego. The perspective of personality change rather than psychopathology is more explanatory of the findings.

  4. Matrix Effects in SIMS Analysis of Hydrogen in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenfelder, J. L.; Rossman, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate analysis of trace H in NAMs has become important with recognition that even small amounts of H influence geochemical and geophysical processes. FTIR and SIMS can measure concentrations down to ~1 ppmw H2O. However, a major limitation is that they rely on standards calibrated with other methods. SIMS matrix effects for H in NAMs are poorly constrained, but are likely dominated by differences in mean atomic mass. Here we use volatile-free molar weight (VFMW) normalized to one O/mol as a proxy for this parameter [cf. 1]. Our goal is to constrain SIMS matrix effects by combining our work on olivine [2], pyroxene [3], and feldspar [4] with new data on kyanite, zircon, and 37 garnets (pyropes, grossulars, spessartines, and andradites), while critically evaluating absolute calibrations of IR absorption coefficients (ɛi) for H in NAMs. All of these NAMs taken together span a wider range in VFMW (~32-45) than in previous comparisons [5, 6] concentrating only on olivine, pyroxene, and pyrope-rich garnet (VFMW ~ 34-37). Our results and conclusions include the following: 1) SIMS-FTIR comparisons demonstrate that ɛi is wavenumber dependent for feldspar, zircon, grossular, and clinopyroxene, in accord with theory and empirical calibrations on hydrous materials. On the other hand, a factor of 3 difference in ɛi for H defects in olivine [7] is unsupported by our data [2]. 2) Calibration slopes (for plots of ppmw H2O vs. 16OH/30Si × SiO2) correlate positively with VFMW, an effect not discerned in previous work [6]. This result is also opposite to a study demonstrating a negative correlation for hydrous phases and glasses [1]. This discrepancy may be related to differences in analytical methods (e.g., Cs+ vs. O- primary beam, collection of OH- versus H+). 3) Scatter in the trend of calibration slopes vs. VFMW is likely due to uncertainties in ɛi. Another possible factor is the structure of the matrix, which can affect the kinetic energy of cascade collisions leading to

  5. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  6. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  7. Chemistry of sex attraction.

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, W L

    1995-01-01

    The chemical communication system used to attract mates involves not only the overt chemical signals but also indirectly a great deal of chemistry in the emitter and receiver. As an example, in emitting female moths, this includes enzymes (and cofactors, mRNA, genes) of the pheromone biosynthetic pathways, hormones (and genes) involved in controlling pheromone production, receptors and second messengers for the hormones, and host plant cues that control release of the hormone. In receiving male moths, this includes the chemistry of pheromone transportation in antennal olfactory hairs (binding proteins and sensillar esterases) and the chemistry of signal transduction, which includes specific dendritic pheromone receptors and a rapid inositol triphosphate second messenger signal. A fluctuating plume structure is an integral part of the signal since the antennal receptors need intermittent stimulation to sustain upwind flight. Input from the hundreds of thousands of sensory cells is processed and integrated with other modalities in the central nervous system, but many unknown factors modulate the information before it is fed to motor neurons for behavioral responses. An unknown brain control center for pheromone perception is discussed relative to data from behavioral-threshold studies showing modulation by biogenic amines, such as octopamine and serotonin, from genetic studies on pheromone discrimination, and from behavioral and electrophysiological studies with behavioral antagonists. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7816846

  8. Evaporation variability of Nam Co Lake in the Tibetan Plateau and its role in recent rapid lake expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Niu, Guo-Yue; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhang, Teng; Wang, Binbin; Wu, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the majority of the lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) started to expand rapidly since the late 1990s. However, the causes are still not well known. For Nam Co, being a closed lake with no outflow, evaporation (EL) over the lake surface is the only way water may leave the lake. Therefore, quantifying EL is key for investigating the mechanism of lake expansion in the TP. EL can be quantified by Penman- and/or bulk-transfer-type models, requiring only net radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed for inputs. However, interpolation of wind speed data may be laden with great uncertainty due to extremely sparse ground meteorological observations, the highly heterogeneous landscape and lake-land breeze effects. Here, evaporation of Nam Co Lake was investigated within the 1979-2012 period at a monthly time-scale using the complementary relationship lake evaporation (CRLE) model which does not require wind speed data. Validations by in-situ observations of E601B pan evaporation rates at the shore of Nam Co Lake as well as measured EL over an adjacent small lake using eddy covariance technique suggest that CRLE is capable of simulating EL well since it implicitly considers wind effects on evaporation via its vapor transfer coefficient. The multi-year average of annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake is 635 mm. From 1979 to 2012, annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake expressed a very slight decreasing trend. However, a more significant decrease in EL occurred during 1998-2008 at a rate of -12 mm yr-1. Based on water-level readings, this significant decrease in lake evaporation was found to be responsible for approximately 4% of the reported rapid water level increase and areal expansion of Nam Co Lake during the same period.

  9. Making vasectomy attractive.

    PubMed

    Herndon, N

    1992-08-01

    In 1989, Pro-Pater, a private, nonprofit family planning organization in Brazil, used attractive ads with the message Vasectomy, An Act of Love to promote vasectomy. The number of vasectomies performed/day at Pro-Pater clinics increased from 11 to 20 during the publicity campaign and fell after the ads stopped but continued at higher levels. Word of mouth communication among friends, neighbors, and relatives who had vasectomies maintained these high levels. This type of communication reduced the fear that often involves vasectomies because men hear from men they know and trust that vasectomies are harmless and do not deprive them of potency. In Sao Paulo, the percentage of men familiar with vasectomies and how they are performed increased after the campaign, but in Salvador, knowledge did not increase even though the number of vasectomies in Pro-Pater clinics increased. Organizations in Colombia and Guatemala have also been effective in educating men about vasectomies. These successes were especially relevant in Latin American where machismo has been an obstacle of family planning programs. The no-scalpel technique 1st introduced in China in 1974 reduces the fear of vasectomy and has fewer complications than the conventional technique. Further trained physicians can perform the no-scalpel technique in about 10 minutes compared with 15 minutes for the conventional technique. In 1987 during a 1-day festival in Thailand, physicians averaged 57 no-scalpel vasectomies/day compared with only 33 for conventional vasectomies. This technique has not spread to Guatemala, Brazil, Colombia, the US, and some countries in Asia and Africa. Extensive research does not indicate that vasectomy has an increased risk of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, and myocardial infarction. Physicians are working on ways to improve vasectomy.

  10. Beyond initial attraction: physical attractiveness in newlywed marriage.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Neff, Lisa A; Karney, Benjamin R

    2008-02-01

    Physical appearance plays a crucial role in shaping new relationships, but does it continue to affect established relationships, such as marriage? In the current study, the authors examined how observer ratings of each spouse's facial attractiveness and the difference between those ratings were associated with (a) observations of social support behavior and (b) reports of marital satisfaction. In contrast to the robust and almost universally positive effects of levels of attractiveness on new relationships, the only association between levels of attractiveness and the outcomes of these marriages was that attractive husbands were less satisfied. Further, in contrast to the importance of matched attractiveness to new relationships, similarity in attractiveness was unrelated to spouses' satisfaction and behavior. Instead, the relative difference between partners' levels of attractiveness appeared to be most important in predicting marital behavior, such that both spouses behaved more positively in relationships in which wives were more attractive than their husbands, but they behaved more negatively in relationships in which husbands were more attractive than their wives. These results highlight the importance of dyadic examinations of the effects of spouses' qualities on their marriages.

  11. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Claudia; Dam, Hang

    2014-02-01

    Data on parenting practices and the use of violence in child rearing remain scarce worldwide, hindering prevention efforts. This study examines disciplinary methods used on children at home in Viet Nam. It is based on data collected from 2010 to 2011 through the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4)-a household survey program supported by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) that focuses on women and children in low- and middle-income countries. Respondents in the survey were asked 11 questions relating to disciplinary measures used in the preceding month on one randomly selected child (2-14 years old) in each household. A final question about attitudes probed adults' views on the need for physical punishment in child rearing. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of violent and nonviolent forms of discipline, and to identify risk factors associated with violent punishment. Results showed that three in four children in Viet Nam are disciplined through violent means. The exposure of Vietnamese children to violent forms of discipline was significantly associated with varied characteristics of both children and their caregivers. Moreover, the use of violent disciplinary practices on children was strongly associated with positive attitudes toward corporal punishment. Risk factors for violent child discipline identified in this study can inform future interventions to promote positive practices and to protect Vietnamese children against violence in the home.

  13. Improving antibiotic prescribing in Hai Phong Province, Viet Nam: the "antibiotic-dose" indicator.

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the use and dosage of antibiotics prescribed at Commune Health Stations in Viet Nam, and in so doing find out whether antibiotic dosage can be easily and reliably measured as a drug-use indicator. METHODS: All commune health workers from the 217 commune health stations in Hai Phong Province, Viet Nam, were enlisted over an 18-month study period during 1994-96. The study design was a longitudinal time series, with each new district baseline acting as a rolling control. Each health station was monitored monthly by district supervisors. Two formal evaluations by doctors external to the study were compared with the supervisors' results. Basic medical equipment was provided three times over nine months, conditional on improvements in prescribing practices and adequate supervision of prescribing practices. FINDINGS: The supervisors' data showed that the percentage of encounters in which a patient was prescribed an antibiotic decreased from over 65% to around 45%. When antibiotics were given, the percentage of patients who received an adequate dose increased from under 30% to 98%. These changes were stable for 17 months after the intervention stopped. CONCLUSIONS: Such initiatives require the active collaboration of health personnel and civic leaders at every level. Conditional equipment donation was shown to be effective. A simple indicator measuring adequacy of antibiotic dose can be an effective tool to improve the use of antibiotics in a sustainable way. PMID:11357210

  14. Decadal Glacier Mass Balance over West Nyainqentanglha Range and its Contribution to Nam Co Lake Increasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lin, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Nyainqentanglha Range locates in the south-eastern center of Inner Tibetan Plateau. Glaciers in the whole range covered an area of 795 km2 in 2001 and locate at the transection zone between continental and maritime glaciers. Their melting at the northwestern slope feeds Nam Co Lake. Elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.26m/a during 2003-2009 by ICESat laser altimetry monitoring which implied that retreating of glaciers within its drainage might accelerated. Previous study applied in situ observations on Zhadang Glacier's height change (-0.59m/a) and yielded during 1999 and 2010 glacier melting contributed 28.7% of the lake increasing (Lei et al., 2013). However, Zhadang Glacier only occupies less than 1% of the whole glacier area and almost bellows zero equilibrium line (ZEL), therefore the result should be biased and with large error. In this study, aiming on analyzing glacier melting's contribution to the endorheic lake increasing we applied DEM differencing method to quantify glacier mass balance at Nyainqentanglha Range by using SRTM and newly obtained bistatic TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X images.

  15. Treatment Costs of Pneumonia, Meningitis, Sepsis, and Other Diseases among Hospitalized Children in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Tho, Le Huu; Kim, Soon Ae; Nyambat, Batmunkh; Kilgore, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the costs of treatment of children who present with the signs and symptoms of invasive bacterial diseases in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from the health system perspective. The hospital costs included labour, materials and capital costs, both direct and indirect. Costs were determined for 980 children, with an average age of 12.67 months (standard deviation±11.38), who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance at the Khanh Hoa General Hospital during 2005-2006. Of them, 57% were male. By disease-category, 80% were suspected of having pneumonia, 8% meningitis, 3% very severe disease consistent with pneumococcal sepsis, and 9% other diseases. Treatment costs for suspected pneumonia, meningitis, very severe disease, and other diseases were US$ 31, US$ 57, US$ 73, and US$ 24 respectively. Costs ranged from US$ 24 to US$ 164 across different case-categories. Both type of disease and age of patient had statistically significant effects on treatment costs. The results showed that treatment costs for bacterial diseases in children were considerable and might differ by as much as seven times among invasive pneumococcal diseases. Changes in costs were sensitive to both age of patient and case-category. These cost-of-illness data will be an important component in the overall evidence base to guide the development of vaccine policy in Viet Nam. PMID:20941894

  16. Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795

  17. Quantifying evaporation and its decadal change for Lake Nam Co, central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazhu, Kun Yang; Wang, Junbo; Lei, Yanbin; Chen, Yingying; Zhu, Liping; Ding, Baohong; Qin, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Most lakes in the interior Tibetan Plateau have expanded rapidly since the late 1990s. Because of a lack of observations, lake water balances and their changes are far from well understood. Evaporation is a component of the lake water balance, and this study quantifies its magnitude, decadal change, and its contribution to the water balance changes in Lake Nam Co, one of the largest lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (with an area of approximately 2000 km2 and a mean depth of approximately 40 m). The lake temperature and the evaporation are simulated by the Flake model. The simulation results are validated against observed lake temperature profile from 2013 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer lake surface temperature data from 2000 to 2014. The simulated latent heat flux and sensible heat flux are validated against Bowen ratio-derived estimates for 2013. Based on the validated simulation results, the long-term mean annual evaporation is approximately 832 ± 69 mm, and this value is much less than the potential evaporation estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. The annual evaporation from 1980 to 2014 displays a complex decadal oscillation, mainly due to the changes in energy-related terms (air temperature and radiation). The mean lake evaporation since the late 1990s is greater than previous periods; thus, this change in evaporation has suppressed the recent expansion of Nam Co.

  18. NAM9 nuclear suppressor of mitochondrial ochre mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a protein homologous to S4 ribosomal proteins from chloroplasts, bacteria, and eucaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Boguta, M; Dmochowska, A; Borsuk, P; Wrobel, K; Gargouri, A; Lazowska, J; Slonimski, P P; Szczesniak, B; Kruszewska, A

    1992-01-01

    We report the genetic characterization, molecular cloning, and sequencing of a novel nuclear suppressor, the NAM9 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which acts on mutations of mitochondrial DNA. The strain NAM9-1 was isolated as a respiration-competent revertant of a mitochondrial mit mutant which carries the V25 ochre mutation in the oxi1 gene. Genetic characterization of the NAM9-1 mutation has shown that it is a nuclear dominant omnipotent suppressor alleviating several mutations in all four mitochondrial genes tested and has suggested its informational, and probably ribosomal, character. The NAM9 gene was cloned by transformation of the recipient oxi1-V25 mutant to respiration competence by using a gene bank from the NAM9-1 rho o strain. Orthogonal-field alternation gel electrophoresis analysis and genetic mapping localized the NAM9 gene on the right arm of chromosome XIV. Sequence analysis of the NAM9 gene showed that it encodes a basic protein of 485 amino acids with a presequence that could target the protein to the mitochondrial matrix. The N-terminal sequence of 200 amino acids of the deduced NAM9 product strongly resembles the S4 ribosomal proteins from chloroplasts and bacteria. Significant although less extensive similarity was found with ribosomal cytoplasmic proteins from lower eucaryotes, including S. cerevisiae. Chromosomal inactivation of the NAM9+ gene is not lethal to the cell but leads to respiration deficiency and loss of mitochondrial DNA integrity. We conclude that the NAM9 gene product is a mitochondrial ribosomal counterpart of S4 ribosomal proteins found in other systems and that the suppressor acts through decreasing the fidelity of translation. Images PMID:1729612

  19. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Ted

    2006-01-01

    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements,…

  20. Participatory support to farmers in improving safety and health at work: building WIND farmer volunteer networks in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Van, Vhu Nhu; Theu, Nguyen Van; Khai, Ton That; Kogi, Kazutaka

    2008-10-01

    The government of Viet Nam places a high priority on upgrading the quality of farmers' lives. Providing adequate occupational safety and health (OSH) protection for all farmers is an important challenge. The Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) of Viet Nam trained WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) farmer volunteers. From 2004-2007, MOLISA in cooperation with ministries of health and agriculture trained 480 WIND farmer volunteers in selected 14 provinces. Trained farmer volunteers trained their neighbouring farmers and expanded their networks. The WIND training programme produced in Cantho, Viet Nam in 1996, was used as the core training methodology. The WIND action-checklist, good example photo-sheets, and other participatory training materials were designed for WIND farmer volunteers as practical training tools. The volunteers trained 7,922 farmers. The trained farmers implemented 28,508 improvements in materials handling, work posture, machine and electrical safety, working environments and control of hazardous chemicals, and welfare facilities. The provincial support committees organized follow-up workshops and strengthen the WIND farmer volunteer networks. The system of WIND farmer volunteers proved effective in extending practical OSH protection measures to farmers at grassroots level. The system of WIND farmer volunteers was adopted in the First National Programme on Labour Protection and OSH of Viet Nam as a practical means in OSH and is now further expanding within the framework of the National Programme.

  1. Effects of Social Class and School Conditions on Educational Enrollment and Achievement of Boys and Girls in Rural Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of parental SES, school quality, and community factors on children's enrollment and achievement in rural areas in Viet Nam, using logistic regression and ordered logistic regression. Multivariate analysis reveals significant differences in educational enrollment and outcomes by level of household expenditures and…

  2. The Elimination of Illiteracy and the Use of Complementary Education in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    To counteract the legacy of 80 years of colonial rule in North Viet Nam, President Ho Chi Minh outlined government objectives in the Declaration of Independence in 1945. Major objectives included combatting ignorance and illiteracy. To work toward these objectives, the government established a Department of Popular Education and encouraged…

  3. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  4. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  5. Examining the Seven-Flag "Chieu Hoi" Pass: A Primary Document from the American War in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelmann, Ted

    2006-01-01

    During the Viet Nam war, U.S. military helicopters dropped "Chieu Hoi" (safe conduct) passes over suspected enemy locations to encourage enemy soldiers to surrender. This article presents a classroom activity that encourages students to examine a "Chieu Hoi" pass as a primary historical document, identify its various elements,…

  6. Effects of Social Class and School Conditions on Educational Enrollment and Achievement of Boys and Girls in Rural Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Phuong L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of parental SES, school quality, and community factors on children's enrollment and achievement in rural areas in Viet Nam, using logistic regression and ordered logistic regression. Multivariate analysis reveals significant differences in educational enrollment and outcomes by level of household expenditures and…

  7. A Self-Sustained Education System for a Developing Country: The Case of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dien Ngoc

    Viet Nam's average annual population growth rate is 2.6%, which accounts for a large youth population: 37.7% of the total population is under age 15, compared with an average of 20% in developed or newly industrialized countries. A free basic education for all children is almost impossible to provide. With consideration of the Vietnamese people's…

  8. The Measurement of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; McCain, Thomas A.

    This paper reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two hundred-fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert-type, 7-step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled "task,""social," and "physical." Obtained internal…

  9. Physical Attractiveness and Courtship Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gregory L.

    1980-01-01

    Among college students who were casual or serious daters, greater relative attractiveness was positively correlated with greater relative availability of opposite-sexed friends and negatively correlated with worrying about partner's potential involvement with others. A 9-month follow-up revealed that similarity of attractiveness was predictive of…

  10. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  11. Personality Mediators of Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles D.; And Others

    The current study was an examination of the effect of personality variables on the relationship between attitude disagreement and attraction. Attraction was measured in a neutral situation, designed to maximize any existing affective predispositions toward attitude agreement-disagreements. Subjects were placed in an ambiguous face-to-face…

  12. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  13. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  14. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  15. African perceptions of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J; Greeff, Jaco M; Lefevre, Carmen E; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness.

  16. A Multicentre Molecular Analysis of Hepatitis B and Blood-Borne Virus Coinfections in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J.; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W.; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001). Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174) and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99). HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49) and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40). Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318) of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187) showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001). In the immunodominant ‘a’ region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for

  17. Drinking & driving in Viet Nam: prevalence, knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two provinces.

    PubMed

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Jessani, Nasreen S; Pham, V Cuong; Quang, La Ngoc; Nguyen, Phuong N; Passmore, Jonathon; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Viet Nam is experiencing a shift in its burden of disease profile with injuries becoming more prominent. A history of high alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes despite stringent laws led to increased enforcement by police, enhanced public education messaging and targeted social marketing campaigns in Ha Nam and Ninh Binh provinces in Viet Nam. This study aims to illustrate the changes in prevalence (November 2010 to December 2011) and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) around alcohol use and drink-driving for the year 2011. Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) was collected through police enforcement checkpoints in the two provinces. The proportion of drivers with BrAC above the legal limit was plotted over time for both provinces. The trend in prevalence of drink-driving over time was further assessed using Poisson regression models. Prevailing KAPs were determined through surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations at quarterly intervals. Cross tabulations of key variables as well Chi-Square statistic were used to assess associations. A total of 8,404 drivers were tested for BrAC levels of which less than 0.25% were female. Of 1,639 drivers displaying BrAC levels in excess of the legal limit, 87.3% were car drivers, 7.9% motorcyclists and 86% were between the ages of 25 and 44 years. KAP surveys captured 1,661 drivers over the study period. The prevalence of self-reported drink-driving increased 6 percentage points among respondents aged 27-36. Between 44% (January 2011) and 49% (December 2011) of respondents indicated awareness of a drinking and driving Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) or BrAC limit and only 25% of all study participants recalled being penalized for a traffic violation - none of which were for drink-driving. While there has been some reduction in drink-driving prevalence, inadequate or incorrect knowledge on drink-driving legislation appears to be an impediment to greater gains. Increased

  18. Establishing second trimester abortion services: experiences in Nepal, Viet Nam and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Alyson G; Baird, Traci L; Basnett, Indira

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes experiences and lessons learned about how to establish safe second trimester abortion services in low-resource settings in the public health sector in three countries: Nepal, Viet Nam and South Africa. The key steps involved include securing the necessary approvals, selecting abortion methods, organising facilities, obtaining necessary equipment and supplies, training staff, setting up and managing services, and ensuring quality. It may take a number of months to gain the necessary approvals to introduce or expand second trimester services. Advocacy efforts are often required to raise awareness among key governmental and health system stakeholders. Providers and their teams require thorough training, including values clarification; monitoring and support following training prevents burn-out and ensures quality of care. This paper shows that good quality second trimester abortion services are achievable in even the most low-resource settings. Ultimately, improvements in second trimester abortion services will help to reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality.

  19. Comparing measured OH concentrations from olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene (NAMs) with aH2O estimated from amphibole equilibria in mantle xenoliths: a test of NAM OH retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. E.; Holyoke, C. W.; Lamb, W. M.; Popp, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Determining values of H2O activity (aH2O) for mantle rocks will yield a better understanding of mantle processes that are controlled, in part, by the availability of H2O (e.g., melting and deformation). Values of mantle aH2O may, in some cases, be inferred from the OH contents of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) contained in mantle xenoliths. However, mantle NAMs may suffer H2O loss during emplacement on the Earth's surface. H2O-buffering amphibole equilibria may also be used to determine values of mantle aH2O1. If NAMs reflect mantle H2O concentrations, then there should be a positive correlation between the OH contents of NAMs and values of aH2O estimated from amphibole equilibria. The chemistries of co-existing phases were characterized using the electron microprobe to estimate values of T and aH2O in nine amphibole-bearing xenoliths. We compared these values of aH2O with the OH concentrations (COH) of NAMs as measured using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to amphibole, all samples contain olivine, two-pyroxenes, and spinel. Temperatures (T) estimated from the compositions of co-existing pyroxenes range from approximately 810 to 960oC. Minimum pressures (P), estimated based on the depth of the Moho at each location, are ≈10 - 12 kbar. Amphibole equilibria, in conjunction with these P-T estimates, yield low values of aH2O for all samples (≈ 0.02 - 0.14). The COH of olivine in all nine samples ranged from <2 - 13 wt. ppm. The relatively low values of aH2O estimated from amphibole equilibria yield predicted olivine OH concentrations that range from 1 and 20 ppm wt. ppm, as determined using experimentally derived relations between aH2O and olivine COH 2,3. The COH in olivine, in combination with DOH opx/ol ≈ 6.7 4, yield orthopyroxene (opx) OH concentrations of <13 to 87 ppm. This is within the measured opx COH of 12 - 150 ppm for eight of nine samples. COH was determined in clinopyroxene (cpx) for 5 of the 9 samples and these values ranged from 52 to 217

  20. Harm reduction and “Clean” community: can Viet Nam have both?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The findings of our research show that while police play multiple roles in the fight against drug-related crime, they often perceived their tasks – especially preventing and controlling drug use on the one hand, and supporting harm reduction on the other – as contradictory, and this creates tensions in their work and relations with their communities. Although they are leaders and implementers of harm reduction, not all police know about it, and some remain skeptical or perceive it as contradictory to their main task of fighting drugs. Methadone treatment is seen by some as in competition with their main task of coordinating conventional drug treatment in the rehabilitation center. The history of drug use and the evolution of discourses on drug use in Viet Nam have created these conflicting pressures on police, and thus created contradictory expectations and led to different views and attitudes of police regarding various harm reduction measures. This might aid understanding why, despite the comprehensive and progressive policies on HIV/AIDS and harm reduction in Viet Nam, it is not easy for police to actively and effectively support and be involved in harm reduction at the ground level. To promote the wider acceptance of harm reduction the concept of community safety must be expanded to include community health; harm reduction must be integrated into the “new society” movement; and laws and policies need further revision to reduce contradiction between current drug laws and HIV laws. Harm reduction guidelines for police and other actors need to be disseminated and supported, embodying better ways of working between sectors, and all sectors in the partnership require support for building capacity to contribute to the overall goal. PMID:22769430

  1. The use of a computerized database to monitor vaccine safety in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Canh, Gia Do; Clemens, John D.; Park, Jin-Kyung; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Minh, Tan Truong; Thiem, Dinh Vu; Tho, Huu Le; Trach, Duc Dang

    2005-01-01

    Health information systems to monitor vaccine safety are used in industrialized countries to detect adverse medical events related to vaccinations or to prove the safety of vaccines. There are no such information systems in the developing world, but they are urgently needed. A large linked database for the monitoring of vaccine-related adverse events has been established in Khanh Hoa province, Viet Nam. Data collected during the first 2 years of surveillance, a period which included a mass measles vaccination campaign, were used to evaluate the system. For this purpose the discharge diagnoses of individuals admitted to polyclinics and hospitals were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 guidelines and linked in a dynamic population database with vaccination histories. A case-series analysis was applied to the cohort of children vaccinated during the mass measles vaccination campaign. The study recorded 107,022 immunizations in a catchment area with a population of 357,458 and confirmed vaccine coverage of 87% or higher for completed routine childhood vaccinations. The measles vaccination campaign immunized at least 86% of the targeted children aged 9 months to 10 years. No medical event was detected significantly more frequently during the 14 days after measles vaccination than before it. The experience in Viet Nam confirmed the safety of a measles vaccination campaign and shows that it is feasible to establish health information systems such as a large linked database which can provide reliable data in a developing country for a modest increase in use of resources. PMID:16193545

  2. Dioxin reservoirs in southern Viet Nam--a legacy of Agent Orange.

    PubMed

    Dwernychuk, L Wayne; Cau, Hoang Dinh; Hatfield, Christopher T; Boivin, Thomas G; Hung, Tran Manh; Dung, Phung Tri; Thai, Nguyen Dinh

    2002-04-01

    In the isolated Aluoi Valley of central Viet Nam, very high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were measured in soil, fish fat, duck fat, pooled human blood and breast milk samples collected from A So village between 1996 and 1999. The village was situated on a former military base occupied by US Special Forces between 1963 and 1966. TCDD was a contaminant of the herbicide "Agent Orange", aerially sprayed in the valley between 1965 and 1970, and stored at the A So base. Measured levels were lower near the sites of two other former US bases in the valley which had been occupied for shorter periods of time. In areas where Agent Orange had been applied by low-flying aircraft, levels of TCDD in soil, food and human samples were elevated, but lower than those near the three former US bases. We confirm the apparent food chain transfer of TCDD from contaminated soil to cultured fish pond sediments to fish and duck tissues, then to humans as measured in whole blood and breast milk. We theorize that the Aluoi Valley is a microcosm of southern Viet Nam, where numerous reservoirs of TCDD exist in the soil of former military installations south of the former demilitarized zone. Large quantities of Agent Orange were stored at many sites, used in ground and aerial applications, and spilled. TCDD, through various forms of soil disturbance, can be mobilized from these reservoirs after decades below the surface, and subsequently, introduced into the human food chain.

  3. Investigations into the safety and immunogenicity of a killed oral cholera vaccine developed in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Trach, D. D.; Cam, P. D.; Ke, N. T.; Rao, M. R.; Dinh, D.; Hang, P. V.; Hung, N. V.; Canh, D. G.; Thiem, V. D.; Naficy, A.; Ivanoff, B.; Svennerholm, A-M; Holmgren, J.; Clemens, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a killed oral cholera vaccine produced in Viet Nam, and to compare the Vietnamese vaccine with one that is licensed internationally. METHOD: Two-dose regimens of a locally produced, bivalent, anti-O1, anti-O139 killed oral whole-cell cholera vaccine (biv-WC) and of a commercially available, monovalent (anti-O1) oral recombinant B subunit-killed whole-cell cholera vaccine (rBS-WC) were compared in two trials in Viet Nam. In the first trial, 144 adults were randomized to biv-WC with or without buffer, rBS-WC with buffer, or placebo without buffer. In the second, 103 children aged 1-12 years were randomized to biv-WC without buffer, rBS-WC with buffer, or placebo without buffer. FINDINGS: No regimen was associated with significant side-effects. In adults, ca 60% of recipients of either vaccine exhibited at least fourfold serum anti-O1 vibriocidal antibody responses and ca 40% of recipients of biv-WC demonstrated anti-O139 vibriocidal responses. Both anti-O1 (ca 90% in each vaccine groupand anti-O139 (68% in the biv-WC group) vibriocidal responses occurred more frequently in children. The responses to biv-WC were unaffected by the receipt of buffer. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that biv-WC was safe and immunogenic, that it could be administered without buffer, and that it could elicit robust immune responses even in children, for whom the risk of endemic cholera is highest. PMID:11884967

  4. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-09-17

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m(3), reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m(3)) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  5. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane; Tran, Thach; La, Buoi Thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-10-01

    To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20-34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19-3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12-3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05-10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44-7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential antenatal preventive care appears to be compromised.

  6. Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Viet Nam: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chalapati; Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Marks, Geoffrey; Hoa, Nguyen Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases account for most of the disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, particularly those in Asia. We reviewed literature on chronic disease risk factors in Viet Nam to identify patterns and data gaps. Methods All population-based studies published from 2000 to 2012 that reported chronic disease risk factors were considered. We used standard chronic disease terminology to search PubMed and assessed titles, abstracts, and articles for eligibility for inclusion. We summarized relevant study information in tables listing available studies, risk factors measured, and the prevalence of these risk factors. Results We identified 23 studies conducted before 2010. The most common age range studied was 25 to 64 years. Sample sizes varied, and sample frames were national in 5 studies. A combination of behavioral, physical, and biological risk factors was studied. Being overweight or obese was the most common risk factor studied (n = 14), followed by high blood pressure (n = 11) and tobacco use (n = 10). Tobacco and alcohol use were high among men, and tobacco use may be increasing among Vietnamese women. High blood pressure is common; however, people’s knowledge that they have high blood pressure may be low. A high proportion of diets do not meet international criteria for fruit and vegetable consumption. Prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing. None of the studies evaluated measured dietary patterns or total caloric intake, and only 1 study measured dietary salt intake. Conclusion Risk factors for chronic diseases are common in Viet Nam; however, more recent and context-specific information is required for planning and monitoring interventions to reduce risk factors and chronic disease in this country. PMID:23306076

  7. Biotically mediated mercury methylation in the soils and sediments of Nam Co Lake, Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Du, Hongxia; Wang, Dingyong; Kang, Shichang; Sun, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Previous research found that methylmercury (MeHg) levels in the fish of Nam Co Lake of Tibetan Plateau were remarkably higher than those obtained from Hg-polluted areas, probably indicating a stronger biomagnification and higher MeHg transfer efficient. Until now, little research has been carried out on the distribution of Hg methylators here, which maybe important to explain the higher fish MeHg levels. MeHg concentrations were remarkably different between the soil and sediment samples in both seasons. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that species richness estimates of the soil and sediment samples were both quite low based on Ace and Chao estimators. Community composition differed between the sediment and bank soil samples. DsrB gene quantities were relatively high, but the hgcA quantities were low, which indicated that most of the SRB found may not be Hg methylators. It is predicted that strains in Ruminococcaceae may be the main Hg methylators in the sediment, whose Hg methylation abilities were lower comparing with those in δ-proteobacteria. The relative abundances of the genera that contain known Hg methylators were all below 0.8%, which may explain the relatively lower levels of MeHg in the sediment of Nam Co Lake compared to other aquatic systems. This may also reflect that Hg methylators were relatively rare among most clades and abiotically regulated Hg methylation may exert relatively more important role here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Esthetics and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, James T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine the effects of visual environmental esthetics on interpersonal attraction and concludes that visual esthetics influence participants' perspectives of their partners in live interpersonal communication settings. (MH)

  9. Depression, Schizophrenia, and Social Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Philip C.; Murray, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the dysphoric mood induction and attraction that subjects reported after a vicarious experience with a depressed patient and a comparable experience with a schizophrenic patient. Results showed similar arousal of dysphoric mood and rejection for both patients. (RC)

  10. Creating kampong as tourist attractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, N.; Utama, R.; Hidayat, A. R. T.; Zamrony, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Tourism attractions become one of the main components and they drive the tourism activity in a region. The quality of tourism attractions would affect tourists’ visits. Tourism power can basically be built on any conditions which can attract people to visit. Towns is full of activities which include their economic, social, cultural and physical features, if they are presented properly, they can be a tourist attraction. Kampung City, as a form of urban settlement, has the potential to be developed as a tourism attraction. Kampung is not only a physical area of housing but it has also productive activities. Even the city’s economic activities are also influenced by the productive activities of its Kampung. The shape of Kampung which varies in physical, social, economic and cultural raises special characteristics of each Kampung. When it is linked with the city’s tourism activities, these special characteristics of course could be one of the attractions to attract tourists. This paper studies about one of Kampung in the Malang City. Administratively located in the Penanggungan Village Lowokwaru District, but the potential will just be focused on RW 4. Main productive activities of this village are pottery. In contrast to ceramics, pottery is made from clay and its uniqueness in color and shape. Based on the history of pottery in the Malang, it is concentrated in Penanggungan Village. But along with its development, pottery is decreasingly in demand and number of craftsmen is dwindling. Based on these circumstances, a concept is prepared to raise the image of the region as the Kampung of pottery and to repack it as a tourism attraction of the city.

  11. Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanduč, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

    2014-08-01

    According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles θ ≃ 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (θ = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range θadh < θ < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle θadh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < θadh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

  12. Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-05

    influenza A viruses , Vietnam, 2001–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 19.: 1756–1765. Dengue Virus Invasion in Northern Viet Nam PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases | www.plosntds.org 12 December 2013 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e2581 ... viruses each year. While tropical Vietnam maintains localized virus populations for multiple years, cool winter temperatures in sub-tropical northern Viet...Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance

  13. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  14. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aversion and attraction through olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory cues that predict reward or punishment are fundamental drivers of animal behavior. For example, attractive odors of palatable food or a potential mate predict reward while aversive odors of pathogen-laced food or a predator predict punishment. Aversive and attractive odors can be detected by intermingled sensory neurons that express highly related olfactory receptors and display similar central projections. These findings raise basic questions of how innate odor valence is extracted from olfactory circuits, how such circuits are developmentally endowed and modulated by state, and the relationship between innate and learned odor responses. Here, we review odors, receptors, and neural circuits associated with stimulus valence, discussing salient principles derived from studies on nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Understanding the organization of neural circuitry that mediates odor aversion and attraction will provide key insights into how the brain functions. PMID:25649823

  16. The physics of pollinator attraction.

    PubMed

    Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J

    2017-10-01

    Contents 350 I. 350 II. 350 III. 352 IV. 353 V. 353 353 References 354 SUMMARY: This Tansley Insight focuses on recent advances in our understanding of how flowers manipulate physical forces to attract animal pollinators and ensure reproductive success. Research has traditionally explored the role of chemical pigments and volatile organic compounds as cues for pollinators, but recent reports have demonstrated the importance of physical and structural means of pollinator attraction. Here we explore the role of petal microstructure in influencing floral light capture and optics, analysing colour, gloss and polarization effects. We discuss the interaction between flower, pollinator and gravity, and how petal surface structure can influence that interaction. Finally, we consider the role of electrostatic forces in pollen transfer and pollinator attraction. We conclude that this new interdisciplinary field is evolving rapidly. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. The study of near-ground free convection conditions at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Degang; Eigenmann, Rafael; Babel, Wolfgang; Foken, Thomas; Ma, Yaoming

    2011-08-01

    This study investigates the near-ground free convection conditions (FCCs) based on eddy covariance (EC) measurements at Nam Co station near the Nam Co Lake on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The spatial and temporal structure of EC measurements at this station is evaluated by using the comprehensive software package TK2 together with a footprint model. The obtained high-quality turbulent flux data are used to study the occurrence of FCCs, which can be detected with the EC system by calculating the stability parameter. Two types of generation of FCCs can be identified. (1) During the wind direction change of a diurnal thermally forced land-lake circulation system in the morning, strongly reduced wind speeds and simultaneously high buoyancy fluxes lead to a period of dominance of buoyancy over shear, and hence, to the occurrence of FCCs. (2) On days with the appearance of clouds, the land-lake circulation is weakened or reversed, dependent on the temperature gradients between the land and the Nam Co Lake. During the period of adaptation of the land-lake breeze to the alternating situation of heating differences, wind speeds decrease and buoyancy again dominates over shear near the ground. These are the situations where FCCs are also detected during the entire day at Nam Co station. The investigation of FCCs regarding the whole measurement period shows that FCCs can be mainly attributed to case (1) during the non-monsoon period, while FCCs are generated by both mechanisms (1 and 2) during the monsoon season. An impact of the FCCs on the near-ground profiles of air temperature and humidity is demonstrated. The FCCs are assumed to play an important role for the land surface-atmosphere exchange processes and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) conditions on the TP by providing an effective transport mechanism of near-ground air mass characteristics into upper parts of the ABL.

  18. Positive and negative metacognitions about alcohol use among university students: Psychometric properties of the PAMS and NAMS French versions.

    PubMed

    Gierski, Fabien; Spada, Marcantonio M; Fois, Eveline; Picard, Aurélie; Naassila, Mickaël; Van der Linden, Martial

    2015-08-01

    Metacognitions about the positive and negative effects of alcohol use have been associated with various patterns of drinking. The aim of the present study was to validate French versions of the Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS) and the Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS) developed by Spada and Wells (2008, Addict. Behav. 33, 515) and to investigate the relationship between metacognitions and patterns of alcohol use among university students. Responses of 1600 university students who participated in an internet survey-based study on alcohol use were submitted to confirmatory (N=800, mean age 20.40 years, 45.50% male) and exploratory (N=800, mean age 20.34 years, 45.38% male) factor analyses in two separate samples. Alcohol use, binge drinking and mood were also assessed. In line with the original versions of the scales, results provided support for a two-factor structure of the French PAMS and NAMS. Both scales revealed adequate internal reliability. Good temporal stability was found for the two factors of the NAMS, whereas one factor of the PAMS showed weakness across time. Predictive validity revealed that negative alcohol metacognitions about the uncontrollability of alcohol use were found to be consistently associated with alcohol use and binge drinking, whereas positive metacognitions about alcohol use were found to be differentially associated with alcohol use and binge drinking. The French versions of the PAMS and NAMS exhibited suitable psychometric properties. This study also emphasized the role of metacognitions about alcohol use in drinking behaviour among university students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical modeling of saline water transport in the lower Nam Kam Basin, Amphoe That Phanom, Changwat Nakhon Phanom, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, K; Sriboonlue, V; Buaphan, C; Archvichai, L; Youngme, W; Satarak, P; Jaruchaikul, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a conceptual groundwater model over the lower Nam Kam Basin in order to apply a numerical technique for the prediction of the impact of saline water transport due to the proposed weir across the Nam Kam River. Hydrogeological investigations including mapping, drilling, piezometer installations and monitoring were systematically conducted during 1997 to 1998. Brackish groundwater is saturated under the area with a depth of 30-60 m. Groundwater regionally flows from the south (the Phu Phan Range) to the north and discharges to the Nam Kam River. Another direction is from the northern region to the southern region, discharging to the central region. A two-dimensional model was constructed along the principal gradient in the NW-SE direction. There are several local recharge and discharge areas across the Nam Kam floodplain. A local groundwater flow is active within the depth of 2 m to 30 m below the ground surface within the sand and gravel unit. Simulations were calibrated with hydraulic heads and salinity of groundwater in the piezometers. It is found that the recharge and evapotranspiration rates are 1% to 40% of the rainfall and 10% to 15% of a pan evaporation, respectively. The ranges of horizontal hydraulic conductivity to vertical hydraulic conductivity are 0.1 to 0.01. The possible longitudinal dispersivity values of the hydrostratigraphic units are 20 m to 500 m, but the transverse dispersivity is less than the longitude by one order of magnitude. The comparison of calculated heads and measured heads give a root mean square error of less than 1 m. The different salinity concentrations are still in a range of 2000-5000 mg/l. Ten year simulation of saline water transport indicates that the reservoir ponding with water level at +140.5 m above mean sea level may divert groundwater flow and discharging to the northern boundary of the reservoir at Ban Don Kao.

  20. Psychiatric illness in U.S. Air Force Viet Nam prisoners of war: a five-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ursano, R J; Boydstun, J A; Wheatley, R D

    1981-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force prisoners of war (POWs) experienced a profound degree of stress during the Viet Nam War. The psychiatric status of this population has been monitored by an ongoing voluntary follow-up program from the time of repatriation through the following five years. Data indicate a significant degree of psychiatric readjustment problems, which were greatest among POWs captured before 1969. These findings support the association of an unusually stressful environment with an increased incidence of psychiatric illness.

  1. Effective writing that attracts patients.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Doctors today not only must communicate verbally, they must also realize that the written word is important to their ability to connect with the patients that they already have and also to attract new patients. Doctors will be expected to write blogs, to create content for their Web sites, to write articles for local publications, and even to learn to express themselves in 140 characters or less (i.e., Twitter). This article presents 10 rules for selecting the right words to enhance your communication with existing patients and potentially to attract new patients to your practice.

  2. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential

  3. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition budget in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun II case study, Lao PDR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adon, Marcellin; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Serça, Dominique; Guerin, Frederic; Guedant, Pierre; Vonghamsao, Axay; Rode, Wanidaporn

    2016-04-01

    With 490 km² at full level of operation, Nam Theun 2 (NT2) is one of the largest hydro-reservoir in South East Asia. NT2 is a trans-basin hydropower project that diverts water from the Nam Theun river (a Mekong tributary) to the Xe Ban Fai river (another Mekong tributary). Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nitrogen (N), and it has been shown that excessive fluxes of N from the atmosphere has resulted in eutrophication of many coastal waters. A large fraction of atmospheric N input is in the form of inorganic N. This study presents an estimation of the atmospheric inorganic nitrogen budget into the NT2 hydroelectric reservoir based on a two-year monitoring (July 2010 to July 2012) including gas concentrations and precipitation. Dry deposition fluxes are calculated from monthly mean surface measurements of NH3, HNO3 and NO2 concentrations (passive samplers) together with simulated deposition velocities, and wet deposition fluxes from NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in single event rain samples (automated rain sampler). Annual rainfall amount was 2500 and 3160 mm for the two years. The average nitrogen deposition flux is estimated at 1.13 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from dry processes and 5.52 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 from wet ones, i.e., an average annual total nitrogen flux of 6.6 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 deposited into the NT2 reservoir. The wet deposition contributes to 83% of the total N deposition. The nitrogen deposition budget has been also calculated over the rain tropical forest surrounding the reservoir. Due to higher dry deposition velocities above forested ecosystems, gaseous dry deposition flux is estimated at 4.0 kgN.ha-1.yr-1 leading to a total nitrogen deposition about 9.5 kgN.ha-1.yr-1. This result will be compared to nitrogen deposition in the African equatorial forested ecosystems in the framework of the IDAF program (IGAC-DEBITS-AFrica).

  4. Forecast Verification for North American Mesoscale (NAM) Operational Model over Karst/Non-Karst regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Z.; Fan, X.

    2014-12-01

    Karst is defined as a landscape that contains especially soluble rocks such as limestone, gypsum, and marble in which caves, underground water systems, over-time sinkholes, vertical shafts, and subterranean river systems form. The cavities and voids within a karst system affect the hydrology of the region and, consequently, can affect the moisture and energy budget at surface, the planetary boundary layer development, convection, and precipitation. Carbonate karst landscapes comprise about 40% of land areas over the continental U.S east of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Currently, due to the lack of knowledge of the effects karst has on the atmosphere, no existing weather model has the capability to represent karst landscapes and to simulate its impact. One way to check the impact of a karst region on the atmosphere is to check the performance of existing weather models over karst and non-karst regions. The North American Mesoscale (NAM) operational forecast is the best example, of which historical forecasts were archived. Variables such as precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature, dew point, evapotranspiration, and surface winds were taken into account when checking the model performance over karst versus non-karst regions. The forecast verification focused on a five-year period from 2007-2011. Surface station observations, gridded observational dataset, and North American Regional Reanalysis (for certain variables with insufficient observations) were used. Thirteen regions of differing climate, size, and landscape compositions were chosen across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the investigation. Equitable threat score (ETS), frequency bias (fBias), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) scores were calculated and analyzed for precipitation. RMSE and mean bias (Bias) were analyzed for other variables. ETS, fBias, and RMSE scores show generally a pattern of lower forecast skills, a greater magnitude of error, and a greater under prediction of precipitation over karst than

  5. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : La prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) pharmacorésistante au Viet Nam a bénéficié d'une accélération considérable depuis 2009.Objectifs : Documenter le nombre annuel de patients enrôlés pour un traitement de TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) entre 2010 et 2014, et déterminer les caractéristiques et les résultats du traitement des patients qui l'out commencé entre 2010 et 2012.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les rapports nationaux et les données du système national de données électroniques pour la TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Le nombre de patients enrôlés chaque année pour traitement de TB-MDR a augmenté de 97 en 2010 à 1522 en 2014. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes d'âge moyen qui avaient une atteinte pulmonaire et chez qui un protocole de retraitement avait échoué ; 77% d'entre eux avaient reçu au moins deux traitements de TB. De bons résultats (guérison et achèvement du traitement) ont été obtenus chez 73% des patients. Les résultats défavorables incluaient les sujets perdus de vue (12,5%), les décès (8%) et les échecs (6,3%). Avoir eu plus de deux traitements préalables et être positif pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine étaient associés à des résultats défavorables.Conclusion : Un nombre croissant de patients est traité pour TB-MDR chaque année dans le cadre du programme national de prise en charge au Viet Nam, avec de bons résultats. Cependant, il est nécessaire d'augmenter la détection des cas (actuellement seulement 30% des 5100 cas de TB-MDR estimés par an), de réduire la proportion de résultats défavorables et d'améliorer le suivi et l'évaluation.

  6. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, T T T; Nhung, N V; Shewade, H D; Hoa, N B; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Le programme national tuberculose (TB) au Viet Nam et à Ho Chi Minh ville (HCMC).Objectifs : Déterminer 1) au niveau national entre 2011 et 2013, la relation entre le test pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'utilisation des interventions TB-VIH et les mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB parmi les patients TB-VIH, et 2) à HCMC en 2013, les caractéristiques des patients associées à un mauvais résultat.Schéma : Une étude écologique revoyant les données nationales agrégées et une étude de cohorte rétrospective dans HCMC.Résultats : Au niveau national, le test VIH est passé de 58% à 68% chez les patients tuberculeux et le traitement antirétroviral (ART) est passé chez les patients TB-VIH de 54% à 63% entre 2011 et 2013. Les mauvais résultats du traitement chez les patients TB-VIH ont augmenté de 24% à 27%, largement à cause des transferts (de 5% à 9%) et des décès. Les régions du Nord et des Highlands ont montré une faible utilisation des interventions TB-VIH. A HCMC, 303 (27%) patients TB-VIH sur 1110 ont eu un mauvais résultat avec un risque plus élevé observé parmi ceux qui avaient déjà eu un traitement de TB, ceux dont le diagnostic de VIH précédait l'apparition de la TB et ceux qui n'avaient jamais bénéficié du traitement par cotrimoxazole et de l'ART.Conclusion : En dépit de meilleurs taux de tests VIH et d'interventions TB-VIH, près de 26% des patients TB-VIH ont de mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB. Les facteurs de prédiction d'un risque plus élevé de mauvais résultats doivent être pris en compte si le Viet Nam souhaite mettre fin à l'épidémie de TB d'ici 2030.

  7. Determining aspects of ethnicity amongst persons of South Asian origin: the use of a surname-classification programme (Nam Pehchan).

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Lunt, Mark; Palmer, Benedict; Afzal, Cara; Silman, Alan J; Esmail, Aneez

    2007-03-01

    Name-based classification systems are potentially useful in identifying study samples based on probable ethnic minority group. The aim of the current study was to assess the validity of the Nam Pehchan name classification programme of religion and language against subject self-report. A population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in areas of the North-West and West Midland regions of England with a relatively high density of South Asian ethnic minority groups. The sampling frame was age-sex registers of selected general practices and subjects were classified according to language and religion using the Nam Pehchan programme. These were compared with responses by subjects on a self-complete postal questionnaire. One thousand nine hundred and forty-nine subjects who participated, classified themselves as South Asian. Sensitivity in identifying religion was high amongst Muslims (92%) and Sikhs (86%), and somewhat lower in Hindus (62%). Specificity exceeded 95% for all ethnic groups. The vast majority of subjects assigned Punjabi or Gujarati as their main South Asian language indicated that they did in fact speak these languages (97% and 94%, respectively). Subjects assigned Urdu or Bengali, however, were less likely to do so (61% and 35%, respectively). The name-based classification system Nam Pehchan has demonstrated high levels of accuracy in some sub-groups of the South Asian population in determining subjects likely language spoken and religion-and is likely to be a useful additional tool when information on ethnicity is not already available.

  8. Land use changes assessment using spatial data: Case study in Cong river basin - Thai Nguyen City - Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu

    Land use changes are being interested in most countries, especially in developing countries. Because land use changes always impacts on sustainable development not only in a region or a country but also in whole the world. Viet Nam is a developing country, in the last 10 years, land uses have rapidly changed in most provinces. Many of agriculture areas, forest areas have changed for various purposes as urban sprawl, establishing new industrial parks, public areas, mining and other land uses relate to human activities or economic function associated with a specific piece of land. Beside efficiencies of economic and society, then environment issues have been threatening serious pollution, are from land use changes. Remote sensing images application on studying land use changes, has been done in many countries around the world, and has brought high efficiencies. However, this application is still very new and limited in Viet Nam due to lacking of materials, tools, experts of remote sensing. This study used spatial data as Landsat TM images, SPOT5 images and land use planning maps to rapidly assess on happenings of land uses in the period 2000 -2010 in Cong river basin (Thai Nguyen City, Viet Nam), and to forecast the changes of land uses in the period 2010 - 2020. The results had a good accuracy and to be important references for authorities, policy makers in local land use.

  9. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013–June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml−1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml−1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d−1 to a maximum of 1.13 d−1 for EC and from 0.17 d−1 to 1.33 d−1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system. PMID:26869451

  10. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml-1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml-1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d-1 to a maximum of 1.13 d-1 for EC and from 0.17 d-1 to 1.33 d-1 for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  11. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. METHODS: The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. FINDINGS: Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. CONCLUSION: When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease. PMID:16283052

  12. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J; Janeau, J-L; Rochelle-Newall, E

    2016-02-12

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml(-1) and 15300 colonies 100 ml(-1), respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p < 0.05) with numbers being higher during the wet season. In contrast, no significant seasonal difference was found for EC. The FIB die-off rates ranged from 0.01 d(-1) to a maximum of 1.13 d(-1) for EC and from 0.17 d(-1) to 1.33 d(-1) for TC. Die-off rates were significantly higher for free bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  13. Sex Attraction in Pear Psylla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from solvent extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with g...

  14. Peer assessment of dental attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Ong, Egle; Brown, Rebecca A; Richmond, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the relative importance of various dental features that contribute to overall dental attractiveness and to test the validity of the concepts of golden proportion and golden percentage as applied to the human dentition. Sixty 30-year-old subjects (29 men, 31 women) were selected from the 20-year longitudinal Cardiff Survey. Color photographs of the subjects' dentitions were taken with the lips retracted so that their teeth and gums were clearly exposed. Twelve nondentists, aged 32 to 33 years, equally divided according to sex, rated the subjects' dental appearances on a 5-point Likert attractiveness scale. The maxillary anterior teeth were measured, and relevant ratios were calculated and compared with the golden proportion. Factor analyses and linear regression were used to investigate the hierarchy of dental features, and variance components analysis was used to estimate interrater agreement. Overall dental attractiveness did not depend on any particular feature of the dentition. A hierarchy of various features was established, with crown shape ranked highest, and tooth and gum color ranked lowest. The golden proportion and the golden percentage were not decisive factors in determining dental attractiveness.

  15. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  16. Olfactory cues modulate facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Demattè, M Luisa; Osterbauer, Robert; Spence, Charles

    2007-07-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate whether olfactory cues can influence people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Sixteen female participants judged the attractiveness of a series of male faces presented briefly on a computer monitor using a 9-point visual rating scale. While viewing each face, the participants were simultaneously presented with either clean air or else with 1 of 4 odorants (the odor was varied on a trial-by-trial basis) from a custom-built olfactometer. We included 2 pleasant odors (geranium and a male fragrance) and 2 unpleasant odors (rubber and body odor) as confirmed by pilot testing. The results showed that the participants rated the male faces as being significantly less attractive in the presence of an unpleasant odor than when the faces were presented together with a pleasant odor or with clean air (these conditions did not differ significantly). These results demonstrate the cross-modal influence that unpleasant odors can have on people's judgments of facial attractiveness. Interestingly, this pattern of results was unaffected by whether the odors were body relevant (the body odor and the male fragrance) or not (the rubber and geranium odors).

  17. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  18. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use.

  19. Fatal attraction: sexually cannibalistic invaders attract naive native mantids

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Murray P.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Overlap in the form of sexual signals such as pheromones raises the possibility of reproductive interference by invasive species on similar, yet naive native species. Here, we test the potential for reproductive interference through heterospecific mate attraction and subsequent predation of males by females of a sexually cannibalistic invasive praying mantis. Miomantis caffra is invasive in New Zealand, where it is widely considered to be displacing the only native mantis species, Orthodera novaezealandiae, and yet mechanisms behind this displacement are unknown. We demonstrate that native males are more attracted to the chemical cues of introduced females than those of conspecific females. Heterospecific pairings also resulted in a high degree of mortality for native males. This provides evidence for a mechanism behind displacement that has until now been undetected and highlights the potential for reproductive interference to greatly influence the impact of an invasive species. PMID:24284560

  20. Summertime thermally-induced circulations over the Lake Nam Co region of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xianyu; Lü, Yaqiong; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Performance of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) over the Lake Nam Co region of the Tibetan Plateau was evaluated based on the data from five surface observation sites in 2006. The interaction between two thermally-induced circulations (lake breezes and mountain-valley winds) was also investigated. The results show that MM5 could be used to simulate 2-m air temperature; however, MM5 needs improvement in wind field simulation. Two numerical simulations were conducted to study the effect of the lake on the local weather and wind system. The original land cover of the model was used in the control experiment, and the lake was replaced with grassland resembling the area surrounding the lake in the sensitive experiment. The results of the simulations indicate that the lake enhanced the north slope mountain-valley wind and the mountain changed the offshore flow direction at the north shore. During the day, a clear convergent zone and a strong upflow were observed over the north slope of the Nyainq'entanglha Range, which may cause frequent precipitation over the north slope. During the night, the entire area was controlled by a south flow.

  1. Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [15 April 1992].

    PubMed

    1992-05-13

    This document reprints Viet Nam's 1992 Constitution, which "stipulates the political, economic, cultural, social, national defense, and security systems; the basic rights and duties of citizens; and the structure and the organizational and operational principles of various state agencies. It institutionalizes the system of relations by which the party is the leader, the people the master, and the state the manager." The first chapter outlines the country's political system, and chapter 2 describes the economic system. Chapter 3 deals with culture, education, science, and technology; while the fourth chapter covers national defense. Chapter 5 sets forth the fundamental rights and duties of citizens and provides that all human rights are respected and that citizens are equal before the law. Citizens also have the right to education and to health care, and discrimination against women is forbidden while pay equity is assured. This chapter also describes families as the "cells of society" and affords state protection to marriage and families while setting reciprocal standards of care for children and parents. Chapter 6 describes the duties and powers of the National Assembly, and chapter 7 those of the president of the state. Chapter 8 describes the role of the governments the executive organ of the National Assembly, and the ninth chapter details the work of People's Councils and People's Committees. Chapter 10 sets up the People's Courts and the People's Organs of Control, while the final chapter explains the legal force of the constitution and the amendment process.

  2. Suspected tuberculosis case detection and referral in private pharmacies in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Vu, D H; van Rein, N; Cobelens, F G J; Nguyen, T T H; Le, V H; Brouwers, J R B J

    2012-12-01

    Private pharmacies in Hanoi, Viet Nam. To explore the response of health care providers (HCPs) in private pharmacies to suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. A simulated patient method combined with an interview in 128 randomly selected private pharmacies and 10 private pharmacies near TB hospitals. In the simulated patient method and interview, respectively 59 (46%) and 70 (55%) of HCPs referred the TB suspect to general health care. Only 11 (9%) referred the simulated patient to a TB care facility. Fifty-two (42%) of the HCPs identified suspected TB from a fictitious case described on paper; 34 (27%) were aware that free treatment was provided under the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). Knowledge about free NTP treatment predicted a higher rate of direct referrals to TB facilities (OR 5.80, 95%CI 1.88-19.62) and greater ability to identify suspected TB from a fictitious case on paper (OR 5.14, 95%CI 2.36-11.73). Pharmacies with Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP) certification were less likely to refer simulated patients to TB facilities than non-GPP pharmacies (OR 0.10, 95%CI ≤0.01-0.79). Nearly half of HCPs in private pharmacies do not refer TB suspects, possibly contributing to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Knowledge about free NTP treatment predicted better performance of HCPs.

  3. Supervisors and accomplices: extra-marital sex among migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Bui Thi Thanh; Kretchmar, Joshua

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the influence of social networks on the sexual relations of migrant construction workers in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Research included observation and interviews with members of two different groups of workers. The first group, together with their employer (cai), came from the same village; the second group came from different villages. Of interest in the present study was how social relationships among workers and their employers influence extra-marital sexual activity. In the group where workers and their cai came from the same village of origin, fear of acquiring a bad reputation made these workers reluctant to seek sex services, since accounts of their behaviour were transmitted quickly home. In contrast, workers from the group who came from different villages often went out together to purchase sex. The absence of direct links to their villages of origin made it easier for these latter workers to conceal their activity. The implication of these findings for sexual safety and risk are discussed.

  4. Relative Importance of Different Attributes of Graphic Health Warnings on Tobacco Packages in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Giang, Kim Bao; Chung, Le Hong; Minh, Hoang Van; Kien, Vu Duy; Giap, Vu Van; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Graphic health warnings (GHW) on tobacco packages have proven to be effective in increasing quit attempts among smokers and reducing initial smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to examine the relative importance of different attributes of graphic health warnings on tobacco packages in Viet Nam. A discrete choice experimental (DCE) design was applied with a conditional logit model. In addition, a ranking method was used to list from the least to the most dreadful GHW labels. With the results from DCE model, graphic type was shown to be the most important attribute, followed by cost and coverage area of GHW. The least important attribute was position of the GHW. Among 5 graphic types (internal lung cancer image, external damaged teeth, abstract image, human suffering image and text), the image of lung cancer was found to have the strongest influence on both smokers and non-smokers. With ranking method, the image of throat cancer and heart diseases were considered the most dreadful images. GHWs should be designed with these attributes in mind, to maximise influence on purchase among both smokers and non-smokers.

  5. Temporal CO2 flux variations of Lake Nam Co in the central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Zhou, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lakes are important CO2 sources or sinks in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of a lake acting as a source or a sink of CO2 in different environments still remains uncertain due to data paucity and differing methods adopted. The lake-atmosphere CO2 fluxes have not been observed within the expanse of central Tibetan Plateau (TP) due to the harsh climate and inaccessibility. In this study, eddy covariance (EC) method was used to obtain CO2 fluxes over Lake Nam Co, the highest and second largest lake on the TP. This is the first long-term observation of CO2 fluxes over a lake in the central TP. The observations were conducted from 2012 to 2014. Daily-averaged CO2 flux over the lake ranged from -292 mmol m-2d-1 to 81 mmol m-2d-1 and displayed a decreasing trend during the observation period from July to October. Average daily CO2 flux was -48 mmol m-2d-1 in the observation period, indicating a CO2 sink.

  6. Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Bich, Tran Huu; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Ha, Nguyen Thanh; Vui, Le Thi; Nghia, Dang Thi; Målqvist, Mats

    2016-10-01

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding.

  7. Systematic synthesis of CCCCTA-based T-T filters using NAM expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongan; Cao, Rui

    2016-06-01

    In the light of nullor-mirror models for current-controlled current conveyor trans-conductance amplifier (CCCCTA), initiating the admittance matrices of the Tow-Thomas (T-T) filter, three different types of the T-T filter are synthesised by means of the nodal admittance matrix (NAM) expansion method. The type A filter, which employ one CCCCTA, one grounded resistor and two grounded capacitors, has eight different forms, the type B filter, which employ one CCCCTA, two grounded capacitors and a second-generation current-controlled conveyor (CCCII) or an second-generation inverting current-controlled conveyor (ICCCII) or an operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA), has 64 different forms and the type C filter employing one CCCCTA and two grounded capacitors has eight different forms. In all, 80 voltage-mode/current-mode T-T filter circuits are obtained. Because of using canonic number components, the circuits are highly desirable from the viewpoint of IC fabrication and their parameters can be electronically tuned through tuning bias currents of CCCCTAs. The hand analysis and computer simulation results have been provided to support the synthesis method.

  8. Discovery of mosquito attractants and attraction-inhibitors invited talk on attractants and repellents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed repellents and insecticides for the U.S. military since 1942. A small component of this research program has aimed at the discovery of attractants that can be used to produce potent lures for haematophagous arthropods, with a primary f...

  9. Co-existence of Paragonimus harinasutai and Paragonimus bangkokensis metacercariae in fresh water crab hosts in central Viet Nam with special emphasis on their close phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Hien, Hoang Van; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-09-01

    During our epidemiological surveys for Paragonimus species in central Viet Nam, we found four morphologically different Paragonimus metacercariae in mountainous crabs. They were identified as metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani, P. bangkokensis, P. proliferus, and P. harinasutai in the order of their prevalence in crab hosts. This is the first discovery of P. harinasutai in Viet Nam, co-inhabiting with P. bangkokensis and other species. Metacercariae of P. harinasutai were given orally to a cat to obtain adult worms. Then, ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adults of P. harinasutai, and metacercariae of P. bangkokensis collected from the same place were determined for analyses of phylogenetic relationships to other P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis populations as well as related species. The results of molecular analyses showed that P. harinasutai from Quang Binh province of central Viet Nam was almost completely identical with those from Vientiane, Lao PDR; P. bangkokensis from Quang Binh, Viet Nam was also almost completely identical with those from Lao PDR and from Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam. Except for one P. harinasutai isolate from China, all populations of P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis from Thailand, Lao and Viet Nam make a single clade in both ITS2 and CO1 trees. In ITS2 sequences, AT deletion and ATC insertion were observed in some isolates of both species, indicating recent gene flow between P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis. Moreover, because of their extremely high genetic similarities and their co-inhabitation in the same crab hosts found in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, they should be considered as the sister species at the early stage of divergence. In addition, P. microrchis previously described from Yunnan, China should be placed as the synonym of P. harinasutai, because of their morphological and molecular similarities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A first step toward the development of a barley NAM population and its utilization to detect QTLs conferring leaf rust seedling resistance.

    PubMed

    Schnaithmann, Florian; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    We suggest multi-parental nested association mapping as a valuable innovation in barley genetics, which increases the power to map quantitative trait loci and assists in extending genetic diversity of the elite barley gene pool. Plant genetic resources are a key asset to further improve crop species. The nested association mapping (NAM) approach was introduced to identify favorable genes in multi-parental populations. Here, we report toward the development of the first explorative barley NAM population and demonstrate its usefulness in a study on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for leaf rust resistance. The NAM population HEB-5 was developed from crossing and backcrossing five exotic barley donors with the elite barley cultivar 'Barke,' resulting in 295 NAM lines in generation BC1S1. HEB-5 was genetically characterized with 1,536 barley SNPs. Across HEB-5 and within the NAM families, no deviation from the expected genotype and allele frequencies was detected. Genetic similarity between 'Barke' and the NAM families ranged from 78.6 to 83.1 %, confirming the backcrossing step during population development. To explore its usefulness, a screen for leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) seedling resistance was conducted. Resistance QTLs were mapped to six barley chromosomes, applying a mixed model genome-wide association study. In total, four leaf rust QTLs were detected across HEB-5 and four QTLs within family HEB-F23. Favorable exotic QTL alleles reduced leaf rust symptoms on two chromosomes by 33.3 and 36.2 %, respectively. The located QTLs may represent new resistance loci or correspond to new alleles of known resistance genes. We conclude that the exploratory population HEB-5 can be applied to mapping and utilizing exotic QTL alleles of agronomic importance. The NAM concept will foster the evaluation of the genetic diversity, which is present in our primary barley gene pool.

  11. The attraction of Brazil nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, D. A.; Swift, M. R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2006-02-01

    Simulations of intruder particles in a vertically vibrated granular bed suggest that neutrally-buoyant intruders are attracted to one another (Phys. Rev. Lett., 93 (2004) 208002). The simulations, however, ignore important physical effects such as friction and convection which are known to influence intruder behaviour. Here, we present experimental evidence for this intruder-intruder interaction, obtained by monitoring the position of neutrally-buoyant metallic disks in a vibrated bed of glass spheres. An effective long-range attraction is shown to exist between a pair of intruders for a range of driving conditions. If further intruder particles are added, a tightly bound cluster of intruders can form. These results highlight the difficulty of retaining well-mixed granular beds under vertical vibration.

  12. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction.

    PubMed

    Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E

    1977-06-01

    Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction.

  13. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    PubMed Central

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  14. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners.

  15. Panel perception of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Kerr, W J; O'Donnell, J M

    1990-11-01

    The full-face and profile photographic transparencies of 60 subjects (30 male, 30 female) divided equally among Angles Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions, taken before and after orthodontic treatment, were randomly distributed in projector carousels and shown to four panels consisting of orthodontists, dental students, art students, and the parents of children undergoing orthodontic treatment. The faces were rated according to the method of Lundstrom et al. (1987). Full-face views generally were rated more attractive than profile views and Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects were rated lower than Class I malocclusion subjects. While the art student and parent panels were less critical in their appraisal of facial attractiveness, they were less sensitive to the changes brought about by orthodontic treatment than the orthodontist and dental student panels, although all could appreciate an improvement in the Class II Division 1 group.

  16. Can Pensions Help Attract Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Heneman, Herbert G.,III; Kellor, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Every year there is a substantial flow of people into teaching roles as entrants or as movers from one school to another. Each such move involves attraction of the person to the job. Data for 1999-2000 reveal several important findings about teacher staffing. In 1999-2000, out of a teaching workforce of about 3.45 million, there were about 535,000…

  17. Can Pensions Help Attract Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Heneman, Herbert G.,III; Kellor, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Every year there is a substantial flow of people into teaching roles as entrants or as movers from one school to another. Each such move involves attraction of the person to the job. Data for 1999-2000 reveal several important findings about teacher staffing. In 1999-2000, out of a teaching workforce of about 3.45 million, there were about 535,000…

  18. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Bjorn; Peakall, Rod

    2014-06-19

    Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (EAD) studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation.

  19. Pyrazines Attract Catocheilus Thynnine Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Bjorn; Peakall, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Five previously identified semiochemicals from the sexually deceptive Western Australian hammer orchid Drakaea livida, all showing electrophysiological activity in gas chromatography–electroantennogram detection (EAD) studies, were tested in field bioassays as attractants for a Catocheilus thynnine wasp. Two of these compounds, (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 3-methylbutanoate and 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, were attractive to male wasps. Additionally, the semiochemical 3-(3-methylbutyl)-2,5-dimethylpyrazine, a close analogue to 2-(3-methylbutyl)-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine, identified in five other species of thynnine wasps, was equally active. The three remaining compounds from D. livida, which were EAD-active against Catocheilus, did not attract the insects in field trials. It is interesting that two structurally similar compounds induce similar behaviours in field experiments, yet only one of these compounds is present in the orchid flower. Our findings suggest the possibility that despite the high specificity normally characterising sex pheromone systems, the evolution of sexual deception may not be entirely constrained by the need to precisely match the sex pheromone constituents and blends. Such evolutionary flexibility may be particularly important during the early stages of speciation. PMID:26462695

  20. Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.

  1. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  2. Combined SIMS, NanoSIMS, FTIR, and SEM Studies of OH in Nominally Anhydrous Minerals (NAMs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenfelder, J. L.; Le Voyer, M.; Rossman, G. R.; Guan, Y.; Bell, D. R.; Asimow, P. D.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    The accurate analysis of trace concentrations of hydrogen in NAMs is a long-standing problem, with wide-ranging implications in geology and planetology. SIMS and FTIR are two powerful and complementary analytical tools capable of measuring concentrations down to levels of less than 1 ppm H2O. Both methods, however, are subject to matrix effects and rely on other techniques such as manometry or nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for quantitative calibration. We compared FTIR and SIMS data for a wide variety of NAMs: olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, pyrope and grossular garnet, rutile, zircon, kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite. Some samples were also characterized using high-resolution FE-SEM to assess the potential contribution of submicrocopic inclusions to the analyses. For SIMS, we use high mass resolution (≥5000 MRP) to measure 16O1H, using 30Si and/or 18O as reference isotopes. We use both primary standards, measured independently using manometry or NRA (e.g., [1]), and secondary standards, measured using polarized FTIR referenced back to calibrations developed on primary standards. Our major focus was on on olivine, for which we collected repeated calibration data with both SIMS and NanoSIMS, bracketing measurements of H diffusion profiles in both natural and experimentally annealed crystals at levels of 5-100 ppm H2O. With both instruments we establish low blanks (≤5 ppm) and high precision (typically less than 5% 2-σ errors in 16O1H/30Si), critical requirements for the low concentration levels being measured. Assessment of over 300 analyses on 11 olivines allows us to evaluate the suitability of different standards, several of which are in use in other laboratories [2,3,4]. Seven olivines, with 0-125 ppm H2O, give highly reproducible results and allow us to establish well-constrained calibration slopes with high correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.98-99), in contrast to previous studies [2,3,4]. However, four kimberlitic megacrysts with 140-243 ppm H

  3. Collaborative GIS for flood susceptibility mapping: An example from Mekong river basin of Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in Vietnam. Floods have caused serious damages to people and made adverse impact on social economic development across the country, especially in lower river basin where there is high risk of flooding as consequences of the climate change and social activities. This paper presents a collaborative platform of a combination of an interactive web-GIS framework and a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) tool. MCE is carried out in server side through web interface, in which parameters used for evaluation are groups into three major categories, including (1) climatic factor: precipitation, typhoon frequency, temperature, humidity (2) physiographic data: DEM, topographic wetness index, NDVI, stream power index, soil texture, distance to river (3) social factor: NDBI, land use pattern. Web-based GIS is based on open-source technology that includes an information page, a page for MCE tool that users can interactively alter parameters in flood susceptible mapping, and a discussion page. The system is designed for local participation in prediction of the flood risk magnitude under impacts of natural processes and human intervention. The proposed flood susceptibility assessment prototype was implemented in the Mekong river basin, Viet Nam. Index images were calculated using Landsat data, and other were collected from authorized agencies. This study shows the potential to combine web-GIS and spatial analysis tool to flood hazard risk assessment. The combination can be a supportive solution that potentially assists the interaction between stakeholders in information exchange and in disaster management, thus provides for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  4. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2012-11-25

    Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a "scare tactic" mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as "social evils" in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the "social evil" approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  5. Validation of clinical case definition of acute intussusception in infants in Viet Nam and Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Bines, Julie E.; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Justice, Frances; Son, Tran Ngoc; Carlin, John B.; de Campo, Margaret; Jamsen, Kris; Mulholland, Kim; Barnett, Peter; Barnes, Graeme L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical case definition of acute intussusception in infants to assist health-care workers in settings where diagnostic facilities are not available. METHODS: Prospective studies were conducted at a major paediatric hospital in Viet Nam (the National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi) from November 2002 to December 2003 and in Australia (the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne) from March 2002 to March 2004 using a clinical case definition of intussusception. Diagnosis of intussusception was confirmed by air enema or surgery and validated in a subset of participants by an independent clinician who was blinded to the participant's status. Sensitivity of the definition was evaluated in 584 infants aged<2 years with suspected intussusception (533 infants in Hanoi; 51 in Melbourne). Specificity was evaluated in 638 infants aged<2 years presenting with clinical features consistent with intussusception but for whom another diagnosis was established (234 infants in Hanoi; 404 in Melbourne). FINDINGS: In both locations the definition used was sensitive (96% sensitivity in Hanoi; 98% in Melbourne) and specific (95% specificity in Hanoi; 87% in Melbourne) for intussusception among infants with sufficient data to allow classification (449/533 in Hanoi; 50/51 in Melbourne). Reanalysis of patients with missing data suggests that modifying minor criteria would increase the applicability of the definition while maintaining good sensitivity (96-97%) and specificity (83-89%). CONCLUSION: The clinical case definition was sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of acute intussusception in infants in both a developing country and a developed country but minor modifications would enable it to be used more widely. PMID:16878231

  6. Financial burden of household out-of pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam: findings from the National Living Standard Survey 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Van Minh, Hoang; Kim Phuong, Nguyen Thi; Saksena, Priyanka; James, Chris D; Xu, Ke

    2013-11-01

    In Viet Nam, household direct out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure as a share of the total health expenditure has been always high, ranging from 50% to 70%. The high share of OOP expenditure has been linked to different inequity problems such as catastrophic health expenditure (households must reduce their expenditure on other necessities) and impoverishment. This paper aims to examine catastrophic and poverty impacts of household out-of-pocket health expenditure in Viet Nam over time and identify socio-economic indicators associated with them. Data used in this research were obtained from a nationally representative household survey, Viet Nam Living Standard Survey 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. The findings revealed that there were problems in health care financing in Viet Nam - many households encountered catastrophic health expenditure and/or were pushed into poverty due to health care payments. The issues were pervasive over time. Catastrophic expenditure and impoverishment problems were more common among the households who had more elderly people and those located in rural areas. Importantly, the financial protection aspect of the national health insurance schemes was still modest. Given these findings, more attention is needed on developing methods of financial protection in Viet Nam.

  7. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  8. Iodine status in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane; Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil

    2011-11-01

    To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment (< 20 weeks of gestation), sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, intimate partner relationship, family violence, symptoms of common mental disorders and use of micronutrient supplements were assessed. During a second assessment (> 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32-0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31-0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders.

  9. Iodine status in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. Methods This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment (< 20 weeks of gestation), sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, intimate partner relationship, family violence, symptoms of common mental disorders and use of micronutrient supplements were assessed. During a second assessment (> 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Findings The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32–0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16–0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31–0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13–0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98). Conclusion The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. PMID:22084527

  10. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of p<0.05 was used for all tests in this article. The most common form of violation was the display of more than one pack/one carton of a cigarette brand. Violation of bans on tobacco advertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  11. Facial attractiveness, weight status, and personality trait attribution: The role of attractiveness in weight stigma.

    PubMed

    Cross, Nicole; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Rossi, James; Borushok, Jessica; Hinman, Nova; Burmeister, Jacob; Carels, Robert A

    2016-04-11

    The current study examined the influence of facial attractiveness and weight status on personality trait attributions (e.g., honest, friendly) among more and less facially attractive as well as thin and overweight models. Participants viewed pictures of one of four types of models (overweight/less attractive, overweight/more attractive, thin/less attractive, thin/more attractive) and rated their attractiveness (facial, body, overall) and personality on 15 traits. Facial attractiveness and weight status additively impacted personality trait ratings. In mediation analyses, the facial attractiveness condition was no longer associated with personality traits after controlling for perceived facial attractiveness in 12 personality traits. Conversely, the thin and overweight condition was no longer associated with personality traits after controlling for perceived body attractiveness in only 2 personality traits. Post hoc moderation analysis indicated that weight status differently influenced the association between body attractiveness and personality trait attribution. Findings bear implications for attractiveness bias, weight bias, and discrimination research.

  12. OptoGluNAM4.1, a Photoswitchable Allosteric Antagonist for Real-Time Control of mGlu4 Receptor Activity.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Trapero, Ana; Pittolo, Silvia; Zussy, Charleine; Faucherre, Adèle; Jopling, Chris; Giraldo, Jesús; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Gorostiza, Pau; Goudet, Cyril; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2016-08-18

    OptoGluNAM4.1, a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) contains a reactive group that covalently binds to the receptor and a blue-light-activated, fast-relaxing azobenzene group that allows reversible receptor activity photocontrol in vitro and in vivo. OptoGluNAM4.1 induces light-dependent behavior in zebrafish and reverses the activity of the mGlu4 agonist LSP4-2022 in a mice model of chronic pain, defining a photopharmacological tool to better elucidate the physiological roles of the mGlu4 receptor in the nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovery of molecular switches within the ADX-47273 mGlu5 PAM scaffold that modulate modes of pharmacology to afford potent mGlu5 NAMs, PAMs and partial antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Jeffrey P; Engers, Darren W; Niswender, Colleen M; Rodriguez, Alice L; Venable, Daryl F; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2011-05-01

    This Letter describes a chemical lead optimization campaign directed at a weak mGlu(5) NAM discovered while developing SAR for the mGlu(5) PAM, ADX-47273. An iterative parallel synthesis effort discovered multiple, subtle molecular switches that afford potent mGlu(5) NAMs, mGlu(5) PAMs as well as mGlu(5) partial antagonists.

  14. Recent decadal glacier mass balances over the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and the increase in their melting contribution to Nam Co Lake measured by differential bistatic SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Lin, Hui

    2017-02-01

    The Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains locates in the southeastern center of the Inner Tibetan Plateau (ITP). Glaciers in this region are influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system. Their melting on the western slopes feeds the Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest endorheic lake in the ITP. The elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.12 m year- 1 from 2003 to 2009. In this study, aimed at quantifying the decadal glacier mass balance in the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and their increasing melting contribution to Nam Co Lake; we applied the differential Bistatic SAR interferometry method to five pairs of TanDEM CoSSC datasets observed between 2013 and 2014 and SRTM acquired in 2000. The mean annual mass loss rate was - 0.235 ± 0.127 m w.e. year- 1 for the entire range. The mass loss rate for the northwestern slope (inside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) and the southeastern slope (outside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) were - 0.268 ± 0.129 m w.e. year- 1 and ¬ 0.219 ± 0.126 m w.e. year- 1, respectively. Our results agree well with previous fieldwork at the Zhadang and Gurenhekou glaciers located on the northwestern and southeastern slopes. Debris-cover suppressed glacier downwasting to some extent. By presuming that all of the melted ice flows into the lake, the glaciers' melting contribution to Nam Co Lake's increasing water volume was approximately 10.50 ± 9.00% during the period between 2003 and 2009.

  15. Mate attraction, retention and expulsion.

    PubMed

    Miner, Emily J; Shackelford, Todd K

    2010-02-01

    Sexual selection theory and parental investment theory have guided much of the evolutionary psychological research on human mating. Based on these theories, researchers have predicted and found sex differences in mating preferences and behaviors. Men generally prefer that their long-term partners are youthful and physically attractive. Women generally prefer that their long-term partners have existing resources or clear potential for securing resources and display a willingness to invest those resources in children the relationship might produce. Both men and women, however, desire long-term partners who are kind and intelligent. Once a partner is obtained, men and women act in sex-specific ways to ensure the continuation and exclusivity of the relationship. Men, in particular, engage in behaviors designed to prevent, correct, and anticipate their partner's sexual infidelity. Relationships dissolve for evolutionarily-relevant reasons: infidelity, childlessness, and infertility. The discussion addresses directions for future research.

  16. A Conserved Role for the NAM/miR164 Developmental Module Reveals a Common Mechanism Underlying Carpel Margin Fusion in Monocarpous and Syncarpous Eurosids

    PubMed Central

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C. M.; Chauvet, Aurélie; Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Eschstruth, Alexis; Ratet, Pascal; Scutt, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of angiosperms are syncarpous- their gynoecium is composed of two or more fused carpels. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this fusion is regulated through the balance of expression between CUP SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes, which are orthologs of the Petunia hybrida transcription factor NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM), and their post-transcriptional regulator miR164. Accordingly, the expression of a miR164-insensitive form of A. thaliana CUC2 causes a radical breakdown of carpel fusion. Here, we investigate the role of the NAM/miR164 genetic module in carpel closure in monocarpous plants. We show that the disruption of this module in monocarpous flowers of A. thaliana aux1-22 mutants causes a failure of carpel closure, similar to the failure of carpel fusion observed in the wild-type genetic background. This observation suggested that closely related mechanisms may bring about carpel closure and carpel fusion, at least in A. thaliana. We therefore tested whether these mechanisms were conserved in a eurosid species that is monocarpous in its wild-type form. We observed that expression of MtNAM, the NAM ortholog in the monocarpous eurosid Medicago truncatula, decreases during carpel margin fusion, suggesting a role for the NAM/miR164 module in this process. We transformed M. truncatula with a miR164-resistant form of MtNAM and observed, among other phenotypes, incomplete carpel closure in the resulting transformants. These data confirm the underlying mechanistic similarity between carpel closure and carpel fusion which we observed in A. thaliana. Our observations suggest that the role of the NAM/miR164 module in the fusion of carpel margins has been conserved at least since the most recent common ancestor of the eurosid clade, and open the possibility that a similar mechanism may have been responsible for carpel closure at much earlier stages of angiosperm evolution. We combine our results with studies of early diverging angiosperms to speculate on the role of the NAM

  17. A Conserved Role for the NAM/miR164 Developmental Module Reveals a Common Mechanism Underlying Carpel Margin Fusion in Monocarpous and Syncarpous Eurosids.

    PubMed

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Chauvet, Aurélie; Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Eschstruth, Alexis; Ratet, Pascal; Scutt, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    The majority of angiosperms are syncarpous- their gynoecium is composed of two or more fused carpels. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this fusion is regulated through the balance of expression between CUP SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes, which are orthologs of the Petunia hybrida transcription factor NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM), and their post-transcriptional regulator miR164. Accordingly, the expression of a miR164-insensitive form of A. thaliana CUC2 causes a radical breakdown of carpel fusion. Here, we investigate the role of the NAM/miR164 genetic module in carpel closure in monocarpous plants. We show that the disruption of this module in monocarpous flowers of A. thaliana aux1-22 mutants causes a failure of carpel closure, similar to the failure of carpel fusion observed in the wild-type genetic background. This observation suggested that closely related mechanisms may bring about carpel closure and carpel fusion, at least in A. thaliana. We therefore tested whether these mechanisms were conserved in a eurosid species that is monocarpous in its wild-type form. We observed that expression of MtNAM, the NAM ortholog in the monocarpous eurosid Medicago truncatula, decreases during carpel margin fusion, suggesting a role for the NAM/miR164 module in this process. We transformed M. truncatula with a miR164-resistant form of MtNAM and observed, among other phenotypes, incomplete carpel closure in the resulting transformants. These data confirm the underlying mechanistic similarity between carpel closure and carpel fusion which we observed in A. thaliana. Our observations suggest that the role of the NAM/miR164 module in the fusion of carpel margins has been conserved at least since the most recent common ancestor of the eurosid clade, and open the possibility that a similar mechanism may have been responsible for carpel closure at much earlier stages of angiosperm evolution. We combine our results with studies of early diverging angiosperms to speculate on the role of the NAM

  18. Molecular attraction of condensed bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Abrikosova, I. I.; Lifshitz, E. M.

    2015-09-01

    From the Editorial Board. As a contribution to commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz, it was found appropriate by the Editorial Board of Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) [Physics-Uspekhi] journal that the materials of the jubilee-associated Scientific Session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences published in this issue (pp. 877-905) be augmented by the review paper "Molecular attraction of condensed bodies" reproduced from a 1958 UFN issue. Included in this review, in addition to an account by Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz of his theory of molecular attractive forces between condensed bodies (first published in Zhurnal Eksperimental'noi i Teoreticheskoi Fiziki (ZhETF) in 1955 and in its English translation Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics (JETP) in 1956), is a summary of a series of experimental studies beginning in 1949 by Irina Igorevna Abrikosova at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in a laboratory led by Boris Vladimirovich Derjaguin (1902-1994), a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1958, however, UFN was not yet available in English translation, so the material of the review is insufficiently accessible to the present-day English-speaking reader. This is the reason why the UFN Editorial Board decided to contribute to celebrating the 100th anniversary of E M Lifshitz's birthday by reproducing on the journal's pages a 1958 review paper which contains both E M Lifshitz's theory itself and the experimental data that underpinned it (for an account of how Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz was enlisted to explain the experimental results of I I Abrikosova and B V Derjaguin, see the letter to the editors N P Danilova on page 925 of this jubilee collection of publications).

  19. Primary Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Hanoi, Viet Nam: Present Status and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Nguyen Thi Le; Maeda, Shinji; Lien, Luu Thi; Thuong, Pham Huu; Hung, Nguyen Van; Thuy, Tran Bich; Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Hoang, Nguyen Phuong; Cuong, Vu Cao; Ngoc, Khieu Thi Thuy; Sakurada, Shinsaku; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Keicho, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs presents a serious challenge to TB control worldwide. We investigated the status of drug resistance, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and possible risk factors among newly diagnosed TB patients in Hanoi, the capital of Viet Nam. Methods Clinical and epidemiological information was collected from 506 newly diagnosed patients with sputum smear- and culture-positive TB, and 489 (96.6%) MTB isolates were subjected to conventional drug susceptibility testing, spoligotyping, and 15-locus variable numbers of tandem repeats typing. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to analyze the risk factors for primary drug resistance. Results Of 489 isolates, 298 (60.9%) were sensitive to all drugs tested. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, and MDR accounted for 28.2%, 4.9%, 28.2%, 2.9%, and 4.5%, respectively. Of 24 isolates with rifampicin resistance, 22 (91.7%) were MDR and also resistant to streptomycin, except one case. Factors associated with isoniazid resistance included living in old urban areas, presence of the Beijing genotype, and clustered strains [aOR = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–4.35; 1.91, 1.18–3.10; and 1.69, 1.06–2.69, respectively). The Beijing genotype was also associated with streptomycin resistance (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.29–3.40). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection was associated with rifampicin resistance and MDR (aOR = 5.42, 95% CI 2.07–14.14; 6.23, 2.34–16.58, respectively). Conclusion Isoniazid and streptomycin resistance was observed in more than a quarter of TB patients without treatment history in Hanoi. Transmission of isoniazid-resistant TB among younger people should be carefully monitored in urban areas, where Beijing strains and HIV coinfection are prevalent. Choosing an optimal treatment regimen on the basis of the results of drug susceptibility tests and monitoring of treatment

  20. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  1. Evaluating self and partner physical attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Georgiades, Chrissa; Pang, Lily

    2007-03-01

    This study used a novel questionnaire to examine ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. Seventy-two men and 83 women estimated their own and their opposite-sex partner's overall physical attractiveness and the attractiveness of various body parts and measures. They also answered six simple questions concerning physical attractiveness. Results showed significant gender differences in self-estimates of overall facial attractiveness and upper body features. In general, and regardless of gender, participants rated their opposite-sex partners as being significantly more attractive than themselves. In addition, the results showed that body weight and facial attractiveness were the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of social biases are considered.

  2. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  3. [Spatial and temporal distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) in different water bodies of Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Qiang-Gong; Huang, Jie; Zheng, Wei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the tempo-spatial distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) concentration in water bodies in the Nam Co basin on the Tibetan Plateau, inflowing river water and surface lake water samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The T-Hg concentration and its relationship with precipitation and river runoff were analyzed. The results showed that the average T-Hg concentration was (1.09 +/- 0.73) ng x L(-1) and (2.87 +/- 2.59) ng x L(-1) for surface lake water and river water, respectively, both of which were significantly lower than those of Hg contaminated waters. T-Hg concentration in off-shore lake water was much higher during the monsoon season than in the non-monsoon season, and its level and spatial variation were significantly greater than those in central lake water. T-Hg concentration in river water showed significant seasonal variations with the highest values during the monsoon season and the lowest during the post-monsoon season, which were in accordance with the variations of precipitation. A fixed point observation at Niyaqu River indicated that the temporal changes of the T-Hg concentrations in river water were in accordance with those of the runoff. The spatial distribution features of T-Hg concentrations in inflowing river water varied in different periods, possibly resulting from the differences in drainage areas, background mercury levels in soils, and water supplies for rivers at different locations of the Nam Co basin.

  4. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  5. Patterns of the utilization of prenatal diagnosis services among pregnant women, their satisfaction and its associated factors in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Huong Thi Thu; Bui, Ha Thi Thu

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at understanding the patterns of the utilization of prenatal diagnostic (PND) services among pregnant women, their satisfaction and its associated factors at three regional prenatal diagnostic centres in Viet Nam. A cross-sectional design was used, with a consecutive sampling method to recruit pregnant women who used PND services at the three biggest regional PND services centres in Viet Nam between January and June, 2014. A total of 298 participants, about 100 participants per centre were interviewed and included in data analysis. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression methods were applied to identify association between satisfaction of women and their socio-economic characteristics. 80% of pregnant women received counselling on PND services, whilst 90% received ultrasonography services; 65.4% were satisfied with the PND services they used. Pregnant women, who were in a lower income group and received counselling but did not receive ultrasonography, were more likely to have higher satisfaction levels of PND services. A process to ensure that every pregnant woman receives sufficient PND counselling before and after receiving PND testing must be given careful and thorough consideration.

  6. Attribution, the Attractiveness Stereotype, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Douglas F.; Pittenger, John B.

    1984-01-01

    Tests the applicability of the physical attractiveness stereotype to perceptions of the elderly. In the first study, college-age and elderly observers rated the attractiveness of faces of elderly people. In the second study, subjects rated faces at three levels of attractiveness on personality, success in life experiences, and occupational…

  7. Differential Client Attractiveness in a Counseling Analogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carl S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Investigated variations in conceptual complexity level of counselor and client on counselor attraction to the client. Counselor trainees rated attractiveness of clients following two counseling analogue tasks in which the client was depicted as exhibiting high or low conceptual level. More complex clients are more attractive across both levels.…

  8. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    PubMed

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group.

  9. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  10. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  11. Effects of Instructor Attractiveness on Learning.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Richard; Millar, Murray; Walsh, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Although a considerable body of research has examined the impact of student attractiveness on instructors, little attention has been given to the influence of instructor attractiveness on students. This study tested the hypothesis that persons would perform significantly better on a learning task when they perceived their instructor to be high in physical attractiveness. To test the hypothesis, participants listened to an audio lecture while viewing a photograph of instructor. The photograph depicted either a physically attractive instructor or a less attractive instructor. Following the lecture, participants completed a forced choice recognition task covering material from the lecture. Consistent with the predictions; attractive instructors were associated with more learning. Finally, we replicated previous findings demonstrating the role attractiveness plays in person perception.

  12. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms, respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2) was impaired when a first target (T1) was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA); identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention. PMID:24994994

  13. A statistical model of facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has identified facial averageness and sexual dimorphism as important factors in facial attractiveness. The averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts provide important first steps in understanding what makes faces attractive, and should be valued for their parsimony. However, we show that they explain relatively little of the variance in facial attractiveness, particularly for male faces. As an alternative to these accounts, we built a regression model that defines attractiveness as a function of a face's position in a multidimensional face space. The model provides much more predictive power than the averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts and reveals previously unreported components of attractiveness. The model shows that averageness is attractive in some dimensions but not in others and resolves previous contradictory reports about the effects of sexual dimorphism on the attractiveness of male faces.

  14. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The stay-green phenotype of TaNAM-RNAi wheat plants is associated with maintenance of chloroplast structure and high enzymatic antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Checovich, Mariana L; Galatro, Andrea; Moriconi, Jorge I; Simontacchi, Marcela; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Santa-María, Guillermo E

    2016-07-01

    TaNAM transcription factors play an important role in controlling senescence, which in turn, influences the delivery of nitrogen, iron and other elements to the grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants, thus contributing to grain nutritional value. While lack or diminished expression of TaNAMs determines a stay-green phenotype, the precise effect of these factors on chloroplast structure has not been studied. In this work we focused on the events undergone by chloroplasts in two wheat lines having either control or diminished TaNAM expression due to RNA interference (RNAi). It was found that in RNAi plants maintenance of chlorophyll levels and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were associated with lack of chloroplast dismantling. Flow cytometer studies and electron microscope analysis showed that RNAi plants conserved organelle ultrastructure and complexity. It was also found that senescence in control plants was accompanied by a low leaf enzymatic antioxidant activity. Lack of chloroplast dismantling in RNAi plants was associated with maintenance of protein and iron concentration in the flag leaf, the opposite being observed in control plants. These data provide a structural basis for the observation that down regulation of TaNAMs confers a functional stay-green phenotype and indicate that the low export of iron and nitrogen from the flag leaf of these plants is concomitant, within the developmental window studied, with lack of chloroplast degradation and high enzymatic antioxidant activity.

  16. Development and genetic characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) population of wild × cultivated barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population ...

  17. Gauging the Acceptability of HIV Vaccines: An Exploratory Study Examining Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Injecting Drug Users in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, France

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…

  18. Gauging the Acceptability of HIV Vaccines: An Exploratory Study Examining Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Injecting Drug Users in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, France

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…

  19. Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self-Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Hwa Young Choi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored the lives of two contemporary Korean/Korean American women artists--Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min--who live in Seoul, South Korea, and Los Angeles, California. The author's research focused on the artists' identity formation, artistic expression, professional achievements, and the role of art as a political act.…

  20. Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self-Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Hwa Young Choi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored the lives of two contemporary Korean/Korean American women artists--Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min--who live in Seoul, South Korea, and Los Angeles, California. The author's research focused on the artists' identity formation, artistic expression, professional achievements, and the role of art as a political act.…

  1. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  2. Interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T.; Kuroda, K.; Do Thuan, A.; Tran Thi Viet, N.; Takizawa, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hanoi is the capital of Viet Nam and the second largest city in this country (population: 6.45 million in 2009). Hanoi city has developed along the Red River and has many lakes, ponds and canals. However, recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced number of natural water areas such as ponds and lakes by reclamation not only in the central area but the suburban area. Canals also have been reclaimed or cut into pieces. Contrary, number of artificial water areas such as fish cultivation pond has rapidly increased. On the other hand, various kind of waste water flows into these natural and artificial water areas and induces pollution and eutrophication. These waste waters also have possibility of pollution of groundwater that is one of major water resources in this city. In addition, groundwater in this area has high concentrations of Arsenic, Fe and NH4. Thus, groundwater use may causes re-circulation of Arsenic. However, studies on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater and on the role of surface water areas for solute transport with water cycle are a few. Therefore, we focused on these points and took water samples of river, pond and groundwater from four communities in suburban areas: two communities are located near the Red River and other two are far from the River. Also, columnar sediment samples of these ponds were taken and pore water was abstracted. Major dissolved ions, metals and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen of water samples were analyzed. As for water cycle, from the correlation between δ18O and δD, the Red River water (after GNIR) were distributed along the LMWL (δD=8.2δ18O+14.1, calculated from precipitation (after GNIP)). On the other hand, although the pond waters in rainy season were distributed along the LMWL, that in dry season were distributed along the local evaporation line (LEL, slope=5.6). The LEL crossed with the LMWL at around the point of weighted mean values of precipitation in rainy season and of

  3. Seasonal variation of secondary organic aerosol in Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, R.-Q.; Ding, X.; He, Q.-F.; Cong, Z.-Y.; Yu, Q.-Q.; Wang, X.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) affects the earth's radiation balance and global climate. High-elevation areas are sensitive to global climate change. However, at present, SOA origins and seasonal variations are understudied in remote high-elevation areas. In this study, particulate samples were collected from July 2012 to July 2013 at the remote Nam Co (NC) site, Central Tibetan Plateau and analyzed for SOA tracers from biogenic (isoprene, monoterpenes and β-caryophyllene) and anthropogenic (aromatics) precursors. Among these compounds, isoprene SOA (SOAI) tracers represented the majority (26.6 ± 44.2 ng m-3), followed by monoterpene SOA (SOAM) tracers (0.97 ± 0.57 ng m-3), aromatic SOA (SOAA) tracer (2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxopentanoic acid, DHOPA, 0.25 ± 0.18 ng m-3) and β-caryophyllene SOA tracer (β-caryophyllenic acid, 0.09 ± 0.10 ng m-3). SOAI tracers exhibited high concentrations in the summer and low levels in the winter. The similar temperature dependence of SOAI tracers and isoprene emission suggested that the seasonal variation of SOAI at the NC site was mainly influenced by isoprene emission. The ratio of high-NOx to low-NOx products of isoprene (2-methylglyceric acid to 2-methyltetrols) was the highest in the winter and the lowest in the summer, due to the influence of temperature and relative humidity. The seasonal variation of SOAM tracers was impacted by monoterpenes emission and tracers partitioning. The similar temperature dependence of SOAM tracers and monoterpenes emission was only observed during winter to spring. SOAM tracer levels did not elevate with increased temperature in the summer, probably resulting from the counteraction of temperature effects on gas/particle partitioning and monoterpenes emission. The concentrations of DHOPA were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than those reported in the urban regions of the world. Due to the transport of air pollutants from the adjacent Bangladesh and the eastern India, DHOPA presented relatively

  4. Geomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Seppälä, A.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy is used to simulate polar surface air temperature effects of geomagnetic activity variations. A transient model simulation was performed for the years 1960-2004 and is shown to develop polar surface air temperature patterns that depend on geomagnetic activity strength, similar to previous studies. In order to eliminate influencing factors such as sea surface temperatures (SST) or UV variations, two nine-year long simulations were carried out, with strong and weak geomagnetic activity, respectively, while all other boundary conditions were held to year 2000 levels. Statistically significant temperature effects that were observed in previous reanalysis and model results are also obtained from this set of simulations, suggesting that such patterns are indeed related to geomagnetic activity. In the model, strong geomagnetic activity and the associated NOx (= NO + NO2) enhancements lead to polar stratospheric ozone loss. Compared with the simulation with weak geomagnetic activity, the ozone loss causes a decrease in ozone radiative cooling and thus a temperature increase in the polar winter mesosphere. Similar to previous studies, a cooling is found below the stratopause, which other authors have attributed to a decrease in the mean meridional circulation. In the polar stratosphere this leads to a more stable vortex. A strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere vortex is known to be associated with a positive (negative) Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index; our simulations exhibit a positive NAM index for strong geomagnetic activity, and a negative NAM for weak geomagnetic activity. Such NAM anomalies have been shown to propagate to the surface, and this is also seen in the model simulations. NAM anomalies are known to lead to specific surface temperature anomalies: a positive NAM is associated with warmer than average northern Eurasia and colder than average eastern North Atlantic. This is also the case in our

  5. Low methane (CH4) emissions downstream of a monomictic subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Lao PDR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs could represent a significant fraction of global CH4 emissions from inland waters and wetlands. Although CH4 emissions downstream of hydroelectric reservoirs are known to be potentially significant, these emissions are poorly documented in recent studies. We report the first quantification of emissions downstream of a subtropical monomictic reservoir. The Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (NT2R), located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, was flooded in 2008 and commissioned in April 2010. This reservoir is a trans-basin diversion reservoir which releases water into two downstream streams: the Nam Theun River below the dam and an artificial channel downstream of the powerhouse and a regulating pond that diverts the water from the Nam Theun watershed to the Xe Bangfai watershed. We quantified downstream emissions during the first 4 years after impoundment (2009-2012) on the basis of a high temporal (weekly to fortnightly) and spatial (23 stations) resolution of the monitoring of CH4 concentration. Before the commissioning of NT2R, downstream emissions were dominated by a very significant degassing at the dam site resulting from the occasional spillway discharge for controlling the water level in the reservoir. After the commissioning, downstream emissions were dominated by degassing which occurred mostly below the powerhouse. Overall, downstream emissions decreased from 10 GgCH4 yr-1 after the commissioning to 2 GgCH4 yr-1 4 years after impoundment. The downstream emissions contributed only 10 to 30 % of total CH4 emissions from the reservoir during the study. Most of the downstream emissions (80 %) occurred within 2-4 months during the transition between the warm dry season (WD) and the warm wet season (WW) when the CH4 concentration in hypolimnic water is maximum (up to 1000 µmol L-1) and downstream emissions are negligible for the rest of the year. Emissions downstream of NT2R are also lower than expected because

  6. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera: Chlamydomonas, Poterioochromonas, Scenedesmus, Desmodesmus, Chlorella, Bracteacoccus, Monoraphidium, Selenastrum, Acutodesmus, Mychonastes, Ankistrodesmus, Kirchneriella, Raphidocelis, Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrella, Schizochlamydella, Oocystidium, Nannochloris, Auxenochlorella, Chlorosarcinopsis, Stichococcus, Picochlorum, Prasinoderma, Chlorococcum, and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana, but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the fatty acids in these strains

  7. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W.; Hill, Russell T.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera: Chlamydomonas, Poterioochromonas, Scenedesmus, Desmodesmus, Chlorella, Bracteacoccus, Monoraphidium, Selenastrum, Acutodesmus, Mychonastes, Ankistrodesmus, Kirchneriella, Raphidocelis, Dictyosphaerium, Coelastrella, Schizochlamydella, Oocystidium, Nannochloris, Auxenochlorella, Chlorosarcinopsis, Stichococcus, Picochlorum, Prasinoderma, Chlorococcum, and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana, but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the fatty acids in these strains

  8. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  9. Facial shape and judgements of female attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Perrett, D I; May, K A; Yoshikawa, S

    1994-03-17

    The finding that photographic and digital composites (blends) of faces are considered to be attractive has led to the claim that attractiveness is averageness. This would encourage stabilizing selection, favouring phenotypes with an average facial structure. The 'averageness hypothesis' would account for the low distinctiveness of attractive faces but is difficult to reconcile with the finding that some facial measurements correlate with attractiveness. An average face shape is attractive but may not be optimally attractive. Human preferences may exert directional selection pressures, as with the phenomena of optimal outbreeding and sexual selection for extreme characteristics. Using composite faces, we show here that, contrary to the averageness hypothesis, the mean shape of a set of attractive faces is preferred to the mean shape of the sample from which the faces were selected. In addition, attractive composites can be made more attractive by exaggerating the shape differences from the sample mean. Japanese and caucasian observers showed the same direction of preferences for the same facial composites, suggesting that aesthetic judgements of face shape are similar across different cultural backgrounds. Our finding that highly attractive facial configurations are not average shows that preferences could exert a directional selection pressure on the evolution of human face shape.

  10. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: results from a National Internet-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    García, M C; Duong, Q L; Meyer, S B; Ward, P R

    2016-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the largest HIV risk groups in Viet Nam and have been understudied. Sexual concurrency and multiple sex partnerships may contribute to high HIV incidence among MSM in Viet Nam. Limited information is available on concurrency and multiple sexual partnerships among MSM in Viet Nam or on the extent to which this population engages in concurrent and multiple unprotected anal intercourse. Data are from a self-administered Internet-based survey of Vietnamese MSM aged 18 years or older, having sex with male partner(s) in the last 12 months and recruited from social networking MSM-specific websites in Viet Nam. Multiple partnerships and concurrency were measured using the UNAIDS-recommended sexual partner matrix, a key component in the questionnaire. Concurrent and multiple sexual partnerships were analyzed at the individual level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. A total of 1695 MSM reported on multiple sexual partnerships; 69.5% indicated multiple sexual partnerships in the last 6 months. A total of 257 MSM reported on concurrent sexual partnerships, with 51.0% reporting penetrative sex with concurrent partners in the last 6 months. Respondents were more likely to engage in multiple sexual partnerships if they were no longer a student, consumed alcohol before and/or during sex, used the Internet to meet casual sex partners and had never participated in a behavioral HIV intervention. Multiple sexual partnerships in the previous 6 months were common among MSM surveyed, as was sexual concurrency. High levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in Viet Nam. Given the high prevalence of this high-risk sexual behavior, our findings underscore the urgent need for targeted prevention efforts, focusing on the reduction of multiple and concurrent sexual partners

  11. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine

  12. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam.

  13. Attraction of male mosquitoes to sound.

    PubMed

    Belton, P

    1994-06-01

    Early observations and experiments on the attraction of male mosquitoes are reviewed briefly. Our present inadequate knowledge of the physiology of sound receptors is summarized and some of the hypotheses to explain direction finding in flying male mosquitoes are discussed. Some of the field tests carried out to attract mosquitoes to traps with sound, alone or combined with other attractants, are described and the potential for using sounds in mass trapping or sterilizing and releasing mosquitoes is assessed.

  14. MALACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FULLY OPERATIONAL NAM THEUN 2 HYDROELECTRIC DAM PROJECT IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Limpanont, Yanin; Surinthwong, Pornpimol; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Brey, Paul T

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a malacological investigation in four districts of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric dam project area, Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR (Nakai, Gnommalath, Mahaxai and Xe Bang Fai), after the first and second years of full operation in March 2010 and November 2011 to determine health risks for humans. A total 10,863 snail specimens (10 families/23 species) from 57 sampling stations and 12,902 snail specimens (eight families/21 species) from 66 sampling stations were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Neotricula aperta (gamma race), the intermediate host for Schistosoma mekongi, was found in large numbers (5,853 specimens) in 2010 in Nam Gnom (downstream) at Station 25 (Mueang Gnommalath: Gnommalath District) and in fewer numbers (170 specimens) at Station 26 (Ban Thathod: Gnommalath District). In 2011, significantly fewer numbers (434 specimens) of N. aperta were found at Station 25. No snails were found to be infected with S. mekongi; however, 3.6% and 0.45% of Bithynia (D.). s. goniomphalos specimens collected were found to be infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (human liver fluke) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Pomacea canaliculata, the rice crop pest, the intermediate host of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensis, was found in the greatest numbers during 2010 and 2011; the prevalence increased significantly from 1.3% in 2010 to 53.3% in 2011. We also found seasonal variation in snail populations in terms of abundance and diversity. The snail fauna and risk for transmission of parasitic diseases need to be monitored continuously to evaluate the long-term impact of the dam project.

  15. Abundance and prevalence of Aedes aegypti immatures and relationships with household water storage in rural areas in southern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Anh P; Clements, Archie C A; Jeffery, Jason A L; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Nam, Vu Sinh; Vaughan, Gregory; Shinkfield, Ramon; Kutcher, Simon C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Since 2000, the Government of Viet Nam has committed to provide rural communities with increased access to safe water through a variety of household water supply schemes (wells, ferrocement tanks and jars) and piped water schemes. One possible, unintended consequence of these schemes is the concomitant increase in water containers that may serve as habitats for dengue mosquito immatures, principally Aedes aegypti. To assess these possible impacts we undertook detailed household surveys of Ae. aegypti immatures, water storage containers and various socioeconomic factors in three rural communes in southern Viet Nam. Positive relationships between the numbers of household water storage containers and the prevalence and abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures were found. Overall, water storage containers accounted for 92-97% and 93-96% of the standing crops of III/IV instars and pupae, respectively. Interestingly, households with higher socioeconomic levels had significantly higher numbers of water storage containers and therefore greater risk of Ae. aegypti infestation. Even after provision of piped water to houses, householders continued to store water in containers and there was no observed decrease in water storage container abundance in these houses, compared to those that relied entirely on stored water. These findings highlight the householders' concerns about the limited availability of water and their strong behavoural patterns associated with storage of water. We conclude that household water storage container availability is a major risk factor for infestation with Ae. aegypti immatures, and that recent investment in rural water supply infrastructure are unlikely to mitigate this risk, at least in the short term.

  16. Nasal tip projection and facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Devcic, Zlatko; Rayikanti, Benjamin A; Hevia, Jesse P; Popenko, Natalie A; Karimi, Koohyar; Wong, Brian J F

    2011-07-01

    Six nasal tip projection (NTP) ratios from Goode, Simons, Baum, Powell, and Crumley guide clinical and academic practice on quantifying NTP, but none have been empirically correlated with facial attractiveness. This study's objectives were to determine: 1) if there is a correlation between these ratios and facial attractiveness; and 2) which of the six ratios has the greatest linkage to overall facial attractiveness. Basic research study. There were 300 digital portraits of women (ages 18-25 years) randomly paired and morphed to create 300 synthetic lateral facial images rated by 78 raters in the community. NTP ratios were measured in each portrait. None of the ratios correlated with facial attractiveness. For the Baum, Powell, and Simons ratio, facial attractiveness increased as NTP deviated 1 and 2 standard deviations from the ideal, whereas facial attractiveness decreased as NTP deviated from the Goode and Crumley ideal ratios. The most attractive faces had NTP ratios consistent with previous expert opinion findings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically correlate these six landmark NTP ratios with facial attractiveness. Although there was no correlation with any of the six ratios, the ideal ratios proposed by Goode and Crumley impacted facial aesthetics the most. Although the ideal ratios are useful in establishing rhinoplasty guidelines, they should only be used as a part of the management in achieving an aesthetic face on the whole, as they may not be robust enough to correlate with overall facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.

    PubMed

    Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S

    2016-07-21

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  18. An innovative mosquito trap for testing attractants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe a simple trap modification for testing or using attractants to collect flying mosquitoes. The trap also can test the effectiveness of spatial repellents. The proposed design may facilitate standardized testing of mosquito attractants and repellents. The trap uses a standard Centers f...

  19. Reciprocity of Interpersonal Attraction: A Confirmed Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Voie, Lawrence; Kenny, David A.

    An increase in reciprocity of interpersonal attraction during the early acquaintance period followed by continuing social reciprocity are propositions that are central principles of several social psychological viewpoints. However, there is little empirical evidence of increasing reciprocity of interpersonal attraction over time. Two potential…

  20. Interpersonal Attraction in the Counseling Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachowiak, Dale; Diaz, Sandra

    Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role theory of dyadic relationships, in which attraction depends on the exchange value of the assets and liabilities each person brings to the situation, is employed as a foundation for this review of the literature on interpersonal attraction in the counseling relationship. A three-stage model, accounting for both…

  1. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  2. Correlates of Attraction Among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Michael B.

    The generalizability of several variables which have been related to attraction among adults to preschool children was investigated. It was found that perceived physical attractiveness, perceived proximity, and familiarity are all significantly positively correlated with how popular a child is in his nursery school class. (Author)

  3. Formal Mentoring Programs and Organizational Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to test if formal mentoring programs enhance organizational attraction. Participants were 190 undergraduates looking for a job related to their major. Results indicated that participants were more attracted to an organization when it was depicted as having a formal mentoring program than when it was not so depicted. Drawing…

  4. An objective system for measuring facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Mounir

    2006-09-01

    Research over the past 20 years has shown that judgments of facial attractiveness are universal; people from all cultures and backgrounds rank and rate faces for attractiveness the same. As such a model for objectively rating facial attractiveness is theoretically plausible, if designed, it would have many uses, including outcomes analysis in plastic surgery of the face. The authors tested a schematic facial composite/prototype mathematical model (the phi mask created by Dr. Stephen Marquardt) as a method for measuring facial attractiveness in an objective manner. Thirty-seven male and 35 female faces of 18- to 30-year-old whites of European extraction were rated, as were 31 composite faces of each sex using both Internet and direct survey judges. The faces were tested against the phi mask model analyzing deviations of facial anthropometric points from corresponding phi mask nodal points using equivalent weightings, and weightings arrived at by way of multiple linear regression. The deviation from the phi mask significantly correlates with attractiveness, explaining from 25 to 75 percent of the variance in attractiveness judgments, depending on the methodology used. The phi mask model supports averageness or prototypicality of the face as being the major component of the facial attractiveness gestalt and is a first step in producing an objective system for measuring facial attractiveness.

  5. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  6. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  7. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  8. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation. PMID:28006077

  9. An Attributional Approach to Counselor Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Hollis W.; Claiborn, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Examined two components of counselor attractiveness--perceived similarity and liking--in a comparison of two theoretical approaches to attractiveness and influence in counseling--the referent power hypothesis and an attributional approach. Results generally support the attributional approach over the reference power hypothesis. (Author)

  10. Serial dependence in the perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ye; Leib, Allison Yamanashi; Whitney, David

    2016-12-01

    The perception of attractiveness is essential for choices of food, object, and mate preference. Like perception of other visual features, perception of attractiveness is stable despite constant changes of image properties due to factors like occlusion, visual noise, and eye movements. Recent results demonstrate that perception of low-level stimulus features and even more complex attributes like human identity are biased towards recent percepts. This effect is often called serial dependence. Some recent studies have suggested that serial dependence also exists for perceived facial attractiveness, though there is also concern that the reported effects are due to response bias. Here we used an attractiveness-rating task to test the existence of serial dependence in perceived facial attractiveness. Our results demonstrate that perceived face attractiveness was pulled by the attractiveness level of facial images encountered up to 6 s prior. This effect was not due to response bias and did not rely on the previous motor response. This perceptual pull increased as the difference in attractiveness between previous and current stimuli increased. Our results reconcile previously conflicting findings and extend previous work, demonstrating that sequential dependence in perception operates across different levels of visual analysis, even at the highest levels of perceptual interpretation.

  11. Sexual Attraction and Harassment: Management's New Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson

    1981-01-01

    Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)

  12. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

  13. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  14. Expression of Power and Heterosexual Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlasio, Cynthia L.; Ellyson, Steve L.

    Facial attractiveness has been the focus of considerable research in social psychology. Nonverbal behaviors emitted by the face may affect the perceived attractiveness of males and females differently. Visual behavior has particularly important functions in regulating social interaction and in establishing and conveying social power. Power and…

  15. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  16. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  17. Aging and Attractiveness: Marriage Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Carol Boellhoff

    1989-01-01

    Examined women's agreement with double standard of aging. Women (N=32) aged 28 to 63 shared definitions of attractiveness, femininity, and sexual appeal. Findings showed attractiveness was defined primarily by appearance, femininity by behavior and inferred traits, and sexual appeal by both. Found age differences among married women, but few age…

  18. An Internet study of men sexually attracted to children: Sexual attraction patterns.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J Michael; Hsu, Kevin J; Bernhard, Paula A

    2016-10-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first large study of the attractions of child-attracted men recruited in any manner other than their being charged with legal offenses. We recruited 1,189 men from websites for adults attracted to children. Men in our sample were highly attracted to children, and they were much less attracted to adults, especially to adult men. However, men varied with respect to which combination of gender and age they found most attractive. Men in our sample were especially attracted to pubescent boys and prepubescent girls. Their self-reported attraction patterns closely tracked the age/gender gradient of sexual arousal established in prior research. Consistent with the gradient, men most attracted to prepubescent children were especially likely to have bisexual attractions to children. Pedohebephilia-attraction to sexually immature children-is best considered a collection of related if distinct sexual orientations, which vary in the particular combination of gender and sexual maturity that elicits greatest sexual attraction. Finally, our study reveals the potential power and efficiency of studying highly cooperative child-attracted men recruited via the Internet. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Visual perception of male body attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Liu, F; Wu, J

    2005-02-07

    Based on 69 scanned Chinese male subjects and 25 Caucasian male subjects, the present study showed that the volume height index (VHI) is the most important visual cue to male body attractiveness of young Chinese viewers among the many body parameters examined in the study. VHI alone can explain ca. 73% of the variance of male body attractiveness ratings. The effect of VHI can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal VHI at 17.6 l m(-2) and 18.0 l m(-2) for female raters and male raters, respectively. In addition to VHI, other body parameters or ratios can have small, but significant effects on male body attractiveness. Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness.

  20. The attractive lip: A photomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Penna, V; Fricke, A; Iblher, N; Eisenhardt, S U; Stark, G B

    2015-07-01

    Throughout literature, there are different parameters defining the ideal shape of the lip and lower third of the face. This study was conducted to clarify what it is that makes lips attractive - and whether there are gender-related differences of an attractive lip and lower third of the face. Pictures of the lip and chin region of 176 patients were photographed in a standardised way and evaluated by 250 voluntary judges through an internet presentation by means of an analogue Likert scaling system. We found a significant higher ratio of upper vermillion height/mouth-nose distance in frontal-view images of attractive compared to unattractive female (p < 0.001) and male (p < 0.05) perioral regions. Furthermore, the ratio of upper vermillion height/chin-nose distance was significantly higher in attractive than in unattractive female (p < 0.005) and male (p < 0.05) lip and chin regions. The nasolabial angle was significantly sharper in attractive compared to unattractive female perioral regions (p < 0.001). Moreover, attractive female lip and chin regions showed a wider mentolabial angle compared to unattractive female lip and chin regions (p < 0.05). Comparing men and women, we found that attractive female perioral regions showed a higher ratio of lower vermillion height/chin-mouth distance (p < 0.05) and lower vermillion height/chin-nose distance than attractive male perioral regions (p < 0.05). We were able to define certain parameters of the lip and lower third of the face that seem to add to the attractivity of female and male individuals and prove that there are gender-related differences in form and shape of an attractive lower third of the face. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How facial attractiveness affects sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Oksama, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated whether and how facial attractiveness affects sustained attention. We adopted a multiple-identity tracking paradigm, using attractive and unattractive faces as stimuli. Participants were required to track moving target faces amid distractor faces and report the final location of each target. In Experiment 1, the attractive and unattractive faces differed in both the low-level properties (i.e., luminance, contrast, and color saturation) and high-level properties (i.e., physical beauty and age). The results showed that the attractiveness of both the target and distractor faces affected the tracking performance: The attractive target faces were tracked better than the unattractive target faces; when the targets and distractors were both unattractive male faces, the tracking performance was poorer than when they were of different attractiveness. In Experiment 2, the low-level properties of the facial images were equalized. The results showed that the attractive target faces were still tracked better than unattractive targets while the effects related to distractor attractiveness ceased to exist. Taken together, the results indicate that during attentional tracking the high-level properties related to the attractiveness of the target faces can be automatically processed, and then they can facilitate the sustained attention on the attractive targets, either with or without the supplement of low-level properties. On the other hand, only low-level properties of the distractor faces can be processed. When the distractors share similar low-level properties with the targets, they can be grouped together, so that it would be more difficult to sustain attention on the individual targets.

  2. The Relationship of Interpersonal Attraction and Attraction to Group in a Growth Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nancy J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of interpersonal attraction and attraction to groups. Students (N=56) participating in growth groups completed the Group Attitude Scale and individual rating scales early, midway, and late in the group. Data indicated an increasing relationship between interpersonal and group attraction throughout the life of the…

  3. Attitudes and attraction: a new test of the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Ho, S Y

    2000-06-01

    Dissimilarity and similarity between attitudes of the participants and a stranger were manipulated across two sets of issues to test the attraction, repulsion and similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypotheses. Participants (N = 192) judged social (liking, enjoyment of company) and intellectual (intelligence, general knowledge) attractiveness of the stranger. The similarity in the first set of attitudes x similarity in the second set of attitudes effect emerged in social attraction, but not in intellectual attraction. Stated simply, dissimilarity had a greater weight than similarity in social attraction, but equal weight in intellectual attraction. These results support the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry hypothesis that predicts dissimilarity-repulsion to be stronger than similarity-attraction. However, they reject (1) the attraction hypothesis that dissimilarity and similarity produce equal and opposite effects on social attraction; and (2) the repulsion hypothesis that only dissimilar attitudes affect social attraction by leading to repulsion. An equal weighting of dissimilarity and similarity in intellectual attraction further suggested that the similarity-dissimilarity asymmetry on social attraction is reflective of a stronger avoidance response in the Darwinian sense.

  4. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  5. Counterion-Induced Attraction between Rigid Polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gro Bruinsma, R.F.; Gro Mashl, R.J.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1997-03-01

    We report on results of long-time Brownian-dynamics simulations of electrostatic interactions between two rigid polyelectrolyte rods. We find that the interaction can be both repulsive, as obtained from mean-field theory, and attractive. The onset of attraction depends not only on the fixed charge density of the rod, but also on its radius. The attractive force is found to be due to the development of positional correlations between the counterions condensed on the two rods, for which we propose a simple analytical model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Facial attractiveness: beauty and the machine.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, Yael; Dror, Gideon; Ruppin, Eytan

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a novel study of the notion of facial attractiveness in a machine learning context. To this end, we collected human beauty ratings for data sets of facial images and used various techniques for learning the attractiveness of a face. The trained predictor achieves a significant correlation of 0.65 with the average human ratings. The results clearly show that facial beauty is a universal concept that a machine can learn. Analysis of the accuracy of the beauty prediction machine as a function of the size of the training data indicates that a machine producing human-like attractiveness rating could be obtained given a moderately larger data set.

  7. Charge-induced patchy attractions between proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Morin, Maxim; Behrens, Manja A; Lund, Mikael; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2015-01-15

    Static light scattering (SLS) combined with structure-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations provide new insights into mechanisms behind anisotropic, attractive protein interactions. A nonmonotonic behavior of the osmotic second virial coefficient as a function of ionic strength is here shown to originate from a few charged amino acids forming an electrostatic attractive patch, highly directional and complementary. Together with Coulombic repulsion, this attractive patch results in two counteracting electrostatic contributions to the interaction free energy which, by operating over different length scales, is manifested in a subtle, salt-induced minimum in the second virial coefficient as observed in both experiment and simulations.

  8. Structure-guided design of new indoles as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) containing GluN2B subunit.

    PubMed

    Buemi, Maria Rosa; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gitto, Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of GluN2B-containing NMDARs provide pharmacological tools for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Novel NAMs have been designed on the basis of computational studies focused on the 'hit compound' 3. This series of indoles has been tested in competition assay. Compounds 16 and 17 were the most active ligands (IC50 values of 83 nM and 71 nM, respectively) and they showed a potency close to that of reference compounds ifenprodil (1, IC50=47 nM) and 3 (IC50=25 nM). Furthermore, docking studies have been performed for active ligand 16 and the results were in a good agreement with biological data.

  9. Leaf photosynthesis of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango (Mangifera indica L.) and 'Nam Roi' pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.) in the rainy season.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Phong; Le, Van Be; Vo, Van Binh; Nguyen, Van Lam

    2002-01-01

    With an EARS--Plant photosynthesis meter we determined gross photosynthesis (P) of leaves of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango on 4 years old trees planted in the Fruit Tree Experiment and Production Station, Campus 2, Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture, Can Tho University in the rainy season of the year 2000. The same experiment was conducted on 'Nam Roi' pummelo on a farm located in the Binh Minh district, Vinh Long province. In the rainy season the calculated gross photosynthesis of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango leaves at flowering stage was higher than that at the vegetative stage. However, the photosynthetically active radiation and quantum yield of 'Cat Hoa Loc' mango leaves in both stages did not reach the light saturation point when compared with values from estimated equation of photosynthetic light curve. The same holds true for 'Nam Roi' pummelo in the vegetative stage.

  10. Improving hospital death certification in Viet Nam: results of a pilot study implementing an adapted WHO hospital death report form in two national hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Merrilyn; Harrison, Reema; Chevalier, Anna; Esguerra, Esmond; Van Duong, Dang; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Giang, Huong

    2016-01-01

    Background Viet Nam does not have a system for the national collection of death data that meets international requirements for mortality reporting. It is identified as a ‘no-report’ country by the WHO. Verbal autopsy reports are used in the community but exclude deaths in hospitals. Methods This project was undertaken in Bach Mai National General Hospital and Viet Duc Surgical and Trauma Hospital in Viet Nam from 1 March 2013 to 31 March 2015. In phase 1, a modified hospital death report form, consistent with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, was developed. Small group training in use of the report form was delivered to 427 doctors. In phase two, death data were collected, collated and analysed. In phase three, a random sample (7%) of all report forms was checked for accuracy and completeness against medical records. Findings During the 23 months of the study, 3956 deaths were recorded. Across both hospitals, 222 distinct causes of deaths were recorded. Traumatic cerebral oedema was the immediate cause of death (15% of cases, 575/3956 patients), followed by septic shock (13%, 528/3956), brain compression (11%, 416/3956), intracerebral haemorrhage (8%, 336/3956) and pneumonia (5%, 186/3956); 67% (2639/3956) of patients were discharged home to die and 33% (1314/3956) of deaths were due to a road traffic accident, or injury at home or at work. Conclusions This study confirms the viability of implementing a death report form system compliant with international standards in hospitals in Viet Nam and provides the foundation for introducing a national death report form scheme. These data are critical to comprehensive knowledge of causes of death in Viet Nam. Death data about patients discharged home to die is presented for the first time, with implications for countries where this is a cultural preference. PMID:28588910

  11. ‘Never testing for HIV’ among Men who have Sex with Men in Viet Nam: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men in Viet Nam have been under-studied as a high-risk group for HIV infection, and this population’s percentage and determinants of HIV testing have not been comprehensively investigated. Methods A national Internet-based survey of self-reported sexual and health seeking behaviours was conducted between August and October 2011 with 2077 Vietnamese men who had sex with men in the last twelve months to identify the frequency of ‘never testing for HIV’ among Internet-using MSM living in Viet Nam, as well as the factors associated with this HIV-related high-rish behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviours predicting never testing for HIV. Results A total of 76.5% of men who have sex with men who were surveyed reported never having been voluntarily tested for HIV. Predictors of never being tested included having a monthly income less than VND 5 Million, being a student, using the Internet less than 15 hour per week, and not participating in a behavioural HIV intervention. Conclusions Never testing for HIV is common among Internet-using men who have sex with men in Viet Nam. Given the dangerously high prevalence of this high-risk behaviour, our findings underscore the urgent need for segmented and targeted HIV prevention, care and treatment strategies, focusing on drastically reducing the number of men who have sex with men never testing for HIV in Viet Nam. PMID:24373483

  12. Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Berto, A; Anh, P H; Carrique-Mas, J J; Simmonds, P; Van Cuong, N; Tue, N T; Van Dung, N; Woolhouse, M E; Smith, I; Marsh, G A; Bryant, J E; Thwaites, G E; Baker, S; Rabaa, M A

    2017-04-18

    Bats and rodents are being increasingly recognized as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. Various studies have investigated bat viruses in tropical regions, but to date there are no data regarding viruses with zoonotic potential that circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. To address this paucity of data, we sampled three bat farms and three wet markets trading in rat meat in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam. Faecal and urine samples were screened for the presence of RNA from paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses and filoviruses. Paramyxovirus RNA was detected in 4 of 248 (1%) and 11 of 222 (4.9%) bat faecal and urine samples, respectively. Coronavirus RNA was detected in 55 of 248 (22%) of bat faecal samples; filovirus RNA was not detected in any of the bat samples. Further, coronavirus RNA was detected in 12 of 270 (4.4%) of rat faecal samples; all samples tested negative for paramyxovirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bat paramyxoviruses and bat and rat coronaviruses were related to viruses circulating in bat and rodent populations globally, but showed no cross-species mixing of viruses between bat and rat populations within Viet Nam. Our study shows that potentially novel variants of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses commonly circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. Further characterization of the viruses and additional human and animal surveillance is required to evaluate the likelihood of viral spillover and to assess whether these viruses pose a risk to human health. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Improving hospital death certification in Viet Nam: results of a pilot study implementing an adapted WHO hospital death report form in two national hospitals.

    PubMed

    Walton, Merrilyn; Harrison, Reema; Chevalier, Anna; Esguerra, Esmond; Van Duong, Dang; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Giang, Huong

    2016-04-01

    Viet Nam does not have a system for the national collection of death data that meets international requirements for mortality reporting. It is identified as a 'no-report' country by the WHO. Verbal autopsy reports are used in the community but exclude deaths in hospitals. This project was undertaken in Bach Mai National General Hospital and Viet Duc Surgical and Trauma Hospital in Viet Nam from 1 March 2013 to 31 March 2015. In phase 1, a modified hospital death report form, consistent with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, was developed. Small group training in use of the report form was delivered to 427 doctors. In phase two, death data were collected, collated and analysed. In phase three, a random sample (7%) of all report forms was checked for accuracy and completeness against medical records. During the 23 months of the study, 3956 deaths were recorded. Across both hospitals, 222 distinct causes of deaths were recorded. Traumatic cerebral oedema was the immediate cause of death (15% of cases, 575/3956 patients), followed by septic shock (13%, 528/3956), brain compression (11%, 416/3956), intracerebral haemorrhage (8%, 336/3956) and pneumonia (5%, 186/3956); 67% (2639/3956) of patients were discharged home to die and 33% (1314/3956) of deaths were due to a road traffic accident, or injury at home or at work. This study confirms the viability of implementing a death report form system compliant with international standards in hospitals in Viet Nam and provides the foundation for introducing a national death report form scheme. These data are critical to comprehensive knowledge of causes of death in Viet Nam. Death data about patients discharged home to die is presented for the first time, with implications for countries where this is a cultural preference.

  14. Cretaceous to Cenozoic evolution of the northern Lhasa Terrane and the Early Paleogene development of peneplains at Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Vicky L.; Dunkl, István; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Ding, Lin; Frei, Dirk; Zhang, Liyun

    2013-07-01

    Highly elevated and well-preserved peneplains are characteristic geomorphic features of the Tibetan plateau in the northern Lhasa Terrane, north-northwest of Nam Co. The peneplains were carved in granitoids and in their metasedimentary host formations. We use multi-method geochronology (zircon U-Pb and [U-Th]/He dating and apatite fission track and [U-Th]/He dating) to constrain the post-emplacement thermal history of the granitoids and the timing and rate of final exhumation of the peneplain areas. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of zircons yields two narrow age groups for the intrusions at around 118 Ma and 85 Ma, and a third group records Paleocene volcanic activity (63-58 Ma) in the Nam Co area. The low-temperature thermochronometers indicate common age groups for the entire Nam Co area: zircon (U-Th)/He ages cluster around 75 Ma, apatite fission track ages around 60 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages around 50 Ma. Modelling of the thermochronological data indicates that exhumation of the basement blocks took place in latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene time. By Middle Eocene time the relief was already flat, documented by a thin alluvial sediment sequence covering a part of the planated area. The present-day horst and graben structure of the peneplains is a Late Cenozoic feature triggered by E-W extension of the Tibetan Plateau. The new thermochronological data precisely bracket the age of the planation to Early Eocene, i.e. between ca. 55 and 45 Ma. The erosional base level can be deduced from the presence of Early Cretaceous zircon grains in Eocene strata of Bengal Basin. The sediment generated during exhumation of the Nam Co area was transported by an Early Cenozoic river system into the ocean, suggesting that planation occurred at low elevation.

  15. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of

  16. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008) and health staff (n = 60) from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility

  17. Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making.

    PubMed

    Agthe, Maria; Spörrle, Matthias; Maner, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of organizational decision making demonstrate an abundance of positive biases directed toward highly attractive individuals. The current research, in contrast, suggests that when the person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps. Three experiments assessing evaluations of potential job candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and university applicants (Study 2) demonstrated positive biases toward highly attractive other-sex targets but negative biases toward highly attractive same-sex targets. This pattern was mediated by variability in participants' desire to interact with versus avoid the target individual (Studies 1 and 2) and was moderated by participants' level of self-esteem (Study 3); the derogation of attractive same-sex targets was not observed among people with high self-esteem. Findings demonstrate an important exception to the positive effects of attractiveness in organizational settings and suggest that negative responses to attractive same-sex targets stem from perceptions of self-threat.

  18. Are Attractive People Rewarding? Sex Differences in the Neural Substrates of Facial Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, J.; Heatherton, T. F.; Whalen, P. J.; Kelley, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the neural substrates of facial attractiveness judgments. Based on the extant behavioral literature, it was hypothesized that brain regions involved in identifying the potential reward value of a stimulus would be more active when males viewed attractive females than when females viewed attractive males. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment during which participants provided explicit attractiveness judgments for faces of the opposite sex. These individual ratings were subsequently used to perform analyses aimed at identifying the brain regions preferentially responsive to attractive faces for both sex groups. The results revealed that brain regions comprising the putative reward circuitry (e.g., Nucleus Accumbens [NAcc], Orbitofrontal Cortex [OFC]) showed a linear increase in activation with increased judgments of attractiveness. However, further analysis also revealed sex differences in the recruitment of OFC which distinguished attractive and unattractive faces only for male participants. PMID:18211242

  19. Integrating body movement into attractiveness research

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Neave, Nick; Pham, Michael N.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2015-01-01

    People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance) also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception. PMID:25784887

  20. Locus of Control and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, M. Michael

    1980-01-01

    The role of locus of control in interpersonal attraction was examined by administering 1) the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and 2) a sociometric test of friendship to 200 eighth graders. (CM)

  1. Colloidal attraction induced by a temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Di Leonardo, R; Ianni, F; Ruocco, G

    2009-04-21

    Colloidal crystals are of extreme importance for applied research and for fundamental studies in statistical mechanics. Long-range attractive interactions, such as capillary forces, can drive the spontaneous assembly of such mesoscopic ordered structures. However, long-range attractive forces are very rare in the colloidal realm. Here we report a novel strong, long-ranged attraction induced by a thermal gradient in the presence of a wall. By switching the thermal gradient on and off, we can rapidly and reversibly form stable hexagonal 2D crystals. We show that the observed attraction is hydrodynamic in nature and arises from thermally induced slip flow on particle surfaces. We used optical tweezers to measure the force law directly and compare it to an analytical prediction based on Stokes flow driven by Marangoni-like forces.

  2. Attracting and retaining nurses in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Puplampu, Gideon L; Olson, Karin; Ogilvie, Linda; Mayan, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining nurses in HIV care is essential to treatment success, preventing the spread of HIV, slowing its progression, and improving the quality of life of people living with HIV. Despite the wealth of studies examining HIV care, few have focused on the factors that influenced nurses' choices to specialize in HIV care. We examined the factors that attracted and retained eight nurses currently working in HIV care in two large Canadian cities. Participants were primarily women between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Interviews were conducted between November 2010 and September 2011 using interpretive description, a qualitative design. Factors that influenced participants to focus their careers in HIV care included both attracting factors and retaining factors. Although more research is needed, this exploration of attracting and retaining factors may motivate others to specialize in HIV nursing, and thus help to promote adequate support for individuals suffering from the disease.

  3. Integrating body movement into attractiveness research.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Weege, Bettina; Neave, Nick; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-01-01

    People judge attractiveness and make trait inferences from the physical appearance of others, and research reveals high agreement among observers making such judgments. Evolutionary psychologists have argued that interest in physical appearance and beauty reflects adaptations that motivate the search for desirable qualities in a potential partner. Although men more than women value the physical appearance of a partner, appearance universally affects social perception in both sexes. Most studies of attractiveness perceptions have focused on third party assessments of static representations of the face and body. Corroborating evidence suggests that body movement, such as dance, also conveys information about mate quality. Here we review evidence that dynamic cues (e.g., gait, dance) also influence perceptions of mate quality, including personality traits, strength, and overall attractiveness. We recommend that attractiveness research considers the informational value of body movement in addition to static cues, to present an integrated perspective on human social perception.

  4. Young Children's Stereotyping of Facial Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Karen K.

    1973-01-01

    When shown photographs, young children preferred children with attractive faces as potential friends, and attributed prosocial behaviors to them. They disliked unattractive faces and attributed antisocial behaviors to them. (ST)

  5. Electrostatic attraction between overall neutral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adar, Ram M; Andelman, David; Diamant, Haim

    2016-08-01

    Two overall neutral surfaces with positively and negatively charged domains ("patches") have been shown in recent experiments to exhibit long-range attraction when immersed in an ionic solution. Motivated by the experiments, we calculate analytically the osmotic pressure between such surfaces within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, using a variational principle for the surface-averaged free energy. The electrostatic potential, calculated beyond the linear Debye-Hückel theory, yields an overall attraction at large intersurface separations, over a wide range of the system's controlled length scales. In particular, the attraction is stronger and occurs at smaller separations for surface patches of larger size and charge density. In this large patch limit, we find that the attraction-repulsion crossover separation is inversely proportional to the square of the patch-charge density and to the Debye screening length.

  6. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Tham Chi; Dinh, Pham Ngoc; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tan, Luong Minh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thanh, Le Thi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam. PMID:25685601

  7. CsNAM-like protein encodes a nuclear localized protein and responds to varied cues in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze].

    PubMed

    Paul, Asosii; Muoki, Richard Chalo; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Abiotic stress possesses serious threat to plant distribution and production. In response to stress, plants induce the expression of many genes that function to protect the cellular machinery from stress-induced damages. These genes are largely regulated by specific transcription factors (TFs). NAC family proteins are plant specific TFs implicated in diverse processes including development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. The present work described (i) cloning of CsNAM-like protein gene from a tree crop tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], (ii) its cellular localization, and (iii) regulation of the gene by external cues. The gene had an open reading frame of 873 base pairs encoding 291 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 33.4 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.72. Expression characterization showed the gene to be induced by drought, osmoticum, salt, heat and hydrogen peroxide. During the period of active growth, CsNAM-like protein showed ubiquitous expression in all the tissues analyzed, with higher level of transcripts in stem, flower bud and mature leaf as compared to the root, young leaf and fruit. The common response of CsNAM-like protein to various cues suggests its important role in imparting tolerance against abiotic stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tham Chi; Dinh, Pham Ngoc; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tan, Luong Minh; Hang, Nguyen Le Khanh; Thanh, Le Thi; Mai, Le Quynh

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian-human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam.

  9. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  10. Malaria Mosquitoes Attracted by Fatal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors. PMID:23658757

  11. Forming impressions of facial attractiveness is mandatory.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Kay L; Palermo, Romina; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-03-28

    First impressions of social traits, such as attractiveness, from faces are often claimed to be made automatically, given their speed and reliability. However, speed of processing is only one aspect of automaticity. Here we address a further aspect, asking whether impression formation is mandatory. Mandatory formation requires that impressions are formed about social traits even when this is task-irrelevant, and that once formed, these impressions are difficult to inhibit. In two experiments, participants learned what new people looked like for the purpose of future identification, from sets of images high or low in attractiveness. They then rated middle-attractiveness images of each person, for attractiveness. Even though instructed to rate the specific images, not the people, their ratings were biased by the attractiveness of the learned images. A third control experiment, with participants rating names, demonstrated that participants in Experiments 1 and 2 were not simply rating the people, rather than the specific images as instructed. These results show that the formation of attractiveness impressions from faces is mandatory, thus broadening the evidence for automaticity of facial impressions. The mandatory formation of impressions is likely to have an important impact in real-world situations such as online dating sites.

  12. Sequential effects in face-attractiveness judgment.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Aki; Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that current-trial responses are biased toward the response of the preceding trial in perceptual decisionmaking tasks (the sequential effect-Holland and Lockhead, 1968 Perception & Psychophysics 3 409-414). The sequential effect has been widely observed in evaluation of the physical properties of stimuli as well as more complex properties. However, it is unclear whether subjective decisions (e.g., attractiveness judgments) are also susceptible to the sequential effect. Here, we examined whether the sequential effect would occur in face-attractiveness judgments. Forty-eight pictures of male and female faces were presented successively. Participants rated the attractiveness of each face on a 7-point scale. The results showed that the attractiveness rating of a given face assimilated toward the rating of the preceding trial. In a separate experiment, we provided the average attractiveness rating by others for each trial as feedback. The feedback weakened the sequential effect. These findings suggest that attractiveness judgment is also biased toward the preceding judgment, and hence the sequential effect can be extended into the domain of subjective decisionmaking.

  13. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  14. Ailing Voters Advance Attractive Congressional Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Robert G.; Palumbo, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Among many benefits of facial attractiveness, there is evidence that more attractive politicians are more likely to be elected. Recent research found this effect to be most pronounced in congressional districts with high disease threat—a result attributed to an adaptive disease avoidance mechanism, whereby the association of low attractiveness with poor health is particularly worrisome to voters who feel vulnerable to disease. We provided a more direct test of this explanation by examining the effects of individuals’ own health and age. Supporting a disease avoidance mechanism, less healthy participants showed a stronger preference for more attractive contenders in U.S. Senate races than their healthier peers, and this effect was stronger for older participants, who were generally less healthy than younger participants. Stronger effects of health for older participants partly reflected the absence of positive bias toward attractive candidates among the healthiest, suggesting that healthy older adults may be unconcerned about disease threat or sufficiently wise to ignore attractiveness. PMID:25562113

  15. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Past research has proven human’s extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention. PMID:27848992

  16. Unconscious processing of facial attractiveness: invisible attractive faces orient visual attention.

    PubMed

    Hung, Shao-Min; Nieh, Chih-Hsuan; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2016-11-16

    Past research has proven human's extraordinary ability to extract information from a face in the blink of an eye, including its emotion, gaze direction, and attractiveness. However, it remains elusive whether facial attractiveness can be processed and influences our behaviors in the complete absence of conscious awareness. Here we demonstrate unconscious processing of facial attractiveness with three distinct approaches. In Experiment 1, the time taken for faces to break interocular suppression was measured. The results showed that attractive faces enjoyed the privilege of breaking suppression and reaching consciousness earlier. In Experiment 2, we further showed that attractive faces had lower visibility thresholds, again suggesting that facial attractiveness could be processed more easily to reach consciousness. Crucially, in Experiment 3, a significant decrease of accuracy on an orientation discrimination task subsequent to an invisible attractive face showed that attractive faces, albeit suppressed and invisible, still exerted an effect by orienting attention. Taken together, for the first time, we show that facial attractiveness can be processed in the complete absence of consciousness, and an unconscious attractive face is still capable of directing our attention.

  17. Food residue recycling by swine breeders in a developing economy: a case study in Da Nang, Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takaaki; Pham, Dung Thi Xuan; Hoang, Hai; Xue, Yonghai; Tran, Quang Van

    2012-12-01

    This study provides a detailed description of food residue collection by swine breeders in Da Nang, Viet Nam. In January 2011, the study surveyed 30 swine breeders in two villages with respect to locations, methods, prices, quantities, and prospects for food residue collection. The sampled swine breeders regularly visited 55 locations in central Da Nang to collect raw food residue. They then transferred the food residue to their piggeries, boiled it, and fed it to their swine. A regression analysis revealed that the total amount of food residue collected by a farm depends on the number of swine in the farm and the number of collections made per day. Swine breeders in Da Nang were estimated to collect 26.3 metric tons of organic waste per day, which amounted to 4.1% of domestic waste collected by the local government. Among the sampled swine breeders, 93% answered that they would continue using food residue for the next five years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Phaeocystis globosa blooms in the upwelling waters of the South Central coast of Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Doan-Nhu; Lam, Nguyen-Ngoc; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2010-11-01

    Blooms of haptophyte algae in the south central coastal waters of Viet Nam often occur in association with upwelling phenomenon during the southwest (SW) monsoon. Depending on the magnitude of the blooms, damage to aquaculture farms may occur. Based on two years of data on biology, oceanography, and marine chemistry, the present study suggests a conceptual model of the growth of the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa. At the beginning of the bloom, low temperature and abundant nutrient supply, especially nitrate from rain and upwelling, favour bloom development. Diatoms utilize available nitrate and phosphate; subsequently, higher ammonium concentration allows P. globosa to grow faster than the diatoms. At the end of the Phaeocystis bloom, free cells may become available as food for a heterotrophic dinoflagellate species, Noctiluca scintillans. During and after the phytoplankton bloom, remineralization by bacteria reduces dissolved oxygen to a very low concentration at depth, and favors growth of nitrate-reducing bacteria.A Lagrangian Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) model, driven by a circulation model of the area, realistically simulates the transport of microalgae in surface waters during strong and weak SW monsoon periods, suggesting that it may be a good tool for early warning of HABs in Vietnamese coastal waters.

  19. A modelling investigation into lake-breeze development and convection triggering in the Nam Co Lake basin, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Biermann, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Herzog, Michael; Ma, Yaoming; Foken, Thomas; Graf, Hans-F.

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the cloud resolving Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model coupled to the interactive surface model Hybrid in order to investigate the diurnal development of a lake-breeze system at the Nam Co Lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Simulations with several background wind speeds are conducted, and the interaction of the lake breeze with topography and background wind in triggering moist and deep convection is studied. The model is able to adequately simulate the systems most important dynamical features such as turbulent surface fluxes and the development of a lake breeze for the different wind conditions. We identify two different mechanisms for convection triggering that are dependent on the direction of the background wind: triggering over topography, when the background wind and the lake breeze have the same flow direction, and triggering due to convergence between the lake-breeze front and the background wind. Our research also suggests that precipitation measurements at the centre of the basins on the Tibetan Plateau are not representative for the basin as a whole as precipitation is expected to occur mainly in the vicinity of the topography.

  20. Turbulent flux observations and modelling over a shallow lake and a wet grassland in the Nam Co basin, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Ma, Weiqiang; Chen, Xuelong; Thiem, Elisabeth; Ma, Yaoming; Foken, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in the global water cycle and is strongly influenced by climate change. While energy and matter fluxes have been more intensely studied over land surfaces, a large proportion of lakes have either been neglected or parameterised with simple bulk approaches. Therefore, turbulent fluxes were measured over wet grassland and a shallow lake with a single eddy-covariance complex at the shoreline in the Nam Co basin in summer 2009. Footprint analysis was used to split observations according to the underlying surface, and two sophisticated surface models were utilised to derive gap-free time series. Results were then compared with observations and simulations from a nearby eddy-covariance station over dry grassland, yielding pronounced differences. Observations and footprint integrated simulations compared well, even for situations with flux contributions including grassland and lake. The accessibility problem for EC measurements on lakes can be overcome by combining standard meteorological measurements at the shoreline with model simulations, only requiring representative estimates of lake surface temperature.

  1. Ionic versus metallic bonding in AlnNam and AlnMgm (m ≤ 3, n + m ≤ 15) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Cameron J.; Reber, Arthur C.; Khanna, Shiv N.

    2017-06-01

    First principles electronic structure studies on the ground state geometries, stability, and the electronic structure of AlnNam and AlnMgm (m ≤ 3, n + m ≤ 15) clusters have been carried out to examine the nature of bonding between Na or Mg and Al. Identifying whether the bonding is ionic or metallic in bulk materials is typically straightforward; however, in small clusters where quantum confinement is important, the nature of bonding may become unclear. We have performed a critical analysis of the bonding in these bimetallic clusters using charge analysis, electrical dipole moments, hybridization of the atomic orbitals, the Laplacian of the charge density at the bond critical points, and the change in the bonding energy between neutral and anionic forms of the cluster. For NanAlm clusters, we find that the Na binding is primarily ionic, while the bonding in AlnMgm is primarily metallic. We find that the Mulliken population of the 3p orbital of Na and Mg can provide a rapid assessment of the nature of bonding. We also find that the Hirshfeld charge and dipole moments are effective indicators, when placed in context. We found that the Laplacian of the charge density at the bond critical points can be misleading in identifying whether the bonding is ionic or metallic in small clusters.

  2. Overexpressing a NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factor enhances drought resistance and salt tolerance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Honghong; Dai, Mingqiu; Yao, Jialing; Xiao, Benze; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa; Xiong, Lizhong

    2006-01-01

    Drought and salinity are major abiotic stresses to crop production. Here, we show that overexpression of stress responsive gene SNAC1 (STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC 1) significantly enhances drought resistance in transgenic rice (22–34% higher seed setting than control) in the field under severe drought stress conditions at the reproductive stage while showing no phenotypic changes or yield penalty. The transgenic rice also shows significantly improved drought resistance and salt tolerance at the vegetative stage. Compared with WT, the transgenic rice are more sensitive to abscisic acid and lose water more slowly by closing more stomatal pores, yet display no significant difference in the rate of photosynthesis. SNAC1 is induced predominantly in guard cells by drought and encodes a NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) transcription factor with transactivation activity. DNA chip analysis revealed that a large number of stress-related genes were up-regulated in the SNAC1-overexpressing rice plants. Our data suggest that SNAC1 holds promising utility in improving drought and salinity tolerance in rice. PMID:16924117

  3. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    PubMed

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas.

  4. Quality of reproductive health services at commune health stations in Viet Nam: implications for national reproductive health care strategy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study conducted in 2009 of provider and patient perceptions of primary level reproductive health services provided by commune health stations (CHSs), and the implications for Viet Nam's 2011-2020 National Strategy for Reproductive Health Care. In the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue, and Vinh Long, we interviewed the heads of CHSs, held focus group discussions with midwives and women patients, and observed facilities. Half the 30 CHSs visited were in poor physical condition; the rest were newly renovated. However, the model of service delivery was largely unchanged from ten years before. Many appeared to fall short in meeting patient expectations in terms of modern medical equipment and technology, range of drug supplies, and levels of staff expertise. As a result, many women were turning to private doctors and public hospitals, at least in urban areas, or seeking medication from pharmacies. To make CHS clinics sustainable, promotion of access to reproductive health services should be undertaken concurrently with quality improvement. A responsive payment scheme must also be developed to generate revenues. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary use of more costly services from private clinics and higher level public facilities.

  5. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  6. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  7. First (U-Th)/He ages from the peneplain forming granitoids of Tibetan Plateau, near Nam Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, V.; Dunkl, I.; von Eynatten, H.; Ling, D.

    2009-04-01

    Peneplains form a very distinct and widespread geomorphological feature of the Tibetan Plateau. In Central Tibet, north of the lake Nam Co peneplains predominantly are graven into Jurassic and Cretaceous granitic intrusions. Characteristic for these geomorphological features are the complete flat landscape at an altitude of about 5100 m. Some of them are well preserved, while others are decayed to corestone (woolsack) and form hilly landscapes. We aim to date the tectonic events and exhumation periods pre - dating the formation of peneplains by thermochronological methods. Thus sampling of a 6,000 square km wide area was performed and granitoid, volcanic and sediment samples were taken. Further samples were taken from the intrusions at different levels. The apatite crystals were separated from the rock samples and inclusion free grains were carefully selected for (U - Th)/He thermochronology by classical methods. As first step He was extracted from each grain separately by laser heating and the gas amount was measured by a Hiden triple - filter quadrupol mass spectrometer. Subsequently the grains were dissolved in spiked nitric acid and the U, Th and Sm contents was measured by ICP - MS. The first (U - Th)/He ages cluster around Middle Eocene. We suppose that these thermochronological data reflect a Tertiary thermotectonical event. This event is probably connected to erosion and planation of the granite surface and to the deposition of siliciclastic sediments situated close to the currently exhumed peneplains.

  8. Water monitoring and treatment for drinking purposes in 2004 tsunami affected area-Ban Nam Khem, Phang Nga, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Tharnpoophasiam, Prapin; Vaccari, Mentore; De Felice, Valentina; Di Bella, Veronica; Mingkwan, Ruchaneekorn

    2008-12-01

    University of Brescia and Mahidol University of Bangkok developed a project in Phang Nga province (Thailand), the most damaged by 2004 tsunami. In particular, the study, performed between April and May 2006, dealt with the surface and ground water monitoring in Ban Nam Khem village and the experimental evaluation of possible drinking treatment alternatives. The monitoring highlighted that saline content in the tsunami affected area is decreasing but still very high (conductivity presented values up to 2,600 and 6,230 microS/cm in ground and surface water, respectively); hence, advanced and complicated processes such as reverse osmosis should be adopted to treat such water for drinking purposes. Waiting for ground water salinity to assume acceptable values, activities for the reduction of its organic and microbiological contamination will be started. However, it has to be underlined that the diffusion of drinking water to a greater part of population can be obtained only through the realization of new centralised treatment plants and the improvement of existing ones (serving at the moment about 20% of inhabitants).

  9. Facial Attractiveness Assessment using Illustrated Questionnairers.

    PubMed

    Mesaros, Anca; Cornea, Daniela; Cioara, Liviu; Dudea, Diana; Mesaros, Michaela; Badea, Mindra

    2015-01-01

    An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in people's opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial elements. Considering an evaluation of facial

  10. Photogrammetric Analysis of Attractiveness in Indian Faces

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Shveta; Kapoor, DN; Verma, Santosh; Sagar, Mahesh; Lee, Yung-Seop; Moon, Hyoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the attractive facial features of the Indian population. We tried to evaluate subjective ratings of facial attractiveness and identify which facial aesthetic subunits were important for facial attractiveness. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 150 samples (referred to as candidates). Frontal photographs were analyzed. An orthodontist, a prosthodontist, an oral surgeon, a dentist, an artist, a photographer and two laymen (estimators) subjectively evaluated candidates' faces using visual analog scale (VAS) scores. As an objective method for facial analysis, we used balanced angular proportional analysis (BAPA). Using SAS 10.1 (SAS Institute Inc.), the Turkey's studentized range test and Pearson correlation analysis were performed to detect between-group differences in VAS scores (Experiment 1), to identify correlations between VAS scores and BAPA scores (Experiment 2), and to analyze the characteristic features of facial attractiveness and gender differences (Experiment 3); the significance level was set at P=0.05. Results Experiment 1 revealed some differences in VAS scores according to professional characteristics. In Experiment 2, BAPA scores were found to behave similarly to subjective ratings of facial beauty, but showed a relatively weak correlation coefficient with the VAS scores. Experiment 3 found that the decisive factors for facial attractiveness were different for men and women. Composite images of attractive Indian male and female faces were constructed. Conclusions Our photogrammetric study, statistical analysis, and average composite faces of an Indian population provide valuable information about subjective perceptions of facial beauty and attractive facial structures in the Indian population. PMID:27019809

  11. Chemical Visualization of an Attractant Peptide, LURE

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hiroaki; Okuda, Satohiro; Mizukami, Akane; Mori, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Narie; Kurihara, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    The pollen tube attractant peptide LUREs of Torenia fournieri are diffusible peptides that attract pollen tubes in vitro. Here, we report a method enabling the direct visualization of a LURE peptide without inhibiting its attraction activity by conjugating it with the Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent dye. After purifying and refolding the recombinant LURE2 with a polyhistidine tag, its amino groups were targeted for conjugation with the Alexa Fluor dye. Labeling of LURE2 was confirmed by its fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In our in vitro assay using gelatin beads, Alexa Fluor 488-labeled LURE2 appeared to have the same activity as unlabeled LURE2. Using the labeled LURE2, the relationship between the spatiotemporal change of distribution and activity of LURE2 was examined. LURE2 attracted pollen tubes when embedded in gelatin beads, but hardly at all when in agarose beads. Direct visualization suggested that the significant difference between these conditions was the retention of LURE2 in the gelatin bead, which might delay diffusion of LURE2 from the bead. Direct visualization of LURE peptide may open the way to studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of LURE in pollen tube attraction. PMID:21149297

  12. Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Rikowski, A; Grammer, K

    1999-05-07

    Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.

  13. Chemical visualization of an attractant peptide, LURE.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hiroaki; Okuda, Satohiro; Mizukami, Akane; Mori, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Narie; Kurihara, Daisuke; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    The pollen tube attractant peptide LUREs of Torenia fournieri are diffusible peptides that attract pollen tubes in vitro. Here, we report a method enabling the direct visualization of a LURE peptide without inhibiting its attraction activity by conjugating it with the Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent dye. After purifying and refolding the recombinant LURE2 with a polyhistidine tag, its amino groups were targeted for conjugation with the Alexa Fluor dye. Labeling of LURE2 was confirmed by its fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In our in vitro assay using gelatin beads, Alexa Fluor 488-labeled LURE2 appeared to have the same activity as unlabeled LURE2. Using the labeled LURE2, the relationship between the spatiotemporal change of distribution and activity of LURE2 was examined. LURE2 attracted pollen tubes when embedded in gelatin beads, but hardly at all when in agarose beads. Direct visualization suggested that the significant difference between these conditions was the retention of LURE2 in the gelatin bead, which might delay diffusion of LURE2 from the bead. Direct visualization of LURE peptide may open the way to studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of LURE in pollen tube attraction.

  14. Shukla-Eliasson attractive force: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi

    2013-04-01

    By investigating the dielectric response of the Fermi-Dirac plasma in the linear limit and evaluating the electrostatic potential around the positive stationary test charge, we find that the Shukla-Eliasson attractive force is present for the plasma density range expected in the interiors of large planets for a wide range of plasma atomic number. This research, which is based on the generalized electron Fermi-momentum, further confirms the existence of the newly discovered Lennard-Jones-like attractive potential and its inevitable role in plasma crystallization in the cores of planets. Moreover, it is observed that the characteristics of the attractive potential are strongly sensitive to the variation of plasma density and composition. Current research can also have applications in the study of strong laser-matter interactions and inertially confined plasmas.

  15. Self-attracting walk on heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kanghun; Kyoung, Jaegu; Lee, D.-S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding human mobility in cyberspace becomes increasingly important in this information era. While human mobility, memory-dependent and subdiffusive, is well understood in Euclidean space, it remains elusive in random heterogeneous networks like the World Wide Web. Here we study the diffusion characteristics of self-attracting walks, in which a walker is more likely to move to the locations visited previously than to unvisited ones, on scale-free networks. Under strong attraction, the number of distinct visited nodes grows linearly in time with larger coefficients in more heterogeneous networks. More interestingly, crossovers to sublinear growths occur in strongly heterogeneous networks. To understand these phenomena, we investigate the characteristic volumes and topology of the cluster of visited nodes and find that the reinforced attraction to hubs results in expediting exploration first but delaying later, as characterized by the scaling exponents that we derive. Our findings and analysis method can be useful for understanding various diffusion processes mediated by human.

  16. Messages about physical attractiveness in animated cartoons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S

    2006-12-01

    Relying upon a content analysis of one specific type of medium to which young people are exposed beginning at an early age, on a regular basis, and for many years (i.e., animated cartoons), the present study examines what types of messages are provided about being physically unattractive, physically attractive, and ordinary-looking. This research concerns itself with identifying the characteristics that tend to be associated with being good-looking or unattractive, and then discussing the implications of the findings. Results indicate that many variables were found to differ based on cartoon characters' physical attractiveness, including gender, age, intelligence, body weight, emotional states experienced, prosocial behaviors, antisocial behaviors, and overall goodness/badness. Whenever differences were found, the overriding tendency was for cartoons to provide positive messages about being attractive and negative messages about being unattractive.

  17. Self-attracting walk on heterogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kanghun; Kyoung, Jaegu; Lee, D-S

    2016-05-01

    Understanding human mobility in cyberspace becomes increasingly important in this information era. While human mobility, memory-dependent and subdiffusive, is well understood in Euclidean space, it remains elusive in random heterogeneous networks like the World Wide Web. Here we study the diffusion characteristics of self-attracting walks, in which a walker is more likely to move to the locations visited previously than to unvisited ones, on scale-free networks. Under strong attraction, the number of distinct visited nodes grows linearly in time with larger coefficients in more heterogeneous networks. More interestingly, crossovers to sublinear growths occur in strongly heterogeneous networks. To understand these phenomena, we investigate the characteristic volumes and topology of the cluster of visited nodes and find that the reinforced attraction to hubs results in expediting exploration first but delaying later, as characterized by the scaling exponents that we derive. Our findings and analysis method can be useful for understanding various diffusion processes mediated by human.

  18. Pollen tube guidance by attractant molecules: LUREs.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Satohiro; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires pollen-tube guidance, which is thought to be mediated by chemoattractants derived from target ovules. To date, however, no convincing evidence has been reported of a particular molecule being the true attractant. Emerging data indicate that two synergid cells, which are on either side of the egg cell, emit a diffusible, species-specific signal to attract the pollen tube at the last step of pollen-tube guidance. Recently, it was demonstrated that LUREs (LURE1 and LURE2), cysteine-rich polypeptides secreted from the synergid cell, are the key molecules in pollen-tube guidance. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of pollen-tube guidance, with special focus on gametophytic guidance and the attractants.

  19. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. Attraction between like-charged monovalent ions.

    PubMed

    Zangi, Ronen

    2012-05-14

    Ions with like-charges repel each other with a magnitude given by the Coulomb law. The repulsion is also known to persist in aqueous solutions albeit factored by the medium's dielectric constant. In this paper, we report results from molecular dynamics simulations of alkali halides salt solutions indicating an effective attraction between some of the like-charged monovalent ions. The attraction is observed between anions, as well as between cations, leading to the formation of dimers with lifetimes on the order of few picoseconds. Two mechanisms have been identified to drive this counterintuitive attraction. The first is exhibited by high-charge density ions, such as fluoride, at low salt concentrations, yielding effective attractions with magnitude up to the order of 1-2 kT. In this case, the stronger local electric field generated when the two ions are in contact augments the alignment of neighboring waters toward the ions. This results in a gain of substantial favorable ion-water interaction energy. For fluorides, this interaction constitutes the major change among the different energy components compensating for the anion-anion repulsion, and therefore, rendering like-charge association possible. The second mechanism involves mediation by counterions, the attractions increase with salt concentration and are characterized by small magnitudes. In particular, clusters of ion triplets, in which a counterion is either bridging the two like-charged ions or is paired to only one of them, are formed. Although these two mechanisms may not yield net attractions in many cases, they might still be operational and significant, explaining effective repulsions between like-charged ions with magnitudes much smaller than expected based on continuum electrostatics.

  1. Attraction between like-charged monovalent ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2012-05-01

    Ions with like-charges repel each other with a magnitude given by the Coulomb law. The repulsion is also known to persist in aqueous solutions albeit factored by the medium's dielectric constant. In this paper, we report results from molecular dynamics simulations of alkali halides salt solutions indicating an effective attraction between some of the like-charged monovalent ions. The attraction is observed between anions, as well as between cations, leading to the formation of dimers with lifetimes on the order of few picoseconds. Two mechanisms have been identified to drive this counterintuitive attraction. The first is exhibited by high-charge density ions, such as fluoride, at low salt concentrations, yielding effective attractions with magnitude up to the order of 1-2 kT. In this case, the stronger local electric field generated when the two ions are in contact augments the alignment of neighboring waters toward the ions. This results in a gain of substantial favorable ion-water interaction energy. For fluorides, this interaction constitutes the major change among the different energy components compensating for the anion-anion repulsion, and therefore, rendering like-charge association possible. The second mechanism involves mediation by counterions, the attractions increase with salt concentration and are characterized by small magnitudes. In particular, clusters of ion triplets, in which a counterion is either bridging the two like-charged ions or is paired to only one of them, are formed. Although these two mechanisms may not yield net attractions in many cases, they might still be operational and significant, explaining effective repulsions between like-charged ions with magnitudes much smaller than expected based on continuum electrostatics.

  2. Omitted evidence undermines sexual motives explanation for attractiveness bias.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, Marianne; Eagly, Alice H

    2017-01-01

    This commentary makes three points: (1) the existing evidence does not consistently favor the proposed sex difference in attractiveness preferences, nor the fitness-related outcomes of attractiveness; (2) the neglected association of perceived attractiveness and trustworthiness allowed the authors to incorrectly attribute many findings solely to attractiveness, and (3) the importance accorded attractiveness in mate preferences is culturally shaped and likely evolutionarily novel.

  3. Glassy states in attractive micellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Faraone, A.; Chen, W. R.; Chen, S.-H.

    2004-08-01

    Recent mode coupling theory (MCT) calculations show that in attractive colloids one may observe a new type of glass originating from clustering effects, as a result of the attractive interaction. This happens in addition to the known glass-forming mechanism due to cage effects in the hard sphere system. MCT also indicates that, within a certain volume fraction range, varying the external control parameter, the effective temperature, makes the glass-to-liquid-to-glass re-entrance and the glass-to-glass transitions possible. Here we present experimental evidence and details on this complex phase behavior in a three-block copolymer micellar system.

  4. Attractive Potential around a Thermionically Emitting Microparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Lapenta, G.; Rosenberg, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the charging of a dust grain immersed in a plasma, considering the effect of thermionic electron emission from the grain. It is shown that the orbit motion limited theory is no longer reliable when electron emission becomes large: screening can no longer be treated within the Debye-Huckel approach and an attractive potential well can form, leading to the possibility of attractive forces on other grains with the same polarity. We suggest to perform laboratory experiments where emitting dust grains could be used to create nonconventional dust crystals or macromolecules.

  5. Lane formation in a driven attractive fluid.

    PubMed

    Wächtler, C W; Kogler, F; Klapp, S H L

    2016-11-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium lane formation in a generic model of a fluid with attractive interactions, that is, a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid composed of two particle species driven in opposite directions. Performing Brownian dynamics simulations for a wide range of parameters, supplemented by a stability analysis based on dynamical density functional theory, we identify generic features of lane formation in the presence of attraction, including structural properties. In fact, we find a variety of states (as compared to purely repulsive systems), as well as a close relation between laning and long-wavelength instabilities of the homogeneous phase such as demixing and condensation.

  6. Lane formation in a driven attractive fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächtler, C. W.; Kogler, F.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium lane formation in a generic model of a fluid with attractive interactions, that is, a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid composed of two particle species driven in opposite directions. Performing Brownian dynamics simulations for a wide range of parameters, supplemented by a stability analysis based on dynamical density functional theory, we identify generic features of lane formation in the presence of attraction, including structural properties. In fact, we find a variety of states (as compared to purely repulsive systems), as well as a close relation between laning and long-wavelength instabilities of the homogeneous phase such as demixing and condensation.

  7. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    PubMed

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  8. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  9. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  10. Effects of Perceived Attractiveness and Sex-Role Interests on Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Billy; Linnstaedter, LaNelle

    Subjects (40 male, 40 female) viewed a videotaped "interview" with a competent female stimulus person (SP) who appeared to be sex-role congruent or incongruent and was either physically attractive or unattractive. Interpersonal attraction (Likability) was assessed by objective questionnaires. Subjects' sex and attitudes toward women were included…

  11. Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Length of Acquaintance as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction Among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavior, Norman; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)

  12. Placemaking: Attracting and Retaining Today's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the appearance of a college campus--both inside and out--is a significant criterion in college selection. As community colleges are finding it increasingly important to attract and retain students, placemaking is becoming an effective and efficient platform to support recruitment and retention. Placemaking is imagining and…

  13. Ordinal Position, Approval Motivation, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the study suggest that birth-order effects might be included within the wider framework of approval-dependency theory. Females tend to account for a significant share of birth-order effects. More particularly, firstborn females accounted for much of the differences in expressed attraction as well as need for social approval. (Author)

  14. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  15. Task Performance and Interpersonal Attraction in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, John M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating how performance information affects interpersonal attraction in children. In both experiments children worked on perceptual problems in simulated groups, received feedback about their own and other group members' performance, and then indicated their desire to interact with selected group members in various…

  16. Radial Motion of Two Mutually Attracting Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    A pair of masses or opposite-sign charges released from rest will move directly toward each other under the action of the inverse-distance-squared force of attraction between them. An exact expression for the separation distance as a function of time can only be found by numerically inverting the solution of a differential equation. A simpler,…

  17. Stragegies for Attracting and Retaining Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Paul; Church, Edwin; Luo, Mingchu

    2014-01-01

    Attracting and retaining high quality teachers is a challenge for many school districts. This is especially true in a time of increased accountability and limited resources. This report details best practice in the training, hiring, improvement, and retention of high quality teaching staff. The authors explain how school leaders can attract…

  18. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  19. Scottish Visitor Attractions: Managerial Competence Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandra; McCracken, Martin; Hughes, Moira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study into managerial competence in the Scottish visitor attraction sector. It provides an insight into the range, diversity and perceived importance of current and future competences highlighting differences based on gender, age, size, level of training and location. Although the main findings reveal a…

  20. Radial Motion of Two Mutually Attracting Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    A pair of masses or opposite-sign charges released from rest will move directly toward each other under the action of the inverse-distance-squared force of attraction between them. An exact expression for the separation distance as a function of time can only be found by numerically inverting the solution of a differential equation. A simpler,…

  1. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  2. Prospects for developing attractive magnetic fusion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    Comments are made pertaining to a generic magnetic fusion reactor study carried out at ORNL. A second study was made of the required reactor characteristics for attractive fusion reactors. The study concluded that both the physics and economics would be achievable with present magnetic configurations.

  3. Perceived Attractiveness and the Black Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azibo, Daudi Ajani Ya

    1984-01-01

    Black subjects--classified as having "strong Black" or "weak Black" personalities--were asked to evaluate photos of Black and White women. As hypothesized, strong Black personality individuals judged the attractive Black female photo more favorably than the White counterpart; weak Black personality individuals judged the White female more…

  4. Stereotyping Physical Attractiveness: A Sociocultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Karen K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the tendency to stereotype physical attractiveness and identification in a collectivist culture using a group of 53 Chinese Canadian college students. Finds that introverts tended to be more prone to stereotyping than extroverts. Subjects with the highest cultural involvement were least prone to stereotyping with regard to social…

  5. The Pioneer Anomaly as a Coulomb Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft can be explained as a Coulomb attraction between the positively-charged Solar System (due to cosmic rays) and the negatively-charged spacecraft (due to alpha-particle emission from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators).

  6. Visual cues to female physical attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, M J; Maisey, D S; Emery, J L; Cornelissen, P L

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that a woman's sexual attractiveness is based on cues of health and reproductive potential. In recent years, research has focused on the ratio of the width of the waist to the width of the hips (the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A low WHR (i.e. a curvaceous body) is believed to correspond to the optimal fat distribution for high fertility, and so this shape should be highly attractive. In this paper we present evidence that weight scaled for height (the body mass index (BMI)) is the primary determinant of sexual attractiveness rather than WHR. BMI is also strongly linked to health and reproductive potential. Furthermore, we show how covariation of apparent BMI and WHR in previous studies led to the overestimation of the importance of WHR in the perception of female attractiveness. Finally, we show how visual cues, such as the perimeter-area ratio (PAR), can provide an accurate and reliable index of an individual's BMI and could be used by an observer to differentiate between potential partners. PMID:10097394

  7. The Elusive Loss in Attraction Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steindorf, J. A.; And Others

    A significant loss in attraction effect has never been obtained from subjects who are the direct recipients of another's evaluation. Rather, the effect has been obtained only from those subjects who assume the role of recipient of another's evaluation. In a discussion context, the present study compared direct recipients (DR) and role playing…

  8. Placemaking: Attracting and Retaining Today's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the appearance of a college campus--both inside and out--is a significant criterion in college selection. As community colleges are finding it increasingly important to attract and retain students, placemaking is becoming an effective and efficient platform to support recruitment and retention. Placemaking is imagining and…

  9. Vortex attraction and the formation of sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    A downdraft vortex ring in a stratified atmosphere exhibits universal attraction for nearby vertical magnetic flux bundles. It is speculated that the magnetic fields emerging through the surface of the sun are individually encircled by one or more subsurface vortex rings, providing an important part of the observed clustering of magnetic fibrils to form pores and sunspots.

  10. Agreement Attraction in Comprehension: Representations and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagers, Matthew W.; Lau, Ellen F.; Phillips, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated so-called attraction errors in the production of subject-verb agreement (e.g., "The key to the cabinets are on the table", [Bock, J. K., & Miller, C. A. (1991). "Broken agreement." "Cognitive Psychology, 23", 45-93]), in which a verb erroneously agrees with an intervening noun. Six self-paced reading experiments examined…

  11. Ordinal Position, Approval Motivation, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Results of the study suggest that birth-order effects might be included within the wider framework of approval-dependency theory. Females tend to account for a significant share of birth-order effects. More particularly, firstborn females accounted for much of the differences in expressed attraction as well as need for social approval. (Author)

  12. Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Perrett, D I; Lee, K J; Penton-Voak, I; Rowland, D; Yoshikawa, S; Burt, D M; Henzi, S P; Castles, D L; Akamatsu, S

    1998-08-27

    Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.

  13. The shape and dynamics of local attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbom, D.; Siljestam, M.; Park, J.; Sumpter, D. J. T.

    2015-11-01

    Moving animal groups, such as flocks of birds or schools of fish, exhibit a varity of self-organized complex dynamical behaviors and shapes. This kind of flocking behavior has been studied using self-propelled particle models, in which the "particles" interact with their nearest neighbors through repulsion, attraction and alignment responses. In particular, it has been shown that models based on attraction alone can generate a range of dynamic groups in 2D, with periodic boundary conditions, and in the absence of repulsion. Here we investigate the effects of changing these conditions on the type of groups observed in the model. We show that replacing the periodic boundary conditions with a weak global attaction term in 2D, and extending the model to 3D does not significantly change the type of groups observed. We also provide a description of how attraction strength and blind angle determine the groups generated in the 3D version of the model. Finally, we show that adding repulsion do change the type of groups oberved, making them appear and behave more like real moving animal groups. Our results suggest that many biological instances of collective motion may be explained without assuming that animals explicitly align with each other. Instead, complex collective motion is explained by the interplay of attraction and repulsion forces. Supplementary material in the form of four mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjst/e2015-50093-5

  14. Effects of bowing on perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Takayuki; Kawahara, Jun I

    2015-07-01

    Bowing is a greeting behavior. The present study examined the modulation effect of bowing on perception of attractiveness. In each trial, a portrait digitized from university yearbooks was presented on a computer screen. The portrait was mildly tilted toward participants to simulate a greeting bow (25-degree angle). Participants evaluated the subjective attractiveness of the face using a visual analog scale (0-100). The mean attractiveness judgment of the bowing portrait was significantly higher relative to that of the bending-backward or standing-still control conditions (Experiment 1). Additional control experiments revealed that alternative accounts relying on apparent spatial proximity and physical characteristics could not solely explain the effect of bowing (Experiment 2) and indicated that the effect was specific to objects perceived as faces (Experiment 3). Furthermore, observers' in-return bowing behavior did not reduce the bowing effect (Experiment 4), and bowing motion increased the ratings of subjective politeness and submissiveness (Experiment 5). Finally, tilting the 3D faces elicited the same effect from observers as did tilting the still photos (Experiment 6). These results suggest that a tilting motion of portraits (or images of face-like objects) mimicking bowing enhances perceived attractiveness, at least as measured in a culture familiar with greeting by bowing.

  15. Attracting New Learners: International Evidence and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sue, Ed.; Cameron, Helen, Ed.

    This document explores the question of how the United Kingdom can attract more people into education and training. The introduction discusses the international seminar on which the document is based. "What Triggers Participation?" offers a conceptual framework for the seminar's findings. "A Comparative Perspective" examines…

  16. Scottish Visitor Attractions: Managerial Competence Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandra; McCracken, Martin; Hughes, Moira

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a study into managerial competence in the Scottish visitor attraction sector. It provides an insight into the range, diversity and perceived importance of current and future competences highlighting differences based on gender, age, size, level of training and location. Although the main findings reveal a…

  17. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  18. Differences in Expressivity Based on Attractiveness: Target or Perceiver Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Kayl, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant association exists between adults’ expressivity and facial attractiveness, but it is unclear whether the association is linear or significant only at the extremes of attractiveness. It is also unclear whether attractive persons actually display more positive expressivity than unattractive persons (target effects) or whether high and low attractiveness influences expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects). Experiment 1 demonstrated adult ratings of attractiveness were predictive of expressivity valence only for high and low attractive females and medium attractive males. Experiment 2 showed that low attractive females actually display more negative expressivity than medium and high attractive females, but there were no target effects for males. Also, attractiveness influenced expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects) for both females and males. Our findings demonstrate that low attractive females are at a particular disadvantage during social interactions due to their low attractiveness, actual displays of negative expressivity, and perceptions of their negative expressivity. PMID:26366010

  19. Facial Attractiveness Assessment using Illustrated Questionnairers

    PubMed Central

    MESAROS, ANCA; CORNEA, DANIELA; CIOARA, LIVIU; DUDEA, DIANA; MESAROS, MICHAELA; BADEA, MINDRA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. An attractive facial appearance is considered nowadays to be a decisive factor in establishing successful interactions between humans. In relation to this topic, scientific literature states that some of the facial features have more impact then others, and important authors revealed that certain proportions between different anthropometrical landmarks are mandatory for an attractive facial appearance. Aim. Our study aims to assess if certain facial features count differently in people’s opinion while assessing facial attractiveness in correlation with factors such as age, gender, specific training and culture. Material and methods. A 5-item multiple choice illustrated questionnaire was presented to 236 dental students. The Photoshop CS3 software was used in order to obtain the sets of images for the illustrated questions. The original image was handpicked from the internet by a panel of young dentists from a series of 15 pictures of people considered to have attractive faces. For each of the questions, the images presented were simulating deviations from the ideally symmetric and proportionate face. The sets of images consisted in multiple variations of deviations mixed with the original photo. Junior and sophomore year students from our dental medical school, having different nationalities were required to participate in our questionnaire. Simple descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. Assessing the results obtained from the questionnaire it was observed that a majority of students considered as unattractive the overdevelopment of the lower third, while the initial image with perfect symmetry and proportion was considered as the most attractive by only 38.9% of the subjects. Likewise, regarding the symmetry 36.86% considered unattractive the canting of the inter-commissural line. The interviewed subjects considered that for a face to be attractive it needs to have harmonious proportions between the different facial

  20. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the development of odour

  1. Mapping soil erosion susceptibility using remote sensing and GIS: a case of the Upper Nam Wa Watershed, Nan Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Bahadur, K. C.

    2009-04-01

    Land degradation is still a very common problem in the mountains of Asia because of inappropriate land use practice in steep topography. Many studies have been carried out to map shifting cultivation and areas susceptible to soil erosion. Mostly, estimated soil loss is taken as the basis to classify the level of soil loss susceptibility of area. Factors that influence soil erosion are: rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, crop management and conservation practices. Thus the reliability of estimated soil loss is based on how accurately the different factors were estimated or prepared. As each and every small pixel of our earth surface is different from one area to another, the manner in which the study area was discretized into smaller homogenous sizes and how the most accurate and efficient technique were adopted to estimate the soil loss are very important. The purpose of this study is to produce erosion susceptibility maps for an area that has suffered because of shifting cultivation located in the mountainous regions of Northern Thailand. For this purpose, an integrated approach using RS and GIS-based methods is proposed. Data from the Upper Nam Wa Watershed, a mountainous area of the Northern Thailand were used. An Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) imagine image processor has been used for the digital analysis of satellite data and topographical analysis of the contour data for deriving the land use/land cover and the topographical data of the watershed, respectively. ARCInfo and ARCView have been used for carrying out geographical data analysis. The watershed was discretized into hydrologically, topographically, and geographically homogeneous grid cells to capture the watershed heterogeneity. The soil erosion in each cell was calculated using the universal soil loss equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters and classifying the watershed into different levels of soil erosion severity. Results show

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patterns and risk behaviours in different population groups and provinces in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Fylkesnes, Knut; Thang, Bui Duc; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Thang, Pham Hong; Manh, Pham Duc

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study patterns and determinants of HIV prevalence and risk-behaviour characteristics in different population groups in four border provinces of Viet Nam. Methods We surveyed four population groups during April–June 2002. We used stratified random-cluster sampling and collected data concomitantly on HIV status and risk behaviours. The groups included were female sex workers (n = 2023), injecting drug users (n = 1391), unmarried males aged 15–24 years (n = 1885) and different categories of mobile groups (n = 1923). Findings We found marked geographical contrasts in HIV prevalence, particularly among female sex workers (range 0–24%). The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users varied at high levels in all provinces (range 4–36%), whereas lower prevalences were found among both unmarried young men (range 0–1.3%) and mobile groups (range 0–2.5%). All groups reported sex with female sex workers. Less than 40% of the female sex workers had used condoms consistently. The strongest determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers were inconsistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4–11.8), history of injecting drug use and mobility, and, among injecting drug users, sharing of injection equipment (adjusted OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.3–24.0) and sex with non-regular partners (adjusted OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.4–8.5). Conclusion The finding of marked geographical variation in HIV prevalence underscores the value of understanding local contexts in the prevention of HIV infection. Although lacking support from data from all provinces, there would appear to be a potential for sex work to drive a self-sustaining heterosexual epidemic. That the close links to serious injecting drug use epidemics can have an accelerating effect in increasing the spread of HIV merits further study. PMID:17242756

  3. Analysis of lake level changes in Nam Co in central Tibet utilizing synergistic satellite altimetry and optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropáček, Jan; Braun, Andreas; Kang, Shichang; Feng, Chen; Ye, Qinghua; Hochschild, Volker

    2012-07-01

    The fluctuations of closed basin lakes on the Tibetan Plateau are a valuable record of climate change induced water balance alterations within the catchments. Since these basins are remote and hard to access, multisensoral remote sensing is a valuable method to gather the necessary water budget components with appropriate spatial coverage and with high temporal resolutions. Thus the lake level elevation changes of the central Tibetan lake Nam Co were examined in example by a comparison of satellite altimetry (RA-2/ENVISAT, GFO radar altimeters and GLAS/ICESat laser altimeter for the period 2000-2009) and the evaluation of a time series of optical satellite data dating back to 1976 (Landsat) and 1965 (Corona) in order to validate hydrological water budget modelling results. The combination of all three altimeters revealed a rising trend of lake level on average by 0.31 m/year in the period 2000-2009 which corresponds to a total volume change of 6.2 km3. This is in a good agreement with simulated average lake level rise of 0.35 m/year obtained from distributed hydrological modelling (Krause et al., 2010). The movements of lakeshore measured on the satellite imagery confirm the trend revealed by the altimetry data and they also indicate the rising trend since 1965. While GFO provides a dense time series of data the more accurate ENVISAT/RA-2 data unfortunately feature large data gaps over Tibet. The measurements from time limited campaigns of ICESat validate the results of radar altimetry and they provide unlike radar altimeters a valid height over lake ice during winter and spring period. The results show that the presented approach is a valuable contribution to understand the impact of changing climate on the hydrology of Tibetan lakes.

  4. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Saksena, Sumeet; Fox, Jefferson; Epprecht, Michael; Tran, Chinh C.; Nong, Duong H.; Spencer, James H.; Nguyen, Lam; Finucane, Melissa L.; Tran, Vien D.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the ‘convergence model’ was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model’s predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs. PMID:26398118

  5. Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sumpradit, Tawatchai; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Seki, Tatsuji

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-one strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were isolated from soil collected in three kinds of natural forest, namely a dry dipterocarp forest, a mixed deciduous forest and a pine forest, in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun province, Thailand. The strains formed asci containing one to four ovoid to reniform ascospores, assimilated glucose, galactose and glycerol, fermented glucose and galactose vigorously and contained ubiquinone Q-6, indicating that they belonged to the genus Tetrapisispora. A comparative analysis of the small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rDNA (LSU rDNA) of all available sequences for ascomycetous yeasts confirmed that the strains were phylogenetically related to the genus Tetrapisispora. All strains had identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA and differed from the nearest species, Tetrapisispora arboricola IFO 10925(T), by 6.4% nucleotide substitutions. The strains differed from Tetrapisispora arboricola by the ability to assimilate D-gluconic acid, the inability to grow on 50% glucose medium, the nuclear DNA base composition and deliquescent asci. The strains were differentiated from the other four species of Tetrapisispora on the basis of trehalose assimilation, the ability to grow on 50% glucose or 10% NaCl plus 5% glucose, vitamin requirement, the nuclear DNA base composition and the type of ascus. Based on the characteristics mentioned above, the strains are recognized as a single novel species of the genus Tetrapisispora and the name Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TN1-01(T) (=TISTR 5828(T)=JCM 12664(T)=CBS 10093(T)).

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patterns and risk behaviours in different population groups and provinces in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Fylkesnes, Knut; Thang, Bui Duc; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Thang, Pham Hong; Manh, Pham Duc; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    To study patterns and determinants of HIV prevalence and risk-behaviour characteristics in different population groups in four border provinces of Viet Nam. We surveyed four population groups during April-June 2002. We used stratified random-cluster sampling and collected data concomitantly on HIV status and risk behaviours. The groups included were female sex workers (n = 2023), injecting drug users (n = 1391), unmarried males aged 15-24 years (n = 1885) and different categories of mobile groups (n = 1923). We found marked geographical contrasts in HIV prevalence, particularly among female sex workers (range 0-24%). The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users varied at high levels in all provinces (range 4-36%), whereas lower prevalences were found among both unmarried young men (range 0-1.3%) and mobile groups (range 0-2.5%). All groups reported sex with female sex workers. Less than 40% of the female sex workers had used condoms consistently. The strongest determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers were inconsistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-11.8), history of injecting drug use and mobility, and, among injecting drug users, sharing of injection equipment (adjusted OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.3-24.0) and sex with non-regular partners (adjusted OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.4-8.5). The finding of marked geographical variation in HIV prevalence underscores the value of understanding local contexts in the prevention of HIV infection. Although lacking support from data from all provinces, there would appear to be a potential for sex work to drive a self-sustaining heterosexual epidemic. That the close links to serious injecting drug use epidemics can have an accelerating effect in increasing the spread of HIV merits further study.

  7. Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase. PMID:11217661

  8. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  9. Psychological and Social Factors Associated with Late Pregnancy Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Rural Viet Nam: A Population-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Casey, Gerard J.; Hanieh, Sarah; Simpson, Julie Anne; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. Methods Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1). They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2). IDA was defined as Haemoglobin < 11 g/dL and serum ferritin < 15 ng/mL. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam (EPDS-V). Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses. Results A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.8-16.7). Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7) pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. Conclusions Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants. PMID:24167605

  10. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley

    PubMed Central

    Nice, Liana M.; Steffenson, Brian J.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Akhunov, Eduard D.; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J. Y.; Morrell, Peter L.; Blake, Thomas K.; Horsley, Richard D.; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r2 = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm. PMID:27182953

  11. Comparative study of nasoalveolar molding methods: nasal elevator plus DynaCleft® versus NAM-Grayson in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Luis; Ford, Alison; Gutiérrez, Carolina; Tastets, María Eugenia; García, Jacqueline

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To compare nasoalveolar molding (NAM) effect employing a nasal elevator plus DynaCleft® and NAM-Grayson system in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Method : Prospective study in two groups. Group A included 20 consecutive patients treated with DynaCleft® and a nasal elevator before lip surgery. Group B included 20 patients treated with NAM-Grayson system. Maxillary casts and standard view photographs were done before and after treatment. Columella deviation angle, soft tissue distance of the cleft, intercommisural distance, and nostril height and width were traced and measured on the printed photos; a ratio was obtained and compared before and after treatment. Cleft width, anterior width, and anteroposterior distances were measured on the maxillary cast. Results : Group A began treatment at an average age of 14.3 days and group B at an average age of 16.9 days; no complications were observed. For group A, the initial average alveolar cleft within the cast was 10.7 mm, and after treatment it was 6.6 mm. For group B, pretreatment width was 11.2 mm, and after treatment it was 5.9 mm. No differences were found on the anterior and posterior width, and A-P distance of both groups. The initial mean columellar angle in group A was 38.1°, and after treatment it was 61.5°; for group B the initial mean columellar angle was 33.6°, and after treatment it was 59.5°. Results of Mann-Whitney U and Student's t tests showed no differences (P > .05). Width and height dimensions of the nostril showed minor differences. Conclusions : Both methods significantly reduced the cleft width and improved the nasal asymmetry. Our findings show that both methods produced similar results.

  12. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.

  13. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  14. Attractive interaction between similarly charged colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, X.; Wasan, D.T.

    1996-12-01

    The pair interactions between the charged colloidal particles dispersed in a solvent are studied theoretically by the integral equation method. The pair potential of the mean forces, accounting for the effective pair interaction between colloidal particles, is calculated from the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the mean spherical approximation (MSA). An attractive interaction was found between two similarly charged colloidal particles in contrast with the purely repulsive force predicted by the Debye-Huckel theory. Such an attractive interaction provides physical insight for the condensed phenomena in charged colloidal dispersions, that is, the coexistence of a condensed phase and an expanded phase (voids). At the higher concentration and charge on colloidal particles, the effective pair interaction becomes oscillatory.

  15. Novel electrostatic attraction from plasmon fluctuations

    PubMed

    Lau; Levine; Pincus

    2000-05-01

    In this Letter, we show that, at low temperatures, zero-point fluctuations of the plasmon modes of two mutually coupled 2D planar Wigner crystals give rise to a novel long-range attractive force. For the case where the distance d between two planar surfaces is large, this attractive force has an unusual power-law decay, which scales as d(-7/2), unlike other fluctuation-induced forces. Specifically, we note that its range is longer than the "standard" zero-temperature van der Waals interaction. This result may, in principle, be observed in bilayer electronic systems and provides insight into the nature of correlation effects for highly charged surfaces.

  16. Properties of magnetically attractive experimental resin composites.

    PubMed

    Hirano, S; Yasukawa, H; Nomoto, R; Moriyama, K; Hirasawa, T

    1996-12-01

    SUS444 stainless steel filled chemically cured resin composites that can attract magnet were fabricated. The filler was treated with various concentrations of silane. The experimental composite was easy to handle and showed a good shelf life. The maximal properties obtained are as follows; The attraction force to a magnetic attachment was 1/3-1/4 lower than the commercially available magnet-keeper system for dental magnetic attachment. Flexural strength and Knoop hardness of the composite were 76MPa (7.7 kgf/mm2) and 64 KHN. These values were lower than the commercially available chemically cured composite used as a reference. Eluted metal from the composite in 1% lactic acid solution for 7 days showed 0.7 mg/cm2, but in 0.9% NaCl solution for 7 days, it could not be detected.

  17. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  18. Polyisocyanurate's high R-value attracting users

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.

    1982-05-31

    The higher insulating value of polyisocyanurate rigid foam boards that can be installed over existing walls is attracting customers despite their 20% higher cost per square foot than fiberglass insulation. Other plastic foam boards compare in cost, but have a lower R value. The less flammable polycyanurate boards do not require additional perlite or other fire-retardant boards to meet building fire codes. A directory lists 81 major suppliers of roof and wall insulation. (DCK)

  19. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Roe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the "foretarsal sensory organ" (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction-aggregation-attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study.

  20. Mapping female bodily features of attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, Jeanne; Lao, Junpeng; Bartholomée, Océane; Caldara, Roberto; Raymond, Michel

    2016-01-01

    “Beauty is bought by judgment of the eye” (Shakespeare, Love’s Labour’s Lost), but the bodily features governing this critical biological choice are still debated. Eye movement studies have demonstrated that males sample coarse body regions expanding from the face, the breasts and the midriff, while making female attractiveness judgements with natural vision. However, the visual system ubiquitously extracts diagnostic extra-foveal information in natural conditions, thus the visual information actually used by men is still unknown. We thus used a parametric gaze-contingent design while males rated attractiveness of female front- and back-view bodies. Males used extra-foveal information when available. Critically, when bodily features were only visible through restricted apertures, fixations strongly shifted to the hips, to potentially extract hip-width and curvature, then the breast and face. Our hierarchical mapping suggests that the visual system primary uses hip information to compute the waist-to-hip ratio and the body mass index, the crucial factors in determining sexual attractiveness and mate selection. PMID:26791105

  1. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α = 0.5 ) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  2. Hot particles attract in a cold bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Lee, Alpha A.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2017-04-01

    Controlling interactions out of thermodynamic equilibrium is crucial for designing addressable and functional self-organizing structures. These active interactions also underpin collective behavior in biological systems. Here we study a general setting of active particles in a bath of passive particles and demonstrate a mechanism for long-range attraction between active particles. The mechanism operates when the translational persistence length of the active particle motion is smaller than the particle diameter. In this limit, the system reduces to particles of higher diffusivity ("hot" particles) in a bath of particles with lower diffusivity ("cold" particles). This attractive interaction arises as a hot particle pushes cold particles away to create a large hole around itself, and the holes interact via a depletion-like attraction. Strikingly, the interaction range is more than an order of magnitude larger than the particle radius, well beyond the range of the conventional depletion force. Although the mechanism occurs outside the parameter regime of typical biological swimmers, the mechanism could be realized in the laboratory.

  3. The Attraction Effect in Information Visualization.

    PubMed

    Dimara, Evanthia; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The attraction effect is a well-studied cognitive bias in decision making research, where one's choice between two alternatives is influenced by the presence of an irrelevant (dominated) third alternative. We examine whether this cognitive bias, so far only tested with three alternatives and simple presentation formats such as numerical tables, text and pictures, also appears in visualizations. Since visualizations can be used to support decision making - e.g., when choosing a house to buy or an employee to hire - a systematic bias could have important implications. In a first crowdsource experiment, we indeed partially replicated the attraction effect with three alternatives presented as a numerical table, and observed similar effects when they were presented as a scatterplot. In a second experiment, we investigated if the effect extends to larger sets of alternatives, where the number of alternatives is too large for numerical tables to be practical. Our findings indicate that the bias persists for larger sets of alternatives presented as scatterplots. We discuss implications for future research on how to further study and possibly alleviate the attraction effect.

  4. Stochastic basins of attraction for metastable states.

    PubMed

    Serdukova, Larissa; Zheng, Yayun; Duan, Jinqiao; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is an effective concept for stability analysis in deterministic systems; however, it does not contain information on the external perturbations that may affect it. Here we introduce the concept of stochastic basin of attraction (SBA) by incorporating a suitable probabilistic notion of basin. We define criteria for the size of the SBA based on the escape probability, which is one of the deterministic quantities that carry dynamical information and can be used to quantify dynamical behavior of the corresponding stochastic basin of attraction. SBA is an efficient tool to describe the metastable phenomena complementing the known exit time, escape probability, or relaxation time. Moreover, the geometric structure of SBA gives additional insight into the system's dynamical behavior, which is important for theoretical and practical reasons. This concept can be used not only in models with small noise intensity but also with noise whose amplitude is proportional or in general is a function of an order parameter. As an application of our main results, we analyze a three potential well system perturbed by two types of noise: Brownian motion and non-Gaussian α-stable Lévy motion. Our main conclusions are that the thermal fluctuations stabilize the metastable system with an asymmetric three-well potential but have the opposite effect for a symmetric one. For Lévy noise with larger jumps and lower jump frequencies ( α=0.5) metastability is enhanced for both symmetric and asymmetric potentials.

  5. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    PubMed

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator.

  6. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  7. Impressions of Counselors as a Function of Counselor Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jean A.

    1978-01-01

    Research assessed the effects of counselor physical attractiveness and inter-actions between attractiveness and counselor subject sex. It is suggested that sex of counselor and client may play a more important role independently and in conjunction with attractiveness than does attractiveness alone in influencing impressions and expectations.…

  8. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  9. Attractive versus Unattractive Clients: Mediating Influences on Counselors' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kathleen N; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effects of clients' age, physical attractiveness, and behavior on subjects' attraction to the clients. Results indicated that "counselor" subjects were significantly more attracted to child than to adult clients and to clients demonstrating good in-session behaviors. Physically attractive clients were not rated significantly more…

  10. 40 CFR 503.33 - Vector attraction reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vector attraction reduction. 503.33... STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction § 503.33 Vector attraction reduction. (a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in § 503.33 (b)(1)...

  11. Growth and population dynamics during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Ha, Hoang; Duarte, Carlos M.; Tri, Nguyen Hoang; Terrados, Jorge; Borum, Jens

    2003-11-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of the early stages in the life cycle of mangroves is essential to predict the distribution, species composition and structure of mangrove forests, and their maintenance and recovery from perturbations. The growth and population dynamics of two stands of the mangrove Kandelia candel in Halong Bay (Viet Nam) were examined for 1 year. Growth was highly seasonal, with high growth rates and fast internode formation in the summer, dropping to extremely low growth during January-February, the coldest and driest months in the year. In addition, growth and internode formation rates showed important inter-annual variability during the last decade. The complete reproductive period required 7-8 months. Flower initiation was maximal in June and peak propagule maturity occurred in December-January. Only one mature propagule developed for every 67 and 127 inflorescence buds formed at Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. Kandelia candel propagules begun to sink 10 days after being released, and after 18 days all propagules had negative buoyancy. The propagules developed roots within 19-68 days, depending on whether they were held on the water or sediment, and were capable of long range dispersal, for 15-20% of them dispersed more than 100 m within 1 day. The median age of K. candel plants ranged between 8.7 and 5.6 years, with a density of 1900 and 470 plants ha -1, in Sites 1 and 2. Plant mortality was high, with 64 and 74% of the plants surviving after a year at Sites 1 and 2. Life expectancy (i.e. median age-at-death) of only 2.2 and 2.7 years at Sites 1 and 2, respectively, indicates that mortality of young K. candel plants was specially high. Recruitment occurred in early spring, and did not suffice to balance the mortality within the annual period examined. These results suggest that the K. candel stands in Halong Bay might be maintained by a few years of high recruitment which would compensate for generally high mortality rates.

  12. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we measured CH4 ebullition and diffusion with funnels and floating chambers in the footprint of an eddy-covariance system measuring CH4 emissions at high frequency (30 mn) in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (in 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in Lao PDR, southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked-up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. The EC system permitted to evidence a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1) whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emission was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice higher than during nighttime. A total of 4811 measurements of CH4 ebullition with submerged funnels at a weekly/fortnightly frequency were performed. The data set covers a water depth ranging from 0.4 to 16 m, and all types of flooded ecosystems. This dataset allowed to determine that ebullition depends mostly on water level change among many other variables tested. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 (10-90 percentile range: 0.03-21.5 mmol m-2 d-1) and ranged from 0-201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network model could explain up to 45% of variability of ebullition using total static pressure (sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the water level and atmospheric pressure, and bottom temperature as inputs. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition at the reservoir scale and performing gap-filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  13. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  14. Estimation of the optimum density of the Selk'nam from Tierra del Fuego: Inferences about human dynamics in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    García-Moro, C; Hernández, M; Lalueza, C

    1997-01-01

    The Selk'nam, a hunter-gatherer group that inhabited Isla Grande (Tierra del Fuego), became extinct soon after coming into contact with Europeans (XIX century). The population of this tribe was estimated from mission archives and the application of a hunter-gatherer ecological model. Both approaches suggest that the widely accepted number of 3,500-4,000 individuals for this human group is an overestimation, and that 1,500 may be more accurate. This yields a population density of 0.04 persons/km(2) , a very low value, but which is in accordance with the extremely harsh environment. The low population density was an essential adaptive strategy to the complex ecological equilibrium of Tierra del Fuego. Indirectly, this factor may have contributed to the rapid disappearance of this population with the breakdown of the traditional way of life. In addition, the missionary registers show that most of the aborigines died of infectious diseases, a situation exacerbated by the high population density in the missions. The reconstruction of the decline of the Selk'nam population may be used to evaluate the impact of European contact on other American hunter-gatherer groups and also to elucidate the adaptive patterns of human groups in adverse environments. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 9:699-708, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Trends in Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Levels at Home among Viet Nam School Children Aged 13-15 and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Van, Duong Khanh; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home, especially among children, is a serious issue in Viet Nam. During the past decade, much effort has been taken for tobacco control in the country, including various prgorammes aiming to reduce SHS exposure among adults and children. This article analysed trends and factors associated with SHS exposure at home among school children aged 13-15 in Viet Nam, using the Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 2007 and 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods with logistic regression were applied. Overall, there was a significant reduction in the level of exposure, from 58.5% (95%CI: 57.6-59.3) in 2007 to 47.1% (95%CI: 45.4-48.8) in 2014. Of the associated factors, having one or both parents smoking was significantly associated with the highest odds of SHS exposure at home (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 4.2-6.1). Conversely, having a mother with a college or higher education level was found to be a protective factor (OR=0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.8).

  16. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Huy, Tran Quang; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  17. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  18. Acarine attractants: Chemoreception, bioassay, chemistry and control

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Ann L.; Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Acari are of significant economic importance in crop production and human and animal health. Acaricides are essential for the control of these pests, but at the same time, the number of available pesticides is limited, especially for applications in animal production. The Acari consist of two major groups, the mites that demonstrate a wide variety of life strategies, i.e., herbivory, predation and ectoparasitism, and ticks which have evolved obligatory hematophagy. The major sites of chemoreception in the acarines are the chelicerae, palps and tarsi on the forelegs. A unifying name, the “foretarsal sensory organ” (FSO), is proposed for the first time in this review for the sensory site on the forelegs of all acarines. The FSO has multiple sensory functions including olfaction, gustation, and heat detection. Preliminary transcriptomic data in ticks suggest that chemoreception in the FSO is achieved by a different mechanism from insects. There are a variety of laboratory and field bioassay methods that have been developed for the identification and characterization of attractants but minimal techniques for electrophysiology studies. Over the past three to four decades, significant progress has been made in the chemistry and analysis of function for acarine attractants in mites and ticks. In mites, attractants include aggregation, immature female, female sex and alarm pheromones; in ticks, the attraction–aggregation–attachment, assembly and sex pheromones; in mites and ticks host kairomones and plant allomones; and in mites, fungal allomones. There are still large gaps in our knowledge of chemical communication in the acarines compared to insects, especially relative to acarine pheromones, and more so for mites than ticks. However, the use of lure-and-kill and lure-enhanced biocontrol strategies has been investigated for tick and mite control, respectively, with significant environmental advantages which warrant further study. PMID:27265828

  19. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  20. Basins of attraction for chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Erik A.; Panaggio, Mark J.; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2016-02-01

    Chimera states—curious symmetry-broken states in systems of identical coupled oscillators—typically occur only for certain initial conditions. Here we analyze their basins of attraction in a simple system comprised of two populations. Using perturbative analysis and numerical simulation we evaluate asymptotic states and associated destination maps, and demonstrate that basins form a complex twisting structure in phase space. Understanding the basins’ precise nature may help in the development of control methods to switch between chimera patterns, with possible technological and neural system applications.

  1. Repulsive and attractive Casimir interactions in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Anh D.; Viet, N. A.

    2011-12-15

    The Casimir interactions in solid-liquid-solid systems as a function of separation distance have been studied by the Lifshitz theory. The dielectric permittivity functions for a wide range of materials are described by Drude, Drude-Lorentz, and oscillator models. We find that the Casimir forces between gold and silica or MgO materials are both repulsive and attractive. We also find the stable forms for the systems. Our studies would provide good guidance for future experimental studies on dispersion interactions.

  2. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    PubMed

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  3. [Research as attractiveness parameter for young surgeons].

    PubMed

    Vollmar, B

    2012-04-01

    Increasing concern has been expressed about the significant shortage of new trainees in surgery. As research in the context of surgical education and training is an essential element of attraction for the field of surgery, there is an urgent priority to implement clear room for research in the concepts of education and training. In this article the relevance of both the thesis accompanying the study and research training during surgical residency for the clinical self-image, personal satisfaction and academic development of young surgeons will be presented.

  4. Physical attraction to reliable, low variability nervous systems: Reaction time variability predicts attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Emily E; Saville, Christopher W N; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The human face cues a range of important fitness information, which guides mate selection towards desirable others. Given humans' high investment in the central nervous system (CNS), cues to CNS function should be especially important in social selection. We tested if facial attractiveness preferences are sensitive to the reliability of human nervous system function. Several decades of research suggest an operational measure for CNS reliability is reaction time variability, which is measured by standard deviation of reaction times across trials. Across two experiments, we show that low reaction time variability is associated with facial attractiveness. Moreover, variability in performance made a unique contribution to attractiveness judgements above and beyond both physical health and sex-typicality judgements, which have previously been associated with perceptions of attractiveness. In a third experiment, we empirically estimated the distribution of attractiveness preferences expected by chance and show that the size and direction of our results in Experiments 1 and 2 are statistically unlikely without reference to reaction time variability. We conclude that an operating characteristic of the human nervous system, reliability of information processing, is signalled to others through facial appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Attracting structures in volcanic ash transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jifeng

    2009-11-01

    Volcanic eruptions and ash clouds are a natural hazard that poses direct threats to aviation safety. They may also affect human and ecosystem health. Many transport and dispersion models have been developed to forecast trajectories of volcanic ash clouds, as well as to plan safety measures. Predictions based on these models are heavily dependent on initial parameters of ash clouds, e.g., location, height, particle size and density distribution, water vs. ash content, etc. However, these initial parameters are usually difficult to determine, leading to possible inaccurate predictions of ash clouds trajectories. In this study, a dynamical systems approach is combined with volcanic ash transport models to help improve prediction. A type of attracting structures in volcanic ash transport is identified. These structures act as attractors in volcanic ash transport, and they are independent of initial parameters of specific volcanic eruptions. The attracting structures are associated with hazard zones with high concentrations of volcanic ash. And the prediction in hazard maps can be used to plan flight route diversions and ground evacuations.

  6. Attracting structures in volcanic ash transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Peterson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions and ash clouds are a natural hazard that poses direct threats to aviation safety. They may also affect human and ecosystem health. Many transport and dispersion models have been developed to forecast trajectories of volcanic ash clouds, as well as to plan safety measures. Predictions based on these models are heavily dependent on initial parameters of ash clouds, e.g., location, height, particle size and density distribution, water vs. ash content, etc. However, these initial parameters are usually difficult to determine, leading to possible inaccurate predictions of ash clouds trajectories. In this study, a dynamical systems approach is combined with volcanic ash transport models to help improve prediction. A type of attracting structures in volcanic ash transport is identified. These structures act as attractors in volcanic ash transport, and are largely independent of initial parameters of specific volcanic eruptions. The attracting structures are associated with hazard zones with high concentrations of volcanic ash. The prediction in hazard maps can be used to plan flight route diversions and ground evacuations.

  7. Colloidal gelation with variable attraction energy.

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Alessio; Crassous, Jérôme J; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-03-14

    We present an approximation scheme to the master kinetic equations for aggregation and gelation with thermal breakup in colloidal systems with variable attraction energy. With the cluster fractal dimension df as the only phenomenological parameter, rich physical behavior is predicted. The viscosity, the gelation time, and the cluster size are predicted in closed form analytically as a function of time, initial volume fraction, and attraction energy by combining the reversible clustering kinetics with an approximate hydrodynamic model. The fractal dimension df modulates the time evolution of cluster size, lag time and gelation time, and of the viscosity. The gelation transition is strongly nonequilibrium and time-dependent in the unstable region of the state diagram of colloids where the association rate is larger than the dissociation rate. Only upon approaching conditions where the initial association and the dissociation rates are comparable for all species (which is a condition for the detailed balance to be satisfied) aggregation can occur with df = 3. In this limit, homogeneous nucleation followed by Lifshitz-Slyozov coarsening is recovered. In this limited region of the state diagram the macroscopic gelation process is likely to be driven by large spontaneous fluctuations associated with spinodal decomposition.

  8. Colloidal gelation with variable attraction energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Crassous, Jérôme J.; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    We present an approximation scheme to the master kinetic equations for aggregation and gelation with thermal breakup in colloidal systems with variable attraction energy. With the cluster fractal dimension df as the only phenomenological parameter, rich physical behavior is predicted. The viscosity, the gelation time, and the cluster size are predicted in closed form analytically as a function of time, initial volume fraction, and attraction energy by combining the reversible clustering kinetics with an approximate hydrodynamic model. The fractal dimension df modulates the time evolution of cluster size, lag time and gelation time, and of the viscosity. The gelation transition is strongly nonequilibrium and time-dependent in the unstable region of the state diagram of colloids where the association rate is larger than the dissociation rate. Only upon approaching conditions where the initial association and the dissociation rates are comparable for all species (which is a condition for the detailed balance to be satisfied) aggregation can occur with df = 3. In this limit, homogeneous nucleation followed by Lifshitz-Slyozov coarsening is recovered. In this limited region of the state diagram the macroscopic gelation process is likely to be driven by large spontaneous fluctuations associated with spinodal decomposition.

  9. Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1998-03-01

    This paper proposes that mammals exhibit three primary emotion categories for mating and reproduction: (1) the sex drive, or lust, characterized by the craving for sexual gratification; (2) attraction, characterized by increased energy and focused attention on one or more potential mates, accompanied in humans by feelings of exhilaration, "intrusive thinking" about a mate, and the craving for emotional union with this mate or potential mate; and (3) attachment, characterized by the maintenance of close social contact in mammals, accompanied in humans by feelings of calm, comfort, and emotional union with a mate. Each emotion category is associated with a discrete constellation of neural correlates, and each evolved to direct a specific aspect of reproduction. The sex drive is associated primarily with the estrogens and androgens; it evolved to motivate individuals to seek sexual union. The attraction system is associated primarily with the catecholamines; it evolved to facilitate mate choice, enabling individuals to focus their mating effort on preferred partners. The attachment system is associated primarily with the peptides, vasopressin, and oxytocin; it evolved to motivate individuals to engage in positive social behaviors and assume species-specific parental duties.During the evolution of the genus Homo, these emotion systems became increasingly independent of one another, a phenomenon that contributes to human mating flexibility and the wide range of contemporary human mating and reproductive strategies.

  10. Attractiveness of black Shannon trap for phlebotomines.

    PubMed

    Galati, E A; Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Cristaldo, G; Rocha, H C; Gonçalves-Andrade, R M; Naufel, G

    2001-07-01

    A white Shannon-type trap was used for captures of female sand flies in the search for natural infection with flagellates, however, due to its low productivity and as a large number of phlebotomines settled on the researchers' black clothes, we decided to compare the relative attractiveness of black and white Shannon-type traps for sand flies. Several pairs of black and white traps were placed side by side in front of caves in four areas in the Serra da Bodoquena, Bonito county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for a total of 12 observations and 44 h of capture. The experiment resulted in 889 phlebotomines captured, 801 on the black and 88 on the white trap, representing 13 species. The hourly Williams' means were 8.67 and 1.24, respectively, and the black/white ratio was 7.0:1.0. Lutzomyia almerioi, an anthropophilic species closely associated with caves, was predominant (89%). Only two other species, Nyssomyia whitmani and Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, also anthropophilic, were significantly attracted to the black rather than to the white trap (chi(2) test; p < or = 0.01). The difference between the diversity index of the two traps was not significant at level 0.05. The black trap in these circumstances was much more productive than the white, especially for anthropophilic species.

  11. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  12. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…

  13. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Temperature in a High-altitude Deep Dimictic Mountain Lake (Nam Co), Central Tibetan Plateau, with Emphasis on Thermal Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Huang, L.; Lü, X.; Ju, J.; Daut, G.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Zhu, L.; Haberzettl, T.; Baade, J.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature and the related thermal structure and stratification of a lake are of great importance to lake ecosystems due to their significant impact on vertical exchanges of dissolved and particulate matters. Numerous lakes exist on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), but continuous characteristics of thermal stratification of these lakes are rarely reported. In this study, we present the seasonal variations of water temperature at different depth from a large deep lake (Nam Co) on the central Tibetan Plateau. Results show that Nam Co is a typical dimictic lake with the onset and end of thermal stratification in early June and early November, respectively. Increase of water temperature in spring in the eastern small sub-basin is approximately one month prior to that of the main basin, which is likely caused by the different water depth and transparency in both sub-basins. Daily mean surface water temperature of the main open lake area is highly correlated to air temperature but shows a hysteresis effect of 38 days. Temperature of the entire water body cools down to about 0.5 ° before freezing showing the intensive influence of strong wind exposure and the different behavior of warming up in different years has been ascribed to wind intensity and air temperature. Diurnal changes of water temperature during different seasons demonstrate the distinct influences of internal waves and seiches within the lake. The period of 24 h was observed in summer and autumn which is likely the result of external wind forcing dominated by the breeze variations of the wind at the lake surface. Maximum daily changes up to 3.59 ° at 21 m water depth where the thermocline strength is most intensive are observed in summer. Our results provide valuable validation for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions using lake sediments by quantifying the difference of annual mean lake surface temperature and mean annual air temperature (6.62 °). As Nam Co is a typical lake in this area

  15. Asymptotic Dynamics of Attractive-Repulsive Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverentz, Andrew J.; Topaz, Chad M.; Bernoff, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We classify and predict the asymptotic dynamics of a class of swarming models. The model consists of a conservation equation in one dimension describing the movement of a population density field. The velocity is found by convolving the density with a kernel describing attractive-repulsive social interactions. The kernel's first moment and its limiting behavior at the origin determine whether the population asymptotically spreads, contracts, or reaches steady state. For the spreading case, the dynamics approach those of the porous medium equation. The widening, compactly supported population has edges that behave like traveling waves whose speed, density, and slope we calculate. For the contracting case, the dynamics of the cumulative density approach those of Burgers' equation. We derive an analytical upper bound for the finite blow-up time after which the solution forms one or more delta-functions.

  16. Solvation effects on like-charge attraction.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Shahzad; Rottler, Jörg

    2013-02-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the electrostatic interaction between two parallel charged rods in the presence of divalent counterions. Such polyelectrolytes have been considered as a simple model for understanding electrostatic interactions in highly charged biomolecules such as DNA. Since there are correlations between the free charge carriers, the phenomenon of like charge attraction appears for specific parameters. We explore the role of solvation effects and the resulting deviations from Coulomb's law on the nanoscale on this peculiar phenomenon. The behavior of the force between the charged rods in a simulation with atomistic representation of water molecules is completely different from a model in which water is modeled as a continuum dielectric. By calculating counterion-rodion pair correlation functions, we find that the presence of water molecules changes the structure of the counterion cloud and results in both qualitative and quantitative changes of the force between highly charged polyelectrolytes.

  17. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  18. Sharp fronts in attracting-adatom monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izús, G. G.; Deza, R. R.; Wio, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of pattern formation by adsorbates undergoing attractive lateral interactions, is described by a parabolic integrodifferential equation having the scaled inverse temperature ɛ and the scaled pressure α of the vapor phase as parameters. A coexistence region of high- and low-coverage stable homogeneous states has been reported in the (ɛ, α) plane. In the small interaction-range limit an effective diffusion coefficient can be defined, which becomes however negative for a coverage range in between the stable homogeneous ones. A novel free-energy-like Lyapunov functional is found here for this problem. When evaluated on the homogeneous states, it leads to a Maxwell-like construction which selects essentially the same value α(ɛ) as the originally posited zero front-velocity condition. Moreover, its value on static fronts at this particular α(ɛ) coincides with those of the homogeneous states. This article is dedicated to Prof. Helmut Brand with occasion of his 60th birthday.

  19. Modelling of electron beam induced nanowire attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Lucas A.; Speich, Claudia; Schäfer, David; Erni, Daniel; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz J.; Benson, Niels; Schmechel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) induced nanowire (NW) attraction or bundling is a well known effect, which is mainly ascribed to structural or material dependent properties. However, there have also been recent reports of electron beam induced nanowire bending by SEM imaging, which is not fully explained by the current models, especially when considering the electro-dynamic interaction between NWs. In this article, we contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon, by introducing an electro-dynamic model based on capacitor and Lorentz force interaction, where the active NW bending is stimulated by an electromagnetic force between individual wires. The model includes geometrical, electrical, and mechanical NW parameters, as well as the influence of the electron beam source parameters and is validated using in-situ observations of electron beam induced GaAs nanowire (NW) bending by SEM imaging.

  20. Attraction rules: germ cell migration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raz, Erez; Reichman-Fried, Michal

    2006-08-01

    The migration of zebrafish primordial germ cell towards the region where the gonad develops is guided by the chemokine SDF-1a. Recent studies show that soon after their specification, the cells undergo a series of morphological alterations before they become motile and are able to respond to attractive cues. As migratory cells, primordial germ cells move towards their target while correcting their path upon exiting a cyclic phase in which morphological cell polarity is lost. In the following stages, the cells gather at specific locations and move as cell clusters towards their final target. In all of these stages, zebrafish germ cells respond as individual cells to alterations in the shape of the sdf-1a expression domain, by directed migration towards their target - the position where the gonad develops.

  1. Attracting and retaining nurses in primary care.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari; Andrews, Sarah; Sidhu, Rajinder; Peacock, Richard

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing demand for nurses to work in primary care. This is driven in part by the need to retain current levels but also by the modernisation plans for primary care services, which require new roles for nurses, new ways of working and more nurses in primary care settings. While campaigns for increased recruitment of hospital nurses and doctors has been largely successful in recent years, primary care has still to see the impact. This article reports on a Department of Health (England) funded project that aimed to identify strategies and exemplars to assist primary care trusts (PCTs) and the workforce development confederations (WDCs) in strategic health authorities in attracting and retaining nurses to primary care at registered nurse level. It reports on the range of initiatives identified, the perceived benefits and challenges. It concludes by proposing a strategic model for planning for the recruitment and retention of primary care nurses.

  2. Modelling of electron beam induced nanowire attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bitzer, Lucas A.; Benson, Niels Schmechel, Roland; Speich, Claudia; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz J.; Schäfer, David; Erni, Daniel

    2016-04-14

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) induced nanowire (NW) attraction or bundling is a well known effect, which is mainly ascribed to structural or material dependent properties. However, there have also been recent reports of electron beam induced nanowire bending by SEM imaging, which is not fully explained by the current models, especially when considering the electro-dynamic interaction between NWs. In this article, we contribute to the understanding of this phenomenon, by introducing an electro-dynamic model based on capacitor and Lorentz force interaction, where the active NW bending is stimulated by an electromagnetic force between individual wires. The model includes geometrical, electrical, and mechanical NW parameters, as well as the influence of the electron beam source parameters and is validated using in-situ observations of electron beam induced GaAs nanowire (NW) bending by SEM imaging.

  3. Structure Formation by Self Attracting Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, Meredith; Brenner, Michael

    1998-11-01

    Consider a box of material (initially of constant density) which both attracts itself and has some dispersive character. Eventually the material will clump into high density regions. The question addressed in this talk is: what are the number and sizes of the clumps that are formed? We address this in the context of chemotactic collapse of e. Coli. Experiments have given a detailed picture of the collapse process, showing that the bacteria initially form cylindrical structures which then destabilize into spherical clumps. On the other hand, linear stability analysis predicts that the system should form spherical aggregates directly. Our theory for the structure formation develops a generalization of an idea of Zeldovich (invented for a problem in cosmology). We present various calculations and numerical simulations to explain the patterns observed in experiments.

  4. Pheromones mediating copulation and attraction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, Hany K. M.; Ebrahim, Shimaa A. M.; Thoma, Michael; Mohamed, Ahmed A. M.; Keesey, Ian W.; Trona, Federica; Lavista-Llanos, Sofia; Svatoš, Aleš; Sachse, Silke; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S.

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific olfactory signals known as pheromones play important roles in insect mating systems. In the model Drosophila melanogaster, a key part of the pheromone-detecting system has remained enigmatic through many years of research in terms of both its behavioral significance and its activating ligands. Here we show that Or47b-and Or88a-expressing olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) detect the fly-produced odorants methyl laurate (ML), methyl myristate, and methyl palmitate. Fruitless (fruM)-positive Or47b-expressing OSNs detect ML exclusively, and Or47b- and Or47b-expressing OSNs are required for optimal male copulation behavior. In addition, activation of Or47b-expressing OSNs in the male is sufficient to provide a competitive mating advantage. We further find that the vigorous male courtship displayed toward oenocyte-less flies is attributed to an oenocyte-independent sustained production of the Or47b ligand, ML. In addition, we reveal that Or88a-expressing OSNs respond to all three compounds, and that these neurons are necessary and sufficient for attraction behavior in both males and females. Beyond the OSN level, information regarding the three fly odorants is transferred from the antennal lobe to higher brain centers in two dedicated neural lines. Finally, we find that both Or47b- and Or88a-based systems and their ligands are remarkably conserved over a number of drosophilid species. Taken together, our results close a significant gap in the understanding of the olfactory background to Drosophila mating and attraction behavior; while reproductive isolation barriers between species are created mainly by species-specific signals, the mating enhancing signal in several Drosophila species is conserved. PMID:25964351

  5. Fatal attraction: cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine homologs.

    PubMed

    Saederup, N; Mocarski, E S

    2002-01-01

    Members of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) subfamily of betaherpesviruses infecting primates and rodents encode divergent proteins with sequence characteristics and activities of chemokines, a class of small, secreted proteins that control leukocyte migration and trafficking behavior. Human CMV genes UL146 and UL147 encode proteins with sequence characteristics of CXC chemokines, whereas, murine CMV encodes a CC chemokine homolog (MCK-2). Human CMV UL146 encodes a neutrophil-attracting chemokine denoted viral CXC chemokine-1 (vCXCL1) that is as potent as host IL-8 and functions via the CXCR2 receptor, one of two human IL-8 receptors. Murine CMV MCK-2 is composed of a chemokine domain derived from open reading frame (ORF) m131 (and denoted MCK-1) as well as a domain derived from m129 that does not have sequence similarity to any known class of proteins. A synthetic version of murine CMV m131 (MCK-1) protein carries out many of the activities of a positive-acting chemokine, including transient release of intracellular calcium stores and cell adhesion of peritoneal macrophage populations. In the context of the viral genome and infection of the mouse host, the m131-m129 (MCK-2) gene product confers increased inflammation, higher levels of viremia, and higher titers of virus in salivary glands, consistent with a role in promoting dissemination by attracting an important mononuclear leukocyte population. Other characterized primate CMVs, but not other primate betaherpesviruses, encode gene products similar to human UL146 and UL147. Other characterized rodent CMVs encode a gene product similar to the murine CMV chemokine homolog, although not as a spliced gene product. Thus chemokines, like viral proteins that downmodulate MHC class I expression or have sequence homology to host MHC class I proteins, have evolved in primate and rodent CMVs to carry out an analogous set of immunomodulatory functions during infection of the host even though they arise from distinct origins.

  6. Tunneling conductivity in composites of attractive colloids.

    PubMed

    Nigro, B; Grimaldi, C; Miller, M A; Ryser, P; Schilling, T

    2012-04-28

    In conductor-insulator nanocomposites in which conducting fillers are dispersed in an insulating matrix, the electrical connectedness is established by inter-particle tunneling or hopping processes. These systems are intrinsically non-percolative and a coherent description of the functional dependence of the conductivity σ on the filler properties, and in particular of the conductor-insulator transition, requires going beyond the usual continuum percolation approach by relaxing the constraint of a fixed connectivity distance. In this article, we consider dispersions of conducting spherical particles which are connected to all others by tunneling conductances and which are subjected to an effective attractive square-well potential. We show that the conductor-insulator transition at low contents φ of the conducting fillers does not determine the behavior of σ at larger concentrations, in striking contrast to what is predicted by percolation theory. In particular, we find that at low φ the conductivity is governed almost entirely by the stickiness of the attraction, while at larger φ values σ depends mainly on the depth of the potential well. As a consequence, by varying the range and depth of the potential while keeping the stickiness fixed, composites with similar conductor-insulator transitions may display conductivity variations of several orders of magnitude at intermediate and large φ values. By using a recently developed effective medium theory and the critical path approximation, we explain this behavior in terms of dominant tunneling processes which involve inter-particle distances spanning different regions of the square-well fluid structure as φ is varied. Our predictions could be tested in experiments by changing the potential profile with different depletants in polymer nanocomposites.

  7. You must have been a beautiful baby: ratings of infant facial attractiveness fail to predict ratings of adult attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Marissa A; Shortall, Jennifer C; Dispenza, Franco; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-12-01

    Facial attractiveness has been studied extensively, but little research has examined the stability of facial attractiveness of individuals across different stages of development. We conducted a study examining the relationship between facial attractiveness in infants (age 24 months and under) and the same individuals as young adults (age 16-18 years) using infant and adult photographs from high school yearbooks. Contrary to expectations, independent raters' assessments of infant facial attractiveness did not correlate with adult facial attractiveness. These results are discussed in terms of the adaptive function of heightened attractiveness in infancy, which likely evolved to elicit and maintain parental care.

  8. Cognitive Complexity and the Similarity-Attraction Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Russell L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that cognitively complex judges will be more attracted to similar others than to dissimilar others, while cognitively simple judges will not be differentially attracted to similar and dissimilar others. (Author/RK)

  9. Role of Physical Attractiveness in Peer Attribution of Psychological Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)

  10. Is Beauty Talent? Sex Interaction in the Attractiveness Halo Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    Male and female subjects judged an essay purportedly written by an attractive or an unattractive female author. The attractive author was rated as significantly more talented by male judges. Female judges rated the attractive author less talented although this difference was not statistically significant. A second experiment concerned ratings by…

  11. Somatic Attractiveness: As in Other Things, Moderation is Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harvey R.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether a physical attractiveness stereotype exists when "attractive" is defined in terms of physique and "positive" is defined in terms of sex role characteristics and future life happiness. Sex role and life happiness were rated highest for those of intermediate attractiveness. Results for somatic beauty are discussed. (Author/BL)

  12. Physical Attractiveness, Opportunity, and Success in Everyday Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Matthew; Orbell, John; Shatto, Catherine; Stockard, Jean

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the role of perceived physical attractiveness in everyday exchange. Indicates that decisions to enter into play and to cooperate with others is directly related to individuals' perceptions of others' attractiveness, but that individuals' perceptions of their own attractiveness affects men's and women's decisions differently. Suggests…

  13. Long-range attraction in aqueous colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Coult, Jason; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-11-01

    Long-range attractions in aqueous suspensions were observed between polymeric microspheres and also between microspheres and a gel bead. Attractive displacements were consistently seen even between like-charged entities, and they were observed over spans as large as 2 mm. Such behaviors are unexpected, and may reside in a long-range attraction mechanism.

  14. Attraction under Aversive Conditions: Misattributions or Fear-Reduction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Interpersonal attraction appears to increase under aversive conditions. Two distinct theories suggest that attraction results from either misattribution or fear reduction. To investigate the effects of misattribution and fear reduction on attraction, 36 male college students were ostensibly exposed to an electromagnetic field while an attractive…

  15. Attraction under Aversive Conditions: Misattributions or Fear-Reduction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Interpersonal attraction appears to increase under aversive conditions. Two distinct theories suggest that attraction results from either misattribution or fear reduction. To investigate the effects of misattribution and fear reduction on attraction, 36 male college students were ostensibly exposed to an electromagnetic field while an attractive…

  16. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  17. Is Beauty Talent? Sex Interaction in the Attractiveness Halo Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    Male and female subjects judged an essay purportedly written by an attractive or an unattractive female author. The attractive author was rated as significantly more talented by male judges. Female judges rated the attractive author less talented although this difference was not statistically significant. A second experiment concerned ratings by…

  18. Emergent properties of conspecific attraction in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Robert J

    2006-08-01

    Attraction to conspecifics may have wide-ranging implications for habitat selection and metapopulation theory, yet little is known about the process of attraction and its effects relative to other habitat selection strategies. Using individual-based simulations, I investigated the emergent properties of conspecific attraction during habitat selection on survival, fecundity, short-term fitness (survival x fecundity), and distributions in fragmented landscapes. I simulated conspecific attraction during searching and settlement decisions and compared attraction with random, habitat-based (searching for the presence of habitat), and habitat quality sampling strategies (searching for and settling in high-quality habitat). Conspecific attraction during searching or settlement decisions had different consequences for animals: attraction while searching increased survival by decreasing time spent in nonsuitable habitat, whereas attraction during settlement increased fecundity by aggregating animals in high-quality habitats. Habitat-based sampling did not improve fitness over attraction, but directly sampling habitat quality resulted in the highest short-term fitness among strategies. These results suggest that attraction can improve fitness when animals cannot directly assess habitat quality. Interestingly, conspecific attraction influenced distributions by generating patch size effects and weak edge effects, highlighting that attraction is one potential, yet previously unappreciated, mechanism to explain the widespread patterns of animal sensitivity to habitat fragmentation.

  19. Negative genetic correlation between male sexual attractiveness and survival.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R

    2000-07-06

    Indirect selection of female mating preferences may result from a genetic association between male attractiveness and offspring fitness. The offspring of attractive males may have enhanced growth, fecundity, viability or attractiveness. However, the extent to which attractive males bear genes that reduce other fitness components has remained unexplored. Here I show that sexual attractiveness in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is heritable and genetically correlated with ornamentation. Like ornamentation, attractiveness may be substantially Y-linked. The benefit of mating with attractive males, and thus having attractive sons, is opposed by strong negative genetic correlation between attractiveness and both offspring survival and the number of sons maturing. Such correlations suggest either antagonistic pleiotropy between attractiveness and survival or linkage disequilibrium between attractive and deleterious alleles. The presence of many colour pattern genes on or near the non-recombining section of the Y chromosome may facilitate the accumulation of deleterious mutations by genetic hitchhiking. These findings show that genes enhancing sexual attractiveness may be associated with pleiotropic costs or heavy mutational loads.

  20. Self-Esteem and Facial Attractiveness in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 55 learning-disabled children ages 8 to 13 years completed a self-esteem measure, and photographs of their faces were rated for attractiveness by adults and peers. Found relationships between children's facial attractiveness and self-esteem and between adult and peer ratings of facial attractiveness. Found no gender differences in…